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Sample records for distantly related sympatric

  1. Gene Transfers Between Distantly Related Organisms

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    Doolittle, Russell F.

    2003-01-01

    With the completion of numerous microbial genome sequences, reports of individual gene transfers between distantly related prokaryotes have become commonplace. On the other hand, transfers between prokaryotes and eukaryotes still excite the imagination. Many of these claims may be premature, but some are certainly valid. In this chapter, the kinds of supporting data needed to propose transfers between distantly related organisms and cite some interesting examples are considered.

  2. Relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae).

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    Blasina, Gabriela; Molina, Juan; Lopez Cazorla, Andrea; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan

    This study explores the relationship between ecomorphology and trophic segregation in four closely related sympatric fish species (Teleostei, Sciaenidae) that are known to differ in their trophic habits. Only adult specimens were analyzed: 103 Cynoscion guatucupa, 77 Pogonias cromis, 61 Micropogonias furnieri, and 48 Menticirrhus americanus. The four species presented divergent ecomorphological traits related to swimming agility, prey spotting and capture, and the potential size of prey they were able to swallow. Results suggest that these sciaenid species can partition the food resources, even though they completely overlap in space. Differences in their ecomorphological traits appear to correlate closely with the diet and consequently could explain the trophic differentiation observed. Arguably, these ecomorphological differences play a significant role in the coexistence of the adults of these sympatric fish species. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for nonallopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert.

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    Luebert, Federico; Jacobs, Pit; Hilger, Hartmut H; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-02-01

    The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In nonallopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this article, we analyzed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to characterize the genetic structure of these species and evaluate their genetic differentiation as well as the number of loci subject to positive selection using divergence outlier analysis (DOA). The five species form distinguishable groups in the genetic space, with zones of overlap, indicating that they are possibly not completely isolated. Among-species differentiation accounts for 35% of the total genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.35), and F ST between species pairs is positively correlated with phylogenetic distance. DOA suggests that few loci are subject to positive selection, which is in line with a scenario of nonallopatric speciation. These results support the idea that sympatric species of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea are under an ongoing speciation process, characterized by a fluctuation of population ranges in response to pulses of arid and humid periods during Quaternary times.

  4. Determinants of the Sympatric Host-Pathogen Relationship in Tuberculosis

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    David, Susana; Mateus, A. R. A.; Duarte, Elsa L.; Albuquerque, José; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; Lavinha, João; Gonçalves, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Major contributions from pathogen genome analysis and host genetics have equated the possibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-evolution with its human host leading to more stable sympatric host–pathogen relationships. However, the attribution to either sympatric or allopatric categories depends on the resolution or grain of genotypic characterization. We explored the influence on the sympatric host-pathogen relationship of clinical (HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis [MDRTB]) and demographic (gender and age) factors in regards to the genotypic grain by using spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) for classification of M. tuberculosis strains within the Euro-American lineage. We analyzed a total of 547 tuberculosis (TB) cases, from six year consecutive sampling in a setting with high TB-HIV coinfection (32.0%). Of these, 62.0% were caused by major circulating pathogen genotypes. The sympatric relationship was defined according to spoligotype in comparison to the international spoligotype database SpolDB4. While no significant association with Euro-American lineage was observed with any of the factors analyzed, increasing the resolution with spoligotyping evidenced a significant association of MDRTB with sympatric strains, regardless of the HIV status. Furthermore, distribution curves of the prevalence of sympatric and allopatric TB in relation to patients’ age showed an accentuation of the relevance of the age of onset in the allopatric relationship, as reflected in the trimodal distribution. On the contrary, sympatric TB was characterized by the tendency towards a typical (standard) distribution curve. Our results suggest that within the Euro-American lineage a greater degree of genotyping fine-tuning is necessary in modeling the biological processes behind the host-pathogen interplay. Furthermore, prevalence distribution of sympatric TB to age was suggestive of host genetic determinisms driven by more common variants. PMID:26529092

  5. Distant Supervision for Relation Extraction with Ranking-Based Methods

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    Yang Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relation extraction has benefited from distant supervision in recent years with the development of natural language processing techniques and data explosion. However, distant supervision is still greatly limited by the quality of training data, due to its natural motivation for greatly reducing the heavy cost of data annotation. In this paper, we construct an architecture called MIML-sort (Multi-instance Multi-label Learning with Sorting Strategies, which is built on the famous MIML framework. Based on MIML-sort, we propose three ranking-based methods for sample selection with which we identify relation extractors from a subset of the training data. Experiments are set up on the KBP (Knowledge Base Propagation corpus, one of the benchmark datasets for distant supervision, which is large and noisy. Compared with previous work, the proposed methods produce considerably better results. Furthermore, the three methods together achieve the best F1 on the official testing set, with an optimal enhancement of F1 from 27.3% to 29.98%.

  6. Wide prevalence of hybridization in two sympatric grasshopper species may be shaped by their relative abundances.

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    Rohde, Katja; Hau, Yvonne; Weyer, Jessica; Hochkirch, Axel

    2015-09-16

    Hybridization between species is of conservation concern as it might threaten the genetic integrity of species. Anthropogenic factors can alter hybridization dynamics by introducing new potentially hybridizing species or by diminishing barriers to hybridization. This may even affect sympatric species pairs through environmental change, which so far has received little attention. We studied hybridization prevalence and the underlying behavioral mechanisms in two sympatric grasshopper species, a rare specialist (Chorthippus montanus) and a common generalist (Chorthippus parallelus). We conducted a mate choice experiment with constant intraspecific density and varying heterospecific density, i.e. varying relative frequency of both species. Mate choice was frequency-dependent in both species with a higher risk of cross-mating with increasing heterospecific frequency, while conspecific mating increased linearly with increasing conspecific density. This illustrates that reproductive barriers could be altered by environmental change, if the relative frequency of species pairs is affected. Moreover, we performed a microsatellite analysis to detect hybridization in twelve syntopic populations (and four allotopic populations). Hybrids were detected in nearly all syntopic populations with hybridization rates reaching up to 8.9 %. Genetic diversity increased for both species when hybrids were included in the data set, but only in the common species a positive correlation between hybridization rate and genetic diversity was detected. Our study illustrates that the relative frequency of the two species strongly determines the effectiveness of reproductive barriers and that even the more choosy species (Ch. montanus) may face a higher risk of hybridization if population size decreases and its relative frequency becomes low compared to its sister species. The asymmetric mate preferences of both species may lead to quasi-unidirectional gene flow caused by unidirectional

  7. Host-parasite interactions in sympatric and allopatric populations of European bitterling.

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    Francová, Kateřina; Ondračková, Markéta

    2011-09-01

    Susceptibility to parasite infection was examined in a field experiment for four populations of 0+ juvenile European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus): one sympatric to local parasite fauna, one allopatric, and two hybrid populations. Significantly higher parasite abundance was recorded in the allopatric bitterling population, suggesting a maladaptation of parasites to their sympatric host. Type of parasite life cycle played an important role in host-parasite interactions. While the abundance of allogenic species between populations was comparable, a significant difference was found in abundance of autogenic parasite species between fish populations, with the allopatric population more infected. These results correspond with a prediction of higher dispersion probability and higher gene flow among geographically distant populations of allogenic species as compared to autogenic species. Increased susceptibility to parasites that do not occur within the natural host's geographical distribution was found in the allopatric host, but only for autogenic species. A difference in infection susceptibility was detected among populations of early-hatched bitterling exposed to infection during a period of high parasite abundance and richness in the environment. Differences in parasite abundance and species diversity among populations diminished, however, with increasing time of exposure. No difference was found within late-hatched populations, probably due to a lower probability of infection in late-hatched cohorts.

  8. Evolution: sympatric speciation the eusocial way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Nash, David Richard

    2014-01-01

    Sympatric speciation normally requires particular conditions of ecological niche differentiation. However, ant social parasites have been suspected to arise sympatrically, because (dis)loyalty to eusocial kin-structures induces disruptive selection for dispersal and inbreeding. A new study docume...

  9. Sympatric Speciation in Threespine Stickleback: Why Not?

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    Daniel I. Bolnick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous theoretical models suggest that sympatric speciation is possible when frequency-dependent interactions such as intraspecific competition drive disruptive selection on a trait that is also subject to assortative mating. Here, I review recent evidence that both conditions are met in lake populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. Nonetheless, sympatric speciation appears to be rare or absent in stickleback. If stickleback qualitatively fit the theoretical requirements for sympatric speciation, why do they not undergo sympatric speciation? I present simulations showing that disruptive selection and assortative mating in stickleback, though present, are too weak to drive speciation. Furthermore, I summarize empirical evidence that disruptive selection in stickleback drives other forms of evolutionary diversification (plasticity, increased trait variance, and sexual dimorphism instead of speciation. In conclusion, core assumptions of sympatric speciation theory seem to be qualitatively reasonable for stickleback, but speciation may nevertheless fail because of (i quantitative mismatches with theory and (ii alternative evolutionary outcomes.

  10. Geographic variation in floral traits and the capacity of autonomous selfing across allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species.

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    Schouppe, Dorien; Brys, Rein; Vallejo-Marin, Mario; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2017-04-21

    Floral traits and the relative contribution of autonomous selfing to total seed set varies geographically and is often driven by the availability and abundance of suitable pollinators and/or the presence of co-flowering relatives. In the latter case, competition for pollinator services and costs of hybridization can select for floral traits that reduce interspecific gene flow and contribute to prezygotic isolation, potentially leading to geographic variation in floral divergence between allopatric and sympatric populations. In this study, we investigated variation in floral traits and its implications on the capacity of autonomous selfing in both allopatric and sympatric populations of two closely related Centaurium species(Gentianaceae) across two distinct geographic regions(UK and mainland Europe). Although the magnitude and direction of floral differentiation varied between regions, sympatric populations were always significantly more divergent in floral traits and the capacity to self autonomously than allopatric populations. These results indicate that mating systems can vary substantially within a species and that the joint occurrence of plant species can have a major impact on floral morphology and capacity of autonomous selfing, most likely as a way to reduce the probability of interspecific interference.

  11. Chasing sympatric speciation: The relative importance and genetic basis of prezygotic isolation barriers in diverging populations of Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Hänniger, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mechanisms underlying three prezygotic isolation barriers between the corn- and the rice-strain of the noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda to determine possible interactions between these isolation barriers and their relative importance for sympatric speciation. First, we

  12. Are sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish special? Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the closely related species Archocentrus centrarchus.

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    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Raffini, Francesca; Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel

    2016-06-01

    Established empirical cases of sympatric speciation are scarce, although there is an increasing consensus that sympatric speciation might be more common than previously thought. Midas cichlid fish are one of the few substantiated cases of sympatric speciation, and they formed repeated radiations in crater lakes. In contrast, in the same environment, such radiation patterns have not been observed in other species of cichlids and other families of fish. We analyze morphological and genetic variation in a cichlid species (Archocentrus centrarchus) that co-inhabits several crater lakes with the Midas species complex. In particular, we analyze variation in body and pharyngeal jaw shape (two ecologically important traits in sympatrically divergent Midas cichlids) and relate that to genetic variation in mitochondrial control region and microsatellites. Using these four datasets, we analyze variation between and within two Nicaraguan lakes: a crater lake where multiple Midas cichlids have been described and a lake where the source population lives. We do not observe any within-lake clustering consistent across morphological traits and genetic markers, suggesting the absence of sympatric divergence in A. centrarchus. Genetic differentiation between lakes was low and morphological divergence absent. Such morphological similarity between lakes is found not only in average morphology, but also when analyzing covariation between traits and degree of morphospace occupation. A combined analysis of the mitochondrial control region in A. centrarchus and Midas cichlids suggests that a difference between lineages in the timing of crater lake colonization cannot be invoked as an explanation for the difference in their levels of diversification. In light of our results, A. centrarchus represents the ideal candidate to study the genomic differences between these two lineages that might explain why some lineages are more likely to speciate and diverge in sympatry than others.

  13. Sex ratios, mating frequencies and relative abundance of sympatric millipedes in the genus Chersastus (Diplopoda: Pachybolidae

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    Mark Ian Cooper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three hypotheses exist for explaining climbing behavior in millipedes: 1 waterlogging, 2 detritus limiting, and 3 mate avoidance. Data of sex ratios, mating frequency and relative abundance are provided to suggest an alternative explanation for the pattern in sympatric forest millipedes. Sex ratio differences - from equality - were tested using a G-test comparing millipedes on and above ground. Mating frequencies were calculated based on the percentage of paired individuals. Relative abundance may correlate with male-biases in the sex ratios. All three factors suggest Chersastus inscriptus has a higher reproductive potential than C. anulatus. This is evidence for mating hotspots.

  14. Extensive range overlap between heliconiine sister species: evidence for sympatric speciation in butterflies?

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    Rosser, Neil; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Phillimore, Albert B; Mallet, James

    2015-06-30

    Sympatric speciation is today generally viewed as plausible, and some well-supported examples exist, but its relative contribution to biodiversity remains to be established. We here quantify geographic overlap of sister species of heliconiine butterflies, and use age-range correlations and spatial simulations of the geography of speciation to infer the frequency of sympatric speciation. We also test whether shifts in mimetic wing colour pattern, host plant use and climate niche play a role in speciation, and whether such shifts are associated with sympatry. Approximately a third of all heliconiine sister species pairs exhibit near complete range overlap, and analyses of the observed patterns of range overlap suggest that sympatric speciation contributes 32%-95% of speciation events. Müllerian mimicry colour patterns and host plant choice are highly labile traits that seem to be associated with speciation, but we find no association between shifts in these traits and range overlap. In contrast, climatic niches of sister species are more conserved. Unlike birds and mammals, sister species of heliconiines are often sympatric and our inferences using the most recent comparative methods suggest that sympatric speciation is common. However, if sister species spread rapidly into sympatry (e.g. due to their similar climatic niches), then assumptions underlying our methods would be violated. Furthermore, although we find some evidence for the role of ecology in speciation, ecological shifts did not show the associations with range overlap expected under sympatric speciation. We delimit species of heliconiines in three different ways, based on "strict and " "relaxed" biological species concepts (BSC), as well as on a surrogate for the widely-used "diagnostic" version of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). We show that one reason why more sympatric speciation is inferred in heliconiines than in birds may be due to a different culture of species delimitation in the two

  15. Genetic population structure of sympatric and allopatric populations of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex, Teleostei, Coregonidae).

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    Mehner, Thomas; Pohlmann, Kirsten; Elkin, Che; Monaghan, Michael T; Nitz, Barbara; Freyhof, Jörg

    2010-03-29

    Teleost fishes of the Coregonidae are good model systems for studying postglacial evolution, adaptive radiation and ecological speciation. Of particular interest is whether the repeated occurrence of sympatric species pairs results from in-situ divergence from a single lineage or from multiple invasions of one or more different lineages. Here, we analysed the genetic structure of Baltic ciscoes (Coregonus albula complex), examining 271 individuals from 8 lakes in northern Germany using 1244 polymorphic AFLP loci. Six lakes had only one population of C. albula while the remaining two lakes had C. albula as well as a sympatric species (C. lucinensis or C. fontanae). AFLP demonstrated a significant population structure (Bayesian thetaB = 0.22). Lower differentiation between allopatric (thetaB = 0.028) than sympatric (0.063-0.083) populations contradicts the hypothesis of a sympatric origin of taxa, and there was little evidence for stocking or ongoing hybridization. Genome scans found only three loci that appeared to be under selection in both sympatric population pairs, suggesting a low probability of similar mechanisms of ecological segregation. However, removal of all non-neutral loci decreased the genetic distance between sympatric pairs, suggesting recent adaptive divergence at a few loci. Sympatric pairs in the two lakes were genetically distinct from the six other C. albula populations, suggesting introgression from another lineage may have influenced these two lakes. This was supported by an analysis of isolation-by-distance, where the drift-gene flow equilibrium observed among allopatric populations was disrupted when the sympatric pairs were included. While the population genetic data alone can not unambiguously uncover the mode of speciation, our data indicate that multiple lineages may be responsible for the complex patterns typically observed in Coregonus. Relative differences within and among lakes raises the possibility that multiple lineages may be

  16. Nucleoli and stress granules: connecting distant relatives.

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    Mahboubi, Hicham; Stochaj, Ursula

    2014-10-01

    Nucleoli and cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are subcellular compartments that modulate the response to endogenous and environmental signals to control cell survival. In our opinion, nucleoli and SGs are functionally linked; they are distant relatives that combine forces when cellular homeostasis is threatened. Several lines of evidence support this idea; nucleoli and SGs share molecular building blocks, are regulated by common signaling pathways and communicate when vital cellular functions become compromised. Together, nucleoli and SGs orchestrate physiological responses that are directly relevant to stress and human health. As both compartments have established roles in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and virus infections, we propose that these conditions will benefit from therapeutic interventions that target simultaneously nucleoli and SGs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Is cascade reinforcement likely when sympatric and allopatric populations exchange migrants?

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    Yukilevich, Roman; Aoki, Fumio

    2016-04-01

    When partially reproductively isolated species come back into secondary contact, these taxa may diverge in mating preferences and sexual cues to avoid maladaptive hybridization, a process known as reinforcement. This phenomenon often leads to reproductive character displacement (RCD) between sympatric and allopatric populations of reinforcing species that differ in their exposure to hybridization. Recent discussions have reinvigorated the idea that RCD may give rise to additional speciation between conspecific sympatric and allopatric populations, dubbing the concept "cascade reinforcement." Despite some empirical studies supporting cascade reinforcement, we still know very little about the conditions for its evolution. In the present article, we address this question by developing an individual-based population genetic model that explicitly simulates cascade reinforcement when one of the hybridizing species is split into sympatric and allopatric populations. Our results show that when sympatric and allopatric populations reside in the same environment and only differ in their exposure to maladaptive hybridization, migration between them generally inhibits the evolution of cascade by spreading the reinforcement alleles from sympatry into allopatry and erasing RCD. Under these conditions, cascade reinforcement only evolved when migration rate between sympatric and allopatric populations was very low. This indicates that stabilizing sexual selection in allopatry is generally ineffective in preventing the spread of reinforcement alleles. Only when sympatric and allopatric populations experienced divergent ecological selection did cascade reinforcement evolve in the presence of substantial migration. These predictions clarify the conditions for cascade reinforcement and facilitate our understanding of existing cases in nature.

  18. Extracting microRNA-gene relations from biomedical literature using distant supervision.

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    Andre Lamurias

    Full Text Available Many biomedical relation extraction approaches are based on supervised machine learning, requiring an annotated corpus. Distant supervision aims at training a classifier by combining a knowledge base with a corpus, reducing the amount of manual effort necessary. This is particularly useful for biomedicine because many databases and ontologies have been made available for many biological processes, while the availability of annotated corpora is still limited. We studied the extraction of microRNA-gene relations from text. MicroRNA regulation is an important biological process due to its close association with human diseases. The proposed method, IBRel, is based on distantly supervised multi-instance learning. We evaluated IBRel on three datasets, and the results were compared with a co-occurrence approach as well as a supervised machine learning algorithm. While supervised learning outperformed on two of those datasets, IBRel obtained an F-score 28.3 percentage points higher on the dataset for which there was no training set developed specifically. To demonstrate the applicability of IBRel, we used it to extract 27 miRNA-gene relations from recently published papers about cystic fibrosis. Our results demonstrate that our method can be successfully used to extract relations from literature about a biological process without an annotated corpus. The source code and data used in this study are available at https://github.com/AndreLamurias/IBRel.

  19. Ecology and distribution of two sympatric, closely related sponge species, Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766) and H. bowerbanki Burton, 1930 (Porifera, Demospongiae), with remarks on their speciation

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    Vethaak, A.D.; Cronie, R.J.A.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    1982-01-01

    North Atlantic coastal waters harbour two closely related sympatric sponges belonging to the genus Halichondria, viz. H. panicea and H. bowerbanki. From the study of their littoral and sublittoral microdistribution and ecology in the Oosterschelde area (= Eastern Scheldt, S.W. part of The

  20. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

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    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Tracking niche variation over millennial timescales in sympatric killer whale lineages.

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    Foote, Andrew D; Newton, Jason; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Samaniego, Jose A; Post, Klaas; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2013-10-07

    Niche variation owing to individual differences in ecology has been hypothesized to be an early stage of sympatric speciation. Yet to date, no study has tracked niche width over more than a few generations. In this study, we show the presence of isotopic niche variation over millennial timescales and investigate the evolutionary outcomes. Isotopic ratios were measured from tissue samples of sympatric killer whale Orcinus orca lineages from the North Sea, spanning over 10 000 years. Isotopic ratios spanned a range similar to the difference in isotopic values of two known prey items, herring Clupea harengus and harbour seal Phoca vitulina. Two proxies of the stage of speciation, lineage sorting of mitogenomes and genotypic clustering, were both weak to intermediate indicating that speciation has made little progress. Thus, our study confirms that even with the necessary ecological conditions, i.e. among-individual variation in ecology, it is difficult for sympatric speciation to progress in the face of gene flow. In contrast to some theoretical models, our empirical results suggest that sympatric speciation driven by among-individual differences in ecological niche is a slow process and may not reach completion. We argue that sympatric speciation is constrained in this system owing to the plastic nature of the behavioural traits under selection when hunting either mammals or fish.

  2. Priority effects are weakened by a short, but not long, history of sympatric evolution.

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    Zee, Peter C; Fukami, Tadashi

    2018-01-31

    Priority effects, or the effects of species arrival history on local species abundances, have been documented in a range of taxa. However, factors determining the extent to which priority effects affect community assembly remain unclear. Using laboratory populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens , we examined whether shared evolutionary history affected the strength of priority effects. We hypothesized that sympatric evolution of populations belonging to the same guild would lead to niche differentiation, resulting in phenotypic complementarity that weakens priority effects. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that priority effects tended to be weaker in sympatrically evolved pairs of immigrating populations than in allopatrically evolved pairs. Furthermore, priority effects were weaker under higher phenotypic complementarity. However, these patterns were observed only in populations with a relatively short history of sympatric evolution, and disappeared when populations had evolved together for a long time. Together, our results suggest that the evolutionary history of organismal traits may dictate the strength of priority effects and, consequently, the extent of historical contingency in the assembly of ecological communities. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. Asymmetric reproductive isolation between two sympatric annual killifish with extremely short lifespans.

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    Matej Polačik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interspecific reproductive isolation is typically achieved by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic barriers. Behavioural isolating barriers between sympatric, closely related species are often of primary importance and frequently aided by extrinsic factors causing spatial and temporal interspecific separation. Study systems with a severely limited role of extrinsic factors on reproductive isolation may provide valuable insights into how reproductive isolation between sympatric species is maintained. We used no-choice experimental set-up to study reproductive barriers between two closely related sympatric African killifish species, Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius orthonotus. These fish live in small temporary savannah pools and have complete spatial and temporal overlap in reproductive activities and share a similar ecology. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that the two species display largely incomplete and asymmetric reproductive isolation. Mating between N. furzeri males and N. orthonotus females was absent under standard experimental conditions and eggs were not viable when fish were forced to mate in a modified experimental setup. In contrast, male N. orthonotus indiscriminately mated with N. furzeri females, the eggs were viable, and offspring successfully hatched. Most spawnings, however, were achieved by male coercion and egg production and embryo survival were low. Behavioural asymmetry was likely facilitated by mating coercion from larger males of N. orthonotus and at relatively low cost to females. Interestingly, the direction of asymmetry was positively associated with asymmetry in post-mating reproductive barriers. SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that, in fish species with a promiscuous mating system and multiple matings each day, selection for strong mate preferences was relaxed. This effect was likely due to the small proportion of resources allocated to each single mating and the high potential cost to females from

  4. Relative-locality distant observers and the phenomenology of momentum-space geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Rosati, Giacomo; Trevisan, Gabriele; Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    We study the translational invariance of the relative-locality framework proposed in Amelino-Camelia et al (2011 Phys. Rev. D 84 084010), which had been previously established only for the case of a single interaction. We provide an explicit example of boundary conditions at endpoints of worldlines, which indeed ensures the desired translational invariance for processes involving several interactions, even when some of the interactions are causally connected (particle exchange). We illustrate the properties of the associated relativistic description of distant observers within the example of a κ-Poincare-inspired momentum-space geometry, with de Sitter metric and parallel transport governed by a non-metric and torsionful connection. We find that in such a theory, simultaneously emitted massless particles do not reach simultaneously a distant detector, as expected in light of the findings of Freidel and Smolin (2011 arXiv:1103.5626) on the implications of non-metric connections. We also show that the theory admits a free-particle limit, where the relative-locality results of Amelino-Camelia et al (2011 Phys. Lett. B 700 150) are reproduced. We establish that the torsion of the κ-Poincare connection introduces a small (but observably large) dependence of the time of detection, for simultaneously emitted particles, on some properties of the interactions producing the particles at the source. (paper)

  5. Relative-locality distant observers and the phenomenology of momentum-space geometry

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    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo; Trevisan, Gabriele

    2012-04-01

    We study the translational invariance of the relative-locality framework proposed in Amelino-Camelia et al (2011 Phys. Rev. D 84 084010), which had been previously established only for the case of a single interaction. We provide an explicit example of boundary conditions at endpoints of worldlines, which indeed ensures the desired translational invariance for processes involving several interactions, even when some of the interactions are causally connected (particle exchange). We illustrate the properties of the associated relativistic description of distant observers within the example of a κ-Poincaré-inspired momentum-space geometry, with de Sitter metric and parallel transport governed by a non-metric and torsionful connection. We find that in such a theory, simultaneously emitted massless particles do not reach simultaneously a distant detector, as expected in light of the findings of Freidel and Smolin (2011 arXiv:1103.5626) on the implications of non-metric connections. We also show that the theory admits a free-particle limit, where the relative-locality results of Amelino-Camelia et al (2011 Phys. Lett. B 700 150) are reproduced. We establish that the torsion of the κ-Poincaré connection introduces a small (but observably large) dependence of the time of detection, for simultaneously emitted particles, on some properties of the interactions producing the particles at the source.

  6. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Sardans, J.; Hodar, Jose A.; Garcia-Porta, Joan; Guenther, Alex B.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Penuelas, Josep

    2017-09-25

    The metabolome, the chemical phenotype of an organism, should be shaped by evolution. Metabolomes depend on genetic composition and expression, which can be sources of evolutionary inertia, so most aspects of metabolomes should be similar in closely related sympatric species. We examined the metabolomes of two sympatric subspecies of Pinus sylvestris in Sierra Nevada (southern Iberian Peninsula), one introduced (ssp. iberica) and one autochthonous (ssp. nevadensis), in summer and winter and exposed to folivory by the pine processionary moth. The overall metabolomes differed between the subspecies but both tended to respond more similarly to folivory. The metabolomes of the subspecies were more dissimilar in summer than in winter, and iberica trees had higher concentrations of metabolites directly related to drought stress. Our results suggest that certain plant metabolic responses associated with folivory have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. The larger divergence between subspecies metabolomes in summer is likely due to the warmer and drier conditions that the northern iberica subspecies experience in Sierra Nevada. Our results provide crucial insights into how iberica populations would respond to the predicted conditions of climate change under an increased defoliation, two recent severe issues in the Mediterranean Basin.

  7. Divergence in sex steroid hormone signaling between sympatric species of Japanese threespine stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kitano

    Full Text Available Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexually dimorphic or sex-specific traits that are important both for mate choice within species and for behavioral isolation between species. We investigated divergence in sex steroid signaling between two sympatric species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus: the Japan Sea form and the Pacific Ocean form. These sympatric forms diverge in both male display traits and female mate choice behaviors, which together contribute to asymmetric behavioral isolation in sympatry. Here, we found that plasma levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol differed between spawning females of the two sympatric forms. Transcript levels of follicle-stimulating hormone-β (FSHβ gene were also higher in the pituitary gland of spawning Japan Sea females than in the pituitary gland of spawning Pacific Ocean females. By contrast, none of the sex steroids examined were significantly different between nesting males of the two forms. However, combining the plasma sex steroid data with testis transcriptome data suggested that the efficiency of the conversion of testosterone into 11-ketotestosterone has likely diverged between forms. Within forms, plasma testosterone levels in males were significantly correlated with male body size, a trait important for female mate choice in the two sympatric species. These results demonstrate that substantial divergence in sex steroid signaling can occur between incipient sympatric species. We suggest that investigation of the genetic and ecological mechanisms underlying divergence in hormonal signaling between incipient sympatric species will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of speciation in animals.

  8. Niche overlap and resource partitioning among five sympatric bufonids (Anura, Bufonidae from northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I. Duré

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The niche overlap and resource partitioning were analyzed for five sympatric bufonids from Northeastern Argentina: Rhinella schneideri, R. bergi, R. fernandezae, R. granulosa, and Melanophryniscus cupreuscapularis. The primary objectives were to analyze the diet and pattern of coexistence relative to the microhabitats among species. The bufonids, which are primarily terrestrial, exhibited a preference for small, hard prey such as formicids or coleopterans. The smallest species preferably consumed ants, while R. schneideri preferred beetles. Significant differences were detected for the diets of these five species. In addition, significant overlap in the trophic niche was noted for all species except between R. granulosa and R. schneideri. Studying the diet behaviors and trophic parameters of sympatric species provides important data for understandingthe community and for the development of conservation guidelines.

  9. Sympatric and allopatric combinations of Lymnaea columella and Fasciola hepatica from southern and south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L H L; Lima, W S; Guimaraes, M P

    2009-09-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to test the effect of sympatric and allopatric combinations between parasite and host, by using snails and flukes from southern and south-eastern Brazil. Four groups of 50 snails were infected with four miracidia per snail: two groups in sympatric and two groups in allopatric combinations. Sympatric combinations between parasite and host were more efficient than allopatric ones when snails from Itajubá were used, but the opposite was observed in infections involving snails from Pelotas. The sympatric association between L. columella and F. hepatica from Itajubá was significantly higher than in the other combinations. We concluded that the host-parasite relationship between L. columnella and F. hepatica may vary according to the geographical origin of the snails and flukes involved.

  10. Neural correlates of self-appraisals in the near and distant future: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangmei Luo

    Full Text Available To investigate perceptual and neural correlates of future self-appraisals as a function of temporal distance, event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants (11 women, eight men made judgments about the applicability of trait adjectives to their near future selves (i.e., one month from now and their distant future selves (i.e., three years from now. Behavioral results indicated people used fewer positive adjectives, more negative adjectives, recalled more specific events coming to mind and felt more psychologically connected to the near future self than the distant future self. Electrophysiological results demonstrated that negative trait adjectives elicited more positive ERP deflections than did positive trait adjectives in the interval between 550 and 800 ms (late positive component within the near future self condition. However, within the same interval, there were no significant differences between negative and positive traits adjectives in the distant future self condition. The results suggest that negative emotional processing in future self-appraisals is modulated by temporal distance, consistent with predictions of construal level theory.

