WorldWideScience

Sample records for distinct element analysis

  1. Differential autoshaping to common and distinctive elements of positive and negative discriminative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, E A; Anderson, P A

    1974-11-01

    The learning by hungry pigeons of a discrimination between two successively presented compound visual stimuli was investigated using a two-key autoshaping procedure. Common and distinctive stimulus elements were simultaneously presented on separate keys and either followed by food delivery, S+, or not, S-. The subjects acquired both between-trial and within-trial discriminations. On S+ trials, pigeons pecked the distinctive stimulus more than the common stimulus; before responding ceased on S- trials, they pecked the common stimulus more than the distinctive one. Mastery of the within-display discrimination during S+ trials preceded mastery of the between-trials discrimination. These findings extend the Jenkins-Sainsbury analysis of discriminations based upon a single distinguishing feature to discriminations in which common and distinctive elements are associated with both the positive and negative discriminative stimuli. The similarity of these findings to other effects found in autoshaping-approach to signals that forecast reinforcement and withdrawal from signals that forecast nonreinforcement-is also discussed.

  2. Application of the distinct element method to the analysis of the concrete members under impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuya, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Yasuo; Nakata, Yoshihiko

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the distinct element method is applied to the analysis of the behavior of a structure under impact. At first, this method is applied to the one-dimensional wave propagation problem by comparing with the experimental results and the theoretical results. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by including not only elastic behavior but also the fracture of a structural member. Second, this method is developed to two-dimensional problems to simulate the behavior of a simply supported beam under an impact load. Finally, it could be shown that this method is effective to simulate wide phenomena from elastic behavior to a fracture under impact. ((orig.))

  3. Differential autoshaping to common and distinctive elements of positive and negative discriminative stimuli1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Anderson, Patricia A.

    1974-01-01

    The learning by hungry pigeons of a discrimination between two successively presented compound visual stimuli was investigated using a two-key autoshaping procedure. Common and distinctive stimulus elements were simultaneously presented on separate keys and either followed by food delivery, S+, or not, S−. The subjects acquired both between-trial and within-trial discriminations. On S+ trials, pigeons pecked the distinctive stimulus more than the common stimulus; before responding ceased on S− trials, they pecked the common stimulus more than the distinctive one. Mastery of the within-display discrimination during S+ trials preceded mastery of the between-trials discrimination. These findings extend the Jenkins-Sainsbury analysis of discriminations based upon a single distinguishing feature to discriminations in which common and distinctive elements are associated with both the positive and negative discriminative stimuli. The similarity of these findings to other effects found in autoshaping—approach to signals that forecast reinforcement and withdrawal from signals that forecast nonreinforcement—is also discussed. PMID:16811812

  4. Laboratory and 3-D-distinct element analysis of failure mechanism of slope under external surcharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Cheng, Y. M.

    2014-09-01

    Landslide is a major disaster resulting in considerable loss of human lives and property damages in hilly terrain in Hong Kong, China and many other countries. The factor of safety and the critical slip surface for slope stabilization are the main considerations for slope stability analysis in the past, while the detailed post-failure conditions of the slopes have not been considered in sufficient details. There are however increasing interest on the consequences after the initiation of failure which includes the development and propagation of the failure surfaces, the amount of failed mass and runoff and the affected region. To assess the development of slope failure in more details and to consider the potential danger of slopes after failure has initiated, the slope stability problem under external surcharge is analyzed by the distinct element method (DEM) and laboratory model test in the present research. A more refined study about the development of failure, microcosmic failure mechanism and the post-failure mechanism of slope will be carried out. The numerical modeling method and the various findings from the present work can provide an alternate method of analysis of slope failure which can give additional information not available from the classical methods of analysis.

  5. Autoshaping with common and distinctive stimulus elements, compact and dispersed arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, S E; Perkins, M E

    1979-05-01

    Four groups of pigeons were trained with a standard autoshaping procedure in which a brief fixed-duration interval always followed by a grain delivery alternated with a longer variable-duration interval never associated with grain delivery. One of two stimuli was always presented during each interval. One of them contained three black dots and a black star on a green background; the other contained four black dots on a green background. The four elements of each stimulus were arranged in a more compact array for two groups and in a more dispersed array for the other two groups. Which of the two stimuli preceded grain delivery was counterbalanced within each pair of groups. The speed of occurrence of the first autoshaped peck was not affected by whether the stimulus containing the distinctive star element preceded grain delivery, but autoshaping was faster when the stimulus arrays were compact than when they were dispersed. During 560 response-independent training trials that followed the first autoshaped peck, this pattern reversed; both discriminative control over responding and the relative frequency of pecking the stimulus that preceded grain delivery were greater for the two groups where this stimulus contained the discriminative element than for the two groups where it contained only common elements. During subsequent testing with stimuli containing only a single element each, the distinctive feature was responded to proportionately more often by the two groups for which it had been an element of the stimulus preceding grain delivery than by the two groups for which it had been an element of the stimulus complex that never was associated with grain delivery. These data add further support to the hypothesis that the initial occurrence of autoshaped responding and its subsequent maintenance are not affected by the same variables. They also suggest that automaintenance is as sensitive as response-dependent training to the presence or absence of a distinctive

  6. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  7. Selfish genetic elements favor the evolution of a distinction between soma and germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise J

    2008-08-01

    Many multicellular organisms have evolved a dedicated germline. This can benefit the whole organism, but its advantages to genetic parasites have not been explored. Here I model the evolutionary success of a selfish element, such as a transposable element or endosymbiont, which is capable of creating or strengthening a germline-soma distinction in a primitively multicellular host, and find that it will always benefit the element to do so. Genes causing germline sequestration can therefore spread in a population even if germline sequestration is maladaptive for the host organism. Costly selfish elements are expected to survive only in sexual populations, so sexual species may experience an additional push toward germline-soma distinction, and hence toward cell differentiation and multicellularity.

  8. Autoshaping with common and distinctive stimulus elements, compact and dispersed arrays1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Sally E.; Perkins, Mark E.

    1979-01-01

    Four groups of pigeons were trained with a standard autoshaping procedure in which a brief fixed-duration interval always followed by a grain delivery alternated with a longer variable-duration interval never associated with grain delivery. One of two stimuli was always presented during each interval. One of them contained three black dots and a black star on a green background; the other contained four black dots on a green background. The four elements of each stimulus were arranged in a more compact array for two groups and in a more dispersed array for the other two groups. Which of the two stimuli preceded grain delivery was counterbalanced within each pair of groups. The speed of occurrence of the first autoshaped peck was not affected by whether the stimulus containing the distinctive star element preceded grain delivery, but autoshaping was faster when the stimulus arrays were compact than when they were dispersed. During 560 response-independent training trials that followed the first autoshaped peck, this pattern reversed; both discriminative control over responding and the relative frequency of pecking the stimulus that preceded grain delivery were greater for the two groups where this stimulus contained the discriminative element than for the two groups where it contained only common elements. During subsequent testing with stimuli containing only a single element each, the distinctive feature was responded to proportionately more often by the two groups for which it had been an element of the stimulus preceding grain delivery than by the two groups for which it had been an element of the stimulus complex that never was associated with grain delivery. These data add further support to the hypothesis that the initial occurrence of autoshaped responding and its subsequent maintenance are not affected by the same variables. They also suggest that automaintenance is as sensitive as response-dependent training to the presence or absence of a distinctive

  9. Laboratory and 3-D distinct element analysis of the failure mechanism of a slope under external surcharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Cheng, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    Landslide is a major disaster resulting in considerable loss of human lives and property damages in hilly terrain in Hong Kong, China and many other countries. The factor of safety and the critical slip surface for slope stabilization are the main considerations for slope stability analysis in the past, while the detailed post-failure conditions of the slopes have not been considered in sufficient detail. There is however increasing interest in the consequences after the initiation of failure that includes the development and propagation of the failure surfaces, the amount of failed mass and runoff and the affected region. To assess the development of slope failure in more detail and to consider the potential danger of slopes after failure has initiated, the slope stability problem under external surcharge is analyzed by the distinct element method (DEM) and a laboratory model test in the present research. A more refined study about the development of failure, microcosmic failure mechanisms and the post-failure mechanisms of slopes will be carried out. The numerical modeling method and the various findings from the present work can provide an alternate method of analysis of slope failure, which can give additional information not available from the classical methods of analysis.

  10. Application of distinct element method of toppling failure of slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Ito, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    The authors have pointed out, in the latest report, that DEM (Distinct Element Method) seems to be a very helpful numerical method to examine the stability of fissured rock slopes, in which toppling failure would occur during earthquakes. In this report, the applicability of DEM for such rock slopes is examined through the following comparisons between theoretical results and DEM results, referring Voegele's works (1982): (1) Stability of one block on a slope. (2) Failure of a rock block column composed of 10 same size rectangular blocks. (3) Cable force required to make a slope stable. Through above 3 comparisons, it seems that DEM give the reasonable results. Considering that these problems may not be treated by the other numerical methods such as FEM and so on, so DEM seems to be a very useful method for fissured rock slope analysis. (author)

  11. Development of Distinction Method of Production Area of Ginsengs by Using a Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Sun, Gwang Min; Lee, Yu Na; Yoo, Sang Ho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Distinction of production area of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). A distribution of elements has varied according to the part of plant clue to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So correlation study between plants and soil has been an Issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis

  12. Coupled distinct element-finite element numerical modelling of fluid circulation in deforming sedimentary basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, D.; Malz, A.; Donndorf, S.; Kley, J.; Kopp, H.

    2012-04-01

    We develop a coupled numerical model for fluid flow in deforming sedimentary basins. We combine a distinct element method for large deformations of crustal materials, with a finite element method for fluid flow according to a diffusion type equation. The key question in such a model is how to simulate evolving permeabilities due to upper and possibly middle crustal deformation, and the coupled issue of how localisation of deformation in faults and shear zones is itself influenced by fluid flow and fluid pressure and vice versa. Currently our knowledge of these issues is restricted, even sketchy. There are a number of hypotheses, based partly on geological and isotope geochemical observations, such as "seismic pumping" models, and fluid induced weak décollement models for thrust sheet transport which have gained quite wide acceptance. Observations around thrusts at the present day have also often been interpreted as showing deformation induced permeability. However, combining all the physics of these processes into a numerical simulation is a complicated task given the ranges of, in particular time scales of the processes we infer to be operating based on our various observations. We start this task by using an elastic fracture relationship between normal stresses across distinct element contacts (which we consider to be the equivalent of discrete, sliding fractures) and their openness and hence their transmissivity. This relates the mechanical state of the distinct element system to a discrete permeability field. Further than that, the geometry of the mechanical system is used to provide boundary conditions for fluid flow in a diffusion equation which also incorporates the permeability field. The next question we address is how to achieve a feedback between fluid pressures and deformation. We try two approaches: one treats pore space in the DEM as real, and calculates the force exerted locally by fluids and adds this to the force balance of the model; another

  13. Interaction of a nodule specific, trans-acting factor with distinct DNA elements in the soybean leghaemoglobin Ibc(3) 5' upstream region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Marcker, Kjeld A; Schell, J

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from soybean nodules, leaves and roots were used to investigate protein-DNA interactions in the 5' upstream (promoter) region of the soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene. Two distinct regions were identified which strongly bind a nodule specific factor. A Bal31 deletion analysis......, but with different affinities. Elements 1 and 2 share a common motif, although their AT-rich DNA sequences differ. Element 2 is highly conserved at an analogous position in other soybean lb gene 5' upstream regions. Udgivelsesdato: 1988-May...

  14. Molecular analysis of diverse elements mediating VanA glycopeptide resistance in enterococci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palepou, M.F.I.; Adebiyi, A.M.A.; Tremlett, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Differences were examined among 24 distinct elements mediating VanA-type glycopeptide resistance in enterococci isolated from hospital patients and non-human sources in the UK. The methods used included long-PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (L-PCR RFLP) analysis and DNA hybridization...... characterized by the presence of an IS1216V/IS3-like/orf1 complex and a point mutation in vanX, both of which were absent from the other 23 groups of VanA elements. This finding is consistent with the dissemination of a stable resistance element. We conclude that L-PCR RFLP analysis, combined with DNA...

  15. Accelerated Evolution in Distinctive Species Reveals Candidate Elements for Clinically Relevant Traits, Including Mutation and Cancer Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Elliott; Abegglen, Lisa M; Schiffman, Joshua D; Gregg, Christopher

    2018-03-06

    The identity of most functional elements in the mammalian genome and the phenotypes they impact are unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparative analysis of patterns of accelerated evolution in species with highly distinctive traits to discover candidate functional elements for clinically important phenotypes. We identify accelerated regions (ARs) in the elephant, hibernating bat, orca, dolphin, naked mole rat, and thirteen-lined ground squirrel lineages in mammalian conserved regions, uncovering ∼33,000 elements that bind hundreds of different regulatory proteins in humans and mice. ARs in the elephant, the largest land mammal, are uniquely enriched near elephant DNA damage response genes. The genomic hotspot for elephant ARs is the E3 ligase subunit of the Fanconi anemia complex, a master regulator of DNA repair. Additionally, ARs in the six species are associated with specific human clinical phenotypes that have apparent concordance with overt traits in each species. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accelerated Evolution in Distinctive Species Reveals Candidate Elements for Clinically Relevant Traits, Including Mutation and Cancer Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Ferris

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The identity of most functional elements in the mammalian genome and the phenotypes they impact are unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparative analysis of patterns of accelerated evolution in species with highly distinctive traits to discover candidate functional elements for clinically important phenotypes. We identify accelerated regions (ARs in the elephant, hibernating bat, orca, dolphin, naked mole rat, and thirteen-lined ground squirrel lineages in mammalian conserved regions, uncovering ∼33,000 elements that bind hundreds of different regulatory proteins in humans and mice. ARs in the elephant, the largest land mammal, are uniquely enriched near elephant DNA damage response genes. The genomic hotspot for elephant ARs is the E3 ligase subunit of the Fanconi anemia complex, a master regulator of DNA repair. Additionally, ARs in the six species are associated with specific human clinical phenotypes that have apparent concordance with overt traits in each species.

  17. Optimal acid digestion for multi-element analysis of different waste matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    of the distinct waste materials and recyclables. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of different standardized microwave assisted acid digestion methods on waste samples and subsequent multi-element analysis. Six acid digestion methods were applied on a Paper & Cardboard and Composite waste...

  18. Application of distinct element method to toppling failure of slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Satoshi; Kitahara, Yoshihiro; Asai, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, the stability of slopes during earthquakes has become to be an important engineering problem, especially in case of the earthquake-proof design of nuclear power plants. But, for fissured rock slopes, some problems are remained unresolved, because they can not be treated as continua. The authors have been investigating toppling failure of slopes, from a point of view which regards a fissured rock mass as an assemblage of rigid blocks. DEM (Distinct Element Method) proposed by Cundall (1974) seems to be very helpful to such a investigation. So, in this paper, the applicability of DEM to toppling failure of slopes is examined through the comparison between DEM results and theoretical or experimental results using 3 simple models. (author)

  19. Distinct element method modeling of fracture behavior in near field rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekmark, H.

    1990-12-01

    This report concerns the numerical calculations of the behavior of the near field of a nuclear waste repository. The calculations were performed using the two-dimensional distinct element code UDEC. The distinct element method accounts specifically for discontinuities, e.g. fractures that intersect the model region. It is shown that, if an appropriate joint constitutive relation is applied, the calculated joint behavior can be brought in close agreement with empirically derived stress-strain relations. Three basic geometries are studied, namely a vertical tunnel section, a horizontal borehole section and a combination, i.e. a vertical section of tunnel and deposition hole. The effects of different processes and activities are investigated, e.g. effects of excavations, of thermal loads, of internal tunnel pressures and of pore pressures and fracture flow resulting from the hydraulic ground water pressure. The interpretation of the results concerns in particular joint behavior, especially joint openings, in the nearest surroundings of excavations and of thermally affected regions. The calculations show that joint shear and joint normal displacements induced by excavation and by thermal processes may be considerable, and that thermal cycles may result in residual joint aperture changes, especially in systems with loosely bound rock blocks. It is concluded that the UDEC code, when applied to problems that have a two-dimensional character, gives results that are probably quantitatively correct. The results appear to be strongly dependant on the detailed joint structure close to free boundaries such as tunnel walls, which indicated that the 3-D situation regarding joint orientation might have to be considered. It is recommended that 3-D calculations should be performed to verify and quantitatively interpret the 2-D results and to analyze situations that are actually three-dimensional. (au)

  20. Bipartite Network Analysis of the Archaeal Virosphere: Evolutionary Connections between Viruses and Capsidless Mobile Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Jaime; Koonin, Eugene V; Prangishvili, David; Krupovic, Mart

    2016-12-15

    Archaea and particularly hyperthermophilic crenarchaea are hosts to many unusual viruses with diverse virion shapes and distinct gene compositions. As is typical of viruses in general, there are no universal genes in the archaeal virosphere. Therefore, to obtain a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary relationships between viruses, network analysis methods are more productive than traditional phylogenetic approaches. Here we present a comprehensive comparative analysis of genomes and proteomes from all currently known taxonomically classified and unclassified, cultivated and uncultivated archaeal viruses. We constructed a bipartite network of archaeal viruses that includes two classes of nodes, the genomes and gene families that connect them. Dissection of this network using formal community detection methods reveals strong modularity, with 10 distinct modules and 3 putative supermodules. However, compared to similar previously analyzed networks of eukaryotic and bacterial viruses, the archaeal virus network is sparsely connected. With the exception of the tailed viruses related to bacteriophages of the order Caudovirales and the families Turriviridae and Sphaerolipoviridae that are linked to a distinct supermodule of eukaryotic and bacterial viruses, there are few connector genes shared by different archaeal virus modules. In contrast, most of these modules include, in addition to viruses, capsidless mobile elements, emphasizing tight evolutionary connections between the two types of entities in archaea. The relative contributions of distinct evolutionary origins, in particular from nonviral elements, and insufficient sampling to the sparsity of the archaeal virus network remain to be determined by further exploration of the archaeal virosphere. Viruses infecting archaea are among the most mysterious denizens of the virosphere. Many of these viruses display no genetic or even morphological relationship to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes, raising questions

  1. Modelling optimization involving different types of elements in finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C M; Rivai, Ahmad; Bapokutty, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Finite elements are used to express the mechanical behaviour of a structure in finite element analysis. Therefore, the selection of the elements determines the quality of the analysis. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast 1D element, 2D element, and 3D element used in finite element analysis. A simple case study was carried out on a standard W460x74 I-beam. The I-beam was modelled and analyzed statically with 1D elements, 2D elements and 3D elements. The results for the three separate finite element models were compared in terms of stresses, deformation and displacement of the I-beam. All three finite element models yield satisfactory results with acceptable errors. The advantages and limitations of these elements are discussed. 1D elements offer simplicity although lacking in their ability to model complicated geometry. 2D elements and 3D elements provide more detail yet sophisticated results which require more time and computer memory in the modelling process. It is also found that the choice of element in finite element analysis is influence by a few factors such as the geometry of the structure, desired analysis results, and the capability of the computer

  2. Fingerprint elements scatter analysis on ancient chinese Ru porcelains samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Xiande

    1997-01-01

    Altogether 28 samples, mainly including glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, were analyzed by NAA technique and the contents of 36 elements were compared. The scatter analysis for nine fingerprint-elements indicates that almost all ancient Chinese Ru porcelain samples had nearly identical and long-term stable source of raw materials although they were fired in different kilns, at varying time and with distinct colors, and moreover, the source of raw materials for modern Ru porcelain seems to approach that for ancient one. The close provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is also preliminarily verified. The glaze material of Jingdezhen white porcelain is totally different from all other samples. It shows that the former came from a separate source

  3. Major and Trace Element Analysis of Natural and Experimental Igneous Systems using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Frances E.; Arevalo, Ricardo D., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of minerals provide valuable information on a variety of global Earth-system processes, including melting of distinct mantle reservoirs, the growth and evolution of the Earths crust and the formation of economically viable ore deposits. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, attempts were made to couple laser ablation (LA) systems to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) instruments (e.g. Fryer et al. 1995; Jackson et al. 1992). The goal was to develop a rapid, highly sensitive in situ analytical technique to measure abundances and spatial distributions of trace elements in minerals and other geological samples. Elemental analysis using LAICPMS was envisaged as a quicker and less destructive means of chemical analysis (requiring only g quantities) than labour-intensive sample digestion and solution analysis (requiring mg-levels of material); and it would be a more cost-effective method than secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for the routine analysis of trace elements from solid samples. Furthermore, it would have lower limits-of-detection than electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) (e.g. Jackson et al. 1992; Eggins 2003).

  4. Carbon black vs. black carbon and other airborne materials containing elemental carbon: Physical and chemical distinctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Christopher M.; Nascarella, Marc A.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particles containing elemental carbon (EC) are currently at the forefront of scientific and regulatory scrutiny, including black carbon, carbon black, and engineered carbon-based nanomaterials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene. Scientists and regulators sometimes group these EC-containing particles together, for example, interchangeably using the terms carbon black and black carbon despite one being a manufactured product with well-controlled properties and the other being an undesired, incomplete-combustion byproduct with diverse properties. In this critical review, we synthesize information on the contrasting properties of EC-containing particles in order to highlight significant differences that can affect hazard potential. We demonstrate why carbon black should not be considered a model particle representative of either combustion soots or engineered carbon-based nanomaterials. Overall, scientific studies need to distinguish these highly different EC-containing particles with care and precision so as to forestall unwarranted extrapolation of properties, hazard potential, and study conclusions from one material to another. -- Highlights: •Major classes of elemental carbon-containing particles have distinct properties. •Despite similar names, carbon black should not be confused with black carbon. •Carbon black is distinguished by a high EC content and well-controlled properties. •Black carbon particles are characterized by their heterogenous properties. •Carbon black is not a model particle representative of engineered nanomaterials. -- This review demonstrates the significant physical and chemical distinctions between elemental carbon-containing particles e.g., carbon black, black carbon, and engineered nanomaterials

  5. n-Alkane and clofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator, activate transcription of ALK2 gene encoding cytochrome P450alk2 through distinct cis-acting promoter elements in Candida maltosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Takahisa; Takagi, Masamichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2005-01-01

    The ALK2 gene, encoding one of the n-alkane-hydroxylating cytochromes P450 in Candida maltosa, is induced by n-alkanes and a peroxisome proliferator, clofibrate. Deletion analysis of this gene's promoter revealed two cis-acting elements-an n-alkane-responsive element (ARE2) and a clofibrate-responsive element (CRE2)-that partly overlap in sequence but have distinct functions. ARE2-mediated activation responded to n-alkanes but not to clofibrate and was repressed by glucose. CRE2-mediated activation responded to polyunsaturated fatty acids and steroid hormones as well as to peroxisome proliferators but not to n-alkanes, and it was not repressed by glucose. Both elements mediated activation by oleic acid. Mutational analysis demonstrated that three CCG sequences in CRE2 were critical to the activation by clofibrate as well as to the in vitro binding of a specific protein to this element. These findings suggest that ALK2 is induced by peroxisome proliferators and steroid hormones through a specific CRE2-mediated regulatory mechanism

  6. Simulation of emergency evacuation behaviour during disaster by using distinct element method; Hisaiji no gunshu hinan kodo simulation eno kobetsu yosoho no tekiyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyono, J.; Miura, F.; Takimoto, K. [Yamaguchi Univ., Yamaguchi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-04-21

    In this study, the possibility to apply the Distinct Element Method (DEM) to human evacuation behavior during a disaster was investigated, evacuation from rooms to outside though a passage or steps and a jam were examined as a basic consideration. The main results were obtained as follows: according to an analysis of evacuation behavior when elements of DEM were substituted for individual humans, the trace of individual people and force acting there to and the trace of the whole group so every time can be understood, analysis can also be conducted from local to macro. In the DEM analysis, a mutual distance between people and characteristics of behavior can be expressed well by introducing an imaginary bane into the elements. Evacuation time due to change of space shape can be compared and time series change of force acting on individual people can be understood according to the investigation on evacuation time difference due to shape change at the exit and entrance and the jam caused by the arch effect happened when the crowed flow appeared at the exit and entrance. 16 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Drosophila Muller F Elements Maintain a Distinct Set of Genomic Properties Over 40 Million Years of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E. J.; Machone, Joshua F.; Patterson, Seantay D.; Price, Amber L.; Turner, Bryce A.; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K.; McCartha, Shannon R.; Walji, Tezin A.; Walker, Chelsea A.; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K.; Armstrong, Andrew R.; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J.; Barberi, Chelsea R.; Beck, Lauren R.; Blaker, Amanda L.; Blunden, Christopher E.; Brand, Jordan P.; Brock, Ethan J.; Brooks, Dana W.; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C.; Clark, Eric M.; Clark, Nicole B.; Collins, Ashley A.; Cotteleer, Rebecca J.; Cullimore, Peterson R.; Dawson, Seth G.; Docking, Carter T.; Dorsett, Sasha L.; Dougherty, Grace A.; Downey, Kaitlyn A.; Drake, Andrew P.; Earl, Erica K.; Floyd, Trevor G.; Forsyth, Joshua D.; Foust, Jonathan D.; Franchi, Spencer L.; Geary, James F.; Hanson, Cynthia K.; Harding, Taylor S.; Harris, Cameron B.; Heckman, Jonathan M.; Holderness, Heather L.; Howey, Nicole A.; Jacobs, Dontae A.; Jewell, Elizabeth S.; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A.; Kehoe, James L.; Koaches, Hannah C.; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J.; Kus, Jordan E.; Lammers, Jennifer A.; Leads, Rachel R.; Leatherman, Emily C.; Lippert, Rachel N.; Messenger, Gregory S.; Morrow, Adam T.; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J.; Potocny, Stephanie J.; Powers, Michelle K.; Reem, Rachel M.; Rennhack, Jonathan P.; Reynolds, Katherine R.; Reynolds, Lyndsey A.; Rhee, Dong K.; Rivard, Allyson B.; Ronk, Adam J.; Rooney, Meghan B.; Rubin, Lainey S.; Salbert, Luke R.; Saluja, Rasleen K.; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R.; Schulz, Robert W.; Smith, Karl E.; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R.; Tache, Melissa A.; Tewilliager, Ashley A.; Tilot, Amanda K.; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M.; Vylonis, Megan B.; Watson, David T.; Wurzler, Juliana A.; Wysocki, Lauren M.; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A.; Emerson, Julia A.; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J.; DiLorenzo, Lauren A.; Goeller, Katie L.; Macchi, Christopher R.; Muller, Sarah E.; Pasierb, Brittany D.; Sable, Joseph E.; Tucci, Jessica M.; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A.; Beken, Levent H.; Conturso, Alaina C.; Danner, Benjamin L.; DeMichele, Gabriella A.; Gonzales, Justin A.; Hammond, Maureen S.; Kelley, Colleen V.; Kelly, Elisabeth A.; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M.; McCabe, Nikie L.; Newman, Alyssa M.; Spaeder, Lindsay A.; Tumminello, Richard A.; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M.; Cristostomo, Michael C.; DaSilva, Paolo A.; Harker, Katherine S.; Jarrell, Jenifer N.; Jimenez, Luis A.; Katz, Brandon M.; Kennedy, William R.; Kolibas, Kimberly S.; LeBlanc, Mark T.; Nguyen, Trung T.; Nicolas, Daniel S.; Patao, Melissa D.; Patao, Shane M.; Rupley, Bryan J.; Sessions, Bridget J.; Weaver, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Anya L.; Alvendia, Erica L.; Baldassari, Shana M.; Brown, Ashley S.; Chase, Ian O.; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B.; Custer, Ashley F.; DiTommaso, Tia M.; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C.; Grove, Ryan A.; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S.; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L.; Hopkins, Barbara L.; Huerta, Vilma F.; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M.; Lee, Cassidy T.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Lydon, Anniken M.; Maniaci, Brian J.; Mitchell, Ryan D.; Morlock, Elaine V.; Morris, William M.; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C.; Osterloh, Jeannette M.; Perez, Marcos A.; Presley, Jonathan D.; Randazzo, Matt J.; Regan, Melanie K.; Rossi, Franca G.; Smith, Melanie A.; Soliterman, Eugenia A.; Sparks, Ciani J.; Tran, Danny L.; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A.; Wong, Jeremy N.; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J.; Hoogewerf, Arlene J.; Ackerman, Cheri M.; Armistead, Isaac O.; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J.; Brouwer, Lindsay K.; Burkhart, Brandon J.; Bushhouse, Kelsey T.; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y. Y.; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M.; Darusz, Jess M.; Dauphin, Cory M.; Davis, Yelena P.; Diekema, Emily J.; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E. M.; Faber, Hayley M.; Faber, Katherine J.; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T.; Hammond, Brandy L.; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R.; Hilbrands, Julia A.; Howell, Emily J.; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A.; Jelsema, Timothy R.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Jones, Kelly K.; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D.; Menyes, Erika E.; Nollet, Eric A.; Plescher, Brittany E.; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L.; Schepers, Allison J.; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R.; Sterling, Allison M.; Tenney, Jenna C.; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E.; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P.; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K.; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A.; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E.; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R.; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I.; Boudoures, Anna L.; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S.; French, Kristin M.; Gill, Ishwar S.; Havill, Jessen T.; Johnson, Jaelyn L.; Keny, Lauren J.; Kerber, John M.; Klett, Bethany M.; Kufel, Christina N.; May, Francis J.; Mecoli, Jonathan P.; Merry, Callie R.; Meyer, Lauren R.; Miller, Emily G.; Mullen, Gregory J.; Palozola, Katherine C.; Pfeil, Jacob J.; Thomas, Jessica G.; Verbofsky, Evan M.; Spana, Eric P.; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I.N.; Fitzgibbons, John D.; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J.; Knouse, Kristin A.; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S.; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W.; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D.; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Shuen, Jessica A.; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q.; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Burg, Martin G.; Adams, Stephanie J.; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E.; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Robertson, Gregory M.; Smith, Samuel I.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Sassu, Eric D.; Bhalla, Satish C.; Sharif, Karim A.; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S.; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Davis, Kristen C.; Dunham, Carrie A.; Grantham, Alaina J.; Hare, Amber N.; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Yu, Nicole S.; Kaehler, Marian M.; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A.; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Alica B.; Anderson, John E.; Barnett, Jason M.; Baumgardner, Jordan S.; Brown, Adam D.; Carney, Jordan E.; Chavez, Ramiro A.; Christgen, Shelbi L.; Christie, Jordan S.; Clary, Andrea N.; Conn, Michel A.; Cooper, Kristen M.; Crowley, Matt J.; Crowley, Samuel T.; Doty, Jennifer S.; Dow, Brian A.; Edwards, Curtis R.; Elder, Darcie D.; Fanning, John P.; Janssen, Bridget M.; Lambright, Anthony K.; Lane, Curtiss E.; Limle, Austin B.; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R.; McDonough, Alexa M.; Melton, Amy D.; Minnick, Phillip J.; Musick, Adam E.; Newhart, William H.; Noynaert, Joseph W.; Ogden, Bradley J.; Sandusky, Michael W.; Schmuecker, Samantha M.; Shipman, Anna L.; Smith, Anna L.; Thomsen, Kristen M.; Unzicker, Matthew R.; Vernon, William B.; Winn, Wesley W.; Woyski, Dustin S.; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J.; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M.; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Todd D.; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H.; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S.; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R.; Waggoner, Andrew W.; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K.; Hark, Amy T.; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E.; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E.; Smith, Mary A.; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C. P.; Johnson, Ashlee G.; White, Jackie X.; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Chau, Kim M.; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E. Gloria C.; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M.; Bahr, Thomas J.; Caesar, Nicole M.; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W.; Cognetti, Peter A.; English, Johnathan D.; Fadus, Matthew C.; Fick, Cameron N.; Freda, Philip J.; Hennessy, Bryan M.; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K.; King, Jessica E.; Knob, Christopher R.; Kraftmann, Karen J.; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N.; Minniti, Carl J.; Minton, Thomas F.; Moran, Joseph V.; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C.; Puetz, William J.; Robinson, Lauren M.; Rose, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Edward P.; Timko, Ashley S.; Paetkau, Don W.; Eisler, Heather L.; Aldrup, Megan E.; Bodenberg, Jessica M.; Cole, Mara G.; Deranek, Kelly M.; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M.; Eckardt, Alexandra K.; Ehret, Sharon C.; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D.; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L.; Light, Morgan R.; Meier, Anne C.; O’Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R.; Reilly, Mary T.; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L.; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M.; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R.; Herrick, Douglas A.; Khoury, Christopher B.; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A.; Lowell, Shannon M.; Reynolds, Thomas J.; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H.; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T.; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D.; Lopilato, Jane E.; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A.; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R.; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R.; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R.; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H.; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B.; Smith, Jonathan E.; Unruh, Anna K.; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E.; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J.; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T.; Moore, Zachary D.; Savell, Christopher D.; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M.; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F.; Horton, Lanor S.; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H.; Liu, James Z.; Mach, Sandy D.; Phan, Thu A.; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E.; Strelitz, Jean M.; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C.; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J.; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gross, Meleah J.; Gygi, Amber M.; Jackson, Lesley E.; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L.; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L.; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J. Devin; Stemler, Kristina M.; Throm, Allison A.; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T. Aaron; Williams, Mallory A.; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M.; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E.; Florian, Kayla A.; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S.; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W.; Pelchen, Carly E.; Yenerall, Paul M.; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R.; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M.; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G.; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V.; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O.; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O.; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J.; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J.; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M.; delValle, Frank R. Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I.; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D.; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D.; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P.; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A.; Colón-Cruz, Luis R.; Correa-Muller, Ana I.; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L.; Cruz-García, José M.; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M.; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J.; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M.; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N.; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L.; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A.; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A.; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M.; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N.; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G.; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C.; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I.; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M.; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G.; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S.; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T.; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E.; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O.; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M.; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E.; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L.; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N.; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L.; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E.; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M.; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P.; Torres-Castillo, José L.; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A.; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M.; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M.; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R.; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R.; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L.; Molleston, Jerome M.; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J.; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P.; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y.; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L.; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W.; Nagengast, Alexis A.; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J.; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L.; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L.; Adams, Ashley L.; Barnard, Brianna K.; Cheramie, Martin N.; Eime, Anne M.; Golden, Kathryn L.; Hawkins, Allyson P.; Hill, Jessica E.; Kampmeier, Jessica A.; Kern, Cody D.; Magnuson, Emily E.; Miller, Ashley R.; Morrow, Cody M.; Peairs, Julia C.; Pickett, Gentry L.; Popelka, Sarah A.; Scott, Alexis J.; Teepe, Emily J.; TerMeer, Katie A.; Watchinski, Carmen A.; Watson, Lucas A.; Weber, Rachel E.; Woodard, Kate A.; Barnard, Daron C.; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M.; McNeil, Gerard P.; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C.; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3–11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11–27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4–3.6 vs. 8.4–8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. PMID:25740935

  8. Drosophila muller f elements maintain a distinct set of genomic properties over 40 million years of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E J; Machone, Joshua F; Patterson, Seantay D; Price, Amber L; Turner, Bryce A; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K; McCartha, Shannon R; Walji, Tezin A; Walker, Chelsea A; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K; Armstrong, Andrew R; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J; Barberi, Chelsea R; Beck, Lauren R; Blaker, Amanda L; Blunden, Christopher E; Brand, Jordan P; Brock, Ethan J; Brooks, Dana W; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C; Clark, Eric M; Clark, Nicole B; Collins, Ashley A; Cotteleer, Rebecca J; Cullimore, Peterson R; Dawson, Seth G; Docking, Carter T; Dorsett, Sasha L; Dougherty, Grace A; Downey, Kaitlyn A; Drake, Andrew P; Earl, Erica K; Floyd, Trevor G; Forsyth, Joshua D; Foust, Jonathan D; Franchi, Spencer L; Geary, James F; Hanson, Cynthia K; Harding, Taylor S; Harris, Cameron B; Heckman, Jonathan M; Holderness, Heather L; Howey, Nicole A; Jacobs, Dontae A; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A; Kehoe, James L; Koaches, Hannah C; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J; Kus, Jordan E; Lammers, Jennifer A; Leads, Rachel R; Leatherman, Emily C; Lippert, Rachel N; Messenger, Gregory S; Morrow, Adam T; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J; Potocny, Stephanie J; Powers, Michelle K; Reem, Rachel M; Rennhack, Jonathan P; Reynolds, Katherine R; Reynolds, Lyndsey A; Rhee, Dong K; Rivard, Allyson B; Ronk, Adam J; Rooney, Meghan B; Rubin, Lainey S; Salbert, Luke R; Saluja, Rasleen K; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R; Schulz, Robert W; Smith, Karl E; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R; Tache, Melissa A; Tewilliager, Ashley A; Tilot, Amanda K; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M; Vylonis, Megan B; Watson, David T; Wurzler, Juliana A; Wysocki, Lauren M; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A; Emerson, Julia A; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J; DiLorenzo, Lauren A; Goeller, Katie L; Macchi, Christopher R; Muller, Sarah E; Pasierb, Brittany D; Sable, Joseph E; Tucci, Jessica M; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A; Beken, Levent H; Conturso, Alaina C; Danner, Benjamin L; DeMichele, Gabriella A; Gonzales, Justin A; Hammond, Maureen S; Kelley, Colleen V; Kelly, Elisabeth A; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M; McCabe, Nikie L; Newman, Alyssa M; Spaeder, Lindsay A; Tumminello, Richard A; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M; Cristostomo, Michael C; DaSilva, Paolo A; Harker, Katherine S; Jarrell, Jenifer N; Jimenez, Luis A; Katz, Brandon M; Kennedy, William R; Kolibas, Kimberly S; LeBlanc, Mark T; Nguyen, Trung T; Nicolas, Daniel S; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Rupley, Bryan J; Sessions, Bridget J; Weaver, Jennifer A; Goodman, Anya L; Alvendia, Erica L; Baldassari, Shana M; Brown, Ashley S; Chase, Ian O; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B; Custer, Ashley F; DiTommaso, Tia M; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C; Grove, Ryan A; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L; Hopkins, Barbara L; Huerta, Vilma F; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M; Lee, Cassidy T; Lewis, Benjamin M; Lydon, Anniken M; Maniaci, Brian J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Morlock, Elaine V; Morris, William M; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C; Osterloh, Jeannette M; Perez, Marcos A; Presley, Jonathan D; Randazzo, Matt J; Regan, Melanie K; Rossi, Franca G; Smith, Melanie A; Soliterman, Eugenia A; Sparks, Ciani J; Tran, Danny L; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A; Wong, Jeremy N; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J; Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Ackerman, Cheri M; Armistead, Isaac O; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J; Brouwer, Lindsay K; Burkhart, Brandon J; Bushhouse, Kelsey T; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y Y; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M; Darusz, Jess M; Dauphin, Cory M; Davis, Yelena P; Diekema, Emily J; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E M; Faber, Hayley M; Faber, Katherine J; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T; Hammond, Brandy L; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R; Hilbrands, Julia A; Howell, Emily J; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A; Jelsema, Timothy R; Johnson, Benjamin K; Jones, Kelly K; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D; Menyes, Erika E; Nollet, Eric A; Plescher, Brittany E; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L; Schepers, Allison J; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R; Sterling, Allison M; Tenney, Jenna C; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I; Boudoures, Anna L; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S; French, Kristin M; Gill, Ishwar S; Havill, Jessen T; Johnson, Jaelyn L; Keny, Lauren J; Kerber, John M; Klett, Bethany M; Kufel, Christina N; May, Francis J; Mecoli, Jonathan P; Merry, Callie R; Meyer, Lauren R; Miller, Emily G; Mullen, Gregory J; Palozola, Katherine C; Pfeil, Jacob J; Thomas, Jessica G; Verbofsky, Evan M; Spana, Eric P; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I N; Fitzgibbons, John D; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J; Knouse, Kristin A; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U; Shuen, Jessica A; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G; Burg, Martin G; Adams, Stephanie J; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J; Robertson, Gregory M; Smith, Samuel I; DiAngelo, Justin R; Sassu, Eric D; Bhalla, Satish C; Sharif, Karim A; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E; Alvarez, Consuelo J; Davis, Kristen C; Dunham, Carrie A; Grantham, Alaina J; Hare, Amber N; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W; Kuleck, Gary A; Yu, Nicole S; Kaehler, Marian M; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques Dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T; Poet, Jeffrey L; Allen, Alica B; Anderson, John E; Barnett, Jason M; Baumgardner, Jordan S; Brown, Adam D; Carney, Jordan E; Chavez, Ramiro A; Christgen, Shelbi L; Christie, Jordan S; Clary, Andrea N; Conn, Michel A; Cooper, Kristen M; Crowley, Matt J; Crowley, Samuel T; Doty, Jennifer S; Dow, Brian A; Edwards, Curtis R; Elder, Darcie D; Fanning, John P; Janssen, Bridget M; Lambright, Anthony K; Lane, Curtiss E; Limle, Austin B; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R; McDonough, Alexa M; Melton, Amy D; Minnick, Phillip J; Musick, Adam E; Newhart, William H; Noynaert, Joseph W; Ogden, Bradley J; Sandusky, Michael W; Schmuecker, Samantha M; Shipman, Anna L; Smith, Anna L; Thomsen, Kristen M; Unzicker, Matthew R; Vernon, William B; Winn, Wesley W; Woyski, Dustin S; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R; Johnson, Todd D; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R; Waggoner, Andrew W; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K; Hark, Amy T; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E; Smith, Mary A; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C P; Johnson, Ashlee G; White, Jackie X; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L M; Chau, Kim M; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E Gloria C; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M; Bahr, Thomas J; Caesar, Nicole M; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W; Cognetti, Peter A; English, Johnathan D; Fadus, Matthew C; Fick, Cameron N; Freda, Philip J; Hennessy, Bryan M; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K; King, Jessica E; Knob, Christopher R; Kraftmann, Karen J; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N; Minniti, Carl J; Minton, Thomas F; Moran, Joseph V; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C; Puetz, William J; Robinson, Lauren M; Rose, Thomas J; Sweeney, Edward P; Timko, Ashley S; Paetkau, Don W; Eisler, Heather L; Aldrup, Megan E; Bodenberg, Jessica M; Cole, Mara G; Deranek, Kelly M; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M; Eckardt, Alexandra K; Ehret, Sharon C; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L; Light, Morgan R; Meier, Anne C; O'Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R; Reilly, Mary T; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R; Herrick, Douglas A; Khoury, Christopher B; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A; Lowell, Shannon M; Reynolds, Thomas J; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D; Lopilato, Jane E; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B; Smith, Jonathan E; Unruh, Anna K; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T; Moore, Zachary D; Savell, Christopher D; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F; Anilkumar, Arjun A; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F; Horton, Lanor S; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H; Liu, James Z; Mach, Sandy D; Phan, Thu A; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E; Strelitz, Jean M; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E; Gross, Meleah J; Gygi, Amber M; Jackson, Lesley E; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J Devin; Stemler, Kristina M; Throm, Allison A; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T Aaron; Williams, Mallory A; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E; Florian, Kayla A; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W; Pelchen, Carly E; Yenerall, Paul M; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M; delValle, Frank R Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A; Colón-Cruz, Luis R; Correa-Muller, Ana I; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L; Cruz-García, José M; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P; Torres-Castillo, José L; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L; Molleston, Jerome M; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W; Nagengast, Alexis A; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L; Adams, Ashley L; Barnard, Brianna K; Cheramie, Martin N; Eime, Anne M; Golden, Kathryn L; Hawkins, Allyson P; Hill, Jessica E; Kampmeier, Jessica A; Kern, Cody D; Magnuson, Emily E; Miller, Ashley R; Morrow, Cody M; Peairs, Julia C; Pickett, Gentry L; Popelka, Sarah A; Scott, Alexis J; Teepe, Emily J; TerMeer, Katie A; Watchinski, Carmen A; Watson, Lucas A; Weber, Rachel E; Woodard, Kate A; Barnard, Daron C; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M; McNeil, Gerard P; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R; Elgin, Sarah C R

    2015-03-04

    The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 vs. 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. Copyright © 2015 Leung et al.

  9. Pseudo three-dimensional modeling of particle-fuel packing using distinct element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuki, Daisuke; Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Vibration-based packing of sphere-pac fuel is a key technology in a nuclear fuel manufacturing. In the production process of sphere-pac fuel, a Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel is formed to spherical form and is packed in a cladding tube by adding a vibration force. In the present study, we have developed a numerical simulation method to investigate the behavior of the particles in a vibrated tube using the Distinct Element Method (DEM). In general, the DEM requires a significant computational cost. Therefore we propose a new approach in which a small particle can move through the space between three larger particles even in the two-dimensional simulation. We take into account an equivalent three-dimensional effect in the equations of motion. Thus it is named pseudo three-dimensional modeling. (author)

  10. Genome-wide analysis of EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active endogenous viral element associated to small RNAs in Eucalyptus genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Sanches Marcon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endogenous viral elements (EVEs are the result of heritable horizontal gene transfer from viruses to hosts. In the last years, several EVE integration events were reported in plants by the exponential availability of sequenced genomes. Eucalyptus grandis is a forest tree species with a sequenced genome that is poorly studied in terms of evolution and mobile genetic elements composition. Here we report the characterization of E. grandis endogenous viral element 1 (EgEVE_1, a transcriptionally active EVE with a size of 5,664 bp. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic distribution demonstrated that EgEVE_1 is a newly described member of the Caulimoviridae family, distinct from the recently characterized plant Florendoviruses. Genomic distribution of EgEVE_1 and Florendovirus is also distinct. EgEVE_1 qPCR quantification in Eucalyptus urophylla suggests that this genome has more EgEVE_1 copies than E. grandis. EgEVE_1 transcriptional activity was demonstrated by RT-qPCR in five Eucalyptus species and one intrageneric hybrid. We also identified that Eucalyptus EVEs can generate small RNAs (sRNAs,that might be involved in de novo DNA methylation and virus resistance. Our data suggest that EVE families in Eucalyptus have distinct properties, and we provide the first comparative analysis of EVEs in Eucalyptus genomes.

  11. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-15

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small.

  12. Development of distinction method of production area of ginsengs by using a neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjin; Chung, Yongsam; Sim, Chulmuu; Sun, Gwangmin; Lee, Yuna; Yoo, Sangho

    2011-01-01

    During the last 2 years of the project, we have tried to develop the technology to make a distinction of the production areas for Korean ginsengs cultivated in the various provinces in Korea and foreign countries. It will contribute to secure the health food safety for public and stability of its market. In this year, we collected ginseng samples cultivated in the northeastern province in Chinese mainland such as Liaoning province, Jilin province and Baekdu mountain within Jilin province. 10 ginseng samples were collected at each province. The elemental concentrations in the ginseng were analyzed by using a neutron activation analysis technique at the HANARO research reactor. The distinction of production area was made by using a statistical software. As a result, the Chinese Korean ginsengs were certainly differentiated from those cultivated in the famous province in Korea though there was a limitation that the number of our sample we analyzed is very small

  13. Optical selection of trace elements for discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.E.; Erasmus, C.S.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    This report describes different methods of element selection; a combination of stepwise multivariate analysis of variance for primary element selection, and principle component analysis regression for the element interrelationship analysis. These offer a satisfactory solution to the problem of element selection

  14. A Dual Super-Element Domain Decomposition Approach for Parallel Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, G. A.; Izzuddin, B. A.