  11. Female preference for sympatric vs. allopatric male throat color morphs in the mesquite lizard (Sceloporus grammicus species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bastiaans

    Full Text Available Color polymorphic sexual signals are often associated with alternative reproductive behaviors within populations, and the number, frequency, or type of morphs present often vary among populations. When these differences lead to assortative mating by population, the study of such polymorphic taxa may shed light on speciation mechanisms. We studied two populations of a lizard with polymorphic throat color, an important sexual signal. Males in one population exhibit orange, yellow, or blue throats; whereas males in the other exhibit orange, yellow, or white throats. We assessed female behavior when choosing between allopatric and sympatric males. We asked whether females discriminated more when the allopatric male was of an unfamiliar morph than when the allopatric male was similar in coloration to the sympatric male. We found that female rejection of allopatric males relative to sympatric males was more pronounced when males in a pair were more different in throat color. Our findings may help illuminate how behavioral responses to color morph differences between populations with polymorphic sexual signals contribute to reproductive isolation.

  12. Female preference for sympatric vs. allopatric male throat color morphs in the mesquite lizard (Sceloporus grammicus) species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Bastiaans, Mary Jane; Morinaga, Gen; Castañeda Gaytán, José Gamaliel; Marshall, Jonathon C; Bane, Brendan; de la Cruz, Fausto Méndez; Sinervo, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Color polymorphic sexual signals are often associated with alternative reproductive behaviors within populations, and the number, frequency, or type of morphs present often vary among populations. When these differences lead to assortative mating by population, the study of such polymorphic taxa may shed light on speciation mechanisms. We studied two populations of a lizard with polymorphic throat color, an important sexual signal. Males in one population exhibit orange, yellow, or blue throats; whereas males in the other exhibit orange, yellow, or white throats. We assessed female behavior when choosing between allopatric and sympatric males. We asked whether females discriminated more when the allopatric male was of an unfamiliar morph than when the allopatric male was similar in coloration to the sympatric male. We found that female rejection of allopatric males relative to sympatric males was more pronounced when males in a pair were more different in throat color. Our findings may help illuminate how behavioral responses to color morph differences between populations with polymorphic sexual signals contribute to reproductive isolation.

  13. HIV Infection Disrupts the Sympatric Host–Pathogen Relationship in Human Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Lukas; Egger, Matthias; Bodmer, Thomas; Furrer, Hansjakob; Ballif, Marie; Battegay, Manuel; Helbling, Peter; Fehr, Jan; Gsponer, Thomas; Rieder, Hans L.; Zwahlen, Marcel; Hoffmann, Matthias; Bernasconi, Enos; Cavassini, Matthias; Calmy, Alexandra; Dolina, Marisa; Frei, Reno; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Borrell, Sonia; Stucki, David; Schrenzel, Jacques; Böttger, Erik C.; Gagneux, Sebastien

    2013-01-01

    The phylogeographic population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggests local adaptation to sympatric human populations. We hypothesized that HIV infection, which induces immunodeficiency, will alter the sympatric relationship between M. tuberculosis and its human host. To test this hypothesis, we performed a nine-year nation-wide molecular-epidemiological study of HIV–infected and HIV–negative patients with tuberculosis (TB) between 2000 and 2008 in Switzerland. We analyzed 518 TB patients of whom 112 (21.6%) were HIV–infected and 233 (45.0%) were born in Europe. We found that among European-born TB patients, recent transmission was more likely to occur in sympatric compared to allopatric host–pathogen combinations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 7.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.21–infinity, p = 0.03). HIV infection was significantly associated with TB caused by an allopatric (as opposed to sympatric) M. tuberculosis lineage (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5–19.1, p<0.0001). This association remained when adjusting for frequent travelling, contact with foreigners, age, sex, and country of birth (adjusted OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.5–20.8, p = 0.01). Moreover, it became stronger with greater immunosuppression as defined by CD4 T-cell depletion and was not the result of increased social mixing in HIV–infected patients. Our observation was replicated in a second independent panel of 440 M. tuberculosis strains collected during a population-based study in the Canton of Bern between 1991 and 2011. In summary, these findings support a model for TB in which the stable relationship between the human host and its locally adapted M. tuberculosis is disrupted by HIV infection. PMID:23505379

  14. Phylogeographical patterns among Mediterranean sepiolid squids and their Vibrio symbionts: environment drives specificity among sympatric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamborsky, D J; Nishiguchi, M K

    2011-01-01

    Bobtail squid from the genera Sepiola and Rondeletiola (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) form mutualistic associations with luminous Gram-negative bacteria (Gammaproteobacteria: Vibrionaceae) from the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium. Symbiotic bacteria proliferate inside a bilobed light organ until they are actively expelled by the host into the surrounding environment on a diel basis. This event results in a dynamic symbiont population with the potential to establish the symbiosis with newly hatched sterile (axenic) juvenile sepiolids. In this study, we examined the genetic diversity found in populations of sympatric sepiolid squid species and their symbionts by the use of nested clade analysis with multiple gene analyses. Variation found in the distribution of different species of symbiotic bacteria suggests a strong influence of abiotic factors in the local environment, affecting bacterial distribution among sympatric populations of hosts. These abiotic factors include temperature differences incurred by a shallow thermocline, as well as a lack of strong coastal water movement accompanied by seasonal temperature changes in overlapping niches. Host populations are stable and do not appear to have a significant role in the formation of symbiont populations relative to their distribution across the Mediterranean Sea. Additionally, all squid species examined (Sepiola affinis, S. robusta, S. ligulata, S. intermedia, and Rondeletiola minor) are genetically distinct from one another regardless of location and demonstrate very little intraspecific variation within species. These findings suggest that physical boundaries and distance in relation to population size, and not host specificity, are important factors in limiting or defining gene flow within sympatric marine squids and their associated bacterial symbionts in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Cryptic distant relatives are common in both isolated and cosmopolitan genetic samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenna M Henn

    Full Text Available Although a few hundred single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs suffice to infer close familial relationships, high density genome-wide SNP data make possible the inference of more distant relationships such as 2(nd to 9(th cousinships. In order to characterize the relationship between genetic similarity and degree of kinship given a timeframe of 100-300 years, we analyzed the sharing of DNA inferred to be identical by descent (IBD in a subset of individuals from the 23andMe customer database (n = 22,757 and from the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP-CEPH, n = 952. With data from 121 populations, we show that the average amount of DNA shared IBD in most ethnolinguistically-defined populations, for example Native American groups, Finns and Ashkenazi Jews, differs from continentally-defined populations by several orders of magnitude. Via extensive pedigree-based simulations, we determined bounds for predicted degrees of relationship given the amount of genomic IBD sharing in both endogamous and 'unrelated' population samples. Using these bounds as a guide, we detected tens of thousands of 2(nd to 9(th degree cousin pairs within a heterogenous set of 5,000 Europeans. The ubiquity of distant relatives, detected via IBD segments, in both ethnolinguistic populations and in large 'unrelated' populations samples has important implications for genetic genealogy, forensics and genotype/phenotype mapping studies.

  16. Distant supervision for neural relation extraction integrated with word attention and property features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianfeng; Ouyang, Dantong; Hua, Wen; Ye, Yuxin; Li, Ximing

    2018-04-01

    Distant supervision for neural relation extraction is an efficient approach to extracting massive relations with reference to plain texts. However, the existing neural methods fail to capture the critical words in sentence encoding and meanwhile lack useful sentence information for some positive training instances. To address the above issues, we propose a novel neural relation extraction model. First, we develop a word-level attention mechanism to distinguish the importance of each individual word in a sentence, increasing the attention weights for those critical words. Second, we investigate the semantic information from word embeddings of target entities, which can be developed as a supplementary feature for the extractor. Experimental results show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art baselines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Does invasive Chondrostoma nasus shift the parasite community structure of endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma in sympatric zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The composition of parasite communities in two cyprinid species in southern France – native and threatened Parachondrostoma toxostoma and introduced Chondrostoma nasus – was investigated. In sympatry, these two species form two hybrid zones in the Durance and Ardeche Rivers. Due to their different feeding preference and habitat positions in allopatry, we supposed a difference in parasite communities between fish species. We expected more similar parasite communities in sympatric zones associated with habitat overlap (facilitating the transmission of ectoparasites) and similar feeding (more generalist behaviour when compared to allopatry, facilitating the transmission of endoparasites) in both fish species. Finally, we investigated whether P. toxostoma x C. nasus hybrids are less parasitized then parental species. Methods One allopatric population of each fish species plus two sympatric zones were sampled. Fish were identified using cytochrome b gene and 41 microsatellites loci and examined for all metazoan parasites. Results A high Monogenea abundance was found in both allopatric and sympatric populations of C. nasus. Trematoda was the dominant group in parasite communities of P. toxostoma from the allopatric population. In contrast, the populations of P. toxostoma in sympatric zones were parasitized by Dactylogyrus species found in C. nasus populations, but their abundance in endemic species was low. Consequently, the similarity based on parasite presence/absence between the sympatric populations of P. toxostoma and C. nasus was high. Sympatric populations of P. toxostoma were more similar than allopatric and sympatric populations of this species. No difference in ectoparasite infection was found between P. toxostoma and hybrids, whilst C. nasus was more parasitized by Monogenea. Conclusions The differences in endoparasites between P. toxostoma and C. nasus in allopatry are probably linked to different feeding or habitat conditions, but host

  18. Pattern of distant lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinoma and its correlation with distant organ metastasis: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the pattern of distant lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinoma and its correlation with distant organ metastasis. We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT scans of 46 patients with pathologically proven colorectal carcinoma. The incidence of distant lymphadenopathy in colorectal carcinoma was 30.4%(14/46). The most commonly involved distant lymph node was the left paraortic lymph node below the renal hilum(9/25). The most common type of distant lymphadenopathy was solitary type(7/14) and all of these lymphadenopathies were noted in the left paraortic lymph node below the renal hilum. Six cases of left sided colorectal carcinoma showed left paraortic lymphadenopathy with solitary type. The incidence of distant organ metastasis was 17.4%(8/46) and markedly increased if distant lymphadenopathy was multiple and confluent, or confluent type(5/7). The incidence of distant lymphadenopathy in colorectal carcinoma was not high and the most common lymphadenopathy was the left paraortic lymph node with solitary type below the renal hilum. The possibility of distant organ metastasis was high if distant lymphadenopathy was multiple and confluent, or confluent type

  19. Functional biology of sympatric krill species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    2016-01-01

    Here we compare the functional biology of the sympatric krill species, Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Thysanoessa inermis. For M. norvegica, we investigated functional responses on diatoms and copepods, together with prey size spectra on plankton ,400 mm and copepods in the size range 500–3220 mm....... For T. inermis, only prey size spectrum on plankton ,400 mm were investigated. The prey size ranges of both species include organisms ,400 mm, and they consequently graze on several trophic levels. However, T. inermis feed on cells ,10 mm equivalent spherical diameter (ESD), whereas M. norvegica only...

  20. Genetic diversity of Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in sympatric and allopatric zones in Baltic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, A; Galdikaitė-Brazienė, E; Radzijevskaja, J; Aleksandravičienė, A; Galdikas, M

    2016-12-01

    Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus 1758) and Ixodes persulcatus (Schulze 1930) ticks are involved in the transmission of a wide variety of pathogens with considerable impact on human and animal health. The co-distribution zone of these two tick species is situated in the Baltic countries, which provides a special setting for the population studies. In the present study, genetic variability of I. ricinus ticks collected in allopatric and sympatric locations in the Baltic countries has been investigated using a sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region, 16S rRNA and cytb genes. There were 32 haplotypes (Hd: 0.8551) and 27 haplotypes (Hd:0.8213) of control region sequences from ticks in allopatric and sympatric zones detected, respectively. Out of 47 16S rRNA gene haplotypes, 32 haplotypes (Hd: 0.7213) were found in the allopatric zone and 27 (Hd:0.9572) in the sympatric zone. The Cytb gene was very conserved and monomorphic in ticks from the allopatric zone, whereas three unique haplotypes were observed in the sympatric zone. The higher number of unique haplotypes of the control region was detected in the allopatric zone. Median joining network and Fst analysis did not reveal a clear separation between ticks from the two zones. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  1. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus???jrtyschensis from two distantly related species

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    Background The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus???jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. Resu...

  2. Widespread hybridization and bidirectional introgression in sympatric species of coral reef fish

    KAUST Repository

    Harrison, Hugo B.

    2017-10-28

    Coral reefs are highly diverse ecosystems, where numerous closely related species often coexist. How new species arise and are maintained in these high geneflow environments have been long-standing conundrums. Hybridization and patterns of introgression between sympatric species provide a unique insight into the mechanisms of speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. In this study, we investigate the extent of hybridization between two closely related species of coral reef fish: the common coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) and the bar-cheek coral trout (Plectropomus maculatus). Using a complementary set of 25 microsatellite loci, we distinguish pure genotype classes from first- and later-generation hybrids, identifying 124 interspecific hybrids from a collection of 2,991 coral trout sampled in inshore and mid-shelf reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Hybrids were ubiquitous among reefs, fertile and spanned multiple generations suggesting both ecological and evolutionary processes are acting to maintain species barriers. We elaborate on these finding to investigate the extent of genomic introgression and admixture from 2,271 SNP loci recovered from a ddRAD library of pure and hybrid individuals. An analysis of genomic clines on recovered loci indicates that 261 SNP loci deviate from a model of neutral introgression, of which 132 indicate a pattern of introgression consistent with selection favouring both hybrid and parental genotypes. Our findings indicate genome-wide, bidirectional introgression between two sympatric species of coral reef fishes and provide further support to a growing body of evidence for the role of hybridization in the evolution of coral reef fishes.

  3. Impact of retropharyngeal adenopathy on distant control and survival in HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, Stuart E.; Vainshtein, Jeffrey; Spector, Matthew E.; Ibrahim, Mohannad; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Tao, Yebin; Schipper, Matthew; Worden, Francis; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Retropharyngeal adenopathy (RPA) is poor prognostic factor in head and neck (HN) cancer. However, the prognostic significance of RPA in Human Papillomavirus-related (HPV+) oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is unknown. Patients and methods: 185 patients with HPV + OPC were assessed. Pre-therapy images reviewed by a HN radiologist to determine presence of RPA. Doses to the RPAs were determined from treatment plans. Outcomes analyzed using Kaplan–Meier method, log-rank tests, and correlations determined using Spearman’s rank analyses. Results: 29 (16%) of the HPV + patients had RPA. At median follow-up 49 months, 5-year overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS) and distant failure-free survival (DFFS) were 57% vs. 81% (P = 0.02), 63% vs 80% (P = 0.015) and 70% vs 91% (P = 0.002) for patients with/without RPA, respectively. No differences observed in local/ regional control rates, exceeding 90% in both groups, and No RPA recurrences were observed. In multivariable analysis, stages T4 or N3, and RPA, were independently, statistically significantly associated with both OS and distant failure, while N2c, age, disease site, and smoking status, were not. Conclusion: RPA in HPV + OPC is an independent prognostic factor for distant failure, translating into worse OS. Patients with RPA may not be suitable candidates for trials of systemic treatment de-escalation

  4. Scale-dependent seasonal pool habitat use by sympatric Wild Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lori A.; Wagner, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    Sympatric populations of native Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and naturalized Brown Trout Salmo truttaexist throughout the eastern USA. An understanding of habitat use by sympatric populations is of importance for fisheries management agencies because of the close association between habitat and population dynamics. Moreover, habitat use by stream-dwelling salmonids may be further complicated by several factors, including the potential for fish to display scale-dependent habitat use. Discrete-choice models were used to (1) evaluate fall and early winter daytime habitat use by sympatric Brook Trout and Brown Trout populations based on available residual pool habitat within a stream network and (2) assess the sensitivity of inferred habitat use to changes in the spatial scale of the assumed available habitat. Trout exhibited an overall preference for pool habitats over nonpool habitats; however, the use of pools was nonlinear over time. Brook Trout displayed a greater preference for deep residual pool habitats than for shallow pool and nonpool habitats, whereas Brown Trout selected for all pool habitat categories similarly. Habitat use by both species was found to be scale dependent. At the smallest spatial scale (50 m), habitat use was primarily related to the time of year and fish weight. However, at larger spatial scales (250 and 450 m), habitat use varied over time according to the study stream in which a fish was located. Scale-dependent relationships in seasonal habitat use by Brook Trout and Brown Trout highlight the importance of considering scale when attempting to make inferences about habitat use; fisheries managers may want to consider identifying the appropriate spatial scale when devising actions to restore and protect Brook Trout populations and their habitats.

  5. Climatic niche evolution is faster in sympatric than allopatric lineages of the butterfly genus Pyrgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitteloud, Camille; Arrigo, Nils; Suchan, Tomasz; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Vila, Roger; Dincă, Vlad; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Brockmann, Ernst; Chittaro, Yannick; Kleckova, Irena; Fumagalli, Luca; Buerki, Sven; Pellissier, Loïc; Alvarez, Nadir

    2017-04-12

    Understanding how speciation relates to ecological divergence has long fascinated biologists. It is assumed that ecological divergence is essential to sympatric speciation, as a mechanism to avoid competition and eventually lead to reproductive isolation, while divergence in allopatry is not necessarily associated with niche differentiation. The impact of the spatial context of divergence on the evolutionary rates of abiotic dimensions of the ecological niche has rarely been explored for an entire clade. Here, we compare the magnitude of climatic niche shifts between sympatric versus allopatric divergence of lineages in butterflies. By combining next-generation sequencing, parametric biogeography and ecological niche analyses applied to a genus-wide phylogeny of Palaearctic Pyrgus butterflies, we compare evolutionary rates along eight climatic dimensions across sister lineages that diverged in large-scale sympatry versus allopatry. In order to examine the possible effects of the spatial scale at which sympatry is defined, we considered three sets of biogeographic assignments, ranging from narrow to broad definition. Our findings suggest higher rates of niche evolution along all climatic dimensions for sister lineages that diverge in sympatry, when using a narrow delineation of biogeographic areas. This result contrasts with significantly lower rates of climatic niche evolution found in cases of allopatric speciation, despite the biogeographic regions defined here being characterized by significantly different climates. Higher rates in allopatry are retrieved when biogeographic areas are too widely defined-in such a case allopatric events may be recorded as sympatric. Our results reveal the macro-evolutionary significance of abiotic niche differentiation involved in speciation processes within biogeographic regions, and illustrate the importance of the spatial scale chosen to define areas when applying parametric biogeographic analyses. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Multidimensional differentiation in foraging resource use during breeding of two sympatric top predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann, Guilad; Leshem, Yossi; Kerem, Lior; Shacham, Boaz; Bar-Massada, Avi; McClain, Krystaal M.; Bohrer, Gil; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-10-01

    Ecologically-similar species were found to develop specific strategies to partition their resources, leading to niche differentiation and divergence, in order to avoid interspecific competition. Our study determines multi-dimensional differentiation of two sympatric top-predators, long-legged buzzards (LLB) and short-toed eagles (STE), which recently became sympatric during their breeding season in the Judean Foothills, Israel. By combining information from comprehensive diet and movement analyses we found four dimensions of differentiation: (1) Geographic foraging area: LLB tended to forage relatively close to their nests (2.35 ± 0.62 km), while STE forage far from their nest (13.03 ± 2.20 km) (2) Foraging-habitat type: LLBs forage at low natural vegetation, avoiding cultivated fields, whereas STEs forage in cultivated fields, avoiding low natural vegetation; (3) Diurnal dynamics of foraging: LLBs are uniformly active during daytime, whereas STEs activity peaks in the early afternoon; and (4) Food-niche: while both species largely rely on reptiles (47.8% and 76.3% for LLB and STE, respectively), LLB had a more diverse diet and consumed significantly higher percentages of lizards, while STE consumed significantly higher percentages of snakes. Our results suggest that this multidimensional differentiation allows the spatial coexistence of these two dense populations in the study area.

  7. Evolution of body shape in differently coloured sympatric congeners and allopatric populations of Lake Malawi's rock-dwelling cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husemann, M; Tobler, M; McCauley, C; Ding, B; Danley, P D

    2014-05-01

    The cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi represent one of the most diverse adaptive radiations of vertebrates known. Among the rock-dwelling cichlids (mbuna), closely related sympatric congeners possess similar trophic morphologies (i.e. cranial and jaw structures), defend overlapping or adjacent territories, but can be easily distinguished based on male nuptial coloration. The apparent morphological similarity of congeners, however, leads to an ecological conundrum: theory predicts that ecological competition should lead to competitive exclusion. Hence, we hypothesized that slight, yet significant, ecological differences accompanied the divergence in sexual signals and that the divergence of ecological and sexual traits is correlated. To evaluate this hypothesis, we quantified body shape, a trait of known ecological importance, in populations of Maylandia zebra, a barred, widespread mbuna, and several sympatric nonbarred congeners. We found that the barred populations differ in body shape from their nonbarred sympatric congeners and that the direction of shape differences was consistent across all barred vs. nonbarred comparisons. Barred populations are generally deeper bodied which may be an adaptation to the structurally complex habitat they prefer, whereas the nonbarred species have a more fusiform body shape, which may be adaptive in their more open microhabitat. Furthermore, M. zebra populations sympatric with nonbarred congeners differ from populations where the nonbarred phenotype is absent and occupy less morphospace, indicating potential ecological character displacement. Mitochondrial DNA as well as published AFLP data indicated that the nonbarred populations are not monophyletic and therefore may have evolved multiple times independently. Overall our data suggest that the evolution of coloration and body shape may be coupled as a result of correlational selection. We hypothesize that correlated evolution of sexually selected and ecological traits may have

  8. Host-related genetic differentiation in the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of two host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, W.F.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated genetic diversity in West European populations of the fungal pathogen Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of the host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica, using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. In allopatric host populations, the fungus

  9. Host-related genetic differentiation in the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of two host species Silene latifolia and S-dioica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, WF; Biere, A; Van Damme, JMM

    We investigated genetic diversity in West European populations of the fungal pathogen Microbotryum violaceum in sympatric, parapatric and allopatric populations of the host species Silene latifolia and S. dioica, using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. In allopatric host populations, the fungus

  10. Phylogenetic Structure of Plant Communities: Are Polyploids Distantly Related to Co-occurring Diploids?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Gaynor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is widely acknowledged to have played an important role in the evolution and diversification of vascular plants. However, the influence of genome duplication on population-level dynamics and its cascading effects at the community level remain unclear. In part, this is due to persistent uncertainties over the extent of polyploid phenotypic variation, and the interactions between polyploids and co-occurring species, and highlights the need to integrate polyploid research at the population and community level. Here, we investigate how community-level patterns of phylogenetic relatedness might influence escape from minority cytotype exclusion, a classic population genetics hypothesis about polyploid establishment, and population-level species interactions. Focusing on two plant families in which polyploidy has evolved multiple times, Brassicaceae and Rosaceae, we build upon the hypothesis that the greater allelic and phenotypic diversity of polyploids allow them to successfully inhabit a different geographic range compared to their diploid progenitor and close relatives. Using a phylogenetic framework, we specifically test (1 whether polyploid species are more distantly related to diploids within the same community than co-occurring diploids are to one another, and (2 if polyploid species tend to exhibit greater ecological success than diploids, using species abundance in communities as an indicator of successful establishment. Overall, our results suggest that the effects of genome duplication on community structure are not clear-cut. We find that polyploid species tend to be more distantly related to co-occurring diploids than diploids are to each other. However, we do not find a consistent pattern of polyploid species being more abundant than diploid species, suggesting polyploids are not uniformly more ecologically successful than diploids. While polyploidy appears to have some important influences on species co-occurrence in

  11. Tracking niche variation over millennial timescales in sympatric killer whale lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Newton, Jason; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    and investigate the evolutionary outcomes. Isotopic ratios were measured from tissue samples of sympatric killer whale Orcinus orca lineages from the North Sea, spanning over 10 000 years. Isotopic ratios spanned a range similar to the difference in isotopic values of two known prey items, herring Clupea harengus...

  12. Incidence and sites of distant metastases from head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlito, A; Shaha, A R; Silver, C E; Rinaldo, A; Mondin, V

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of distant metastases in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is relatively small in comparison to other malignancies. Distant metastases adversely impact survival and may significantly affect treatment planning. The incidence of distant metastases is influenced by location of the primary tumor, initial T and N stage of the neoplasm, and the presence or absence of regional control above the clavicle. Patients with advanced nodal disease have a high incidence of distant metastases, particularly in the presence of jugular vein invasion or extensive soft tissue disease in the neck. Primary tumors of advanced T stages in the hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity are associated with the highest incidence of distant metastases. Pulmonary metastases are the most frequent in SCC, accounting for 66% of distant metastases. It may be difficult to distinguish pulmonary metastasis from a new primary tumor, particularly if solitary. Other metastatic sites include bone (22%), liver (10%), skin, mediastinum and bone marrow. An important question remains as to how intensely pre- and postoperative screening for distant metastases should be performed. Preoperative chest X-ray is warranted in all cases. If the primary tumor and nodal status place the patient at high risk for pulmonary metastasis, then preoperative computed tomography scan of the chest should be done. Screening for distant metastases at other sites is usually not indicated in SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract. Postoperatively, annual X-rays of the chest are usually sufficient, but in high-risk situations a chest X-ray performed every 3-6 months may be beneficial. Certain histologic types of primary tumor have greater or lesser propensity to metastasize distantly, and have a different natural history. Adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasizes frequently, even in the absence of extensive local or regional disease. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinomas also metastasize widely

  13. Recent speciation in three closely related sympatric specialists: inferences using multi-locus sequence, post-mating isolation and endosymbiont data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Jun Xue

    Full Text Available Shifting between unrelated host plants is relatively rare for phytophagous insects, and distinct host specificity may play crucial roles in reproductive isolation. However, the isolation status and the relationship between parental divergence and post-mating isolation among closely related sympatric specialists are still poorly understood. Here, multi-locus sequence were used to estimate the relationship among three host plant-specific closely related flea beetles, Altica cirsicola, A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea (abbreviated as AC, AF and AV respectively. The tree topologies were inconsistent using different gene or different combinations of gene fragments. The relationship of AF+(AC+AV was supported, however, by both gene tree and species tree based on concatenated data. Post-mating reproductive data on the results of crossing these three species are best interpreted in the light of a well established phylogeny. Nuclear-induced but not Wolbachia-induced unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was detected in AC-AF and AF-AV but not in AC-AV, may also suggest more close genetic affinity between AC and AV. Prevalence of Wolbachia in these three beetles, and the endosymbiont in most individuals of AV and AC sharing a same wsp haplotype may give another evidence of AF+(AC+AV. Our study also suggested that these three flea beetles diverged in a relative short time (0.94 My, which may be the result of shifting between unrelated host plants and distinct host specificity. Incomplete post-mating isolation while almost complete lineage sorting indicated that effective pre-mating isolation among these three species should have evolved.

  14. Relationship between spatial working memory performance and diet specialization in two sympatric nectar bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Henry

    Full Text Available Behavioural ecologists increasingly recognise spatial memory as one the most influential cognitive traits involved in evolutionary processes. In particular, spatial working memory (SWM, i.e. the ability of animals to store temporarily useful information for current foraging tasks, determines the foraging efficiency of individuals. As a consequence, SWM also has the potential to influence competitive abilities and to affect patterns of sympatric occurrence among closely related species. The present study aims at comparing the efficiency of SWM between generalist (Glossophaga soricina and specialist (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae nectarivorous bats at flowering patches. The two species differ in diet--the generalist diet including seasonally fruits and insects with nectar and pollen while the specialist diet is dominated by nectar and pollen yearlong--and in some morphological traits--the specialist being heavier and with proportionally longer rostrum than the generalist. These bats are found sympatrically within part of their range in the Neotropics. We habituated captive individuals to feed on artificial flower patches and we used infrared video recordings to monitor their ability to remember and avoid the spatial location of flowers they emptied in previous visits in the course of 15-min foraging sequences. Experiments revealed that both species rely on SWM as their foraging success attained significantly greater values than random expectations. However, the nectar specialist L. yerbabuenae was significantly more efficient at extracting nectar (+28% in foraging success, and sustained longer foraging bouts (+27% in length of efficient foraging sequences than the generalist G. soricina. These contrasting SWM performances are discussed in relation to diet specialization and other life history traits.

  15. Niche differences between two sympatric whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer, Teiidae) in the restinga habitat of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, E J R; Rocha, C F D

    2007-02-01

    Differences among sympatric lizard species usually result from differences in the use of three resources: space, time and food or some combination of these three. However, differences in resource utilization among sympatric species may simply reflect their specific ecological needs rather than competitive pressures. In this study, we analyzed the temporal, spatial and food niche of two congeneric teiids (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer) living sympatrically in the "restinga" habitat of Abaeté in the Salvador Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil to assess the degree of niche differentiation among them. The whiptail species overlapped considerably in an hourly activity (Ojk = 0.93), in microhabitat use (Ojk = 0.97) and in the prey items consumed (Ojk = 0.89). Differences in amount of vegetation in the microhabitats used by both lizard species may have contributed to differences in the activity period and in the distribution of the main prey eaten by these lizards which may, in turn, facilitate their coexistence in Abaeté. Although sympatric C. ocellifer and C. abaetensis in Abaeté differed only slightly in their use of microhabitats, period of activity and diet, the most important niche dimension segregating the two species seemed to be the food niche.

  16. New record of the sympatric distribution of two Asian species of the horseshoe crab

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.

    distribution of two Asian species of the horses... http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/sep25/articles14.htm 1 of 3 2/11/05 9:47 AM New record of the sympatric distribution of two Asian species of the horseshoe crab The geographical distribution of four extant species...... http://www.ias.ac.in/currsci/sep25/articles14.htm 2 of 3 2/11/05 9:47 AM This species was found breeding actively on relatively clean and sandy beaches. The other species (C. rotundicauda) was not reported in these areas.However, during the survey...

  17. Three new sympatric species of Remipedia (Crustacea) from Great Exuma Island, Bahamas Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenemann, Stefan; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Ham, van der Joris

    2003-01-01

    Three new sympatric species of remipede crustaceans, Speleonectes tanumekes, Speleonectes parabenjamini and Speleonectes minnsi, are described from an anchihaline cave on Great Exuma Island in the central Bahamas. Speleonectes tanumekes is a comparatively long and slender species distinguished by

  18. Potential Sympatric Vectors and Mammalian Hosts of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus in Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Abella-Medrano, Carlos Antonio; Chaves, Andrea; Álvarez-Mendizábal, Paulina; Rico-Chávez, Óscar; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Rostal, Melinda K; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguirre, A Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2017-07-01

    Arboviruses are important zoonotic agents with complex transmission cycles and are not well understood because they may involve many vectors and hosts. We studied sympatric wild mammals and hematophagous mosquitoes having the potential to act as hosts and vectors in two areas of southern Mexico. Mosquitoes, bats, and rodents were captured in Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas), between November 2010 and August 2011. Spleen samples from 146 bats and 14 rodents were tested for molecular evidence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and West Nile virus (WNV) using PCR protocols. Bat ( Artibeus lituratus , Carollia sowelli , Glossophaga soricina , and Sturnira parvidens) and rodent ( Sigmodon hispidus and Oryzomys alfaroi ) species were positive for VEEV. No individuals were positive for WNV, EEEV, or WEEV. A total of 1,298 mosquitoes were collected at the same sites, and five of the mosquito species collected were known VEEV vectors (Aedes fulvus, Mansonia indubitans, Psorophora ferox, Psorophora cilipes, and Psorophora confinnis). This survey simultaneously presents the first molecular evidence, to our knowledge, of VEEV in bats and rodents from southern Mexico and the identification of potential sympatric vectors. Studies investigating sympatric nonhuman hosts, vectors, and arboviruses must be expanded to determine arboviral dynamics in complex systems in which outbreaks of emerging and reemerging zoonoses are continuously occurring.