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new domain decomposition method for nonlinear finite element analysis introducing the concept of dual partition super-elements. The method extends ideas from the displacement frame method and is ideally suited for parallel nonlinear static/dynamic analysis of structural systems. In the new method, domain decomposition is realized by replacing one or more subdomains in a "parent system," each with a placeholder super-element, where the subdomains are processed separately as "child partitions," each wrapped by a dual super-element along the partition boundary. The analysis of the overall system, including the satisfaction of equilibrium and compatibility at all partition boundaries, is realized through direct communication between all pairs of placeholder and dual super-elements. The proposed method has particular advantages for matrix solution methods based on the frontal scheme, and can be readily implemented for existing finite element analysis programs to achieve parallelization on distributed memory systems with minimal intervention, thus overcoming memory bottlenecks typically faced in the analysis of large-scale problems. Several examples are presented in this article which demonstrate the computational benefits of the proposed parallel domain decomposition approach and its applicability to the nonlinear structural analysis of realistic structural systems.

  15. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements in Norway studied by means of moss analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    1977-02-01

    The atmospheric deposition of 28 elements in different parts of Norway was studied by means of moss analysis. The species Hylocomium splendens was selected after a comparison of different species. For several elements large regional differences were found. The highest concentration of these elements were found in the southernmost part of the country and in places near the west coast with high annual precipitation. The lowest values were found in places with low annual precipitation in Eastern Norway and the interior parts of the more northerly parts of the country. Within each region the highest deposition was observed in places with high annual precipitation. For the elements Pb, Sb, As, and Se the observed concentration range amounted to a factor of about 20. In the case of Ag, Cd, Cs, and V the range was smaller, but still amounting to a factor of 10 or more. A lower but still distinct spread was observed for Cr, Mo, Cu, and Zn. For all these elements long distance transport from sources in the densely populated and heavily industrialized parts of Europe probably are of importance for the obsreved distribution. (Auth.)

  16. Why do probabilistic finite element analysis ?

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Ben H

    2008-01-01

    The intention of this book is to provide an introduction to performing probabilistic finite element analysis. As a short guideline, the objective is to inform the reader of the use, benefits and issues associated with performing probabilistic finite element analysis without excessive theory or mathematical detail.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of blood elements by neutron activation analysis in mice immunized with Bothrops snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M.F.; Furtado, M.F.; Sant'Anna, O.A.; Tambourgi, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    Mice genetically selected for high antibody responsiveness (HIII) were immunized against different Bothrops species snake venoms from distinct region of Brazil. The Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to evaluate the whole blood concentrations of elements of clinical relevance [Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na] in order to establish a potential correlation between antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration for clinical screening of envenomed patients. (author)

  18. SOX2 co-occupies distal enhancer elements with distinct POU factors in ESCs and NPCs to specify cell state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Lodato

    Full Text Available SOX2 is a master regulator of both pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs and multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs; however, we currently lack a detailed understanding of how SOX2 controls these distinct stem cell populations. Here we show by genome-wide analysis that, while SOX2 bound to a distinct set of gene promoters in ESCs and NPCs, the majority of regions coincided with unique distal enhancer elements, important cis-acting regulators of tissue-specific gene expression programs. Notably, SOX2 bound the same consensus DNA motif in both cell types, suggesting that additional factors contribute to target specificity. We found that, similar to its association with OCT4 (Pou5f1 in ESCs, the related POU family member BRN2 (Pou3f2 co-occupied a large set of putative distal enhancers with SOX2 in NPCs. Forced expression of BRN2 in ESCs led to functional recruitment of SOX2 to a subset of NPC-specific targets and to precocious differentiation toward a neural-like state. Further analysis of the bound sequences revealed differences in the distances of SOX and POU peaks in the two cell types and identified motifs for additional transcription factors. Together, these data suggest that SOX2 controls a larger network of genes than previously anticipated through binding of distal enhancers and that transitions in POU partner factors may control tissue-specific transcriptional programs. Our findings have important implications for understanding lineage specification and somatic cell reprogramming, where SOX2, OCT4, and BRN2 have been shown to be key factors.

  19. Phytochemical screening, proximate and elemental analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Citrus sinensis was screened for its phytochemical composition and was evaluated for the proximate and elemental analysis. The phytochemical analysis indicated the presence of reducing sugar, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins and flavonoids. The elemental analysis indicated the presence of the following mineral ...

  20. Elemental analysis with external-beam PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Teng, P. K.; Huang, Y. M.; Chen, C. Y.

    1992-05-01

    A beamline system and experimental setup has been established for elemental analysis using PIXE with an external beam. Experiments for the study of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese potsherds (the Min and Ching ages) were performed. Continuum X-ray spectra from the samples bombarded by 3 MeV protons have been measured with a Si(Li) detector. From the analysis of PIXE data, the concentration of the main elements (Al, Si, K, and Ca) and of more than ten trace elements in the matrices and glazed surfaces were determined. Results for two different potsherds are presented, and those obtained from the glaze colorants are compared with the results of measurements on a Ching blue-and-white porcelain vase.

  1. Chemical analysis of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukahara, Ryoichi; Sakoh, Takefumi; Nagai, Iwao

    1994-01-01

    Recently attention has been paid to ICP-AES or ICP-MS, and the reports on the analysis of rare earth elements by utilizing these methods continue to increase. These reports have become to take about 30% of the reports on rare earth analysis, and this is because these methods are highly sensitive to rare earth elements, and also these methods have spread widely. In ICP-AES and ICP-MS, mostly solution samples are measured, therefore, solids must be made into solution. At the time of quantitatively determining the rare earth elements of low concentration, separation and concentration are necessary. Referring to the literatures reported partially in 1990 and from 1991 to 1993, the progress of ICP-AES and ICP-MS is reported. Rare earth oxides and the alloys containing rare earth elements are easily decomposed with acids, but the decomposition of rocks is difficult, and its method is discussed. The separation of the rare earth elements from others in geochemical samples, cation exchange process is frequently utilized. Also solvent extraction process has been studied. For the separation of rare earth elements mutually, chromatography is used. The spectral interference in spectral analysis was studied. The comparison of these methods with other methods is reported. (K.I)

  2. Finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, F.; Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This guide is intended to help people wanting to do finite element analysis of piezoelectric materials by answering some of the questions that are peculiar to piezoelectric materials. The document is not intended as a complete beginners guide for finite element analysis in general as this is better dealt with by the individual software producers. The guide is based around the commercial package ANSYS as this is a popular package amongst piezoelectric material users, however much of the information will still be useful to users of other finite element codes. (author)

  3. Finite element analysis theory and application with ANSYS

    CERN Document Server

    Moaveni, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    For courses in Finite Element Analysis, offered in departments of Mechanical or Civil and Environmental Engineering. While many good textbooks cover the theory of finite element modeling, Finite Element Analysis: Theory and Application with ANSYS is the only text available that incorporates ANSYS as an integral part of its content. Moaveni presents the theory of finite element analysis, explores its application as a design/modeling tool, and explains in detail how to use ANSYS intelligently and effectively. Teaching and Learning Experience This program will provide a better teaching and learning experience-for you and your students. It will help: *Present the Theory of Finite Element Analysis: The presentation of theoretical aspects of finite element analysis is carefully designed not to overwhelm students. *Explain How to Use ANSYS Effectively: ANSYS is incorporated as an integral part of the content throughout the book. *Explore How to Use FEA as a Design/Modeling Tool: Open-ended design problems help stude...

  4. Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)

  5. Finite elements for analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Akin, J E; Davenport, J H

    1994-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is an analysis tool for problem-solving used throughout applied mathematics, engineering, and scientific computing. Finite Elements for Analysis and Design provides a thoroughlyrevised and up-to-date account of this important tool and its numerous applications, with added emphasis on basic theory. Numerous worked examples are included to illustrate the material.Key Features* Akin clearly explains the FEM, a numerical analysis tool for problem-solving throughout applied mathematics, engineering and scientific computing* Basic theory has bee

  6. Evaluation of deformation-strength characteristics of Fiber-cement-stabilized soil by using Distinct Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, Tomoaki; Konda, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    Fiber-cement-stabilized soil method is an effective way to recycle high-water content mud. The modified soil has several advantages such as high failure stress and high failure strain. However, the quality of the modified soil is not constant and depends on the water content of the mud and additives. Therefore, experimental verification to obtain the strength characteristics of the modified soil is necessary, but conducting experiments under various conditions is ineffective and uneconomic. In this study, a numerical model to estimate deformation-strength characteristics of the modified soil is investigated by using Distinct Element Method (DEM). It was shown that the developed model was effective way to estimate deformation-strength characteristics. Moreover, it was confirmed that the modified soil had high earthquake resistance.

  7. Multivariate statistical analysis to characterize/discriminate between anthropogenic and geogenic trace elements occurrence in the Campania Plain, Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busico, Gianluigi; Cuoco, Emilio; Kazakis, Nerantzis; Colombani, Nicolò; Mastrocicco, Micòl; Tedesco, Dario; Voudouris, Konstantinos

    2018-03-01

    Shallow aquifers are the most accessible reservoirs of potable groundwater; nevertheless, they are also prone to various sources of pollution and it is usually difficult to distinguish between human and natural sources at the watershed scale. The area chosen for this study (the Campania Plain) is characterized by high spatial heterogeneities both in geochemical features and in hydraulic properties. Groundwater mineralization is driven by many processes such as, geothermal activity, weathering of volcanic products and intense human activities. In such a landscape, multivariate statistical analysis has been used to differentiate among the main hydrochemical processes occurring in the area, using three different approaches of factor analysis: (i) major elements, (ii) trace elements, (iii) both major and trace elements. The elaboration of the factor analysis approaches has revealed seven distinct hydrogeochemical processes: i) Salinization (Cl - , Na + ); ii) Carbonate rocks dissolution; iii) Anthropogenic inputs (NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , U, V); iv) Reducing conditions (Fe 2+ , Mn 2+ ); v) Heavy metals contamination (Cr and Ni); vi) Geothermal fluids influence (Li + ); and vii) Volcanic products contribution (As, Rb). Results from this study highlight the need to separately apply factor analysis when a large data set of trace elements is available. In fact, the impact of geothermal fluids in the shallow aquifer was identified from the application of the factor analysis using only trace elements. This study also reveals that the factor analysis of major and trace elements can differentiate between anthropogenic and geogenic sources of pollution in intensively exploited aquifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Finite Element Analysis of Pipe T-Joint

    OpenAIRE

    P.M.Gedkar; Dr. D.V. Bhope

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports stress analysis of two pressurized cylindrical intersection using finite element method. The different combinations of dimensions of run pipe and the branch pipe are used to investigate thestresses in pipe at the intersection. In this study the stress analysis is accomplished by finite element package ANSYS.

  9. Geomechanical Simulations of CO2 Storage Integrity using the Livermore Distinct Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J P; Johnson, S M; Friedmann, S J

    2008-07-11

    Large-scale carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects involving annual injections of millions of tons of CO{sub 2} are a key infrastructural element needed to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The large rate and volume of injection will induce pressure and stress gradients within the formation that could activate existing fractures and faults, or drive new fractures through the caprock. We will present results of an ongoing investigation to identify conditions that will activate existing fractures/faults or make new fractures within the caprock using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC is a multiphysics code, developed at LLNL, capable of simulating dynamic fracture of rock masses under a range of conditions. As part of a recent project, LDEC has been extended to consider fault activation and dynamic fracture of rock masses due to pressurization of the pore-space. We will present several demonstrations of LDEC functionality and applications of LDEC to CO{sub 2} injection scenarios including injection into an extensively fractured rockmass. These examples highlight the advantages of explicitly including the geomechanical response of each interface within the rockmass. We present results from our investigations of Teapot Dome using LDEC to study the potential for fault activation during injection. Using this approach, we built finite element models of the rock masses surrounding bounding faults and explicitly simulated the compression and shear on the fault interface. A CO{sub 2} injection source was introduced and the area of fault activation was predicted as a function of injection rate. This work presents an approach where the interactions of all locations on the fault are considered in response to specific injection scenarios. For example, with LDEC, as regions of the fault fail, the shear load is taken up elsewhere on the fault. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies of Teapot Dome and indicate

  10. Finite element analysis of inclined nozzle-plate junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, K.B.; Seth, V.K.; Krishnan, A.; Ramamurthy, T.S.; Dattaguru, B.; Rao, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Estimation of stress concentration at nozzle to plate or shell junctions is a significant problem in the stress analysis of nuclear reactors. The topic is a subject matter of extensive investigations and earlier considerable success has been reported on analysis for the cases when the nozzle is perpendicular to the plate or is radial to the shell. Analytical methods for the estimation of stress concentrations for the practical situations when the intersecting nozzle is inclined to the plate or is non-radial to the shell is rather scanty. Specific complications arise in dealing with the junction region when the nozzle with circular cross-section meets the non-circular cut-out on the plate or shell. In this paper a finite element analysis is developed for inclined nozzles and results are presented for nozzle-plate junctions. A method of analysis is developed with a view to achieving simultaneously accuracy of results and simplicity in the choice of elements and their connectivity. The circular nozzle is treated by axisymmetric conical shell elements. The nozzle portion in the region around the junction and the flat plate is dealt with by triangular flat shell elements. Special transition elements are developed for joining the flat shell elements with the axisymmetric elements under non-axisymmetric loading. A substructure method of analysis is adopted which achieves considerable economy in handling the structure and also conveniently combines the different types of elements in the structure. (orig.)

  11. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Dutheil, Didier B; Cohen, Serge X; Thiaudière, Dominique; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Clément, Gaël; Bertrand, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  12. Ring-element analysis of layered orthotropic bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, O.

    1993-01-01

    For the analysis of arbitrarily laminated circular bodies, a displacement-based ring-element is presented. The analysis is performed in a cylindrical coordinate system. The method of analysis requires the boundary conditions as well as the external forces to be pi-periodic. The element formulation...... accounts for a desired degree of approximation of the displacement field in the direction of the circumference. This is done by a truncated Fourier expansion of the angular dependence of the displacements in terms of trigonometric functions. Thus the Fourier expansion coefficients are the unknowns...... to that of solutions obtained by traditional 3D elements. A scheme for analytical integration of the angular dependence of the stiffness matrix is given....

  13. Electrical machine analysis using finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSVector AnalysisElectromagnetic FieldsFundamental Equations SummaryReferencesBASIC PRINCIPLES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODSIntroductionField Problems with Boundary ConditionsClassical Method for the Field Problem SolutionThe Classical Residual Method (Galerkin's Method)The Classical Variational Method (Rayleigh-Ritz's Method)The Finite Element MethodReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELDSIntroductionLinear Interpolation of the Function fApplication of the Variational MethodSimple Descriptions of Electromagnetic FieldsAppendix: I

  14. Elemental hair analysis: A review of procedures and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozebon, D.; Scheffler, G.L.; Dressler, V.L.

    2017-01-01

    Although exogenous contamination and unreliable reference values have limited the utility of scalp hair as a biomarker of chemical elements exposure, its use in toxicological, clinical, environmental and forensic investigations is growing and becoming more extensive. Therefore, hair elemental analysis is reviewed in the current manuscript which spans articles published in the last 10 years. It starts with a general discussion of history, morphology and possible techniques for elemental analysis, where inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is clearly highlighted since this technique is leading quantitative ultra-trace elemental analysis. Emphasis over sampling, quality assurance, washing procedures and sample decomposition is given with detailed protocols compiled in tables as well as the utility of hair to identify human gender, age, diseases, healthy conditions, nutrition status and contamination sites. Isotope ratio information, chemical speciation analysis and analyte preconcentration are also considered for hair. Finally, the potential of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) to provide spatial resolution and time-track the monitoring of elements in hair strands instead of conventional bulk analysis is spotlighted as a real future trend in the field. - Highlights: • Elemental analysis of hair is critically reviewed, with focus on ICP-MS employment. • Standards protocols of hair washing and sample decomposition are compiled. • The usefulness of elemental and/or isotopic analysis of hair is demonstrated. • The potential of LA-ICP-MS for elemental time tracking in hair is highlighted.

  15. Finite element analysis of tibial fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Christian Nai En; Mikkelsen, Mikkel Peter W; Hansen, Leif Berner

    2010-01-01

    Project. The data consisted of 21,219 3D elements with a cortical shell and a trabecular core. Three types of load of torsion, a direct lateral load and axial compression were applied. RESULTS: The finite element linear static analysis resulted in relevant fracture localizations and indicated relevant...

  16. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  17. Neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Petri, H.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for routine measurement of trace elements in thyroids of inhabitants of Belarus as well as in thyroids of people operated for thyroid cancer. The method chosen allowed the analysis of 28 elements, among them essential and toxic ones, with a good accuracy. The results obtained showed significant differences in the elemental composition of thyroid from the different regions. The changes of elemental composition of thyroids of inhabitants of the Gomel region, where goiter is endemic, seem to be identical to those in the tumor tissue. (author)

  18. Semianalytical analysis of shear walls with the use of discrete-continual finite element method. Part 1: Mathematical foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimov Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive paper is devoted to the two-dimensional semi-analytical solution of boundary problems of analysis of shear walls with the use of discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. This approach allows obtaining the exact analytical solution in one direction (so-called “basic” direction, also decrease the size of the problem to one-dimensional common finite element analysis. The resulting multipoint boundary problem for the first-order system of ordinary differential equations with piecewise constant coefficients is solved analytically. The proposed method is rather efficient for evaluation of the boundary effect (such as the stress field near the concentrated force. DCFEM also has a completely computer-oriented algorithm, computational stability, optimal conditionality of resultant system and it is applicable for the various loads at an arbitrary point or a region of the wall.

  19. VIRTUAL EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON CLEANING ELEMENT OF SUGARCANE HARVESTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Fanglan; Li Shangping; He Yulin; Meng Yanmei; Chen Weixu

    2005-01-01

    The laws of influence of different factors have been analyzed in order to enhance the working efficiency and fatigue life of the cleaning element in brush shape of the sugarcane harvester.Based on the principle of orthogonal experiment design, the virtual-orthogonal-experimental analysis for the cleaning element is carried out on the finite element analysis (FEA) software-ANSYS after analyzing the nonlinear structural behavior in the working procedure. The results are analyzed with the overall balancing method, and then the optimal combination is got, which is made up of different levels of different factors. Also the optimal combination of design parameters of the cleaning element received from the virtual experimental analysis is conducted an experiment to confirm that the virtual analysis model and results are right, and the effect of factors on the function of the cleaning element is obtained by more analysis and further optimizing.

  20. Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.

  1. Utilization of macrominerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct feed efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R S; Montanholi, Y R; Lopez, S; Smith, B; Miller, S P; France, J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate utilization of dietary minerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct residual feed intakes (RFI). Feed intake, body weight (BW), and body composition traits were recorded in 36 crossbred heifers over a period of 37 wk, starting shortly after weaning at 8.3 (0.10; standard deviation) mo of age with an average BW of 276 (7.8) kg. Both BW and body composition were monitored regularly throughout the study, whereas individual feed intake was assessed during the last 84 d of the trial. Data recorded were used to calculate RFI for each heifer. Heifers were ranked based on RFI and assigned to high (n=14) or low (n=10) RFI groups. After the RFI study, 24 selected heifers [age 18.2 (0.14) mo; 87.5 (4.74) d in gestation; 497 (8.5) kg of BW] were used in an indirect digestibility trial (lignin as internal marker). Heifers were fed a ration containing corn silage, haylage, and a mineral premix in which Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn, and Co were provided in the diet according to National Research Council requirements of pregnant replacement heifers. The digestibility trial lasted 1 wk, during which samples of feces were gathered twice daily, and blood and liver biopsy samples were collected on the last day. We noted no significant differences between low- and high-RFI heifers in dry matter digestibility. Apparent absorption of Cu, Zn, and Mn was increased in heifers with low RFI, and apparent absorption of Co tended to be greater for these animals. Concentrations of macrominerals and trace elements in serum of pregnant heifers were similar for both groups except for Se, which was increased in the serum of low-RFI heifers. Liver concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn did not differ between low- and high-RFI heifers. In conclusion, whereas improved absorption of some trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co) and increased Se serum concentration appear to be associated with superior feed efficiency in pregnant

  2. Single cell elemental analysis using nuclear microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, M.Q.; Thong, P.S.P.; Kara, U.; Watt, F.

    1999-01-01

    The use of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) to provide quantitative elemental analysis of single cells is an area which has high potential, particularly when the trace elements such as Ca, Fe, Zn and Cu can be monitored. We describe the methodology of sample preparation for two cell types, the procedures of cell imaging using STIM, and the quantitative elemental analysis of single cells using RBS and PIXE. Recent work on single cells at the Nuclear Microscopy Research Centre,National University of Singapore has centred around two research areas: (a) Apoptosis (programmed cell death), which has been recently implicated in a wide range of pathological conditions such as cancer, Parkinson's disease etc, and (b) Malaria (infection of red blood cells by the malaria parasite). Firstly we present results on the elemental analysis of human Chang liver cells (ATTCC CCL 13) where vanadium ions were used to trigger apoptosis, and demonstrate that nuclear microscopy has the capability of monitoring vanadium loading within individual cells. Secondly we present the results of elemental changes taking place in individual mouse red blood cells which have been infected with the malaria parasite and treated with the anti-malaria drug Qinghaosu (QHS)

  3. Trace elemental imaging of rare earth elements discriminates tissues at microscale in flat fossils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Gueriau

    Full Text Available The interpretation of flattened fossils remains a major challenge due to compression of their complex anatomies during fossilization, making critical anatomical features invisible or hardly discernible. Key features are often hidden under greatly preserved decay prone tissues, or an unpreparable sedimentary matrix. A method offering access to such anatomical features is of paramount interest to resolve taxonomic affinities and to study fossils after a least possible invasive preparation. Unfortunately, the widely-used X-ray micro-computed tomography, for visualizing hidden or internal structures of a broad range of fossils, is generally inapplicable to flattened specimens, due to the very high differential absorbance in distinct directions. Here we show that synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectral raster-scanning coupled to spectral decomposition or a much faster Kullback-Leibler divergence based statistical analysis provides microscale visualization of tissues. We imaged exceptionally well-preserved fossils from the Late Cretaceous without needing any prior delicate preparation. The contrasting elemental distributions greatly improved the discrimination of skeletal elements material from both the sedimentary matrix and fossilized soft tissues. Aside content in alkaline earth elements and phosphorus, a critical parameter for tissue discrimination is the distinct amounts of rare earth elements. Local quantification of rare earths may open new avenues for fossil description but also in paleoenvironmental and taphonomical studies.

  4. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro; Saiki, Mitiko

    2013-01-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO 3 solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in replicate. A

  5. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO 3 solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in replicate. A

  6. A study on chemical element determinations in human nails by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: thalitapsanches@usp.br, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nail analyses have been the object of study in order to assess the levels of elements accumulated in the human organism and to use this tissue to monitor environmental and occupational exposure, to evaluate the nutritional status, to verify intoxication by toxic metals and to diagnose or to prevent diseases. Nail analyses present advantages due to easy sample collection, storage, transportation and this tissue provides element level accumulation over time. However, there is controversy regarding the application of nail analysis data due to difficulties to establish reliable reference values or element concentration ranges as control values. The objective of this study was to evaluate the factors that can affect nail element concentrations for further sample analyses of a group of individuals by applying neutron activation analysis (NAA). Fingernails and toenails collected from adult individuals of both genders, aged 18 to 71 years, living in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region were cut in small fragments, cleaned and dried for analyses. Samples and element standards were irradiated for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 4.5 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Element concentrations for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn were determined. For quality control of the analytical results, certified reference materials were analysed and the results showed good accuracy and precision with relative errors and relative standard deviations lower than 5.1 % and 11.6 %, respectively. Preliminary assays indicated that the contribution due to impurities from plastic involucres used in the irradiation as well as those from nail polishes is very low and could be considered negligible. Results from the nail sample cleaning process using distinct procedures indicated that HNO{sub 3} solution may cause sample dissolution. Sample homogeneity was verified by analysis of a sample in

  7. Simultaneous multi-element analysis of some edible pulses using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sweify, F.H.; Metwally, E.; Abdel-Khalik, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper comprises the application of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for multi-element determination in some edible pulse samples. These edible pulses are usually daily used in the Egyptian kitchen. These were: anise, cumin, coriander, caraway, black cumin, white kidney bean, lupine, lentil, chickpea, broad bean, peanut, almond, and fenugreek. The pulses have been analyzed as dehulled pulses, in the case of legume and oil pulses with simultaneous analysis of their respective skins. The determined elements were: Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th and Zn. The element content in the dehulled pulses and their respective skins has been compared. Some elements were major or minor elements where others were trace elements. Standard reference materials were used to assure quality control, accuracy and precision of the technique. (author)

  8. Analysis of light elements by PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Choi, H. W.; Kim, D. K.; Woo, H. J.; Kim, N. B.; Park, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The PIGE (Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission) method was applied for the measurement of light elements Li - K. A test measurement has been performed for geological, biological, environmental and material samples by using a standard sample for each element. The measurement was performed for the two proton energies of 2.4 and 3.4 MeV, and 3.4MeV was found to yield better result for multielemental analysis. The result shows a fair agreement within 15% for all elements with standard values. The detection limits of Li, B, F and Na are less than 100 ppm, while those of the other elements are from a few hundred ppm to a few percents. (author)

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Circular Plate using SolidWorks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yeo Jin; Jhung, Myung Jo

    2011-01-01

    Circular plates are used extensively in mechanical engineering for nuclear reactor internal components. The examples in the reactor vessel internals are upper guide structure support plate, fuel alignment plate, lower support plate etc. To verify the structural integrity of these plates, the finite element analyses are performed, which require the development of the finite element model. Sometimes it is very costly and time consuming to make the model especially for the beginners who start their engineering job for the structural analysis, necessitating a simple method to develop the finite element model for the pursuing structural analysis. Therefore in this study, the input decks are generated for the finite element analysis of a circular plate as shown in Fig. 1, which can be used for the structural analysis such as modal analysis, response spectrum analysis, stress analysis, etc using the commercial program Solid Works. The example problems are solved and the results are included for analysts to perform easily the finite element analysis of the mechanical plate components due to various loadings. The various results presented in this study would be helpful not only for the benchmark calculations and results comparisons but also as a part of the knowledge management for the future generation of young designers, scientists and computer analysts

  10. X-ray fluorescent elemental analysis. Ch. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshev, V.; Kulipanov, G.; Skrinsky, A.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XFA) is used worldwide to define a quantitative content of the elements as well as to visualize the distribution of elements in different regions (element mapping). Utilization of synchrotron radiation (SR) to excite X-ray fluorescence enables the XFA method to be qualitatively improved. This chapter reviews the experimental work in especially the last decade (author). 71 refs.; 24 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.hinrichs@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bertol, A.P.L. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  12. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  13. Trace element analysis of common salt using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, K.

    1993-01-01

    Instrumental Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (IFNAA) technique has been used in the qualitative and quantitative determination of the impurity elements in common salt. Samples of the different types of common salt processed in Nigeria and some of those imported into the country were used. The type A711 KAMAN neutron generator and a high-purity Germanium (HpGe) gamma spectrometer available at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria has been used. The ORTEC ADCAM 100 Emulation Software (Maestro) was used in the qualitative measurement of the detected elements. The G.R.G Activation Analysis System by G. R. Gilmore, 1987, was used in the quantitative determination of the elements detected by relative method. Aluminium and arsenic were detected and measured

  14. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  15. ANSYS mechanical APDL for finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    ANSYS Mechanical APDL for Finite Element Analysis provides a hands-on introduction to engineering analysis using one of the most powerful commercial general purposes finite element programs on the market. Students will find a practical and integrated approach that combines finite element theory with best practices for developing, verifying, validating and interpreting the results of finite element models, while engineering professionals will appreciate the deep insight presented on the program's structure and behavior. Additional topics covered include an introduction to commands, input files, batch processing, and other advanced features in ANSYS. The book is written in a lecture/lab style, and each topic is supported by examples, exercises and suggestions for additional readings in the program documentation. Exercises gradually increase in difficulty and complexity, helping readers quickly gain confidence to independently use the program. This provides a solid foundation on which to build, preparing readers...

  16. Multi-element analysis of unidentified fallen objects from Tatale in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-element analysis has been carried out on two fallen objects, # 01 and # 02, using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. A total of 17 elements were identified in object # 01 while 21 elements were found in object # 02. The two major elements in object # 01 were Fe and Mg, which together constitute ...

  17. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in archaeology interpretation beyond elemental abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to the study of archaeological ceramics involves the determination of the source or sources used to produce pottery. Groups of relatively homogeneous elemental abundances are shown to be statically distinct from one another often leading to the assesment of what was locally produced and what was imported to a site. These assesment, however are among the most preliminary interpretations. Archaeology is concerned with the reasons for artificial distributions and how and why the distribution varied through time 3 reasons that include the social and political basis of ancient economics and how these responded to other factors, such as ideology. These objectives are addressed through the increasing refinement of compositional groups leading toward greater specificity of attribution. In so doing the role of analytical precision among other considerations groves in importance. This paper illustration some of these considerations with examples from the U.S. southwest, the Maya region of southern mexico, and lower central America

  18. Tests of regional elemental tracers of pollution aerosols. 1. Distinctness of regional signatures, stability during transport, and empirical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, D.H.; Wunschel, K.R.; Rahn, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The two major requirements for a successful regional tracer system are distinctness of signatures and stability of signatures during transport. Dissimilarity of the five regional signatures from eastern North America is shown by collinearity diagnostics and by apportionment of synthetic samples generated randomly. Stability of regional signatures during transport is shown first by use of tracer elements in coarse and fine aerosol to predict the maximum possible change of ratios from particle-size effects alone and then by examination of actual changes in signatures during transport from the Midwest to Underhill, VT. Two recent empirical validations of the tracer system are presented: qualitative agreement of pulses of mid-western aerosol in Vermont with pulses of perfluorocarbon tracer gas released in Ohio during CAPTEX '83 and reproduction of our three major northeastern and mid-western signatures by other investigators. The tracer system currently uses the seven elements As, Se, Sb, Zn, In, noncrustal Mn, and noncrustal V as measured by instrumental neutron activation

  19. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1976-05-01

    A neutron activation method for multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of the method include radiochemical processing as well as nondestructive techniques. In order to develop a high resolution gamma spectrometric method the indispensable assumptions were the application of Ge(Li)-semiconductor detectors, multi-channel pulse height analyzers and the use of electronic data evaluation with mini-computers for the automatic evaluation of complex gamma spectra. After radiochemical separation (RNAA) 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements can be determined in biological materials and by application of nondestructive, purely instrumental techniques (INAA) 25 elements. The time required for the analysis of 33 elements is 4 days. The neutron activation method is used routinely for the determination of trace elements in foodstuffs and in the field of nutrition research. (orig.) [de

  20. Multi-element analysis of small biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokita, E.; Cafmeyer, J.; Maenhaut, W.

    1983-01-01

    A method combining PIXE and INAA was developed to determine the elemental composition of small biological samples. The method needs virtually no sample preparation and less than 1 mg is sufficient for the analysis. The method was used for determining up to 18 elements in leaves taken from Cracow Herbaceous. The factors which influence the elemental composition of leaves and the possible use of leaves as an environmental pollution indicator are discussed

  1. Finite element application to global reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.A.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Finite Element Method is described as a Coarse Mesh Method with general basis and trial functions. Various consequences concerning programming and application of Finite Element Methods in reactor physics are drawn. One of the conclusions is that the Finite Element Method is a valuable tool in solving global reactor analysis problems. However, problems which can be described by rectangular boxes still can be solved with special coarse mesh programs more efficiently. (orig.) [de

  2. Trace elements, potassium, 40K and 137Cs in distinctive parts of fir from Gorski Kotar - Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Vertacnik, A.; Lulic, S.; Kauzlaric, Z.; Hus, M.; Seletkovic, Z.; Kezic, N.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclides, as well as other cations, which are either constitutive elements/trace elements of soils, or deposited as a fallout through wet/dry deposition processes due to global atmospheric contamination, can migrate upwards by plant uptake. Long-term observations of 137 Cs activities in nectar honeys indicate the uniform lowering of caesium transfer to nectar plants. In the same time, the 137 Cs activities of honey-dew honeys are significantly high and almost constant over long time period after contamination. Due to this, the research of potassium, caesium, as well as some other trace element content in distinctive parts of coniferous trees from Gorski Kotar has been started. The results of total K, Rb, Sr, Co, Cu, Zn and Cr, as well as of 40 K and 137 Cs determination in fir branches and needles from Lividraga (Table 1.) indicate the relatively high cations' mobility in youngest part of fir branches shoots. The majority of observed elements migrates into the youngest shoots, which is especially evident for univalent cations 40 K, total potassium, 137 Cs and rubidium in fir branches. Their concentrations generally are significantly higher in branches than in respective needles. The two-valent cations like strontium or zinc show less significant concentration increase in younger vs. older fir branches' parts (Figure 1.). Strontium concentrations have been increasing in the older needles in contrast to concentrations in fir branches. High 137 Cs activities found in the youngest shoots relatively long time after the soil contamination indicate the fir as a potentially good bioindicator for caesium. high mobility of cations in the youngest parts of fir branches, and theirs piling up in youngest tops of branches and needles suggest the fir to be used as the possible bioindicator of other, especially univalent cations fate. (author)

  3. A CAREM type fuel element dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoia, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    A first analysis on the dynamic behaviour of a fuel element designed for the CAREM nuclear reactor (Central Argentina de Elementos Modulares) was performed. The model used to represent this dynamic behaviour was satisfactorily evaluated. Using primary estimations for some of its numerical parameters, a first approximation to its natural vibrational modes was obtained. Results obtained from fuel elements frequently used in nuclear power plants of the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactors) type, are compared with values resulting from similar analysis. (Author) [es

  4. DNA methylation analysis reveals distinct methylation signatures in pediatric germ cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatruda, James F; Frazier, A Lindsay; Poynter, Jenny N; Ross, Julie A; Christensen, Brock; Fustino, Nicholas J; Chen, Kenneth S; Hooten, Anthony J; Nelson, Heather; Kuriger, Jacquelyn K; Rakheja, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a prominent feature of many cancers, and may be especially relevant in germ cell tumors (GCTs) due to the extensive epigenetic reprogramming that occurs in the germ line during normal development. We used the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer Methylation Panel to compare DNA methylation in the three main histologic subtypes of pediatric GCTs (germinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor (YST); N = 51) and used recursively partitioned mixture models (RPMM) to test associations between methylation pattern and tumor and demographic characteristics. We identified genes and pathways that were differentially methylated using generalized linear models and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. We also measured global DNA methylation at LINE1 elements and evaluated methylation at selected imprinted loci using pyrosequencing. Methylation patterns differed by tumor histology, with 18/19 YSTs forming a distinct methylation class. Four pathways showed significant enrichment for YSTs, including a human embryonic stem cell pluripotency pathway. We identified 190 CpG loci with significant methylation differences in mature and immature teratomas (q < 0.05), including a number of CpGs in stem cell and pluripotency-related pathways. Both YST and germinoma showed significantly lower methylation at LINE1 elements compared with normal adjacent tissue while there was no difference between teratoma (mature and immature) and normal tissue. DNA methylation at imprinted loci differed significantly by tumor histology and location. Understanding methylation patterns may identify the developmental stage at which the GCT arose and the at-risk period when environmental exposures could be most harmful. Further, identification of relevant genetic pathways could lead to the development of new targets for therapy

  5. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  6. Distinct Element modeling of geophysical signatures during sinkhole collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Holohan, Eoghan P.; Taheri, Abbas; Dahm, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    A sinkhole forms due to the collapse of rocks or soil near the Earth's surface into an underground cavity. Such cavities represent large secondary pore spaces derived by dissolution and subrosion in the underground. By changing the stress field in the surrounding material, the growth of cavities can lead to a positive feedback, in which expansion and mechanical instability in the surrounding material increases or generates new secondary pore space (e.g. by fracturing), which in turn increases the cavity size, etc. A sinkhole forms due to the eventual subsidence or collapse of the overburden that becomes destabilized and fails all the way to the Earth's surface. Both natural processes like (sub)surface water movement and earthquakes, and human activities, such as mining, construction and groundwater extraction, intensify such feedbacks. The development of models for the mechanical interaction of a growing cavity and fracturing of its surrounding material, thus capturing related precursory geophysical signatures, has been limited, however. Here we report on the advances of a general, simplified approach to simulating cavity growth and sinkhole formation by using 2D Distinct Element Modeling (DEM) PFC5.0 software and thereby constraining pre-, syn- and post-collapse geophysical and geodetic signatures. This physically realistic approach allows for spontaneous cavity development and dislocation of rock mass to be simulated by bonded particle formulation of DEM. First, we present calibration and validation of our model. Surface subsidence above an instantaneously excavated circular cavity is tracked and compared with an incrementally increasing dissolution zone both for purely elastic and non-elastic material.This validation is important for the optimal choice of model dimensions and particles size with respect to simulation time. Second, a cavity growth approach is presented and compared to a well-documented case study, the deliberately intensified sinkhole collapse at

  7. Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given

  8. Finite element analysis of an inflatable torus considering air mass structural element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, S. C.; Upadhyay, S. H.; Harsha, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable structures, also known as gossamer structures, are at high boom in the current space technology due to their low mass and compact size comparing to the traditional spacecraft designing. Internal pressure becomes the major source of strength and rigidity, essentially stiffen the structure. However, inflatable space based membrane structure are at high risk to the vibration disturbance due to their low structural stiffness and material damping. Hence, the vibration modes of the structure should be known to a high degree of accuracy in order to provide better control authority. In the past, most of the studies conducted on the vibration analysis of gossamer structures used inaccurate or approximate theories in modeling the internal pressure. The toroidal shaped structure is one of the important key element in space application, helps to support the reflector in space application. This paper discusses the finite-element analysis of an inflated torus. The eigen-frequencies are obtained via three-dimensional small-strain elasticity theory, based on extremum energy principle. The two finite-element model (model-1 and model-2) have cases have been generated using a commercial finite-element package. The structure model-1 with shell element and model-2 with the combination of the mass of enclosed fluid (air) added to the shell elements have been taken for the study. The model-1 is computed with present analytical approach to understand the convergence rate and the accuracy. The convergence study is made available for the symmetric modes and anti-symmetric modes about the centroidal-axis plane, meeting the eigen-frequencies of an inflatable torus with the circular cross section. The structural model-2 is introduced with air mass element and analyzed its eigen-frequency with different aspect ratio and mode shape response using in-plane and out-plane loading condition are studied.

  9. Elemental analysis techniques using proton microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Sato, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    Proton microbeam is a powerful tool for two-dimensional elemental analysis. The analysis is based on Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The paper outlines the principles and instruments, and describes the dental application has been done in JAERI Takasaki. (author)

  10. Structural analysis of reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of fuel-element modeling is presented that traces the development of codes for the prediction of light-water-reactor and fast-breeder-reactor fuel-element performance. It is concluded that although the mathematical analysis is now far advanced, the development and incorporation of mechanistic constitutive equations has not kept pace. The resultant reliance on empirical correlations severely limits the physical insight that can be gained from code extrapolations. Current efforts include modeling of alternate fuel systems, analysis of local fuel-cladding interactions, and development of a predictive capability for off-normal behavior. Future work should help remedy the current constitutive deficiencies and should include the development of deterministic failure criteria for use in design

  11. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  12. Analysis and design of lumped element Marchand baluns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel design procedure for lumped element Marchand baluns is proposed. An analysis is performed on the balun structure in order to determine the conditions for ideal balun performance in terms of the lumped element values. The analysis is verified by two broadband designs centered...... around 22.75 GHz and differing only in terms of their impedance transformation ratio. EM simulation results on our proposed lumped element Marchand balun structure predicts an insertion loss of 4 dB and return loss of 40 dB at the design frequency of 22.75 GHz. The amplitude and phase imbalance...

  13. Prediction and phylogenetic analysis of mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, I B; Mayorov, V I; Lavrentieva, M V; Milanesi, L; Adkison, L R

    2000-09-01

    The presence of repetitive elements can create serious problems for sequence analysis, especially in the case of homology searches in nucleotide sequence databases. Repetitive elements should be treated carefully by using special programs and databases. In this paper, various aspects of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) identification, analysis and evolution are discussed.

  14. Toenail elemental analysis of Korean young adults by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, O.

    2016-01-01

    The element contents in toenail clippings of healthy Korean young adults were measured using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. The average contents of elements such as Na, K, Cl, Ca, Fe, Se, and Zn are 449, 474, 1024, 1677, 66, 0.7 and 94 mg/kg in men, whereas those contents in women respectively 332, 476, 836, 1097, 66, 0.8 and 104 mg/kg. The correlation analysis of toenail elements with chronic disease risks showed positive associations between Na and serum HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and negative associations between Se and Hs-CRP, between Zn and hemoglobin level. (author)

  15. Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.

  16. A General Finite Element Scheme for Limit State Analysis and Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Limit State analysis which is based on a perfect material behaviour is used in many different applications primarily within Structural Engineering and Geotechnics. The calculation methods have not reached the same level of automation such as Finite Element Analysis for elastic structures....... The computer based systems are more ad hoc based and are typically not well-integrated with pre- and postprocessors well-known from commercial Finite Element codes.A finite element based formulation of limit state analysis is presented which allows an easy integration with standard Finite Element codes...... for elastic analysis. In this way the user is able to perform a limit state analysis on the same model used for elastic analysis only adding data for the yield surface.The method is based on the lower-bound theorem and uses stress-based elements with a linearized yield surface. The mathematical problem...

  17. Elemental analysis: Reduction to SI units; Rueckfuehrung in der Elementanalytik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienitz, O.; Jaehrling, R.; Schiel, D. [PTB-Arbeitsgruppe ' ' Anorganische Analytik' ' , Braunschweig (Germany); Matschat, R.; Kipphardt, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung, Berlin (Germany); Gernand, W.; Oeter, D. [MercK KGaA (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    In a joint project, PTB, BAM and Merck KGaA worked on a metrological reduction system for all elements relevant to analysis. The BAM certified primary pure substances with a relative error of U{sub rel} {<=} 0.01% for the mass of the main element. This was achieved by measuring the mass components of all potential impurities, i.e. practically all elements of the periodic system except the main element. These pure substances are the national reference standards of elemental analysis. From them, PTB produces primary elementa solutions and transfer solutions which are passed on as reference standards. The industrial partner constructed the DKD calibration laboratory, which certifies commercial secondary calibration solutions on the basis of the reference standard solutions produced by PTB. With this final product, measurements in elemental analysis can be reduced to the SI units system as a routine procedure. (orig.)

  18. Comparative Study on Interface Elements, Thin-Layer Elements, and Contact Analysis Methods in the Analysis of High Concrete-Faced Rockfill Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-xiang Qian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the numerical performance of three contact simulation methods, namely, the interface element, thin-layer element, and contact analysis methods, through the analysis of the contact behavior between the concrete face slab and the dam body of a high concrete-faced rockfill dam named Tianshengqiao-I in China. To investigate the accuracy and limitations of each method, the simulation results are compared in terms of the dam deformation, contact stress along the interface, stresses in the concrete face slab, and separation of the concrete face slab from the cushion layer. In particular, the predicted dam deformation and slab separation are compared with the in-situ observation data to classify these methods according to their agreement with the in-situ observations. It is revealed that the interface element and thin-layer element methods have their limitations in predicting contact stress, slab separation, and stresses in the concrete face slab if a large slip occurs. The contact analysis method seems to be the best choice whether the separation is finite or not.

  19. Alphavirus replicon approach to promoterless analysis of IRES elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrud, K I; Custer, M; Dudek, J M; Owens, G; Alterson, K D; Lee, J S; Groebner, J L; Smith, J F

    2007-04-10

    Here we describe a system for promoterless analysis of putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements using an alphavirus (family Togaviridae) replicon vector. The system uses the alphavirus subgenomic promoter to produce transcripts that, when modified to contain a spacer region upstream of an IRES element, allow analysis of cap-independent translation of genes of interest (GOI). If the IRES element is removed, translation of the subgenomic transcript can be reduced >95% compared to the same transcript containing a functional IRES element. Alphavirus replicons, used in this manner, offer an alternative to standard dicistronic DNA vectors or in vitro translation systems currently used to analyze putative IRES elements. In addition, protein expression levels varied depending on the spacer element located upstream of each IRES. The ability to modulate the level of expression from alphavirus vectors should extend the utility of these vectors in vaccine development.

  20. Correct use of Membrane Elements in Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothman Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural analysis of consumer electronic devices such as phones and tablets involves Finite Element Analysis (FEA. Dynamic loading conditions such as device dropping and bending dictate accurate FEA models to reduce design risk in many areas. The solid elements typically used in structural analysis do not have integration points on the surface. The outer surface is of most interest because that is where the cracks start. Analysts employ a post processing trick through using membranes to bring accurate stress/strain results to the surface. This paper explains numerical issues with implementation of membranes and recommends a methodology for accurate structural analysis.

  1. Finite element analysis of the mechanical properties of cellular aluminium based on micro-computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veyhl, C.; Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.; Fiedler, T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Elastic and plastic anisotropy is observed for both materials → Both show qualitatively similar characteristics with quantitative differences → Distinctly higher mechanical properties for closed-cell foam → The 'big' and 'small' models show good agreement for the closed-cell foam. - Abstract: In the present paper, the macroscopic mechanical properties of open-cell M-Pore sponge (porosity of 91-93%) and closed-cell Alporas foam (porosity of 80-86%) are investigated. The complex geometry of these cellular materials is scanned by micro-computed tomography and used in finite element (FE) analysis. The mechanical properties are determined by uni-axial compression simulations in three perpendicular directions (x-, y- and z-direction). M-Pore and Alporas exhibit the same qualitative mechanical characteristics but with quantitative differences. In both cases, strong anisotropy is observed for Young's modulus and the 0.002 offset yield stress. Furthermore, for the investigated relative density range a linear dependence between relative density and mechanical properties is found. Finally, a distinctly higher Young's modulus and 0.002 offset yield stress is observed for Alporas.

  2. Elemental analysis of cotton by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Emily R.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been applied to the elemental characterization of unprocessed cotton. This research is important in forensic and fraud detection applications to establish an elemental fingerprint of U.S. cotton by region, which can be used to determine the source of the cotton. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a LIBS method for the elemental analysis of cotton. The experimental setup consists of a Nd:YAG laser that operates at the fundamental wavelength as the LIBS excitation source and an echelle spectrometer equipped with an intensified CCD camera. The relative concentrations of elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Sr from both nutrients and environmental contributions were determined by LIBS. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the differences between cotton samples based on the elemental composition by region in the U.S. Linear discriminant analysis of the LIBS data resulted in the correct classification of >97% of the cotton samples by U.S. region and >81% correct classification by state of origin.

  3. Elemental analysis of bottom ash from municipal incinerator by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Jang, S. H.; Moon, J. H.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2003-01-01

    Elemental analysis of bottom ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator was performed by neutron activation analysis. For this study, ash samples monthly collected from incinerator in D city were sieved with 5 mm mesh size, dried, pulverized by agate mortar and finally re-sieved with 200μ mesh size. Prepared samples were irradiated by neutrons using NAA No.1 irradiation hole in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Activated samples were measured by gamma-ray spectrometer according to the relevant nuclear properties of target nuclides and the concentration of 33 elements were determined from the collected ash samples. Quality control was conducted by comparative analysis with two NIST standard reference materials simultaneously. Mean values and standard deviations of hazardous elements such as As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sb and Zn among the determined elements were 3.8±6.9mg/kg, 620±0.12 %, 4.76±0.37 %, 0.26±0.10 %, 115±29 mg/kg and 0.71±0.19 %, respectively

  4. Chemical analysis of useful trace elements in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku; Fujii, Ayako; Miyai, Yoshitaka; Sakane, Kohji; Ogata, Noboru.