  19. Reproductive isolation between sympatric and allopatric Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Claudia A; Vigoder, Felipe M; Ward, Richard D; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2008-03-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l., the main vector of Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, is a species complex although the exact number of siblings is yet unknown. In Brazil, the siblings differ in male copulatory courtship songs and pheromones that most certainly act as pre-zygotic reproductive barriers. Here we analysed the reproductive isolation between three allopatric and two sympatric populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. from Brazil. The results indicate a strong copulatory and pre-mating isolation between the three allopatric populations. In addition, the results also indicate a stronger pre-mating isolation between the two sympatric siblings than between the three allopatric ones, suggesting a role for reinforcement in the speciation of the Lu. longipalpis s.l. complex.

  20. A tight association in two genetically unlinked dispersal related traits in sympatric and allopatric salt marsh beetle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belleghem, Steven M; Hendrickx, Frederik

    2014-02-01

    Local adaptation likely involves selection on multiple, genetically unlinked traits to increase fitness in divergent habitats. Conversely, recombination is expected to counteract local adaptation under gene flow by breaking down adaptive gene combinations. Western European populations of the salt marsh beetle Pogonus chalceus are characterized by large interpopulation variation at various geographical ranges in two traits related to dispersal ability, i.e. wing size and different allozymes of the mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (mtIdh) gene. In this study, we tested whether variation in wing length was as strongly genetically determined in locally adapted populations in a sympatric mosaic compared to allopatric populations, and if variation in mtIDH and wing size was genetically unlinked. We demonstrate that the genetic determination of wing size is very high (h (2) = 0.90) in sympatry and of comparable magnitude as geographically separated populations. Second, we show that, although frequencies of mtIDH allozymes are tightly associated with mean population wing size across Western European populations, the correlation is strongly reduced within some of the populations. These findings demonstrate that the divergence involves at least two traits under independent genetic control and that the genetically distinct ecotypes are retained at geographical distances with ample opportunity for gene flow.

  1. Distant Metastases of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Definite Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Lee, Hyung Sik; Moon, Sun Rock; Kim, Gwi Eon; Loh, John Juhn-Kyu

    1991-01-01

    One hundred and thirty five patients with carcinoma of the nasopharynx were treated by radiation therapy in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University between August 1977 and July 1987. Of the 30 patients omitted: 8 had distant metastases at initial diagnosis or during radiotherapy; 18 patients refused or did not received a full course of radiation therapy, and four had not been confirmed histologically. The remaining 105 patients were analyzed to determine the incidence and patter of distant metastases. Diagnosis of distant metastases was made based on clinical signs and radiography, even though histologic confirmation was not made. Twenty-six patients developed distant metastases after definite irradiation of nasopharynx and neck, an incidence rate of 24.8%. The common sites of distant metastases were, in descending order, bone, lung, liver, and brain. There was a strong correlation between Ho's N stage and distant metastases rate. But sex, age, histologic subtype (squamous cell and undifferentiated cell), AJC T and N stage, treatment modalities (radiotherapy alone and radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy) were not significant. Of those patients who developed distant metastases, 80.8% were discovered within 2 years of their radical radiotherapy. The prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients developing distant metastases was poor: median survival was nine months and 80% of those patients died within two years of the initial diagnosis of distant metastasis

  2. Song sparrows Melospiza melodia have a home-field advantage in defending against sympatric malarial parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis-Adamson, Yanina

    2016-01-01

    Hosts and parasites interact on both evolutionary and ecological timescales. The outcome of these interactions, specifically whether hosts are more resistant to their local parasites (sympatric) than to parasites from another location (allopatric), is likely to affect the spread of infectious disease and the fitness consequences of host dispersal. We conducted a cross-infection experiment to determine whether song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) have an advantage in dealing with sympatric parasites. We captured birds from two breeding sites 437 km apart, and inoculated them with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) cultured either from their capture site or from the other site. Infection risk was lower for birds exposed to sympatric than to allopatric Plasmodium lineages, suggesting that song sparrows may have a home-field advantage in defending against local parasite strains. This pattern was more pronounced at one capture site than at the other, consistent with mosaic models of host–parasite interactions. Home-field advantage may arise from evolutionary processes, whereby host populations become adapted to their local parasites, and/or from ecological interactions, whereby host individuals develop resistance to the local parasites through previous immune exposure. Our findings suggest that greater susceptibility to novel parasites may represent a fitness consequence of natal dispersal. PMID:27853596

  3. Phenotypic plasticity of the introduced New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, compared to sympatric native snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward P Levri

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity is likely to be important in determining the invasive potential of a species, especially if invasive species show greater plasticity or tolerance compared to sympatric native species. Here in two separate experiments we compare reaction norms in response to two environmental variables of two clones of the New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, isolated from the United States, (one invasive and one not yet invasive with those of two species of native snails that are sympatric with the invader, Fossaria bulimoides group and Physella gyrina group. We placed juvenile snails in environments with high and low conductivity (300 and 800 mS in one experiment, and raised them at two different temperatures (16 °C and 22 °C in a second experiment. Growth rate and mortality were measured over the course of 8 weeks. Mortality rates were higher in the native snails compared to P. antipodarum across all treatments, and variation in conductivity influenced mortality. In both experiments, reaction norms did not vary significantly between species. There was little evidence that the success of the introduced species is a result of greater phenotypic plasticity to these variables compared to the sympatric native species.

  4. Synteny conservation between two distantly-related Rosaceae genomes: Prunus (the stone fruits and Fragaria (the strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargent Daniel J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rosaceae encompass a large number of economically-important diploid and polyploid fruit and ornamental species in many different genera. The basic chromosome numbers of these genera are x = 7, 8 and 9 and all have compact and relatively similar genome sizes. Comparative mapping between distantly-related genera has been performed to a limited extent in the Rosaceae including a comparison between Malus (subfamily Maloideae and Prunus (subfamily Prunoideae; however no data has been published to date comparing Malus or Prunus to a member of the subfamily Rosoideae. In this paper we compare the genome of Fragaria, a member of the Rosoideae, to Prunus, a member of the Prunoideae. Results The diploid genomes of Prunus (2n = 2x = 16 and Fragaria (2n = 2x = 14 were compared through the mapping of 71 anchor markers – 40 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, 29 indels or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs and two simple-sequence repeats (SSRs – on the reference maps of both genera. These markers provided good coverage of the Prunus (78% and Fragaria (78% genomes, with maximum gaps and average densities of 22 cM and 7.3 cM/marker in Prunus and 32 cM and 8.0 cM/marker in Fragaria. Conclusion Our results indicate a clear pattern of synteny, with most markers of each chromosome of one of these species mapping to one or two chromosomes of the other. A large number of rearrangements (36, most of which produced by inversions (27 and the rest (9 by translocations or fission/fusion events could also be inferred. We have provided the first framework for the comparison of the position of genes or DNA sequences of these two economically valuable and yet distantly-related genera of the Rosaceae.

  5. Niche differences between two sympatric whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer, Teiidae in the restinga habitat of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EJR. Dias

    Full Text Available Differences among sympatric lizard species usually result from differences in the use of three resources: space, time and food or some combination of these three. However, differences in resource utilization among sympatric species may simply reflect their specific ecological needs rather than competitive pressures. In this study, we analyzed the temporal, spatial and food niche of two congeneric teiids (Cnemidophorus abaetensis and C. ocellifer living sympatrically in the "restinga" habitat of Abaeté in the Salvador Municipality, Bahia State, Brazil to assess the degree of niche differentiation among them. The whiptail species overlapped considerably in an hourly activity (Ojk = 0.93, in microhabitat use (Ojk = 0.97 and in the prey items consumed (Ojk = 0.89. Differences in amount of vegetation in the microhabitats used by both lizard species may have contributed to differences in the activity period and in the distribution of the main prey eaten by these lizards which may, in turn, facilitate their coexistence in Abaeté. Although sympatric C. ocellifer and C. abaetensis in Abaeté differed only slightly in their use of microhabitats, period of activity and diet, the most important niche dimension segregating the two species seemed to be the food niche.

  6. [Distant mental influence on living organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews studies of distant mental influence on living organisms, including mental suggestions of sleeping and awakening, mental influence at long distances, mental interactions with remote biological systems, mental effects on physiological activity and the sense of being stared at. Significant effects of distant mental influence have been shown in several randomized controlled trials in humans, animals, plants, bacteria and cells in the laboratory. Although distant mental influence on living organisms appears to contradict our ordinary sense of reality and the laws defined by conventional science, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed effects; they include skeptical, signal transfer, field, multidimensional space/time and quantum mechanics hypotheses. In conclusion, as the progress of physics continues to expand our comprehension of reality, a rational explanation for distant mind-matter interaction will emerge and, as history has shown repeatedly, the supernatural events will evolve into paranormal and then, into normal ones, as the scientific frontiers expand.

  7. Frugivory by the black-eared opossum Didelphis aurita in the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil: Roles of sex, season and sympatric species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2009v22n3p203 Our objective in this study was to examine the frugivory performed by the black-eared opossum, Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied, 1826, in an area of the coastal Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil, including differences between sexes, seasonal variation, and relationships to other sympatric marsupials. We collected 63 fecal samples from a trap grid over a six-month period and analyzed seed presence, seed number and richness,  and diversity of fruit species in feces. Diversity of fruit items was estimated by the Shannon index. Results showed a high variability in fruit consumption along the seasons, but no sexual difference in consumption. Sympatric marsupial species, including D. aurita, showed substantial differences in frugivory which may be related to body size, space use and differences in the foraging behavior of such species.

  8. A Novel Expression Cassette of Lyssavirus Shows that the Distantly Related Mokola Virus Can Rescue a Defective Rabies Virus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mercier, Philippe; Jacob, Yves; Tanner, Kyle; Tordo, Noël

    2002-01-01

    By comparing three expression vectors for the rabies virus (Rv) minigenome, we show that the characteristic of the Rv RNA is important for efficient rescue despite its not being crucial for replication. Moreover, we show that the coexpression of the viral proteins from helper Rv and Mokola virus could rescue the Rv minigenome while Rv-related European bat lyssavirus 1 could not, suggesting that the signals controlling transcription and replication are conserved in the distantly related Rv and Mokola virus. PMID:11799201

  9. The relationship between sympatric defended species depends upon predators' discriminatory behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina G Halpin

    Full Text Available Toxic prey species living in the same environment have long been thought to mutually benefit from having the same warning signal by sharing the education of naïve predators. In contrast, 'saturation theory' predicts that predators are physiologically limited by the amount of toxin that they can eat in a given time period. Therefore, sympatric species that contain the same toxin should mutually benefit from reduced predation even when they are visually distinct, reducing the benefits to visual mimicry. For the first time, we found that mutualism can occur between unequally defended prey that are visually distinct, although the benefits to each prey type depends on the predators' abilities and/or motivation to visually discriminate between them. Furthermore, we found that this variability in predatory behaviour had a significant impact on the benefits of mimicry for unequally defended prey. Our results demonstrate that variability in the foraging decisions of predators can have a significant effect on the benefits of shared toxicity and visual mimicry between sympatric species, and highlights the need to consider how predators exert selection pressures on models and mimics over their entire lifetimes.

  10. Roost use by two sympatric species of Scotophilus in a natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara Monadjem; Tara Raabe; Brian Dickerson; Nova Silvy; Robert McCleery

    2010-01-01

    Roost use by African bats is poorly known, particularly for those using cavities in trees. Two sympatric species of Scotophilus were fitted with transmitters and tracked to their respective roosts in a natural savanna site in Swaziland. Both species roosted exclusively in trees, apparently preferring Combretum imberbe trees with large girths. The conservation of such...

  11. Hedonic Benefits of Close and Distant Interaction Partners: The Mediating Roles of Social Approval and Authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venaglia, Rachel B; Lemay, Edward P

    2017-09-01

    The current research utilized ecological momentary assessment methodology to examine affective responses to interacting with close versus distant interaction partners during naturally occurring social interactions, and to test predictions regarding the mediating roles of perceived social approval and authenticity. Analysis of 4,602 social interactions reported by 176 participants suggested that, relative to interactions with distant partners, interactions with close partners were characterized by more positive affect. This effect was mediated by perceived social approval and authenticity. These findings suggest that social interactions with close others confer greater hedonic benefits relative to interactions with distant partners due to greater confidence in social approval and feelings of authenticity. Exploratory analyses suggested that interactions with close partners featured warmer and less shy behavior, and that participants who placed more importance on close relationships (as measured by high relational-interdependent self-construal) experienced more approval and authenticity in their interactions, particularly with distant partners.

  12. Comparison of food hoarding of two sympatric rodent species under interspecific competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Lei; Ji, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ji-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Competition can greatly affect the food hoarding strategies of rodents and the fate of seeds hoarded. In order to understand the influence of interspecific competition on food caching behavior of sympatric rodents, we investigated food hoarding patterns of two sympatric rodent species, buff-breasted rat (Rattus flavipectus) and Chinese white-bellied rat (Niviventor confucianus), and compared their responses and adjustment in hoarding behavior under interspecific competition. The results showed that: (1) the buff-breasted rat larder hoarded seeds only, while Chinese white-bellied rat hoarded seeds in both larder and scatter forms; (2) two species of rodents both larder hoarded more seeds when competitors were present; and (3) the Chinese white-bellied rats adjusted their seed hoarding from scatter to larder when competitors were introduced, which reduced the seed availability. Therefore, we concluded that rodents would adjust their food hoarding strategy when interspecific competitors were present, and this may produce a different effect on the fate of seeds and the recruitment of plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Detection and genetic characterization of a novel parvovirus distantly related to human bufavirus in domestic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Renáta; Pankovics, Péter; Kertész, Attila Mihály; Bíró, Hunor; Boros, Ákos; Phan, Tung Gia; Delwart, Eric; Reuter, Gábor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a novel parvovirus (strain swine/Zsana3/2013/HUN, KT965075) was detected in domestic pigs and genetically characterized by viral metagenomics and PCR methods. The novel parvovirus was distantly related to the human bufaviruses and was detected in 19 (90.5 %) of the 21 and five (33.3 %) of the 15 faecal samples collected from animals with and without cases of posterior paraplegia of unknown etiology from five affected farms and one control farm in Hungary, respectively. Swine/Zsana3/2013/HUN is highly prevalent in domestic pigs and potentially represents a novel parvovirus species in the subfamily Parvovirinae.

  14. Reproductive isolation of sympatric forms of the understorey palm Geonoma macrostachys in western Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchsenius, Finn; Lozada, Tannya; Knudsen, Jette T.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of a mechanism for attaining reproductive isolation between two diverging populations is a key step in the speciation process. We studied phenotypic variation, genetic differentiation, spatial distribution and reproductive ecology in two sympatric forms of the understorey palm Geonoma...

  15. Breeding habitat use by sympatric and allopatric populations of Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, J.M.; Stanley, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Wilson's Warbler (Wilsonia pusilla) and Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia) habitat use in allopatric and sympatric populations in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming in order to better understand the different habitat needs and interactions of these two species. Foraging Wilson's Warblers and Yellow Warblers used very similar habitat, both selecting larger, more open shrubs. In spite of similar foraging habitat, comparisons of habitat use by the two species at the sympatric sites yielded no evidence of foraging habitat partitioning or exclusion. There was evidence of nesting habitat partitioning. Wilson's Warblers nested on the ground, with some evidence that they used smaller, more densely stemmed shrubs under which to nest. Yellow Warblers are shrub nesters and selected larger, more open shrubs in which to nest. Results provide no evidence that Yellow Warblers can be blamed for population declines in Wilson's Warblers.

  16. Testing local host adaptation and phenotypic plasticity in a herbivore when alternative related host plants occur sympatrically.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Ruiz-Montoya

    Full Text Available Host race formation in phytophagous insects can be an early stage of adaptive speciation. However, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in host use is another possible outcome. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment we tested the hypothesis of local adaptation in the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Aphid genotypes derived from two sympatric host plants, Brassica oleracea and B. campestris, were assessed in order to measure the extent of phenotypic plasticity in morphological and life history traits in relation to the host plants. We obtained an index of phenotypic plasticity for each genotype. Morphological variation of aphids was summarized by principal components analysis. Significant effects of recipient host on morphological variation and life history traits (establishment, age at first reproduction, number of nymphs, and intrinsic growth rate were detected. We did not detected genotype × host plant interaction; in general the genotypes developed better on B. campestris, independent of the host plant species from which they were collected. Therefore, there was no evidence to suggest local adaptation. Regarding plasticity, significant differences among genotypes in the index of plasticity were detected. Furthermore, significant selection on PC1 (general aphid body size on B. campestris, and on PC1 and PC2 (body length relative to body size on B. oleracea was detected. The elevation of the reaction norm of PC1 and the slope of the reaction norm for PC2 (i.e., plasticity were under directional selection. Thus, host plant species constitute distinct selective environments for B. brassicae. Aphid genotypes expressed different phenotypes in response to the host plant with low or nil fitness costs. Phenotypic plasticity and gene flow limits natural selection for host specialization promoting the maintenance of genetic variation in host exploitation.

  17. Sympatric diversification vs. immigration: deciphering host-plant specialization in a polyphagous insect, the stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imo, Miriam; Maixner, Michael; Johannesen, Jes

    2013-04-01

    The epidemiology of vector transmitted plant diseases is highly influenced by dispersal and the host-plant range of the vector. Widening the vector's host range may increase transmission potential, whereas specialization may induce specific disease cycles. The process leading to a vector's host shift and its epidemiological outcome is therefore embedded in the frameworks of sympatric evolution vs. immigration of preadapted populations. In this study, we analyse whether a host shift of the stolbur phytoplasma vector, Hyalesthes obsoletus from field bindweed to stinging nettle in its northern distribution range evolved sympatrically or by immigration. The exploitation of stinging nettle has led to outbreaks of the grapevine disease bois noir caused by a stinging nettle-specific phytoplasma strain. Microsatellite data from populations from northern and ancestral ranges provide strong evidence for sympatric host-race evolution in the northern range: Host-plant associated populations were significantly differentiated among syntopic sites (0.054 nettle-specific phytoplasma strain by plant-unspecific vectors. The evolution of host races in the northern range has led to specific vector-based bois noir disease cycles. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Reproductive strategies and colonizing ability of two sympatric epiphytic bromeliads in a tropical premontane area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascante Marin, A.M.; de Jong, M.; Borg, E.D.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Wolf, J.H.D.; den Nijs, J.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Predispersal characteristics that affect the reproductive success in plants may influence their colonizing ability. We evaluated this hypothesis in two sympatric epiphytic bromeliads in Costa Rica, Guzmania monostacbia and Tillandsia fasciculata, that show contrasting levels of local seedling

  19. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofit Kol-Maimon

    Full Text Available Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret. These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1 DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1 The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2 we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  20. CANDiS: Coupled & Attention-Driven Neural Distant Supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Nagarajan, Tushar; Sharmistha; Talukdar, Partha

    2017-01-01

    Distant Supervision for Relation Extraction uses heuristically aligned text data with an existing knowledge base as training data. The unsupervised nature of this technique allows it to scale to web-scale relation extraction tasks, at the expense of noise in the training data. Previous work has explored relationships among instances of the same entity-pair to reduce this noise, but relationships among instances across entity-pairs have not been fully exploited. We explore the use of inter-ins...

  1. Ecological and morphological patterns in communities of land snails of the genus Mandarina from the Bonin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The land snail genus Mandarina has undergone extensive radiation within the Bonin Islands in the west Pacific. The preferred above-ground vegetation heights of sympatric species were clearly different. They separated into arboreal, semi-arboreal, exposed ground and sheltered ground ecotypes. Shells of species with different ecotypes differ markedly, but shells of species with the same ecotype are very similar to each other. Shell morphologies of some phylogenetically distantly related species with the same ecotype were indistinguishable. Character evolution estimated parsimoniously using a phylogenetic tree suggests that the speciation among sympatric species is accompanied by ecological and morphological diversification. In addition, species coexistence of Mandarina is related to niche differentiation. The above findings suggest that ecological interactions among species contribute to the ecological and morphological diversification and radiation of these land snails in this depauperate environment.

  2. Reichenbach and the conventionality of distant simultaneity in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.

    2008-01-01

    We take another look at Reichenbach’s 1920 conversion to conventionalism, with a special eye to the background of his ‘conventionality of distant simultaneity’ thesis. We argue that elements of Reichenbach earlier neo-Kantianism can still be discerned in his later work and, related to this, that his

  3. Pattern of distant recurrence according to the molecular subtypes in Korean women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distant recurrence is one of the most important risk factors in overall survival, and distant recurrence is related to a complex biologic interaction of seed and soil factors. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the molecular subtypes and patterns of distant recurrence in patients with breast cancer. Methods In an investigation of 313 women with breast cancer who underwent surgery from 1994 and 2000, the expressions of estrogen and progestrone receptor (ER/PR, and human epithelial receptor-2 (HER2 were evaluated. The subtypes were defined as luminal-A, luminal-HER2, HER2-enriched, and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC according to ER, PR, and HER2 status. Results Bone was the most common site of distant recurrence. The incidence of first distant recurrence site was significantly different among the subtypes. Brain metastasis was more frequent in the luminal-HER2 and TNBC subtypes. In subgroup analysis, overall survival in patients with distant recurrence after 24 months after surgery was significantly different among the subtypes. Conclusions Organ-specific metastasis may depend on the molecular subtype of breast cancer. Tailored strategies against distant metastasis concerning the molecular subtypes in breast cancer may be considered.

  4. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of mercury and methylmercury in four sympatric coastal sharks in a protected subtropical lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulik, Adam G.; Kerstetter, David W.; Hammerschlag, Neil; Divoll, Timothy; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Evers, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Mercury bioaccumulation is frequently observed in marine ecosystems, often with stronger effects at higher trophic levels. We compared total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) from muscle with length, comparative isotopic niche, and diet (via δ 13 C and δ 15 N) among four sympatric coastal sharks in Florida Bay (USA): blacknose, blacktip, bull, and lemon. Mercury in blacknose and blacktip sharks increased significantly with size, whereas bull and lemon sharks had a high variance in mercury relative to size. Both δ 13 C and δ 15 N were consistent with general resource use and trophic position relationships across all species. A significant relationship was observed between δ 13 C and mercury in blacktip sharks, suggesting an ontogenetic shift isotopic niche, possibly a dietary change. Multiple regression showed that δ 13 C and δ 15 N were the strongest factors regarding mercury bioaccumulation in individuals across all species. Additional research is recommended to resolve the mechanisms that determine mercury biomagnification in individual shark species. - Highlights: • Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) examined in sympatric coastal sharks: lemon, bull, blacknose, blacktip • THg concentrations increased with size of blacknose and blacktip sharks • THg concentrations in bull and lemon sharks were unrelated to length • THg and δ 13 C were related in blacktip sharks; no other direct relationships between Hg and δ 13 C or δ 15 N and were observed • Multiple regression found δ 13 C and δ 15 N have stronger relationships to Hg than length for the species and lengths assessed

  5. Accessibility of observable and unobservable characteristics in autobiographical memories of recent and distant past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karylowski, Jerzy J; Mrozinski, Blazej

    2017-02-01

    Self-reports regarding how people visualise themselves during events that occurred in the past show that for events from the distant past individuals report assuming a more external perspective than for events from the recent past [Nigro, G., & Neisser, U. (1983). Point of view in personal memories. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 467-482; Pronin, E., & Ross, L. (2006). Temporal differences in trait self-ascription. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 90, 197-209]. Thus it appears that, with the passage of time, representations of self embodied in memories of past events lose their position of an insider and assume a more ordinary position of self as an object seen from the perspective of an outside observer. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine this shift using a performance-based measure of accessibility. Results showed that self-judgements regarding unobservable, covert characteristics were faster for recent-compared to more distant-autobiographical events. However, self-judgements regarding observable, overt characteristics were faster for more distant events. This suggests an accessibility-based mechanism underlying the shift from internal to the relatively more external perspective in forming self-images related to the distant past.

  6. Habitat associations of sympatric red-tailed hawks and northern goshawks on the Kaibab Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank A. La Sorte; R. William Mannan; Richard T. Reynolds; Teryl G. Grubb

    2004-01-01

    We investigated habitat association of sympatric red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) at 2 spatial scales centered on nest sites: (1) fine-scale patterns of forest structure and topography within 16-m radius circles (0.08 ha), and (2) midscale patterns of forested and nonforested areas,...

  7. Spatial heterogeneity and scale-dependent habitat selection for two sympatric raptors in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuo, Fidelis Akunke; O'Connell, Timothy John

    2017-08-01

    Sympatric predators are predicted to partition resources, especially under conditions of food limitation. Spatial heterogeneity that influences prey availability might play an important role in the scales at which potential competitors select habitat. We assessed potential mechanisms for coexistence by examining the role of heterogeneity in resource partitioning between sympatric raptors overwintering in the southern Great Plains. We conducted surveys for wintering Red-tailed hawk ( Buteo jamaicensis ) and Northern Harrier ( Circus cyanea ) at two state wildlife management areas in Oklahoma, USA. We used information from repeated distance sampling to project use locations in a GIS. We applied resource selection functions to model habitat selection at three scales and analyzed for niche partitioning using the outlying mean index. Habitat selection of the two predators was mediated by spatial heterogeneity. The two predators demonstrated significant fine-scale discrimination in habitat selection in homogeneous landscapes, but were more sympatric in heterogeneous landscapes. Red-tailed hawk used a variety of cover types in heterogeneous landscapes but specialized on riparian forest in homogeneous landscapes. Northern Harrier specialized on upland grasslands in homogeneous landscapes but selected more cover types in heterogeneous landscapes. Our study supports the growing body of evidence that landscapes can affect animal behaviors. In the system we studied, larger patches of primary land cover types were associated with greater allopatry in habitat selection between two potentially competing predators. Heterogeneity within the scale of raptor home ranges was associated with greater sympatry in use and less specialization in land cover types selected.

  8. A Test for Gene Flow among Sympatric and Allopatric Hawaiian Picture-Winged Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lin; Garner, Harold R; Price, Donald K; Michalak, Pawel

    2017-06-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila are one of the most species-rich endemic groups in Hawaii and a spectacular example of adaptive radiation. Drosophila silvestris and D. heteroneura are two closely related picture-winged Drosophila species that occur sympatrically on Hawaii Island and are known to hybridize in nature, yet exhibit highly divergent behavioral and morphological traits driven largely through sexual selection. Their closest-related allopatric species, D. planitibia from Maui, exhibits hybrid male sterility and reduced behavioral reproductive isolation when crossed experimentally with D. silvestris or D. heteroneura. A modified four-taxon test for gene flow was applied to recently obtained genomes of the three Hawaiian Drosophila species. The analysis indicates recent gene flow in sympatry, but also, although less extensive, between allopatric species. This study underscores the prevalence of gene flow, even in taxonomic groups considered classic examples of allopatric speciation on islands. The potential confounding effects of gene flow in phylogenetic and population genetics inference are discussed, as well as the implications for conservation.

  9. Distant asteroids and Chiron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, L.M.; Vilas, F.; Hartmann, W.K.; Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge of the physical properties of distant asteroids (a>3.3 AU) has grown dramatically over the past five years, due to systematic compositional and lightcurve studies. Most of these objects have red, dark surfaces, and their spectra show a reddening in spectral slope with heliocentric distance implying a change in surface composition. Trojans for which near-opposition phase curve information is available appear to show little or no opposition effect, unlike any dark solar system objects. The lightcurve amplitudes of Trojan and Hilda asteroids imply significantly more elongated shapes for these groups than for main-belt asteroids of comparable size. These recent observations are reviewed in the context of their implications for the formation and subsequent evolution of the distant asteroids, and their interrelations with the main belt, Chiron and comets

  10. Genetic analysis on three South Indian sympatric hipposiderid bats (Chiroptera, Hipposideridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagaraj, C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In mitochondrial DNA, variations in the sequence of 16S rRNA region were analyzed to infer the genetic relationship and population history of three sympatric hipposiderid bats, Hipposideros speoris, H. fulvus and H. ater. Based on the DNA sequence data, we observed relatively lower haplotype and higher nucleotide diversity in H. speoris than in the other two species. The pairwise comparisons of the genetic divergence inferred a genetic relationship between the three hipposiderid bats. We used haplotype sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analysis generated a tree with similar topology. H. fulvus and H. ater formed one cluster and H. speoris formed another cluster. Analysis of the demographic history of populations using Jajima’s D test revealed past changes in populations. Comparison of the observed distribution of pairwise differences in the nucleotides with expected sudden expansion model accepts for H. fulvus and H. ater but not for H. speoris populations.

  11. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  12. Reproductive isolating mechanisms between two sympatric sibling species of sea snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Reed, Robert N; Shetty, Sohan; Lemaster, Michael; Mason, Robert T

    2002-08-01

    Mechanisms that maintain species isolation within sympatric congeners have attracted analysis in many kinds of organisms, but not in snakes. We studied two sibling species of amphibious sea snakes (Laticauda colubrina and L. frontalis) on the island of Efate, in the Pacific Ocean republic of Vanuatu. The two taxa are almost identical morphologically, except that L. colubrina grows much larger than L. frontalis. No natural hybrids have been reported, and geographic distributions of the two taxa suggest the possibility of sympatric speciation. Our fieldwork shows that the two taxa are often syntopic and overlap in breeding seasons. Behavioral studies in outdoor arenas show that the separation between these two taxa is maintained by species-specific cues that control male courtship. Males of both species courted conspecific females but not heterospecific females. The proximate mechanism driving this separation involves chemical cues. Adult females of both taxa possess distinctive lipids in the skin. Males directed courtship behavior (chin-pressing) to hexane-extracted samples of lipids from conspecific but not heterospecific females. Males of the dwarf species (L frontalis) were more selective courters than were those of the larger taxon (L. colubrina), perhaps because a preference for courting larger females means that L. colubrina males would be unlikely to court L. frontalis-sized (i.e., small) females even in the absence of pheromonal barriers.