    1983-01-01

    The methods for the analysis of useful trace elements in sea water which have been tried so far are reviewed, and these methods are described briefly from the standpoint of studying the collection of resources. Ag and Au can be determined by concentrating sea water by ion-exchange method, solvent extraction method and electrodeposition method, then the elements are measured quantitatively by activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis. Sr, B and Li, which exist in relatively high concentration in sea water, are determined easily by atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis and absorption spectrometry. U, Mo and V are measured suitably by concentrating the elements by coprecipitation or solvent extraction method, and measuring by fluorescence analysis and arsenazo-3 method for U and through graphite-atomic absorption analysis for Mo and V. It has been revealed that the concentration of Ag and Au in sea water is extremely low, accordingly the recovery study is not conducted recently. On the other hand, the adsorption method using hydrated titanium oxide and amidoxim adsorbents for U, Mo and V, the adsorption method using aluminum adsorbent for Li, and the adsorption method using magnesium oxide and zirconium hydroxide and the solvent extraction method for B are hopeful to recover these elements. (Yoshitake, I.)

  5. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Shells with Large Aspect Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T. Y.; Sawamiphakdi, K.

    1984-01-01

    A higher order degenerated shell element with nine nodes was selected for large deformation and post-buckling analysis of thick or thin shells. Elastic-plastic material properties are also included. The post-buckling analysis algorithm is given. Using a square plate, it was demonstrated that the none-node element does not have shear locking effect even if its aspect ratio was increased to the order 10 to the 8th power. Two sample problems are given to illustrate the analysis capability of the shell element.

  6. Finite element analysis of structures through unified formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco; Zappino, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a computational tool widely used to design and analyse  complex structures. Currently, there are a number of different approaches to analysis using the FEM that vary according to the type of structure being analysed: beams and plates may use 1D or 2D approaches, shells and solids 2D or 3D approaches, and methods that work for one structure are typically not optimized to work for another. Finite Element Analysis of Structures Through Unified Formulation deals with the FEM used for the analysis of the mechanics of structures in the case of linear elasticity. The novelty of this book is that the finite elements (FEs) are formulated on the basis of a class of theories of structures known as the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). It formulates 1D, 2D and 3D FEs on the basis of the same ''fundamental nucleus'' that comes from geometrical relations and Hooke''s law, and presents both 1D and 2D refined FEs that only have displacement variables as in 3D elements. It also covers 1D...

  7. Multi-element analysis for environmental characterization and its future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.

    1987-04-01

    Before starting to characterize the environment by its elemental composition, it may be useful to ask about the objective of these efforts. This includes questions about the scope of environmental protection, the definition of the environment and the limitations of its characterization by elemental composition alone. In the second part of this lecture, examples are given of the elemental composition of well analysed samples from the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. The third part introduces the principle of multi-element analysis and the fourth part gives examples. Finally, future aspects of modern chemical analysis are outlined with respect to the multi-element principle. (orig.)

  8. PIXE - a new method for elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.A.E.

    1983-01-01

    With elemental analysis we mean the determination of which chemical elements are present in a sample and of their concentration. This is an old and important problem in chemistry. The earliest methods were purely chemical and many such methods are still used. However, various methods based on physical principles have gradually become more and more important. One such method is neutron activation. When the sample is bombarded with neutrons it becomes radioactive and the various radioactive isotopes produced can be identified by the radiation they emit. From the measured intensity of the radiation one can calculate how much of a certain element that is present in the sample. Another possibility is to study the light emitted when the sample is excited in various ways. A spectroscopic investigation of the light can identify the chemical elements and allows also a determination of their concentration in the sample. In the same way, if a sample can be brought to emit X-rays, this radiation is also characteristic for the elements present and can be used to determine the elemental concentration. One such X-ray method which has been developed recently is PIXE. The name is an acronym for Particle Induced X-ray Emission and indicates the principle of the method. Particles in this context means heavy, charged particles such as protons and a-particles of rather high energy. Hence, in PIXE-analysis the sample is irradiated in the beam of an accelerator and the emitted X-rays are studied. (author)

  9. A refined element-based Lagrangian shell element for geometrically nonlinear analysis of shell structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For the solution of geometrically nonlinear analysis of plates and shells, the formulation of a nonlinear nine-node refined first-order shear deformable element-based Lagrangian shell element is presented. Natural co-ordinate-based higher order transverse shear strains are used in present shell element. Using the assumed natural strain method with proper interpolation functions, the present shell element generates neither membrane nor shear locking behavior even when full integration is used in the formulation. Furthermore, a refined first-order shear deformation theory for thin and thick shells, which results in parabolic through-thickness distribution of the transverse shear strains from the formulation based on the third-order shear deformation theory, is proposed. This formulation eliminates the need for shear correction factors in the first-order theory. To avoid difficulties resulting from large increments of the rotations, a scheme of attached reference system is used for the expression of rotations of shell normal. Numerical examples demonstrate that the present element behaves reasonably satisfactorily either for the linear or for geometrically nonlinear analysis of thin and thick plates and shells with large displacement but small strain. Especially, the nonlinear results of slit annular plates with various loads provided the benchmark to test the accuracy of related numerical solutions.

  10. Direct quantification of rare earth element concentrations in natural waters by ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Michael G.; Greig, Alan; Collerson, Kenneth D.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2006-01-01

    A direct quadrupole ICP-MS technique has been developed for the analysis of the rare earth elements and yttrium in natural waters. The method has been validated by comparison of the results obtained for the river water reference material SLRS-4 with literature values. The detection limit of the technique was investigated by analysis of serial dilutions of SLRS-4 and revealed that single elements can be quantified at single-digit fg/g concentrations. A coherent normalised rare earth pattern was retained at concentrations two orders of magnitude below natural concentrations for SLRS-4, demonstrating the excellent inter-element accuracy and precision of the method. The technique was applied to the analysis of a diluted mid-salinity estuarine sample, which also displayed a coherent normalised rare earth element pattern, yielding the expected distinctive marine characteristics

  11. Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei

    1987-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group

  12. A computer program for structural analysis of fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, I.M.V.; Perrotta, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    It's presented the code ELCOM for the matrix analysis of tubular structures coupled by rigid spacers, typical of PWR's fuel elements. The code ELCOM makes a static structural analysis, where the displacements and internal forces are obtained for each structure at the joints with the spacers, and also, the natural frequencies and vibrational modes of an equivalent integrated structure are obtained. The ELCOM result is compared to a PWR fuel element structural analysis obtained in published paper. (author) [pt

  13. [Principal component analysis and cluster analysis of inorganic elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Chang-Hu; Wang, Yu-Ming; Li, Zhao-Jie; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie

    2011-11-01

    The present study is to investigate the feasibility of multi-elements analysis in determination of the geographical origin of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, and to make choice of the effective tracers in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin assessment. The content of the elements such as Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples from seven places of geographical origin were determined by means of ICP-MS. The results were used for the development of elements database. Cluster analysis(CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus geographical origin. Three principal components which accounted for over 89% of the total variance were extracted from the standardized data. The results of Q-type cluster analysis showed that the 26 samples could be clustered reasonably into five groups, the classification results were significantly associated with the marine distribution of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The CA and PCA were the effective methods for elements analysis of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples. The content of the mineral elements in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus samples was good chemical descriptors for differentiating their geographical origins.

  14. Finite element analysis and genetic algorithm optimization design for the actuator placement on a large adaptive structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lizeng

    , GA Version 1, 2 and 3, were developed to find the optimal locations of piezoelectric actuators from the order of 1021 ˜ 1056 candidate placements. Introducing a variable population approach, we improve the flexibility of selection operation in genetic algorithms. Incorporating mutation and hill climbing into micro-genetic algorithms, we are able to develop a more efficient genetic algorithm. Through extensive numerical experiments, we find that the design search space for the optimal placements of a large number of actuators is highly multi-modal and that the most distinct nature of genetic algorithms is their robustness. They give results that are random but with only a slight variability. The genetic algorithms can be used to get adequate solution using a limited number of evaluations. To get the highest quality solution, multiple runs including different random seed generators are necessary. The investigation time can be significantly reduced using a very coarse grain parallel computing. Overall, the methodology of using finite element analysis and genetic algorithm optimization provides a robust solution approach for the challenging problem of optimal placements of a large number of actuators in the design of next generation of adaptive structures.

  15. Integral finite element analysis of turntable bearing with flexible rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Biao; Liu, Yunfei; Guo, Yuan; Tang, Shengjin; Su, Wenbin; Lei, Zhufeng; Wang, Pengcheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper suggests a method to calculate the internal load distribution and contact stress of the thrust angular contact ball turntable bearing by FEA. The influence of the stiffness of the bearing structure and the plastic deformation of contact area on the internal load distribution and contact stress of the bearing is considered. In this method, the load-deformation relationship of the rolling elements is determined by the finite element contact analysis of a single rolling element and the raceway. Based on this, the nonlinear contact between the rolling elements and the inner and outer ring raceways is same as a nonlinear compression spring and bearing integral finite element analysis model including support structure was established. The effects of structural deformation and plastic deformation on the built-in stress distribution of slewing bearing are investigated on basis of comparing the consequences of load distribution, inner and outer ring stress, contact stress and other finite element analysis results with the traditional bearing theory, which has guiding function for improving the design of slewing bearing.

  16. Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen

    2018-03-01

    The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.

  17. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  18. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB activates transcription via two distinct genetic elements of the human glucose-6-phosphatase gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Luisa

    2005-01-01

    /CREB fusion protein and a mutant of the PKA catalytic subunit that is targeted to the nucleus, we have shown that the glucose-6-phosphatase gene has two distinct genetic elements that function as bona fide CRE. This study further shows that the expression vectors encoding C2/CREB and catalytic subunit of PKA are valuable tools for the study of CREB-mediated gene transcription and the biological functions of CREB.

  19. Virophages, polintons, and transpovirons: a complex evolutionary network of diverse selfish genetic elements with different reproduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutin, Natalya; Raoult, Didier; Koonin, Eugene V

    2013-05-23

    Recent advances of genomics and metagenomics reveal remarkable diversity of viruses and other selfish genetic elements. In particular, giant viruses have been shown to possess their own mobilomes that include virophages, small viruses that parasitize on giant viruses of the Mimiviridae family, and transpovirons, distinct linear plasmids. One of the virophages known as the Mavirus, a parasite of the giant Cafeteria roenbergensis virus, shares several genes with large eukaryotic self-replicating transposon of the Polinton (Maverick) family, and it has been proposed that the polintons evolved from a Mavirus-like ancestor. We performed a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the available genomes of virophages and traced the evolutionary connections between the virophages and other selfish genetic elements. The comparison of the gene composition and genome organization of the virophages reveals 6 conserved, core genes that are organized in partially conserved arrays. Phylogenetic analysis of those core virophage genes, for which a sufficient diversity of homologs outside the virophages was detected, including the maturation protease and the packaging ATPase, supports the monophyly of the virophages. The results of this analysis appear incompatible with the origin of polintons from a Mavirus-like agent but rather suggest that Mavirus evolved through recombination between a polinton and an unknown virus. Altogether, virophages, polintons, a distinct Tetrahymena transposable element Tlr1, transpovirons, adenoviruses, and some bacteriophages form a network of evolutionary relationships that is held together by overlapping sets of shared genes and appears to represent a distinct module in the vast total network of viruses and mobile elements. The results of the phylogenomic analysis of the virophages and related genetic elements are compatible with the concept of network-like evolution of the virus world and emphasize multiple evolutionary connections between bona fide

  20. Complex finite element sensitivity method for creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Farias, Armando; Montoya, Arturo; Millwater, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The complex finite element method (ZFEM) has been extended to perform sensitivity analysis for mechanical and structural systems undergoing creep deformation. ZFEM uses a complex finite element formulation to provide shape, material, and loading derivatives of the system response, providing an insight into the essential factors which control the behavior of the system as a function of time. A complex variable-based quadrilateral user element (UEL) subroutine implementing the power law creep constitutive formulation was incorporated within the Abaqus commercial finite element software. The results of the complex finite element computations were verified by comparing them to the reference solution for the steady-state creep problem of a thick-walled cylinder in the power law creep range. A practical application of the ZFEM implementation to creep deformation analysis is the calculation of the skeletal point of a notched bar test from a single ZFEM run. In contrast, the standard finite element procedure requires multiple runs. The value of the skeletal point is that it identifies the location where the stress state is accurate, regardless of the certainty of the creep material properties. - Highlights: • A novel finite element sensitivity method (ZFEM) for creep was introduced. • ZFEM has the capability to calculate accurate partial derivatives. • ZFEM can be used for identification of the skeletal point of creep structures. • ZFEM can be easily implemented in a commercial software, e.g. Abaqus. • ZFEM results were shown to be in excellent agreement with analytical solutions

  1. A proposal for a determination method of element division on an analytical model for finite element elastic waves propagation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an element size selection method named the 'Impact-Meshing (IM) method' for a finite element waves propagation analysis model, which is characterized by (1) determination of element division of the model with strain energy in the whole model, (2) static analysis (dynamic analysis in a single time step) with boundary conditions which gives a maximum change of displacement in the time increment and inertial (impact) force caused by the displacement change. In this paper, an example of application of the IM method to 3D ultrasonic wave propagation problem in an elastic solid is described. These examples showed an analysis result with a model determined by the IM method was convergence and calculation time for determination of element subdivision was reduced to about 1/6 by the IM Method which did not need determination of element subdivision by a dynamic transient analysis with 100 time steps. (author)

  2. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Eric M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  3. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed

  4. Everyday distinction and omnivorous orientation: An analysis of food choice, attitudinal dispositions and social background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahma, Nina; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Jallinoja, Piia

    2016-01-01

    In recent years studies on cultural consumption have experienced a Bourdieusian renaissance. This is indicated by a growing body of research analysing distinctions in different areas of culture, and numerous studies on the homology thesis applying the concepts of distinction, field and capital. Concurrently, however, it has been argued that instead of distinctive tastes, distinction and class status are increasingly manifested by cultural omnivorousness. For a good part studies focussing on distinction in food have analysed eating out and stylization through restaurant preferences, rather than everyday food choices. In this article we investigate everyday food choices from the perspective of distinction and omnivorousness. Our analysis draws on cross-sectional quantitative data collected in 2012 among 15-64-year-old Finns (N = 2601). The article maps out the relationship between food choice frequencies, dispositions and social background with Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The results show that the consumption of fruit and vegetables, ready-meals and convenience foods were among the most divisive food choices. The first structuring dimension juxtaposed processed, fatty and sugared foods with unprocessed foods and fresh ingredients. This dimension was associated with healthiness and weight control as dispositions. On the second structuring dimension there were differences in the valuation of taste, pleasure and sociability, and a contrast between moderate and restrictive choices. Particularly the first dimension was associated with educational, occupational, and gender differences. Distinction within everyday food choices was manifested in the use of healthy and unprocessed foods and 'moderate hedonism' in contrast to more restrictive tastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, M.N.; Hasany, S.M.; Hanif, I.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1978-09-01

    Analytical Chemistry Group of Nuclear Chemistry Division at PINSTECH has been participating in IAEA Intercomparison programme of analytical quality control since 1972. So far fifteen samples of a variety of materials received from the Agency have been analyzed for different minor and trace elements. Mostly destructive and non-destructive neutron activation analysis techniques have been used for elemental analysis. In this report the description of the samples and the experimental procedures employed have been mentioned. The results of elemental analysis have been reported and compared with IAEA values which are based on the average computed from the results of different participating laboratories. (authors)

  6. Multivariant analyses of trace element patterns for environmental tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Ko, M.M.C.; Junliang Tian; Puling Liu

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear-based analytical techniques: INAA, PIXE and photon activation permit simultaneous multielemental determination of concentrations in environmental materials, which data are often found sufficiently precise and free of uncontrolled, random errors among the various elements such that the data sets can yield valuable information on elemental communality through multi-variant statistical 'factor' analysis. Characteristic factor patterns obtained in this way can provide clues to the likely sources in the environment of various components. Recent studies in three different environmental situations: solid waste incinerators , Chinese soils, and iron and steel industry, involving measurements of 30-35 elements, have yielded distinct elemental patterns or, environmental signatures, with factor loading coefficients ranging mostly in the ranges: 0.7-0.96. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 9 tabs

  7. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  8. Dynamic relaxation method in analysis of reinforced concrete bent elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szcześniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for the analysis of nonlinear behaviour of reinforced concrete bent elements subjected to short-term static load. The considerations in the range of modelling of deformation processes of reinforced concrete element were carried out. The method of structure effort analysis was developed using the finite difference method. The Dynamic Relaxation Method, which — after introduction of critical damping — allows for description of the static behaviour of a structural element, was used to solve the system of nonlinear equilibrium equations. In order to increase the method effectiveness in the range of the post-critical analysis, the Arc Length Parameter on the equilibrium path was introduced into the computational procedure.[b]Keywords[/b]: reinforced concrete elements, physical nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity, dynamic relaxation method, arc-length method

  9. Isogeometric finite element analysis of poroelasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irzal, F.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Verhoosel, C.V.; Borst, de R.

    2013-01-01

    We present an alternative numerical approach for predicting the behaviour of a deformable fluid-saturated porous medium. The conventional finite element technology is replaced by isogeometric analysis that uses non-uniform rational B-splines. The ability of these functions to provide higher-order

  10. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I.J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard and certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done beating in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  11. Biomonitoring of air pollution through trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, S.A.; Osae, E.K.; Aboh, I. J.; Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.; Ofosu, F.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1999-04-01

    Studies are being carried out to determine the potential and reliability in the use of local lichen species for biomonitoring air pollution in Ghana. The location of most of the gold mines in forest areas of the country presents the gold mining industry as a suitable setting for such investigations. The nuclear-related techniques being used in the multielement analysis of lichen samples and air filter samples are instrumental neutron activation analysis (Miniature Neutron Source Reactor) and energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis (tube-excitation). Validation of the quantitative methods of the INAA through analysis of standard certified reference materials of orchard leaves NBS SRM 1571 and BCR-CRM No. 279 gave very good results for most elements analyzed. Elemental analysis of identified lichen samples will be done bearing in mind microclimatic factors, specie type and nature of soil. (author)

  12. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Taher, A.

    2012-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10 11 n/cm 2 s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. - Highlights: ► Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite. ► The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10 11 n/cm 2 s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. ► Following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U.

  13. Finite element analysis of plastic recycling machine designed for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... design was evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA) tool in Solid Works Computer ... Also, a minimum factor of safety value of 5.3 was obtained for shredder shaft ... Machine; Design; Recycling; Sustainability; Finite Element; Simulation ...

  14. A Study on the Effect of Cohesive Laws on Finite Element Analysis of Crack Propagation Using Cohesive Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyeongseok; Baek, Hyungchan; Kim, Hyungyu [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, the effect of cohesive laws on the finite element analysis of crack propagation using cohesive elements is investigated through three-point bending and double cantilever beam problems. The cohesive elements are implemented into ABAQUS/Standard user subroutines(UEL), and the shape of cohesive law is varied by changing parameters in polynomial functions of cohesive traction-separation relations. In particular, crack propagation behaviors are studied by comparing load-displacement curves of the analysis models which have different shapes of cohesive laws with the same values of fracture energy and cohesive strength. Furthermore, the influence of the element size on crack propagation is discussed in this study.

  15. High accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A high accuracy 3D electromagnetic finite element field solver employing quadratic hexahedral elements and quadratic mixed-order one-form basis functions will be described. The solver is based on an object-oriented C++ class library. Test cases demonstrate that frequency errors less than 10 ppm can be achieved using modest workstations, and that the solutions have no contamination from spurious modes. The role of differential geometry and geometrical physics in finite element analysis will also be discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Noncoding Elements: Evolution and Epigenetic Regulation

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2016-03-09

    When the human genome project was completed, it revealed a surprising result. 98% of the genome did not code for protein of which more than 50% are repeats— later known as ”Junk DNA”. However, comparative genomics unveiled that many noncoding elements are evolutionarily constrained; thus luckily to have a role in genome stability and regulation. Though, their exact functions remained largely unknown. Several large international consortia such as the Functional Annotation of Mammalian Genomes (FANTOM) and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) were set to understand the structure and the regulation of the genome. Specifically, these endeavors aim to measure and reveal the transcribed components and functional elements of the genome. One of the most the striking findings of these efforts is that most of the genome is transcribed, including non-conserved noncoding elements and repeat elements. Specifically, we investigated the evolution and epigenetic properties of noncoding elements. 1. We compared genomes of evolutionarily distant species and showed the ubiquity of constrained noncoding elements in metazoa. 2. By integrating multi-omic data (such as transcriptome, nucleosome profiling, histone modifications), I conducted a comprehensive analysis of epigenetic properties (chromatin states) of conserved noncoding elements in insects. We showed that those elements have distinct and protective sequence features, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. 3. I focused on the relationship between enhancers and repetitive elements. Using Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and RNASeq, I compiled a full catalog of active enhancers (a class of noncoding elements) during myogenesis of human primary cells of healthy donors and donors affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Comparing the two time-courses, a significant change in the epigenetic

  17. Change detection for synthetic aperture radar images based on pattern and intensity distinctiveness analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Gao, Feng; Dong, Junyu; Qi, Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is independent on atmospheric conditions, and it is the ideal image source for change detection. Existing methods directly analysis all the regions in the speckle noise contaminated difference image. The performance of these methods is easily affected by small noisy regions. In this paper, we proposed a novel change detection framework for saliency-guided change detection based on pattern and intensity distinctiveness analysis. The saliency analysis step can remove small noisy regions, and therefore makes the proposed method more robust to the speckle noise. In the proposed method, the log-ratio operator is first utilized to obtain a difference image (DI). Then, the saliency detection method based on pattern and intensity distinctiveness analysis is utilized to obtain the changed region candidates. Finally, principal component analysis and k-means clustering are employed to analysis pixels in the changed region candidates. Thus, the final change map can be obtained by classifying these pixels into changed or unchanged class. The experiment results on two real SAR images datasets have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperek, K; Feinendegen, L E

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis, such as neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilizators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicon in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalyzers. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection.

  19. Application of activation analysis for determination of some elements in cassiterite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre

    1978-01-01

    This work consists in the development of an analytical method using activation by thermal neutrons for the determination of some minor elements and traces present in cassiterite (tin ore). This method was then applied to determine these elements in samples of cassiterite from different regions of Brazil. An analysis was made of the mineralogy characteristic of cassiterite as well as of the minerals most commonly associated with it. Four main types of interference were found to occur in the analysis by activation of trace elements in samples of cassiterite. The method involves the analysis without chemical separation for the determination of some elements and the analysis with chemical separation for the determination of other elements. The steps involved in both types of analysis are described. In the analysis with chemical separation the matrix element (tin) is separated by distillation in an H 2 SO 4 -HBr medium, after fusion of the ore with Na 2 O 2 . Arsine and antimony are determined in the distilled, whereas some lanthanide elements and uranium are determined in the distillation residue by separating them as a group by precipitation with lanthanum fluoride. A discussion on the precision, accuracy and sensibility of the method is also included. (author)

  20. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k0 neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.N.; Mondal, R.K.; Burte, P.P.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, N.B.Y.; Reddy, L.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k 0 method (k 0 INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method

  1. Orthodontic treatment: Introducing finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Leeuwen, E.J. van

    1998-01-01

    The aim of orthodontic treatment is the displacement of teeth by means ofspecial appliances, like braces and brackets. Through these appliances the orthodontist can apply a set of forces to the teeth which wilt result in its displacement through the jawbone. Finite Element analysis of this process

  2. A study on the nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures: shell finite element formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2000-08-01

    The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel.

  3. A study on the nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures: shell finite element formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2000-08-01

    The main goal of this research is to establish a methodology of finite element analysis of containment building predicting not only global behaviour but also local failure mode. In this report, we summerize some existing numerical analysis techniques to be improved for containment building. In other words, a complete description of the standard degenerated shell finite element formulation is provided for nonlinear stress analysis of nuclear containment structure. A shell finite element is derived using the degenerated solid concept which does not rely on a specific shell theory. Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are adopted to consider the transverse shear deformation effect. In order to minimize the sensitivity of the constitutive equation to structural types, microscopic material model is adopted. The four solution algorithms based on the standard Newton-Raphson method are discussed. Finally, two numerical examples are carried out to test the performance of the adopted shell medel

  4. Introduction to nonlinear finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Nam-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the key concepts of nonlinear finite element analysis procedures. The book explains the fundamental theories of the field and provides instructions on how to apply the concepts to solving practical engineering problems. Instead of covering many nonlinear problems, the book focuses on three representative problems: nonlinear elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems. The book is written independent of any particular software, but tutorials and examples using four commercial programs are included as appendices: ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and MATLAB. In particular, the MATLAB program includes all source codes so that students can develop their own material models, or different algorithms. This book also: ·         Presents clear explanations of nonlinear finite element analysis for elasticity, elastoplasticity, and contact problems ·         Includes many informative examples of nonlinear analyses so that students can clearly understand the nonlinear theory ·    ...

  5. Three dimensional finite element linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbasakaran, M.; Pandarinathan, V.G.; Krishnamoorthy, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    A twenty noded isoparametric reinforced concrete solid element for the three dimensional linear elastic stress analysis of reinforced concrete structures is presented. The reinforcement is directly included as an integral part of the element thus facilitating discretization of the structure independent of the orientation of reinforcement. Concrete stiffness is evaluated by taking 3 x 3 x 3 Gauss integration rule and steel stiffness is evaluated numerically by considering three Gaussian points along the length of reinforcement. The numerical integration for steel stiffness necessiates the conversion of global coordiantes of the Gaussian points to nondimensional local coordinates and this is done by Newton Raphson iterative method. Subroutines for the above formulation have been developed and added to SAP and STAP routines for solving the examples. The validity of the reinforced concrete element is verified by comparison of results from finite element analysis and analytical results. It is concluded that this finite element model provides a valuable analytical tool for the three dimensional elastic stress analysis of concrete structures like beams curved in plan and nuclear containment vessels. (orig.)

  6. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) Predictions for a Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    Comet Enflow is a commercially available, high frequency vibroacoustic analysis software founded on Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) and Energy Boundary Element Analysis (EBEA). Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) was validated on a floor-equipped composite cylinder by comparing EFEA vibroacoustic response predictions with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and experimental results. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions were made using the commercial software program VA One 2009 from ESI Group. The frequency region of interest for this study covers the one-third octave bands with center frequencies from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz.

  7. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Malvessi Cattani

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  8. Repetitive Elements in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Amanda Malvessi; Siqueira, Franciele Maboni; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation, a multiple-step process, is still poorly understood in the important pig pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Basic motifs like promoters and terminators have already been described, but no other cis-regulatory elements have been found. DNA repeat sequences have been shown to be an interesting potential source of cis-regulatory elements. In this work, a genome-wide search for tandem and palindromic repetitive elements was performed in the intergenic regions of all coding sequences from M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Computational analysis demonstrated the presence of 144 tandem repeats and 1,171 palindromic elements. The DNA repeat sequences were distributed within the 5' upstream regions of 86% of transcriptional units of M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448. Comparative analysis between distinct repetitive sequences found in related mycoplasma genomes demonstrated different percentages of conservation among pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. qPCR assays revealed differential expression among genes showing variable numbers of repetitive elements. In addition, repeats found in 206 genes already described to be differentially regulated under different culture conditions of M. hyopneumoniae strain 232 showed almost 80% conservation in relation to M. hyopneumoniae strain 7448 repeats. Altogether, these findings suggest a potential regulatory role of tandem and palindromic DNA repeats in the M. hyopneumoniae transcriptional profile.

  9. Finite Element Analysis of Bone Stress for Miniscrew Implant Proximal to Root Under Occlusal Force and Implant Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Li-Hua; Guo, Na; Zhou, Guan-jun; Qie, Hui; Li, Chen-Xi; Lu, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Because of the narrow interradicular spaces and varying oral anatomies of individual patients, there is a very high risk of root proximity during the mini implants inserting. The authors hypothesized that normal occlusal loading and implant loading affected the stability of miniscrew implants placed in proximity or contact with the adjacent root. The authors implemented finite element analysis (FEA) to examine the effectiveness of root proximity and root contact. Stress distribution in the bone was assessed at different degrees of root proximity by generating 4 finite element models: the implant touches the root surface, the implant was embedded in the periodontal membrane, the implant touches the periodontal surface, and the implant touches nothing. Finite element analysis was then carried out with simulations of 2 loading conditions for each model: condition A, involving only tooth loading and condition B, involving both tooth and implant loading. Under loading condition A, the maximum stress on the bone for the implant touching the root was the distinctly higher than that for the other models. For loading condition B, peak stress areas for the implant touching the root were the area around the neck of the mini implant and the point of the mini implant touches the root. The results of this study suggest that normal occlusal loading and implant loading contribute to the instability of the mini implant when the mini implant touches the root.

  10. Finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures - Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This workshop is related to the finite element analysis of degraded concrete structures. It is composed of three sessions. The first session (which title is: the use of finite element analysis in safety assessments) comprises six papers which titles are: Historical Development of Concrete Finite Element Modeling for Safety Evaluation of Accident-Challenged and Aging Concrete Structures; Experience with Finite Element Methods for Safety Assessments in Switzerland; Stress State Analysis of the Ignalina NPP Confinement System; Prestressed Containment: Behaviour when Concrete Cracking is Modelled; Application of FEA for Design and Support of NPP Containment in Russia; Verification Problems of Nuclear Installations Safety Software of Strength Analysis (NISS SA). The second session (title: concrete containment structures under accident loads) comprises seven papers which titles are: Two Application Examples of Concrete Containment Structures under Accident Load Conditions Using Finite Element Analysis; What Kind of Prediction for Leak rates for Nuclear Power Plant Containments in Accidental Conditions; Influence of Different Hypotheses Used in Numerical Models for Concrete At Elevated Temperatures on the Predicted Behaviour of NPP Core Catchers Under Severe Accident Conditions; Observations on the Constitutive Modeling of Concrete Under Multi-Axial States at Elevated Temperatures; Analyses of a Reinforced Concrete Containment with Liner Corrosion Damage; Program of Containment Concrete Control During Operation for the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant; Static Limit Load of a Deteriorated Hyperbolic Cooling Tower. The third session (concrete structures under extreme environmental load) comprised five papers which titles are: Shear Transfer Mechanism of RC Plates After Cracking; Seismic Back Calculation of an Auxiliary Building of the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg, Switzerland; Seismic Behaviour of Slightly Reinforced Shear Wall Structures; FE Analysis of Degraded Concrete

  11. Completely non-destructive elemental analysis of bulky samples by PGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oura, Y.; Nakahara, H.; Sueki, K.; Sato, W.; Tomizawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    A new non-destructive method is proposed for the elemental analysis of bulk samples. It is essentially a combination of PGA and NAA by a single neutron irradiation, and allows determinations of elemental contents of both major and minor constituents relative to that of some reference element. Major elements and some trace elements such as B, Sm, and Gd are mostly determined by the measurement of prompt gamma rays emitted when a bulky sample in its original form, namely, without any reduction of the sample size, is placed in the beam of neutrons guided from a nuclear reactor. Minor elements are then determined by the off-line measurements of gamma rays emitted from the radioactive nuclides produced within the sample by neutron capture reactions. As the radioactivity remaining in the sample becomes negligibly small after a few weeks cooling, the proposed method will be most usefully applied for the elemental analysis of bulky precious samples such as archaeological samples, and arts and crafts. In this presentation, applicability of the method will be demonstrated for porcelain and bronze samples. (author)

  12. Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finite element analysis of car hood for impact test by using solidworks software ... high safety and at the same time can be built according to market demands. ... Keywords: finite element analysis; impact test; Solidworks; automation, car hood.

  13. Interaction of faults and perturbation of slip: influence of anisotropic stress states in the presence of fault friction and comparison between Wallace-Bott and 3D Distinct Element models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascal Candas, C.

    2002-01-01

    Two decades after their birth, the validity of fault slip inversion methods is still strongly debated. These methods are based upon a very simplified mechanical background, the Wallace-Bott hypothesis. Following previous studies, the 3D Distinct Element Method (3DEC software) is used to explore the

  14. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  15. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahing, Lahasen Normanshah [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia), Bangi 43000, Kajang (Malaysia); Yahya, Redzuan [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Yahya, Roslan; Hassan, Hearie [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia), Bangi 43000, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} and 15×15×15 cm{sup 3} were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed.

  16. PIXE methodology of rare earth element analysis and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei

    1992-01-01

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) methodology of rare earth element (REEs) analysis is discussed, including the significance of REE analysis, the principle of PIXE applied to REE, selection of characteristic X-ray for Lanthanide series elements, deconvolution of highly over lapped PIXE spectrum and minimum detection limit (MDL) of REEs. Some practical applications are presented. And the specialities of PIXE analysis to the high pure REE chemicals are discussed. (author)

  17. Analysis of elements present in beers and brewing waters by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausova, Ivana; Kucera, Jan; Dostalek, Pavel; Potesil, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used for determination of Si, Na, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb, Cs, and La in Czech beers and brewing waters. The Si concentration in beer determined by the reaction 29 Si(n,p) 29 Al with fast neutrons confirmed that beer is an important Si source in human diet. Determination of other trace elements by NAA with the whole spectrum of reactor neutrons aimed at the feasibility of identification of Gambrinus beers brewed in various breweries. The elements Ca and V appeared to be the best candidates for this purpose. The concentrations of elements determined by NAA were also compared with the recommended daily element intake for humans. The accuracy of the method was proved by analysis of reference materials, specifically NIST SRM 2704 Buffalo River Sediment, NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash, and NIST SRM 1515 Apple Leaves. (author)

  18. Introduction to finite element analysis using MATLAB and Abaqus

    CERN Document Server

    Khennane, Amar

    2013-01-01

    There are some books that target the theory of the finite element, while others focus on the programming side of things. Introduction to Finite Element Analysis Using MATLAB(R) and Abaqus accomplishes both. This book teaches the first principles of the finite element method. It presents the theory of the finite element method while maintaining a balance between its mathematical formulation, programming implementation, and application using commercial software. The computer implementation is carried out using MATLAB, while the practical applications are carried out in both MATLAB and Abaqus. MA

  19. Structural weights analysis of advanced aerospace vehicles using finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Lance B.; Lentz, Christopher A.; Rehder, John J.; Naftel, J. Chris; Cerro, Jeffrey A.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual/preliminary level structural design system has been developed for structural integrity analysis and weight estimation of advanced space transportation vehicles. The system includes a three-dimensional interactive geometry modeler, a finite element pre- and post-processor, a finite element analyzer, and a structural sizing program. Inputs to the system include the geometry, surface temperature, material constants, construction methods, and aerodynamic and inertial loads. The results are a sized vehicle structure capable of withstanding the static loads incurred during assembly, transportation, operations, and missions, and a corresponding structural weight. An analysis of the Space Shuttle external tank is included in this paper as a validation and benchmark case of the system.

  20. Capture analysis of element content of a substance with other neutron methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbanov, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Neutron analysis method of determining element composition have found wide range of applications in industry thanks to different types of interaction of neutron with substances /1/. With the aim of widening the range of problems to be solved, on the basis of the device /2/ for determining the element content of substance, possibilities of combining the method based on the use of neutron capture gamma-ray spectrometry with other neutron methods, in particular neutron activation analysis and neutron absorption analysis were studied. In this radionuclide source ( 252 Cf) with the yield of 1,5 x 10 7 neutron/sec is used. By means of using neutron capture gamma radiation spectrometry the possibilities of determining some elements (H, B, N, S etc. ), which are not determined by very widely used method, activation analysis. These elements can be determined by both the semiconductor and scintillation detectors with parameters fitting the manufacturing requirements. And for a number of elements ( B, Cl, Cd, Sm, Gd) very high limits of determination ( up to 10- 5 %) are possible using semiconductor Ge (Li) -detectors with high resolution. Possibility of determination of some 'well' activated elements ( K, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Sc etc.) in samples of ore and products of their processing using the neutron-activation analysis. For 1 hour of irradiation on the experimental device quite accurate analytical peak, of these elements are obtained, allowing to determine them qualitatively. However, with decreasing neutron yield of radionuclide source it becomes more difficult to achieve the necessary parameters both in neutron capture and activation analysis. Experimental works on determination of some elements with large cross-sections of capture ( B, Cd, Sm ) by absorption of neutrons in the investigated substance, i.e. using the neutron absorption analysis method with absence of other large capture cross section elements in the samples being studied

  1. Scanning Electron Microscope-Cathodoluminescence Analysis of Rare-Earth Elements in Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Kawai, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Scanning electron microscope-cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) analysis was performed for neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) and samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co) magnets to analyze the rare-earth elements present in the magnets. We examined the advantages of SEM-CL analysis over conventional analytical methods such as SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and SEM-wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX) spectroscopy for elemental analysis of rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets. Luminescence spectra of chloride compounds of elements in the magnets were measured by the SEM-CL method. Chloride compounds were obtained by the dropwise addition of hydrochloric acid on the magnets followed by drying in vacuum. Neodymium, praseodymium, terbium, and dysprosium were separately detected in the NdFeB magnets, and samarium was detected in the Sm-Co magnet by the SEM-CL method. In contrast, it was difficult to distinguish terbium and dysprosium in the NdFeB magnet with a dysprosium concentration of 1.05 wt% by conventional SEM-EDX analysis. Terbium with a concentration of 0.02 wt% in an NdFeB magnet was detected by SEM-CL analysis, but not by conventional SEM-WDX analysis. SEM-CL analysis is advantageous over conventional SEM-EDX and SEM-WDX analyses for detecting trace rare-earth elements in NdFeB magnets, particularly dysprosium and terbium.

  2. Probabilistic finite elements for transient analysis in nonlinear continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Mani, A.

    1985-01-01

    The probabilistic finite element method (PFEM), which is a combination of finite element methods and second-moment analysis, is formulated for linear and nonlinear continua with inhomogeneous random fields. Analogous to the discretization of the displacement field in finite element methods, the random field is also discretized. The formulation is simplified by transforming the correlated variables to a set of uncorrelated variables through an eigenvalue orthogonalization. Furthermore, it is shown that a reduced set of the uncorrelated variables is sufficient for the second-moment analysis. Based on the linear formulation of the PFEM, the method is then extended to transient analysis in nonlinear continua. The accuracy and efficiency of the method is demonstrated by application to a one-dimensional, elastic/plastic wave propagation problem. The moments calculated compare favorably with those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. Also, the procedure is amenable to implementation in deterministic FEM based computer programs.

  3. Investigation of the Behavior of Steel Shear Walls Using Finite Elements Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Abubakri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, steel shear walls are considered by engineers as an economic method against lateral loads imposed by wind and earthquake in tall structures. Accordingly, there is a growing need to develop accurate methods alongside approximation methods to estimate the behavior of these structural elements. The finite element technique is one of the strongest numerical methods in analysis of solid mechanics problems. Finite element analysis however requires high technical knowledge of the behavioral models of materials. Therefore, it is less used by designers for certain structural elements such as steel shear walls. This study examines the failure mechanism of steel shear walls using finite elements analysis and validates this modeling by comparing the results with experimental studies.

  4. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  5. Distinct Element Method modelling of fold-related fractures in a multilayer sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserer, Klemens; Schöpfer, Martin P. J.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Natural fractures have a significant impact on the performance of hydrocarbon systems/reservoirs. In a multilayer sequence, both the fracture density within the individual layers and the type of fracture intersection with bedding contacts are key parameters controlling fluid pathways. In the present study the influence of layer stacking and interlayer friction on fracture density and connectivity within a folded sequence is systematically investigated using 2D Distinct Element Method modelling. Our numerical approach permits forward modelling of both fracture nucleation/propagation/arrest and (contemporaneous) frictional slip along bedding planes in a robust and mechanically sound manner. Folding of the multilayer sequence is achieved by enforcing constant curvature folding by means of a velocity boundary condition at the model base, while a constant overburden pressure is maintained at the model top. The modelling reveals that with high bedding plane friction the multilayer stack behaves mechanically as a single layer so that the neutral surface develops in centre of the sequence and fracture spacing is controlled by the total thickness of the folded sequence. In contrast, low bedding plane friction leads to decoupling of the individual layers (flexural slip folding) so that a neutral surface develops in the centre of each layer and fracture spacing is controlled by the thickness of the individual layers. The low interfacial friction models illustrate that stepping of fractures across bedding planes is a common process, which can however have two contrasting origins: The mechanical properties of the interface cause fracture stepping during fracture propagation. Originally through-going fractures are later offset by interfacial slip during folding. A combination of these two different origins may lead to (apparently) inconsistent fracture offsets across bedding planes within a flexural slip fold.

  6. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used

  7. Elemental analysis of soil and hair sample by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Yeoil; Kang, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jong Myoung; Cho, Hyun Je; Kim, Young Jin

    2004-03-01

    Myanmar soil sample was analyzed by using the instrumental neutron activation analysis. The elemental concentrations in the sample, altogether 34 elements, Al As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Hf, Ir, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Th, Ti, V, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined. The concentration of 17 elements (Al, Au, Br, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Hg, K, Na, Mn, Mg, Sb, Se, Zn) in human hair samples were determined by INAA For quality control of analytical method, certified reference material was used.

  8. Elemental misinterpretation in automated analysis of LIBS spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübert, Waldemar; Ankerhold, Georg

    2011-07-01

    In this work, the Stark effect is shown to be mainly responsible for wrong elemental allocation by automated laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) software solutions. Due to broadening and shift of an elemental emission line affected by the Stark effect, its measured spectral position might interfere with the line position of several other elements. The micro-plasma is generated by focusing a frequency-doubled 200 mJ pulsed Nd/YAG laser on an aluminum target and furthermore on a brass sample in air at atmospheric pressure. After laser pulse excitation, we have measured the temporal evolution of the Al(II) ion line at 281.6 nm (4s(1)S-3p(1)P) during the decay of the laser-induced plasma. Depending on laser pulse power, the center of the measured line is red-shifted by 130 pm (490 GHz) with respect to the exact line position. In this case, the well-known spectral line positions of two moderate and strong lines of other elements coincide with the actual shifted position of the Al(II) line. Consequently, a time-resolving software analysis can lead to an elemental misinterpretation. To avoid a wrong interpretation of LIBS spectra in automated analysis software for a given LIBS system, we recommend using larger gate delays incorporating Stark broadening parameters and using a range of tolerance, which is non-symmetric around the measured line center. These suggestions may help to improve time-resolving LIBS software promising a smaller probability of wrong elemental identification and making LIBS more attractive for industrial applications.

  9. Trace element composition of hair in the Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Cigna Rossi, L.

    1979-01-01

    The content of the trace elements Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn has been evaluated in hair samples collected from five different groups of subjects in Italy. All the measurements were performed by means of non-destructive neutron activation analysis of the hair samples that were carefully washed before analysis. In most of the samples the Cs, Rb and Sc content was below the detection limit of the analytical method. Each population group was formed of about five individuals of each sex, selected to be representative of the adult population living in a well-defined community. The five groups were chosen from distinct regions with different socio-economical living habits in order to detect the variability, if any, of the trace element burden among the Italian population. The trace element hair concentration of each subject was correlated with the trace element blood concentration and daily urinary excretion in order to differentiate the trace element content due to exogenous deposition on hair from that due to endogenous absorption routes. The results obtained show that the variability of the hair content among the various groups is strongly linked to local environmental factors. The histograms of the individual values of the hair concentration are given for all trace elements measured, together with a statistical analysis of all data. (author)

  10. Downhole Elemental Analysis with LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreschini, Paolo; Zacny, Kris; Rickman, Doug

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a novel instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars, as well as a variety of terrestrial applications. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. LIBS functions by focusing a high energy laser on a material inducing a plasma consisting of a small fraction of the material under analysis. Optical emission from the plasma, analyzed by a spectrometer, can be used to determine elemental composition. A triangulation sensor located in the sensor head determines the distance of the sensor from the borehole wall. An actuator modifies the position of the sensor accordingly, in order to compensate for changes due to the profile of the borehole walls. This is necessary because LIBS measurements are negatively affected by changes in the relative position of the focus of the laser with respect to the position of the sample (commonly referred to as the "lens to sample distance"). Profiling the borehole is done by adjusting the position of the sensor with a

  11. Static Analysis of Steel Fiber Concrete Beam With Heterosis Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Haido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Steel fiber is considered as the most commonly used constructional fibers in concrete structures. The formulation of new nonlinearities to predict the static performance of steel fiber concrete composite structures is considered essential. Present study is devoted to investigate the efficiency of utilizing heterosis finite elements analysis in static analysis of steel fibrous beams. New and simple material nonlinearities are proposed and used in the formulation of these elements. A computer program coded in FORTRAN was developed to perform current finite element static analysis with considering four cases of elements stiffness matrix determination. The results are compared with the experimental data available in literature in terms of central deflections, strains, and failure form, good agreement was found. Suitable outcomes have been observed in present static analysis with using of tangential stiffness matrix and stiffness matrix in second iteration of the load increment.

  12. Investigation of faulted tunnel models by combined photoelasticity and finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladkany, S.G.; Huang, Yuping

    1994-01-01

    Models of square and circular tunnels with short faults cutting through their surfaces are investigated by photoelasticity. These models, when duplicated by finite element analysis can predict the stress states of square or circular faulted tunnels adequately. Finite element analysis, using gap elements, may be used to investigate full size faulted tunnel system

  13. In-vivo elemental analysis at Birmingham 1968-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chettle, D.R.; Scott, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques have been developed to measure a number of elements in-vivo. Some have been measured by producing a radioactive isotope in the body by neutron bombardment and subsequently counting γ-rays given off during its decay. Measurements of calcium and sodium have been those most frequently used; copper, iron and phosphorus have also been measured in this way. Gamma-rays emitted 10 -18 s-10 -12 s following neutron capture have also been used for elemental analysis. This method, which involved detectors being in position by the subject during the neutron irradiation, has been widely applied to measurements of both nitrogen and cadmium. Preliminary studies of nuclear resonance scattering have suggested that this could be used for in-vivo elemental analysis, provided technical difficulties in source preparation could be overcome. Recently the use of X-ray fluorescence has been investigated for in-vivo analyses of lead in bone; the extension of this technique to measure mercury in the kidney is under consideration. (author)

  14. Nonlinear nonstationary analysis with the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, after some introductory remarks on numerical methods for the integration of initial value problems, the applicability of the finite element method for transient diffusion analysis as well as dynamic and inelastic analysis is discussed, and some examples are presented. (RW) [de

  15. Determination of mutually interfering elements in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of the elements present in the groups scandium-zinc, mercury-selenium and arsenic-antimony-bromine represents a classical problem in thermal neutron activation analysis because the gamma-ray peaks of the radioisotopes produced from these elements by activation appear very close in the spectrum. A study is made of the possibility of simultaneous instrumental determination of these elements by means of the spectrum stripping technique, using a 400-channel analyser coupled to a Nal(Tl) detector and a 4096-channel analyser coupled to a Ge(Li) detector. Artificial mixtures of the interfering elements in varying proportions are prepared, so as to reproduce possible real samples, where the elements may be present at several concentrations. Radiochemical separation techniques for the cited elements are studied with the use of tracers. For the separation of scadium and zinc, the technique of extraction chromatography is applied. The separation of mercury and selenium is accomplished by means of ion exchange. The technique of coprecipitation is used to separate bromine from arsenic and antimony followed by ion exchange to isolate these two elements from each other. The precision and the accuracy of the results are discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. Proposal for element size and time increment selection guideline by 3-D finite element method for elastic waves propagation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Hitoshi; Meshii, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a guideline for selection of element size and time increment by 3-D finite element method, which is applied to elastic wave propagation analysis for a long distance of a large structure. An element size and a time increment are determined by quantitative evaluation of strain, which must be 0 on the analysis model with a uniform motion, caused by spatial and time discretization. (author)

  17. Identification of cis-acting regulatory elements in the human oxytocin gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S; Zingg, H H

    1991-12-01

    The expression of hormone-inducible genes is determined by the interaction of trans-acting factors with hormone-inducible elements and elements mediating basal and cell-specific expression. We have shown earlier that the gene encoding the hypothalamic nonapeptide oxytocin (OT) is under the control of an estrogen response element (ERE). The present study was aimed at identifying cis-acting elements mediating basal expression of the OT gene. A construct containing sequences -381 to +36 of the human OT gene was linked to a reporter gene and transiently transfected into a series of neuronal and nonneuronal cell lines. Expression of this construct was cell specific: it was highest in the neuroblastoma-derived cell line, Neuro-2a, and lowest in NIH 3T3 and JEG-3 cells. By 5' deletion analysis, we determined that a segment from -49 to +36 was capable of mediating cells-pecific promoter activity. Within this segment, we identified three proximal promoter elements (PPE-1, PPE-2, and PPE-3) that are each required for promoter activity. Most notably, mutation of a conserved purine-rich element (GAGAGA) contained within PPE-2 leads to a 10-fold decrease in promoter strength. Gel mobility shift analysis with three different double-stranded oligonucleotides demonstrated that each proximal promoter element binds distinct nuclear factors. In each case, only the homologous oligonucleotide, but neither of the oligonucleotides corresponding to adjacent elements, was able to act as a competitor. Thus, a different set of factors appears to bind independently to each element. By reinserting the homologous ERE or a heterologous glucocorticoid response element upstream of intact or altered proximal promoter segments we determined that removal or mutation of proximal promoter elements decreases basal expression, but does not abrogate the hormone responsiveness of the promoter. In conclusion, these results indicate that an important component of the transcriptional activity of the OT

  18. Trace elements in sediment samples of the Aswan High Dam Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherief, M.K.; Awadallah, R.M.; Grass, F.