  13. Genetic divergence of a sympatric lake-resident-anadromous three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus species pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevecky, C J; Falco, R; Aguirre, W E

    2013-07-01

    The genetic relationship between sympatric, morphologically divergent populations of anadromous and lake-resident three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Jim Creek drainage of Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined using microsatellite loci and mitochondrial d-loop sequence data. Resident samples differed substantially from sympatric anadromous samples in the Jim Creek drainage with the magnitude of the genetic divergence being similar to that between allopatric resident and anadromous populations in other areas. Resident samples were genetically similar within the Jim Creek drainage, as were the anadromous samples surveyed. Neighbour-joining and Structure cluster analysis grouped the samples into four genetic clusters by ecomorph (anadromous v. all resident) and geographic location of the resident samples (Jim Creek, Mat-Su and Kenai). There was no evidence of hybridization between resident and anadromous G. aculeatus in the Jim Creek drainage, which thus appear to be reproductively isolated. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Computer-Mediated Communication with Distant Friends: Relations with Adjustment during Students' First Semester in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, John D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Because of recent technological innovations, college freshmen can readily communicate with friends who they see infrequently (e.g., friends from home). The current study addressed whether computer-mediated communication with these distant friends can compensate for a lack of high-quality on-campus friendships during students' first semester of…

  15. Partial incompatibility between ants and symbiotic fungi in two sympatric species of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, A N; Rehner, S A; Boomsma, J J

    2001-10-01

    We investigate the nature and duration of incompatibility between certain combinations of Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants and symbiotic fungi, taken from sympatric colonies of the same or a related species. Ant-fungus incompatibility appeared to be largely independent of the ant species involved, but could be explained partly by genetic differences among the fungus cultivars. Following current theoretical considerations, we develop a hypothesis, originally proposed by S. A. Frank, that the observed incompatibilities are ultimately due to competitive interactions between genetically different fungal lineages, and we predict that the ants should have evolved mechanisms to prevent such competition between cultivars within a single garden. This requires that the ants are able to recognize unfamiliar fungi, and we show that this is indeed the case. Amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping further shows that the two sympatric Acromyrmex species share each other's major lineages of cultivar, confirming that horizontal transfer does occasionally take place. We argue and provide some evidence that chemical substances produced by the fungus garden may mediate recognition of alien fungi by the ants. We show that incompatibility between ants and transplanted, genetically different cultivars is indeed due to active killing of the novel cultivar by the ants. This incompatibility disappears when ants are force-fed the novel cultivar for about a week, a result that is consistent with our hypothesis of recognition induced by the resident fungus and eventual replacement of incompatibility compounds during force-feeding.

  16. Close and distant: Contrasting the metabolism of two closely related subspecies of Scots pine under the effects of folivory and summer drought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rivas-Ubach, A.; Sardans, J.; Hódar, J. A.; Garcia-Porta, J.; Guenther, A.; Paša-Tolic, L.; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Peňuelas, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 21 (2017), s. 8976-8988 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061 Grant - others:Akademie věd České Republiky(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : drought * evolutionary processes * folivory * herbivorous attack * metabolomics * Pinus sylvestris * processionary moth * sympatric subspecies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.440, year: 2016

  17. Sympatric and allopatric divergence of MHC genes in threespine stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Matthews

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can strongly affect the evolution of their hosts, but their effects on host diversification are less clear. In theory, contrasting parasite communities in different foraging habitats could generate divergent selection on hosts and promote ecological speciation. Immune systems are costly to maintain, adaptable, and an important component of individual fitness. As a result, immune system genes, such as those of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, can change rapidly in response to parasite-mediated selection. In threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, as well as in other vertebrates, MHC genes have been linked with female mating preference, suggesting that divergent selection acting on MHC genes might influence speciation. Here, we examined genetic variation at MHC Class II loci of sticklebacks from two lakes with a limnetic and benthic species pair, and two lakes with a single species. In both lakes with species pairs, limnetics and benthics differed in their composition of MHC alleles, and limnetics had fewer MHC alleles per individual than benthics. Similar to the limnetics, the allopatric population with a pelagic phenotype had few MHC alleles per individual, suggesting a correlation between MHC genotype and foraging habitat. Using a simulation model we show that the diversity and composition of MHC alleles in a sympatric species pair depends on the amount of assortative mating and on the strength of parasite-mediated selection in adjacent foraging habitats. Our results indicate parallel divergence in the number of MHC alleles between sympatric stickleback species, possibly resulting from the contrasting parasite communities in littoral and pelagic habitats of lakes.

  18. Distant education of gifted children in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogozhkina I. B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Distant teaching which helps to realize the main principles of contemporary education: «teaching throughout» and «lifelong teaching» becomes more and more indemand. The possibility to get education for the residents of remote districts, excess to contemporary data bases, scientific libraries and learning materials of high quality, possibility to study at a time convenient for a student and in a tempo acceptable to the one makes distant education one of the most effective form of work with gifted children. System of distant education in the USA which is one of the most sophisticated one involves a big variety of programs and courses for both ordinary and gifted students. The article analyzes the existing in the USA on-line programs for gifted children, reveals their advantages and disadvantages, discusses the distant forms of work applicable to teaching of gifted children in Russia.

  19. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: Nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ≤ 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  20. Phylogeographic support for horizontal gene transfer involving sympatric bruchid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grill Andrea

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report on the probable horizontal transfer of a mitochondrial gene, cytb, between species of Neotropical bruchid beetles, in a zone where these species are sympatric. The bruchid beetles Acanthoscelides obtectus, A. obvelatus, A. argillaceus and Zabrotes subfasciatus develop on various bean species in Mexico. Whereas A. obtectus and A. obvelatus develop on Phaseolus vulgaris in the Mexican Altiplano, A. argillaceus feeds on P. lunatus in the Pacific coast. The generalist Z. subfasciatus feeds on both bean species, and is sympatric with A. obtectus and A. obvelatus in the Mexican Altiplano, and with A. argillaceus in the Pacific coast. In order to assess the phylogenetic position of these four species, we amplified and sequenced one nuclear (28S rRNA and two mitochondrial (cytb, COI genes. Results Whereas species were well segregated in topologies obtained for COI and 28S rRNA, an unexpected pattern was obtained in the cytb phylogenetic tree. In this tree, individuals from A. obtectus and A. obvelatus, as well as Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano, clustered together in a unique little variable monophyletic unit. In contrast, A. argillaceus and Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Pacific coast clustered in two separated clades, identically to the pattern obtained for COI and 28S rRNA. An additional analysis showed that Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano also possessed the cytb gene present in individuals of this species from the Pacific coast. Zabrotes subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano thus demonstrated two cytb genes, an "original" one and an "infectious" one, showing 25% of nucleotide divergence. The "infectious" cytb gene seems to be under purifying selection and to be expressed in mitochondria. Conclusion The high degree of incongruence of the cytb tree with patterns for other genes is discussed in the light of three hypotheses: experimental contamination

  1. Phylogeographic support for horizontal gene transfer involving sympatric bruchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Nadir; Benrey, Betty; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Grill, Andrea; McKey, Doyle; Galtier, Nicolas

    2006-07-27

    We report on the probable horizontal transfer of a mitochondrial gene, cytb, between species of Neotropical bruchid beetles, in a zone where these species are sympatric. The bruchid beetles Acanthoscelides obtectus, A. obvelatus, A. argillaceus and Zabrotes subfasciatus develop on various bean species in Mexico. Whereas A. obtectus and A. obvelatus develop on Phaseolus vulgaris in the Mexican Altiplano, A. argillaceus feeds on P. lunatus in the Pacific coast. The generalist Z. subfasciatus feeds on both bean species, and is sympatric with A. obtectus and A. obvelatus in the Mexican Altiplano, and with A. argillaceus in the Pacific coast. In order to assess the phylogenetic position of these four species, we amplified and sequenced one nuclear (28S rRNA) and two mitochondrial (cytb, COI) genes. Whereas species were well segregated in topologies obtained for COI and 28S rRNA, an unexpected pattern was obtained in the cytb phylogenetic tree. In this tree, individuals from A. obtectus and A. obvelatus, as well as Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano, clustered together in a unique little variable monophyletic unit. In contrast, A. argillaceus and Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Pacific coast clustered in two separated clades, identically to the pattern obtained for COI and 28S rRNA. An additional analysis showed that Z. subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano also possessed the cytb gene present in individuals of this species from the Pacific coast. Zabrotes subfasciatus individuals from the Mexican Altiplano thus demonstrated two cytb genes, an "original" one and an "infectious" one, showing 25% of nucleotide divergence. The "infectious" cytb gene seems to be under purifying selection and to be expressed in mitochondria. The high degree of incongruence of the cytb tree with patterns for other genes is discussed in the light of three hypotheses: experimental contamination, hybridization, and pseudogenisation. However, none of these

  2. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Sean M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ali, Nawal N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Margalit, Danielle N. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chan, Annie W., E-mail: awchan@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III-IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0-150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p < 0.001) and former smokers (31% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of distant metastasis for patients with lifetime cumulative pack-years >20 and {<=}20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  3. Discrimination of habitat use between two sympatric species of mullets, Mugil curema and Mugil liza (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae in the rio Tramandaí Estuary, determined by otolith chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. G. Mai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two sympatric species of marine mullets, Mugil curema and M. liza, use the rio Tramandaí Estuary as nursing grounds. When two closely related species are sympatric, various mechanisms may permit their coexistence, including spatial or temporal segregation that results in the divergent use of the resources for which they compete. To investigate the spatial segregation, we used otolith chemistry inferred through laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that in the rio Tramandaí Estuary, M. curema is associated with high salinity waters and can be classified as a Marine Migrant in the Marine Estuarine-opportunist subcategory. Mugil liza is associated with lower salinity and can be classified as a Marine Migrant in the Estuarine Dependent subcategory. The intra-specific variation in estuarine habitat use indicates that the migratory behaviors in mullets are far more complex than previously known.

  4. Burying behaviour of two sympatric crab species: Cancer magister and Cancer productus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain J. McGaw

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics and emergence patterns associated with burying behaviour were investigated in the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister, and the red rock crab, Cancer productus. Cancer magister used both the legs and chelae to excavate the sand, whereas Cancer productus used the legs to pull and push itself down into the sediment only using the chelae in a final push beneath the sediment. Several individuals of each species remained buried for over 50 h, which was accomplished by alterations in ventilatory physiology. More commonly, both species exhibited an endogenous rhythm of circadian periodicity, with peak periods of emergence from the sand occurring during nocturnal high tides. Although burial may act as a means of predator evasion and to ambush prey, it appears the primary reason may be to conserve energy. These two species of crabs often occur sympatrically; the difference in behaviours is closely related to previously reported differences in physiological mechanisms between the two species when buried.

  5. Differential adaptation to a harsh granite outcrop habitat between sympatric Mimulus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Kathleen G; Willis, John H

    2018-03-31

    Understanding which environmental variables and traits underlie adaptation to harsh environments is difficult because many traits evolve simultaneously as populations or species diverge. Here, we investigate the ecological variables and traits that underlie Mimulus laciniatus' adaptation to granite outcrops compared to its sympatric, mesic-adapted progenitor, Mimulus guttatus. We use fine-scale measurements of soil moisture and herbivory to examine differences in selective forces between the species' habitats, and measure selection on flowering time, flower size, plant height, and leaf shape in a reciprocal transplant using M. laciniatus × M. guttatus F 4 hybrids. We find that differences in drought and herbivory drive survival differences between habitats, that M. laciniatus and M. guttatus are each better adapted to their native habitat, and differential habitat selection on flowering time, plant stature, and leaf shape. Although early flowering time, small stature, and lobed leaf shape underlie plant fitness in M. laciniatus' seasonally dry environment, increased plant size is advantageous in a competitive mesic environment replete with herbivores like M. guttatus'. Given that we observed divergent selection between habitats in the direction of species differences, we conclude that adaptation to different microhabitats is an important component of reproductive isolation in this sympatric species pair. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Active Tobacco Smoking and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, Sean M.; Ali, Nawal N.; Margalit, Danielle N.; Chan, Annie W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Distant metastasis is the site of first relapse in approximately one-third of patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma, irrespective of human papillomavirus status. Yet the risk factors associated with distant metastasis are not well characterized. We sought to characterize the relationship between smoking status and distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the association between tobacco smoking status and distant metastasis in a retrospective cohort study of 132 patients who underwent definitive radiation therapy and chemotherapy for Stage III–IVA/B oropharyngeal cancer. Information on tobacco smoking was prospectively collected by patient questionnaires and physician notes at the time of diagnosis. Thirty-three percent of the patients were nonsmokers, 51% were former smokers, 16% were active smokers. The cumulative lifetime tobacco smoking in pack-years was 20 (range, 0–150). Results: With a median follow-up time of 52 months, the overall rate of distant metastasis at 4 years was 8%. Distant metastasis was the most common first site of relapse, occurring in 56% of the patients with recurrences. Active smokers had higher rates of distant metastasis than non-active smokers (including never- and former smokers; 31% vs. 4%, p 20 and ≤20 (10% vs. 4%, p = 0.19). In univariate analysis, active smoking (p = 0.0004) and N category (p = 0.009) were predictive of increased risk of distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, active smoking was the most significant predictive factor for increased risk of distant metastasis (hazard ratio, 12.7, p < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study identified a strong association between active smoking and distant metastasis in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

  7. Genetic signs of multiple colonization events in Baltic ciscoes with radiation into sympatric spring- and autumn-spawners confined to early postglacial arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delling, Bo; Palm, Stefan; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Prestegaard, Tore

    2014-11-01

    Presence of sympatric populations may reflect local diversification or secondary contact of already distinct forms. The Baltic cisco (Coregonus albula) normally spawns in late autumn, but in a few lakes in Northern Europe sympatric autumn and spring- or winter-spawners have been described. So far, the evolutionary relationships and taxonomic status of these main life history forms have remained largely unclear. With microsatellites and mtDNA sequences, we analyzed extant and extinct spring- and autumn-spawners from a total of 23 Swedish localities, including sympatric populations. Published sequences from Baltic ciscoes in Germany and Finland, and Coregonus sardinella from North America were also included together with novel mtDNA sequences from Siberian C. sardinella. A clear genetic structure within Sweden was found that included two population assemblages markedly differentiated at microsatellites and apparently fixed for mtDNA haplotypes from two distinct clades. All sympatric Swedish populations belonged to the same assemblage, suggesting parallel evolution of spring-spawning rather than secondary contact. The pattern observed further suggests that postglacial immigration to Northern Europe occurred from at least two different refugia. Previous results showing that mtDNA in Baltic cisco is paraphyletic with respect to North American C. sardinella were confirmed. However, the inclusion of Siberian C. sardinella revealed a more complicated pattern, as these novel haplotypes were found within one of the two main C. albula clades and were clearly distinct from those in North American C. sardinella. The evolutionary history of Northern Hemisphere ciscoes thus seems to be more complex than previously recognized.

  8. Genetic and morphological support for possible sympatric origin of fish from subterranean habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh Segherloo, Iraj; Normandeau, Eric; Benestan, Laura; Rougeux, Clément; Coté, Guillaume; Moore, Jean-Sébastien; Ghaedrahmati, NabiAllah; Abdoli, Asghar; Bernatchez, Louis

    2018-02-13

    Two blind Iran cave barbs, Garra typhlops and Garra lorestanensis, exist in sympatry in a single subterranean habitat, raising the hypothesis that they may represent a case of sympatric speciation following a colonization event. Their different mental disc forms have prompted some authors to propose the alternative hypothesis of two separate colonization events. In this study, we analysed a genome-wide panel of 11,257 SNPs genotyped by means of genotyping-by-sequencing combined with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase sub-unit I sequence data, field observations and morphological traits to test these two hypotheses. Field data suggest some degree of ecological divergence despite some possible niche overlap such that hybridization is possible. According to both nuclear and mtDNA data, the cave barb species are monophyletic with close phylogenetic relationships with Garra gymnothorax from the Karun-Dez and Karkheh river basins. The historical demography analysis revealed that a model of Isolation-with-Migration (IM) best fitted the data, therefore better supporting a scenario of sympatric origin than that of allopatric isolation followed by secondary contact. Overall, our results offer stronger support to the hypothesis that speciation in the subterranean habitat could have occurred in sympatry following a colonization event from the Karun-Dez-Karkheh basins in the Zagros Mountains of Iran.

  9. Are both sympatric species Ilex perado and Ilex canariensis secretly hybridizing? Indication from nuclear markers collected in Tenerife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manen Jean-François

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-specific and intra-individual polymorphism is frequently observed in nuclear markers of Ilex (Aquifoliaceae and discrepancy between plastid and nuclear phylogenies is the rule in this genus. These observations suggest that inter-specific plastid or/and nuclear introgression played an important role in the process of evolution of Ilex. With the aim of a precise understanding of the evolution of this genus, two distantly related sympatric species collected in Tenerife (Canary Islands, I. perado and I. canariensis, were studied in detail. Introgression between these two species was previously never reported. One plastid marker (the atpB-rbcL spacer and two nuclear markers, the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and the nuclear encoded plastid glutamine synthetase (nepGS were analyzed for 13 and 27 individuals of I. perado and I. canariensis, respectively. Results The plastid marker is intra-specifically constant and correlated with species identity. On the other hand, whereas the nuclear markers are conserved in I. perado, they are highly polymorphic in I. canariensis. The presence of pseudogenes and recombination in ITS sequences of I. canariensis explain this polymorphism. Ancestral sequence polymorphism with incomplete lineage sorting, or past or recent hybridization with an unknown species could explain this polymorphism, not resolved by concerted evolution. However, as already reported for many other plants, past or recent introgression of an alien genotype seem the most probable explanation for such a tremendous polymorphism. Conclusions Data do not allow the determination with certitude of the putative species introgressing I. canariensis, but I. perado is suspected. The introgression would be unilateral, with I. perado as the male donor, and the paternal sequences would be rapidly converted in highly divergent and consequently unidentifiable pseudogenes. At least, this study allows the establishment of

  10. A Dome-Headed Stem Archosaur Exemplifies Convergence among Dinosaurs and Their Distant Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Michelle R; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Criswell, Katharine E; Parker, William G; Witmer, Lawrence M; Rowe, Timothy B; Ridgely, Ryan; Brown, Matthew A

    2016-10-10

    Similarities in body plan evolution, such as wings in pterosaurs, birds, and bats or limblessness in snakes and amphisbaenians, can be recognized as classical examples of convergence among animals [1-3]. We introduce a new Triassic stem archosaur that is unexpectedly and remarkably convergent with the "dome-headed" pachycephalosaur dinosaurs that lived over 100 million years later. Surprisingly, numerous additional taxa in the same assemblage (the Otis Chalk assemblage from the Dockum Group of Texas) demonstrate the early acquisition of morphological novelties that were later convergently evolved by post-Triassic dinosaurs. As one of the most successful clades of terrestrial vertebrates, dinosaurs came to occupy an extensive morphospace throughout their diversification in the Mesozoic Era [4, 5], but their distant relatives were first to evolve many of those "dinosaurian" body plans in the Triassic Period [6-8]. Our analysis of convergence between archosauromorphs from the Triassic Period and post-Triassic archosaurs demonstrates the early and extensive exploration of morphospace captured in a single Late Triassic assemblage, and we hypothesize that many of the "novel" morphotypes interpreted to occur among archosaurs later in the Mesozoic already were in place during the initial Triassic archosauromorph, largely non-dinosaurian, radiation and only later convergently evolved in diverse dinosaurian lineages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperbolic Discounting of the Far-Distant Future

    OpenAIRE

    Anchugina, Nina; Ryan, Matthew; Slinko, Arkadii

    2017-01-01

    We prove an analogue of Weitzman's (1998) famous result that an exponential discounter who is uncertain of the appropriate exponential discount rate should discount the far-distant future using the lowest (i.e., most patient) of the possible discount rates. Our analogous result applies to a hyperbolic discounter who is uncertain about the appropriate hyperbolic discount rate. In this case, the far-distant future should be discounted using the probability-weighted harmonic mean of the possible...

  12. The relationship of local and distant failure from endometrial cancer: defining a clinical paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn, Benjamin W.; Lanciano, Rachelle; D'Agostino, Ralph; Kiggundu, Edward; Purser, Phillip; Greven, Kathryn M.

    1996-01-01

    .001). Moreover, the accompanying figure demonstrates that the earlier a local failure developed (e.g., within 1 yr vs. within 3 yr), the more likely it was to be associated with distant metastases (p (2(3))=85% vs 76%; p=0.01). In multivariate analysis, only local control and pathological stage were independently related to the likelihood of achieving freedom from distant relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Distant dissemination of endometrial cancer may develop secondary to local failure. Optimization of local control is therefore necessary if long-term cure is to be achieved. The limits of the current database cannot establish whether local failure is a cause of distant spread or a high-risk marker for metastases, however, the ongoing phase III trial of the GOG (no. 156) may resolve this controversy

  13. Black-hole masses of distant quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the methods commonly used to determine or estimate the black hole mass in quiescent or active galaxies is presented and it is argued that the use of mass-scaling relations is both a reliable and the preferred method to apply to large samples of distant quasars. The method uses...... that the black hole masses are very large, of order 1 to 10 billion solar masses, even at the highest redshifts of 4 to 6. The black holes must build up their mass very fast in the early universe. Yet they do not grow much larger than that: a maximum mass of about 10 billion solar masses is also observed....... Preliminary mass functions of active black holes are presented for several quasar samples, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, common concerns related to the application of the mass scaling relations, especially for high redshift quasars, are briefly discussed....

  14. THE MASSIVE DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY: THE FIRST DISTANT GALAXY CLUSTER DISCOVERED BY WISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettings, Daniel P.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Stanford, S. Adam; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Masci, Frank J.; Papovich, Casey; Tanaka, Ichi; Wright, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a z = 0.99 galaxy cluster discovered using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). This is the first z ∼ 1 cluster candidate from the Massive Distant Clusters of WISE Survey to be confirmed. It was selected as an overdensity of probable z ∼> 1 sources using a combination of WISE and Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 photometric catalogs. Deeper follow-up imaging data from Subaru and WIYN reveal the cluster to be a rich system of galaxies, and multi-object spectroscopic observations from Keck confirm five cluster members at z = 0.99. The detection and confirmation of this cluster represents a first step toward constructing a uniformly selected sample of distant, high-mass galaxy clusters over the full extragalactic sky using WISE data.

  15. Strong electron bidirectional anisotropies in the distant tail: ISEE 3 observations of polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (--50 to 50 eV)in the distant magnetotail (rapprox. >100 R/sub E/) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field-aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE 3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession. These data demonstrate directly the strong asymmetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directly connected to the sunward interplanetary magnetic field in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. Thus we demonstrate the open nature of the distant magnetopause and show that the source of the higher-energy, bidirectional lobe electrons is the tailward directed electron heat flux population in the distant magnetosheath. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that we observe in the distant tail are closely related to the polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is composed largely of open magnetic field lines in contradistinction to some recently advanced models

  16. Molecular analysis of an odorant-binding protein gene in two sympatric species of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Kerche Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL and occurs as a species complex. DNA samples from two Brazilian sympatric species that differ in pheromone and courtship song production were used to analyse molecular polymorphisms in an odorant-binding protein ( obp29 gene. OBPs are proteins related to olfaction and are involved in activities fundamental to survival, such as foraging, mating and choice of oviposition site. In this study, the marker obp29 was found to be highly polymorphic in Lu. longipalpis s.l. , with no fixed differences observed between the two species. A pairwise fixation index test indicated a moderate level of genetic differentiation between the samples analysed.

  17. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  18. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  19. Nestling diets and provisioning rates of sympatric Golden-fronted and Ladder-backed Woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Evonne L.; Boal, Clint W.; Glasscock, Selma N.

    2013-01-01

    We examined comparative food use and provisioning of Golden-fronted (Melanerpes aurifrons) and Ladder-backed (Picoides scalaris) woodpeckers at the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation Refuge, in San Patricio County, Texas. We combined video surveillance and direct observations to monitor provisioning rates and identify items delivered by adult woodpeckers to nestlings. We collected 328 hours of data at Ladder-backed Woodpecker nest cavities and 230 hours of data at Golden-fronted Woodpecker nest cavities. Ladder-backed Woodpecker nestling diets consisted of 100% animal matter, comprised of invertebrate larvae (99%) and invertebrate adults (nestlings were also high in animal matter (77%) with more invertebrate adults (55%) and fewer invertebrate larvae (27%), but also included vegetable matter (16%). Morisita's measure of overlap suggested a relatively low dietary overlap of 31% between nestlings of these two sympatric woodpecker species. Foraging methods used by these species may explain their low dietary overlap and facilitate their coexistence.

  20. Sympatric breeding auks shift between dietary and spatial resource partitioning across the annual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Fries Linnebjerg

    Full Text Available When species competing for the same resources coexist, some segregation in the way they utilize those resources is expected. However, little is known about how closely related sympatric breeding species segregate outside the breeding season. We investigated the annual segregation of three closely related seabirds (razorbill Alcatorda, common guillemot Uriaaalge and Brünnich's guillemot U. lomvia breeding at the same colony in Southwest Greenland. By combining GPS and geolocation (GLS tracking with dive depth and stable isotope analyses, we compared spatial and dietary resource partitioning. During the breeding season, we found the three species to segregate in diet and/or dive depth, but less in foraging area. During both the post-breeding and pre-breeding periods, the three species had an increased overlap in diet, but were dispersed over a larger spatial scale. Dive depths were similar across the annual cycle, suggesting morphological adaptations fixed by evolution. Prey choice, on the other hand, seemed much more flexible and therefore more likely to be affected by the immediate presence of potential competitors.

  1. RNA Editing During Sexual Development Occurs in Distantly Related Filamentous Ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim A; Kück, Ulrich; Nowrousian, Minou

    2017-04-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Infection dynamics of the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus gasterostei on sympatric and allopatric populations of the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Wegner, K Mathias; Huyset, Tine; Volckaert, Filip A M

    2011-03-01

    Parasites with high host specificity maximally depend on their hosts, which should increase the likelihood of coevolution. However, coevolution requires reciprocal selection exerted by the host and the parasite, and thus a considerable level of parasite virulence. In species of the monogenean ectoparasite genus Gyrodactylus consecutive generations are confronted with a single host, which may constrain the evolution of virulence. Transmission, which is often important in the ecology of Gyrodactylus species, may have the opposite effect, but may also lead to the avoidance of coevolutionary arms races. We investigated the potential outcome of coevolution between Gyrodactylus gasterostei Gläser, 1974 and its host, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) by determining the strength of genotype by genotype (GxG) interactions on two levels: within and between sympatric and allopatric host populations. To do so, we compared the parasite's infection dynamics on laboratory-reared sympatric (Belgian) and allopatric (German) hosts. We found that a parasite line successfully infected a range of sympatric host genotypes (represented by families), while it failed to establish on allopatric hosts. Phylogeographic studies suggest that neutral genetic divergence between the host populations cannot explain this dramatic difference. Provided that this result can be generalised towards other parasite lines, we conclude that coevolution in this host-parasite system is more likely to lead to local adaptation on the population level than to GxG interactions within populations.

  3. Distinguishing synchronous from metachronous manifestation of distant metastases: a prognostic feature in differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Saarland University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Binse, Ina; Koch, Andrea; Rosenbaum-Krumme, Sandra J. [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Dogan, Semih; Biersack, Hans-Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Biermann, Kim [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Confessional Hospital ' ' Barmherzige Brueder' ' , Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Trier (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Distant metastasis has a negative impact on survival in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The timing of this manifestation, however, is of unknown prognostic relevance. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the potential significance of discriminating synchronous versus metachronous distant metastases (SDM vs. MDM) for the outcome of patients with DTC. We retrospectively analyzed a consecutive cohort of n = 89 patients with distant metastases of DTC (43 with follicular, 46 with papillary DTC histology; mean age 52.6 ± 17.7 years) undergoing radioiodine treatment at our institution. All patients were treated with the same protocol consisting of ablative radioiodine therapy (RIT, 3.7 GBq) and one post-ablation treatment after 3 months (3.7-11.1 GBq). Further cycles of RIT were administered for recurrent, progressive or newly developed metastatic disease. We distinguished 2 types of distant metastases according to the time of manifestation: SDM (within ≤12 months after DTC diagnosis) and MDM (occurring >12 months after diagnosis). Tumor-related survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Uni- and multivariate analyses including the Cox proportional hazards model were performed with a significance level of p < 0.05. The mean follow-up period was 13.8 ± 1.2 years. SDM were present in 49 (55.1 %), MDM in 40 (44.9 %) patients. MDM were associated with shorter tumor-related survival (p = 0.002). 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 68.5 % and 34.8 % for MDM, and 84.3 % and 66.9 % for SDM, respectively. Within both age subgroups of <45 and ≥45 years, SDM were also linked with longer survival. No effect on tumor-related survival was found for the co-variables sex, lymph node metastases and histologic type. Distinguishing synchronous from metachronous manifestation of distant metastases may add an important prognostic feature to risk stratification in DTC, as proven metachronous appearance is associated with impaired survival. (orig.)

  4. Evolutionary history of a dispersal-associated locus across sympatric and allopatric divergent populations of a wing-polymorphic beetle across Atlantic Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Belleghem, Steven M; Roelofs, Dick; Hendrickx, Frederik

    2015-02-01

    Studying the evolutionary history of trait divergence, in particular those related to dispersal capacity, is of major interest for the process of local adaptation and metapopulation dynamics. Here, we reconstruct the evolution of different alleles at the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (mtIdh) locus of the ground beetle Pogonus chalceus that are differentially and repeatedly selected in short- and long-winged populations in response to different hydrological regimes at both allopatric and sympatric scales along the Atlantic European coasts. We sequenced 2788 bp of the mtIdh locus spanning a ~7-kb genome region and compared its variation with that of two supposedly neutral genes. mtIdh sequences show (i) monophyletic clustering of the short-winged associated mtIDH-DE haplotypes within the long-winged associated mtIDH-AB haplotypes, (ii) a more than tenfold lower haplotype diversity associated with the mtIDH-DE alleles compared to the mtIDH-AB alleles and (iii) a high number of fixed nucleotide differences between both mtIDH haplotype clusters. Coalescent simulations suggest that this observed sequence variation in the mtIdh locus is most consistent with a singular origin in a partially isolated subpopulation, followed by a relatively recent spread of the mtIDH-DE allele in short-winged populations along the Atlantic coast. These results demonstrate that even traits associated with decreased dispersal capacity can rapidly spread and that reuse of adaptive alleles plays an important role in the adaptive potential within this sympatric mosaic of P. chalceus populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. COMPARATIVE-ANALYSIS OF FORAGING AND HABITAT USE BY THE SYMPATRIC CARIBBEAN PARROTFISH SCARUS-VETULA AND SPARISOMA-VIRIDE (SCARIDAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUGGEMANN, JH; KUYPER, MWM; BREEMAN, AM

    On the fringing reef of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, a comparative study was made of habitat use, diet selection, foraging behaviour and food acquisition of the parrotfish species Scarus vetula and Sparisoma viride. The species are sympatric and live in the same reef habitats (depth zones). Both

  6. Observations of Sympatric Populations of Least Chipmunks (Tamias minimus) and Hopi Chipmunks (Tamias rufus) in Western Colorado, 1995-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, J.B.; Root, J.J.; Calisher, C.H.; Root, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    From 1995 through 2006, we studied a rodent community in western Colorado, observing weather conditions and their effects on least chipmunk (Tamias minimus) and Hopi chipmunk (T. rufus) populations. There are few studies that have assessed relative abundances of chipmunks over long durations and none have been conducted on least chipmunks or Hopi chipmunks. This study is unique in that it assesses abundances of sympatric populations of these chipmunks over a 12-year period. We captured 116 least chipmunks and 62 Hopi chipmunks during 47,850 trap nights of effort. Results indicated that year-to-year precipitation and temperature fluctuations had little effect on these chipmunk populations. However, the relative abundances of Hopi chipmunks and least chipmunks appear to have an inverse relationship with each other, suggesting the potential for resource competition between these congeners.