    1981-01-01

    Main and trace elements in Nile sediments of the Aswan High Dam Lake were investigated by means of Instrumental Activation Analysis. It was shown that the composition of the Nile sediments changes in accordance with the large gradients in flow rate and with elution and absorption processes. Particles containing Ca, Ba, Hf, Ti, V, and Na are sedimented preferentially near the headwater of Lake Nubia, whereas some elements are rather uniformly distributed, e.g. Fe, Co, Sm, and Eu, and some, such as Al, Sc, Cs, Th, La, and Ce, show a distinct increase downstream. Some elements do not fit into any of these three groups. (author)

  19. Fast XRF analysis of mineral elements in dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Constantinescu, B.; Preoteasa, E.

    2001-01-01

    Dental composites, made of particles of glass, ceramics or quartz embedded in an organic polymer matrix, extensively replaced silver amalgam in tooth fillings and enabled new applications for restorative dentistry. Long-term alteration of dental fillings together with market pressure motivates the development of composites at a high rate, largely by progress of materials forming their mineral phase. Therefore, dental composites constantly bring at the interface with enamel and dentine new elements foreign to the organism, whose biological action has not been studied. Atomic and nuclear methods for surface multielemental analysis have been used in dental research but not for composites. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is suited for the fast microanalytical screening of the elements and of their changes at the biomaterial's surface. The potential of radioisotope-excited XRF for the analysis of dental composites has been examined. Flat disk-shaped samples of composites have been prepared and polymerized chemically or by irradiation with intense 420-500 nm light. The measurements were performed with a spectrometric chain containing a 30 mCi source of 241 Am, a Si(Li) detector, and a multichannel analyzer. The spectra were built up for 2000-6000 sec. The characteristic X lines were integrated and normalized to source lines. The following Z ≥ 20 elements were detected in the studied composites: Ba only in Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer); Zr, Ba, Yb in Tetric Ceram, and Ca, Ba, Yb together with traces of possibly Ti and Fe in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Zr, Hf in Valux Plus (3M Dental); and Sr, Ba together with some trace element, seemingly Cu, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental) and with other trace elements like Ca, Fe in Surefil (Dentsply). Among older materials, Concise (3M Dental) contained only light (Z 3 that releases F for protection of enamel and dentine. Yb, Zr, Ba, Hf improve the radiological opacity of the materials. Some elements may accompany others as

  20. Medical and health-related trace element analysis by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greaves, E.D.

    2000-01-01

    The advantages offered with TXRF analysis by direct irradiation with monochromatic X-rays of tissue homogenates and body fluids make the technique appropriate for a number of medical and health related applications. The ability to detect low levels of toxic heavy elements is being used as an aid in accidental poisoning diagnosis and treatment, in treatment-induced toxicity control and as an accessory in medical and health research. Thus lead-in-whole-blood analysis is used in confirmation of diagnosis of victims of poisoning, or monitoring the evolution and efficiency of the clinical treatment. Measurement and control of plasma platinum levels of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy with Pt-containing drugs includes: establishment of the drug level-tumor remission response, measurement of Pt plasma level curves and establishment of optimum dosage to minimize the nephrotoxicity of platinum, and bioequivalence comparisons of different commercially available platinum containing anticancer drugs. Analysis as an aid in clinical research applications includes: trace element determination of amniotic fluid in fetus malformation studies; analysis of brain specimens and cerebrospinal fluid in diagnosis of central nervous system disorders; the influence of trace elements in cataract genesis and the influence of heavy elements in semen quality in human reproduction studies. Human body samples require the use of monochromatized beams of x-rays in order to derive the special advantage of its use: i) The reduction in the spectrum background allowing direct irradiation of organic matter specimens. Hence human tissue and body fluids are prepared by simple procedures involving dilution, homogenization and standard addition avoiding the need for specimen digestion. This results in faster, cheaper methods that decrease sample contamination problems. ii) The presence of a large Compton scattered signal in the spectrum and its use as an internal standard reference allows further

  1. Finite element stress analysis of brick-mortar masonry under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress analysis of a brick-mortar couplet as a substitute for brick wall structure has been performed by finite element method, and algorithm for determining the element stiffness matrix for a plane stress problem using the displacement approach was developed. The nodal displacements were derived for the stress in each ...

  2. Development of evaluation methods for impact of earthquake-induced slope failure on nearby critical structures. Analysis of behavior of collapsed rock masses using 3-D distinct element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Makoto; Tochigi, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Masato; Shirai, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Recently, importance of evaluation for impact of earthquake-induced slope failure on nearby critical structures is increasing in order to evaluate seismic stability of the slope, in addition to evaluating the possibilities of slope failure. In this study, we presented an examination flow chart to evaluate the impact on structures after slope failure. In the examination flow chart, we assumed the following four considerations; (1) evaluation of the collapse region of the slope, (2) evaluation of behavior of the collapsed rock masses, (3) evaluation of the impact on the structures, (4) examination of the countermeasures. And, for the purpose of using three dimensional distinct element method (DEM) for evaluation of behavior of the collapsed rock masses, we firstly confirmed applicability of DEM to behavior of a mass hurtling down the slope by means of comparing with the model test results. Moreover, we clarified influence of initial position or restitution coefficient of rock masses on final traveling distance of collapsed rock masses. (author)

  3. Multi-element analysis of emeralds and associated rocks by k{sub 0} neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, R.N.; Mondal, R.K.; Burte, P.P.; Nair, A.G.C.; Reddy, N.B.Y.; Reddy, L.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Manohar, S.B

    2000-12-15

    Multi-element analysis was carried out in natural emeralds, their associated rocks and one sample of beryl obtained from Rajasthan, India. The concentrations of 21 elements were assayed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using the k{sub 0} method (k{sub 0} INAA method) and high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The data reveal the segregation of some elements from associated (trapped and host) rocks to the mineral beryl forming the gemstones. A reference rock standard of the US Geological Survey (USGS BCR-1) was also analysed as a control of the method.

  4. Investigation of Shear Stud Performance in Flat Plate Using Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Viswanathan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Three types of shear stud arrangement, respectively featuring an orthogonal, a radial and a critical perimeter pattern, were evaluated numerically. A numerical investigation was conducted using the finite element software ABAQUS to evaluate their ability to resist punching shear in a flat plate. The finite element analysis here is an application of the nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures using three-dimensional solid finite elements. The nonlinear characteristics of concrete were achieved by employing the concrete damaged plasticity model in the finite element program. Transverse shear stress was evaluated using finite element analysis in terms of shear stress distribution for flat plate with and without shear stud reinforcement. The model predicted that shear studs placed along the critical perimeter are more effective compared to orthogonal and radial patterns.

  5. Proton induced X-Ray fluorescence study as a tool trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kady, Ahmed A.

    1978-01-01

    Usefulness and limitations of trace elemental analysis by high energy charged particles and photon induced X-ray have been discussed. Comparison with the well established neutron activation analysis technique is also given. Back-ground radiation due to bremsstrahlung from secondary electrons and due to charged particle bremsstrahlung have been reviewed for different projectiles. The sensitivity of elemental analysis by proton induced X-ray fluorescence have been examined by measuring the characteristic X-ray emission cross section for K and L transitions of many elements and for different proton energies and compared with theroretical values. The discussion given in this report show that with suitable proton generator and a high resolution X-ray detector, proton X-ray fluorescence technique is capable of analyzing many elements simultaneously at the part per million level and offers a rapid and reliable method for trace element analysis. Data on water, blood and tissue samples given in this report are few examples of many possible applications

  6. Trace elements in Australian opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Fardy, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 42 samples of black, grey and white opals taken from a number of recognised Australian field. The results were evaluated to determine if a relationship exited between trace element content and opal colour. (author) 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Elemental analysis of hair using PIXE-tomography and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, D.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Spyrou, N.

    2008-01-01

    3D quantitative elemental maps of a section of a strand of hair were produced using a combination of PIXE-Tomography and simultaneous On/Off Axis STIM-Tomography at the University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre. The distributions of S, K, Cl, Ca, Fe and Zn were determined using the PIXE-T reconstruction package DISRA. The results were compared with conventional bulk PIXE analysis of tomographic data as determined using Dan32. The overall concentrations determined by PIXE were compared with elemental concentrations held in the University of Surrey Hair Database. All the entries currently in the database were produced using INAA. The merits and possible contributions of tomographic PIXE analysis to analysis of hair are discussed. The conclusions drawn from the PIXE-Tomography analysis can be used to argue for more stringent procedures for hair analysis at the University of Surrey. (author)

  8. Elemental content of Vietnamese rice. Part 2. Multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokot, S; Phuong, T D

    1999-04-01

    Rice samples were obtained from the Red River region and some other parts of Vietnam as well as from Yanco, Australia. These samples were analysed for 14 elements (P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Al, Na, Ni, As, Mo and Cd) by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and FAAS as described in Part 1. This data matrix was then submitted to multivariate data analysis by principal component analysis to investigate the influences of environmental and crop cultivation variables on the elemental content of rice. Results revealed that geographical location, grain variety, seasons and soil conditions are the most likely significant factors causing changes in the elemental content between the rice samples. To assess rice quality according to its elemental content and physio-biological properties, a multicriteria decision making method (PROMETHEE) was applied. With the Vietnamese rice, the sticky rice appeared to contain somewhat higher levels of nutritionally significant elements such as P, K and Mg than the non-sticky rice. Also, rice samples grown during the wet season have better levels of nutritionally significant mineral elements than those of the dry season, but in general, the wet season seemed to provide better overall elemental and physio-biological rice quality.

  9. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Mullett, Ruth; Ferri, Laurent; Woll, Arthur R.

    2017-07-01

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment.

  10. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Woll, Arthur R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mullett, Ruth [Cornell University, Medieval Studies Program, Ithaca, NY (United States); Ferri, Laurent [Cornell University, Cornell Library Rare and Manuscript Collections, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment. (orig.)

  11. Advanced chemical analysis service for elements, radionuclides and phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.

    1986-01-01

    A review is given on the structure, organisation and performance of the chemical analysis service of the Central Department for Chemical Analysis at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH. The research and development programs together with the infrastructure of the Centre afford to analyse almost all stable elements of the periodical table in almost any material. The corresponding chemical analysis service has been organized according to a new modular system of analytical steps. According to this, the most complicated and, therefore, most general case of an analytical scheme for element and radionuclide analysis in any type of material can be differentiated into about 14 different steps, the modules. They are more or less independent of the special problem. The laboratory is designed and organized according to these steps. (orig./PW) [de

  12. Infinite elements for soil-structure interaction analysis in multi-layered halfspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Chung Bang; Kim, Jae Min; Yang, Shin Chu

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical aspects of a computer code (KIESSI) for soil-structure interaction analysis in a multi-layered halfspace using infinite elements. The shape functions of the infinite elements are derived from approximate expressions of the analytical solutions. Three different infinite elements are developed. They are the horizontal, the vertical and the comer infinite elements (HIE, VIE and CIE). Numerical example analyses are presented for demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed infinite elements

  13. Element analysis of Japanese traditional papers by PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya; Yasuda, Keisuke; Tani, Teruhiro

    2000-01-01

    The Japanese papers, 'washi', are made from the bast fibers of the plants. Since washi have the informations of the raw material plants, there is potentiality of the identification of the production place by the element analysis of the washi. Three kinds of washi made of kozo, which have different habitats, were prepared. The elements in their washi were measured by the PIXE. It was confirmed that the amount of elements included in the washi depend on the habitats of their raw material plants. (author)

  14. The use of synchrotron radiation for trace element analysis and element mapping by scanning X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation excited X-Ray Fluorescence is a potentially powerful tool for the routine quantitative chemical analysis of materials, with minimum detection limits typically of the order of a tenth of a ppm, and with the added advantages of simultaneous multi-element detection capability, spatial resolution on a micron scale, large signal to noise ratios and short analysis times. This paper presents a brief review of the use of Synchrotron Radiation in Trace Element Analysis and discusses the requirements for a microprobe for chemical analysis utilising SR. Data obtained at the Synchrotron Radiation Source, Daresbury Laboratory include XRF spectra of standard reference materials and an application of the technique to the study of ion implanted layers in semiconductors is outlined. (author)

  15. PIXE analysis of trace and other mineral elements in phytopharmaceutical drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Harangus, Livia; Iordan, Andreea; Gugiu, M.

    2002-01-01

    Despite of ongoing progress in the biochemistry of phytopharmaceutical drugs, their mineral micro- and trace elements have not been studied in detail. These elements may have therapeutic or toxic activity which should be assessed by sensitive investigations. The latter can be done by multielemental analysis with nuclear and atomic methods. We previously found 28 elements in some Romanian plant drugs by nuclear activation analysis. The availability of this method is, however, limited by the access to a nuclear reactor. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is an alternative method with high performances in biomedicine and requiring no sample preparation for drugs' studies. We applied PIXE in the qualitative analysis of three plant drugs - Liv52, Mentat, and Geriforte - used as invigorators, protectors and prophylactics in oxidative stress diseases. Measurements with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering) tandem accelerator, using a hyper-pure Ge detector and no additional absorber foil, evidenced unusually complex elemental compositions of drugs. Up to 31 elements with Z > 15 were found: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Hg, and As and/or Pb, from major to trace levels. The three drugs' qualitative composition were found to be rather similar. Relative concentrations were well evaluated with X-ray yields calculated for another kind of light element thick target. Drug's toxic elements - As and/or Pb, Hg, and possibly Ga - were all at trace levels, but their accumulation might be harmful. Some essential elements like K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr can be biologically useful. X-ray yields improvement and other ways for PIXE quantitative analysis of the phytotherapeutic drugs are outlined. (authors)

  16. Semianalytic Design Sensitivity Analysis of Nonlinear Structures With a Commercial Finite Element Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Hee; Yoo, Jung Hun; Choi, Hyeong Cheol

    2002-01-01

    A finite element package is often used as a daily design tool for engineering designers in order to analyze and improve the design. The finite element analysis can provide the responses of a system for given design variables. Although finite element analysis can quite well provide the structural behaviors for given design variables, it cannot provide enough information to improve the design such as design sensitivity coefficients. Design sensitivity analysis is an essential step to predict the change in responses due to a change in design variables and to optimize a system with the aid of the gradient-based optimization techniques. To develop a numerical method of design sensitivity analysis, analytical derivatives that are based on analytical differentiation of the continuous or discrete finite element equations are effective but analytical derivatives are difficult because of the lack of internal information of the commercial finite element package such as shape functions. Therefore, design sensitivity analysis outside of the finite element package is necessary for practical application in an industrial setting. In this paper, the semi-analytic method for design sensitivity analysis is used for the development of the design sensitivity module outside of a commercial finite element package of ANSYS. The direct differentiation method is employed to compute the design derivatives of the response and the pseudo-load for design sensitivity analysis is effectively evaluated by using the design variation of the related internal nodal forces. Especially, we suggest an effective method for stress and nonlinear design sensitivity analyses that is independent of the commercial finite element package is also discussed. Numerical examples are illustrated to show the accuracy and efficiency of the developed method and to provide insights for implementation of the suggested method into other commercial finite element packages

  17. Probabilistic finite elements for fracture and fatigue analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lawrence, M.; Besterfield, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The fusion of the probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) and reliability analysis for probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is presented. A comprehensive method for determining the probability of fatigue failure for curved crack growth was developed. The criterion for failure or performance function is stated as: the fatigue life of a component must exceed the service life of the component; otherwise failure will occur. An enriched element that has the near-crack-tip singular strain field embedded in the element is used to formulate the equilibrium equation and solve for the stress intensity factors at the crack-tip. Performance and accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a classical mode 1 fatigue problem.

  18. Preliminary Nuclear Analysis for the HANARO Fuel Element with Burnable Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, So Young; In, Won Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Burnable absorber is used for reducing reactivity swing and power peaking in high performance research reactors. Development of the HANARO fuel element with burnable absorber was started in the U-Mo fuel development program at HANARO, but detailed full core analysis was not performed because the current HANARO fuel management system is uncertain to analysis the HANARO core with burnable absorber. A sophisticated reactor physics system is required to analysis the core. The McCARD code was selected and the detailed McCARD core models, in which the basic HANARO core model was developed by one of the McCARD developers, are used in this study. The development of nuclear fuel requires a long time and correct developing direction especially by the nuclear analysis. This paper presents a preliminary nuclear analysis to promote the fuel development. Based on the developed fuel, the further nuclear analysis will improve reactor performance and safety. Basic nuclear analysis for the HANARO and the AHR were performed for getting the proper fuel elements with burnable absorber. Addition of 0.3 - 0.4% Cd to the fuel meat is promising for the current HANARO fuel element. Small addition of burnable absorber may not change any fuel characteristics of the HANARO fuel element, but various basic tests and irradiation tests at the HANARO core are required.

  19. Intercomparison and determination of trace elements in urban dust by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in air samples artificially loaded on filters with urban dust and the bulk material of urban dust as an environmental sample were determined non-destructively using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Standard reference material (Urban Dust, SRM 1648) of the National Institute of Standard and Technology was used for the analytical quality control. The relative error for 37 elements was less than 15% and the standard deviation was less than 10%. 29 elements in the urban dust and 21 elements in the loaded filter sample were determined respectively. To evaluate the proficiency and reliability of the measurement, data intercomparison was performed and 39 analytical laboratories participated in the analysis using different analytical methods; neutron activation analysis, particle induced X-ray emission analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Z-scores were calculated using the standard deviation of the laboratory's mean as target standard deviation, and a good result was obtained that the values fall between-1 and +1 except some elements. (author)

  20. Finite element elastic-plastic analysis of LMFBR components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, A.; Pifko, A.; Armen, H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The present effort involves the development of computationally efficient finite element methods for accurately predicting the isothermal elastic-plastic three-dimensional response of thick and thin shell structures subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. This work will be used as the basis for further development of analytical tools to be used to verify the structural integrity of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) components. The methods presented here have been implemented into the three-dimensional solid element module (HEX) of the Grumman PLANS finite element program. These methods include the use of optimal stress points as well as a variable number of stress points within an element. This allows monitoring the stress history at many points within an element and hence provides an accurate representation of the elastic-plastic boundary using a minimum number of degrees of freedom. Also included is an improved thermal stress analysis capability in which the temperature variation and corresponding thermal strain variation are represented by the same functional form as the displacement variation. Various problems are used to demonstrate these improved capabilities. (Auth.)

  1. Applications of X-ray emission to elemental analysis of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocchini, R.G.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Perley, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element analysis via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) techniques were applied to several samples of fresh and processed foods. Thin samples of fresh fruits and vegetables, processed dry foods, and spices were included in these analyses. The results indicate that XRF and/or PIXE analysis is applicable to these types of samples but require special and simple modifications in sample preparation techniques, and the inclusion of new matrix type corrections for data analysis. However, the non-destructive nature, reproducibility, efficiency and high sensitivity that characterize these multi-element analytical procedures can provide new potential methods for detecting trace elements in foods and in many agricultural commodities. Toxic metals such as Hg, Pb, and As were detected in some foods. In addition, other essential or neutral trace elements such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Cr, V, Zn, Mo, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Cl, S, and P were also detected. These and other elements can be analyzed rapidly and with high sensitivity for applications in process control and for certification of food quality. Developing these techniques and procedures specifically for food and for various agricultural products may provide new analytical options and help mitigate the expected impact of forthcoming regulations intended to establish limits and tolerance levels for micro toxicants and other essential nutrients in foods and agricultural products. (author)

  2. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G D; Smallwood, A [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  3. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  4. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  5. Elemental Study in Soybean and Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorapot, Permnamtip; Arporn Busamongkol; Sirinart, Laoharojanaphand

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Elements were analyzed in soybean and products by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Pseudo-Cyclic Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (PCINAA) and Epithermal Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (EINAA). Elements detected in sample were include Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn. The result showed that the nutritional contents changed after food processing. From experiments (n = 2), it was found that after food processing, the concentration of Cl and Na in soy bean curd increased from 0.0045 and 0.0011% to found 0.91 and 0.39 %, respectively. Other elements did not differ from soybean. Limits of detection for Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn Na, Se and Zn were 0.05, 0.2, 50, 6, 10, 15, 0.05, 30, 40, 5, 5, 0.05 and 1 mg.kg - 1, respectively

  6. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  7. Adaptive finite-element ballooning analysis of bipolar ionized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamouz, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive finite-element iterative method for the analysis of the ionized field around high-voltage bipolar direct-current (HVDC) transmission line conductors without resort to Deutsch's assumption. A new iterative finite-element ballooning technique is proposed to solve Poisson's equation wherein the commonly used artificial boundary around the transmission line conductors is simulated at infinity. Unlike all attempts reported in the literature for the solution of ionized field, the constancy of the conductors' surface field at the corona onset value is directly implemented in the finite-element formulation. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a laboratory model was built. It has been found that the calculated V-I characteristics and the ground-plane current density agreed well with those measured experimentally. The simplicity in computer programming in addition to the low number of iterations required to achieve convergence characterize this method of analysis

  8. Qualitative PIXE analysis of mineral elements in some phytopharmaceutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Harangus, Livia; Gugiu, M; Iordan, Andreea; Ciortea, C.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of phytopharmaceutic drugs are being developed, due to positive effects in various diseases and to high tolerance by the organism. While their medicinally active compounds have been identified, little attention has been paid to their mineral micro- and trace elements. The mineral elements in the drug may have therapeutic or toxic effects which should be properly assessed. Nuclear and atomic methods allow sensitive multielement detection and we previously performed nuclear activation analysis of some Romanian drugs made by plants. Despite this method's high sensitivity, its use is limited by the availability of a nuclear reactor. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) provides an alternative, and here we examined its potential for the analysis of mineral elements in three commercial phytopharmaceutical preparations, namely, Liv52, Mentat, and Geriforte. The PIXE measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH tandem accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector, normally oriented and connected to a multichannel analyzer and to a computer; the drug pills were fixed at 45 angle with respect to the beam. In all drugs PIXE detected mineral elements with Z > 16 down to trace levels. Major elements included K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn, and minor/trace amounts of S, Cl, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ga, Br, Rb, Sr, Hg, and As/Pb were detected. Some differences were seen between the three drugs. Although at trace levels Ga, As, Hg and Pb are not toxic, one should consider that their accumulation might be harmful and caution seems recommendable on long-term cure. Most of the other elements are known to exert a positive biological role, and both in major and trace levels they may contribute to the therapeutic action. Thus PIXE analysis of mineral elements in phytopharmaceutic drugs, even qualitative, is useful for evaluating the benefits and risks in the therapy. (authors)

  9. Finite element analysis of tubular joints in offshore structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... representing a 2-D model of the joint between the brace and the chord walls. This was subsequently followed but finite element analysis of six tubular joints. A global analysis was initially undertaken, then the submodel analysis carried in the areas of stress concentration. Journal of Civil Engineering, JKUAT (2001) Vol 6, ...

  10. Investigation of the Behavior of Steel Shear Walls Using Finite Elements Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakri, K.; Veladi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, steel shear walls are considered by engineers as an economic method against lateral loads imposed by wind and earthquake in tall structures. Accordingly, there is a growing need to develop accurate methods alongside approximation methods to estimate the behavior of these structural elements. The finite element technique is one of the strongest numerical methods in analysis of solid mechanics problems. Finite element analysis however requires high technical knowledge of the behavior...

  11. Elemental analysis of Oum er Rbia Moroccan river-water using TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; El Hamdaoui, A.; Labraimi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The x-ray fluorescence analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 17 elements has been performed utilizing the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and total reflection excitation. SPM samples were dissolved in nitric acid. For all samples direct measurements are feasible by spiking a few ml of the sample with Ga as internal standard element, and drying an aliquot of 20 μl on a quartz glass carrier. The detection limits of 10 to 20 ppb are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for accuracy by the analysis of the 15474 ICP multi-elemental standard I. Some results were also compared with AAS and ICP-AES. The results for most of the elements obtained by TXRF were accurate to about 2-15 %. The objectives of the analysis were to determine the geo-chemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanism of sediment transport and to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 36 samples had been collected along the river between its source in Middle Atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city. (author)

  12. Liquid phase microextraction for the analysis of trace elements and their speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo

    2013-01-01

    Trace/ultra-trace elements and their speciation analysis in complex matrices usually require sample preparation procedures to achieve sample clean-up and analyte preconcentration. Sample preparation is often the bottleneck in trace elements and their speciation analysis which has a direct impact on accuracy, precision and limits of detection and is often the rate-determining step of the analytical process. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance and reduction in solvent/sample consumption and operation time. Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique as a novel and promising alternative in sample preparation can meet these requirements and has become a very efficient sample preparation technique. This review updates the state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis and discusses its promising prospects. The major thrust of the article highlights the applications of LPME including single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) to the fields of elemental and their speciation analysis by atomic spectrometry-based methods, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General and specific concepts, different extraction formats and characteristics of LPME are described and compared, along with examples of recent innovations and applications presented to demonstrate its potential for trace elements and their speciation analysis in biological and environmental fields. Moreover, the application potential and an outlook on the combination of LPME and atomic spectrometry-based techniques for inorganic analysis are commentated. - Highlights: • The state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis is updated. • Different extraction formats of LPME are described. • The application potential and future

  13. Investigation of distribution of elements in a Korean ginseng by using a neutron activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu Na; Sun, Gwang Min; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The Distinction of production areas of Korean ginsengs has been tried by using neutron activation techniques such as an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). This study was done as a part of those efforts. As is well known, the distribution of elements varies according to the part of plant due to the difference of enrichment effect and influence from a soil where the plants have been grown. So a correlation study between plants and soil is an important issue. In this study, the distribution of trace elements within a Korean ginseng was investigated by using an instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  14. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  15. Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong-beom [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Park, No-Cheol, E-mail: pnch@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34142 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.

  16. Seismic analysis of the APR1400 nuclear reactor system using a verified beam element model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-beom; Park, No-Cheol; Lee, Sang-Jeong; Park, Young-Pil; Choi, Youngin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified beam element model is constructed based on the real dynamic characteristics of the APR1400. • Time history analysis is performed to calculate the seismic responses of the structures. • Large deformations can be observed at the in-phase mode of reactor vessel and core support barrel. - Abstract: Structural integrity is the first priority in the design of nuclear reactor internal structures. In particular, nuclear reactor internals should be designed to endure external forces, such as those due to earthquakes. Many researchers have performed finite element analyses to meet these design requirements. Generally, a seismic analysis model should reflect the dynamic characteristics of the target system. However, seismic analysis based on the finite element method requires long computation times as well as huge storage space. In this research, a beam element model was developed and confirmed based on the real dynamic characteristics of an advanced pressurized water nuclear reactor 1400 (APR1400) system. That verification process enhances the accuracy of the finite element analysis using the beam elements, remarkably. Also, the beam element model reduces seismic analysis costs. Therefore, the beam element model was used to perform the seismic analysis. Then, the safety of the APR1400 was assessed based on a seismic analysis of the time history responses of its structures. Thus, efficient, accurate seismic analysis was demonstrated using the proposed beam element model.

  17. Finite element analysis of rotating beams physics based interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganguli, Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the solution of rotating beam free-vibration problems using the finite element method. It provides an introduction to the governing equation of a rotating beam, before outlining the solution procedures using Rayleigh-Ritz, Galerkin and finite element methods. The possibility of improving the convergence of finite element methods through a judicious selection of interpolation functions, which are closer to the problem physics, is also addressed. The book offers a valuable guide for students and researchers working on rotating beam problems – important engineering structures used in helicopter rotors, wind turbines, gas turbines, steam turbines and propellers – and their applications. It can also be used as a textbook for specialized graduate and professional courses on advanced applications of finite element analysis.

  18. Neutron activation analysis for bulk and trace elements in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.; Speecke, A.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    Problems in sampling urine for trace element analysis by neutron activation are systematically examined. Collection, storage, sample preparation and contamination hazards during irradiation are studied in detail. Three different sizes of urine samples are prepared for analysis, depending on the concentration and nuclear properties of the elements, and suitable multielement doped urine standards are used. As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn are determined. The extreme care given to sample collection, use of ''ultra-clean'' vials, and work in a dust-free room allows consistent values to be obtained over long periods of time. A literature review of the amounts of forty elements present in urine per day is also given

  19. Relativistic quantum chemistry of the superheavy elements. Closed-shell element 114 as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Seth, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The chemistry of superheavy element 114 is reviewed. The ground state of element 114 is closed shell [112]7s 2 7p 1/2 2 and shows a distinct chemical inertness (low reactivity). This inertness makes it rather difficult to study the atom-at-a-time chemistry of 114 in the gas or liquid phase. (author)

  20. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, honey, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were evaluated to determine the relationship between trace elements content and opal colour. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Uncertainties in elemental quantitative analysis by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro, E.C.; Baptista, G.B.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the degree of non-uniformity of the particle beam, matrix composition and matrix thickness in a quantitative elemental analysis by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are discussed and a criterion to evaluate the resulting degree of uncertainty in the mass determination by this method is established. (Auth.)

  2. Study of the elemental content in mollusk from Uruguayan's coast by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, G.; Odino, R.; Souto, B.; Mendez, Silvia

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to establish a starting point on the content of trace elements, either with a toxic and/or nutritional interest, in Uruguayan coastal mollusks. The River Plate is located between Argentina and Uruguay and has an estuarine nature. It is thus a zone with distinctive features among the South American Atlantic coasts. The analysis techniqe employed is X-ray fluroescence, which is non-destructive and multi-elemental. A simple way of sample preparation is proposed, which does not use reagents that may introduce foreign elements, and is therefore low cost. tabs

  3. Evaluation of seismic effects on the landslide deposits of Monte Salta (Eastern Italian Alps) using distinct element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, G.; Fujisawa, K.; Mantovani, M.; Pasuto, A.; Silvano, S.; Tagliavini, F.; Zabuski, L.

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the modelling of the ground effects of seismic waves on a large debris deposit lying on a steep mountain slope, with particular attention paid to the potential triggering of slope movements. The study site is a mass of 2.5 million m3 rock fall deposit, named "Monte Salta Landslide", located on the northern slope of the Vajont valley, at the border between Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions in north-eastern Italy. Several historical landslide events were reported in the area in the past, first one dating back to the 17th century. The landslide deposit completely mantles the slope with a thick cover of rock blocks. The Mt. Salta landslide is conditioned by the presence of Mt. Borgà regional thrust, which uplifts Jurassic limestone on the top of Cretaceous rock units. Above the thrust zone, folded and highly fractured rock mass dips steeply towards the slope free face, producing highly unstable setting. The study area has been classified as high seismic hazard and different vulnerable elements can be affected by the remobilisation of debris, among which a village, a national road and a big quarry that was opened, with the intent to exploit the part of the landslide deposit for construction purposes. In this study, numerical analysis was performed, to simulate the slope behaviour using distinct element method and applying UDEC code. The 2-D models were built on three cross-sections and elasto-plastic behaviour was assumed, both for rock matrix and discontinuities. The earthquake effect was modelled in pseudo-dynamic way, i.e. by magnifying the acceleration and applying also its horizontal component. The expected seismic acceleration in the study area was calculated on the basis of previous studies as equal to 0.28 g. The results proved that the increase of the vertical component alone has a small influence on the deformational behaviour of the system. Hence, the acceleration vector was deviated at 5° and then at 10° from the

  4. Validation of multi-element isotope dilution ICPMS for the analysis of basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willbold, M.; Jochum, K.P.; Raczek, I.; Amini, M.A.; Stoll, B.; Hofmann, A.W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    In this study we have validated a newly developed multi-element isotope dilution (ID) ICPMS method for the simultaneous analysis of up to 12 trace elements in geological samples. By evaluating the analytical uncertainty of individual components using certified reference materials we have quantified the overall analytical uncertainty of the multi-element ID ICPMS method at 1-2%. Individual components include sampling/weighing, purity of reagents, purity of spike solutions, calibration of spikes, determination of isotopic ratios, instrumental sources of error, correction of mass discrimination effect, values of constants, and operator bias. We have used the ID-determined trace elements for internal standardization to improve indirectly the analysis of 14 other (mainly mono-isotopic trace elements) by external calibration. The overall analytical uncertainty for those data is about 2-3%. In addition, we have analyzed USGS and MPI-DING geological reference materials (BHVO-1, BHVO-2, KL2-G, ML3B-G) to quantify the overall bias of the measurement procedure. Trace element analysis of geological reference materials yielded results that agree mostly within about 2-3% relative to the reference values. Since these results match the conclusions obtained by the investigation of the overall analytical uncertainty, we take this as a measure for the validity of multi-element ID ICPMS. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.; Montenegro, E.C.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V. de.

    1980-10-01

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author) [pt

  6. Developments in Dynamic Analysis for quantitative PIXE true elemental imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Dynamic Analysis (DA) is a method for projecting quantitative major and trace element images from PIXE event data-streams (off-line or on-line) obtained using the Nuclear Microprobe. The method separates full elemental spectral signatures to produce images that strongly reject artifacts due to overlapping elements, detector effects (such as escape peaks and tailing) and background. The images are also quantitative, stored in ppm-charge units, enabling images to be directly interrogated for the concentrations of all elements in areas of the images. Recent advances in the method include the correction for changing X-ray yields due to varying sample compositions across the image area and the construction of statistical variance images. The resulting accuracy of major element concentrations extracted directly from these images is better than 3% relative as determined from comparisons with electron microprobe point analysis. These results are complemented by error estimates derived from the variance images together with detection limits. This paper provides an update of research on these issues, introduces new software designed to make DA more accessible, and illustrates the application of the method to selected geological problems.

  7. Trace element determination study in human hair by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazao, Selma Violato

    2008-01-01

    Human hair analysis studies have been subject of continuous interest due to the fact that they can be used as an important tool to evaluate trace element levels in the human body. These determinations have been carried out to use hair for environmental and occupational monitoring, to identify intoxication or poisoning by toxic metals, to assess nutritional status, to diagnose and to prevent diseases and in forensic sciences. Although hair analysis presents several advantages over other human tissue or fluid analyses, such as organ tissue, blood, urine and saliva, there are some controversies regarding the use of hair analysis data. These controversies arise from the fact that it is difficult to establish reliable reference values for trace elements in hair. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factors that affect element concentrations in hair samples from a population considered healthy and residing in the Sao Paulo metropolitan area. The collected human head hair was cut in small pieces, washed, dried and analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Aliquots of hair samples and synthetic elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor for 16 h under a thermal neutron flux of about 5x10 12 n cm -2 s -1 for As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn determinations. The induced gamma activities of the standards and samples were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer coupled to an hiperpure Ge detector. For quality control of the results, IAEA- 85 Human Hair and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves certified reference materials (CRMs) were analyzed. Results obtained in these CRMs presented for most of elements, good agreement with the values of the certificates (relative errors less than 10%) and good precision (variation coefficients less than 13.6%). Results of replicate hair sample analysis showed good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared sample. Results obtained in the analyses of dyed and non-dyed hair

  8. Elemental analysis of two Egyptian iron ores and produced industrial iron samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sroor, A.; Abdel-Basset, N.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Hassan, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Elemental analysis of two iron ores and initial industrial iron production prepared by the Egyptian Iron and Steel Company of Helwan near Cairo were performed by the instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Five samples of each type were irradiated for 48 h in a thermal neutron flux of 4x10 12 n/cm 2 s in the first Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-1. Also, the Pneumatic Irradiation Rabbit System (PIRS), attached to the reactor ET-RR-1 in Inshass, was used to measure short-life elements. The γ-ray spectra were obtained with a hyper pure germanium detection system. The concentration percentage values of major, minor and trace elements are presented. Implications of the elemental concentration values obtained are presented

  9. Upstand Finite Element Analysis of Slab Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Eugene J.; Keogh, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    For slab bridge decks with wide transverse edge cantilevers, the plane grillage analogy is shown to be an inaccurate method of linear elastic analysis due to variations in the vertical position of the neutral axis. The upstand grillage analogy is also shown to give inaccurate results, this time due to inappropriate modelling of in-plane distortions. An alternative method, known as upstand finite element analysis, is proposed which is sufficiently simple to be used on an everyday basis in the ...

  10. Elemental analysis of combustion products by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the neutron activation analysis method, which is being used to determine the elemental profile of combustion products from coal-fired power plants, oil shale retorting, and underground coal gasification

  11. The fingerprint element analysis on provenance of ancient chinese Jun porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Chen Songhua; Wang Jie; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin; Han Song

    1997-01-01

    Forty-three samples of ancient Jun porcelains and so on were chosen. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to measure the 36 trace elements in every sample. Seven elements were chosen as the 'fingerprint elements'. The provenance of the glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Jun porcelain were investigated by the fingerprint element analysis method. The result shows that although the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain samples have been leapt over six hundred years, and glaze colors are utterly different and are from many different kilns, there are long term, stable and same mainly raw material source. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. A few modern Jun porcelains approximate from ancient Jun porcelains, the majority become estranged from ancient Jun porcelain

  12. A finite-element for the analysis of shell intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koves, W.J.; Nair, S.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of discontinuity stresses at shell intersections is a problem of great importance in several major industries. Some of the major areas of interest are pressure-containing equipment, such as reactors and piping, in the nuclear and fossil power industry; pressure vessels and heat exchangers in the petrochemical industry; bracing in offshore oil platforms; and aerospace structures. A specialized shell-intersection finite element, which is compatible with adjoining shell elements, has been developed that has the capability of physically representing the complex three-dimensional geometry and stress state at shell intersections. The element geometry is a contoured shape that matches a wide variety of practical nozzle configurations used in ASME Code pressure vessel construction, and allows computational rigor. A closed-form theory of elasticity solution was used to compute the stress state and strain energy in the element. The concept of an energy-equivalent nodal displacement and force vector set was then developed to allow complete compatibility with adjoining shell elements and retain the analytical rigor within the element. This methodology provides a powerful and robust computation scheme that maintains the computational efficiency of shell element solutions. The shell-intersection element was then applied to the cylinder-sphere and cylinder-cylinder intersection problems

  13. Analysis of pipe mitred bends using beam models - by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, A.C.S.L. de.

    1984-01-01

    The formulation of a recently proposed displacement based straight pipe element for the analysis of pipe mitred bends is summarized in this work. The element kinematics includes axial, bending, torsional and ovalisation displacements, all varying cubically along the axis of the element. Interaction effects between angle adjoined straight pipe section are modeled including the appropriate additional strain terms in the stiffness matrix formulation and by using a penalty procedure to enforce continuity of pipe skin flexural rotations at the common helical edge. The element model capabilities are ilustrated in some sample analysis and the results are compared with other available experimental, analytical or more complex numerical models. (Author) [pt

  14. Finite elements for non-linear analysis of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamim, A.C.; Ebecken, N.F.F.

    1982-01-01

    The application of a three-dimensional lagrangian formulation for the great dislocations analysis and great rotation of pipelines systems is studied. This formulation is derived from the soil mechanics and take into account the shear stress effects. Two finite element models are implemented. The first, of right axis, uses as interpolation functions the conventional gantry functions, defined in relation to mobile coordinates. The second, of curve axis and variable cross sections, is obtained from the degeneration of the three-dimensional isoparametric element, and uses as interpolation functions third degree polynomials. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Fourier analysis of finite element preconditioned collocation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Michel O.; Mund, Ernest H.

    1990-01-01

    The spectrum of the iteration operator of some finite element preconditioned Fourier collocation schemes is investigated. The first part of the paper analyses one-dimensional elliptic and hyperbolic model problems and the advection-diffusion equation. Analytical expressions of the eigenvalues are obtained with use of symbolic computation. The second part of the paper considers the set of one-dimensional differential equations resulting from Fourier analysis (in the tranverse direction) of the 2-D Stokes problem. All results agree with previous conclusions on the numerical efficiency of finite element preconditioning schemes.

  16. Elemental composition of platelets. Part I. Sampling and sample preparation of platelets for trace-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Borberg, H.; Kasperek, K.; Kiem, J.; Siegers, M.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Gross, R.

    1979-01-01

    Sampling of platelets for trace-element analysis poses special problems: obtaining adequate sample materials, achieving a sufficient cell purity, preserving viability (integrity), correcting for trapped plasma, and controlling contamination. We used a blood-cell separator for the primary isolation of platelets from blood, and differential centrifugation in natural plasma to further isolate them. The pyrimidopyrimidine RA233 was used as a stabilizer to maintain viability. 131 I-labeled human serum albumin was used to estimate trapped plasma. Contamination was controlled by using five-times-distilled water to simulate donor's blood in the system and by comparing three fractions: the serum, the first portion of the platelet-rich plasma, and the supernatant plasma after the final centrifugation. Neutron activation analysis was used for the elemental analysis. A single differential centrifugation of the platelet-rich plasma from the blood-cell separator at 400 x g for 8 min was optimum (mean mass fractions: erythrocytes/platelets < 5 mg/g and leukocytes/platelets < 20 mg/g). The trapped plasma in the wet platelet samples amounted to about 0.40 g/g. No appreciable contamination from the sampling system was found for the elements Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn. 2 figures, 3 tables

  17. Neutron activation analysis as applied to instrumental analysis of trace elements from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniforti, R.; Moauro, A.; Madaro, M.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate matter collected from the coastal area delimited by the mouth of the river Volturno and the Sabaudia lake has been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for its content of twenty-two trace elements. The results for surface water and bottom water are reported separately, thus evidencing the effect of sampling depth on the concentration of many elements. The necessity of accurately 'cleaning' the filters before use is stressed

  18. The state-of-the-art and problems of fuel element structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassmann, K.

    1980-02-01

    This study of fuel element structural analysis is arranged in two parts: In the first, self-contained, part the general basic principles of deterministic computer programs for structural analysis of fuel elements are reviewed critically and an approach is shown which can be used to expand the system with respect to statistical investigations. The second part contains technical details summarized in 11 publications, all of which appeared in periodicals with reviewer teams. The major aspects of this study are thought to be the following ones: Contributions to the 'philosophy' of fuel element structural analysis. Critical analysis of the basic structure of computer programs. Critical analysis of the mechanical concept of integral fuel rod computer programs. Establishment of a comprehensive computer program system (URANUS). Expansion from purely deterministic information by statistical analyses. Methodological and computer program developments for the analysis of fast accidents. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  19. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Martin, J.P.; Belhadfa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  20. Elemental analysis of sub-hourly ambient aerosol collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, C.B.; Ondov, J.M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (USA). Dept. of Chemical & Biochemistry

    2004-03-01

    Simultaneous multielement graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn in ambient air sampled at 170 L.min{sup -1} for 30 min and collected as a slurry after dynamic preconcentration. Analyses of slurries of NIST SRM 1648, Urban Particulate Matter, were typically within 10% of expected values for all elements except Al, Cr, and Fe, elements for which deviations were mostly due to difficulties in transferring large particles. This problem will be reduced for urban fine particulate matter samples (PM2.5). Trends in the concentrations of elemental source markers were readily correlated with wind direction and other meteorological factors to identify the influences of local industrial emissions, including motor vehicle traffic, coal- and oil-fired power plants, and municipal incinerators. Factor analysis was applied to the 88-sample data set to extract 7 factors: urban dust, meteorological factors, incinerators, coal- fired power plants, Tour Bus emission, unknown As source, and oil-fired power plants. Factor analysis was also applied to an 18-sample data set representing 2.5 h averages of the 30 min data to simulate the effect of longer sample collection times. Only 6 factors were extracted from this data set, which shows that increased temporal resolution enhances the power of factor analysis to resolve sources. These results indicate that a wealth of detailed information is revealed at this level of temporal resolution.

  1. Uniform elemental analysis of materials by sputtering and photoionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, He; Basler, J.N.; Becker, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the elemental composition of surfaces commonly involves techniques in which atoms or ions are ablated from the material's surface and detected by mass spectrometry. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry is widely used for detection with high sensitivity (down to a few parts per billion) but technical problems prevent it from being truly quantitative. Some of these problems are circumvented by nonresonant laser post-ionization of sputtered atoms followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (surface analysis by laser ionization: SALI). But when there are large differences in ionization probabilities amongst different elements in the material, the detection sensitivity can be non-uniform and accurate quantification remains out of reach. Here we report that highly uniform, quantitative and sensitive analysis of materials can be achieved using a high-energy (5-keV) ion beam for sputtering coupled with a very-high-intensity laser to induce multiphoton ionization of the sputtered atoms. We show uniform elemental sensitivity for several samples containing elements with very different ionization potentials, suggesting that this approach can now be regarded as quantitative for essentially any material. (author)

  2. Finite element analysis of adanced composite structures containing mechanically fastened joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, E.

    1982-01-01

    Although the usual engineering practice is to ignore joint effects in finite element models of overall structures, there are times when the inclusion of fastener effects in a model is necessary for accurate analysis. This paper describes some simple but accurate methods for accommodating this modeling requirement. The approach involves correlation of test results from a few composite mechanically fastened joints with finite element analyses of joints. It is assumed that if the fastener actions in the test articles can be properly predicted by simple finite element techniques, then these same techniques can be applied to large overall structure models. During the course of this test-analysis effort it was determined that it is possible to obtain correct results for overall structure-joint analyses by using simple modeling concepts provided special care is employed. Also, some emphasis is given in this paper to the importance of properly reducing test data in order to obtain meaningful correlations with finite element analysis. Finally, for those interested, the appendix contains brief descriptions of the test results and failure modes explored in the test program. (orig.)

  3. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annegarn, H.J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P.E.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Madiba, C.C.P.; Bibby, D.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

    1981-01-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis. (orig.)

  4. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annegarn, H J; Jodaikin, A; Cleaton-Jones, P E; Sellschop, J P.F.; Madiba, C C.P.; Bibby, D [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Nuclear Physics Research Unit; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit)

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas suceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surface), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the carious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples require for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  5. Prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy and its use for the elemental chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconninck, G.; Demortier, G.; Bodart, F.

    The elemental chemical analysis by nuclear techniques has been widely developed since a quarter of century. In this review the analysis by irradiation of the the sample (solid or liquid) of a majority of chemical elements by means of the charged particles and the detection during this irradiation of the gamma photons characteristic of the element are considered. After a brief account of the physical phenomena peculiar to the prompt detection of photons in comparison with the activation methods where a delayed activity is measured, a brief description of the experimental equipment for this kind of analysis is given. A comprehensive critical survey of the recent applications to the analysis of metals, semiconductors and electric insulating substances is presented. The necessary informations for the choice of the nuclear reaction to use for a specific analysis are contained in a set of tables. (AF)

  6. Nondestructive elemental analysis of coins using accelerator-based thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairi, F.Z.; Aksoy, A.; Al-Haddad, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The accelerator-based thermal-neutrons activation analysis setup at KFUPM has an adequate thermal -neutron flux that can be advantageously used for the elemental analysis of a variety of samples including archeological ones. The thermal neutrons are derived from the moderation of fast neutrons from the D (d, n) He reaction which produces fast 2.5 MeV neutrons. A maximum thermals flux of about 2.5x10 n/m-s was achieved. For the purpose of determining the suitability of the set up for the analysis of contemporary and ancient coins, we carried out a feasibility study by irradiating a selected number of Saudi Arabian coins dating from 1958 to 1987 in the thermal-neutron flux. The induced gamma-ray activities were then counted using a HP-GMX detector coupled to a PC-based data acquisition and analysis system. The elements that were determined in the coins were copper (75%), nickel (around 25%) and manganese (<0.5%). Calibration curves were also established for these elements. The determined concentrations are in agreement with the data published by the Standard Catalogue of World Coins. (author)

  7. Characteristic and analysis of structural elements of corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bilonog

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article attention is focused on social responsibility of business and on necessity to estimate its condition in Ukraine. Materials regarding elements and the principles of corporate social responsibility are structured. On this basis unification of quantitative elements of business social responsibility is offered according to which it is possible to carry out the analysis of the non­financial reporting. It is proposed to use not only quantitative techniques of data analysis but also refer to the qualitative ones. As a result of this, the analysis of social reports will be more productive and would minimize subjectivity of the researcher or representatives of the company which are responsible for presenting the information to the general public. The basic principles by which the companies can realize the strategy of corporate social responsibility are considered. Due to the empirical analysis of corporate reports expediency to use specified elements is proved. Reports of the companies in producing and non­productive sector are analyzed in more detail; features of displaying information on corporate social responsibility are defined. The attention to need of carrying out monitoring researches in the sphere of the corporate social reporting is updated.

  8. Application of laser ablation-ICP-MS to determine high-resolution elemental profiles across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary at Agost (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosa-Montes de Oca, Claudia; de Lange, Gert J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073930962; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.

    2018-01-01

    A high-resolution analysis of the distribution of major and trace elements across a Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary (KPgB) was done using Laser Ablation-Inductivity Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and was compared with traditional distinct sampling and analysis. At the Agost site (SE

  9. Energy Finite Element Analysis Developments for Vibration Analysis of Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahopoulos, Nickolas; Schiller, Noah H.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been utilized successfully for modeling complex structural-acoustic systems with isotropic structural material properties. In this paper, a formulation for modeling structures made out of composite materials is presented. An approach based on spectral finite element analysis is utilized first for developing the equivalent material properties for the composite material. These equivalent properties are employed in the EFEA governing differential equations for representing the composite materials and deriving the element level matrices. The power transmission characteristics at connections between members made out of non-isotropic composite material are considered for deriving suitable power transmission coefficients at junctions of interconnected members. These coefficients are utilized for computing the joint matrix that is needed to assemble the global system of EFEA equations. The global system of EFEA equations is solved numerically and the vibration levels within the entire system can be computed. The new EFEA formulation for modeling composite laminate structures is validated through comparison to test data collected from a representative composite aircraft fuselage that is made out of a composite outer shell and composite frames and stiffeners. NASA Langley constructed the composite cylinder and conducted the test measurements utilized in this work.

  10. Contribution to the analysis of light elements using x fluorescence excited by radio-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, A.

    1964-01-01

    In order to study the possibilities of using radioactive sources for the X-fluorescence analysis of light elements, the principle is given, after a brief description of X-fluorescence, of the excitation of this phenomenon by X, β and α emission from radio-elements. The operation and use of the proportional gas counter for X-ray detection is described. A device has been studied for analysing the elements of the 2. and 3. periods of the Mendeleev table. It makes it possible to excite the fluorescence with a radioactive source emitting X-rays or a particles; the X-ray fluorescence penetrates into a window-less proportional counter, this being made possible by the use of an auxiliary electric field in the neighbourhood of the sample. The gas detection pressure leading to the maximum detection yield is given. The spectra are given for the K α lines of 3. period elements excited by 55 Fe, 3 H/Zr and 210 Po sources; for the 2. period the K α spectra of carbon and of fluorine excited by the α particles of 210 Po. (author) [fr

  11. Sample preparation procedure for PIXE elemental analysis on soft tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubica, B.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Dutkiewicz, E.M.; Lekka, M.

    1997-01-01

    Trace element analysis is one of the most important field in analytical chemistry. There are several instrumental techniques which are applied for determinations of microscopic elemental content. The PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) technique is one of the nuclear techniques that is commonly applied for such purpose due to its multielemental analysis possibilities. The aim of this study was to establish the optimal conditions for target preparation procedure. In this paper two different approaches to the topic are presented and widely discussed. The first approach was the traditional pellet technique and the second one was mineralization procedure. For the analysis soft tissue such as liver was used. Some results are also presented on water samples. (author)

  12. Electromagnetic analysis of locking device for SMART control element drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, H.; Kim, J. I.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Park, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical electromagnetic analysis was performed for the control rod locking device which is installed in the control element drive mechanism of integral reactor, SMART. A plunger model for the electromagnetic analysis of the locking device was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to plunger pushing force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analyzing the trend of the plunger pushing force with finite element method

  13. Qualitative analysis of the rare earth element by simulation of inductively coupled plasma emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, M.S.; Tobishima, Taeko; Kamitake, Seigo; Yasuda, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    The emission lines for qualitative analysis of rare earth elements by a simulation technique of ICP spectra were proposed. The spectra were simulated by employing a Gaussian (or a Lorentzian at high concentrations) profile. The simulated spectra corresponded quite well with the observed ones. The emission lines were selected so that the interference was as small as possible. The present qualitative analysis is based on a pattern recognition method where observed intensity ratios of the emission lines in each element are compared with those of a single analyte element. The qualitative analysis was performed for twelve standard solutions containing a single rare earth element and for eight standard solutions containing an element other than rare earth elements. The selection of the emission lines and the algorithm of the present qualitative analysis were justified. (author)

  14. Sensitivity analysis of the Galerkin finite element method neutron diffusion solver to the shape of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Seyed Abolfaz [Dept. of Energy Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The purpose of the present study is the presentation of the appropriate element and shape function in the solution of the neutron diffusion equation in two-dimensional (2D) geometries. To this end, the multigroup neutron diffusion equation is solved using the Galerkin finite element method in both rectangular and hexagonal reactor cores. The spatial discretization of the equation is performed using unstructured triangular and quadrilateral finite elements. Calculations are performed using both linear and quadratic approximations of shape function in the Galerkin finite element method, based on which results are compared. Using the power iteration method, the neutron flux distributions with the corresponding eigenvalue are obtained. The results are then validated against the valid results for IAEA-2D and BIBLIS-2D benchmark problems. To investigate the dependency of the results to the type and number of the elements, and shape function order, a sensitivity analysis of the calculations to the mentioned parameters is performed. It is shown that the triangular elements and second order of the shape function in each element give the best results in comparison to the other states.

  15. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  16. Application of synchrotron radiation to elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Hastings, J.B.; Howells, M.R.; Kraner, H.W.; Chen, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The use of a synchrotron storage ring as a high brightness source for production of monoergic, variable energy, and highly polarized x-ray beams promises to revolutionize the field of elemental analysis. The results of exploratory work using the Cornell synchrotron facility, CHESS, will be described. Design considerations and features of the new X-Ray Microprobe Facility now under construction at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source will be presented. This facility will be used for bulk analysis and for microanalysis with an initial spatial resolution of the order of 30 μm

  17. Multielement analysis of reagents used in chemical identification of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvan Estrada, A.; Brigido Flores, O.; Maslov, O.D.; Dmitriev, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    For more than 40 years, chemical identification of transuranic elements has been used at the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Join Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, as a secondary method of identification. Chlorination of transuranic elements obtained by nuclear reactions is an important step of the procedure in order to obtain volatile compounds able to pass through a thermo chromatographic process. To access the quality of the reagents TiCl 4 and SOCl 2 multielement analysis was carried out using both X-rays fluorescence and gamma activation. It was followed the simplest procedure for reagents samples pretreatment, so further interferences from other chemical products were avoided. X-rays fluorescence analysis was performed in a spectrometer with Si(Li) detector with a resolution for Fe (K?) of 190 eV. Both Cd-109 and Am-241 were used as isotopic sources of excitation. Gamma activation analysis was carried out using the compact electron accelerator MT-25, where gamma rays are produced in a stopping target. Among the parameters of the MT-25 are the following: energy range-10-25 MeV, gamma-ray flux-10 14 photon/s, power consumption-20 kw. Measurements of the induced activity were performed with the help of a HPGe detector, thin and coaxial Ge(Li) detectors. There were identified two elements in SOCl 2 -Nickel (3*10 -6 g/g) and Antimony (2*10 -7 g/g), while there were identified three elements in TiCl 4 - Zirconium (8*10 -7 g/g), Arsenic (9*10 -7 g/g) and Antimony (5*10 -7 g/g). Only five elements were detected in trace concentrations in the two analyzed reagents, that is for more than 57 elements capable of being detected using gamma activation analysis with the MT-25 only 5 had concentrations above the detection limits of the method. Not being chemical analogs of the synthesized transuranic elements (Z-104 and 106) and not being able to alpha or fission disintegrations there is not expected any interference from them in the chemical

  18. Determination of essential elements in herbal extracts by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2013-01-01

    Different types of therapies have been introduced as an alternative treatment to various types of human disorders, among them,the use of herbal teas have been highlighted due to its low cost, easiness of acquisition and administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in extracts of medicinal plants whose use is regulated by ANVISA. The relevance of this analysis is justified by the need of contributing to the recommendation of these plants as secure sources of mineral elements both for therapeutic and dietary purpose. The technique showed good sensitivity in determining the appropriate concentration of all the determined elements. Elements potentially toxic were found at concentration that do not present threats to the organism and the elements that present important roles in metabolism were determined at concentrations that can assist both therapeutic and nutritional purposes. (author)

  19. Determination of essential elements in herbal extracts by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: lfrancisconi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Different types of therapies have been introduced as an alternative treatment to various types of human disorders, among them,the use of herbal teas have been highlighted due to its low cost, easiness of acquisition and administration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in extracts of medicinal plants whose use is regulated by ANVISA. The relevance of this analysis is justified by the need of contributing to the recommendation of these plants as secure sources of mineral elements both for therapeutic and dietary purpose. The technique showed good sensitivity in determining the appropriate concentration of all the determined elements. Elements potentially toxic were found at concentration that do not present threats to the organism and the elements that present important roles in metabolism were determined at concentrations that can assist both therapeutic and nutritional purposes. (author)

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of the lux operon distinguishes two evolutionarily distinct clades of Photobacterium leiognathi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V

    2004-05-01

    The luminous marine bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was synonymized several years ago with Photobacterium leiognathi based on a high degree of phenotypic and genetic similarity. To test the possibility that P. leiognathi as now formulated, however, actually contains two distinct bacterial groups reflecting the earlier identification of P. mandapamensis and P. leiognathi as separate species, we compared P. leiognathi strains isolated from light-organ symbiosis with leiognathid fishes (i.e., ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1) with strains from seawater originally described as P. mandapamensis and later synonymized as P. leiognathi (i.e., ATCC 27561(T) and ATCC 33981) and certain strains initially identified as P. leiognathi (i.e., PL-721, PL-741, 554). Analysis of the 16S rRNA and gyrB genes did not resolve distinct clades, affirming a close relationship among these strains. However, strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 were found to bear a luxF gene in the lux operon ( luxABFE), whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 lack this gene ( luxABE). Phylogenetic analysis of the luxAB(F)E region confirmed this distinction. Furthermore, ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554 all produced a higher level of luminescence on high-salt medium, as previously described for PL-721, whereas ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1 all produced a higher level of luminescence on low-salt medium, a characteristic of P. leiognathi from leiognathid fish light organs. These results demonstrate that P. leiognathi contains two evolutionarily and phenotypically distinct clades, P. leiognathi subsp. leiognathi (strains ATCC 25521(T), ATCC 25587, lequu.1.1 and lleuc.1.1), and P. leiognathi subsp. mandapamensis (strains ATCC 27561(T), ATCC 33981, PL-721, PL-741 and 554).

  1. Analysis of Piezoelectric Solids using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Mohammed; Nagarajan, Praveen; Remanan, Mini

    2018-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials are extensively used in smart structures as sensors and actuators. In this paper, static analysis of three piezoelectric solids is done using general-purpose finite element software, Abaqus. The simulation results from Abaqus are compared with the results obtained using numerical methods like Boundary Element Method (BEM) and meshless point collocation method (PCM). The BEM and PCM are cumbersome for complex shape and complicated boundary conditions. This paper shows that the software Abaqus can be used to solve the governing equations of piezoelectric solids in a much simpler and faster way than the BEM and PCM.

  2. Stress analysis of heated concrete using finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Gupta, A.; Marchertas, A.

    1994-01-01

    Described is a finite element analysis of concrete, which is subjected to rapid heating. Using thermal mass transport calculation, the moisture content, temperature and pore pressure distribution over space and time is obtained first. From these effects, stress at various points of the concrete are computed using the finite element method. Contribution to the stress formulation comes from three components, namely the thermal expansion, pore pressure, and the shrinkage of concrete due to moisture loss (from dehydration). The material properties of concrete are assumed to be homogeneous, elastic, and cracking is not taken into consideration. (orig.)

  3. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks). (orig.)

  4. Analysis of technology and quality control the fuel elements production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katanic, J.; Spasic, Z.; Momcilovic, I.

    1976-01-01

    Recently great attention has been paid at the international level to the analysis of production processes and quality control of fuel elements with the aim to speed up activity of proposing and accepting standards and measurement methods. IAEA also devoted great interest to these problems appealing to more active participation of all users and procedures of fuel elements in a general effort to secure successful work with nuclear plants. For adequate and timely participation in future of the establishment and analysis of general requirements and documentation for the control of purchased or self produced fuel elements in our country, it is necessary to be well informed and to follow this activity at the international level

  5. Multi elemental analysis of indigenous food spices in Southern Ethiopia using INAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkegna, T.H.; Chaubey, A.K.; Beyene, G.A.; Bitewlign, T.A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is a quantitative and qualitative analysis of essential and trace elements of four indigenous Ethiopian spices and herbs using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. Results obtained for 16 elements: Major elements; Mg, Cl, and K; Minor elements; Na, Fe, and Mn, Zn, Br. While Al, V, Sm, Sc, La, Ba, Eu, Rb were found in traces. The spices, Affromumom korarima and Lippa Adonesis var. Koseret sebsebe were found to be very good sources of essential trace elements like Fe, Zn and Mn. The highest concentration of Mg was found in Ajowan whereas K and Fe were measured in Coriander seeds. The average daily dietary intake of some essential elements from the use of these spices were found to be below the recommended upper limit by WHO. (author)

  6. Finite element analysis of multilayer coextrusion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Schunk, Peter Randall; Baer, Thomas A. (Proctor & Gamble Company, West Chester, OH); Mrozek, Randy A. (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD); Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Collins, Robert (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2011-09-01

    Multilayer coextrusion has become a popular commercial process for producing complex polymeric products from soda bottles to reflective coatings. A numerical model of a multilayer coextrusion process is developed based on a finite element discretization and two different free-surface methods, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) moving mesh implementation and an Eulerian level set method, to understand the moving boundary problem associated with the polymer-polymer interface. The goal of this work is to have a numerical capability suitable for optimizing and troubleshooting the coextrusion process, circumventing flow instabilities such as ribbing and barring, and reducing variability in layer thickness. Though these instabilities can be both viscous and elastic in nature, for this work a generalized Newtonian description of the fluid is used. Models of varying degrees of complexity are investigated including stability analysis and direct three-dimensional finite element free surface approaches. The results of this work show how critical modeling can be to reduce build test cycles, improve material choices, and guide mold design.

  7. Finite element analysis of ARPS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhkamp, J.D.; McDougal, J.R.; Kramer, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    Algor finite element software was used to determine the stresses and deflections in the metallic walls of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) designs. The preliminary design review of these systems often neglects the structural integrity of the design which can effect fabrication and the end use of the design. Before finite element analysis (FEA) was run on the canister walls of the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator, hand calculations were used to approximate the stresses and deflections in a flat plate. These results compared favorably to the FEA results of a similar size flat plate. The AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion) cells were analyzed by FEA and the results compared to two cells that were mechanically tested. The mechanically tested cells buckled in the thin sections, one at the top and one in the lower section. The FEA predicted similar stress and shape results but the critical buckling load was found to be very shape dependent

  8. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF A FREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the stairs and to compare the finite element ana ... tual three dimensional behavior of the stair slab system. ..... due to its close relation of output with the propo .... flights. It is best not to consider any open well when .... thermodynamics of solids.

  9. Hydrothermal analysis in engineering using control volume finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikholeslami, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Control volume finite element methods (CVFEM) bridge the gap between finite difference and finite element methods, using the advantages of both methods for simulation of multi-physics problems in complex geometries. In Hydrothermal Analysis in Engineering Using Control Volume Finite Element Method, CVFEM is covered in detail and applied to key areas of thermal engineering. Examples, exercises, and extensive references are used to show the use of the technique to model key engineering problems such as heat transfer in nanofluids (to enhance performance and compactness of energy systems),

  10. Determination of trace elements in chewing gum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Six trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest (Al, Ca, Cl, Mn, Na and Sr) were determined in three different brands of chewing gum by instrumental neutron activation analysis. For the particular brands of gum examined, none of the detected elements was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element for an American adult. (author) 11 refs.; 3 tabs

  11. The use of physical methods for elemental analysis of ecological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.I.; Zhuravleva, E.L.; Maslov, O.D.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of the application of difference X-ray and instrumental activation methods elemental analysis of rock ice, snow, water, soil and other natural samples was investigated. The content of some elements in ice samples from the glaciers of the Pamirs-Alaj mountain system for period 1973-1984 years has been determined. The recommendations for the choice of analysis methods with the aim of the environmental control have been given. (author). 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Analysis of toxical element in the whitening cream cosmetic samples using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Th Rina M; Sunarko

    2007-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been done to analyze of toxical elements that is not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. These samples have been randomly selected from the cosmetic market. The samples were irradiated at thermal neutron flux of 10"1"33n.cm"-"2s"-"1 in the irradiation facility of rabbit system in the RSG-GAS reactor Serpong. Counting of irradiated samples have been done by a high resolution HPGe detector couple to multichannel analyzer. Data have been analyzed by GENIE 2000. The sample have been qualitatively determined up to 19 elements. These elements are: As, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Rb, Th, IV, and Zn. The result of qualitative analysis showed that the toxical elements present in the samples are Hg, As, Cr and Sb with the following concentration ranges in μg/g 25.2-65.1, 1.0-6.3, 30.5-89.1 and 2.9-5.3, respectively and these element not allowed in the whitening cream cosmetic. Besides that, the others elements have been detected in the samples are Br, Fe, Zn, Sc and Co, with concentration ranges, 13.1-36.4, 65.6-159.3, 0.79-77.1, 0.5-19.5, and 6.8-31.7 μg/g, respectively, in the sample whitening cream cosmetic. (author)

  13. Elements of healthy death: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Rahimi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Death is a natural and frightening phenomenon, which is inevitable. Previous studies on death, which presented a negative and tedious image of this process, are now being revised and directed towards acceptable death and good death. One of the proposed terms about death and dying is "healthy death", which encourages dealing with death positively and leading a lively and happy life until the last moment. This study aimed to explain the views of Iranians about the elements of healthy death. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted for 12 months in two general hospitals in Tehran (capital of Iran), using the thematic analysis method. After conducting 23 in-depth interviews with 21 participants, transcription of content, and data immersion and analysis, themes, as the smallest meaningful units were extracted, encoded and classified. Results: One main category of healthy death with 10 subthemes, including dying at the right time, dying without hassle, dying without cost, dying without dependency and control, peaceful death, not having difficulty at dying, not dying alone and dying at home, inspired death, preplanned death, and presence of a clergyman or a priest, were extracted as the elements of healthy death from the perspective of the participants in this study. Conclusion: The study findings well explained the elements of healthy death. Paying attention to the conditions and factors causing healthy death by professionals and providing and facilitating quality services for patients in the end stage of life make it possible for patients to experience a healthy death.

  14. OXYGEN PRESSURE REGULATOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios KOSMARAS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen production centers produce oxygen in high pressure that needs to be defused. A regulator is designed and analyzed in the current paper for medical use in oxygen production centers. This study aims to design a new oxygen pressure regulator and perform an analysis using Finite Element Modeling in order to evaluate its working principle. In the design procedure,the main elements and the operating principles of a pressure regulator are taking into account. The regulator is designed and simulations take place in order to assessthe proposed design. Stress analysis results are presented for the main body of the regulator, as well as, flow analysis to determine some important flow characteristics in the inlet and outlet of the regulator.

  15. Some studies on light-element analysis with particle accelerators in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisach, M.; Pillay, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of elements in the range 1 ≤ Z ≤ is often difficult by most contemporary methods. The practical utility of various ion-beam techniques on light-element analysis is examined, and a comprehensive evaluation of the major analytical aspects on determinations of this nature, with particular reference to work done in South Africa, is provided. 40 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Electromagnetic analysis of control element drive mechanism for KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. M.; Kim, I. G.; Kim, I. Y.

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic jack type Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) is an electromechanical device which provides controlled linear motion to the Control Element Assembly (CEA) through the Extension Shaft Assembly (ESA) in response to operational signals received from the Control Element Drive Mechanism Control System (CEDMCS). The CEDM is operated by applying localized magnetic flux fields to movable latch and lift magnets, which are in the coolant pressure boundary. The CEDM design had been developed through electromechanical testing of the system including the magnetic force lifting the ESA. But it will be inefficient if parametric studies should be performed to improve the CEDM by test due to the consumption of high cost and long duration. So it becomes necessary to develop a computational model to simulate the electromagnetic characteristics of the CEDM to improve the CEDM design efficiently. In this paper, the electromagnetic analysis using a 2D finite element model has been carried out to simulate magnetic force of the lift magnet of the CEDM, to provide effective evaluation between leakage flux and lift force and to compare with test results. Analysis results show the lift force satisfied the test results and design requirement and the lift force depend on the shape of the components, leakage flux and B-H curve

  17. The platinum group elements and gold: analysis by radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis and relevance to geological exploration and related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, S; Plimer, I R [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of research conducted with the support of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, at the University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Radiochemical Neutron Activation Laboratory. The primary objective of this research is to realize the high potential of the platinum group elements (PGE) and gold to the solution of petrogenetic problems, the study of magma generation and magmatic processes in mafic/ultramafic rock suites, as tracers in hydrothermal ore formation. The PGEs (Os, Ru, Ir, Pt, Pd and Rh) are among the least abundant of all elements on earth with unique properties such as high melting points, high electrical and thermal conductivity, high density, strength and toughness as alloys. They exhibit both siderophile and chalcophile characteristics and are valuable tools in providing information about magmatic processes, in particular S-saturation, as well as crystal fractionation trends. Two distinct groups of PGEs are discerned; the IPGEs (Ru, Os, Ir) and the PPGEs (Pt, Pd, Rh, Au) on the basis of their behaviour during fractionation processes. Using chondrite normalized PGE patterns it is possible to distinguish between sulphides that segregated from primitive magmas, such as komatiites, and sulphides which segregated from more fractionated magmas, such as tholeiites. It is critical to the understanding of these processes to be able to analyse key elements, such as the PGE and gold, in the parts per billion to parts per trillion range. Platinum group elements and Au were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a modified NiS fire-assay preconcentration technique, adapted from procedures first used by Robert, R.V. D. and van Wyk, E. (1975) . Detection limits are generally 0.005-0.01 ppb (Au and Ir), 0.1-0.2 ppb (Pd and Pt), and 0.1-0.5 ppb for Ru. 9 refs.

  18. The platinum group elements and gold: analysis by radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis and relevance to geological exploration and related problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, S.; Plimer, I. R. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of research conducted with the support of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, at the University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Radiochemical Neutron Activation Laboratory. The primary objective of this research is to realize the high potential of the platinum group elements (PGE) and gold to the solution of petrogenetic problems, the study of magma generation and magmatic processes in mafic/ultramafic rock suites, as tracers in hydrothermal ore formation. The PGEs (Os, Ru, Ir, Pt, Pd and Rh) are among the least abundant of all elements on earth with unique properties such as high melting points, high electrical and thermal conductivity, high density, strength and toughness as alloys. They exhibit both siderophile and chalcophile characteristics and are valuable tools in providing information about magmatic processes, in particular S-saturation, as well as crystal fractionation trends. Two distinct groups of PGEs are discerned; the IPGEs (Ru, Os, Ir) and the PPGEs (Pt, Pd, Rh, Au) on the basis of their behaviour during fractionation processes. Using chondrite normalized PGE patterns it is possible to distinguish between sulphides that segregated from primitive magmas, such as komatiites, and sulphides which segregated from more fractionated magmas, such as tholeiites. It is critical to the understanding of these processes to be able to analyse key elements, such as the PGE and gold, in the parts per billion to parts per trillion range. Platinum group elements and Au were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a modified NiS fire-assay preconcentration technique, adapted from procedures first used by Robert, R.V. D. and van Wyk, E. (1975) . Detection limits are generally 0.005-0.01 ppb (Au and Ir), 0.1-0.2 ppb (Pd and Pt), and 0.1-0.5 ppb for Ru. 9 refs.

  19. The platinum group elements and gold: analysis by radiochemical and instrumental neutron activation analysis and relevance to geological exploration and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, S.; Plimer, I. R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of research conducted with the support of the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, at the University of Melbourne, School of Earth Sciences, Radiochemical Neutron Activation Laboratory. The primary objective of this research is to realize the high potential of the platinum group elements (PGE) and gold to the solution of petrogenetic problems, the study of magma generation and magmatic processes in mafic/ultramafic rock suites, as tracers in hydrothermal ore formation. The PGEs (Os, Ru, Ir, Pt, Pd and Rh) are among the least abundant of all elements on earth with unique properties such as high melting points, high electrical and thermal conductivity, high density, strength and toughness as alloys. They exhibit both siderophile and chalcophile characteristics and are valuable tools in providing information about magmatic processes, in particular S-saturation, as well as crystal fractionation trends. Two distinct groups of PGEs are discerned; the IPGEs (Ru, Os, Ir) and the PPGEs (Pt, Pd, Rh, Au) on the basis of their behaviour during fractionation processes. Using chondrite normalized PGE patterns it is possible to distinguish between sulphides that segregated from primitive magmas, such as komatiites, and sulphides which segregated from more fractionated magmas, such as tholeiites. It is critical to the understanding of these processes to be able to analyse key elements, such as the PGE and gold, in the parts per billion to parts per trillion range. Platinum group elements and Au were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a modified NiS fire-assay preconcentration technique, adapted from procedures first used by Robert, R.V. D. and van Wyk, E. (1975) . Detection limits are generally 0.005-0.01 ppb (Au and Ir), 0.1-0.2 ppb (Pd and Pt), and 0.1-0.5 ppb for Ru. 9 refs

  20. Assessment of non-linear analysis finite element program (NONSAP) for inelastic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.Y.; Prachuktam, S.; Reich, M.

    1976-11-01

    An assessment on a nonlinear structural analysis finite element program called NONSAP is given with respect to its inelastic analysis capability for pressure vessels and components. The assessment was made from the review of its theoretical basis and bench mark problem runs. It was found that NONSAP has only limited capability for inelastic analysis. However, the program was written flexible enough that it can be easily extended or modified to suit the user's need. Moreover, some of the numerical difficulties in using NONSAP are pointed out

  1. Trace elements in Turkish tobacco determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelovali, M.C.; Guenduez, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concentration of 20 trace elements in nine brands of Turkish cigarette tobacco and in a brand of pipe tobacco ash has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The percent transference of elements into smoke has been estimated from the amounts remaining in the ash. (author)

  2. The distinct element analysis for swelling pressure test of bentonite. Discussion on the effects of wall friction force and aspect ratio of specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Hirohito; Fujita, Tomoo; Tanai, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    For geological isolation systems for radioactive waste, bentonite based material is assumed to be used as a buffer material. The swelling characteristics of the bentonite based material are expected to fill up the void space around the radioactive wastes by swelling. In general, swelling characteristics and properties of bentonite are evaluated by the laboratory tests. However, due to the lack of standardization of testing method for bentonite, the accuracy and reproducibility of the testing results are not sufficiently proved. In this study, bentonite swelling pressure test were simulated by newly developed Distinct Element Method (DEM) code, and the effects of wall friction force and aspect ratio of bentonite specimen were discussed. As a result, the followings were found. In the beginning of the swelling pressure test, since swelling occurs only around the fluid injection side of the specimen, wall friction force acts only in the swelling area and the specimen moves to opposite side from fluid injection side. However, when the entire specimen started swelling, displacement of the specimen prevented by the wall friction force, and the specimen is pressed against the pressure measurement side. Then, the swelling pressure measured on the pressure measurement side increases. Such displacement in the specimen is significantly affected by the decreasing of mechanical properties and the difference of saturation in the bentonite specimen during the fluid infiltration. Moreover, when the aspect ratio of the specimen is large, the displacement of the particle in the specimen becomes large and the area on which the wall frictional force acts is also large. Therefore, measured swelling pressure increases more greatly as the aspect ratio of the specimen increases. To contributes to the standardization of laboratory test methods for bentonite, these effects of wall friction force revealed by the DEM simulation should be verified through laboratory experiments. (author)

  3. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, K.; Takahashi, A.; Ando, H.

    2010-01-01

    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  4. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  5. Electromagnetic analysis of locking device for SMART control element drive mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Kim, J. I.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-09-01

    A numerical electromagnetic analysis was performed for the control rod locking device which is installed in the control element drive mechanism of integral reactor, SMART. A plunger model for the electromagnetic analysis of the locking device was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to plunger pushing force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analysing the trend of the plunger pushing force with finite element method. 8 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  6. Determination of toxic elements in tobacco products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of 15 elements in various brands of cigarette tobacco and cigarette wrapping paper were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The paper of some of the brands contains higher concentrations of toxic elements than the tobacco. The cigarette filter and the ash were also analyzed to determine the adsorption of toxic elements on the filter and their transference in smoke. The toxic effects of some of the elements have been briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Dissipation element analysis of turbulent scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lipo; Peters, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Dissipation element analysis is a new approach for studying turbulent scalar fields. Gradient trajectories starting from each material point in a scalar field Φ'(x-vector,t) in ascending directions will inevitably reach a maximal and a minimal point. The ensemble of material points sharing the same pair ending points is named a dissipation element. Dissipation elements can be parameterized by the length scale l and the scalar difference Δφ ', which are defined as the straight line connecting the two extremal points and the scalar difference at these points, respectively. The decomposition of a turbulent field into dissipation elements is space-filling. This allows us to reconstruct certain statistical quantities of fine scale turbulence which cannot be obtained otherwise. The marginal probability density function (PDF) of the length scale distribution based on a Poisson random cutting-reconnection process shows satisfactory agreement with the direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. In order to obtain the further information that is needed for the modeling of scalar mixing in turbulence, such as the marginal PDF of the length of elements and all conditional moments as well as their scaling exponents, there is a need to model the joint PDF of l and Δφ ' as well. A compensation-defect model is put forward in this work to show the dependence of Δφ ' on l. The agreement between the model prediction and DNS results is satisfactory, which may provide another explanation of the Kolmogorov scaling and help to improve turbulent mixing models. Furthermore, intermittency and cliff structure can also be related to and explained from the joint PDF.

  8. [Content of mineral elements of Gastrodia elata by principal components analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-ling; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Hong-chang; Luo, Chun-li; Huang, Ming-jin; Luo, Fu-lai; Wang, Hua-lei

    2015-03-01

    To study the content of mineral elements and the principal components in Gastrodia elata. Mineral elements were determined by ICP and the data was analyzed by SPSS. K element has the highest content-and the average content was 15.31 g x kg(-1). The average content of N element was 8.99 g x kg(-1), followed by K element. The coefficient of variation of K and N was small, but the Mn was the biggest with 51.39%. The highly significant positive correlation was found among N, P and K . Three principal components were selected by principal components analysis to evaluate the quality of G. elata. P, B, N, K, Cu, Mn, Fe and Mg were the characteristic elements of G. elata. The content of K and N elements was higher and relatively stable. The variation of Mn content was biggest. The quality of G. elata in Guizhou and Yunnan was better from the perspective of mineral elements.

  9. Electromagnetic and thermal analysis of electromagnet for SMART control element drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, H.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. W.; Kim, J. I.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical electromagnetic and thermal analysis was performed for the electromagnet which is installed in the control element drive mechanism(CEDM) of the integral reactor SMART. A model for the electromagnetic analysis of the electromagnet was developed and theoretical bases for the model were established. Design parameters related to thrust force were identified, and the optimum design point was determined by analyzing the trend of the magnetic saturation with finite element method. Also It is important that the temperature of the electomagnet windings be maintained within the allowable limit of the insulation, since the electromagnet of CEDM is always supplied with current during the reactor operation. So the thermal analysis of the winding insulation which is composed of polyimide and air were performed by finite element method. The electromagnetic and thermal properties obtained here will be used as input for the optimization analysis of the electromagnet

  10. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa K. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is to develop a numerical model suitable for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete shells. A nine-node Lagrangian element Figure (1 with enhanced shear interpolation will be used in this study. Table (1 describes shape functions and their derivatives of this element.An assumed transverse shear strain is used in the formulation of this element to overcome shear locking. Degenerated quadratic thick plate elements employing a layered discrelization through the thickness will be adopted. Different numbers of layers for different thickness can be used per element. A number of layers between (6 and 10 have proved to be appropriate to represent the nonlinear material behavior in structures. In this research 8 layers will be adequate. Material nonlinearities due to cracking of concrete, plastic flow or crushing of concrete in compression and yield condition of reinforcing steel are considered. The maximum tensile strength is used as a criterion for crack initiation. Attention is given to the tension stiffening phenomenon and the degrading effect of cracking on the compressive and shear strength of concrete. Perfect bond between concrete and steel is assumed. Attention is given also to geometric nonlinearities. An example have been chosen in order to demonstrate the suitability of the models by comparing the predicted behaviour with the experimental results for shell exhibiting various modes of failure.

  11. Network application of PIXE trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizeki, T.; Kawasaki, K.; Hattori, T.

    2003-01-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is a very sensitive analytical technique for determinations of trace elements. But the number of users is limited because there are not so much accelerators which can be used easily. On the other hand, PIXE is a typical machine analysis which can easily analyze automatically and make online data acquisition system. If there is useful online data handling system then PIXE analysis should be more useful for many persons. Therefore we develop to online PIXE facility at Tokyo Institute of Technology VdG laboratory and use it for environmental educations. (author)

  12. Advanced neutron source reactor conceptual safety analysis report, three-element-core design: Chapter 15, accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L.; Harrington, R.M.

    1996-02-01

    In order to utilize reduced enrichment fuel, the three-element-core design for the Advanced Neutron Source has been proposed. The proposed core configuration consists of inner, middle, and outer elements, with the middle element offset axially beneath the inner and outer elements, which are axially aligned. The three-element-core RELAP5 model assumes that the reactor hardware is changed only within the core region, so that the loop piping, heat exchangers, and pumps remain as assumed for the two-element-core configuration. To assess the impact of changes in the core region configuration and the thermal-hydraulic steady-state conditions, the safety analysis has been updated. This report gives the safety margins for the loss-of-off-site power and pressure-boundary fault accidents based on the RELAP5 results. AU margins are greater for the three-element-core simulations than those calculated for the two-element core

  13. Behavior of radon, chemical compounds and stable elements in underground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, N.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, M.B.E.; Pena, P.; Armienta, M.A.; Godinez, L.; Seidel, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The radon behavior, chemical compounds, major and trace elements in water samples of four springs and three wells of urban and agricultural zones around the Jocotitlan volcano and El Oro region was determined, both of them located in the medium part of the Mexican neo-volcanic axis. The 222 Rn was measured by the liquid scintillation method, the analysis of major components was realized with conventional chemical techniques, while the trace elements were quantified using an Icp-Ms. The average values of the radon concentrations obtained during one year were constant relatively, in an interval from 0.97 to 4.99 Bq/lt indicating a fast transport from the reload area toward the sampling points. the compounds, major and trace elements showed differences which indicate distinct origins of water from the site studies. (Author)

  14. Element Interactivity and Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive load theory, element interactivity has been used as the basic, defining mechanism of intrinsic cognitive load for many years. In this article, it is suggested that element interactivity underlies extraneous cognitive load as well. By defining extraneous cognitive load in terms of element interactivity, a distinct relation between…

  15. Confocal (micro)-XRF for 3D analysis of elements distribution in hot environmental particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielewski, M.; Eriksson, M.; Himbert, J.; Simon, R.; Betti, M.; Hamilton, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the fate and transport of radioactive contaminates in the environment are often constrained by a lack of knowledge on the elemental distribution and general behavior of particulate bound radionuclides contained in hot particles. A number of hot particles were previously isolated from soil samples collected at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands and characterized using non-destructive techniques [1]. The present investigation at HASYLAB is a part of larger research program at ITU regarding the characterization of environmental radioactive particles different locations and source-terms. Radioactive particles in the environment are formed under a number of different release scenarios and, as such, their physicochemical properties may provide a basis for identifying source-term specific contamination regimes. Consequently, studies on hot particles are not only important in terms of studying the elemental composition and geochemical behavior of hot particles but may also lead to advances in assessing the long-term impacts of radioactive contamination on the environment. Six particles isolated from soil samples collected at the Marshall Islands were studied. The element distribution in the particles was determined by confocal (micro)-XRF analysis using the ANKA FLUO beam line. The CRL (compound refractive lens) was used to focus the exciting beam and the polycapillary half lens to collimate the detector. The dimensions of confocal spot were measured by 'knife edge scanning' method with thin gold structure placed at Si wafer. The values of 3.1 x 1.4 x 18.4 (micro)m were achieved if defined as FWHMs of measured L?intensity profiles and when the19.1 keV exciting radiation was used. The collected XRF spectra were analyzed offline with AXIL [2] software to obtain net intensities of element characteristic lines.Further data processing and reconstruction of element distribution was done with the software 'R' [3] dedicated for statistical

  16. Finite element analysis of nonlinear creeping flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1988-12-01

    Steady-state creep problems with monotone constitutive laws are studied. Finite element approximations are constructed based on mixed Petrov-Galerkin formulations for constrained problems. Stability, convergence and a priori error estimates are proved for equal-order discontinuous stress and continuous velocity interpolations. Numerical results are presented confirming the rates of convergence predicted in the analysis and the good performance of this formulation. (author) [pt

  17. Evaluation of seismic effects on the landslide deposits of Monte Salta (Eastern Italian Alps using distinct element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Marcato

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the modelling of the ground effects of seismic waves on a large debris deposit lying on a steep mountain slope, with particular attention paid to the potential triggering of slope movements.

    The study site is a mass of 2.5 million m3 rock fall deposit, named "Monte Salta Landslide", located on the northern slope of the Vajont valley, at the border between Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions in north-eastern Italy.

    Several historical landslide events were reported in the area in the past, first one dating back to the 17th century. The landslide deposit completely mantles the slope with a thick cover of rock blocks.

    The Mt. Salta landslide is conditioned by the presence of Mt. Borgà regional thrust, which uplifts Jurassic limestone on the top of Cretaceous rock units. Above the thrust zone, folded and highly fractured rock mass dips steeply towards the slope free face, producing highly unstable setting.

    The study area has been classified as high seismic hazard and different vulnerable elements can be affected by the remobilisation of debris, among which a village, a national road and a big quarry that was opened, with the intent to exploit the part of the landslide deposit for construction purposes.

    In this study, numerical analysis was performed, to simulate the slope behaviour using distinct element method and applying UDEC code. The 2-D models were built on three cross-sections and elasto-plastic behaviour was assumed, both for rock matrix and discontinuities. The earthquake effect was modelled in pseudo-dynamic way, i.e. by magnifying the acceleration and applying also its horizontal component. The expected seismic acceleration in the study area was calculated on the basis of previous studies as equal to 0.28 g.

    The results proved that the increase of the vertical component alone has a small influence on the deformational behaviour of the

  18. Group Frames With Few Distinct Inner Products and Low Coherence

    KAUST Repository

    Thill, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Frame theory has been a popular subject in the design of structured signals and codes in recent years, with applications ranging from the design of measurement matrices in compressive sensing, to spherical codes for data compression and data transmission, to spacetime codes for MIMO communications, and to measurement operators in quantum sensing. High-performance codes usually arise from designing frames whose elements have mutually low coherence. Building off the original “group frame” design of Slepian which has since been elaborated in the works of Vale and Waldron, we present several new frame constructions based on cyclic and generalized dihedral groups. Slepian\\'s original construction was based on the premise that group structure allows one to reduce the number of distinct inner pairwise inner products in a frame with n elements from [(n(n-1))/2] to n-1. All of our constructions further utilize the group structure to produce tight frames with even fewer distinct inner product values between the frame elements. When n is prime, for example, we use cyclic groups to construct m-dimensional frame vectors with at most [(n-1)/m] distinct inner products. We use this behavior to bound the coherence of our frames via arguments based on the frame potential, and derive even tighter bounds from combinatorial and algebraic arguments using the group structure alone. In certain cases, we recover well-known Welch bound achieving frames. In cases where the Welch bound has not been achieved, and is not known to be achievable, we obtain frames with close to Welch bound performance.

  19. PLANS; a finite element program for nonlinear analysis of structures. Volume 2: User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifko, A.; Armen, H., Jr.; Levy, A.; Levine, H.

    1977-01-01

    The PLANS system, rather than being one comprehensive computer program, is a collection of finite element programs used for the nonlinear analysis of structures. This collection of programs evolved and is based on the organizational philosophy in which classes of analyses are treated individually based on the physical problem class to be analyzed. Each of the independent finite element computer programs of PLANS, with an associated element library, can be individually loaded and used to solve the problem class of interest. A number of programs have been developed for material nonlinear behavior alone and for combined geometric and material nonlinear behavior. The usage, capabilities, and element libraries of the current programs include: (1) plastic analysis of built-up structures where bending and membrane effects are significant, (2) three dimensional elastic-plastic analysis, (3) plastic analysis of bodies of revolution, and (4) material and geometric nonlinear analysis of built-up structures.

  20. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  1. Theoretical basis for a transient thermal elastic-plastic stress analysis of nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T.R.; Bertels, A.W.M.; Banerjee, S.; Harrison, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical basis for a transient thermal elastic-plastic stress analysis of a nuclear reactor fuel element subject to severe transient thermo-mechanical loading. A finite element formulation is used for both the non-linear stress analysis and thermal analysis. These two major components are linked together to form an integrated program capable of predicting fuel element transient behaviour in two dimensions. Specific case studies are presented to illustrate capabilities of the analysis. (author)

  2. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Pull-Out Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottesen, N

    1981-01-01

    A specific pull-out test used to determine in-situ concrete compressive strength is analyzed. This test consists of a steel disc that is extracted from the structure. The finite element analysis considers cracking as well as strain hardening and softening in the pre- and post-failure region...

  3. Multi-element trace analysis of solid samples using one-photon two-step RIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, H. H.; Abraham, C. J.; Jones, O. R.; Krustev, T.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the feasibility of multi-element analysis using a simple 1+1 photo-excitation/photo-ionization scheme. Although such schemes are usually far from ideal for optimum resonance ionization, they are the approach of choice if one wishes to maintain a simple, easy-to-operate laser set-up which is potentially suitable for routine analysis. In addition, we only made use of the second-harmonic tuning range of a single dye. While this limits the range of elements which are accessible in the 1+1 RIS scheme it further adds to the simplicity and allows for automation of sequential multi-element analysis

  4. Sensitivity analysis overlaps of friction elements in cartridge seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žmindák Milan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartridge seals are self-contained units consisting of a shaft sleeve, seals, and gland plate. The applications of mechanical seals are numerous. The most common example of application is in bearing production for automobile industry. This paper deals with the sensitivity analysis of overlaps friction elements in cartridge seal and their influence on the friction torque sealing and compressive force. Furthermore, it describes materials for the manufacture of sealings, approaches usually used to solution of hyperelastic materials by FEM and short introduction into the topic wheel bearings. The practical part contains one of the approach for measurement friction torque, which results were used to specifying the methodology and precision of FEM calculation realized by software ANSYS WORKBENCH. This part also contains the sensitivity analysis of overlaps friction elements.

  5. A new discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin element based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory and assumed shear strain fields. I - An extended DKT element for thick-plate bending analysis. II - An extended DKQ element for thick-plate bending analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katili, Irwan

    1993-06-01

    A new three-node nine-degree-of-freedom triangular plate bending element is proposed which is valid for the analysis of both thick and thin plates. The element, called the discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin triangle (DKMT), has a proper rank, passes the patch test for thin and thick plates in an arbitrary mesh, and is free of shear locking. As an extension of the DKMT element, a four-node element with 3 degrees of freedom per node is developed. The element, referred to as DKMQ (discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin quadrilateral) is found to provide good results for both thin and thick plates without any compatibility problems.