  7. Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a system capable of probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets such as asteroids, comets, planets and moons from a distant vantage....

  8. Sympatric song variant in mountain chickadees Poecile gambeli does not reduce aggression from black-capped chickadees Poecile atricapillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snell Cara L.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When habitats overlap and species compete for resources, negative interactions frequently occur. Character displacement in the form of behavioural, social or morphological divergences between closely related species can act to reduce negative interactions and often arise in regions of geographic overlap. Mountain chickadees Poecile gambeli have an altered song structure in regions of geographic overlap with the behaviourally dominant black-capped chickadee Poecile atricapillus. Similar to European and Asian tits, altered song in mountain chickadees may decrease aggression from black-capped chickadees. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a playback study in Prince George, BC, Canada, to examine how black-capped chickadees responded to the songs of mountain chickadees recorded in regions where the two species were either sympatric or allopatric. We used principal component analysis (PCA to collapse behavioural response variables into a single ‘approach’ variable and a single ‘vocalisation’ variable. We then used mixed-model analysis to determine whether there was a difference in approach or vocalisation response to the two types of mountain chickadee songs (allopatric songs and variant sympatric songs. Black-capped chickadees responded with equal intensity to both types of mountain chickadee songs, suggesting that the variant mountain chickadee songs from regions of sympatry with black-capped chickadees do not reduce heterospecific aggression. To our knowledge, this is the only instance of a character shift unassociated with reduced aggression in the family Paridae and raises interesting questions about the selective pressures leading to the evolution of this song divergence.

  9. Statistical potential-based amino acid similarity matrices for aligning distantly related protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yen Hock; Huang, He; Kihara, Daisuke

    2006-08-15

    Aligning distantly related protein sequences is a long-standing problem in bioinformatics, and a key for successful protein structure prediction. Its importance is increasing recently in the context of structural genomics projects because more and more experimentally solved structures are available as templates for protein structure modeling. Toward this end, recent structure prediction methods employ profile-profile alignments, and various ways of aligning two profiles have been developed. More fundamentally, a better amino acid similarity matrix can improve a profile itself; thereby resulting in more accurate profile-profile alignments. Here we have developed novel amino acid similarity matrices from knowledge-based amino acid contact potentials. Contact potentials are used because the contact propensity to the other amino acids would be one of the most conserved features of each position of a protein structure. The derived amino acid similarity matrices are tested on benchmark alignments at three different levels, namely, the family, the superfamily, and the fold level. Compared to BLOSUM45 and the other existing matrices, the contact potential-based matrices perform comparably in the family level alignments, but clearly outperform in the fold level alignments. The contact potential-based matrices perform even better when suboptimal alignments are considered. Comparing the matrices themselves with each other revealed that the contact potential-based matrices are very different from BLOSUM45 and the other matrices, indicating that they are located in a different basin in the amino acid similarity matrix space.

  10. Nest-niche differentiation in two sympatric columbid species from a Mediterranean Tetraclinis woodland: Considerations for forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanane, Saâd; Yassin, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Studies of niche partitioning among Columbid species have mainly addressed food habits and foraging activities, while partitioning in relation to nest-niche differentiation has been little studied. Here we investigate whether two sympatric columbid species-Woodpigeon (Columba palumbus) and Turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur)-occupy similar niches. A total of 74 nests were monitored: 37 nests for each species. The study, conducted in June 2016, attempted to determine the factors that may play a role in nest-niche differentiation among the two sympatric columbid species in a Moroccan Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) forest. We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to test the relevance of nest placement, proximity of food resources, forest edge and human presence variables in the nest distribution of the two species. The results show substantial niche segregation in the T. articulata nest-trees selected by Woodpigeons and Turtle doves, with selection depending primarily on the tree size and nest height. Observed nest-niche partitioning may diminish the potential for competition between these species and enhance opportunities for their coexistence. Management policies and practices aimed at ensuring the presence of mixed-sized class of Thuya trees must be prioritized. We recommend additional studies designed to: (1) reproduce the same experimental approach on other Mediterranean Thuya forests to improve our understanding of the effects of different levels of anthropogenic disturbance on the breeding behaviour of these two game species; (2) better understand the spatio-temporal dynamics of Woodpigeon and Turtle dove coexistence in the region; and (3) better identify the spatio-temporal extent of the effect of forest management on Woodpigeon and Turtle dove site occupancy.

  11. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar KE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. Results The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. Conclusions The primary contributions of this work are to (1 demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2 show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  12. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Ke; Liu, Haibin; Cohn, Judith D; Wall, Michael E; Verspoor, Karin

    2012-10-05

    We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. The primary contributions of this work are to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2) show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  13. Development of Distant Learning Laboratory and Creation of Educational Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Education's fundamental goal is to disseminate information, mostly that which relates to science and technology. In this attempt, as I have observed, the office has many programs bringing both students and teachers to NASA Langley to expose them to the facilities and to teach them some about the scientific theory and about available modern technology. As a way of expanding the audience that can be reached, as the expense of bringing people in is limiting, Marchelle Canright has proposed establishing a center dedicated to researching and producing distant learning videos. Although distant learning through telecommunications is not a new concept, as many universities, colleges, and precollege level schools offer televised courses, the research in this field has been limited. Many of the standing distant learning broadcasts are simply recordings of teachers in classrooms giving lectures to their own students; they are not aimed at the television audience. In some cases the videos are produced without a Live-lecture atmosphere, but are still only classroom lectures. In either case, however, the full range of capabilities of video production are not being fully utilized. Methods for best relaying educational material have not been explored. Possibilities for including computerized images and video clips for the purpose of showing diagrams and processes, as well as examples in fitting cases, may add considerably to the educational value of these videos. Also, through Internet and satellite links, it is possible for remote students to interact with the teachers during televised sessions. These possibilities might, also, add to the effectiveness of distant learning programs. Ms. Canright's proposed center will be dedicated to researching these possibilities and eventually spreading the results to distant learning program managers. This is the project I was involved in over the summer. As implied, the center is still at the foundation stages. Ms. Canright has

  14. Double streams of protons in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two intermingled streams of protons have been observed in the distant geomagnetic tail. The number densities of the two streams are comparable, and their velocity difference tends to lie along the field direction. The lower-velocity stream is probably composed of magnetosheath protons which have diffused through the boundary of the distant tail. The higher-velocity stream appears to originate in the field reversal region

  15. Double streams of protons in the distant geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villante, U.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Two intermingled streams of protons have been observed in the distant geomagnetic tail. The number densities of the two streams are comparable, and their velocity difference tends to lie along the field direction. The lower-velocity stream is probably composed of magnetosheath protons which have diffused through the boundary of the distant tail. The higher-velocity stream appears to originate in the field reversal region.

  16. Depression, anxiety and quality of life in suicide survivors: a comparison of close and distant relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ann M; Sakraida, Teresa J; Kim, Yookyung; Bullian, Leann; Chiappetta, Laurel

    2009-02-01

    The study's purpose was to describe and compare depression, anxiety, and quality of life, by degree of relationship, between closely related and distantly related survivors (persons close to the suicide victim, or "suicide survivors"; N = 60) during the acute phase of bereavement (within 1 month of the death). The close relationship category included spouses, parents, children, and siblings, whereas the distant relationship category included in-laws, aunts/uncles, and nieces/nephews. Analysis of covariance examined differences between the two groups on the symptom measures. Results indicate that, after controlling for age and gender effects, closely related survivors had significantly higher mean levels of depression and anxiety and had lower levels of mental health quality of life. There were no statistically significant differences on the physical health quality of life subscale.

  17. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    LAGUARDIA, Alice; WANG, Jun; SHI, Fang-Lei; SHI, Kun; RIORDAN, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species’ scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samp...

  18. Optical appearance of distant galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchet, C.; Kline, M.I.

    1981-01-01

    We have used the recent evolutionary and K-corrections of Bruzual and Kron to predict the optical appearance of galaxies spanning a wide range of magnitudes and redshifts. It is found that nearly all galaxies with J< or approx. =25 are resolved in 1-arcsec seeing. At fixed apparent magnitude, galaxies with large redshifts are more diffuse in appearance than those at small z. This fact causes the most distant galaxies at any magnitude level to be missed, and, depending on the measurement algorithm employed, may cause the luminosities of detected galaxies to be seriously underestimated. Both of these effects deserve consideration when attempting to interpret number counts of faint galaxies. Observations made with the Space Telescope are expected to resolve nearly all galaxies at J< or approx. =27.5; however, several factors conspire to render Space Telescope observations less effective than certain ground-based CCD observations for the optical detection of distant galaxies. Finally, we note that most of our conclusions are unaffected by changes in the assumed cosmology

  19. 'Different strokes for different folks': geographically isolated strains of Lymnaea stagnalis only respond to sympatric predators and have different memory forming capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael V; Hittel, Karla; Lukowiak, Ken

    2009-07-01

    Gaining insight into how natural trait variation is manifest in populations shaped by differential environmental factors is crucial to understanding the evolution, ecology and sensory biology of natural populations. We have demonstrated that lab-reared Lymnaea detect and respond to the scent of a crayfish predator with specific, appropriate anti-predator behavioral responses, including enhanced long-term memory (LTM) formation, and that such predator detection significantly alters the electrophysiological activity of RPeD1, a neuron that is a necessary site for LTM formation. Here we ask: (1) do distinct populations of wild Lymnaea stagnalis respond only to sympatric predators and if so, can these traits be quantified at both the behavioral and neurophysiological levels, and (2) does the presence of a non-sympatric predator elicit anti-predator behaviors including augmentation of LTM? We tested three different populations of wild (i.e. not lab-reared) snails freshly collected from their natural habitat: (1) polders near Utrecht in The Netherlands, (2) six seasonally isolated ponds in the Belly River drainage in southern Alberta, Canada and (3) a 20-year-old human-made dugout pond in southern Alberta. We found strain-specific variations in the ability to form LTM and that only a sympatric predator evoked anti-predatory behaviors, including enhanced LTM formation and changes in RPeD1 activity.

  20. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Elizabeth N; Beckett, Randy J; Gray, Stewart M; Miller, W Allen

    2013-01-01

    The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs) of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs) and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV) of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV) were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392). The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV) share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV).

  1. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of Barley yellow dwarf virus-RMV reveals it to be a new Polerovirus distantly related to other yellow dwarf viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N. Krueger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs of the Luteoviridae family represent the most widespread group of cereal viruses worldwide. They include the Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs of genus Luteovirus, the Cereal yellow dwarf viruses (CYDVs and Wheat yellow dwarf virus (WYDV of genus Polerovirus. All of these viruses are obligately aphid transmitted and phloem-limited. The first described YDVs (initially all called BYDV were classified by their most efficient vector. One of these viruses, BYDV-RMV, is transmitted most efficiently by the corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis. Here we report the complete 5612 nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of a Montana isolate of BYDV-RMV (isolate RMV MTFE87, Genbank accession no. KC921392. The sequence revealed that BYDV-RMV is a polerovirus, but it is quite distantly related to the CYDVs or WYDV, which are very closely related to each other. Nor is BYDV-RMV closely related to any other particular polerovirus. Depending on the gene that is compared, different poleroviruses (none of them a YDV share the most sequence similarity to BYDV-RMV. Because of its distant relationship to other YDVs, and because it commonly infects maize via its vector, R. maidis, we propose that BYDV-RMV be renamed Maize yellow dwarf virus-RMV (MYDV-RMV.

  2. Bidirectional electron anisotropies in the distant tail: ISEE-3 observations of polar rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Zwickl, R.D.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed observational treatment of bidirectional electrons (50 approx.500 eV) in the distant magnetotail (r greater than or equal to 100 R/sub E/) is presented. It is found that electrons in this energy range commonly exhibit strong, field-aligned anisotropies in the tail lobes. Because of large tail motions, the ISEE-3 data provide extensive sampling of both the north and south lobes in rapid succession, demonstrating directly the strong asymmetries that exist between the north and south lobes at any one time. The bidirectional fluxes are found to occur predominantly in the lobe directly connected to the sunward IMF in the open magnetosphere model (north lobe for away sectors and south lobe for toward sectors). Electron anisotropy and magnetic field data are presented which show the transition from unidirectional (sheath) electron populations to bidirectional (lobe) populations. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the bidirectional electrons that we observe in the distant tail are closely related to the polar rain electrons observed previously at lower altitudes. Furthermore, these data provide strong evidence that the distant tail is comprised largely of open magnetic field lines in contradistinction to some recently advanced models

  3. Host factors that promote retrotransposon integration are similar in distantly related eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Kumar Rai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses and Long Terminal Repeat (LTR-retrotransposons have distinct patterns of integration sites. The oncogenic potential of retrovirus-based vectors used in gene therapy is dependent on the selection of integration sites associated with promoters. The LTR-retrotransposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is studied as a model for oncogenic retroviruses because it integrates into the promoters of stress response genes. Although integrases (INs encoded by retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons are responsible for catalyzing the insertion of cDNA into the host genome, it is thought that distinct host factors are required for the efficiency and specificity of integration. We tested this hypothesis with a genome-wide screen of host factors that promote Tf1 integration. By combining an assay for transposition with a genetic assay that measures cDNA recombination we could identify factors that contribute differentially to integration. We utilized this assay to test a collection of 3,004 S. pombe strains with single gene deletions. Using these screens and immunoblot measures of Tf1 proteins, we identified a total of 61 genes that promote integration. The candidate integration factors participate in a range of processes including nuclear transport, transcription, mRNA processing, vesicle transport, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Two candidates, Rhp18 and the NineTeen complex were tested in two-hybrid assays and were found to interact with Tf1 IN. Surprisingly, a number of pathways we identified were found previously to promote integration of the LTR-retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating the contribution of host factors to integration are common in distantly related organisms. The DNA repair factors are of particular interest because they may identify the pathways that repair the single stranded gaps flanking the sites of strand transfer following integration of LTR retroelements.

  4. Host factors that promote retrotransposon integration are similar in distantly related eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sudhir Kumar; Sangesland, Maya; Lee, Michael; Esnault, Caroline; Cui, Yujin; Chatterjee, Atreyi Ghatak; Levin, Henry L

    2017-12-01

    Retroviruses and Long Terminal Repeat (LTR)-retrotransposons have distinct patterns of integration sites. The oncogenic potential of retrovirus-based vectors used in gene therapy is dependent on the selection of integration sites associated with promoters. The LTR-retrotransposon Tf1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is studied as a model for oncogenic retroviruses because it integrates into the promoters of stress response genes. Although integrases (INs) encoded by retroviruses and LTR-retrotransposons are responsible for catalyzing the insertion of cDNA into the host genome, it is thought that distinct host factors are required for the efficiency and specificity of integration. We tested this hypothesis with a genome-wide screen of host factors that promote Tf1 integration. By combining an assay for transposition with a genetic assay that measures cDNA recombination we could identify factors that contribute differentially to integration. We utilized this assay to test a collection of 3,004 S. pombe strains with single gene deletions. Using these screens and immunoblot measures of Tf1 proteins, we identified a total of 61 genes that promote integration. The candidate integration factors participate in a range of processes including nuclear transport, transcription, mRNA processing, vesicle transport, chromatin structure and DNA repair. Two candidates, Rhp18 and the NineTeen complex were tested in two-hybrid assays and were found to interact with Tf1 IN. Surprisingly, a number of pathways we identified were found previously to promote integration of the LTR-retrotransposons Ty1 and Ty3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, indicating the contribution of host factors to integration are common in distantly related organisms. The DNA repair factors are of particular interest because they may identify the pathways that repair the single stranded gaps flanking the sites of strand transfer following integration of LTR retroelements.

  5. The use of electron beams as probes of the distant magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winckler, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reports on experiments in which electron beams have been injected into the magnetosphere in order to diagnose plasma processes at a great distance by measurements made in the ionosphere. Topics considered include the beam injecting rocket system in the ionosphere; beam detection and analysis; echo detection by particle counters; echo analysis; the structure of echoes; the atmosphere as a detector; radio and radar methods; perturbation of the distant magnetosphere by beam injection; changes in the injected beam in the near-rocket region; some observations of the distant magnetosphere by beams; the comparison of distant and local electric fields; electron diffusion; the distant magnetic field; and future possibilities. Conjugate locations, field line lengths, electric and magnetic drifts, field fluctuations, and electron scattering and diffusion are analyzed. Echo detection by particle counters on some of the ECHO rocket series is discussed in detail

  6. Reproductive isolation between sympatric and allopatric Brazilian populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Nataly A; Andrade-Coelho, Claudia A; Vigoder, Felipe M; Ward, Richard D; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2008-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l., the main vector of Leishmania chagasi in Latin America, is a species complex although the exact number of siblings is yet unknown. In Brazil, the siblings differ in male copulatory courtship songs and pheromones that most certainly act as pre-zygotic reproductive barriers. Here we analysed the reproductive isolation between three allopatric and two sympatric populations of Lu. longipalpis s.l. from Brazil. The results indicate a strong copulatory and pre-mating iso...

  7. When curiosity kills no cat - but mediates the relation between distant future thoughts and global processing across sensory modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Förster, J.; Becker, D.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the effect of primed temporal distance on global versus local perception, using auditory, haptic, gustatory, and olfactory stimuli. The studies show that thinking of the more distant (versus proximal) future facilitated Gestalt perception and impaired perception of details

  8. Male flat lizards prefer females with novel scents | Lewis | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Males were given a choice between two refuges, an odourless control and one of the following: a conspecific female from the same population (sympatric), a conspecific female from a distant population (allopatric), and a female from their sister species (heterospecific), P. capensis. Males chose refuges treated with the scent ...

  9. Food niche overlap between two sympatric leaf-litter frog species from Central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Talione Sabagh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the feeding habits and similarities in the diet of two sympatric and syntopic Amazonian frog species, Anomaloglossus stepheni (Aromobatidae and Leptodactylus andreae (Leptodactylidae in a forested area in Central Amazonia. The breadth of the trophic niche of these species was 5.89 and 3.75, respectively, and approximately 85% of their diets were similar. Ants were main food item in the diets of both frog species. The coexistence between these frog species may be facilitated by the significant differences in the size of their mouths. This difference allows them to consume preys items of different sizes.

  10. Rapid sympatric ecological differentiation of crater lake cichlid fishes within historic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrod Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a volcano erupts, a lake may form in the cooled crater and become an isolated aquatic ecosystem. This makes fishes in crater lakes informative for understanding sympatric evolution and ecological diversification in barren environments. From a geological and limnological perspective, such research offers insight about the process of crater lake ecosystem establishment and speciation. In the present study we use genetic and coalescence approaches to infer the colonization history of Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus that inhabit a very young crater lake in Nicaragua-the ca. 1800 year-old Lake Apoyeque. This lake holds two sympatric, endemic morphs of Midas cichlid: one with large, hypertrophied lips (~20% of the total population and another with thin lips. Here we test the associated ecological, morphological and genetic diversification of these two morphs and their potential to represent incipient speciation. Results Gene coalescence analyses [11 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences] suggest that crater lake Apoyeque was colonized in a single event from the large neighbouring great lake Managua only about 100 years ago. This founding in historic times is also reflected in the extremely low nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity in Apoyeque. We found that sympatric adult thin- and thick-lipped fishes occupy distinct ecological trophic niches. Diet, body shape, head width, pharyngeal jaw size and shape and stable isotope values all differ significantly between the two lip-morphs. The eco-morphological features pharyngeal jaw shape, body shape, stomach contents and stable isotopes (δ15N all show a bimodal distribution of traits, which is compatible with the expectations of an initial stage of ecological speciation under disruptive selection. Genetic differentiation between the thin- and thick-lipped population is weak at mtDNA sequence (FST = 0.018 and absent at nuclear

  11. Isolating mechanisms among five sympatric species of Aneilema,/i> R. Br. (Commelinaceae in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive biology and ecology of five non-hybridizing, sympatric species of Aneilema in Kenya is investigated. The high number of species at the study site is believed to be due to the ecological diversity at this locality. Differences in ecology and seasonal flowering periods appear to be inadequate to reproductively isolate these species. However, differences in daily flowering times, pollinators, floral morphology and opening behaviour, and in chromosome number, alone or in combination (perhaps also coacting with other factors not fully evaluated, are effective isolating mechanisms.

  12. Distant Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Art EntrepreneurshipIvo Zander Mikael Scherdin This project is funded and sponsored by the Knowledge Foundation, the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation, and the Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University2008-2009This cutting edge project asks what art and artistic processes can...... recognition among creative individuals, similarities and differences between artists and entrepreneurs, the survival and failure of new art initiatives, the globalization of the art arena, and policies for maintaining a dynamic art arena. Publications: The collective findings from the project will appear...... in a book published by Edward Elgar. The preliminary chapters include: Introduction (Mikael Scherdin and Ivo Zander) The new and the challenge of the market or the non-instrumental function of creation (Maria Bonnafous-Boucher, Raphaël Cuir, and Marc Partouche) Today's novelty is yesterday's garbage...

  13. Distant Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Anne Marie; Lee, Joyce y. H.; Panteli, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the role of email in the ambiguous circumstances of an established international partnership that is developing into competition. Using the naturally occurring interaction of a longitudinal ethnographic study, we study the ensuing task and relationship conflicts through...... the communication medium. Results show that the conflict is facilitated by email, not as an unfortunate side-effect but as a strategic choice of distance, partly for passive protection but also for active control of the interaction. We use the results to chart the multiple situated identities of the communicators...

  14. Detection of cancer before distant metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, F.A.W.; Siesling, Sabine; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background To establish a distant metastasis (DM) cells must disseminate from the primary tumor and overcome a series of obstacles, the metastatic cascade. In this study we develop a mathematical model for this cascade to estimate the tumor size and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) load before the

  15. Detection of cancer before distant metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Frank A. W.; Siesling, Sabine; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To establish a distant metastasis (DM) cells must disseminate from the primary tumor and overcome a series of obstacles, the metastatic cascade. In this study we develop a mathematical model for this cascade to estimate the tumor size and the circulating tumor cell (CTC) load before the

  16. Protoplanetary disc response to distant tidal encounters in stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A. J.; Clarke, C. J.; Rosotti, G.; Booth, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The majority of stars form in a clustered environment. This has an impact on the evolution of surrounding protoplanetary discs (PPDs) due to either photoevaporation or tidal truncation. Consequently, the development of planets depends on formation environment. Here, we present the first thorough investigation of tidally induced angular momentum loss in PPDs in the distant regime, partly motivated by claims in the literature for the importance of distant encounters in disc evolution. We employ both theoretical predictions and dynamical/hydrodynamical simulations in 2D and 3D. Our theoretical analysis is based on that of Ostriker (1994) and leads us to conclude that in the limit that the closest approach distance xmin ≫ r, the radius of a particle ring, the fractional change in angular momentum scales as (xmin/r)-5. This asymptotic limit ensures that the cumulative effect of distant encounters is minor in terms of its influence on disc evolution. The angular momentum transfer is dominated by the m = 2 Lindblad resonance for closer encounters and by the m = 1, ω = 0 Lindblad resonance at large xmin/r. We contextualize these results by comparing expected angular momentum loss for the outer edge of a PPD due to distant and close encounters. Contrary to the suggestions of previous works, we do not find that distant encounters contribute significantly to angular momentum loss in PPDs. We define an upper limit for closest approach distance where interactions are significant as a function of arbitrary host to perturber mass ratio M2/M1.

  17. Non-Chemical Distant Cellular Interactions as a potential confounder of Cell Biology Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan eFarhadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Distant cells can communicate with each other through a variety of methods. Two such methods involve electrical and/or chemical mechanisms. Non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may be another method of communication that cells can use to modify the behavior of other cells that are mechanically separated. Moreover, non-chemical, distant cellular interactions may explain some cases of confounding effects in Cell Biology experiments. In this article, we review non-chemical, distant cellular interactions studies to try to shed light on the mechanisms in this highly unconventional field of cell biology. Despite the existence of several theories that try to explain the mechanism of non-chemical, distant cellular interactions, this phenomenon is still speculative. Among candidate mechanisms, electromagnetic waves appear to have the most experimental support. In this brief article, we try to answer a few key questions that may further clarify this mechanism.

  18. Feeding ecology of two endangered sympatric megaherbivores: Asian elephant Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in lowland Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, N.M.B.; Wegge, P.; Moe, S.R.; Shrestha, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the diets of low-density but increasing populations of sympatric Asian elephants Elephas maximus and greater one-horned rhinoceros Rhinoceros unicornis in the Bardia National Park in lowland Nepal. A microhistological technique based on faecal material was used to estimate the seasonal

  19. Arming and firing system for DISTANT RUNNER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skenandore, L.H.; Johnson, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia A and F systems Division 1132 provided arming and firing support for the DISTANT RUNNER Test Program at White Sands Missile Range. This report describes the field support and the firing system that was used

  20. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julissa Roncal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae, a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia.

  1. Home Bodies and Wanderers: Sympatric Lineages of the Deep-Sea Black Coral Leiopathes glaberrima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannise V Ruiz-Ramos

    Full Text Available Colonial corals occur in a wide range of marine benthic habitats from the shallows to the deep ocean, often defining the structure of their local community. The black coral Leiopathes glaberrima is a long-lived foundation species occurring on carbonate outcrops in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM. Multiple color morphs of L. glaberrima grow sympatrically in the region. Morphological, mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal markers supported the hypothesis that color morphs constituted a single biological species and that colonies, regardless of color, were somewhat genetically differentiated east and west of the Mississippi Canyon. Ten microsatellite loci were used to determine finer-scale population genetic structure and reproductive characteristics. Gene flow was disrupted between and within two nearby (distance = 36.4 km hardground sites and two sympatric microsatellite lineages, which might constitute cryptic species, were recovered. Lineage one was outbred and found in all sampled locations (N = 5 across 765.6 km in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Lineage two was inbred, reproducing predominantly by fragmentation, and restricted to sites around Viosca Knoll. In these sites the lineages and the color phenotypes occurred in different microhabitats, and models of maximum entropy suggested that depth and slope influence the distribution of the color phenotypes within the Vioska Knolls. We conclude that L. glaberrima is phenotypically plastic with a mixed reproductive strategy in the Northern GoM. Such strategy might enable this long-lived species to balance local recruitment with occasional long-distance dispersal to colonize new sites in an environment where habitat is limited.

  2. The CfA-Rosat Survey of Distant Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Brian

    1998-01-01

    We (Vikhlinin, McNamara, Forman, Jones, Hornstrup, Quintana) have completed a new survey of distant clusters of galaxies, which we use to to study cluster evolution over cosmological timescales. The clusters were identified as extended X-ray sources in 650 ROSAT PSPC images of high Galactic latitude fields. Our catalog of approximately 230 extended X-ray sources covers 160 square degrees on the sky. Ours is the largest of the several ROSAT serendipitous cluster surveys in progress (e.g. SHARC, Rosati, WARPS etc.). Using V,R,I imagery obtained at several observatories, we find that greater than 90% of the X-ray sources are associated with distant clusters of galaxies. We have obtained spectroscopic redshifts for nearly 80 clusters in our catalog, and we have measured photometric redshifts for the remaining clusters. Our sample contains more than 20 clusters at z > 0.5. I will discuss the logN-logS relationship for our clusters. Because our large survey area, we are able to confirm the evolution of the most luminous distant clusters first seen in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey. In addition, I will discuss the relationships between optical richness, core radius, and X-ray luminosity for distant, X-ray-selected clusters.

  3. The genetic basis for fruit odor discrimination in Rhagoletis flies and its significance for sympatric host shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambroski, Hattie R; Linn, Charles; Berlocher, Stewart H; Forbes, Andrew A; Roelofs, Wendell; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2005-09-01

    Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) use volatile compounds emitted from the surface of ripening fruit as important chemosensory cues for recognizing and distinguishing among alternative host plants. Host choice is of evolutionary significance in Rhagoletis because these flies mate on or near the fruit of their respective host plants. Differences in host choice based on fruit odor discrimination therefore result in differential mate choice and prezygotic reproductive isolation, facilitating sympatric speciation in the absence of geographic isolation. We test for a genetic basis for host fruit odor discrimination through an analysis of F2 and backcross hybrids constructed between apple-, hawthorn-, and flowering dogwood-infesting Rhagoletis flies. We recovered a significant proportion (30-65%) of parental apple, hawthorn, and dogwood fly response phenotypes in F2 hybrids, despite the general failure of F1 hybrids to reach odor source spheres. Segregation patterns in F2 and backcross hybrids suggest that only a modest number of allelic differences at a few loci may underlie host fruit odor discrimination. In addition, a strong bias was observed for F2 and backcross flies to orient to the natal fruit blend of their maternal grandmother, implying the existence of cytonuclear gene interactions. We explore the implications of our findings for the evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation.