  6. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw, E-mail: anna.szymczycha@pwr.wroc.pl [Wroclaw University of Technology, Chemistry Department, Analytical Chemistry Division, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL{sup -1} Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  7. Multi-element analysis, bioavailability and fractionation of herbal tea products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna; Welna, Maja; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw

    2013-01-01

    Herbal teas (Mentha piperitae foliumand mixture Marticaria chamomilla flos with Lavandula officinalis flos) were compared considering the total contents of micro (Al, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V) and macro (C, H, N, S, Ca, Mg, P) elements, bioavailability and fractionation. Different methods (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and CHNS elemental analysis) were applied. The microwave-assisted digestion procedure was found to be more effective than the hot-plate heating for the wet acid digestion of tea. The application of the modified BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction procedure exhibited differences in the concentrations of metal bound to reducible and oxidizable fractions. The accuracy of method was verified by analysis of certified reference material INCT-TL -1 Tea Leaves. The daily intake of all elements from the analyzed herbal tea infusion did not exceed the maximum permissible levels and does not constitute health risk. (author)

  8. Finite element analysis of inelastic structural behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argyris, J.H.; Szimmat, J.; Willam, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes recent achievements in the finite element analysis of inelastic material behavior. The main purpose is to examine the interaction of three disciplines; (i) the finite element formulation of large deformation problems in the light of a systematic linearization, (ii) the constitutive modelling of inelastic processes in the rate-dependent and rate-independent response regime and (iii) the numerical solution of nonlinear rate problems via incremental iteration techniques. In the first part, alternative finite element models are developed for the idealization of large deformation problems. A systematic approach is presented to linearize the field equations locally by an incremental procedure. The finite element formulation is then examined for the description of inelastic material processes. In the second part, nonlinear and inelastic material phenomena are classified and illustrated with representative examples of concrete and metal components. In particular, rate-dependent and rate-independent material behavior is examined and representative constitutive models are assessed for their mathematical characterization. Hypoelastic, elastoplastic and endochronic models are compared for the description rate-independent material phenomena. In the third part, the numerial solution of inelastic structural behavior is discussed. In this context, several incremental techniques are developed and compared for tracing the evolution of the inelastic process. The numerical procedures are examined with regard to stability and accuracy to assess the overall efficiency. The 'optimal' incremental technique is then contrasted with the computer storage requirements to retain the data for the 'memory-characteristics' of the constitutive model

  9. Dynamic analysis and application of fuel elements pneumatic transportation in a pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongbing; Du, Dong; Han, Zandong; Zou, Yirong; Pan, Jiluan

    2015-01-01

    Almost 10,000 spherical fuel elements are transported pneumatically one by one in the pipeline outside the core of a pebble bed reactor every day. Any failure in the transportation will lead to the shutdown of the reactor, even safety accidents. In order to ensure a stable and reliable transportation, it's of great importance to analyze the motion and force condition of the fuel element. In this paper, we focus on the dynamic analysis of the pneumatic transportation of the fuel element and derive kinetic equations. Then we introduce the design of the transportation pipeline. On this basis we calculate some important data such as the velocity of the fuel element, the force between the fuel element and the pipeline and the efficiency of the pneumatic transportation. Then we analyze these results and provide some suggestions for the design of the pipeline. The experiment was carried out on an experimental platform. The velocities of the fuel elements were measured. The experimental results were consistent with and validated the theoretical analysis. The research may offer the basis for the design of the transportation pipeline and the optimization of the fuel elements transportation in a pebble bed reactor. - Highlights: • The kinetic equations of the fuel element in pneumatic transportation are derived. • The dynamic characteristics of the fuel element are analyzed. • Some important parameters are calculated based on the kinetic equations. • The experimental results were consistent with the analysis and verified the analysis. • This paper may offer an important guide to the research of a pebble bed reactor

  10. Piezoelectric Analysis of Saw Sensor Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír KUTIŠ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution modeling and simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW sensor using finite element method will be presented. SAW sensor is made from piezoelectric GaN layer and SiC substrate. Two different analysis types are investigated - modal and transient. Both analyses are only 2D. The goal of modal analysis, is to determine the eigenfrequency of SAW, which is used in following transient analysis. In transient analysis, wave propagation in SAW sensor is investigated. Both analyses were performed using FEM code ANSYS.

  11. PHARMACOPOEIA METHODS FOR ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF MEDICINES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana M. Derkach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of quality assurance of medicinal products, namely the determination of elemental impurity concentration compared to permitted daily exposures for and the correct choice analytical methods that are adequate to the formulated tasks. The paper goal is to compare characteristics of four analytical methods recommended by the Pharmacopoeia of various countries to control the content of elemental impurities in medicines, including medicinal plant raw materials and herbal medicines. Both advantages and disadvantages were described for atomic absorption spectroscopy with various atomising techniques, as well as atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The choice of the most rational analysis method depends on a research task and is reasoned from the viewpoint of analytical objectives, possible complications, performance attributes, and economic considerations. The methods of ICP-MS and GFAAS were shown to provide the greatest potential for determining the low and ultra-low concentrations of chemical elements in medicinal plants and herbal medicinal products. The other two methods, FAAS and ICP-AES, are limited to the analysis of the main essential elements and the largest impurities. The ICP-MS is the most efficient method for determining ultra-low concentrations. However, the interference of mass peaks is typical for ICP-MS. It is formed not only by impurities but also by polyatomic ions with the participation of argon, as well as atoms of gases from the air (C, N and O or matrices (O, N, H, P, S and Cl. Therefore, a correct sample preparation, which guarantees minimisation of impurity contamination and loss of analytes becomes the most crucial stage of analytical applications of ICP-MS. The detections limits for some chemical elements, which content is regulated in modern Pharmacopoeia, were estimated for each method and analysis conditions of medicinal plant raw

  12. Qualitative PIXE analysis of mineral elements in some dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E.A.; Iordan, Andreea; Harangus, Livia; Ciortea, C.; Gugiu, M.; Moldovan, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Dental composites, made by particles of glass, ceramics and quartz embedded in an organic polymer, develop at a high rate. However, commercial composites are expensive and recently the 'Restacril' biomaterials company became prepared to offer a low-cost alternative. The durability of dental fillings depends not only on biomaterial's gross chemical composition, but also on impurities. These may influence the chemical, mechanical and surface properties of the inorganic particles and modify the composites' clinical behavior. Thus elemental analysis is necessary to improve the biomaterials' quality. Nuclear and atomic methods allow sensitive multielement detection, and we previously analyzed some commercial composites by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Here we applied PIXE in the qualitative analysis of six new Romanian biomaterials, aiming to compare their nominal and detected composition and paying attention to the impurities. The PIXE measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons at the 8.5 MV NIPNE-HH tandem accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector, normal to the beam and connected to a multichannel analyzer and to a computer. Solid samples of composites with a flat surface were fixed at 45 angle, absorber foil of Al 30 mm thick was used, and integration of beam current was done. In all composites PIXE detected mineral elements with Z > 19 down to trace levels. All major nominal elements with Z > 20 - Ca, Sr, Zr, Ba, and Yb - were detected by PIXE. In addition, many minor and trace elements absent from the nominal formulations were seen, including K, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ag, Cd, Hf, and As/Pb. Such impurities may come from rough materials and preparative technologies. The impurities in Romanian composites are comparable to those in some commercial biomaterials but higher than in other ones. Thus PIXE analysis of mineral elements in Romanian composites, even qualitative, appears useful for quality control and improvement. (authors)

  13. Survey of trace elements in coals and coal-related materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, R.R.; Cahill, R.A.; Frost, J.K.; Camp, L.R.; Gluskoter, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing primarily instrumental neutron activation analysis and other analytical methods such as neutron-activation analysis with radiochemical separation, emission spectrochemical analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, ion-selective electrode analysis, and American Society for Testing of Materials procedures (ASTM), as many as 61 elements were quantitatively surveyed in 170 U.S. whole coals, 70 washed coals, and 40 bench samples. Data on areal and vertical distributions in various regions were obtained along with extensive information on the mode of occurence of various elements in the coal matrix itself. Efforts have been made to attain the maximal accuracy and precision possible for a wide variety of elements in the inhomogeneous coal matrix. (T.G.)

  14. Neutron activation analysis of lichens for atmospheric pollution study in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuga, Alessandra; Saiki, Mitiko; Marcelli, Marcelo P.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the elements accumulated in samples of Canoparmelia texana, a specie of lichen, collected in regions with different levels of pollution: Intervales State Park, an area considered non polluted that belongs to Atlantic Forest ecosystem and distinct sites in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo city. The results obtained in the analysis showed that samples collected in the clean area indicated lower concentrations of elements than those obtained for samples from metropolitan region. The concentrations of the elements Ba, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and Zn were obtained at μg g -1 levels and the elements As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, La, Sb, Sc, Se and U at ng g -1 levels. Cluster analysis was applied to classify into distinct groups the sites using the element concentrations in these samples. The accuracy and precision of the results were evaluated by IAEA 336 Lichen reference material analysis and the data given for this material were in agreement with certified values with relative standard deviations lower than 11,4%. (author)

  15. Costs of Quality: Exploratory Analysis of Hidden Elements and Prioritization using Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailaja A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cost of Quality analysis is emerged as an effective tool for the industrial managers for pinpointing the deficiencies in the system as well as for identifying the improvement areas by highlighting the cost reduction opportunities. However , this analysis will be fully effective only if it is further extended to identify the cost incurred in ensuring quality in all areas of the supply chain including the hidden costs and costs of missed out opportunities. Most of the hidden elements of quality costs are difficult to track and not accounted by the traditional accounting tools. An exploratory analysis is made in this research to identify the hidden elements of quality costs in manufacturing industry. Further, the identified cost elements are classified into various groups for better analysis and, finally, prioritized to identify the vital few among them. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique which is one of the most popular Multi Criteria Decision Method (MCDM and Pareto analysis were used in this study for prioritizing the hidden quality cost elements based on their degree of impact on overall cost of quality. By this analysis, the key cost elements which are to be addressed to reduce the overall cost of quality are identified.

  16. Efficient Fatigue Analysis of Helix Elements in Umbilicals and Flexible Risers: Theory and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Skeie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue analysis of structural components such as helix tensile armors and steel tubes is a critical design issue for dynamic umbilicals and flexible pipes. The basis for assessment of fatigue damage of such elements is the long-term stress cycle distribution at critical locations on the helix elements caused by long-term environmental loading on the system. The long-term stress cycle distribution will hence require global dynamic time domain analysis followed by a detailed cross-sectional analysis in a large number of irregular sea states. An overall computational consistent and efficient fatigue analysis scheme is outlined with due regard of the cross-sectional analysis technique required for fatigue stress calculation with particular attention to the helix elements. The global cross-section is exposed to pure bending, tensile, torsion, and pressure loading. The state of the different cross-section elements is based on the global response. Special emphasis is placed on assessment of friction stresses caused by the stick-slip behavior of helix elements in bending that are of special importance for fatigue life assessments. The described cross-sectional analysis techniques are based on an extensive literature survey and are hence considered to represent industry consensus. The performance of the described calculation scheme is illustrated by case studies.

  17. The nonlinear finite element analysis program NUCAS (NUclear Containment Analysis System) for reinforced concrete containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Lee, Hong Pyo; Seo, Jeong Moon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The maim goal of this research is to develop a nonlinear finite element analysis program NUCAS to accurately predict global and local failure modes of containment building subjected to internal pressure. In this report, we describe the techniques we developed throught this research. An adequate model to the analysis of containment building such as microscopic material model is adopted and it applied into the development Reissner-Mindlin degenerated shell element. To avoid finite element deficiencies, the substitute strains based on the assumed strain method is used in the shell formulation. Arc-length control method is also adopted to fully trace the peak load-displacement path due to crack formation. In addition, a benchmark test suite is developed to investigate the performance of NUCAS and proposed as the future benchmark tests for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete. Finally, the input format of NUCAS and the examples of input/output file are described. 39 refs., 65 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  18. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  19. Analysis of oil shale and oil shale products for certain minor elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Purdy, M.; Doerges, J.E.; Ryan, V.A.; Poulson, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The University of Wyoming was contracted by the Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Research Center (LERC) to develop rapid, inexpensive, and simple methods of quantitative and qualitative elemental analysis for products used and generated in the simulated in-situ retorting of oil shale. Alpha particle spectrometry was used to determine the radioisotope content of the aqueous retort products. Alpha particles are mono-energetic and the spectrometry method employed had very low background levels (1 count per 2000 seconds). These factors allow for both the quantitative and qualitative analysis of natural radioisotopes at the 1 ppm level. Sample preparation does not require any chemical treatment. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for the multi-element analysis of the retort products. The XRF, integrated with a mini-computer, allows rapid analysis of several elements in multiple samples. XRF samples require minimal amounts of preparation and analytical results are highly reproducible. This paper presents the methods developed and preliminary analytical results from oil shale by-products. Results from the analysis of oil shale rocks are not yet ready for presentation

  20. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements evaluation of human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, K.P.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective pursued in this study is to establish the base-line data on the status of elemental composition in human milk from Pakistani subjects of Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) methodology was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 18 minor and trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in human milk. This methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. The data provide the base-line values of these elements in human milk of low- and medium-income group subjects of the region. The results obtained show good compatibility with the data reported by the WHO on elemental composition of human milk from different geological regions. (orig.)

  1. Failure analysis for WWER-fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmert, J.; Huettig, W.

    1986-10-01

    If the fuel defect rate proves significantly high, failure analysis has to be performed in order to trace down the defect causes, to implement corrective actions, and to take measures of failure prevention. Such analyses are work-consuming and very skill-demanding technical tasks, which require examination methods and devices excellently developed and a rich stock of experience in evaluation of features of damage. For that this work specifies the procedure of failure analyses in detail. Moreover prerequisites and experimental equipment for the investigation of WWER-type fuel elements are described. (author)

  2. Biological reference materials and analysis of toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, R; Sukumar, A

    1988-12-01

    Biological monitoring of toxic metal pollution in the environment requires quality control analysis with use of standard reference materials. A variety of biological tissues are increasingly used for analysis of element bioaccumulation, but the available Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are insufficient. An attempt is made to review the studies made using biological reference materials for animal and human tissues. The need to have inter-laboratory studies and CRM in the field of biological monitoring of toxic metals is also discussed.

  3. Finite element analysis of thermal stress distribution in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Feb 2016 • Vol 19 • Issue 1. Abstract ... Key words: Amalgam, finite element method, glass ionomer cement, resin composite, thermal stress ... applications for force analysis and assessment of different.

  4. Determination of trace elements in cigarette and tobacco by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the concentration of 22 trace elements in cigarette and tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis in which multielements can be analyzed simultaneously with high sensitivity and reliability as well as easy and rapid. It is well known that, trace toxic elements with high concentration may be harmful for health of smokers. Since they might damage the respiratory system and might cause other diseases. The finding for this report can be used as the basis of further study on toxic of trace elements to the smoker. The results of this analysis show that the bromine content in all samples is significantly high, but the concentration of the other elements are varying from one to another. Bromine concentration might come from soil and/or smoked tobacco leaves with methyl bromide as fungicide

  5. Method to determine trace elements in water samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, G.; Erdtmann, G.

    1981-05-01

    For the determination of trace elements in water by neutron activation analysis irradiation porcedures and chemical separation procedures have been developed. Irradiation in melted quarz glass ampoules in the presence of a platinum wire (for recombination of the oxyhydrogen gas produced by radiolysis) proved successfull with different variants of the irradiation methods, as long irradiation periods without pressure build-up could be achieved. Possible falsifications of the analysis results were investigated in detail (losses by absorption on vessel walls etc.). The irradiated samples can be measured directly with a gamma ray spectrometer and from the radionuclides found the trace element contents may be calculated. More sensitive determinations are possible if the radionuclides are chemically separated. Procedures for removing the matrix activities, for the separation of the radionuclides in groups of elements and for the isolation of single elements have been developed. For especially sensitive determination of some elements selective separation procedures for antimony, cadmium, selenium, mercury and uranium have been developed. The analytical procedures described have been applied to trace element determinations in river water, glacier ice and water solutions from technical processes. (orig./RB) [de

  6. Complex of the equipment for instrumental element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, G.I.; Komkov, M.M.; Kuz'michev, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Complex of the equipment for instrumental element analysis at the IR-8 reactor is designed, fabricated and taken into operation. The complex is provided with a multichannel system of vacuum pneumatic transport with radiation positions in the reactor horizontal tangential channel for neutron-activation analysis by short-lived isotopes; specialized dry vertical channels in a beryllium reflector of the reactor and remote system of radioactive sample replacement for neutron-activation analysis by long-lived isotopes; a specialized horizontal tangential channel for neutron beam extraction by means of a beryllium converter and remote device for studied sample replacement under radiation and measurement of prompt γ-radiation for neutron-radiation analysis; a measuring center using minicomputers for experimental data accumulation and processing and analysis control

  7. Elemental analysis of coal by proton-induced x-ray emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronch, S.M.; Ehmann, W.D.; Laumer, H.W.; Gabbard, F.

    1976-01-01

    Proton-induced x-ray emission was used to determine elemental concentrations in solid coal samples. The coal samples were irradiated with 2.5 to 5.5 MeV protons. Concentrations were determined from characteristic x-ray yields taking into account matrix absorption. The precision is shown by replicate analysis and the accuracy by comparison with results obtained by other laboratories using different techniques

  8. Study on the dynamics of halogen elements in the agro-environment and these element`s deficiency, toxicity and environmental hazards by the application of the neutron activation analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuita, Kouichi [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    A neutron activation analysis method is an accurate and highly sensitive method for analyzing halogen elements (iodine, bromine and chlorine) except fluorine. It is unsubstitutable and valuable method especially for iodine (including radioactive {sup 129}I) and bromine which are present at lower levels. Halogen elements have high chemical and physiological activities and move widely in the environment. As a result, deficiency and an excess of halogen elements in plants and animals have occurred and artificial halogen compounds have caused environmental pollution in wide areas. We efficiently utilized the neutron activation analysis method and an activable tracer method to obtain valuable findings which contribute to the clarification of and measures against these actual problems and which are also concerned with the occurrence, distribution and migration of halogen elements in the environment, especially agricultural and forestry ecosystems in space and in time. (author)

  9. Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puškar Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects in programmes for solid modeling. Objective. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. Methods. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analyzing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,.... Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Results. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Conclusion Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.

  10. XRF analysis of portland cement for major and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdunnabi, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Libyan portland cement produced in several factories around the country, in Lip tis, Zoltan, Souq-Elkamis, Dernah and El-Fatach, were analyzed for quantitative major and trace elements and mineral content, which were compered with those imported from Spain, Romania, Cyprus, and Egypt. X-ray fluorescence spectro X lab 2000 spectrometer equipped with Rh-and X-ray tube was used for the analysis of various samples. The detector Si(Li) with a resolution of 148 eV at Mn K-a=5.9 keV facilitates the determination of a wide range of elements from sodium to uranium, with a detection limit at sub levels. Cement samples in the powder form were analyzed using the pellet-technique. The pellets were prepared by mixing 4g of the cement powder with 0.9 g of binder (HWC) and pressed at high pressure. A ful analysis including, background counting, matrix correction and all relevant corrections were achieved automatically by XLAB 2000 software package. For major and trace elements X RF results were higher for most of the elements than those analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometry. The mineral content showed that Libyan cement is comparable to the imported ones, also the Libyan cement meets the requirements of the international specifications of the portland cement. (Author)

  11. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, D.H. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology]|[Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation, New Orleans, LA (United States). Lab. of Molecular Genetics

    1995-01-01

    The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome. However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly very rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.

  12. Trace-Element Analysis by Use of PIXE Technique on Agricultural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Makisaka, K.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Nishimura, D.; Matsumiya, R.; Fujita, Y.; Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2009-10-01

    In order to examine whether a trace-element analysis by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) gives a clue to identify production area of agricultural products, we carried out a study on soy beans as an example. In the present study, a proton beam at the energy of 2.3MeV was provided by Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. We used a Ge detector with Be window to measure X-ray spectra. We prepared sample soy beans from China, Thailand, Taiwan, and 7 different areas in Japan. As a result of PIXE analysis, 5 elements, potassium, iron, zinc, arsenic and rubidium, have been identified. There are clear differences in relative amount of trace-elements between samples from different international regions. Chinese beans contain much more Rb than the others, while there are significant differences in Fe and Zn between beans of Thailand and Taiwan. There are relatively smaller differences among Japanese beans. This result shows that trace-elements bring us some practical information of the region where the product grown.

  13. a finite element model for the analysis of bridge decks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR THE ANALYSIS OF BRIDGE DECKS. NIGERIAN JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 27 NO.1, MARCH 2008. 59. (a) Beam-plate system. (b) T-beam structural model. Fig. 1 Beam-plate structure idealisations. The matrix displacement method of analysis is used. The continuum structure is.

  14. Accurate determination of light elements by charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikano, K.; Shigematsu, T.

    1989-01-01

    To develop accurate determination of light elements by CPAA, accurate and practical standardization methods and uniform chemical etching are studied based on determination of carbon in gallium arsenide using the 12 C(d,n) 13 N reaction and the following results are obtained: (1)Average stopping power method with thick target yield is useful as an accurate and practical standardization method. (2)Front surface of sample has to be etched for accurate estimate of incident energy. (3)CPAA is utilized for calibration of light element analysis by physical method. (4)Calibration factor of carbon analysis in gallium arsenide using the IR method is determined to be (9.2±0.3) x 10 15 cm -1 . (author)

  15. Distributed Finite Element Analysis Using a Transputer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James; Favenesi, James; Danial, Albert; Tombrello, Joseph; Yang, Dabby; Reynolds, Brian; Turrentine, Ronald; Shephard, Mark; Baehmann, Peggy

    1989-01-01

    The principal objective of this research effort was to demonstrate the extraordinarily cost effective acceleration of finite element structural analysis problems using a transputer-based parallel processing network. This objective was accomplished in the form of a commercially viable parallel processing workstation. The workstation is a desktop size, low-maintenance computing unit capable of supercomputer performance yet costs two orders of magnitude less. To achieve the principal research objective, a transputer based structural analysis workstation termed XPFEM was implemented with linear static structural analysis capabilities resembling commercially available NASTRAN. Finite element model files, generated using the on-line preprocessing module or external preprocessing packages, are downloaded to a network of 32 transputers for accelerated solution. The system currently executes at about one third Cray X-MP24 speed but additional acceleration appears likely. For the NASA selected demonstration problem of a Space Shuttle main engine turbine blade model with about 1500 nodes and 4500 independent degrees of freedom, the Cray X-MP24 required 23.9 seconds to obtain a solution while the transputer network, operated from an IBM PC-AT compatible host computer, required 71.7 seconds. Consequently, the $80,000 transputer network demonstrated a cost-performance ratio about 60 times better than the $15,000,000 Cray X-MP24 system.

  16. Determination of trace elements in tea leaves by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasrai, M.; Shoushtarian, M.J.; Bozorgzadeh, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumental neutron-activation analysis has been employed to determine 14 trace elements in two brands of Iranian and foreign tea. A popular local brand (Ghoncheh) and a foreign brand (Lipton tea bags) were randomly purchased. The samples were dried in an oven (100 deg C) and used without further treatment. In order to measure the concentration of elements in tea solution, weighed amounts of tea were mixed with double-distilled boiling water. After cooling the leaves were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of clear solution were dried for analysis. Three sets of standards containing the following elements using the spec-pure materials were prepared: (a) Cl, Mn, Na, K; (b) Br, La, Au; (c) Cr, Fe, Rb, Sc, Cs, Zn, Co. In each irradiation, one set of standards, along with the sample, was neutron irradiated at a thermal flux of approximately 2x10 13 ncm -2 sec -1 in the Research Reactor of the Nuclear Research Centre. The period of irradiation ranged from 10 min to 4 hrs, depending on the radionuclides to be measured. The transference ratio of the elements into solution, when tea is leached by percolation, is also reported. It was found that some elements are totally transferred into solution and some are partially retained by the leaves. (T.G.)

  17. High-energy elastic recoil detection heavy ions for light element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goppelt-Langer, P.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Naramoto, H.

    1994-01-01

    The detection of light and medium heavy elements in not homogeneous solids is a severe problem in ion beam analysis. Heavy elements can be detected by the well established Rutherford backscattering technique (RBS). In a homogeneous host material most impurities can be easily analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Some isotopes ( 3 He, 6 Li, 10 B) can be measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using thermal neutrons inducing (n, p) or (n, α) reactions. Others can be detected by energetic ion beams by nuclear reactions (e.g. 15 N( 1 H, αγ) 12 C for analysis of hydrogen). A high content of H, D or T can be also determined by elastic recoil detection using an energetic He beam. The latter technique has been developed to a universal method for detection of light and heavy elements in any target, using a high energetic heavy ion beam and a detector system, which is able to identify the recoils and delivers energy and position of the particles. (author)

  18. Determination of trace elements in biological material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen trace elements in biological materials [grass (Imperata cylindrica), mimosa plant (Mimosa pudica), rice] by neutron activation method were determined. In the comparative analysis the content of the same element was different in each material, although they were collected at the same place and the same sampling method was applied. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  19. Numerical analysis of creep brittle rupture by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, O.J.A.; Owen, D.R.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this work an implicit algorithm is proposed for the numerical analysis of creep brittle rupture problems by the finite element method. This kind of structural failure, typical in components operating at high temperatures for long periods of time, is modelled using either a three dimensional generalization of the Kachanov-Rabotnov equations due to Leckie and Hayhurst or the Monkman-Grant fracture criterion together with the Linear Life Fraction Rule. The finite element equations are derived by the displacement method and isoparametric elements are used for the spatial discretization. Geometric nonlinear effects (large displacements) are accounted for by an updated Lagrangian formulation. Attention is also focussed on the solution of the highly stiff differential equations that govern damage growth. Finally the numerical results of a three-dimensional analysis of a pressurized thin cylinder containing oxidised pits in its external wall are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  1. Test Capability of Comparative NAA Method in Analysis of Long Lived Element in SRM 1648

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri-Wardani

    2005-01-01

    The comparative NAA method had been examine on the analysis of long-lived elements content in air particulate sample of NIST.SRM 1648 for evaluation of a capability of comparative NAA method that used at P2TRR. From the result of analysis it could be determined analysis elements contained in the sample, namely: Sc, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, Sb, Hf and Th with optimum results in bias of 10%. The optimum result of long-lived elements obtained on a good accuracy and precision. From the analysis data obtained showed that the comparative NAA method with Gamma Trac and APTEC software capable to analyze several kinds of elements in environmental samples. Therefore, this method could be implement in biological and healthy samples. (author)

  2. 3D analysis of semiconductor devices: A combination of 3D imaging and 3D elemental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bianzhu; Gribelyuk, Michael A.

    2018-04-01

    3D analysis of semiconductor devices using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) Z-contrast tomography and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental tomography is presented. 3D STEM Z-contrast tomography is useful in revealing the depth information of the sample. However, it suffers from contrast problems between materials with similar atomic numbers. Examples of EDS elemental tomography are presented using an automated EDS tomography system with batch data processing, which greatly reduces the data collection and processing time. 3D EDS elemental tomography reveals more in-depth information about the defect origin in semiconductor failure analysis. The influence of detector shadowing and X-rays absorption on the EDS tomography's result is also discussed.

  3. Application of the Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS analysis) for detecting heavy impurity elements in pBN crucible materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Meyer, J.D.; Michelmann, R.; Krauskopf, J.

    1992-01-01

    By means of the Rutherford backscattering analysis evidence is given of an inhomogeneous depth distribution of the elements C, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni in pBN (pyrolytic boron nitride) materials of crucibles. This inhomogenous distribution is observed both at the original surface and at the surface of inner cracks. In addition, the distribution of the elements is found to differ depending on the spots chosen for analysis. The RBS measurements alone do not yield information on the volume concentration of the elements. (orig.) With 2 refs [de

  4. Determination of minor-and trace elements in magnesite samples, by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method employing activation analysis with thermal neutron was developed for the determination of minor and trace elements in magnesite samples from the states of Ceara and Bahia (Brazil). Ten samples were analyzed. A qualitative analysis of the samples indicated the presence of Mn, Fe, Sc, Ca, Cu, Co and some of the lanthanides. The experimental part includes a non-destructive analysis of manganese and analysis with chemical separation of the other elements, individually or in groups, after sample dissolution, The dissolutions were made with concentrated HCl and the further separations were carried out in 8 N HCl medium. Iron was separated by means of an extraction of HFeCl 4 with isopropyl ether. Scandium and calcium were determined by retention of scandium with di-(2-ehylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). The activities of 46 Sc and 47 Sc (a 47 Ca descendant) were employed for the analysis of scandium and calcium in the sample. In the effluent of the kieselguhr column copper and cobalt were determined, after retention in an anionic resin of the CuCl - 3 and CoCl - 3 complexes. Finally, in the effluent of the resin, the lanthanide group was separated by oxalate precipitation. In the gamma-ray spectrum of this precipitate the elements europium, cerium, samarium and lanthanum were determined. A detailed study of the possible interferences in the neutron activation analysis of the elements analysed was also made. The precision and accuracy of the results obtained and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  5. Determination of 28 elements in American cigarette tobacco by neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskander, F.Y.; Bauer, T.L.; Klein, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of 28 toxic and other elements in cigarette tobacco of twelve brands commercially manufactured in the USA were determined using instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The elements determined were Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V and Zn. The concentrations of the determined elements in the American cigarettes were compared with the elemental concentrations reported for Iranian, Pakistani and Japanese brands. It was concluded that the concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Eu, K and Zn in the samples under investigation are lower than those reported for the analysis of University of Kentucky reference cigarettes, whereas the concentrations of Mn and Na are higher. The contents of Al, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, La, Sb, Sc, and Se are similar to those in the reference cigarettes. (author)

  6. Analysis of the claim to distinct nursing ethics: normative and nonnormative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, J G

    1989-04-01

    Nursing ethics has been declared to exist only as a subset of medical ethics. If this statement is to be refuted, any defense of a claim to a discrete nursing ethic must clarify what type of moral theory is being held as distinctly a nursing ethic. Several examples of nursing ethical theory are used to challenge Veatch's view that nursing ethics is a subset of medical ethics. The methodology used to provide the analysis is to group the ethical theories studied under the topics of normative and nonnormative ethics to provide for appropriate inquiry.

  7. The use of reference materials in the elemental analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Reference materials (RMs) are useful to compare the accuracy and precision of laboratories and techniques. The desirable properties of biological reference materials are listed, and the problems of production, homogenization and storage described. At present there are only 10 biological RMs available compared with 213 geological and 520 metallurgical RMs. There is a need for more biological RMs including special materials for microprobe analysis and for in vivo activation analysis. A study of 650 mean values for elements in RM Kale, analysed by many laboratories, leads to the following conclusions. 61% of the values lie within +-10% of the best mean, and 80% lie within +-20% of the best mean. Atomic absorption spectrometry gives results that are 5-30% high for seven elements, while intrumental neutron activation analysis gives low and imprecise results for K. Other techniques with poor interlaboratory precision include neutron activation for Mg, polarography for Zn and arc-spectrometry for many elements. More than half the values for elements in Kale were obtained by neutron activation, confirming the importance of this technique and the need for RMs. As a rough estimate, 6 x 10 9 elemental analyses of biological materials are carried out each year, mostly by medical, agricultural and food scientists. It seems likely that a substantial percentage of these are inaccurate, a situation that might be improved by quality control using standard RMs. (author)

  8. Elemental analysis of oum er rbia moroccan river-water Using icp-aes and chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Labraimi, M.; Moutte, J.; Bilal, E.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 22 elements has been performed utilizing ICP-AES and chromatography methods. MPS samples were dissolved in nitric acid. The element analyzed are : Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Ba and Pb. The detection limits are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for the accuracy by the analysis of a multi-elemental standard. The results for most of the elements obtained were accurate to about 2-15%. The objective of the analysis were to determine the geochemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanisms of sediment transport and nevertheless, to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 48 samples were collected along the river, between its source in meddle atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city

  9. Analysis and characterization of trace elements in shale oil and shale oil products by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Master's thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.

    1978-12-01

    Trace elements and their mobilization constitute an important consideration in the development of new fossil fuel technologies. Shale oil produced by in situ retorting of oil shale is an alternative fossil energy source. This study deals with the analysis of trace elements in various shale oil products using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). INAA offers several advantages for those elements for which it is applicable. The greatest advantage is the lack of sample preparation prior to analysis, which greatly simplifies the process and prevents sample contamination. The elements for which analyses are reported in this study are aluminum, antimony, arsenic, bromine, cerium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, gold, iodine, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfur, tungsten, vanadium, and zinc

  10. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  11. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G.J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions

  12. Reliability analysis of dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shurong; Jiang, Xin; Huo, Yongzhong; Li, Lin an

    2008-03-01

    Taking a dispersion fuel element as a special particle composite, the representative volume element is chosen to act as the research object. The fuel swelling is simulated through temperature increase. The large strain elastoplastic analysis is carried out for the mechanical behaviors using FEM. The results indicate that the fission swelling is simulated successfully; the thickness increments grow linearly with burnup; with increasing of burnup: (1) the first principal stresses at fuel particles change from tensile ones to compression ones, (2) the maximum Mises stresses at the particles transfer from the centers of fuel particles to the location close to the interfaces between the matrix and the particles, their values increase with burnup; the maximum Mises stresses at the matrix exist in the middle location between the two particles near the mid-plane along the length (or width) direction, and the maximum plastic strains are also at the above region.

  13. Reliability analysis of dispersion nuclear fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Shurong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: dsr1971@163.com; Jiang Xin [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huo Yongzhong [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: yzhuo@fudan.edu.cn; Li Linan [Department of Mechanics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-03-15

    Taking a dispersion fuel element as a special particle composite, the representative volume element is chosen to act as the research object. The fuel swelling is simulated through temperature increase. The large strain elastoplastic analysis is carried out for the mechanical behaviors using FEM. The results indicate that the fission swelling is simulated successfully; the thickness increments grow linearly with burnup; with increasing of burnup: (1) the first principal stresses at fuel particles change from tensile ones to compression ones, (2) the maximum Mises stresses at the particles transfer from the centers of fuel particles to the location close to the interfaces between the matrix and the particles, their values increase with burnup; the maximum Mises stresses at the matrix exist in the middle location between the two particles near the mid-plane along the length (or width) direction, and the maximum plastic strains are also at the above region.

  14. Optimising LAN access to grid enabled storage elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G A; Dunne, B; Elwell, A; Millar, A P; Cowan, G A

    2008-01-01

    When operational, the Large Hadron Collider experiments at CERN will collect tens of petabytes of physics data per year. The worldwide LHC computing grid (WLCG) will distribute this data to over two hundred Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centres, enabling particle physicists around the globe to access the data for analysis. Although different middleware solutions exist for effective management of storage systems at collaborating institutes, the patterns of access envisaged for Tier-2s fall into two distinct categories. The first involves bulk transfer of data between different Grid storage elements using protocols such as GridFTP. This data movement will principally involve writing ESD and AOD files into Tier-2 storage. Secondly, once datasets are stored at a Tier-2, physics analysis jobs will read the data from the local SE. Such jobs require a POSIX-like interface to the storage so that individual physics events can be extracted. In this paper we consider the performance of POSIX-like access to files held in Disk Pool Manager (DPM) storage elements, a popular lightweight SRM storage manager from EGEE

  15. Stability Analysis of Anchored Soil Slope Based on Finite Element Limit Equilibrium Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the condition of the plane strain, finite element limit equilibrium method is used to study some key problems of stability analysis for anchored slope. The definition of safe factor in slices method is generalized into FEM. The “true” stress field in the whole structure can be obtained by elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then, the optimal search for the most dangerous sliding surface with Hooke-Jeeves optimized searching method is introduced. Three cases of stability analysis of natural slope, anchored slope with seepage, and excavation anchored slope are conducted. The differences in safety factor quantity, shape and location of slip surface, anchoring effect among slices method, finite element strength reduction method (SRM, and finite element limit equilibrium method are comparatively analyzed. The results show that the safety factor given by the FEM is greater and the unfavorable slip surface is deeper than that by the slice method. The finite element limit equilibrium method has high calculation accuracy, and to some extent the slice method underestimates the effect of anchor, and the effect of anchor is overrated in the SRM.

  16. Finite-element stress and deflection analysis of CDF yike and end plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wands, R.; Grimson, J.; Kephart, R.; Theriot, D.

    1982-01-01

    A large detector is being designed to study anti pp collisions at center-of-mass energies of up to 2000 GeV as part of the Fermilab Collider Detector Facility (CDF). The central detector of this facility consists of a solenoid, calorimeter yoke, and a variety of particle measurement devices. The yoke will be a large steel structure that will provide the magnetic flux return path as well as support structure for calorimetry and other instrumentation. It must resist both electromagnetic and gravitational loads while exhibiting only small elastic deformations. The instrumented endplugs of the yoke are subjected to large electromagnetic loads. Moreover, due to the presence of wire chambers within these plugs, they must also be particularly stiff. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a finite element stress and deflection analysis of these structures under various anticipated load conditions. The PATRAN-G finite element modeling program, installed on a CDF-VAX 11/780 and operating from a Ramtek 6212 colorgraphics terminal, was used to generate the analysis models. The actual finite element analysis was performed by the ANSYS general purpose finite element program, installed on the Fermilab Cyber 175's

  17. Trace elements in lake sediments measured by the PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, Luciana V.; Mozeto, Antonio A.; Artaxo, Paulo

    1999-01-01

    Lakes are ecosystems where there is a great potential of metal accumulation in sediments due to their depositional characteristics. Total concentration of trace elements was measured on a 50 cm long sediment core from the Infernao Lake, that is an oxbow lake of the Moji-Guacu River basin, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Dating of the core shows up to 180 yrs old sediment layers. The use of the PIXE technique for elemental analysis avoids the traditional acid digestion procedure common in other techniques. The multielemental characteristic of PIXE allows a simultaneous determination of about 20 elements in the sediment samples, such as, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, and Pb. Average values for the elemental composition were found to be similar to the bulk crustal composition. The lake flooding pattern strongly influences the time series of the elemental profiles. Factor analysis of the elemental variability shows five factors. Two of the factors represent the mineralogical matrix, and others represent the organic component, a factor with lead, and another loaded with chromium. The mineralogical component consists of elements such as, Fe, Al, V, Ti, Mn, Ni, K, Zr, Sr, Cu and Zn. The variability of Si is explained by two distinct factors, because it is influenced by two different sources, aluminum-silicates and quartz, and the effect of inundation are different for each other. The organic matter is strongly associated with calcium, and also bounded with S, Zn, Cu and P. Lead and chromium appears as separated factors, although it is not clear the evidences for their anthropogenic origin. The techniques developed for sample preparation and PIXE analysis was proven as advantageous and provided very good reproducibility and accuracy

  18. Trace elements in precious and common opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 44 precious and 52 common opals sampled from a number of recognised fields within Australia. The purpose of this study was to determine if precious and common opals of the same colour and location have the same or a different trace element profile. Similar numbers of black, white and grey samples were studied in each case. In most cases, common opals had a significantly higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with precious opals. (author)

  19. Implementation of advanced finite element technology in structural analysis computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, T.D.; Wiley, J.W.; Koss, P.W.

    1975-01-01

    Advances in finite element technology over the last several years have been rapid and have largely outstripped the ability of general purpose programs in the public domain to assimilate them. As a result, it has become the burden of the structural analyst to incorporate these advances himself. This paper discusses the implementation and extension of specific technological advances in Bechtel structural analysis programs. In general these advances belong in two categories: (1) the finite elements themselves and (2) equation solution algorithms. Improvements in the finite elements involve increased accuracy of the elements and extension of their applicability to various specialized modelling situations. Improvements in solution algorithms have been almost exclusively aimed at expanding problem solving capacity. (Auth.)

  20. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luten, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    In this thesis the principles and practical aspects of activation analysis which are of direct importance in the analysis of rain water, are presented together with recent literature data on other techniques. Problems due to the storage of rain water samples are discussed. A multi-element method for the determination of trace elements in rain water by instrumental neutron activation analysis is described. Gamma ray spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors offers the possibility to determine Na, Al, Cl, V, Mn, Co, Cu, Br and I in rain water samples of 2.5 ml after a 4-min irradiation in a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 . In residues of rain water samples of 100 ml, irradiated during 2 days in a thermal neutron flux of >5 x 10 13 n cm -2 s -1 Cr, Fe, Co, Zn and Sb can be determined after a cooling period of approximately 21 days. The detection limits are lower than those reported in previous investigations except for Cu. The precision is about 10% or better, except for Co, Cu and I. A routine method for the determination of bromine and iodine in rain water by n.a.a. is presented. The elements are isolated by isotope exchange between the irradiated sample and a solution of Br 2 or I 2 in CCl 4 . The method is not sensitive to the chemical species in which the halogen is present. Irradiation of solutions of iodine compounds in a high thermal neutron flux gives rise to the formation of iodate. Results of a further investigation of this phenomenon are given, as well as the determination of iodate in rain water by n.a.a. Iodate is separated by anion exchange. The combination of n.a.a. and solvent extraction is used for the determination of five trace elements (V, Co, Cu, Zn and In) in 10-ml rain water samples. For V, Co and Cu this method is more sensitive and reproducible than instrumental n.a.a. The results of the analysis of eleven sequential 30-ml samples from the beginning of the shower are presented as an illustration of possible applications of the

  1. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  2. Coupled Boundary and Finite Element Analysis of Vibration from Railway Tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Jones, C.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of vibration from railway tunnels is of growing interest as new and higher-speed railways are built under the ground to address the transport problems of growing modern urban areas around cities. Such analysis can be carried out using numerical methods but models and therefore comput...... body vibration (about 4 to 80 Hz). A coupled finite element and boundary element scheme is applied in both two and three dimensions. Two tunnel designs are considered: a cut-and-cover tunnel for a double track and a single-track tunnel dug with the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM)....

  3. Multi-element analysis of wheat flour and white bread by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez A, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the best source of feeding even for the human being as for animals are the Cereals. Although they are mainly energetic aliment, due to its composition in starch, they are a very important source of proteins and amino acids. They contribute mineral elements to the diet. Even those elements constitute a very small part of the total diet, they take a very important place in many human metabolic processes. To make a multielemental analysis of an aliment is very important that we are based on a very sensible analytic technique so we are able to find them, just as the Neutronic Activation. This Nuclear technique allows you to make a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the elements that are in a sample, but it does n't show the way in which the elements are presented. It is based in turning those elements into radioactive ones through its exposition to an uniform and constant fluid of neutrons, so then its radioactivity can be determined. The present work has as a main purpose to make a multielemental analysis of the wheat flour and white bread through the Neutronic Activation Technique, using the comparator method and establishing previously the most appropriate work conditions as much irradiation as digestion and measuring of the radioactivity of the sample. In this way, it was able to know that the wheat flour has potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese, rubidium and selenium elements in a concentration of 2000, 700, 500, 25, 18, 13, 5.5, 0.9 and 0.01 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. In an other hand it was found that the white bread has the same elements than the wheat flour but its concentration was: 1700, 9000, 400, 7000, 52, 13, 6, 1 and 0.05 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. (Author)

  4. Analytical and statistical analysis of elemental composition of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvelo, S.; Baccala, N.; Bubach, D.; Arribere, M.A.; Riberio Guevara, S.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental composition of lichens from remote southern South America regions has been studied with analytical and statistical techniques to determine if the values obtained reflect species, growth forms or habitat characteristics. The enrichment factors are calculated discriminated by species and collection site and compared with data available in the literature. The elemental concentrations are standardized and compared for different species. The information was statistically processed, a cluster analysis was performed using the three first principal axes of the PCA; the three groups formed are presented. Their relationship with the species, collection sites and the lichen growth forms are interpreted. (author)

  5. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  6. Rare earth elements and uranium in groundwater under influence of distinct aquifers in Campinas, SP, Brazil; Elementos terras raras e uranio em aguas subterraneas sob influencia de aquiferos distintos em Campinas (SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulia, Isabella Longhi; Enzweiler, Jacinta, E-mail: isabellalonghi@ige.unicamp.br, E-mail: jacinta@ige.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2015-07-01

    The composition of groundwaters results mainly from water-rock reactions within aquifers. Among the various constituents of water, the rare earth elements (REE) and uranium can serve as tracers of geochemical processes and hydrological flow paths. The main objective of this study was to associate the chemical composition of groundwaters extracted from three distinct aquifer systems (crystalline, diabase and sedimentary) with that of the respective hosts rocks. The area of the study is located at the campus of University of Campinas (Campinas, SP). Samples of groundwater collected from four tubular wells were used to determine physicochemical parameters, major ions and trace elements, including the REE. The results confirm that the water of two wells (IMECC and IB) is predominantly influenced by the crystalline and diabase aquifers, while the other two (GM and FEF) by the sedimentary aquifer. Both the individual and normalized REE values of the four wells are distinct from each other, pointing to the heterogeneity of the local geology. The uranium concentration in the water of one well (GM) exceeded the guideline value for this element in drinking water. The U probably results from the oxidative dissolution of U-bearing phases in the sedimentary aquifer. However, the hydrochemical modeling indicated Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} and CaUO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2-} as the major U dissolved species, which are considered non-toxic and non-bioavailable according to literature data. (author)

  7. contact stress analysis of involute spur gear by finite element method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    section using C- programming. Bending stress analysis has been performed using finite element analysis with ANSYS software. Comparison of bending stress analysis has been performed for symmetric and asymmetric spur gear tooth at critical section. Mushin J. Jweeg, et.al. [7] used 2D contact stress FEA model to ...

  8. Finite Element Formulation for Stability and Free Vibration Analysis of Timoshenko Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moallemi-Oreh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-node element is suggested for analyzing the stability and free vibration of Timoshenko beam. Cubic displacement polynomial and quadratic rotational fields are selected for this element. Moreover, it is assumed that shear strain of the element has the constant value. Interpolation functions for displacement field and beam rotation are exactly calculated by employing total beam energy and its stationing to shear strain. By exploiting these interpolation functions, beam elements' stiffness matrix is also examined. Furthermore, geometric stiffness matrix and mass matrix of the proposed element are calculated by writing governing equation on stability and beam free vibration. At last, accuracy and efficiency of proposed element are evaluated through numerical tests. These tests show high accuracy of the element in analyzing beam stability and finding its critical load and free vibration analysis.

  9. Elemental analysis of Kuwaiti petroleum and combustion products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, J.S.; Cahill, T.A.; Gearhart, E.A.; Flocchini, R.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Crocker Nuclear Lab.); Schweitzer, J.S.; Peterson, C.A. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Crude oil from eight Kuwaiti fields and aerosols generated by their combustion in the laboratory have been analyzed by composition and particulate size. Liquid petroleum and petroleum combustion products were subjected to elemental analysis by proton induced x-ray techniques and by x-ray fluorescence techniques. The mean sulfur content of the burning wells was weighted by their production rates to obtain the mean sulfur content of the burning oil, 2.66%. The liquid samples were also analyzed by neutron activation analyses. Results show that Kuwaiti oil and smoke aerosols from laboratory combustion generally contain very low amounts of chlorine, contrary to what is found in airborne samples above Kuwait. Trace element signatures were developed to aid in tracing smoke from the oil fires. (Author).

  10. Development of efficient finite elements for structural integrity analysis of solid rocket motor propellant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, R.; Nageswara Rao, B.

    2013-01-01

    Solid propellant rocket motors (SRM) are regularly used in the satellite launch vehicles which consist of mainly three different structural materials viz., solid propellant, liner, and casing materials. It is essential to assess the structural integrity of solid propellant grains under the specified gravity, thermal and pressure loading conditions. For this purpose finite elements developed following the Herrmann formulation are: twenty node brick element (BH20), eight node quadrilateral plane strain element (PH8) and, eight node axi-symmetric solid of revolution element (AH8). The time-dependent nature of the solid propellant grains is taken into account utilizing the direct inverse method of Schepary to specify the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The developed elements are tested considering various problems prior to implementation in the in-house software package (viz., Finite Element Analysis of STructures, FEAST). Several SRM configurations are analyzed to assess the structural integrity under different loading conditions. Finite element analysis results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained earlier from MARC software. -- Highlights: • Developed efficient Herrmann elements. • Accuracy of finite elements demonstrated solving several known solution problems. • Time dependent structural response obtained using the direct inverse method of Schepary. • Performed structural analysis of grains under gravity, thermal and pressure loads

  11. Power flow as a complement to statistical energy analysis and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuschieri, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Present methods of analysis of the structural response and the structure-borne transmission of vibrational energy use either finite element (FE) techniques or statistical energy analysis (SEA) methods. The FE methods are a very useful tool at low frequencies where the number of resonances involved in the analysis is rather small. On the other hand SEA methods can predict with acceptable accuracy the response and energy transmission between coupled structures at relatively high frequencies where the structural modal density is high and a statistical approach is the appropriate solution. In the mid-frequency range, a relatively large number of resonances exist which make finite element method too costly. On the other hand SEA methods can only predict an average level form. In this mid-frequency range a possible alternative is to use power flow techniques, where the input and flow of vibrational energy to excited and coupled structural components can be expressed in terms of input and transfer mobilities. This power flow technique can be extended from low to high frequencies and this can be integrated with established FE models at low frequencies and SEA models at high frequencies to form a verification of the method. This method of structural analysis using power flo and mobility methods, and its integration with SEA and FE analysis is applied to the case of two thin beams joined together at right angles.