  4. Sympatric parallel diversification of major oak clades in the Americas and the origins of Mexican species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Andrew L; Manos, Paul S; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Hahn, Marlene; Kaproth, Matthew; McVay, John D; Avalos, Susana Valencia; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2018-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus, Fagaceae) are the dominant tree genus of North America in species number and biomass, and Mexico is a global center of oak diversity. Understanding the origins of oak diversity is key to understanding biodiversity of northern temperate forests. A phylogenetic study of biogeography, niche evolution and diversification patterns in Quercus was performed using 300 samples, 146 species. Next-generation sequencing data were generated using the restriction-site associated DNA (RAD-seq) method. A time-calibrated maximum likelihood phylogeny was inferred and analyzed with bioclimatic, soils, and leaf habit data to reconstruct the biogeographic and evolutionary history of the American oaks. Our highly resolved phylogeny demonstrates sympatric parallel diversification in climatic niche, leaf habit, and diversification rates. The two major American oak clades arose in what is now the boreal zone and radiated, in parallel, from eastern North America into Mexico and Central America. Oaks adapted rapidly to niche transitions. The Mexican oaks are particularly numerous, not because Mexico is a center of origin, but because of high rates of lineage diversification associated with high rates of evolution along moisture gradients and between the evergreen and deciduous leaf habits. Sympatric parallel diversification in the oaks has shaped the diversity of North American forests. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Evidence for Divergent Evolution of Growth Temperature Preference in Sympatric Saccharomyces Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Paula; Valério, Elisabete; Correia, Cláudia; de Almeida, João M. G. C. F.; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The genus Saccharomyces currently includes eight species in addition to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most of which can be consistently isolated from tree bark and soil. We recently found sympatric pairs of Saccharomyces species, composed of one cryotolerant and one thermotolerant species in oak bark samples of various geographic origins. In order to contribute to explain the occurrence in sympatry of Saccharomyces species, we screened Saccharomyces genomic data for protein divergence that might be correlated to distinct growth temperature preferences of the species, using the dN/dS ratio as a measure of protein evolution rates and pair-wise species comparisons. In addition to proteins previously implicated in growth at suboptimal temperatures, we found that glycolytic enzymes were among the proteins exhibiting higher than expected divergence when one cryotolerant and one thermotolerant species are compared. By measuring glycolytic fluxes and glycolytic enzymatic activities in different species and at different temperatures, we subsequently show that the unusual divergence of glycolytic genes may be related to divergent evolution of the glycolytic pathway aligning its performance to the growth temperature profiles of the different species. In general, our results support the view that growth temperature preference is a trait that may have undergone divergent selection in the course of ecological speciation in Saccharomyces. PMID:21674061

  6. Comparative strategies and success of sympatric and allopatric Fasciola hepatica infecting Galba truncatula of different susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, R; Mouzet, R; Courtioux, B; Vignoles, P; Rondelaud, D; Dreyfuss, G; Cabaret, J; Romero, J

    2013-06-01

    Allopatric infections of French Galba truncatula with an Argentinean isolate of Fasciola hepatica were carried out to determine the infectivity of foreign miracidia in three snail populations differing by their susceptibility to French miracidia (two highly and one poorly susceptible populations). Sympatric infections of G. truncatula with French miracidia were used as controls. Compared to sympatric infections of G. truncatula, snail survival at day 30 post-infection in allopatric groups was significantly lower in a highly susceptible population and significantly greater in the other two. Prevalence in snails infected with the allopatric isolate was significantly lower (16.4-34.5 % instead of 58.6-72.1 %), whereas their patent period was significantly longer (a mean of 69.9-85.9 days instead of 6.4-20.7 days). The mean number of metacercariae was also higher in allopatric groups (236.5-897.3 per cercariae-shedding snail instead of 70.7-222.1). Owing to longer patent periods, the Argentinean isolate of F. hepatica was less pathogenic for these snails. The lower prevalence of infection, the longer patent period and the higher number of metacercariae noted in allopatric groups might be the consequence of an adaptive mechanism used by this digenean introduced to the New World to infect new populations of unusual intermediate hosts.

  7. Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stephanie; Reid, Gregor

    2016-08-26

    The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption.

  8. Optimizing transmission from distant wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanariyankool, Sompop; Lave, Lester B.

    2010-01-01

    We explore the optimal size of the transmission line from distant wind farms, modeling the tradeoff between transmission cost and benefit from delivered wind power. We also examine the benefit of connecting a second wind farm, requiring additional transmission, in order to increase output smoothness. Since a wind farm has a low capacity factor, the transmission line would not be heavily loaded, on average; depending on the time profile of generation, for wind farms with capacity factor of 29-34%, profit is maximized for a line that is about 3/4 of the nameplate capacity of the wind farm. Although wind generation is inexpensive at a good site, transmitting wind power over 1600 km (about the distance from Wyoming to Los Angeles) doubles the delivered cost of power. As the price for power rises, the optimal capacity of transmission increases. Connecting wind farms lowers delivered cost when the wind farms are close, despite the high correlation of output over time. Imposing a penalty for failing to deliver minimum contracted supply leads to connecting more distant wind farms.

  9. Distant Site Effects of Ingested Prebiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Collins

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites. This review examined the effects of prebiotics on bone strength, neural and cognitive processes, immune functioning, skin, and serum lipid profile. The mode of action is in part affected by intestinal permeability and by fermentation products reaching target cells. As the types of prebiotics available diversify, so too will our understanding of the range of microbes able to degrade them, and the extent to which body sites can be impacted by their consumption.

  10. Snake Envenomation Causing Distant Tracheal Myonecrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakebites are often believed to be poisonous. However, this is not always the case. In fact, each bite differs from snake to snake, depending on if the snake is poisonous and if there is envenomation. Venom in pit viper snakebites is often associated with local necrosis. The abundant literature selections and research articles justify local myonecrosis due to envenomation, but there is not much in the literature regarding myonecrosis at a site distant from the snakebite. We hereby present a case of a 42-year-old man who was transferred to our emergency department after a rattlesnake bit him twice. The patient, besides developing local myonecrosis at the site of the snakebite, developed necrosis of the scrotum as well as tracheal pressure myonecrosis at the site of the endotracheal tube balloon. In this review, we will attempt to discuss the myonecrosis pathophysiology and management related to the rattle snakebite.

  11. Distant metastases in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.; Cross, G.; Pitoia, F.

    2017-01-01

    Distant metastases occur in less than 10% of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. In these patients, overall survival at 10 years is considerably reduced. Whereas cure is the initial goal of treatment, stabilisation of the disease and management of symptoms have become the primary objective in many patients with persistent radio-iodine refractory progressive disease. In the last decade, several targeted therapies have shown encouraging results in patients with advanced disease. The objective of this review is to describe the characteristics, diagnosis, overall survival, and the local and systemic available treatments for patients with distant metastases from differentiated thyroid cancer. (authors) [es

  12. Night life on the beach: selfing to avoid pollinator competition between two sympatric Silene species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buide, M Luisa; del Valle, José Carlos; Pissatto, Mônica; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-08-01

    Evolution of autonomous selfing may be advantageous because it allows for reproductive assurance. In co-flowering plants competing for pollinators, the least common and/or attractive could suffer pollen limitations. Silene niceensis and S. ramosissima are taxonomically related species sharing the same habitat, although S. ramosissima is less abundant and has a more restricted distribution. They also have the same a priori nocturnal pollinator syndrome, and show an overlapping flowering phenology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a selfing strategy in S. ramosissima allows it to avoid pollinator competition and/or interspecific pollen transfer with S. niceensis, which would thus enable both species to reach high levels of fruit and seed set. The breeding system, petal colour, flower life span and degree of overlap between male and female phases, floral visitor abundance and visitation rates were analysed in two sympatric populations of S. niceensis and S. ramosissima in southern Spain. Autonomous selfing in S. ramosissima produced very high fruit and seed set, which was also similar to open-pollinated plants. Silene niceensis showed minimum levels of autonomous selfing, and pollen/ovule ratios were within the range expected for the breeding system. In contrast to S. niceensis, flower life span was much shorter in S. ramosissima, and male and female organs completely overlapped in space and time. Upper surface petals of both species showed differing brightness, chroma and hue. Flowers of S. niceensis were actively visited by moths, hawkmoths and syrphids, whereas those of S. ramosissima were almost never visited. The findings show that different breeding strategies exist between the sympatric co-flowering S. niceensis and S. ramosissima, the former specializing in crepuscular-nocturnal pollination and the latter mainly based on autonomous selfing. These two strategies allow both species to share the restricted dune habitat in which they exist, with a

  13. The component helminth community in six sympatric species of Ardeidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; Lluch, Javier; Font, Enrique

    2005-08-01

    We studied the helminth communities in 6 sympatric species of Ardeidae (Ixobrychus minutus (Linnaeus, 1766), Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758), Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758), Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1766), Ardea cinerea (Linnaeus, 1758), and Ardea purpurea (Linnaeus, 1766)) from "La Albufera de Valencia," Spain. The survey revealed 13 species of helminth parasites: 5 digeneans, 2 cestodes, and 6 nematodes. The component helminth communities of the Ardeidae examined are depauperate and conform to the pattern typically found in isolationist communities, probably because of their high trophic dependence on a few prey species. Evenness was positively correlated with richness and abundance, but host body weight was not correlated with the number of helminth species or with the total number of helminths. Ardea cinerea is more heavily infected than E. garzetta by Apharyngostrigea cornu, and B. ibis is more heavily infected than both Ardea cinerea and E. garzetta by Desportesius spinulatus. Apharyngostrigea cornu was positively associated with Desmidocercella numidica and D. spinulatus in A. cinerea.

  14. A search for X-ray bright distant clusters of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, R. C.; Ulmer, M. P.; Kron, R. G.; Wirth, G. D.; Koo, D. C.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of a search for X-ray luminous distant clusters of galaxies. We found extended X-ray emission characteristic of a cluster toward two of our candidate clusters of galaxies. They both have a luminosity in the ROSAT bandpass of approximately equals 10(exp 44) ergs/s and a redshift greater than 0.5; thus making them two of the most distant X-ray clusters ever observed. Furthermore, we show that both clusters are optically rich and have a known radio source associated with them. We compare our result with other recent searches for distant X-ray luminous clusters and present a lower limit of 1.2 x 10(exp -7)/cu Mpc for the number density of such high-redshift clusters. This limit is consistent with the expected abundance of such clusters in a standard (b = 2) cold dark matter universe. Finally, our clusters provide important high-redshift targets for further study into the origin and evolution of massive clusters of galaxies.

  15. Investigations in the Spectral Properties of Operators with Distant Perturbations (survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Golovina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a chronological overview of researches on operators with distant perturbations. Let us explain what "distant perturbations" mean. An elementary example of the operator with distant perturbations is a differential operator of the second order with two finite potentials. Supports of these operators are at a great distance from each other, i.e. they are \\distant".The study of such operators has been performed since the middle of the last century, mostly by foreign researchers see eg. R. Ahlrichs, T. Aktosun, M. Klaus, P. Aventini, P. Exner, E.B. Davies, V. Graffi, E.V. Harrell II, H.J. Silverstone, M. Mebkhout, R. Hoegh-Krohn, W. Hun ziker, V. Kostrykin, R. Schrader, J.D. Morgan (III, Y. Pinchover, O.K. Reity, H. Tamura, X. Wang, Y. Wang, S. Kondej, B. Simon, I. Veselic, D.I. Borisov, A.M. Golovina. The main objects of their investigation were the asymptotic behaviors of eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions of perturbed operators. In several papers the research was focused on resolvents and eigenvalues of perturbed operator arising from the edge of the essential spectrum. The main results of the past century are the first members of the asymptotics of perturbed eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions and the first members of the asymptotics of resolvents of the perturbed operators. The main results of the last fifteen years are full asymptotic expansions for the eigenvalues and their corresponding functions and an explicit formula for the resolvent of the perturbed operator.In this paper, we also note that up to 2004 only different kind of potentials were considered as perturbing operators, and Laplace and Dirac operators were considered as unperturbed operators. Only since 2004, nonpotential perturbing operators appeared in the literature. Since 2012, an arbitrary elliptic differential operator is considered as an unperturbed operator.We propose a classification of investigations on distant perturbations, based on the

  16. Interference competition as a mechanism of coexistence between two sympatric species of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes (Decapoda: Palaemonidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorp, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Various theories have been developed to explain the puzzling coexistence of species which have broad niche overlap in critical resource utilization. The coexistence of two sympatric species of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis and p. vulgaris (Say), whose niches overlap with respect to space, food, and time, was examined in an experimental field and laboratory study. A seasonal fluctuation between sympatric and contiguous allopatric distribution of the two species of grass shrimp on natural shell, mud, and eelgrass substrata suggests that competition may be an important factor determining distribution of Palaemonetes. Field and laboratory experiments confirm that P. vulgaris can competitively displace P. pugio from the preferred shell substratum by interference competition but the tendency of grass shrimp to separate spatially in winter by bottom-depths (as in field enclosure cages) could have allowed both species to coexist on shell. Spatial separation by bottom-depth was not so evident in spring, since P. vulgaris apparently displaced P. pugio from shell to mud substratum. Occupancy of shell substratum is shown to be adaptive in that shell provides greater protection from predators than does mud. It is suggested that the spatial partitioning resulting from this interference competition promotes coexistence by reducing agonism while permitting efficient utilization of other common resources.

  17. Comparative ecophysiology of two sympatric lizards. Laying the groundwork for mechanistic distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique García-Muñoz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution modelling usually makes inferences correlating species presence and environmental variables but does not take biotic relations into account. Alternative approaches based on a mechanistic understanding of biological processes are now being applied. Regarding lacertid lizards, physiological traits such as preferred body temperature (Tp are well known to correlate with several physiological optima. Much less is known about their water ecology although body temperature and evaporative water loss (Wl may trade-off. Two saxicolous lacertids, Algyroides marchi and Podarcis hispanica ss are sympatric in the Subbetic Mountains (SE Spain were they can be found in syntopy. Previous distribution modelling indicates the first species is associated with mountains, low temperatures; high precipitation and forest cover whereas the second one is more generalistic. Here, we perform two ecophysiological tests with both species: a Tp experiment in thermal gradient and a Wl experiment in sealed chambers. Although both species attained similar body temperatures, A. marchi lost more water and more uniformly in time than P. hispanica ss that displayed an apparent response to dehydration. These results suggest that water loss rather temperature is crucial to explain the distribution patterns of A. marchi in relation to P. hispanica ss, the former risking dehydration in dry areas no matter what temperature is. Ecophysiological traits represent a promising tool to build future mechanistic models for (lacertid lizards. Additionally, the implications for their biogeography and conservation are discussed.

  18. Polycomb-dependent regulatory contacts between distant Hox loci in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantignies, Frédéric; Roure, Virginie; Comet, Itys

    2011-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, Hox genes are organized in an anterior and a posterior cluster, called Antennapedia complex and bithorax complex, located on the same chromosome arm and separated by 10 Mb of DNA. Both clusters are repressed by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. Here, we show that genes...... of the two Hox complexes can interact within nuclear PcG bodies in tissues where they are corepressed. This colocalization increases during development and depends on PcG proteins. Hox gene contacts are conserved in the distantly related Drosophila virilis species and they are part of a large gene...

  19. Screening of exciplex formation by distant electron transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, S G; Khokhlova, S S; Burshtein, A I

    2012-01-12

    The excitation quenching by reversible exciplex formation, combined with irreversible but distant electron transfer, is considered by means of the integral encounter theory (IET). Assuming that the quenchers are in great excess, the set of IET equations for the excitations, free ions, and exciplexes is derived. Solving these equations gives the Laplace images of all these populations, and these are used to specify the quantum yields of the corresponding reaction products. It appears that diffusion facilitates the exciplex production and the electron transfer. On the other hand the stronger the electron transfer is, the weaker is the exciplex production. At slow diffusion the distant quenching of excitations by ionization prevents their reaching the contact where they can turn into exciplexes. This is a screening effect that is most pronounced when the ionization rate is large.

  20. Niche segregation amongst sympatric species at exposed sandy shores with contrasting wrack availabilities illustrated by stable isotopic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bessa, Filipa; Baeta, Alexandra; Marques, João Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Wrack supplies (macroalgae, seagrasses and carrion) are a common feature of sandy beaches worldwide. These allochthonous inputs are a potential high-quality food subsidy for beach fauna, but little is known about the feeding ecology and niche segregation strategies of these species in beaches with limited wrack availabilities. We used stable isotopic ratios of nitrogen and carbon to examine the diets and niche segregation among three sympatric crustaceans, the amphipods Talitrus s...

  1. Atypical modulation of distant functional connectivity by cognitive state in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen eYou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether modulation of functional connectivity by cognitive state differed between pre-adolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and age and IQ-matched control children. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during two states, a resting state followed by a sustained attention task. A voxel-wise method was used to characterize functional connectivity at two levels, local (within a voxel’s 14 mm neighborhood and distant (outside of the voxel’s 14 mm neighborhood to the rest of the brain and regions exhibiting Group X State interaction were identified for both types of connectivity maps. Distant functional connectivity of regions in the left frontal lobe (dorsolateral [BA 11, 10]; supplementary motor area extending into dorsal anterior cingulate [BA 32/8]; and premotor [BA 6, 8, 9], right parietal lobe (paracentral lobule [BA 6 ]; angular gyrus [BA 39/40], and left posterior middle temporal cortex (BA 19/39 showed a Group X State interaction such that relative to the resting state, connectivity reduced (i.e., became focal in control children but increased (i.e., became diffuse in ASD children during the task state. Higher state-related increase in distant connectivity of left frontal and right angular gyrus predicted worse inattention in ASD children. Two graph theory measures (global efficiency and modularity were also sensitive to Group X State differences, with the magnitude of state-related change predicting inattention in the ASD children. Our results indicate that as ASD children transition from an unconstrained to a sustained attentional state, functional connectivity of frontal and parietal regions with the rest of the brain becomes more widespread in a manner that may be maladaptive as it was associated with attention problems in everyday life.

  2. De afstand tussen close en distant : Methoden en vraagstellingen in computationeel letterkundig onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the gap between close and distant reading methods and research design is discussed to establish if the two could profitably be combined. In the current situation, the use of close and distant reading techniques is not evenly distributed among literary scholars specializing in Dutch

  3. Distant Metastases in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Min, E-mail: min.yao@uhhospitals.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Lu Minggen [School of Public Health, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Savvides, Panayiotis S. [Department of Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Rezaee, Rod; Zender, Chad A.; Lavertu, Pierre [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Buatti, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Machtay, Mitchell [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the pattern and risk factors for distant metastases in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after curative treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 284 HNSCC patients treated in a single institution with IMRT. Sites included were oropharynx (125), oral cavity (70), larynx (55), hypopharynx (17), and unknown primary (17). American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution includes I (3), II (19), III (42), and IV (203). There were 224 males and 60 females with a median age of 57. One hundred eighty-six patients were treated with definitive IMRT and 98 postoperative IMRT. One hundred forty-nine patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 22.8 months (range, 0.07-77.3 months) and 29.5 months (4.23-77.3 months) for living patients. The 3-year local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were 94.6%, 96.4%, 92.5%, 84.1%, and 68.95%, respectively. There were 45 patients with distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis was strongly associated with N stage (p = 0.046), T stage (p < 0.0001), and pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value of the lymph node (p = 0.006), but not associated with age, gender, disease sites, pretreatment standardized uptake value of the primary tumor, or locoregional control. The freedom from distant metastasis at 3 years was 98.1% for no factors, 88.6% for one factor, 68.3% for two factors, and 41.7% for three factors (p < 0.0001 by log-rank test). Conclusion: With advanced radiation techniques and concurrent chemotherapy, the failure pattern has changed with more patients failing distantly. The majority of patients with distant metastases had no local or regional failures, indicating that these patients might have microscopic distant

  4. Haemosporida prevalence and diversity are similar in endangered wild whooping cranes (Grus americana) and sympatric sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Miranda R; Hamer, Gabriel L; Hartup, Barry K; Snowden, Karen F; Medeiros, Matthew C; Hamer, Sarah A

    2017-04-01

    The population growth of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) is not consistent with species recovery goals, and the impact of parasite infection on whooping crane populations is largely unknown. Disease ecology and epidemiology research of endangered species is often hindered by limited ability to conduct invasive sampling on the target taxa. Accordingly, we hypothesized that sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) would be a useful surrogate species to investigate the health impacts of Haemosporida infection in whooping cranes. Our goal was to compare the prevalence and diversity of Haemosporida infection between whooping cranes and sandhill cranes. We detected an overall infection prevalence of 83·6% (n = 61) in whooping cranes and 59·6% (n = 47) and 63·6 (n = 22) in two sympatric sandhill crane populations captured in Texas. Prevalence was significantly lower in allopatric sandhill cranes captured in New Mexico (12·1%, n = 33). Haemoproteus antigonis was the most abundant haemoparasite in cranes, present in 57·4% of whooping cranes and 39·2% of sandhill cranes; Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon were present at significantly lower levels. The high prevalence of Haemosporida in whooping cranes and sympatric sandhill cranes, with shared parasite lineages between the two species, supports sandhill cranes as a surrogate species for understanding health threats to endangered whooping cranes.

  5. Incidence and kinetics of distant metastases in patients with operable breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryj, M.; Maciejewski, B.; Withers, H.R.; Taylor, J.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the incidence and kinetics of distant metastases in operable breast cancer and to relate these estimates to various tumor and patient characteristics. The records of 309 consecutive patients with operable breast cancer in stage T 1-4 N 0-1 M 0 were reviewed, and the incidence of distant metastases (DM) and death due to DM were evaluated. 195 patients had positive axillary nodes with following distribution of the number of nodes: 45% had 1-2 node, 16% had 3-4 nodes, 14% and 25% had 5-7 and more nodes, respectively. All patients were treated with radical mastectomy with axillary nodes dissection (the only treatment in 39% of cases). In 198 cases radical mastectomy was combined with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy given pre- or postoperatively. Hormonal treatment was given in 27% of cases. Minimum follow-up was 10 years. Distant metastases were found in 150 cases (49%) and in 78 cases (25%) they develop early, during the first 18 months follow-up. Average rate of DM in N 0 cases was 25%. Number of involved nodes and extra-capsular invasion were found significant and independent prognostic factors. High risk (%)%) of DM and death due to DM correlate with age T 3 , more than 2 axillary nodes and or extra-capsular invasion. The linearity of the curves for freedom from DM and for freedom from death due to the DM suggest uniform distribution of progression rates with a median value for halving time for freedom from early DM of about 8 months, and of about 40 months for freedom from the DM occurring later than 18 months, being for whole group and average of 20 months. High incidence of DM is a significant cause of poor long-term survival. Early appearance (<18 month follow-up) of about half of the DM suggests that they are already present as subclinical micrometastases at the time of initial loco-regional treatment. The time of appearance of distant metastases is consistent with a wide range of metastatic cell burdens among patients

  6. Gravitational effect of distant earth relief within the territory of former Czechoslovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuška, J.; Pašteka, R.; Mrlina, Jan; Marušiak, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2008), s. 381-396 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012308 Grant - others:EC(XE) ENK6-CT2000-00056; APVV(SK) APVV-99-002905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : Bouguer gravity anomaly * distant topographic effect * distant bathymetric correction Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  7. How do probiotics and prebiotics function at distant sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, G; Abrahamsson, T; Bailey, M; Bindels, L B; Bubnov, R; Ganguli, K; Martoni, C; O'Neill, C; Savignac, H M; Stanton, C; Ship, N; Surette, M; Tuohy, K; van Hemert, S

    2017-08-24

    The realisation that microbes regarded as beneficial to the host can impart effects at sites distant from their habitat, has raised many possibilities for treatment of diseases. The objective of a workshop hosted in Turku, Finland, by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics, was to assess the evidence for these effects and the extent to which early life microbiome programming influences how the gut microbiota communicates with distant sites. In addition, we examined how probiotics and prebiotics might affect the skin, airways, heart, brain and metabolism. The growing levels of scientific and clinical evidence showing how microbes influence the physiology of many body sites, leads us to call for more funding to advance a potentially exciting avenue for novel therapies for many chronic diseases.

  8. Prognostic aspects of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in synchronous distant metastatic rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jing; Xu, Qing; Song, Jia-Cheng; Li, Yan; Xu, Lu-Lu; Shi, Hai-Bin [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Huang, Dong-Ya [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of General Surgery, Nanjing (China)

    2017-05-15

    To explore the correlations between DCE-MRI quantitative parameters and synchronous distant metastasis and the clinicopathological factors in rectal cancers. Sixty-three patients with rectal cancer (synchronous distant metastasis, n = 31; non-metastasis, n = 32) were enrolled in this study. Student's t test and ANOVA were used to compare DCE-MRI parameters (K{sup trans}, K{sub ep} and V{sub e}). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to find the reasonable threshold of DCE-MRI parameters to differentiate lesions with synchronous distant metastasis from those without metastasis. The K{sup trans}, K{sub ep}, and V{sub e} value were significantly higher in the lesions with distant metastasis than in the lesions without distant metastasis (0.536 ± 0.242 vs. 0.299 ± 0.118 min{sup -1}, p < 0.001; 1.598 ± 0.477 vs. 1.341 ± 0.390 min{sup -1}, p = 0.022; and 0.324 ± 0.173 vs. 0.249 ± 0.091, p = 0.034; respectively). The K{sup trans} showed the highest AUCs of 0.788 (p < 0.001), with sensitivity of 61.29 % and specificity of 87.5 %, respectively. DCE-MRI parameters may represent a prognostic indicator for synchronous distant metastases in patients with rectal cancer. (orig.)

  9. Study of structures vulnerability with respect to near and distant earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, E.

    1998-06-01

    Today, according to the fundamental safety rules edited by the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN), para-seismic structures must be dimensioned in order to withstand the probable near and distant earthquakes. Classical dimensioning tools, like the linear analysis of the elastic response spectrum of an oscillator, show that nearby earthquakes are more damaging for structures. However, experience feedback seems to demonstrate the contrary. The aim of this study is to make a comparison between the damaging effects of nearby and distant earthquakes. Thus, other comparison criteria were defined in order to take into account new parameters and to fit with the experience feedback. In a first part, the difference between nearby and distant earthquakes is explained. Then, after a presentation of the limits of the existing dimensioning tools, the new calculation means are defined and presented with their results. These new methods take into account the inelastic property of the structures. (J.S.)

  10. Learning in professionally 'distant' contexts: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Justin; Tavares, Walter

    2017-08-01

    The changing nature of healthcare education and delivery is such that clinicians will increasingly find themselves practicing in contexts that are physically and/or conceptually different from the settings in which they were trained, a practice that conflicts on some level with socio-cultural theories of learning that emphasize learning in context. Our objective was therefore to explore learning in 'professionally distant' contexts. Using paramedic education, where portions of training occur in hospital settings despite preparing students for out-of-hospital work, fifty-three informants (11 current students, 13 recent graduates, 16 paramedic program faculty and 13 program coordinators/directors) took part in five semi-structured focus groups. Participants reflected on the value and role of hospital placements in paramedic student development. All sessions were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. In this context six educational advantages and two challenges were identified when using professionally distant learning environments. Learning could still be associated with features such as (a) engagement through "authenticity", (b) technical skill development, (c) interpersonal skill development, (d) psychological resilience, (e) healthcare system knowledge and (f) scaffolding. Variability in learning and misalignment with learning goals were identified as potential threats. Learning environments that are professionally distant from eventual practice settings may prove meaningful by providing learners with foundational and preparatory learning experiences for competencies that may be transferrable. This suggests that where learning occurs may be less important than how the experience contributes to the learner's development and the meaning or value he/she derives from it.

  11. Male mate recognition via cuticular hydrocarbons facilitates sexual isolation between sympatric leaf beetle sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Xue, Huai-Jun; Song, Ke-Qing; Liu, Jie; Li, Wen-Zhu; Nie, Rui-E; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-11-01

    Chemical signals in insects have been documented to play an important role in mate recognition, and divergence in chemical signals can often cause sexual isolation between closely related species or populations within species. We investigated the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), short distance chemical signals, in male mate recognition between the two sympatric elm leaf beetles, Pyrrhalta maculicollis and Pyrrhaltaaenescens. Mating experiments demonstrated that strong sexual isolation between the two species was driven by CHCs divergence. Males preferred to mate with conspecific females with intact conspecific CHCs or conspecific CHCs reapplied after removal. Males also preferred heterospecific females that were treated with conspecific CHCs. Chemical analysis showed that the CHC profiles differ significantly between species. In P. maculicollis dimethyl-branched alkanes between C29 and C35 account for the majority of the saturated alkanes while the CHC profile of P. aenescens mostly consisted of monomethyl-branched alkanes between C22 and C29. Additionally, some compounds, such as 12,18-diMeC32, 12,18-diMeC34, are unique to P. maculicollis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Automatic Camera Control System for a Distant Lecture with Videoing a Normal Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Akira; Nishigori, Shuichiro

    The growth of a communication network technology enables students to take part in a distant lecture. Although many lectures are conducted in universities by using Web contents, normal lectures using a blackboard are still held. The latter style lecture is good for a teacher's dynamic explanation. A way to modify it for a distant lecture is to…

  13. Nearby Hot Stars May Change Our View of Distant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    As if it werent enough that quasars distant and bright nuclei of galaxies twinkle of their own accord due to internal processes, nature also provides another complication: these distant radio sources can also appear to twinkle because of intervening material between them and us. A new study has identified a possible source for the material getting in the way.Unexplained VariabilityA Spitzer infrared view of the Helix nebula, which contains ionized streamers of gas extending radially outward from the central star. [NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Ariz.]Distant quasars occasionally display extreme scintillation, twinkling with variability timescales shorter than a day. This intra-day variability is much greater than we can account for with standard models of the interstellar medium lying between the quasar and us. So what could cause this extreme scattering instead?The first clue to this mystery came from the discovery of strong variability in the radio source PKS 1322110. In setting up follow-up observations of this object, Mark Walker (Manly Astrophysics, Australia) and collaborators noticed that, in the plane of the sky, PKS 1322110 lies very near the bright star Spica. Could this be coincidence, or might this bright foreground star have something to do with the extreme scattering observed?Diagram explaining the source of the intra-day radio source variability as intervening filaments surrounding a hot star. [M. Walker/CSIRO/Manly Astrophysics]Swarms of ClumpsWalker and collaborators put forward a hypothesis: perhaps the ultraviolet photons of nearby hot stars ionize plasma around them, which in turn causes the extreme scattering of the distant background sources.As a model, the authors consider the Helix Nebula, in which a hot, evolved star is surrounded by cool globules of molecular hydrogen gas. The radiation from the star hits these molecular clumps, dragging them into long radial streamers and ionizing their outer skins.Though the molecular clumps in the Helix

  14. Genetic diversity of Haemonchus contortus isolated from sympatric wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) and sheep in Helan Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Dong; Wang, Ji-Fei; Zhang, Dan-Yu; Peng, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Zhao-Ding; Bowman, Dwight D; Hou, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-09-19

    Haemonchus contortus is known among parasitic nematodes as one of the major veterinary pathogens of small ruminants and results in great economic losses worldwide. Human activities, such as the sympatric grazing of wild with domestic animals, may place susceptible wildlife hosts at risk of increased prevalence and infection intensity with this common small ruminant parasite. Studies on phylogenetic factors of H. contortus should assist in defining the amount of the impact of anthropogenic factors on the extent of sharing of agents such as this nematode between domestic animals and wildlife. H. contortus specimens (n = 57) were isolated from wild blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) inhabiting Helan Mountains (HM), China and additional H. contortus specimens (n = 20) were isolated from domestic sheep that were grazed near the natural habitat of the blue sheep. Complete ITS2 (second internal transcribed spacer) sequences and partial sequences of the nad4 (nicotinamide dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene) gene were amplified to determine the sequence variations and population genetic diversities between these two populations. Also, 142 nad4 haplotype sequences of H. contortus from seven other geographical regions of China were retrieved from database to further examine the H. contortus population structure. Sequence analysis revealed 10 genotypes (ITS2) and 73 haplotypes (nad4) among the 77 specimens, with nucleotide diversities of 0.007 and 0.021, respectively, similar to previous studies in other countries, such as Pakistan, Malaysia and Yemen. Phylogenetic analyses (BI, MP, NJ) of nad4 sequences showed that there were no noticeable boundaries among H. contortus populations from different geographical origin and population genetic analyses revealed that most of the variation (94.21%) occurred within H. contortus populations. All phylogenetic analyses indicated that there was little genetic differentiation but a high degree of gene flow among the H. contortus populations among

  15. Model of distant improvement of professional skill of the Ukrainian coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova O.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In article the conceptual model of organization and introduction of distant improvement of professional skill of coaches is developed and analyzed. Advantages of its introduction to coaches training, teachers and higher educational institutions which carry out a professional training for physical training and sports sphere are defined. It is developed the budgetary program project of distant improvement of professional skill of coaches on an example of National university of physical education and sports of Ukraine that consists of three stages: daily organizationally-adjusting session, independent telecommuting and daily final session with attestation.

  16. E-cadherin expression in primary carcinomas of the breast and its distant metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Paul J; Rubin, Mark A; Kleer, Celina G

    2003-01-01

    Aberrant expression of E-cadherin has been associated with the development of metastases in patients with breast cancer. Even though the expression of E-cadherin has been studied in primary breast tumors, little is known about its expression at the distant metastatic sites. We investigate the relationship between E-cadherin expression in primary breast carcinoma and their distant, non-nodal metastases. Immunohistochemical analysis of E-cadherin was performed in tissues from 30 patients with primary invasive breast carcinoma and their distant metastases. E-cadherin expression was evaluated as normal or aberrant (decreased when compared with normal internal positive controls, or absent). Twenty-two (73%) invasive carcinomas were ductal, and eight (27%) were lobular. Of the primary invasive ductal carcinomas, 55% (12/22) had normal E-cadherin expression and 45% (10/22) had aberrant expression. All of the metastases expressed E-cadherin with the same intensity as (12 tumors) or with stronger intensity than (10 tumors) the corresponding primaries. Of the invasive lobular carcinomas, one of eight (12%) primary carcinomas and none of the metastases expressed E-cadherin in the cell membranes, but they accumulated the protein in the cytoplasm. Aberrant E-cadherin expression is frequent in invasive ductal carcinomas that progress to develop distant metastases. Distant metastases consistently express E-cadherin, often more strongly than the primary tumor. Invasive lobular carcinomas have a different pattern of E-cadherin expression, suggesting a different role for E-cadherin in this form of breast carcinoma

  17. Generation of entangled coherent states for distant Bose-Einstein condensates via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, L.-M.; Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method to generate entangled coherent states between two spatially separated atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) via the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Two strong coupling laser beams and two entangled probe laser beams are used to cause two distant BECs to be in EIT states and to generate an atom-photon entangled state between probe lasers and distant BECs. The two BECs are initially in unentangled product coherent states while the probe lasers are initially in an entangled state. Entangled states of two distant BECs can be created through the performance of projective measurements upon the two outgoing probe lasers under certain conditions. Concretely, we propose two protocols to show how to generate entangled coherent states of the two distant BECs. One is a single-photon scheme in which an entangled single-photon state is used as the quantum channel to generate entangled distant BECs. The other is a multiphoton scheme where an entangled coherent state of the probe lasers is used as the quantum channel. Additionally, we also obtain some atom-photon entangled states of particular interest such as entangled states between a pair of optical Bell states (or quasi-Bell-states) and a pair of atomic entangled coherent states (or quasi-Bell-states)

  18. Long-term species balance in sympatric populations: implications for Atlantic salmon and brown trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Horreo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The factors determining regional adaptation in salmonids are still unclear, but it is known that changes in their habitat imply changes in their population structure. In this preliminary study we integrate habitat data, molecular analyses (from both nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial loci and life-history traits (measured on archaeological vertebrae and modern scales of two sympatric salmonid species: Atlantic salmon and brown trout. We propose that water temperature and geological characteristics changed the biogeographic patterns of these species through asymmetric migration and different (but complementary population growth rates. As a consequence, differences in a life-history trait (mean number of years at sea and population sizes were detected between regions, suggesting a process of substitution of Atlantic salmon by brown trout.

  19. A method of real-time detection for distant moving obstacles by monocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bao-zhi; Zhu, Ming

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for detection of distant moving obstacles like cars and bicycles by a monocular camera to cooperate with ultrasonic sensors in low-cost condition. We are aiming at detecting distant obstacles that move toward our autonomous navigation car in order to give alarm and keep away from them. Method of frame differencing is applied to find obstacles after compensation of camera's ego-motion. Meanwhile, each obstacle is separated from others in an independent area and given a confidence level to indicate whether it is coming closer. The results on an open dataset and our own autonomous navigation car have proved that the method is effective for detection of distant moving obstacles in real-time.

  20. Seasonal and Diel Activity Patterns of Eight Sympatric Mammals in Northern Japan Revealed by an Intensive Camera-Trap Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ikeda

    Full Text Available The activity patterns of mammals are generally categorized as nocturnal, diurnal, crepuscular (active at twilight, and cathemeral (active throughout the day. These patterns are highly variable across regions and seasons even within the same species. However, quantitative data is still lacking, particularly for sympatric species. We monitored the seasonal and diel activity patterns of terrestrial mammals in Hokkaido, Japan. Through an intensive camera-trap survey a total of 13,279 capture events were recorded from eight mammals over 20,344 camera-trap days, i.e., two years. Diel activity patterns were clearly divided into four categories: diurnal (Eurasian red squirrels, nocturnal (raccoon dogs and raccoons, crepuscular (sika deer and mountain hares, and cathemeral (Japanese martens, red foxes, and brown bears. Some crepuscular and cathemeral mammals shifted activity peaks across seasons. Particularly, sika deer changed peaks from twilight during spring-autumn to day-time in winter, possibly because of thermal constraints. Japanese martens were cathemeral during winter-summer, but nocturnal in autumn. We found no clear indication of predator-prey and competitive interactions, suggesting that animal densities are not very high or temporal niche partitioning is absent among the target species. This long-term camera-trap survey was highly cost-effective and provided one of the most detailed seasonal and diel activity patterns in multiple sympatric mammals under natural conditions.

  1. Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation–induced Stimulation of Distant Tumor Growth Is Suppressed by c-Met Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Moussa, Marwan; Wang, Yuanguo; Rozenblum, Nir; Galun, Eithan; Goldberg, S. Nahum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate how hepatic radiofrequency (RF) ablation affects distant extrahepatic tumor growth by means of two key molecular pathways. Materials and Methods Rats were used in this institutional animal care and use committee–approved study. First, the effect of hepatic RF ablation on distant subcutaneous in situ R3230 and MATBIII breast tumors was evaluated. Animals were randomly assigned to standardized RF ablation, sham procedure, or no treatment. Tumor growth rate was measured for 3½ to 7 days. Then, tissue was harvested for Ki-67 proliferative indexes and CD34 microvascular density. Second, hepatic RF ablation was performed for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and c-Met receptor expression measurement in periablational rim, serum, and distant tumor 24 hours to 7 days after ablation. Third, hepatic RF ablation was combined with either a c-Met inhibitor (PHA-665752) or VEGF receptor inhibitor (semaxanib) and compared with sham or drug alone arms to assess distant tumor growth and growth factor levels. Finally, hepatic RF ablation was performed in rats with c-Met–negative R3230 tumors for comparison with the native c-Met–positive line. Tumor size and immunohistochemical quantification at day 0 and at sacrifice were compared with analysis of variance and the two-tailed Student t test. Tumor growth curves before and after treatment were analyzed with linear regression analysis to determine mean slopes of pre- and posttreatment growth curves on a per-tumor basis and were compared with analysis of variance and paired two-tailed t tests. Results After RF ablation of normal liver, distant R3230 tumors were substantially larger at 7 days compared with tumors treated with the sham procedure and untreated tumors, with higher growth rates and tumor cell proliferation. Similar findings were observed in MATBIII tumors. Hepatic RF ablation predominantly increased periablational and serum HGF and downstream distant tumor

  2. Reaction enhancement of initially distant scalars by Lagrangian coherent structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, Kenneth R.; Crimaldi, John P.; Meiss, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Turbulent fluid flows have long been recognized as a superior means of diluting initial concentrations of scalars due to rapid stirring. Conversely, experiments have shown that the structures responsible for this rapid dilution can also aggregate initially distant reactive scalars and thereby greatly enhance reaction rates. Indeed, chaotic flows not only enhance dilution by shearing and stretching but also organize initially distant scalars along transiently attracting regions in the flow. To show the robustness of this phenomenon, a hierarchical set of three numerical flows is used: the periodic wake downstream of a stationary cylinder, a chaotic double gyre flow, and a chaotic, aperiodic flow consisting of interacting Taylor vortices. We demonstrate that Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS), as identified by ridges in finite time Lyapunov exponents, are directly responsible for this coalescence of reactive scalar filaments. When highly concentrated filaments coalesce, reaction rates can be orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted in a well-mixed system. This is further supported by an idealized, analytical model that was developed to quantify the competing effects of scalar dilution and coalescence. Chaotic flows, known for their ability to efficiently dilute scalars, therefore have the competing effect of organizing initially distant scalars along the LCS at timescales shorter than that required for dilution, resulting in reaction enhancement

  3. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha C.F.D.; Cunha-Barros M.; Menezes V.A.; Fontes A.F.; Vrcibradic D.; Van Sluys M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hos...

  4. Species coexistence: macroevolutionary relationships and the contingency of historical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Rachel M; Weir, Jason T; Gilbert, Benjamin

    2016-03-30

    Evolutionary biologists since Darwin have hypothesized that closely related species compete more intensely and are therefore less likely to coexist. However, recent theory posits that species diverge in two ways: either through the evolution of 'stabilizing differences' that promote coexistence by causing individuals to compete more strongly with conspecifics than individuals of other species, or through the evolution of 'fitness differences' that cause species to differ in competitive ability and lead to exclusion of the weaker competitor. We tested macroevolutionary patterns of divergence by competing pairs of annual plant species that differ in their phylogenetic relationships, and in whether they have historically occurred in the same region or different regions (sympatric versus allopatric occurrence). For sympatrically occurring species pairs, stabilizing differences rapidly increased with phylogenetic distance. However, fitness differences also increased with phylogenetic distance, resulting in coexistence outcomes that were unpredictable based on phylogenetic relationships. For allopatric species, stabilizing differences showed no trend with phylogenetic distance, whereas fitness differences increased, causing coexistence to become less likely among distant relatives. Our results illustrate the role of species' historical interactions in shaping how phylogenetic relationships structure competitive dynamics, and offer an explanation for the evolution of invasion potential of non-native species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung; Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. 201 Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative 131 I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of 201 Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of 131 I and 201 Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative 201 Tl and 131 I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. 201 Tl imaging was performed before the 131 I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent 201 Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the 201 Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic 131 I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by 201 Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative 201 Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on 131 I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on 131 I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative 201 Tl and 131 I scans, 15 had elevated serum Tg levels. Among these, local recurrence followed by lung

  6. Extending Justice: a rights-based account of our obligations to distant people

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, John

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines a prima facie tension between the narrow scope of social justice proposed by many liberal, rights-based accounts, and the intuition that we have a strong obligation to help distant people who are in great need. 'Distant people' in this instance are people who do not share our nationality, or those who will come to exist as members of future generations. Ways in which liberal, right-based theories of political philosophy can resolve this tension are examined, and the thesi...

  7. Synchronization scenario of two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mirasso, Claudio; Heil, Tilmann

    2004-01-01

    We present numerical and experimental investigations of the synchronization of the coupling-induced instabilities in two distant mutually coupled semiconductor lasers. In our experiments, two similar Fabry-Perot lasers are coupled via their coherent optical fields. Our theoretical framework is ba...

  8. Selections from 2017: Hubble Survey Explores Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2017, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume in January.CANDELS Multi-Wavelength Catalogs: Source Identification and Photometry in the CANDELS COSMOSSurvey FieldPublished January2017Main takeaway:A publication led byHooshang Nayyeri(UC Irvine and UC Riverside) early this year details acatalog of sources built using the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey(CANDELS), a survey carried out by cameras on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The catalogliststhe properties of 38,000 distant galaxies visiblewithin the COSMOS field, a two-square-degree equatorial field explored in depthto answer cosmological questions.Why its interesting:Illustration showing the three-dimensional map of the dark matter distribution in theCOSMOS field. [Adapted from NASA/ESA/R. Massey(California Institute of Technology)]The depth and resolution of the CANDELS observations areuseful for addressingseveral major science goals, including the following:Studying the most distant objects in the universe at the epoch of reionization in the cosmic dawn.Understanding galaxy formation and evolution during the peak epoch of star formation in the cosmic high noon.Studying star formation from deep ultravioletobservations and studying cosmology from supernova observations.Why CANDELS is a major endeavor:CANDELS isthe largest multi-cycle treasury program ever approved on the Hubble Space Telescope using over 900 orbits between 2010 and 2013 withtwo cameras on board the spacecraftto study galaxy formation and evolution throughout cosmic time. The CANDELS images are all publicly available, and the new catalogrepresents an enormous source of information about distant objectsin our universe.CitationH. Nayyeri et al 2017 ApJS 228 7. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/228/1/7

  9. APEX Snaps First Close-up of Star Factories in Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    amounts to up to a million billion [1015] times the mass of our Sun, is composed of hot gas and dark matter. In this case, the cluster being observed has the designation MACS J2135-010217 (or MACS J213512.10-010258.5), and is at a distance of about four billion light-years. [2] Gravitational lensing is an effect forecast by Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity. Due to their gigantic mass and their intermediate position between us and very distant galaxies, galaxy clusters act as extremely efficient gravitational lenses, bending the light coming from background galaxies. Depending on the cluster mass distribution a host of interesting effects are produced, such as magnification, shape distortions, giant arcs, and multiple images of the same source. More information This research was presented in a paper, "Intense star formation within resolved compact regions in a galaxy at z=2.3" (A. M. Swinbank et al., DOI 10.1038/nature08880) to appear online in Nature today. The team is composed of A. M. Swinbank, I. Smail, J. Richard, A. C. Edge, and K. E. K. Coppin (Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, UK), S. Longmore, R. Blundell, M. Gurwell, and D. Wilner (Harvard-Smithsonian Center For Astrophysics, USA), A. I. Harris and L. J. Hainline (Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, USA), A.J. Baker (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, University of New Jersey, USA), C. De Breuck, A. Lundgren and G. Siringo (ESO), R. J. Ivison (UKATC and Royal Observatory of Edinburgh, UK), P. Cox, M. Krips and R. Neri (Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique, France), B. Siana (California Institute of Technology, USA), D. P. Stark (Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, UK), and J. D. Younger (Institute for Advanced Study, USA). The Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope is a 12-metre telescope, located at 5100 m altitude on the arid plateau of Chajnantor in the Chilean Andes. APEX operates at millimetre and submillimetre

  10. Mimicking microbial interactions under nitrate-reducing conditions in an anoxic bioreactor: enrichment of novel Nitrospirae bacteria distantly related to Thermodesulfovibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Arslan; Dalcin Martins, Paula; Frank, Jeroen; Jetten, Mike S M; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Welte, Cornelia U

    2017-12-01

    Microorganisms are main drivers of the sulfur, nitrogen and carbon biogeochemical cycles. These elemental cycles are interconnected by the activity of different guilds in sediments or wastewater treatment systems. Here, we investigated a nitrate-reducing microbial community in a laboratory-scale bioreactor model that closely mimicked estuary or brackish sediment conditions. The bioreactor simultaneously consumed sulfide, methane and ammonium at the expense of nitrate. Ammonium oxidation occurred solely by the activity of anammox bacteria identified as Candidatus Scalindua brodae and Ca. Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Fifty-three percent of methane oxidation was catalyzed by archaea affiliated to Ca. Methanoperedens and 47% by Ca. Methylomirabilis bacteria. Sulfide oxidation was mainly shared between two proteobacterial groups. Interestingly, competition for nitrate did not lead to exclusion of one particular group. Metagenomic analysis showed that the most abundant taxonomic group was distantly related to Thermodesulfovibrio sp. (87-89% 16S rRNA gene identity, 52-54% average amino acid identity), representing a new family within the Nitrospirae phylum. A high quality draft genome of the new species was recovered, and analysis showed high metabolic versatility. Related microbial groups are found in diverse environments with sulfur, nitrogen and methane cycling, indicating that these novel Nitrospirae bacteria might contribute to biogeochemical cycling in natural habitats. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae and the Description of Three New Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Murphy

    Full Text Available Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita. Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists.

  12. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae) and the Description of Three New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C; Jowers, Michael J; Lehtinen, Richard M; Charles, Stevland P; Colli, Guarino R; Peres, Ayrton K; Hendry, Catriona R; Pyron, R Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists.

  13. Frequency and Correlates of Distant Visual Impairment in Patients with Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, W; Tang, L R; Correll, C U; Ungvari, G S; Chiu, H F K; Xiang, Y Q; Xiang, Y T

    2015-09-01

    Distant visual impairment in the severely mentally ill is under-researched. This study aimed to assess the frequency and correlates of distant visual impairment in a cohort of Chinese psychiatric patients, including its effect on their quality of life. Adult psychiatric inpatients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder consecutively admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Beijing, China underwent assessments of psychopathology (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology [Self-Report]), quality of life (12-item Short-Form Medical Outcomes Study [SF-12], 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire [NEI-VFQ25]), adverse effects (Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale), and presenting (as opposed to uncorrected) distant visual acuity (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution [LogMAR] chart with patients wearing spectacles, if they owned them). Distant visual impairment was defined as binocular distant visual acuity of a LogMAR score of ≥ 0.5 (visual impairment was 12.6% (15.2% with schizophrenia, 11.9% with bipolar disorder, 8.8% with major depressive disorder). In multiple logistic regression analysis, distant visual impairment was significantly associated with ocular disease only (p = 0.002, odds ratio = 3.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.5-6.7). Controlling for the confounding effect of ocular disease, patients with distant visual impairment had a lower quality of life in the general vision domain of the NEI-VFQ25 (F[2, 353] = 9.5, p = 0.002) compared with those without. No differences in the physical and mental domains of the SF-12 and in other domains of the NEI-VFQ25 were noted in these 2 groups. One-eighth of middle-aged severely mentally ill patients had distant visual impairment. Considering the impact of distant visual impairment on daily functioning, severely mentally ill patients need to be screened for impaired eyesight as part of their

  14. Shaggy Photoreceptors with Subfoveal Fluid Associated with a Distant Choroidal Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Q. Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT findings in a patient with an extra macula choroidal melanoma before and after treatment. Methods. Observational case report. Results. A 45 year-old Caucasian male patient was referred to retina clinic for management of choroidal melanoma. Examination revealed a nasal choroidal melanoma while EDI-OCT illustrated subfoveal fluid pocket with elongated shaggy photoreceptors distant and separate from the tumor. The patient was treated with plaque brachytherapy and intravitreal bevacizumab. One week after plaque removal, there was a dramatic reduction in the shaggy photoreceptors. Conclusion. Choroidal melanomas have effects that are not localized to the area of the tumor. This loculated pocket of subretinal fluid and coinciding changes to photoreceptor morphology may be related to global changes in choroidal function or release of tumor related cytokines.

  15. Relative-locality effects in Snyder spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignemi, S.; Samsarov, A.

    2017-01-01

    Most models of noncommutative geometry and doubly special relativity suggest that the principle of absolute locality should be replaced by the milder notion of relative locality. In particular, they predict the occurrence of a delay in the time of arrival of massless particle of different energies emitted by a distant observer. In this letter, we show that this is not the case with Snyder spacetime, essentially because the Lorentz invariance is not deformed in this case. Distant observers may however measure different times of flight for massive particles. - Highlights: • We discuss the dynamics of the Snyder model from the point of view of relative locality. • We show that no time delay is present for particles emitted by distant observers. • We ascribe this fact to the Lorentz invariance of the model. • Distant observers may however measure different times of flight for massive particle.

  16. Relative-locality effects in Snyder spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignemi, S., E-mail: smignemi@unica.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università di Cagliari, viale Merello 92, 09123 Cagliari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato (Italy); Samsarov, A., E-mail: andjelo.samsarov@irb.hr [Rudjer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2017-05-18

    Most models of noncommutative geometry and doubly special relativity suggest that the principle of absolute locality should be replaced by the milder notion of relative locality. In particular, they predict the occurrence of a delay in the time of arrival of massless particle of different energies emitted by a distant observer. In this letter, we show that this is not the case with Snyder spacetime, essentially because the Lorentz invariance is not deformed in this case. Distant observers may however measure different times of flight for massive particles. - Highlights: • We discuss the dynamics of the Snyder model from the point of view of relative locality. • We show that no time delay is present for particles emitted by distant observers. • We ascribe this fact to the Lorentz invariance of the model. • Distant observers may however measure different times of flight for massive particle.

  17. Effect of radiation on fruit pollen germination and distant hybridization compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Shang Xiaoli

    2006-01-01

    Pollens of Zhouxingshantao peach trees, apricot cultivar Katy and plum cultivar Friar were irradiated by different doses of 60 Co γ-rays and ultraviolet to study the radiation effect on the pollen germination and distant hybridization settings. The germination percentages of the pollen irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays and ultraviolet were lower than those of the controls. The pollens of the tested fruits have different sensitivities of 60 Co γ-rays and ultraviolet: the Friar pollen was the most sensitive to the radiation, and the Katy was the least. With the germinate percentages of the irradiated pollen dropping, the distant hybridization fruit setting percentage also lowered. (authors)

  18. Mycorrhizae support oaks growing in a phylogenetically distant neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yguel, B.; Courty, P.E.; Jactel, H.; Pan, X.; Butenschoen, O.; Murray, P.J.; Prinzing, A.

    2014-01-01

    Host-plants may rarely leave their ancestral niche and in which case they tend to be surrounded by phylogenetically distant neighbours. Phylogenetically isolated host-plants might share few mutualists with their neighbours and might suffer from a decrease in mutualist support. In addition host

  19. Sampling genetic diversity in the sympatrically and allopatrically speciating Midas cichlid species complex over a 16 year time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunje Paul ME

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speciation often occurs in complex or uncertain temporal and spatial contexts. Processes such as reinforcement, allopatric divergence, and assortative mating can proceed at different rates and with different strengths as populations diverge. The Central American Midas cichlid fish species complex is an important case study for understanding the processes of speciation. Previous analyses have demonstrated that allopatric processes led to species formation among the lakes of Nicaragua as well as sympatric speciation that is occurring within at least one crater lake. However, since speciation is an ongoing process and sampling genetic diversity of such lineages can be biased by collection scheme or random factors, it is important to evaluate the robustness of conclusions drawn on individual time samples. Results In order to assess the validity and reliability of inferences based on different genetic samples, we have analyzed fish from several lakes in Nicaragua sampled at three different times over 16 years. In addition, this time series allows us to analyze the population genetic changes that have occurred between lakes, where allopatric speciation has operated, as well as between different species within lakes, some of which have originated by sympatric speciation. Focusing on commonly used genetic markers, we have analyzed both DNA sequences from the complete mitochondrial control region as well as nuclear DNA variation at ten microsatellite loci from these populations, sampled thrice in a 16 year time period, to develop a robust estimate of the population genetic history of these diversifying lineages. Conclusion The conclusions from previous work are well supported by our comprehensive analysis. In particular, we find that the genetic diversity of derived crater lake populations is lower than that of the source population regardless of when and how each population was sampled. Furthermore, changes in various estimates of

  20. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  1. The Resistome of Low-Impacted Marine Environments Is Composed by Distant Metallo-β-Lactamases Homologs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Fonseca

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide dispersion and sudden emergence of new antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs determined the need in uncovering which environment participate most as their source and reservoir. ARGs closely related to those currently found in human pathogens occur in the resistome of anthropogenic impacted environments. However, the role of pristine environment as the origin and source of ARGs remains underexplored and controversy, particularly, the marine environments represented by the oceans. Here, due to the ocean nature, we hypothesized that the resistome of this pristine/low-impacted marine environment is represented by distant ARG homologs. To test this hypothesis we performed an in silico analysis on the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS metagenomic project dataset focusing on the metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs as the ARG model. MβLs have been a challenge to public health, since they hydrolyze the carbapenems, one of the last therapeutic choice in clinics. Using Hidden Markov Model (HMM profiles, we were successful in identifying a high diversity of distant MβL homologs, related to the B1, B2, and B3 subclasses. The majority of them were distributed across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans being related to the chromosomally encoded MβL GOB present in Elizabethkingia genus. It was observed only a reduced number of metagenomic sequence homologs related to the acquired MβL enzymes (VIM, SPM-1, and AIM-1 that currently have impact in clinics. Therefore, low antibiotic impacted marine environment, as the ocean, are unlikely the source of ARGs that have been causing enormous threat to the public health.

  2. The Resistome of Low-Impacted Marine Environments Is Composed by Distant Metallo-β-Lactamases Homologs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Erica L; Andrade, Bruno G N; Vicente, Ana C P

    2018-01-01

    The worldwide dispersion and sudden emergence of new antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) determined the need in uncovering which environment participate most as their source and reservoir. ARGs closely related to those currently found in human pathogens occur in the resistome of anthropogenic impacted environments. However, the role of pristine environment as the origin and source of ARGs remains underexplored and controversy, particularly, the marine environments represented by the oceans. Here, due to the ocean nature, we hypothesized that the resistome of this pristine/low-impacted marine environment is represented by distant ARG homologs. To test this hypothesis we performed an in silico analysis on the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) metagenomic project dataset focusing on the metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs) as the ARG model. MβLs have been a challenge to public health, since they hydrolyze the carbapenems, one of the last therapeutic choice in clinics. Using Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles, we were successful in identifying a high diversity of distant MβL homologs, related to the B1, B2, and B3 subclasses. The majority of them were distributed across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans being related to the chromosomally encoded MβL GOB present in Elizabethkingia genus. It was observed only a reduced number of metagenomic sequence homologs related to the acquired MβL enzymes (VIM, SPM-1, and AIM-1) that currently have impact in clinics. Therefore, low antibiotic impacted marine environment, as the ocean, are unlikely the source of ARGs that have been causing enormous threat to the public health.

  3. Relative value of thallium-201 and iodine-131 scans in the detection of recurrence or distant metastasis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Jen-Der; Weng Hsiao-Fen; Lu Wen-Tsoung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Pan-Fu; Huang Miau-Ju [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-07-01

    Radioactive iodine ({sup 131}I) has been found to be more sensitive and more specific than thallium-201 for the detection of distant metastases and thyroid remnants in the neck in cases of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. {sup 201}Tl has been deemed particularly useful in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with a negative {sup 131}I scan and abnormal levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg). This study aimed to: (1) determine the value of {sup 201}Tl imaging in localizing metastases or recurrence in patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and (2) evaluate the false-positive and false-negative results of {sup 131}I and {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy. Sixty-two thyroid remnant ablated patients who underwent simultaneous postoperative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I scans and and serum Tg determinations were evaluated. Fifty patients had papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 had follicular thyroid carcinomas. {sup 201}Tl imaging was performed before the {sup 131}I studies. Of the 62 patients who underwent {sup 201}Tl imaging studies, 24 were found to have positive results, with local recurrence or distant metastases. Patients with positive results in the {sup 201}Tl imaging studies tended to be older, were mor often male, had higher Tg levels and had a higher recurrence rate. Of these 24 patients, ten had negative diagnostic or therapeutic {sup 131}I scans. Concurrently, serum Tg levels were less than 5 ng/ml in five of these ten patients. Three patients were deemed false positive by {sup 201}Tl scans; one had a parotid tumour, one a periodontal abscess and one lung metastasis. Among the 38 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl scans, 11 had positive findings on {sup 131}I scans. Three had distant metastases: two with lung metastases and one with bone metastases. Patients with false-positive results on {sup 131}I scans included those with biliary tract stones, ovarian cysts, and breast secretion. Of the 27 patients with negative {sup 201}Tl and {sup 131}I

  4. Introgression and selection shaped the evolutionary history of sympatric sister-species of coral reef fishes (genus: Haemulon)

    KAUST Repository

    Bernal, Moisés A.

    2016-11-22

    Closely related marine species with large overlapping ranges provide opportunities to study mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between such lineages. Here, we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister-species. On the other hand, complete lineage sorting was observed at the nuclear loci and most of the SNPs. Under neutral expectations, the smaller effective population size of mtDNA should lead to fixation of mutations faster than nDNA. Thus, these results suggest that hybridization in the recent past (0.174-0.263Ma) led to introgression of the mtDNA, with little effect on the nuclear genome. Analyses of the SNP data revealed 28 loci potentially under divergent selection between the two species. The combination of mtDNA introgression and limited nuclear DNA introgression provides a mechanism for the evolution of independent lineages despite recurrent hybridization events. This study adds to the growing body of research that exemplifies how genetic divergence can be maintained in the presence of gene flow between closely related species.

  5. Introgression and selection shaped the evolutionary history of sympatric sister-species of coral reef fishes (genus: Haemulon)

    KAUST Repository

    Bernal, Moisé s A.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Simison, W. Brian; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2016-01-01

    Closely related marine species with large overlapping ranges provide opportunities to study mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between such lineages. Here, we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister-species. On the other hand, complete lineage sorting was observed at the nuclear loci and most of the SNPs. Under neutral expectations, the smaller effective population size of mtDNA should lead to fixation of mutations faster than nDNA. Thus, these results suggest that hybridization in the recent past (0.174-0.263Ma) led to introgression of the mtDNA, with little effect on the nuclear genome. Analyses of the SNP data revealed 28 loci potentially under divergent selection between the two species. The combination of mtDNA introgression and limited nuclear DNA introgression provides a mechanism for the evolution of independent lineages despite recurrent hybridization events. This study adds to the growing body of research that exemplifies how genetic divergence can be maintained in the presence of gene flow between closely related species.

  6. Notes on the genus Pirdana Distant, 1886 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Treadaway, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In the Oriental genus Pirdana Distant, 1886, the new species P. fusca is described from Samar (E Philippines). The phylogeny of the genus is discussed and as a consequence the endemic Sulawesi taxon P. hyela ismene (Felder & Felder, [1867]) is given back its species rank, bringing the total number

  7. Video-mediated communication to support distant family connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ryoko; Driessnack, Martha

    2013-02-01

    It can be difficult to maintain family connections with geographically distant members. However, advances in computer-human interaction (CHI) systems, including video-mediated communication (VMC) are emerging. While VMC does not completely substitute for physical face-to-face communication, it appears to provide a sense of virtual copresence through the addition of visual and contextual cues to verbal communication between family members. The purpose of this study was to explore current patterns of VMC use, experiences, and family functioning among self-identified VMC users separated geographically from their families. A total of 341 participants (ages 18 to above 70) completed an online survey and Family APGAR. Ninty-six percent of the participants reported that VMC was the most common communication method used and 60% used VMC at least once/week. The most common reason cited for using VMC over other methods of communication was the addition of visual cues. A significant difference between the Family APGAR scores and the number of positive comments about VMC experience was also found. This exploratory study provides insight into the acceptance of VMC and its usefulness in maintaining connections with distant family members.