  12. Multi-elemental imaging of paraffin-embedded human samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, S.; Trichard, F.; Busser, B.; Sabatier-Vincent, M.; Pelascini, F.; Pinel, N.; Templier, I.; Charles, J.; Sancey, L.; Motto-Ros, V.

    2017-07-01

    Chemical elements play central roles for physiological homeostasis in human cells, and their dysregulation might lead to a certain number of pathologies. Novel imaging techniques that improve the work of pathologists for tissue analysis and diagnostics are continuously sought. We report the use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) to perform multi-elemental images of human paraffin-embedded skin samples on the entire biopsy scale in a complementary and compatible way with microscope histopathological examination. A specific instrumental configuration is proposed in order to detect most of the elements of medical interest (i.e. P, Al, Mg, Na, Zn, Si, Fe, and Cu). As an example of medical application, we selected and analysed skin biopsies, including healthy skin tissue, cutaneous metastasis of melanoma, Merkel-cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Clear distinctions in the distribution of chemical elements are observed from the different samples investigated. This study demonstrates the high complementarity of LIBS elemental imaging with conventional histopathology, opening new opportunities for any medical application involving metals.

  13. Trace element analysis of archaeological artefacts from Pella, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief history of the site at Pella, Jordan is presented, as a prelude to an analysis of the element composition of 82 pottery sherds. Statistical results from this data support the archaeological evidence for occupation during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age

  14. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements of basic ingredients of pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I; Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive use of pan, by one-tenth of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in its ingredients. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 36 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in its four basic ingredients, leaf of betel pepper, betel nut, catechu and lime. The radiochemical separation methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in these ingredients is provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pan was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  15. Finite element modelling and updating of friction stir welding (FSW joint for vibration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari Siti Norazila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding of aluminium alloys widely used in automotive and aerospace application due to its advanced and lightweight properties. The behaviour of FSW joints plays a significant role in the dynamic characteristic of the structure due to its complexities and uncertainties therefore the representation of an accurate finite element model of these joints become a research issue. In this paper, various finite elements (FE modelling technique for prediction of dynamic properties of sheet metal jointed by friction stir welding will be presented. Firstly, nine set of flat plate with different series of aluminium alloy; AA7075 and AA6061 joined by FSW are used. Nine set of specimen was fabricated using various types of welding parameters. In order to find the most optimum set of FSW plate, the finite element model using equivalence technique was developed and the model validated using experimental modal analysis (EMA on nine set of specimen and finite element analysis (FEA. Three types of modelling were engaged in this study; rigid body element Type 2 (RBE2, bar element (CBAR and spot weld element connector (CWELD. CBAR element was chosen to represent weld model for FSW joints due to its accurate prediction of mode shapes and contains an updating parameter for weld modelling compare to other weld modelling. Model updating was performed to improve correlation between EMA and FEA and before proceeds to updating, sensitivity analysis was done to select the most sensitive updating parameter. After perform model updating, total error of the natural frequencies for CBAR model is improved significantly. Therefore, CBAR element was selected as the most reliable element in FE to represent FSW weld joint.

  16. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH - , CO -- 3 ) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states

  17. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH/sup -/, CO/sup - -//sub 3/) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states.

  18. A linguistic representation of the regulation of transcription initiation. I. An ordered array of complex symbols with distinctive features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vides, J

    1993-01-01

    The inadequacy of context-free grammars in the description of regulatory information contained in DNA gave the formal justification for a linguistic approach to the study of gene regulation. Based on that result, we have initiated a linguistic formalization of the regulatory arrays of 107 sigma 70 E. coli promoters. The complete sequences of promoter (Pr), operator (Op) and activator binding sites (I) have previously been identified as the smallest elements, or categories, for a combinatorial analysis of the range of transcription initiation of sigma 70 promoters. These categories are conceptually equivalent to phonemes of natural language. Several features associated with these categories are required in a complete description of regulatory arrays of promoters. We have to select the best way to describe the properties that are pertinent for the description of such regulatory regions. In this paper we define distinctive features of regulatory regions based on the following criteria: identification of subclasses of substitutable elements, simplicity, selection of the most directly related information, and distinction of one array among the whole set of promoters. Alternative ways to represent distances in between regulatory sites are discussed, permitting, together with a principle of precedence, the identification of an ordered set of complex symbols as a unique representation for a promoter and its associated regulatory sites. In the accompanying paper additional distinctive features of promoters and regulatory sites are identified.

  19. Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian

    2014-01-01

    Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel. (paper)

  20. Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian

    2014-04-01

    Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaño-Pachón Diego

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs, ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. Results Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Conclusion Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of

  2. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Porras, Judith L; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Dreyer, Ingo; Mayer, Jorge E; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2007-08-01

    In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs), ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE) associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs) in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of interacting with transcription factors. Further studies will be

  3. The influence of distinct types of aquatic vegetation on the flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Barcroft, Stephen; Yagci, Oral

    2014-05-01

    The Sustainable management of fluvial systems dealing with flood prevention, erosion protection and restoration of rivers and estuaries requires implementation of soft/green-engineering methods. In-stream aquatic vegetation can be regarded as one of these as it plays an important role for both river ecology (function) and geomorphology (form). The goal of this research is to offer insight gained from pilot experimental studies on the effects of a number of different elements modeling instream, aquatic vegetation on the local flow field. It is hypothesized that elements of the same effective "blockage" area but of distinct characteristics (structure, porosity and flexibility), will affect both the mean and fluctuating levels of the turbulent flow to a different degree. The above hypothesis is investigated through a set of rigorous set of experimental runs which are appropriately designed to assess the variability between the interaction of aquatic elements and flow, both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this investigation three elements are employed to model aquatic vegetation, namely a rigid cylinder, a porous but rigid structure and a flexible live plant (Cupressus Macrocarpa). Firstly, the flow field downstream each of the mentioned elements was measured under steady uniform flow conditions employing acoustic Doppler velocimetry. Three-dimensional flow velocities downstream the vegetation element are acquired along a measurement grid extending about five-fold the element's diameter. These measurements are analyzed to develop mean velocity and turbulent intensity profiles for all velocity components. A detailed comparison between the obtained results is demonstrative of the validity of the above hypothesis as each of the employed elements affects in a different manner and degree the flow field. Then a flow visualization technique, during which fluorescent dye is injected upstream of the element and images are captured for further analysis and comparison, was

  4. Elements of nonlinear time series analysis and forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    De Gooijer, Jan G

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art of nonlinear time series analysis, richly illustrated with examples, pseudocode algorithms and real-world applications. Avoiding a “theorem-proof” format, it shows concrete applications on a variety of empirical time series. The book can be used in graduate courses in nonlinear time series and at the same time also includes interesting material for more advanced readers. Though it is largely self-contained, readers require an understanding of basic linear time series concepts, Markov chains and Monte Carlo simulation methods. The book covers time-domain and frequency-domain methods for the analysis of both univariate and multivariate (vector) time series. It makes a clear distinction between parametric models on the one hand, and semi- and nonparametric models/methods on the other. This offers the reader the option of concentrating exclusively on one of these nonlinear time series analysis methods. To make the book as user friendly as possible...

  5. Optical strain measurements and its finite element analysis of cold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Online video images of square grid were recorded during the deformation ... Finite element software ANSYS has been applied for the analysis of the upset forming process.

  6. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2010-01-01

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  7. Improved PIXE analysis of micro- and trace elements in dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Ciortea, C.; Fluerasu, D.; Enescu, S. E.; Preoteasa, E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the interactions occurring at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces of a tooth's filling, the mineral elements of the restorative composite may induce a complex response of the organism. To study such problems, sensitive surface trace element analysis is required. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has a detection limit one order of magnitude lower than XRF and has been used for hard dental tissues, but not yet for dental composites. We evaluated the potential of PIXE in a study of ten types of composites used in restorative dentistry, some of them with two color shades each. The samples were prepared as described for XRF. The measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons from a van de Graaff tandem linear accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector and collecting the spectra for 1.5-4 hours. The spectra were processed with the program Leone. The proton route in the sample calculated with the Trim program (∼ 50-100 μm) exceeded the size of mineral particles (0.02-30 μm), thus granularity did not affect the analysis. The PIXE analysis detected Z ≥ 19 elements in all composites, and Z≥14 elements in only one low Z material. PIXE detected generally the same dominant elements, but many more trace elements than XRF. Thus both Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer) contained Ba as the major element, but trace elements were Ni, Zn, In, in the first, and Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag in the second. In other glass- and ceramics-based materials we found: Ca, Zr, Ba, Yb and traces of Sr, In, and possibly Ti in Tetric Ceram and in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Ca, Zr, Ba, Hf, possibly Mn, and traces of Ni, Ho, Ti, Fe, Cr in Valux Plus (3M Dental); Sr, Ba (major), K, Fe, Mn (minor), and traces of Ni, Zn, In, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental); Ba (major) and traces of Fe, Ni, Sr in Surefil (Dentsply). In quartz-based materials we detected: Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and traces of K, Cl, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn in Evicrol (Spofa); low and trace levels of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu in

  8. Forensic Comparison of Soil Samples Using Nondestructive Elemental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitdehaag, Stefan; Wiarda, Wim; Donders, Timme; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-07-01

    Soil can play an important role in forensic cases in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene by comparing samples from the crime scene with samples derived from items. This study uses an adapted ED-XRF analysis (sieving instead of grinding to prevent destruction of microfossils) to produce elemental composition data of 20 elements. Different data processing techniques and statistical distances were evaluated using data from 50 samples and the log-LR cost (C llr ). The best performing combination, Canberra distance, relative data, and square root values, is used to construct a discriminative model. Examples of the spatial resolution of the method in crime scenes are shown for three locations, and sampling strategy is discussed. Twelve test cases were analyzed, and results showed that the method is applicable. The study shows how the combination of an analysis technique, a database, and a discriminative model can be used to compare multiple soil samples quickly. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Strength Analysis on Ship Ladder Using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Wahyudi, M. T.; Dinata, U.; Ruddianto; Eko P., M. M.

    2018-01-01

    In designing the ship’s structure, it should refer to the rules in accordance with applicable classification standards. In this case, designing Ladder (Staircase) on a Ferry Ship which is set up, it must be reviewed based on the loads during ship operations, either during sailing or at port operations. The classification rules in ship design refer to the calculation of the structure components described in Classification calculation method and can be analysed using the Finite Element Method. Classification Regulations used in the design of Ferry Ships used BKI (Bureau of Classification Indonesia). So the rules for the provision of material composition in the mechanical properties of the material should refer to the classification of the used vessel. The analysis in this structure used program structure packages based on Finite Element Method. By using structural analysis on Ladder (Ladder), it obtained strength and simulation structure that can withstand load 140 kg both in static condition, dynamic, and impact. Therefore, the result of the analysis included values of safety factors in the ship is to keep the structure safe but the strength of the structure is not excessive.

  10. Tube Bulge Process : Theoretical Analysis and Finite Element Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, Raphael; Boudeau, Nathalie

    2007-01-01

    This paper is focused on the determination of mechanics characteristics for tubular materials, using tube bulge process. A comparative study is made between two different models: theoretical model and finite element analysis. The theoretical model is completely developed, based first on a geometrical analysis of the tube profile during bulging, which is assumed to strain in arc of circles. Strain and stress analysis complete the theoretical model, which allows to evaluate tube thickness and state of stress, at any point of the free bulge region. Free bulging of a 304L stainless steel is simulated using Ls-Dyna 970. To validate FE simulations approach, a comparison between theoretical and finite elements models is led on several parameters such as: thickness variation at the free bulge region pole with bulge height, tube thickness variation with z axial coordinate, and von Mises stress variation with plastic strain. Finally, the influence of geometrical parameters deviations on flow stress curve is observed using analytical model: deviations of the tube outer diameter, its initial thickness and the bulge height measurement are taken into account to obtain a resulting error on plastic strain and von Mises stress

  11. Finite-element analysis of elastic sound-proof coupling thermal state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyss, V. G.; Strokov, I. M.; Sergaeva, M. Yu

    2018-01-01

    The aim is in calculated determining of the elastic rubber-metal element thermal state of soundproof coupling ship shafting under variable influence during loads in time. Thermal coupling calculation is performed with finite element method using NX Simens software with Nastran solver. As a result of studies, the following results were obtained: - a volumetric picture of the temperature distribution over the array of the deformed coupling body is obtained; - time to reach steady-state thermal coupling mode has been determined; - dependences of maximum temperature and time to reach state on the established operation mode on rotation frequency and ambient temperature are determined. The findings prove the conclusion that usage of finite element analysis modern software can significantly speed up problem solving.

  12. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis based multi-elemental analysis of high purity gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashimova, F.A.; Sadikov, I.I; Salimov, M.I.; Zinov'ev, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Gallium is one of the widely used materials in semiconductor and optoelectronics industry. Gallium is used to produce infrared detectors, piezoelectric sensors, high- and low-temperature transistors for space and defense technology. One of the most important requirements for semiconductor materials of gallium compounds is an excessive high purity for layers and films. Information on impurities (type of an impurity, concentration, character of distribution) is important as for better understanding of the physical and chemical processes taking place in formed semiconductor structures and for the 'know-how' of devices on their basis. The object of this work is to develop radiochemical neutron activation technique for analysis of high purity gallium. Irradiation of 0.1 g of gallium sample in neutron flux of 5·10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 5 hours will result in induced activity of more than 10 8 Bq, due to 72 Ga radionuclide, half-life of which is 14.1 hours. Therefore to perform instrumental NAA of gallium long period (10 day) cooling is required, and high sensitive determination of elements producing short- and long-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 72 Ga. We have studied the behavior of gallium in extraction-chromatographic system 'TBP-HCl'. The experiments have shown that higher factor of distribution (D) and capacity on gallium can be achieved when 'TBP-4M HCl' system is used. However more than 10 trace elements have high D and thus they cannot be separated from 72 Ga. To resolve the problem and increase the number of separated trace elements we have used preliminary satisfaction of chromatographic column with tellurium, which has D higher than the most of elements in 'TBP-4M HCl' system and thus suppresses extraction of elements. Distribution profile of gallium along the column and elution curve of 25 trace elements have been measured. Chemical yields of separated elements measured by using radiotracers are more than 93%. On the basis of the carried out researches

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Bulge Forming of Laser Welding Dimple Jacket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisi ZHONG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The stress-strain states of the model of laser welded dimple jacket is analyzed using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in order to determine the relation between bulging height and pressure and to achieve the controllability of pressure distension of the jacket. It is shown that in the same conditions, the bulging height increases with the increasing of the bulging pressure and the space of honeycomb. And it will decrease when the thickness of jacket plate changing larger. A table showing the relation between bulging height and pressure is obtained. An experiment using a test panel is conducted to certify the reliability of finite element analysis. It turns out that the data of finite element analysis is coincident with experimental data, which support finite element method based ANSYS/LS-DYNA can be an efficient way to research the laser welded dimple jacket. The relation table is useful as guidance for the fabrication process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9704

  14. Wear And Tear Determination By Trace Multi-Element Analysis Of An Unused And Used Lubricant Oil Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeyemo, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique using the Imperial College Centre consort M. K. II nuclear reactor was utilized for the determination of: As, Ba Ca CI, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Na Ni, Rb, Sb, Se, Ti, V, and Zn, in an imported and used car lubricant oil. The wear of the oil lubricated parts of the car engine was monitored by establishing a correlation between the results obtained in the analysis. The result obtained from the analysis of the unused and then used samples on a low performing oil leaking four stroke car engine showed an increase on all the elements determined except for Se and Rb. The precision for the multi-element analysis is less than 12% for most of the elements. The accuracy of the measurement is also validated by the result obtained from the analysis of NBS-SRM1635 (sub-bituminous) coal standard for the elements. The results obtained indicate that analysis of unused and used lubricant oil samples can aid in locating defects in engine parts and hence facilitated maintenance procedures

  15. The Determination Of Trace Element Levels In Diet By Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Djojosubroto, Harjoto

    2002-01-01

    Trace element levels in foodstuff are normally low. Although the levels are low, certain trace elements which are called essential trace elements have an important role in metabolism process. Deficiency or intoxication of essential trace elements may lead to abnormal health. In this study the levels of Zn, Fe, AI, Mn, and Co in diet samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, and then the daily intakes of these elements were estimated. The samples were prepared by duplicate diet method, representing those that were consumed by population from West, Central and East Java. Following the collection the respective samples were blended, then were freeze dried at-54 o c. The elemental quantification were performed by neutron activation analysis. The traceability of the determination was ensured using standard reference material NIST-SRM-1548a. The results show that the daily intake for Zn were 2.8-22.8 mg/day (reference value were 5- 40 mg/day), Fe were 3.1-26.5 mg/day (reference value were 6-40 mg/day), AI were 4,2-32.9 mg/day (reference value were 2-45 mg/day), Mn were 1.0-5,6 mg/day (reference value were 0.4-10,0 mg/day), and Co were 0,005-0,074 mg/day (reference value were 0.005 -1.8 mg/day

  16. TAPIR, Thermal Analysis of HTGR with Graphite Sleeve Fuel Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weicht, U.; Mueller, W.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Thermal analysis of a reactor core containing internally and/or externally gas cooled prismatic fuel elements of various geometries, rating, power distribution, and material properties. 2 - Method of solution: A fuel element in this programme is regarded as a sector of a fuelled annulus with graphite sleeves of any shape on either side and optional annular gaps between fuel and graphite and/or within the graphite. It may have any centre angle and the fuelled annulus may become a solid cylindrical rod. Heat generation in the fuel is assumed to be uniform over the cross section and peripheral heat flux into adjacent sectors is ignored. Fuel elements and coolant channels are treated separately, then linked together to fit a specified pattern. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 50 fuel elements; 50 cooled channels; 25 fuel geometries; 25 coolant channel geometries; 10 axial power distributions; 10 graphite conductivities

  17. Trace elements in cigarette tobacco by a method of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin Ibrahim

    1986-01-01

    A total of ten cigarette brands were investigated for determining the trace elemental concentrations in tobacco so as to assess their role in the induction of related diseases through smoking. A method instrumental Neutron Activation analysis was employed due to high sensitivity, speed and ability to analyse sample for a wide spectrum of elements simultaneously. A total of 18 elements were detected of which the majority are toxic elements. A full result and conclusion will be reported in the forthcoming paper. (A.J.)

  18. Simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis for trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.; Kiceniuk, J.W.; Menendez Sanchez, W.; Bottaro, C.

    2006-01-01

    Among the various forms of neutron activation technique being developed in our laboratory, much emphasis has been placed over the last ten years or so on the development of simultaneous speciation neutron activation analysis (SSNAA). This technique can now be used for the simultaneous determination of various species of a number of elements. Almost all speciation techniques consist of two steps. The first step involves the separation of species from the sample followed by the second step of element-specific detection. A number of characteristic features of NAA, which other techniques normally do not possess, can be advantageously exploited in SSNAA. For example, SSNAA can be used for: (i) multielement speciation with high specificity, (ii) speciation of chemically dissimilar elements such as Cd, Mn and Se, (iii) speciation of elements such as Cl, Br and I which are rather difficult to determine by most other techniques, etc. We have developed SSNAA methods for assaying various arsenic species, namely As(III), As(V), dimethyl arsonic acid (DMA), monomethylarsinic acid (MMA), arsenobetaine (AsB), organically bound arsenic (OBAs), and lipid-soluble arsenic (LSAs) in marine fish samples. We have extended these methods to include simultaneous determination of various species of As, Sb and Se in water. We have also developed SSNAA methods employing biochemical techniques for the simultaneous separation, preconcentration and characterization of metalloproteins and protein-bound trace element species of As, Br, Cd, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn. We have developed methods for the simultaneous separation and characterization of organohalogen compounds in fish. An overview of the SSNAA methods being developed in our laboratory will be presented. (author)

  19. Multidimensional elemental analysis with the Sandia nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that many of the ion beam analysis techniques such as Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection, resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction analysis can be used to nondestructively obtain concentration depth profiles of elements in solids. When these techniques are combined with the small beam spot capabilities of a scanned nuclear microprobe, sample composition can be determined in up to three dimensions. This paper will review the various procedures used to collect and analyze multidimensional data using the Sandia nuclear microprobe. In addition, examples of how these data are being used in the study of materials will be shown. (author)

  20. Free material stiffness design of laminated composite structures using commercial finite element analysis codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Søren Randrup; Lindgaard, Esben; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In this work optimum stiffness design of laminated composite structures is performed using the commercially available programs ANSYS and MATLAB. Within these programs a Free Material Optimization algorithm is implemented based on an optimality condition and a heuristic update scheme. The heuristic...... update scheme is needed because commercially available finite element analysis software is used. When using a commercial finite element analysis code it is not straight forward to implement a computationally efficient gradient based optimization algorithm. Examples considered in this work are a clamped......, where full access to the finite element analysis core is granted. This comparison displays the possibility of using commercially available programs for stiffness design of laminated composite structures....

  1. Elemental data on human hair sampled from Indian student population and their interpretation for studies in environmental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.; Gangadharan, S.; Yegnasubramanian, S.

    1979-01-01

    The head hair samples from 260 students distributed over the country have been analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry through a combination of short and long irradiations. The elemental abundances for 21 elements (Na, Cl, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Cd, Sb, I, La, Ce and Au) computed using a secondary standard, developed in this laboratory, as a comparator are presented and compared with some of the published data. The elemental concentration data have been analysed to look for statistically significant differences between groups based on sex, diet, geographical location, section of hair, etc., and the trace element features have been processed through pattern recognition approach using principal components analysis and minimal spanning tree. The vegetarians and non-vegetarians form clearly distinct groups, while the clusters for general population seem to be based on geographical location. (author)

  2. LOGICAL CONDITIONS ANALYSIS METHOD FOR DIAGNOSTIC TEST RESULTS DECODING APPLIED TO COMPETENCE ELEMENTS PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Freyman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Representation features of education results for competence-based educational programs are analyzed. Solution importance of decoding and proficiency estimation for elements and components of discipline parts of competences is shown. The purpose and objectives of research are formulated. Methods. The paper deals with methods of mathematical logic, Boolean algebra, and parametrical analysis of complex diagnostic test results, that controls proficiency of some discipline competence elements. Results. The method of logical conditions analysis is created. It will give the possibility to formulate logical conditions for proficiency determination of each discipline competence element, controlled by complex diagnostic test. Normalized test result is divided into noncrossing zones; a logical condition about controlled elements proficiency is formulated for each of them. Summarized characteristics for test result zones are imposed. An example of logical conditions forming for diagnostic test with preset features is provided. Practical Relevance. The proposed method of logical conditions analysis is applied in the decoding algorithm of proficiency test diagnosis for discipline competence elements. It will give the possibility to automate the search procedure for elements with insufficient proficiency, and is also usable for estimation of education results of a discipline or a component of competence-based educational program.

  3. Prospects for higher spatial resolution quantitative X-ray analysis using transition element L-lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, P.; Holland, J.

    2014-03-01

    Lowering electron beam kV reduces electron scattering and improves spatial resolution of X-ray analysis. However, a previous round robin analysis of steels at 5 - 6 kV using Lα-lines for the first row transition elements gave poor accuracies. Our experiments on SS63 steel using Lα-lines show similar biases in Cr and Ni that cannot be corrected with changes to self-absorption coefficients or carbon coating. The inaccuracy may be caused by different probabilities for emission and anomalous self-absorption for the La-line between specimen and pure element standard. Analysis using Ll(L3-M1)-lines gives more accurate results for SS63 plausibly because the M1-shell is not so vulnerable to the atomic environment as the unfilled M4,5-shell. However, Ll-intensities are very weak and WDS analysis may be impractical for some applications. EDS with large area SDD offers orders of magnitude faster analysis and achieves similar results to WDS analysis with Lα-lines but poorer energy resolution precludes the use of Ll-lines in most situations. EDS analysis of K-lines at low overvoltage is an alternative strategy for improving spatial resolution that could give higher accuracy. The trade-off between low kV versus low overvoltage is explored in terms of sensitivity for element detection for different elements.

  4. Trace element determination in soft tissues of marine bivalves by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Trace elements in soft tissues of marine bivalves were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and photon activation analysis (PAA). Elemental levels of Ag, As, Br, Co, Cu, Fe, I, Mn, Ni, Rb, Se, and Zn in the organs of giant ezoscallos, rock oysters, and giant crams were obtained. The metal-bound proteins were extracted from the mantles and hepatopancreases of rock oysters. By irradiating the fraction obtained by HPLC gel chromatography, the possibility for the existence of an Ag bound protein in the mantles was found. (author)

  5. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Pressurized Aircraft Fuselage Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aims to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration are not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One of the airframe concepts that might dramatically improve aircraft performance is a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presents inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a nonlinear finite element analysis of a large-scale test article being developed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. There are specific reasons why geometrically nonlinear analysis may be warranted for the hybrid wing body flat panel structure. In general, for sufficiently high internal pressure and/or mechanical loading, energy related to the in-plane strain may become significant relative to the bending strain energy, particularly in thin-walled areas such as the minimum gage skin extensively used in the structure under analysis. To account for this effect, a geometrically nonlinear strain-displacement relationship is needed to properly couple large out-of-plane and in-plane deformations. Depending on the loading, this nonlinear coupling mechanism manifests itself in a distinct manner in compression- and tension-dominated sections of the structure. Under significant compression, nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately predict loss of stability and postbuckled deformation. Under significant tension, the nonlinear effects account for suppression of the out-of-plane deformation due to in-plane stretching. By comparing the present results with the previously

  6. Application of the neutron activation analysis method for determing trace elements in Brazilian food sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recently there has been an increase of consciousness about the importance of trace elements in human health and disease as well as rising concern about food contamination. The development of sensitive, accurate and price methods is one of the most important of the knowledge of trace elements contents in foods and in biological samples. Neutron activation analysis is one of the most suitable tecniques because a great number of elements can be determined in concentrations in the range of μg/g to ng/g. The present work is a part of an AIEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the applications of nuclear techniques for toxic elements in foodstuffs. Neutron activation analysis is applied to analysis of bread, milk powder and rice that are considered essential foods in the Brazilian diet. Some aspects of the activation analysis of biological matrices are discussed. (author) [pt

  7. Determination of elements in cisadane river sediments by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarz, H.

    1997-01-01

    Determination of elements in Cisadane river sediments by neutron activation analysis has been conducted. Samples of sediments were obtained from some location along Cisadane river, i.e. Leuranji, Karanggan, Cibigo, Cisauk, Warung Mangga Pintu Air and Estuary Teluk Naga. the elements analysed were Al, Mn, Mg, V, K, Na, Fe, Cr, Co, U and Zn, and the results were compared to the SRM of sediment sample from IAEA. Generally, the results showed that the mean concentration of elements were found in Cibogo, Cisauk, Pintu Air and Muara Teluk Naga which were higher than others. Concentration factor of elements in sediments were in between of 0,02 - 3,45, this factor indicated that Cisadane river sediments have not been contaminated. CRM sediments 2704 from IAEA used as NAA Quality Control (author)

  8. Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis of Planetary Gear Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to simulate residual stress field of planetary gear is proposed. In this method, the finite element model of planetary gear is established and divided to tooth zone and profile zone, whose different temperature field is set. The gear's residual stress simulation is realized by the thermal compression stress generated by the temperature difference. Based on the simulation, the finite element model of planetary gear train is established, the dynamic meshing process is simulated, and influence of residual stress on equivalent stress of addendum, pitch circle, and dedendum of internal and external meshing planetary gear tooth profile is analyzed, according to non-linear contact theory, thermodynamic theory, and finite element theory. The results show that the equivalent stresses of planetary gear at both meshing and nonmeshing surface are significantly and differently reduced by residual stress. The study benefits fatigue cracking analysis and dynamic optimization design of planetary gear train.

  9. Polyphasic taxonomic analysis establishes Mycobacterium indicus pranii as a distinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Saini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP, popularly known as Mw, is a cultivable, non-pathogenic organism, which, based on its growth and metabolic properties, is classified in Runyon Group IV along with M. fortuitum, M. smegmatis and M. vaccae. The novelty of this bacterium was accredited to its immunological ability to undergo antigen driven blast transformation of leukocytes and delayed hypersensitivity skin test in leprosy patients, a disease endemic in the Indian sub-continent. Consequently, MIP has been extensively evaluated for its biochemical and immunological properties leading to its usage as an immunomodulator in leprosy and tuberculosis patients. However, owing to advances in sequencing and culture techniques, the citing of new strains with almost 100% similarity in the sequences of marker genes like 16S rRNA, has compromised the identity of MIP as a novel species. Hence, to define its precise taxonomic position, we have carried out polyphasic taxonomic studies on MIP that integrate its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic attributes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA sequence of MIP by using BLAST algorithm at NCBI (nr database revealed a similarity of > or =99% with M. intracellulare, M. arosiense, M. chimaera, M. seoulense, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. bohemicum. Further analysis with other widely used markers like rpoB and hsp65 could resolve the phylogenetic relationship between MIP and other closely related mycobacteria apart from M. intracellulare and M. chimaera, which shares > or =99% similarity with corresponding MIP orthologues. Molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on the concatenation of candidate orthologues of 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB, also substantiated its distinctiveness from all the related organisms used in the analysis excluding M. intracellulare and M. chimaera with which it exhibited a close proximity. This

  10. Rare earth elements in sediment profiles from marginal lagoons of the Moji-Guacu River basin, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.R.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Franca, E.J.; Tavares, G.A.; Silva, N.C. da; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment cores from Catingueiro, Barrinha and Rio das Pedras marginal lagoons of the Moji-Guacu River basin were analyzed for rare earth elements (REEs), Fe, Ta and Th by instrumental neutron activation analysis (k 0 -INAA). Data indicated similarities between Catingueiro and Barrinha lagoons, while a distinct scenario was seen for Rio das Pedras likely due to changes of sedimentation rate in 1950's. By using Fe, Sc, Ta and Th as conservative elements, double normalization technique was performed in order to assess the distribution pattern of Ce, Eu, La, Sm and Tb for each core. In all cases, it was evident a depletion of lighter REE elements in the Rio das Pedras lagoon. (author)

  11. Efficient Analysis of Structures with Rotatable Elements Using Model Order Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fotyga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel full-wave technique which allows for a fast 3D finite element analysis of waveguide structures containing rotatable tuning elements of arbitrary shapes. Rotation of these elements changes the resonant frequencies of the structure, which can be used in the tuning process to obtain the S-characteristics desired for the device. For fast commutations of the response as the tuning elements are rotated, the 3D finite element method is supported by multilevel model-order reduction, orthogonal projection at the boundaries of macromodels and the operation called macromodels cloning. All the time-consuming steps are performed only once in the preparatory stage. In the tuning stage, only small parts of the domain are updated, by means of a special meshing technique. In effect, the tuning process is performed extremely rapidly. The results of the numerical experiments confirm the efficiency and validity of the proposed method.

  12. Clean laboratories and clean rooms for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    requirements are summarized of clean laboratory environments, for construction materials as well as for materials used during routine analysis, maintenance, and pitfalls in the analysis of radionuclides and elements at trace- and ultra trace levels. Current methodologies and practices are described for planning the installation of a clean environment as well as protocols for maximizing the benefit-to-cost ratio and for achieving QA/QC. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of radionuclides, and measurement of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA and XRF. Also included are papers contributed by experts from India, the Netherlands, the United States of America and the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf

  13. Multi-element determination in environmental samples by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis using thermal ionization. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilpert, K.; Waidmann, E.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the multi-element analysis of the elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb in pine needles by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis using thermal ionization has been reported in Part I of this paper. This procedure is now transferred to the non-vegetable material 'Oyster Tissue' (Standard Reference Material 1566, National Bureau of Standards, USA). By a modification of the analytical procedure, it was possible to determine Cr in this material in addition to the aforementioned elements. No concentrations are certified for the elements Ga, Ba and Tl analyzed in this work. The concentrations of the remaining elements obtained by the multi-element analysis agree well with those certified. (orig.)

  14. Analysis and Design of Rolling Stock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Chugunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work solves the problem of equal-strength design of the rolling stock elements in option of discrete equal-strength. For this purpose, has been developed the software built in SolidWorks and SolidWorks Simulation as an AddIn-application using necessary basic functionality and extending it in the specified part on the basis of API SolidWorks and COM technology.The SolidWorks software is used to develop a 3D-model for general force frame of the wagon as an assembly. As this assembly is quite complicated and includes many elements both standard, and non-standard type, 3D - specification is developed by 3Dvia Composer software, which is included in the article in the form of the gif-animation and via-roller. This means is very useful for the evident analysis of topology and geometrical properties of a design as a whole, facilitates a procedure of adequate formation of the FE model providing accuracy and profitability of computing. From the point of view of profitability and opportunities of definition of concentrators of stresses with a sufficient accuracy for practice the combined model including volume and shell FEM is optimum.In the work the analysis results of stress-strain state of a design are given in two options of static loading in the form of stress diagrams, the main areas of stress concentration are revealed.Results of equal-strength design in the form of thickness distribution on thin-walled elements of a design, considered within FEM as shells, are received. It is shown that the developed software doesn't allow optimum design results, however it is economically viable, simple in use and can be applied to the solution of problems of rational design in design practice.SolidWorks, as well as the majority of similar CADs, possess an open architecture and allow users to apply its functionality. This work continues a series of publications of the author of this paper and other authors concerning the API-based CAD/CAE adaptation and

  15. Macro elemental analysis of food samples by nuclear analytical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahfitri, W. Y. N.; Kurniawati, S.; Adventini, N.; Damastuti, E.; Lestiani, D. D.

    2017-06-01

    Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry is a non-destructive, rapid, multi elemental, accurate, and environment friendly analysis compared with other detection methods. Thus, EDXRF spectrometry is applicable for food inspection. The macro elements calcium and potassium constitute important nutrients required by the human body for optimal physiological functions. Therefore, the determination of Ca and K content in various foods needs to be done. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of EDXRF for food analysis. The analytical performance of non-destructive EDXRF was compared with other analytical techniques; neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of methods performed as cross checking results of the analysis and to overcome the limitations of the three methods. Analysis results showed that Ca found in food using EDXRF and AAS were not significantly different with p-value 0.9687, whereas p-value of K between EDXRF and NAA is 0.6575. The correlation between those results was also examined. The Pearson correlations for Ca and K were 0.9871 and 0.9558, respectively. Method validation using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet was also applied. The results showed good agreement between methods; therefore EDXRF method can be used as an alternative method for the determination of Ca and K in food samples.

  16. Micro-scaled high-throughput digestion of plant tissue samples for multi-elemental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husted Søren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectrometry depends on a complete digestion of solid samples. However, fast and thorough sample digestion is a challenging analytical task which constitutes a bottleneck in modern multi-elemental analysis. Additional obstacles may be that sample quantities are limited and elemental concentrations low. In such cases, digestion in small volumes with minimum dilution and contamination is required in order to obtain high accuracy data. Results We have developed a micro-scaled microwave digestion procedure and optimized it for accurate elemental profiling of plant materials (1-20 mg dry weight. A commercially available 64-position rotor with 5 ml disposable glass vials, originally designed for microwave-based parallel organic synthesis, was used as a platform for the digestion. The novel micro-scaled method was successfully validated by the use of various certified reference materials (CRM with matrices rich in starch, lipid or protein. When the micro-scaled digestion procedure was applied on single rice grains or small batches of Arabidopsis seeds (1 mg, corresponding to approximately 50 seeds, the obtained elemental profiles closely matched those obtained by conventional analysis using digestion in large volume vessels. Accumulated elemental contents derived from separate analyses of rice grain fractions (aleurone, embryo and endosperm closely matched the total content obtained by analysis of the whole rice grain. Conclusion A high-throughput micro-scaled method has been developed which enables digestion of small quantities of plant samples for subsequent elemental profiling by ICP-spectrometry. The method constitutes a valuable tool for screening of mutants and transformants. In addition, the method facilitates studies of the distribution of essential trace elements between and within plant organs which is relevant for, e.g., breeding programmes aiming at

  17. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2014-10-07

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  18. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane; Ryu, Tae Woo; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  19. Elemental analysis of bronze artifacts by muonic X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Shinohara, Atsushi; Kubo, Michael K.; Strasser, Patrick; Nagatomo, Takashi; Kawamura, Naritoshi; Shimomura, Koichiro; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Higemoto, Wataru; Suzuki, Takao; Saito, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative and multi-elemental analysis method for bulk samples based on muonic X-ray spectroscopy was applied to bronze artifacts (Tempo-Tsuho coins and a Seiun-kyo mirror). This method is based on the measurement of the characteristic high-energy muonic X-rays emitted in a sample after muon irradiation. The elemental compositions of these bronze artifacts were determined from muonic X-ray intensities in a non-destructive manner, using the relation between the muonic X-ray intensity and the elemental composition of the Cu–Sn–Pb alloy system. The analyzed values agreed well with those determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. We also estimated the detection limit of this method in the present experimental setup as 0.81 wt% of the background signal of the muonic X-ray spectra. (author)

  20. Application of neutron activation analysis to the monitoring of trace elements in Brazilian foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Maihara, V.A.; Munita, C.J.A.S.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Armelin, M.J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Due to lack of data on trace element levels in Brazilian foodstuffs, nuclear analytical techniques were used to determine about twenty elements in foods samples collected from local markets of the city of Sao Paulo. Drinking water was also analyzed. The methods employed were mainly instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis. In the case of the analysis of toxic elements, such as mercury, selenium, arsenic and antimony, the purely instrumental approach failed in yielding results for very low concentrations of these elements. For INAA, samples and multielemental synthetic standards were irradiated in the IEA R1 research reactor for periods of time ranging from minutes to several hours, under thermal neutron fluxes from 10 11 to 10 13 n·cm -2 ·s -1 ; after suitable cooling times, γ-ray spectra were measured using a Ge(Li) or Ge solid state detector. The RNAA approach involved the distillation of mercury and selenium in HBr medium; selenium was then reduced to the metal form with sodium metabisulphide and mercury was precipitated as sulphide with thioacetamide. For water analysis, a preconcentration procedure based on retention of several elements in a Chelex-100 resin was employed. The elements retained were Hg, Cr, Zn, Fe, Co while Se was measured in the effluent after absorption on active charcoal. The levels of the trace inorganic elements determined in the Brazilian foodstuffs analyzed were always below the levels established by the existing regulations in our country. (author). 16 refs, 18 tabs

  1. Six key elements' analysis of FAC effective management in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhaojiang; Chen Hanming

    2010-01-01

    Corporate Commitment, Analysis, Operating Experience, Inspection, Training and Engineering Judgment, Long-Term Strategy are the six key elements of FAC effective management in nuclear power plant. Corporate commitment is the economy base of FAC management and ensure of management system, Analysis is the method of FAC's optimization and consummation, Operating experience is the reference and complementarity of FAC, Inspection is the base of accumulating FAC data, Training and engineering judgment is the technical complementarity and deepening, Long-term strategy is successful key of FAC management. Six key elements supplement each other, and make up of a full system of FAC effective management. For present FAC management in our national nuclear power plant, six key elements are the core and bring out the best in each other to found the FAC effective management system and prevent great FAC occurrence. (authors)

  2. Multi-element analysis of lubricant oil by WDXRF technique using thin-film sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapin, M. A.; Salvador, V. L. R.; Lopes, C. D.; Sato, I. M.

    2006-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of the chemical elements in matrices like oils or gels represents a challenge for the analytical chemists. The classics methods or instrumental techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) need chemical treatments, mainly sample dissolution and degradation processes. X-ray fluorescence technique allows a direct and multi-element analysis without previous sample treatments. In this work, a sensible method for the determination of elements Mg, Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Sn, Ba and Pb in lubricating oil is presented. The x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) technique using linear regression method and thin film sample preparation was used. The validation of the methodology (repeatability and accuracy) was obtained by the analysis of the standard reference materials SRM Alpha AESAR lot 703527D, applying the Chauvenet, Cochrane, ANOVA and Z-score statistical tests. The method presents a relative standard deviation lower than 10% for all the elements, except for Pb determination (RSD Pb 15%). The Z-score values for all the elements were in the range -2 < Z < 2, indicating a very good accuracy.(Full text)

  3. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Reator e Tecnicas Analiticas. Lab. de Ativacao Neutronica

    2011-07-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  4. Multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmazio, Ilza; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent works have shown that analysis in cosmetics and beauty products from the European and Asian markets indicate the presence of U, Th and rare earths besides other trace elements. Considering these previous findings and health issues, it would be valuable to obtain information on elements in cosmetics available in the Brazilian market. The purpose of this study was to acquire a multi-elemental profile of some Brazilian make-up products of diverse brands. Samples of eye shadow, liquid base, facial concealer, lipstick, and compact face powder were analyzed applying neutron activation analysis, k 0 -standardization method at CDTN/CNEN, using the TRIGA Mark I IPR-R1 research reactor. Concentrations of more than 30 elements in samples are presented and it was found elements included in Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency prohibitive list, rare earths, Th and U in a minimum of two cosmetic samples. (author)

  5. Particle induced X-ray emission for quantitative trace-element analysis using the Eindhoven cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivits, H.

    1980-01-01

    Development of a multi-elemental trace analysis technique using PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission), was started almost five years ago at the Eindhoven University of Technology, in the Cyclotron Applications Group of the Physics Department. The aim of the work presented is to improve the quantitative aspects of trace-element analysis with PIXE, as well as versatility, speed and simplicity. (Auth.)

  6. Predicting thermal distortion of synchrotron radiation mirrors with finite element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGennaro, R.; Edwards, W.R.; Hoyer, E.

    1985-10-01

    High power and high power densities due to absorbed radiation are significant design considerations which can limit performance of mirrors receiving highly collimated synchrotron radiation from insertion devices and bending magnet sources. Although the grazing incidence angles needed for x-ray optics spread the thermal load, localized, non-uniform heating can cause distortions which exceed allowable surface figure errors and limit focusing resolution. This paper discusses the suitability of numerical approximations using finite element methods for heat transfer, deformation, and stress analysis of optical elements. The primary analysis objectives are (1) to estimate optical surface figure under maximum heat loads, (2) to correctly predict thermal stresses in order to select suitable materials and mechanical design configurations, and (3) to minimize fabrication costs by specifying appropriate tolerances for surface figure. Important factors which determine accuracy of results include finite element model mesh refinement, accuracy of boundary condition modeling, and reliability of material property data. Some methods to verify accuracy are suggested. Design analysis for an x-ray mirror is presented. Some specific configurations for internal water-cooling are evaluated in order to determine design sensitivity with respect to structural geometry, material properties, fabrication tolerances, absorbed heat magnitude and distribution, and heat transfer approximations. Estimated accuracy of these results is discussed

  7. Comparative analysis of distinct phenotypes in gambling disorder based on gambling preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moragas, Laura; Granero, Roser; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Fagundo, Ana B; Islam, Mohammed A; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Agüera, Zaida; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Arcelus, Jon; Witcomb, Gemma L; Sauchelli, Sarah; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-04-15

    Studies examining gambling preferences have identified the importance of the type of gambling practiced on distinct individual profiles. The objectives were to compare clinical, psychopathological and personality variables between two different groups of individuals with a gambling disorder (strategic and non-strategic gamblers) and to evaluate the statistical prediction capacity of these preferences with respect to the severity of the disorder. A total sample of 2010 treatment-seeking patients with a gambling disorder participated in this stand-alone study. All were recruited from a single Pathological Gambling Unit in Spain (1709 strategic and 301 non-strategic gamblers). The design of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected at the start of treatment. Data was analysed using logistic regression for binary outcomes and analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quantitative responses. There were significant differences in several socio-demographic and clinical variables, as well as in personality traits (novelty seeking and cooperativeness). Multiple regression analysis showed harm avoidance and self-directedness were the main predictors of gambling severity and psychopathology, while age at assessment and age of onset of gambling behaviour were predictive of gambling severity. Strategic gambling (as opposed to non-strategic) was significantly associated with clinical outcomes, but the effect size of the relationships was small. It is possible to identify distinct phenotypes depending on the preference of gambling. While these phenotypes differ in relation to the severity of the gambling disorder, psychopathology and personality traits, they can be useful from a clinical and therapeutic perspective in enabling risk factors to be identified and prevention programs targeting specific individual profiles to be developed.

  8. Ultrasonic Nebulizer Assisted LIBS: a Promising Metal Elements Detection Method for Aqueous Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Shilei; Zheng Ronger; Lu Yuan; Cheng Kai; Xiu Junshan

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed approach for trace metal elements detection for aqueous samples analysis is presented in this paper. The idea of this approach is to improve ablation efficiency by transforming the liquid sample into a dense cloud of droplets using an ultrasonic nebulizer. The resulting droplets are then subjected to analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A purpose-built ultrasonic nebulizer assisted LIBS (UN-LIBS) system has been applied to the analysis of aqueous samples at trace levels of concentration. Experimental investigations of solution samples were carried out with various dissolved trace metal elements (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mg and Na) using this approach. The characteristics of UN-LIBS signal of the elements were investigated regarding the lifetime and S/B ratio and the calibration curves for trace metal elements analyses. The obtained LODs are comparable or much better than the LODS of the reported signal enhancement approaches when the laser pulse energy was as low as 30 mJ. The good linearity of calibration curves and the low LODs shows the potential ability of this method for metal elements analysis application. The density of the electrons was calculated by measuring the Stark width of the line of H α . The possible mechanism of the LIBS signal enhancement of this approach was briefly discussed. (paper)

  9. [Rapid multi-elemental analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines based on LIBS technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-na; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jia, Shuai-yun; Zhao, Na; Wu, Zhi-sheng; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-06-01

    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to perform a qualitative elementary analysis on four precious Tibetan medicines, i. e. Renqing Mangjue, Renqing Changjue, 25-herb coral pills and 25-herb pearl pills. The specific spectra of the four Tibetan medicines were established. In the experiment, Nd: YAG and 1 064 nm-baseband pulse laser were adopted to collect the spectra. A laser beam focused on the surface of the samples to generate plasma. Its spectral signal was detected by using spectrograph. Based on the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) database, LIBS spectral lines were indentified. The four Tibetan medicines mainly included Ca, Na, K, Mg and other elements and C-N molecular band. Specifically, Fe was detected in Renqing Changjue and 25-herb pearl pills; heavy mental elements Hg and Cu were shown in Renqing Mangjue and Renqing Changjue; Ag was found in Renqing Changjue. The results demonstrated that LIBS is a reliable and rapid multi-element analysis on the four Tibetan medicines. With Real-time, rapid and nondestructive advantages, LIBS has a wide application prospect in the element analysis on ethnic medicines.

  10. Analysis of Tire Tractive Performance on Deformable Terrain by Finite Element-Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Yuzuru

    The goal of this study is to develop a practical and fast simulation tool for soil-tire interaction analysis, where finite element method (FEM) and discrete element method (DEM) are coupled together, and which can be realized on a desktop PC. We have extended our formerly proposed dynamic FE-DE method (FE-DEM) to include practical soil-tire system interaction, where not only the vertical sinkage of a tire, but also the travel of a driven tire was considered. Numerical simulation by FE-DEM is stable, and the relationships between variables, such as load-sinkage and sinkage-travel distance, and the gross tractive effort and running resistance characteristics, are obtained. Moreover, the simulation result is accurate enough to predict the maximum drawbar pull for a given tire, once the appropriate parameter values are provided. Therefore, the developed FE-DEM program can be applied with sufficient accuracy to interaction problems in soil-tire systems.

  11. Finite Element Analysis and Design of Experiments in Engineering Design

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Projects with the objective of introducing Finite Element Analysis (FEA) into the early phases of the design process have previously been carried out at the Department of Machine Design, see e.g. the Doctoral thesis by Burman [13]. These works clearly highlight the usefulness of introducing design analysis early in the design process. According to Bjärnemo and Burman [10] the most significant advantage of applying design analysis early in the design process was the shift from verification to ...

  12. Effect of analysis parameters on non-linear implicit finite element analysis of marine corroded steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Rabiul; Sakib-Ul-Alam, Md.; Nazat, Kazi Kaarima; Hassan, M. Munir

    2017-12-01

    FEA results greatly depend on analysis parameters. MSC NASTRAN nonlinear implicit analysis code has been used in large deformation finite element analysis of pitted marine SM490A steel rectangular plate. The effect of two types actual pit shape on parameters of integrity of structure has been analyzed. For 3-D modeling, a proposed method for simulation of pitted surface by probabilistic corrosion model has been used. The result has been verified with the empirical formula proposed by finite element analysis of steel surface generated with different pitted data where analyses have been carried out by the code of LS-DYNA 971. In the both solver, an elasto-plastic material has been used where an arbitrary stress versus strain curve can be defined. In the later one, the material model is based on the J2 flow theory with isotropic hardening where a radial return algorithm is used. The comparison shows good agreement between the two results which ensures successful simulation with comparatively less energy and time.

  13. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF DISTINCT SECURED AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOLS USED IN THE RESOURCE CONSTRAINED PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prasanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the e-commerce and m-commerce applications in the current e-business world, has adopted asymmetric key cryptography technique in their authentication protocol to provide an efficient authentication of the involved parties. This paper exhibits the performance analysis of distinct authentication protocol which implements the public key cryptography like RSA, ECC and HECC. The comparison is made based on key generation, sign generation and sign verification processes. The results prove that the performance achieved through HECC based authentication protocol is better than the ECC- and RSA based authentication protocols.

  14. Three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a nuclear waste truck cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a hypothetical accident event for the preliminary design of a shipping cask which is used to transport radioactive waste by standard tractor-semitrailer truck. The nonlinear dynamic structural analysis code DYNA3D run on Sandia's Cray-1 computer was used to calculate the effects of the cask's closure-end impacting a rigid frictionless surface on an edge of its external impact limiter after a 30-foot fall. The center of gravity of the cask (made of 304 stainless steel and depleted uranium) was assumed to be directly above the impact point. An elastic-plastic material constitutive model was used to calculate the nonlinear response of the cask components to the transient loading. Interactive color graphics (PATRAN and MOVIE BYU) were used throughout the analysis, proving to be extremely helpful for generation and verification of the geometry and boundary conditions of the finite element model and for interpretation of the analysis results. Results from the calculations show the cask sustained large localized deformations. However, these were almost entirely confined to the impact limiters built into the cask. The closure sections were determined to remain intact, and leakage would not be expected after the event. As an example of a large three-dimensional finite element dynamic impact calculation, this analysis can serve as an excellent benchmark for computer aided design procedures

  15. Finite element analysis of permanent magnet motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boglietti, A.; Chiampi, M.; Tartaglia, M.; Chiarabaglio, D.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of permanent magnet D.C. brushless motors, supplied by current control inverters, is developed employing a finite element package tailored for such devices. The study is devoted to predicting the performance of a set of four poles machines, under different operating conditions (no-load, rated load). The over-load conditions are also considered including the saturation effect. Moreover the influence of such design parameters, as the tooth shape and the number of magnet segments, is investigated. Computed results are found in satisfactory agreement with experimental ones

  16. Charged particle induced delayed X-rays (DEX) for the analysis of intermediate and heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, A. E.; Erasmus, C. S.; Andeweg, A. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Annegarn, H. J.; Dunn, J.

    1988-12-01

    The emission of K X-rays from proton-rich and metastable radionuclides, following proton activation of the stable isotopes of the elements of interest, has not been widely used as a means of analysis. The thrust of this paper proposes a nuclear technique using delayed X-rays for the analysis of low concentrations of intermediate and heavy elements. The method is similar to the delayed gamma-ray technique. Proton bombardment induces mainly (p, n) reactions whereas the delayed X-rays originate largely from e --capture and isomeric transition. Samples of rare earth and platinum group elements (PGE), in the form of compacted powders, were irradiated with an 11 MeV proton beam and delayed X-rays detected with a 100 mm 2 Ge detector. Single element spectra for a range of rare earths and PGEs are presented. Analytical conditions are demonstrated for Pd in the range 0.1-5%. Spectra from actual geological samples of a PGE ore, preconcentrated by fire-assay, and monazite are presented. All six platinum group elements are visible and interference-free in a single spectrum, a marked advance on other nuclear techniques for these elements, including PIXE and neutron activation analysis (NAA).

  17. GRIZ: Visualization of finite element analysis results on unstructured grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovey, D.; Loomis, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    GRIZ is a general-purpose post-processing application that supports interactive visualization of finite element analysis results on three-dimensional unstructured grids. GRIZ includes direct-to-videodisc animation capabilities and is being used as a production tool for creating engineering animations

  18. Composite Beam Cross-Section Analysis by a Single High-Order Element Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An analysis procedure of general cross-section properties is presented. The formulation is based on the stress-strain states in the classic six equilibrium modes of a beam by considering a finite thickness slice modelled by a single layer of 3D finite elements. The theory is illustrated by applic......An analysis procedure of general cross-section properties is presented. The formulation is based on the stress-strain states in the classic six equilibrium modes of a beam by considering a finite thickness slice modelled by a single layer of 3D finite elements. The theory is illustrated...

  19. Trace element determination in human bones using the neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramarski, Sila; Saiki, Mitiko; Borelli, Aurelio; Batalha, Joao R.F.

    1997-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained in the analysis of rib bone samples from normal human individuals by applying instrumental neutron activation analysis. In these analyses, the elements Br, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Rb, Sr and Zn were found at the ppm level and the elements Ca and P at the level of percentage. The precision and the of the results were evaluated by using biological reference materials NIST SRM 1577a Bovine Liver, IAEA A-11 Milk powder, NIES CRM 9 Sargasso e NIES CRM 10A Rice Flour Unpolished. (author). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Trace elements evaluation of some medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Qureshi, I.H.; Subhani, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the analysis of seven varieties of medicinal herbs generally used by the people of South Asian region. Twenty-one trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were determined. This data should not only be helpful in establishing the base-line values in these medicinal herbs but also in correlating their role as therapeutic agents. A comparison of our data with literature values shows variation in trace element contents of same species of different origin which can be attributed to ecological and geographical variations to some extent; however an exact interpretation demands further extensive investigations. (orig.)

  1. Molecular analysis of an integrative conjugative element, ICEH, present in the chromosome of different strains of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Pinto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of bacterial species and pathotypes is largely caused by lateral gene transfer (LGT of diverse mobile DNA elements such as plasmids, phages, transposons and genomic islands. Thus, acquisition of new phenotypes by LGT is very important for bacterial evolution and relationship with hosts. This paper reports a 23 kb region containing fourteen CDSs with similarity to the previous described Integrative Conjugal Element of Mycoplasma fermentans (ICEF. This element, named ICEH, is present as one copy at distinct integration sites in the chromosome of 7448 and 232 pathogenic strains and is absent in the type strain J (non-pathogenic. Notable differences in the nucleotide composition of the insertion sites were detected, and could be correlated to a lack of specificity of the ICEH integrase. Although present in strains of the same organism, the ICEH elements are more divergent than the typical similarity between other chromosomal locus of Mycoplasma hyopneunomiae, suggesting an accelerated evolution of these constins or an ongoing process of degeneration, while maintaining conservation of the tra genes. An extrachromosomal form of this element had been detected in the 7448 strain, suggesting a possible involvement in its mobilization and transference of CDSs to new hosts.

  2. The determination of lanthanum and lanthanide elements by means of X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuelcue, N.

    1982-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of all lanthanide elements (except Pm) was carried out concurrently using X-ray fluorescence analysis. By choice of suitable preparative methods (thin layer samples prepared by pipetting solutions onto filter paper) and use of an internal standard (Sr) it was possible to obtain linear calibration curves up to high concentrations in the solution (85 g/l) and to suppress disturbances caused by absorption and secondary fluorescence. A correction procedure was developed for reflection superimpositions in the L-spectra of the lanthanide elements which, through selection of the most favourable reflections for analysis, permitted concurrent determination of all 14 elements. Main and secondary constitutents can be analysed whereas enrichment is required for trace analysis. Under routine usage the actual limits of detection range from 3 to 17 μg/cm 2 or alternatively 0.3 to 1.7 mg/ml. (orig.) [de

  3. PIXE and neutron activation analysis: intercomparison in the elemental concentration of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Gras, N.; Chuaqui, L.; Dinator, M.I.; Morales, J.R.; Llona, F.; Romo-Kroeger, C.

    1993-01-01

    Two nuclear analytical techniques, neutron activation analysis (NAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), were used to determine major and trace elements in airborne particulate matter collected during the first fortnight of June 1991 at the La Reina Nuclear Center. NAA detected the presence of 15 elements in the samples. PIXE, for the same samples, allowed the detection of 12 elements. The elements determined by both techniques were Al, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn. A good correlation between results for these elements for each of the two techniques was demonstrated. (author)

  4. Fatigue analysis of CANFLEX-NU fuel elements subjected to power-cyclic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the fatigue analysis of the CANDU advanced fuel, so-called CANFLEX-NU, subjected to power-cyclic loads more than 1,000. The CANFLEX-NU bundle is composed of 43 elements with natural uranium fuel. As a result, the CANFLEX-NU fuel elements will maintain good integrity under the condition of 1,500 power-cycles. (author). 4 refs., 19 figs

  5. Evaluation of pressed powders and thin section standards for multi-elemental analysis by conventional and micro-PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, Shino; Iso, Hiroyuki; Ito, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    For multi-elemental analysis, various standards are used to quantify the elements consists of environmental and biological samples. In this paper two different configuration standards, pressed powders and thin section standards, were assessed for their purpose as standards by conventional and micro-PIXE analysis. Homogeneity of manganese, iron, zinc (Zn), copper and yttrium added to pressed powder standard materials were validated and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the X-ray intensity of the standards was 2 area and the metal concentration was acceptable. (author)

  6. Proton induced x-ray emission analysis of trace elements in thick bread samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Baker Al-bedri; Ikram Jameel Abdul Ghani; Ibrahim Abdul Rahman Al-aghil

    2009-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been used for identification and quantitative analysis of the elemental concentration in thick bread samples. Bread samples were air-oven dried at 60degC and milled in a clean agate mortar to homogenize the sample and pressed into a pellet. PIXE technique relies on the analysis of the energy spectra of the characteristic X-ray emitted from the thick bread sample and the orchard leaf standard (NIST-SRM-1571) bombarded with 2.0 MeV protons. The concentration of the elements (Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the bread samples was determined by comparison with NIST orchard leaf standard. The accuracy of the measurements ranged between ±2% and ±10% for the most elements detected in this method. The aim of this study is to establish the reference concentration of trace elements in the Iraqi bread using PIXE technique. (author)

  7. Study on provenance of ancient Yaozhou porcelain bodies by fingerprint elements scatter analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Weijuan; Guo Min; Gao Zhengyao; Li Guoxia; Xie Jianzhong

    2004-01-01

    25 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies, 3 samples of the tri-color pottery bodies during the Tang Dynasty, 1 samples of Saggar material during Song Dynasty and 4 samples of clay mineral taken from the place near Yaozhou Kiln Museum was selected. The technique of neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been employed to measure the content of 29 kinds of elements in the samples. 8 elements of them were selected as fingerprint elements to make scatter analysis. The conclusion is that the ancient Yaozhou porcelain bodies produced by different kilns have long shared a stable and concentrated raw material sources. Both the tri-colored pottery bodies made in Yaozhou Kilns during the Tang Dynasty and the Yaozhou porcelain bodies are from the same provenance. (authors)

  8. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Sun Ha Kim; Gwang Min Sun; Jong Myoung Lim; Jong Hwa Moon; Kye Hong Lee; Young Jin Kim; Jong Il Choi; Ju Woon Lee

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  9. Characterization and distribution of repetitive elements in association with genes in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kai-Chiang; Tseng, Joseph T; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Sun, H Sunny

    2015-08-01

    Repetitive elements constitute more than 50% of the human genome. Recent studies implied that the complexity of living organisms is not just a direct outcome of a number of coding sequences; the repetitive elements, which do not encode proteins, may also play a significant role. Though scattered studies showed that repetitive elements in the regulatory regions of a gene control gene expression, no systematic survey has been done to report the characterization and distribution of various types of these repetitive elements in the human genome. Sequences from 5' and 3' untranslated regions and upstream and downstream of a gene were downloaded from the Ensembl database. The repetitive elements in the neighboring of each gene were identified and classified using cross-matching implemented in the RepeatMasker. The annotation and distribution of distinct classes of repetitive elements associated with individual gene were collected to characterize genes in association with different types of repetitive elements using systems biology program. We identified a total of 1,068,400 repetitive elements which belong to 37-class families and 1235 subclasses that are associated with 33,761 genes and 57,365 transcripts. In addition, we found that the tandem repeats preferentially locate proximal to the transcription start site (TSS) of genes and the major function of these genes are involved in developmental processes. On the other hand, interspersed repetitive elements showed a tendency to be accumulated at distal region from the TSS and the function of interspersed repeat-containing genes took part in the catabolic/metabolic processes. Results from the distribution analysis were collected and used to construct a gene-based repetitive element database (GBRED; http://www.binfo.ncku.edu.tw/GBRED/index.html). A user-friendly web interface was designed to provide the information of repetitive elements associated with any particular gene(s). This is the first study focusing on the gene

  10. Whole-core damage analysis of EBR-II driver fuel elements following SHRT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.K.; Koenig, J.F.; Porter, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In the Shutdown Heat Removal Testing (SHRT) program in EBR-II, fuel element cladding temperatures of some driver subassemblies were predicted to exceed temperatures at which cladding breach may occur. A whole-core thermal analysis of driver subassemblies was performed to determine the cladding temperatures of fuel elemnts, and these temperatures were used for fuel element damage calculation. The accumulated cladding damage of fuel element was found to be very small and fuel element failure resulting from SHRT transients is unlikely. No element breach was noted during the SHRT transients. The reactor was immediately restarted after the most severe SHRT transient had been completed and no driver fuel breach has been noted to date. (orig.)

  11. Trace elements in 11 fruits widely-consumed in the USA as determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michenaud-Rague, A.; Robinson, S.; Landsberger, S.

    2012-01-01

    While there is a lot of information on the elemental content of food for nutritional and pollution studies, the analysis of fruits has received little attention. We have investigated 11 commonly eaten fruits for their trace and minor element constituents by neutron activations including thermal and epithermal neutron activation analysis. Our results revealed that both blueberries and strawberries had the most of top two highest elemental concentrations followed by raspberries, oranges and mango. Bananas, grapes, plums, apples, pears, and cherries had the fewest or none of the most elevated elemental concentrations. (author)

  12. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  13. A New Approach to Sequence Analysis Exemplified by Identification of cis-Elements in Abscisic Acid Inducible Promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Hallin, Peter Fischer; Salomon, Jesper

    -regulatory elements. We have developed a method for identifying short, conserved motifs in biological sequences such as proteins, DNA and RNA5. This method was used for analysis of approximately 2000 Arabidopsis thaliana promoters that have been shown by DNA array analysis to be induced by abscisic acid6....... These promoters were compared to 28000 promoters that are not induced by abscisic acid. The analysis identified previously described ABA-inducible promoter elements such as ABRE, CE3 and CRT1 but also new cis-elements were found. Furthermore, the list of DNA elements could be used to predict ABA...

  14. Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, K.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity

  15. The Job Dimensions Underlying the Job Elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) (Form B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study was concerned with the identification of the job dimension underlying the job elements of the Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ ), Form B...The PAQ is a structured job analysis instrument consisting of 187 worker-oriented job elements which are divided into six a priori major divisions...The statistical procedure of principal components analysis was used to identify the job dimensions of the PAQ . Forty-five job dimensions were

  16. Late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian paleoenvironmental changes in the Cleveland Basin: new clues from high-resolution trace element analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Ruhl, Micha; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz

    on the behaviour of elements associated with organic matter and the sulphur cycle such as Ni, Cu, Zn and As. Cu is well-correlated to the TOC whereas As shows an enrichment in the interval of black shale deposition after the CIE and two distinct correlation lines with sulphur, one before and during the event...... Europe after the CIE. Detrital elements (Al, Si, Ti, Zr) are used as proxies for sea-level change and match well previous sequence stratigraphic interpretations in the Cleveland Basin. Black shale deposition and anoxia were favored by a major transgression and appear to be paced by 3rd to 4th order sea...... elements across the late Pliensbachian to middle Toarcian of the Cleveland Basin. The Pl/To boundary CIE is associated with low Total Organic Carbon (TOCZn and Ni, which together suggest that water-mass restriction and anoxia occurred...

  17. Research on the relationship between the elements and pharmacological activities in velvet antler using factor analysis and cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libing

    2017-04-01

    Velvet antler has certain effect on improving the body's immune cells and the regulation of immune system function, nervous system, anti-stress, anti-aging and osteoporosis. It has medicinal applications to treat a wide range of diseases such as tissue wound healing, anti-tumor, cardiovascular disease, et al. Therefore, the research on the relationship between pharmacological activities and elements in velvet antler is of great significance. The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate 15 kinds of elements in different varieties of velvet antlers and study on the relationship between the elements and traditional Chinese medicine efficacy for the human. The factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis methods were used to analyze the data of elements in the sika velvet antler, cervus elaphus linnaeus, flower horse hybrid velvet antler, apiti (elk) velvet antler, male reindeer velvet antler and find out the relationship between 15 kinds of elements including Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Sr, Cr, Zn and Ni. Combining with MATLAB2010 and SPSS software, the chemometrics methods were made on the relationship between the elements in velvet antler and the pharmacological activities. The first commonality factor F1 had greater load on the indexes of Ca, P, Mg, Co, Sr and Ni, and the second commonality factor F2 had greater load on the indexes of K, Mn, Zn and Cr, and the third commonality factor F3 had greater load on the indexes of Na, Cu and Ba, and the fourth commonality factor F4 had greater load on the indexes of Fe and Al. 15 kinds of elements in velvet antler in the order were elk velvet antler>flower horse hybrid velvet antler>cervus elaphus linnaeus>sika velvet antler>male reindeer velvet antler. Based on the factor analysis and the factor cluster analysis, a model for evaluating traditional Chinese medicine quality was constructed. These studies provide the scientific base and theoretical foundation for the future large-scale rational

  18. Probabilistic finite elements for fatigue and fracture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belytschko, Ted; Liu, Wing Kam

    1993-04-01

    An overview of the probabilistic finite element method (PFEM) developed by the authors and their colleagues in recent years is presented. The primary focus is placed on the development of PFEM for both structural mechanics problems and fracture mechanics problems. The perturbation techniques are used as major tools for the analytical derivation. The following topics are covered: (1) representation and discretization of random fields; (2) development of PFEM for the general linear transient problem and nonlinear elasticity using Hu-Washizu variational principle; (3) computational aspects; (4) discussions of the application of PFEM to the reliability analysis of both brittle fracture and fatigue; and (5) a stochastic computational tool based on stochastic boundary element (SBEM). Results are obtained for the reliability index and corresponding probability of failure for: (1) fatigue crack growth; (2) defect geometry; (3) fatigue parameters; and (4) applied loads. These results show that initial defect is a critical parameter.

  19. ARE ELEMENTAL FINGERPRINTS OF FISH OTOLITHS DISTINCT AMONG GREAT LAKES COASTAL NURSERY AREAS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemental composition of an otolith reflects a fish's rearing environment, so otolith geochemistry can record differences in ambient water conditions specific to habitats used during a fish's life history. Although few studies have been conducted in freshwater, trace ...

  20. Activation analysis of toxic elements in meat and farinaceous foodstuffs of the Republic of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnizky, S.M.; Bertini, L.M.; Moreno, M.A.; Cohen, I.M.; Videtti Piedracoba, N. de; Pla, R.R.; Gomez, C.D.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the industrial and agrochemical developments, there has been an increase of the environmental pollution. Foodstuffs are one of the ways of incorporating some heavy metals or other contaminants into the human body. So, it is important to know the amount of these elements in the food consumed by the population. Our project on determination of toxic elements in meat and farinaceous food largely consumed in our country, was carried out by neutron activation analysis. Different kinds of flours and noodles were analyzed as farinaceous, and hamburgers and sausages as manufactured meat products. Specific separation methods were developed by radiochemical neutron activation analysis for As, Sb, Se, Hg and Cd. All these separations were based on precipitation or coprecipitation of the elements as sulphides. Other elements such as Fe, Br, Co, Zn, Rb, and also Se, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Using daily intake of analyzed foodstuffs from consumption tables and their average elemental composition, an intake of the studied elements was calculated. The values obtained for toxic elements were lower than the maximum permissible levels in Argentina. The results of this project could serve as a basis of a wider study including more foodstuffs as raw meat and will be used by other research groups. (author). 8 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Determination of trace elements in Turkish tea leaves by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.

    1986-01-01

    The human body continuously assimilates a variety of inorganic elements from food and the environment. Some of these elements are closely related to human health and disorder. Tea is one of the most popular stimulating beverages which is consumed by low and high income family groups in many countries. Instrumental neutron activation analysis is one of the preferred methods because information on a large number of elements can be obtained simultaneously. Five packets each of the seven commonly used brands of tea were obtained from the market. In order to determine the transfer of trace elements into the drinkable portion about 2-3g. of the tea leaves were boiled in hot water for 2 min. After filtration the used tea leaves were dried at 65 deg. C in an oven and a portion, about 200mg was used for analysis. Samples and standards were irradiated 10 min. and 2 hrs. at pneumatic system and central thimble in the TRIGA MARK-II research reactor. After irradiation, the activities of samples and standards were measured with a aoaxial Ge detector coupled to a spectroscopic amplifier. A Canbera 90 model multi- channel analyzer with an 8K memory was used for pulse height analysis. The system has a resolution of 2.0 KeV. for the 1332.5 KeV gamma ray of 60 Co. The activity of the sample and standard was compared and the element contst of the sample was calculated. (author)

  2. Solid Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of an Overhead Crane Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alkin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of an overhead crane bridge with a double box girder has been investigated and a case study of a crane with 35 ton capacity and 13 m span length has been conducted. In the initial phase of the case study, conventional design calculations proposed by F. E. M. Rules and DIN standards were performed to verify the stress and deflection levels. The crane design was modeled using both solids and surfaces. Finite element meshes with 4-node tetrahedral and 4-node quadrilateral shell elements were generated from the solid and shell models, respectively. After a comparison of the finite element analyses, the conventional calculations and performance of the existing crane, the analysis with quadratic shell elements was found to give the most realistic results. As a result of this study, a design optimization method for an overhead crane is proposed. 

  3. Analysis of arsenic and some other elements in coal fly ash by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Akira; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Sakaguchi, Yuka; Iwashita, Akira; Takanashi, Hirokazu

    2005-01-01

    Surface characterization of coal fly ash (CFA) was carried out by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), especially focusing on the occurrence of As. A peak in the XPS spectrum of CFA was assigned to oxide forms of As(3d). The molar ratios of Al, As, Ca, Fe, and S normalized to Si were obtained from XPS analysis (MR-X). Also, the molar ratios of those elements were calculated from bulk analysis (total element concentration in CFA) (MR-B). The MR-X/MR-B ratio of As was much higher than those of other elements, suggesting that As is highly enriched on the surface of CFA. When eight CFA samples were analyzed, there was an approximate relationship between the MR-X values and MR-B values for As. The leaching of elements from CFA was examined by XPS analysis and by bulk analysis. The leaching tests using EDTA and HNO 3 resulted in a great decrease in the As(3d) peak area; the %leaching of As obtained by XPS analysis was almost equal to that by bulk analysis

  4. Two-dimensional finite element neutron diffusion analysis using hierarchic shape functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances have been made in the use of p-type finite element method (FEM) for structural and fluid dynamics problems that hold promise for reactor physics problems. These advances include using hierarchic shape functions, element-by-element iterative solvers and more powerful mapping techniques. Use of the hierarchic shape functions allows greater flexibility and efficiency in implementing energy-dependent flux expansions and incorporating localized refinement of the solution space. The irregular matrices generated by the p-type FEM can be solved efficiently using element-by-element conjugate gradient iterative solvers. These solvers do not require storage of either the global or local stiffness matrices and can be highly vectorized. Mapping techniques based on blending function interpolation allow exact representation of curved boundaries using coarse element grids. These features were implemented in a developmental two-dimensional neutron diffusion program based on the use of hierarchic shape functions (FEM2DH). Several aspects in the effective use of p-type analysis were explored. Two choices of elemental preconditioning were examined--the proper selection of the polynomial shape functions and the proper number of functions to use. Of the five shape function polynomials tested, the integral Legendre functions were the most effective. The serendipity set of functions is preferable over the full tensor product set. Two global preconditioners were also examined--simple diagonal and incomplete Cholesky. The full effectiveness of the finite element methodology was demonstrated on a two-region, two-group cylindrical problem but solved in the x-y coordinate space, using a non-structured element grid. The exact, analytic eigenvalue solution was achieved with FEM2DH using various combinations of element grids and flux expansions

  5. Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.W.; Mangelson, N.F.; Ryder, J.F.; Atwood, N.D.; Wood, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study

  6. Finite Element Analysis for Bending Process of U-Bending Specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Dong; Bahn, Chi Bum [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    ASTM G30 suggests that the applied strain can be calculated by dividing thickness by a bend radius. It should be noted, however, that the formula is reliable under an assumption that the ratio of thickness to bend radius is less than 0.2. Typically, to increase the applied stress/strain, the ratio of thickness to bend radius becomes larger than 0.2. This suggests that the estimated strain values by ASTM G30 are not reliable to predict the actual residual strain state of the highly deformed U-bend specimen. For this reason, finite element analysis (FEA) for the bending process of Ubend specimens was conducted by using a commercial finite element analysis software ABAQUS. ver.6.14- 2;2014. From the results of FEA, PWSCC initiation time and U-bend specimen size can be determined exactly. Since local stress and strain have a significant effect on the initiation of PWSCC, it was inappropriate to apply results of ASTM G30 to the PWSCC test directly. According to results of finite element analysis (FEA), elastic relaxation can cause inaccuracy in intended final residual stress. To modify this inaccuracy, additional process reducing the spring back is required. However this additional process also may cause uncertainty of stress/strain state. Therefore, the U-bending specimen size which is not creating uncertainty should be optimized and selected. With the bending radius of 8.3 mm, the thickness of 3 mm and the roller distance of 32.6 mm, calculated maximum stress and strain were 670 MPa and 0.21, respectively.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic analysis using Petrov-Galerkin natural element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Woo; Cho, Jin Rae

    2004-01-01

    According to our previous study, it is confirmed that the Petrov-Galerkin Natural Element Method (PG-NEM) completely resolves the numerical integration inaccuracy in the conventional Bubnov-Galerkin Natural Element Method (BG-NEM). This paper is an extension of PG-NEM to two-dimensional nonlinear dynamic problem. For the analysis, a constant average acceleration method and a linearized total Lagrangian formulation is introduced with the PG-NEM. At every time step, the grid points are updated and the shape functions are reproduced from the relocated nodal distribution. This process enables the PG-NEM to provide more accurate and robust approximations. The representative numerical experiments performed by the test Fortran program, and the numerical results confirmed that the PG-NEM effectively and accurately approximates the nonlinear dynamic problem

  8. Static aeroelastic analysis and tailoring of a single-element racing car wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadd, Christopher James

    This thesis presents the research from an Engineering Doctorate research programme in collaboration with Reynard Motorsport Ltd, a manufacturer of racing cars. Racing car wing design has traditionally considered structures to be rigid. However, structures are never perfectly rigid and the interaction between aerodynamic loading and structural flexibility has a direct impact on aerodynamic performance. This interaction is often referred to as static aeroelasticity and the focus of this research has been the development of a computational static aeroelastic analysis method to improve the design of a single-element racing car wing. A static aeroelastic analysis method has been developed by coupling a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD analysis method with a Finite Element structural analysis method using an iterative scheme. Development of this method has included assessment of CFD and Finite Element analysis methods and development of data transfer and mesh deflection methods. Experimental testing was also completed to further assess the computational analyses. The computational and experimental results show a good correlation and these studies have also shown that a Navier-Stokes static aeroelastic analysis of an isolated wing can be performed at an acceptable computational cost. The static aeroelastic analysis tool was used to assess methods of tailoring the structural flexibility of the wing to increase its aerodynamic performance. These tailoring methods were then used to produce two final wing designs to increase downforce and reduce drag respectively. At the average operating dynamic pressure of the racing car, the computational analysis predicts that the downforce-increasing wing has a downforce of C[1]=-1.377 in comparison to C[1]=-1.265 for the original wing. The computational analysis predicts that the drag-reducing wing has a drag of C[d]=0.115 in comparison to C[d]=0.143 for the original wing.

  9. Determination of Inorganic Elements in White Rice by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. H.; Kim, S. H.; Lim, J. M.; Lee, Y. N.; Chung, Y. S.

    2011-01-01

    Rice is a staple food and provides an important information of mineral supplement as well as a large portion of calorie for Korean. As scientists have focused their researches on health impacts caused by mineral nutrient deficiency and hazardous elements, public concerns about mineral intake by dietary food is rising. The objectives of this study were to determine inorganic elemental contents in white rice by neutron activation analysis(NAA) and to assist the evaluation of nutritional and harmful status for Korean people

  10. Trace elemental composition of Nigerian coal measured by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndiokwere, Ch.L.; Guinn, V.P.; Burtner, D.

    1983-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique has been used to determine 17 major, minor and trace elements in samples of the three major sources of Nigerian coal. The NBS Standard Reference Material, Coal SRM 1632, was also analyzed, for the purpose of verifying the accuracy of the method. The concentrations of the major elements determined for the Nigerian coal were found to be much lower than the mean values of those reported for coal samples from other parts of the world. (author)

  11. Determination of toxic elements in tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaprak, G.; Cam, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of toxic elements in the tobacco of six different brands of domestic and two brands of imported cigarettes heavily smoked in Turkey were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA)

  12. Finite element analysis of beam-to-column joints in steel frames under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Mashaly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a simple and accurate three-dimensional (3D finite element model (FE capable of predicting the actual behavior of beam-to-column joints in steel frames subjected to lateral loads. The software package ANSYS is used to model the joint. The bolted extended-end-plate connection was chosen as an important type of beam–column joints. The extended-end-plate connection is chosen for its complexity in the analysis and behavior due to the number of connection components and their inheritable non-linear behavior. Two experimental tests in the literature were chosen to verify the finite element model. The results of both the experimental and the proposed finite element were compared. One of these tests was monotonically loaded, whereas the second was cyclically loaded. The finite element model is improved to enhance the defects of the finite element model used. These defects are; the long time need for the analysis and the inability of the contact element type to follow the behavior of moment–rotation curve under cyclic loading. As a contact element, the surface-to-surface element is used instead of node-to-node element to enhance the model. The FE results show good correlation with the experimental one. An attempt to improve a new technique for modeling bolts is conducted. The results show that this technique is supposed to avoid the defects above, give much less elements number and less solution time than the other modeling techniques.

  13. Microlocal methods in the analysis of the boundary element method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The application of the boundary element method in numerical analysis is based upon the use of boundary integral operators stemming from multiple layer potentials. The regularity properties of these operators are vital in the development of boundary integral equations and error estimates. We show...

  14. The trace element analysis of ancient Indian coins using proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PURI, N.K.; HAJIVALIEI, M.; BEDI, S.C.; SINGH, N.; GOVIL, I.M.; GARG, M.L.; HANDA, D.K.; GOVIL, K.L.; ROUT, B.; VIJAYAN, V.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental analysis of ancient Indian coins viz. thirty-three punched marked coins (6 th century B.C.), fifty-nine coins belonging to Kusanas (78-250 A.D) and twenty-five coins belonging to medieval period (11 th -14 th century A.D), from India have been analysed using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The elements namely S, Ca, Fe, Ag, Cu, Ni and Pb were detected in most of the punch-marked coins while elements namely S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As and Zn were detected in most of the Kusanas coins and the S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Ag, Sn, Pb were detected in 11 th -14 th century A.D. coins. Based on the elemental analysis different hypotheses put forward in the earlier literature were examined. This is the first attempt where reasonable number of ancient coins belonging to different periods were analysed by modern non destructive multi-elemental technique such as PIXE and has put the importance of the elemental analysis of ancient Indian coins in the proper perspective

  15. Determination of the elemental content in cigarettes by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, a worldwide habit, has a very bad and hazardous effect on the human body. Neutron activation analysis technique is used in the present study. Different kinds of cigarette brands have been collected from local and foreign markets representing ten countries all over the world. All the selected samples are irradiated in first Ins has reactor, ER-1 in Egypt. A comprehensive study of the elemental content in cigarette samples under investigation has been carried out. Concentrations of the polluting elements, tracers' content and more than twenty elements have been determined. The obtained data resulting from the present work are discussed

  16. Determination of the elemental composition of copper and bronze objects by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method for the elemental analysis of copper and bronze objects is described. Na, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Sn, Sb, W, Ir and Au are determined through instrumental neutron activation analysis. Mg, Al, V, Ti and Mn are determined after chemical separation using anionic exchange. The detection limits for a number of other elements are also given. Results for NBS standard reference materials are presented and the results compared with the recommended values. The agreement is good. The results of the analysis of five ancient bronze and two copper objects are presented. (author)

  17. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  18. Elemental content profiles in propolis from several cities of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aksoy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macro-element content profiles in propolis that have been previously used in traditional folk medicine have provided enough information to develop a classification of the geological origin of propolis. Within this study, we aim to contribute our research to existing literatüre, particularly through our use of EDXRF spectroscopy, which has not been used to study propolis before. The results of the study led us to conclude that the residues of heavy metals were a limited concentration in Turkish propolis samples. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the macro-element profiles in Turkish propolis from 18 different cities of Turkey. Methods: The macro-element of 22 raw propolis samples were investigated using Energy-Dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Results: Turkish Propolis was discovered to be rich with minerals of potassium, sodium which could be more beneficial in human nutrition. Potassium content was at a relatively higher level than other elements in these samples, while calcium content was at alower level in those samples from various regions of Turkey. Conclusion: The elements of propolis that we studied were distinctive enough to make the discrimination of propolis from different locations in Turkey possible. The quantification by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry procedures provided good resolution of multi-element analysis in propolis samples.

  19. Brittle Fracture Mechanics of Snow : In Situ Testing and Distinct Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faillettaz, J.; Daudon, D.; Louchet, F.

    development. The experimental cam- paign carried out in the Alps during the 2000-2001 winter on homogeneous sintered snow with a density of 200 kg/m3 (typical of a snow slab) gave results of the same or- der of magnitude as Michot's. A numerical modeling of these toughness experiments was performed using a distinct element code, considering snow as a cohesive granu- lar material. Both crack propagation and rupture patterns are in close agreement with experiments. References: Kirchner, Michot, Suzuki 2000 Fracture thoughness of snow in tension 1 Philisophical Magazine A, vol 80,N5, p1265-1272. Louchet 2001,A transition in dry snow slab avalanche triggering modes, Annales de glaciologie, vol 32,Symphosium on Snow, Avalanches and Impact of the Frest Cover, Innsbruck,Austria,22-26 may 2000, p2285-289 2

  20. Identification of Se trace element in the soybean using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihombing, E.; Sri Wardani; Hamzah, A.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis method has been developed as a fast analysis method with high sensitivity, accuracy and precision in determining distribution of element content of various types of seed food materials. In this research the element content of Se was determined by irradiating sample of black and white soybean that can be bought in the market. For determining the content of long decay time element of Se, a samples of 1.3 - 2.3 grams of seed was irradiated within 45 minutes where as for short decay time of Se, the 1,2 - 2,2 grams of seed was irradiated within 30 minutes in the reactor wall. The activated sample, then, was analyzed using gamma spectrometry method. The gamma spectrum was acquired with Hp Ge detector with counting time within 2 - 60 minutes. The results showed that there is a small deviation on Se's quantity of contents with vary between 154,2 and 165,8 ppb

  1. Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates in northern Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Trace elemental analysis of the aerosol particulates was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad, Sheikhupura, Wah Cantt. And Khanispur. The amount of the aerosol particulates in the above mentioned areas was compared to the U.S. EPA maximum permissible limits. Scavenging mechanism of the aerosol particulates through precipitation was studied in the atmosphere of Lahore and Sheikhupura by using HPLC and ICP-AES techniques. The site distribution and morphological structure of the aerosol particulates was studied by using Scanning Electron Microscope model JSM-35CF. Trace elemental composition of the aerosol particulates in the atmosphere of the selected areas of Pakistan was carried out by using NAA. The elements thus studied were Ce, Yb, Se, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Eu, Sb, Mo, Ba, Zn, Hg, Br, Na, Gd, Sm, Nd and In while Pb and Cd were estimated by using ASS technique. (author)

  2. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, L.; Verheyen, L.; Vermaercke, P.; Bruggeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k 0 -standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  3. Head of detector for multi-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frynta, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The detector head mounted on the scintillation counter consists of a hollow hexagonal rotary support axially arranged with the photomultiplier of the scintillation counter. In the walls of the hexagonal rotary support there are openings in which are inserted absorption filters. The mounting of the absorption filters on the rotary support allows the analysis of a greater number of elements without the dismantling of the head and the replacement of filters. The suitable geometry of the head is retained so that it is possible to insert the head into the hollows similarly as the scintillation counter. (J.P.)

  4. Trace Elements in Human Myocardial Infarction Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-05-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, injured and adjacent uninjured human heart tissue from 12 autopsy cases with myocardial infarction are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent y-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Zn and W. In the injured tissue compared to the uninjured, calculation on a wet weight basis showed a decrease in Co, Cs, K, Mo, P, Rb and Zn, and an increase in Br, Ca, Ce, La, Na, Sb and Sm. The differences in Ca, La, Mo, P and Zn are dependent on the age of the myocardial infarction, and the regression lines for these elements are given. The concentration of the trace elements in uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts is compared to the concentration of these elements in normal heart tissue, determined in a previous study. In the uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts a decrease is found in Cu and Mo, and an increase in As and Ce

  5. Trace Elements in Human Myocardial Infarction Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1965-05-15

    By means of neutron activation analysis, injured and adjacent uninjured human heart tissue from 12 autopsy cases with myocardial infarction are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent y-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Zn and W. In the injured tissue compared to the uninjured, calculation on a wet weight basis showed a decrease in Co, Cs, K, Mo, P, Rb and Zn, and an increase in Br, Ca, Ce, La, Na, Sb and Sm. The differences in Ca, La, Mo, P and Zn are dependent on the age of the myocardial infarction, and the regression lines for these elements are given. The concentration of the trace elements in uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts is compared to the concentration of these elements in normal heart tissue, determined in a previous study. In the uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts a decrease is found in Cu and Mo, and an increase in As and Ce.

  6. PIXE analysis of trace and other mineral elements in Romanian dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Iordan, Andreea; Harangus, Livia; Ciortea, C.; Moldovan, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Dental composites made of silicates and oxides particles embedded in an organic polymer, show a dynamic evolution but are rather expensive. Recently, the Romanian biomaterial 'Restacril' offered a low-cost alternative. Because the durability of the composite dental fillings depends both on the main chemical composition and on the impurities that may influence the inorganic particles' properties and thus modifying the bio material clinical behaviour, the elemental analysis of the material is necessary for improving its quality. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), a sensitive method for multielemental trace detection widely used in biomedical applications, allowed us to evidence 21 mineral elements with Z > 14 in some commercial dental composites. Here we evaluate the performances of PIXE for the control of dental composites by carrying out qualitative analysis of three Romanian biomaterials. PIXE measurements on thick composite samples with a flat surface were done with 3 MeV protons at the NIPNE-HH (Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering) tandem accelerator, using a hyper-pure Ge detector, 30 mm thick Al absorber foil and integration of beam current. Up to 21 elements with Z > 19 were detected: K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ga, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ru, Ag, Ba, Yb, Nd, Hf, Au, As and Pb. The orders of magnitude of relative concentrations were evaluated using X-ray yields obtained for another light element thick composite target. The Romanian composites have specific and diverse compositions, containing a great number of minor and trace elements, many of whom are impurities. Use of higher purity raw materials is suggested to reduce the latter and improve the materials' quality. Refinement of X-ray yields by better matching matrixes calculations and use of concentration standards are proposed for quantitative PIXE analysis of the dental composites. (authors)

  7. Service elements influencing the emotions of visitors to an international airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L du Plessis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions constitute a crucial element in understanding a service experience. When a service experience is evaluated by airport visitors, their evaluation is influenced by their emotional reactions. Furthermore, since emotions represent a primary source of human motivation, positive emotions are likely to lead to positive responses, increased satisfaction and favourable behaviour. These introductory statements give rise to the aim of this article, which is to explore those service elements influencing visitors' emotions and, consequently, also their experiences at an international airport. In order to achieve the aim, a questionnaire survey (N=490 was conducted at an international airport in South Africa after which a factor analysis was performed to identify the primary elements of the airport service environment that influence the emotions of visitors. Structural equation modelling was then employed to test the significance of the relationship between the service elements and the emotions of visitors. Five distinct service elements were identified, namely Physical comfort, Amenities, Visitor facilities, Passenger services and Accessibility. These elements further showed significant correlations with the emotions of visitors. This research was the first of its kind conducted at an international airport in South Africa and contributes significantly to management practices regarding specific elements of an international airport environment, i.e. the emotions, experiences and behaviour of international airport visitors.

  8. Multi-element neutron activation analysis and solution of classification problems using multidimensional statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaganov, P.A.; Kol'tsov, A.A.; Kulikov, V.D.; Mejer, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis of samples of mountain rocks (sandstones, aleurolites and shales of one of gold deposits) is performed. The spectra of irradiated samples are measured by Ge(Li) detector of the volume of 35 mm 3 . The content of 22 chemical elements is determined in each sample. The results of analysis serve as reliable basis for multi-dimensional statistic information processing, they constitute the basis for the generalized characteristics of rocks which brings about the solution of classification problem for rocks of different deposits

  9. Automatic classification of singular elements for the electrostatic analysis of microelectromechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y.; Ong, E. T.; Lee, K. H.

    2002-05-01

    The past decade has seen an accelerated growth of technology in the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). The development of MEMS products has generated the need for efficient analytical and simulation methods for minimizing the requirement for actual prototyping. The boundary element method is widely used in the electrostatic analysis for MEMS devices. However, singular elements are needed to accurately capture the behavior at singular regions, such as sharp corners and edges, where standard elements fail to give an accurate result. The manual classification of boundary elements based on their singularity conditions is an immensely laborious task, especially when the boundary element model is large. This process can be automated by querying the geometric model of the MEMS device for convex edges based on geometric information of the model. The associated nodes of the boundary elements on these edges can then be retrieved. The whole process is implemented in the MSC/PATRAN platform using the Patran Command Language (the source code is available as supplementary data in the electronic version of this journal issue).

  10. Determination of trace elements in fisheries samples by instrumental neutron and photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Ellis, K.M.; Nimalasiri Desilva, K.

    1979-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of trace concentrations of up to 23 elements in fisheries samples. The INAA method consists of irradiations of wet and lyophilized cod muscle and liver samples for three different periods at a flux density of 5x10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 and subsequent measurements after four different decay periods using high-resolution Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry. Concentrations of several essential and toxic elements have been determined. Loss of certain elements during lyophilization has been studied. Elemental distribution in muscles and livers as a function of the age of fish has been investigated. Precision and accuracy of the INAA method have been evaluated by analysing replicate samples, National Bureau of Standards' bovine liver standard reference material, and an intercalibration fish flour sample provided by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. A few fish samples have also been analysed by an alternative method, namely instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA). Elemental concentrations determined by both INAA and IPAA methods are reported here. (author)

  11. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Goncalves, Simone; Kelecom, Alphonse; Morais, Gustavo Ferrari de; Campelo, Emanuele Lazzaretti Cordova; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser

    2011-01-01

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  12. Cluster analysis to evaluate stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters behavior on uranium mining waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Goncalves, Simone, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Morais, Gustavo Ferrari de; Campelo, Emanuele Lazzaretti Cordova [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Desenvolvimento de Processos; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser [Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Gerencia de Descomissionamento

    2011-07-01

    The Ore Treating Unit (UTM, in portuguese) is a deactivated uranium mine. A cluster analysis was used to evaluate the behavior of stable chemical elements and physical-chemical parameters in their effluents. The utilization of the cluster analysis proved itself effective in the assessment, allowing the identification of groups of chemical elements, physical-chemical parameters and their joint analysis (elements and parameters). As a result we may assert, based on data analysis, that there is a strong link between calcium and magnesium and between aluminum and rare-earth oxides on UTM's effluents. Sulphate was also identified as strongly linked to total and dissolved solids, and those to electrical conductivity. There were other associations, but not so strongly linked. Further gathering, to seasonal evaluation, are required in order to confirm those analysis. Additional statistical analysis (factor analysis) must be used to try to identify the origin of the identified groups on this analysis. (author)

  13. Thermal buckling comparative analysis using Different FE (Finite Element) tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banasiak, Waldemar; Labouriau, Pedro [INTECSEA do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burnett, Christopher [INTECSEA UK, Surrey (United Kingdom); Falepin, Hendrik [Fugro Engineers SA/NV, Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-12-19

    High operational temperature and pressure in offshore pipelines may lead to unexpected lateral movements, sometimes call lateral buckling, which can have serious consequences for the integrity of the pipeline. The phenomenon of lateral buckling in offshore pipelines needs to be analysed in the design phase using FEM. The analysis should take into account many parameters, including operational temperature and pressure, fluid characteristic, seabed profile, soil parameters, coatings of the pipe, free spans etc. The buckling initiation force is sensitive to small changes of any initial geometric out-of-straightness, thus the modeling of the as-laid state of the pipeline is an important part of the design process. Recently some dedicated finite elements programs have been created making modeling of the offshore environment more convenient that has been the case with the use of general purpose finite element software. The present paper aims to compare thermal buckling analysis of sub sea pipeline performed using different finite elements tools, i.e. general purpose programs (ANSYS, ABAQUS) and dedicated software (SAGE Profile 3D) for a single pipeline resting on an the seabed. The analyses considered the pipeline resting on a flat seabed with a small levels of out-of straightness initiating the lateral buckling. The results show the quite good agreement of results of buckling in elastic range and in the conclusions next comparative analyses with sensitivity cases are recommended. (author)

  14. Optimization of deformation monitoring networks using finite element strain analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Khameneh, M. Amin; Eshagh, Mehdi; Jensen, Anna B. O.

    2018-04-01

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i. e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.