  8. Genetic structure of a natural oak community in central Italy: Evidence of gene flow between three sympatric white oak species (Quercus, Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Antonecchia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete reproductive barriers between species, especially in sympatric areas where several species coexist, may result in hybridization and an increase in genetic diversity. Here we assessed the amount of genetic diversity in a community of three interfertile and sympatric European oaks (Quercus frainetto Ten., Q. petraea Liebl. Matt. and Q. pubescens Willd. situated in central Italy. We used 11 microsatellite markers derived from Expressed Sequence Tag (EST-SSRs and we implemented a Bayesian clustering analysis to assign individuals to species or hybrids. All genotyped loci were polymorphic for all the species and three genetic clusters corresponding to each species were detected. Significant differences and a higher level of gene flow were observed between the three oak species. Occurrence of hybrids varied markedly within the studied area: hybrids between Q. petraea and Q, pubescens were the most frequent, while hybrids between Q. petraea and Q. frainetto were particularly rare. Q. pubescens and Q. petraea showed the highest number of alleles compared to Q. frainetto,which was characterized by a low number of private, but highly frequent, alleles. However, Q. frainetto showed a lower genetic diversity and a stronger reproductive isolation from the other two oak species.

  9. Beclin 1 Expression is Closely Linked to Colorectal Carcinogenesis and Distant Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ying Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beclin 1 participates in development, autophagy, differentiation, anti- apoptosis, neurodegeneration, tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The roles of Beclin 1 in colorectal carcinogenesis and its subsequent progression are still unclear. Here, the mRNA and protein expression of Beclin 1 were determined in colorectal carcinoma and matched mucosa by Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization (ISH were performed on tissue microarryer with colorectal carcinoma, adenoma and mucosa. The expression of Beclin 1 mRNA and protein was found to be higher in colorectal carcinoma than matched mucosa by real-time PCR and Western blot (p < 0.05. According to the ISH data, Beclin 1 expression was lower in colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM than adenoma and carcinoma (p < 0.05. Immunohistochemically, primary carcinoma showed stronger Beclin 1 expression than NNM and metastatic carcinoma in the liver (p < 0.05. Beclin 1 protein expression was negatively related to liver and distant metastasis (p < 0.05, but not correlated with age, sex, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM staging, differentiation or serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA concentration (p > 0.05. Survival analysis indicated that Beclin 1 expression was not linked to favorable prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (p > 0.05. Cox’s model indicated that depth of invasion and distant metastasis were independent prognostic factors for colorectal carcinomas (p < 0.05. It was suggested that Beclin 1 expression is closely linked to colorectal carcinogenesis and distant metastasis of colorectal carcinoma.

  10. Two new species of diminutive leaf-litter skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Tytthoscincus) from Gunung Penrissen, Sarawak, Malaysia (northern Borneo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Benjamin R; Das, Indraneil; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-03-22

    We describe two new species of skinks from Gunung Penrissen, Sarawak, Malaysia, in northern Borneo, Tytthoscincus batupanggah sp. nov. and T. leproauricularis sp. nov. Morphological and molecular analyses both corroborate the two new species as unique compared to all other Tytthoscincus and additional Sphenomorphus that are candidates for taxonomic placement in the genus Tytthoscincus. Despite their phenotypic similarity and sympatric distribution, a molecular analysis shows that the new species are not sister taxa and exhibit a deep genetic divergence between each of their respective sister taxa. We discuss how historical climatic and geographic processes may have led to the co-distribution of two relatively distantly related phenotypically similar species. In light of these discoveries, we also emphasize the importance of conserving primary montane tropical rainforest for maintaining species diversity.

  11. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  12. Entanglement of distant superconducting quantum interference device rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukarnain, Z Ahmad; Konstadopoulou, A; Vourdas, A; Migliore, R; Messina, A

    2005-01-01

    We consider two distant mesoscopic SQUID rings, approximated with two-level systems, interacting with two-mode microwaves. The Hamiltonian of the system is used to calculate its time evolution. The cases with microwaves which at t = 0 are in separable states (classically correlated) or entangled states (quantum mechanically correlated) are studied. It is shown that the Josephson currents in the two SQUID rings are also correlated

  13. Information and Communication Technology Skills of Students Using the Distant Education Management System to Complete Their Theology Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalman, Murat; Basaran, Bulent; Gonen, Selehattin

    2016-01-01

    Considering several variables, the present study aimed at examining the information and communication technology skills of university students taking their courses with the distant education system. In the study, the singular and relational survey model, one of general survey models, was used. The research sample was made up of 381 students…

  14. COGcollator: a web server for analysis of distant relationships between homologous protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V; Konovalov, Kirill A; Perekhvatov, Vadim V; Skulachev, Konstantin V; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y

    2017-11-29

    The Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins systematize evolutionary related proteins into specific groups with similar functions. However, the available databases do not provide means to assess the extent of similarity between the COGs. We intended to provide a method for identification and visualization of evolutionary relationships between the COGs, as well as a respective web server. Here we introduce the COGcollator, a web tool for identification of evolutionarily related COGs and their further analysis. We demonstrate the utility of this tool by identifying the COGs that contain distant homologs of (i) the catalytic subunit of bacterial rotary membrane ATP synthases and (ii) the DNA/RNA helicases of the superfamily 1. This article was reviewed by Drs. Igor N. Berezovsky, Igor Zhulin and Yuri Wolf.

  15. Cross-fostering reveals seasonal changes in the relative fitness of two competing species of flycatchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qvarnstrom, A; Svedin, N; Wiley, C; Veen, T; Gustafsson, L

    Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in relative fitness of competing species is a key factor affecting the structure of communities. However, it is not intuitive whys species that are ecologically similar should differ in their response to environmental changes. Here we show that two sympatric

  16. Increased noise levels have different impacts on the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene K Voellmy

    Full Text Available Animals must avoid predation to survive and reproduce, and there is increasing evidence that man-made (anthropogenic factors can influence predator-prey relationships. Anthropogenic noise has been shown to have a variety of effects on many species, but work investigating the impact on anti-predator behaviour is rare. In this laboratory study, we examined how additional noise (playback of field recordings of a ship passing through a harbour, compared with control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ship noise, affected responses to a visual predatory stimulus. We compared the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus, which share similar feeding and predator ecologies, but differ in their body armour. Effects of additional-noise playbacks differed between species: sticklebacks responded significantly more quickly to the visual predatory stimulus during additional-noise playbacks than during control conditions, while minnows exhibited no significant change in their response latency. Our results suggest that elevated noise levels have the potential to affect anti-predator behaviour of different species in different ways. Future field-based experiments are needed to confirm whether this effect and the interspecific difference exist in relation to real-world noise sources, and to determine survival and population consequences.

  17. Genetic differentiation between sympatric and allopatric wintering populations of Snow Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, E.M.; Peters, J.L.; Jonsson, J.E.; Stone, R.; Afton, A.D.; Omland, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge on the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland, USA has been the wintering area of a small population of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; LSGO) since the 1930s. Snow Geese primarily pair in wintering areas and gene flow could be restricted between this and other LSGO wintering populations. Winter pair formation also could facilitate interbreeding with sympatric but morphologically differentiated Greater Snow Geese (C. c. atlantica; GSGO).We sequenced 658 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region for 68 Snow Geese from East Coast and Louisiana wintering populations to examine the level of genetic differentiation among populations and subspecies. We found no evidence for genetic differentiation between LSGO populations but, consistent with morphological differences, LSGO and GSGO were significantly differentiated. We also found a lack of genetic differentiation between different LSGO morphotypes from Louisiana. We examined available banding data and found the breeding range of Delmarva LSGO overlaps extensively with LSGO that winter in Louisiana, and documented movements between wintering populations. Our results suggest the Delmarva population of LSGO is not a unique population unit apart from Mid-Continent Snow Geese. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  18. Light and shadow from distant worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Seager, Sara

    2009-11-19

    Exoplanets are distant worlds that orbit stars other than our Sun. More than 370 such planets are known, and a growing fraction of them are discovered because they transit their star as seen from Earth. The special transit geometry enables us to measure masses and radii for dozens of planets, and we have identified gases in the atmospheres of several giant ones. Within the next decade, we expect to find and study a 'habitable' rocky planet transiting a cool red dwarf star close to our Sun. Eventually, we will be able to image the light from an Earth-like world orbiting a nearby solar-type star.

  19. The relationship between tumour size, nodal status and distant metastases: on the origins of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopik, Victoria; Narod, Steven A

    2018-04-24

    In patients with breast cancer, increasing tumour size at diagnosis is associated with an increased likelihood of axillary lymph node involvement and increased breast cancer-specific mortality. However, this relation is based on studies which combine all tumours smaller than 1.0 cm in a single category and all tumours larger than 5.0 cm in another category. This coarse classification may obscure a nuanced description of the effects of tumour size across the full range of possible sizes. We examined the relationship between primary tumour size, lymph node status and distant metastases in a cohort of 819,647 women diagnosed with first primary invasive breast cancer from 1990 to 2014 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries database. All patients in the cohort had a known primary tumour size between 1 and 150 mm in greatest dimension. Primary tumour size was examined as a continuous (1-150 mm) and categorical variable (15 size groups; 10-mm intervals). For each 1- or 10-mm size group, we determined the proportion of patients with positive lymph nodes at diagnosis, the proportion of patients with distant metastases at diagnosis and the actuarial cumulative risk of breast cancer-specific mortality at 15 years from diagnosis. Among 819,647 patients with invasive breast tumours between 1 and 150 mm in size, there was a non-linear correlation between increasing tumour size and the prevalence of lymph node metastases at diagnosis (% node-positive), the prevalence of distant metastases at diagnosis (% stage IV) and the 15-year rate of breast cancer-specific mortality across the entire size spectrum. For very small tumours (under 10 mm) and for very large tumours (larger than 60-90 mm) there was little correlation between tumour size and metastasis risk. The relationship between tumour size, lymph node status and distant metastases in patients with invasive breast cancer is not linear. This calls into question the conventional model that the

  20. Galactic Teamwork Makes Distant Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    During the period of reionization that followed the dark ages of our universe, hydrogen was transformed from a neutral state, which is opaque to radiation, to an ionized one, which is transparent to radiation. But what generated the initial ionizing radiation? The recent discovery of multiple distant galaxies offers evidence for how this process occurred.Two Distant GalaxiesWe believe reionization occurred somewhere between a redshift of z = 6 and 7, because Ly-emitting galaxies drop out at roughly this redshift. Beyond this distance, were generally unable to see the light from these galaxies, because the universe is no longer transparent to their emission. This is not always the case, however: if a bubble of ionized gas exists around a distant galaxy, the radiation can escape, allowing us to see the galaxy.This is true of two recently-discovered Ly-emitting galaxies, confirmed to be at a redshift of z~7 and located near one another in a region known as the Bremer Deep Field. The fact that were able to see the radiation from these galaxies means that they are in an ionized HII region presumably one of the earlier regions to have become reionized in the universe.But on their own, neither of these galaxies is capable of generating an ionized bubble large enough for their light to escape. So what ionized the region around them, and what does this mean for our understanding of how reionization occurred in the universe?A Little Help From FriendsLocation in different filters of the objects in the Hubble Bremer Deep Field catalog. The z~7 selection region is outlined by the grey box. BDF-521 and BDF-3299 were the two originally discovered galaxies; the remaining red markers indicate the additional six galaxies discovered in the same region. [Castellano et al. 2016]A team of scientists led by Marco Castellano (Rome Observatory, INAF) investigated the possibility that there are other, faint galaxies near these two that have helped to ionize the region. Performing a survey

  1. Overview by Pioneer observations of the distant geomagnetic tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villante, U [L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Istituto de Astrofisica

    1977-03-01

    Pioneer 7 and Pioneer 8 spacecraft provided the only direct observations of the geomagnetic tail at geocentric distances as large as 1000 Rsub(e) and 500 Rsub(e) respectively. The presence of a low density plasma flow in the region of expected tail and the intermittent and short duration character of the tail encounters suggested in the past a distant tail structure remarkably different from its near-earth and cislunar shape. However the recent discovery of the plasma mantle allows interpretation of the Pioneer observations in terms of a distant tail that possibly is still preserving most of its near-earth characteristics. In particular, the region of tail encounters and the magnitude and direction of the observed magnetic field might be consistent with a cylindrical tail with a modestly increased cross-section. Neutral sheet observations also appear to be consistent with the most recent bidimensional tail models. Finally, as in the cislunar region, the double peaked proton energy spectra can be interpreted in terms of a partial intermingling of plasma sheet and plasma mantle populations.

  2. Model of training of computer science teachers by means of distant education technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т А Соловьева

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Training of future computer science teachers in conditions of informatization of education is analyzed. Distant educational technologies (DET and traditional process of training, their advantages and disadvantages are considered, active functions of DET as the basis of the model of training by means of DET is stressed. It is shown that mixed education combining both distant ant traditional technologies takes place on the basis of the created model. Practical use of the model is shown on the example of the course «Recursion» for future computer science teachers.

  3. ENHANCING DISTANT LEARNING THROUGH EMAIL COMMUNICATION: A Case of BOU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Rezanur RAHMAN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Today computer has replaced all means of traditional communication significantly. Many distant learning tools claim to be interactive, but few can offer two-way communication. Email is the most popular means of communication medium now-a-days. Therefore, it may be used as an educational tool for learning. In present socio-economic condition of Bangladesh, learners can afford computer, cell phone and Internet. We took this opportunity to investigate the prospective use of these tools for distant learning. The present survey has been carried out to understand the present status of Internet knowledge among the learners and their views for possible introduction of e-mail communication as supporting tool for learning. BOU’s available infrastructural facilities for providing Internet support have been investigated. Furthermore, possible solutions have been pointed out to provide e-mail facility to the learner in a cost effective way.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Tong Len Meditation Practice in Cancer Patients: Evaluation of a Distant Psychological Healing Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaro, Gioacchino; Pandolfi, Paolo; Collina, Natalina; Frezza, Giovanni; Brandes, Alba; Galli, Margherita; Avventuroso, Federica Marzocchi; De Lisio, Sara; Musti, Muriel Assunta; Franceschi, Enrico; Esposti, Roberta Degli; Lombardo, Laura; Cavallo, Giovanna; Di Battista, Monica; Rimondini, Simonetta; Poggi, Rosalba; Susini, Cinzia; Renzi, Rina; Marconi, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Tong Len meditation is an important therapeutic tool in the Tibetan medicine, and it can be used for self-healing and/or to heal others. Currently, in the West, there is no scientific study concerning the efficacy of a Tong Len distant healing effect on psychological disorders in cancer patients. To evaluate a distant healing effect of Tong Len meditation on stress, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and self-perceived quality of life in cancer patients. These psychological objectives were chosen as a consequence of the limited scientific literature of present day. We performed a double-blind randomized controlled trial on 103 cancer patients with tumors. Overall, 12 meditators used Tong Len in aid of 52 patients randomly selected as experimental group, while the remaining 51 patients constituted the control group. Patients and meditators did not know each other. All patients completed profile of mood states (POMS) and European Quality of Life-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaires before treatment (T0), after two (T1) and three months of treatment (T2), and one month after treatment cessation (T3). With regard to the parameters related to depression, a statistically significant improvement (P = .003) was observed in the treatment group compared to controls. On the other hand, the vigor/activity parameter saw significant improvements in the control group (P = .009). Both groups exhibited significant improvements in the other factors assessed in the POMS and EQ-5D questionnaires. This study did not provide sufficient evidence supporting an efficacy of Tong Len meditation in distant psychological healing as compared to a control condition. The research highlighted some psychological improvements through Tong Len distant meditation in a group of patients unknown to meditators. Therefore, the enhancement detected in most parameters in both treatment and control groups raises interest on in-depth analysis and evaluation of distant meditation on cancer patients to mitigate

  5. Erosion of interspecific reproductive barriers resulting from hatchery supplementation of rainbow trout sympatric with cutthroat trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docker, Margaret F; Dale, Angie; Heath, Daniel D

    2003-12-01

    The frequency of hybridization between cutthroat (Onchorhynchus clarki clarki) and rainbow (O. mykiss irideus) trout from coastal habitats in British Columbia, Canada, was examined in seven populations where the two species are sympatric with no history of rainbow trout stocking and compared with areas where native rainbow trout populations have been supplemented with hatchery fish (three populations). Four nuclear markers were used to identify each species and interspecific hybrids and one mitochondrial marker showed the direction of gene exchange between species. The frequency of hybrids was significantly higher (Fisher exact test, P < 0.001) in river systems where hatchery rainbow trout have been introduced (50.6% hybrids) than in populations where the two species naturally co-occur without supplementation (9.9% hybrids).

  6. Surgical resection of solitary distant metastasis from locoregionally controlled advanced hypopharyngeal malignancy: A ray of hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelakkot G Prameela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck malignancies have always been challenging for the clinician, both with regards to locoregional control and distant metastasis. Aggressive approaches translate to an acceptable locoregional control, but distant failures pose a dilemma. Newer, sophisticated, imaging modalities have helped in early diagnosis of solitary metastasis, and in turn have opened up an array of interventional procedures, which to some extent improve the disease-free survival and quality of life, as was seen in the present case of locoregionally controlled advanced hypopharyngeal malignancy who presented with solitary distant metastasis. Still, diligent care needs to be taken not to aggravate the scenario with these interventions.

  7. Comparative Foraging Efficiency of Two Sympatric Jackals, Silver-Backed Jackals (Canis mesomelas) and Golden Jackals (Canis aureus), in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Temu, S. E.; Nahonyo, C. L.; Moehlman, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    The foraging efficiency of two sympatric species of jackals, silver-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas) and golden jackals (Canis aureus), was studied in the Ngorongoro crater from July 2014 through May 2015. The focal animal observation method was used and individuals of both species were followed as they foraged from morning to evening. Observations of individuals of both jackal species were made from a vehicle using binoculars and a spotting scope. Three major parameters were used for determi...

  8. Genomics of Rapid Incipient Speciation in Sympatric Threespine Stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Marques

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological speciation is the process by which reproductively isolated populations emerge as a consequence of divergent natural or ecologically-mediated sexual selection. Most genomic studies of ecological speciation have investigated allopatric populations, making it difficult to infer reproductive isolation. The few studies on sympatric ecotypes have focused on advanced stages of the speciation process after thousands of generations of divergence. As a consequence, we still do not know what genomic signatures of the early onset of ecological speciation look like. Here, we examined genomic differentiation among migratory lake and resident stream ecotypes of threespine stickleback reproducing in sympatry in one stream, and in parapatry in another stream. Importantly, these ecotypes started diverging less than 150 years ago. We obtained 34,756 SNPs with restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and identified genomic islands of differentiation using a Hidden Markov Model approach. Consistent with incipient ecological speciation, we found significant genomic differentiation between ecotypes both in sympatry and parapatry. Of 19 islands of differentiation resisting gene flow in sympatry, all were also differentiated in parapatry and were thus likely driven by divergent selection among habitats. These islands clustered in quantitative trait loci controlling divergent traits among the ecotypes, many of them concentrated in one region with low to intermediate recombination. Our findings suggest that adaptive genomic differentiation at many genetic loci can arise and persist in sympatry at the very early stage of ecotype divergence, and that the genomic architecture of adaptation may facilitate this.

  9. Radon at the Mauna Loa Observatory: transport from distant continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.; Robinson, E.; Ryan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Continuous measurements of radon have been made at an altitude of 3400m at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Concentrations ranged from about 20 to more than 700mBq m -3 . These were similar to values at remote Macquarie I., some 2000 km south of Australia in the Southern Ocean. At Mauna Loa, the radon concentrations could usually be separated into free tropospheric and island influenced categories on the basis of local meteorological observations. On one occasion a long range transport event from Asia brought relatively high radon concentrations to Mauna Loa and persisted for several days. The Asian origin of this event was supported by wind trajectories. This measurement program demonstrates the value of radon data in evaluating air transport models and the influence of transport from distant continents on baseline atmospheric measurements. (author)

  10. Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gary B.; Lubin, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This document is the Final Report for NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Grant 15-NIAC16A-0145, titled Molecular Composition Analysis of Distant Targets. The research was focused on developing a system concept for probing the molecular composition of cold solar system targets, such as Asteroids, Comets, Planets and Moons from a distant vantage, for example from a spacecraft that is orbiting the target (Hughes et al., 2015). The orbiting spacecraft is equipped with a high-power laser, which is run by electricity from photovoltaic panels. The laser is directed at a spot on the target. Materials on the surface of the target are heated by the laser beam, and begin to melt and then evaporate, forming a plume of asteroid molecules in front of the heated spot. The heated spot glows, producing blackbody illumination that is visible from the spacecraft, via a path through the evaporated plume. As the blackbody radiation from the heated spot passes through the plume of evaporated material, molecules in the plume absorb radiation in a manner that is specific to the rotational and vibrational characteristics of the specific molecules. A spectrometer aboard the spacecraft is used to observe absorption lines in the blackbody signal. The pattern of absorption can be used to estimate the molecular composition of materials in the plume, which originated on the target. Focusing on a single spot produces a borehole, and shallow subsurface profiling of the targets bulk composition is possible. At the beginning of the Phase I research, the estimated Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the system was TRL-1. During the Phase I research, an end-to-end theoretical model of the sensor system was developed from first principles. The model includes laser energy and optical propagation, target heating, melting and evaporation of target material, plume density, thermal radiation from the heated spot, molecular cross section of likely asteroid materials, and estimation of the

  11. Genetic analysis of Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura recovered from humans and pigs in a sympatric setting in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2012-01-01

    The whipworms Trichuris trichiura and Trichuris suis in humans and pigs, respectively, are believed to be two different species yet closely related. Morphologically, adult worms, eggs and larvae of the two species are indistinguishable. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic variation....... suis-type) and three cases of ‘heterozygote’ worms in humans were identified. However, the analysis showed that sympatric Trichuris primarily assorted with host origin. Sequence analysis of a part of the genetically conserved ¿-tubulin gene confirmed two separate populations/species but also showed...... that the ‘heterozygote’ worms had a T. suis-like ¿-tubulin gene. A PCR-RFLP on the ITS-2 region was developed, that could distinguish between worms of the pig, human and ‘heterozygote’ type. The data suggest that Trichuris in pigs and humans belong to two different populations (i.e. are two different species). However...

  12. Bacteria may contribute to distant species recognition in ant-aphid mutualistic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christophe Y; Detrain, Claire; Thonart, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J; Lognay, Georges C

    2017-04-01

    Mutualistic interactions between ant and aphid species have been the subject of considerable historical and contemporary investigations, the primary benefits being cleaning and protection for the aphids and carbohydrate-rich honeydew for the ants. Questions remained, however, as to the volatile semiochemical factor influencing this relationship. A recent study highlighted the role of bacterial honeydew volatile compounds in ant attraction. Here, ant's ability to distantly discriminate 2 aphid species was investigated based on bacterial honeydew semiochemicals emissions using a two-way olfactometer. Both the mutualistic aphid Aphis fabae L. and the nonmyrmecophilous aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris were found to be attractive for the ant Lasius niger L. The level of attraction was similar in both assays (control vs. one of the aphid species). However, when given a choice between these 2 aphid species, ants showed a significant preference for Aphis fabae. Honeydew volatiles, mostly from bacterial origins, are known to be a key element in ant attraction. Using the same olfactometry protocol, the relative attractiveness of volatiles emitted by honeydews collected from each aphid species and by bacteria isolated from each honeydew was investigated. Again, ants significantly preferred volatiles released by Aphis fabae honeydew and bacteria. This information suggests that microbial honeydew volatiles enable ants to distantly discriminate aphid species. These results strengthen the interest of studying the occurrence and potential impact of microorganisms in insect symbioses. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  14. A General Model of Distant Hybridization Reveals the Conditions for Extinction in Atlantic Salmon and Brown Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilodrán, Claudio S.; Currat, Mathias; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as “distant hybridization,” the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action. PMID:25003336

  15. A general model of distant hybridization reveals the conditions for extinction in Atlantic salmon and brown trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S Quilodrán

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization is common in nature but can be increased in frequency or even originated by human actions, such as species introduction or habitat modification, which may threaten species persistence. When hybridization occurs between distantly related species, referred to as "distant hybridization," the resulting hybrids are generally infertile or fertile but do not undergo chromosomal recombination during gametogenesis. Here, we present a model describing this frequent but poorly studied interspecific hybridization to assess its consequences on parental species and to anticipate the conditions under which they can reach extinction. Our general model fully incorporates three important processes: density-dependent competition, dominance/recessivity inheritance of traits and assortative mating. We demonstrate its use and flexibility by assessing population extinction risk between Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Norway, whose interbreeding has recently increased due to farmed fish releases into the wild. We identified the set of conditions under which hybridization may threaten salmonid species. Thanks to the flexibility of our model, we evaluated the effect of an additional risk factor, a parasitic disease, and showed that the cumulative effects dramatically increase the extinction risk. The consequences of distant hybridization are not genetically, but demographically mediated. Our general model is useful to better comprehend the evolution of such hybrid systems and we demonstrated its importance in the field of conservation biology to set up management recommendations when this increasingly frequent type of hybridization is in action.

  16. Distant Metastasis Risk Stratification for Patients Undergoing Curative Resection Followed by Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyubo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chie, Eui Kyu, E-mail: ekchie93@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Young; Kim, Sun Whe [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Tae-You; Bang, Yung-Jue [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sung W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognostic factors predicting distant metastasis in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1995 and August 2006, 166 patients with EHBD cancer underwent resection with curative intent, followed by adjuvant chemoradiation. There were 120 males and 46 females, and median age was 61 years (range, 34-86). Postoperative radiotherapy was delivered to tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose, 40 Gy; range, 34-56 Gy). A total of 157 patients also received fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy as a radiosensitizer, and fluoropyrimidine-based maintenance chemotherapy was administered to 127 patients. Median follow-up duration was 29 months. Results: The treatment failed for 97 patients, and the major pattern of failure was distant metastasis (76 patients, 78.4%). The 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rate was 49.4%. The most common site of distant failure was the liver (n = 36). On multivariate analysis, hilar tumor, tumor size {>=}2 cm, involved lymph node, and poorly differentiated tumor were associated with inferior distant metastasis-free survival (p = 0.0348, 0.0754, 0.0009, and 0.0078, respectively), whereas T stage was not (p = 0.8081). When patients were divided into four groups based on these risk factors, the 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates for patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 risk factors were 86.4%, 59.9%, 32.5%, and 0%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Despite maintenance chemotherapy, distant metastasis was the major pattern of failure in patients undergoing adjuvant chemoradiation for EHBD cancer after resection with curative intent. Intensified chemotherapy is warranted to improve the treatment outcome, especially in those with multiple risk factors.

  17. Estuarine use and movement patterns of seven sympatric Mugilidae fishes: The Tatu Creek estuary, central western Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-06-01

    By combining the spatio-temporal distribution of fish abundance and their size structure, and a detailed lifetime Sr/Ca ratio analysis in their otoliths, this study delineates the estuarine use and the movement patterns of seven sympatrical occurring adult mullets in the Tatu Creek estuary, central western Taiwan. In the estuary Mugil cephalus are the most dominant species, whereas Liza subviridis, Liza macrolepis and Liza haematocheilus are common, and Liza affinis, Liza dussumieri and Valamugil seheli are rare. They have adapted a size-related salinity preference. A mean Sr/Ca ratio of (7.5-10.2) × 10-3 in the otolith cores demonstrated that all seven mullet species spawned in the sea. After recruiting to the estuary (mean ratios of (3.6-6.4) × 10-3 at the estuarine check in the otoliths), the ratios fluctuate between (0.1-3.5) × 10-3 and (9.5-19.5) × 10-3 indicating that the mullet shared a common movement between marine and brackish waters and probably even freshwater habitats. However, the profiles fluctuated substantially among individuals. There was high intra-specific variation among M. cephalus and L. subviridis, intermediate intra-specific variation among L. macrolepis and L. affinis, and relatively little among L. haematocheilus, L. dussumieri and V. seheli. Persistent residency in high or low saline environments was found to vary among species, and the extent of their catadromy is discussed.

  18. An opto-magneto-mechanical quantum interface between distant superconducting qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Keyu; Vanner, Michael R; Twamley, Jason

    2014-07-04

    A quantum internet, where widely separated quantum devices are coherently connected, is a fundamental vision for local and global quantum information networks and processing. Superconducting quantum devices can now perform sophisticated quantum engineering locally on chip and a detailed method to achieve coherent optical quantum interconnection between distant superconducting devices is a vital, but highly challenging, goal. We describe a concrete opto-magneto-mechanical system that can interconvert microwave-to-optical quantum information with high fidelity. In one such node we utilise the magnetic fields generated by the supercurrent of a flux qubit to coherently modulate a mechanical oscillator that is part of a high-Q optical cavity to achieve high fidelity microwave-to-optical quantum information exchange. We analyze the transfer between two spatially distant nodes connected by an optical fibre and using currently accessible parameters we predict that the fidelity of transfer could be as high as ~80%, even with significant loss.

  19. A young source of optical emission from distant radio galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, F; Fèvre, O Le; Angonin, M C

    1993-03-25

    DISTANT radio galaxies provide valuable insights into the properties of the young Universe-they are the only known extended optical sources at high redshift and might represent an early stage in the formation and evolution of galaxies in general. This extended optical emission often has very complex morphologies, but the origin of the light is still unclear. Here we report spectroscopic observations for several distant radio galaxies (0.75≤ z ≤ 1.1) in which the rest-frame spectra exhibit featureless continua between 2,500 Å and 5,000 Å. We see no evidence for the break in the spectrum at 4,000 Å expected for an old stellar population 1-3 , and suggest that young stars or scattered emissions from the active nuclei are responsible for most of the observed light. In either case, this implies that the source of the optical emission is com-parable in age to the associated radio source, namely 10 7 years or less.

  20. Relationship between the inflammatory molecular profile of breast carcinomas and distant metastasis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Eiró

    Full Text Available Inflammatory conditions may promote tumor progression and aggressiveness. In previous reports, we found a group of breast cancer tumors characterized by metalloprotease-11 (MMP-11 expression by intratumoral mononuclear inflammatory cells (MICs, which was associated with distant metastasis development. Thus, in the present study we evaluated the relationship between MMP-11 expression by MICs, distant metastasis development, and a wide panel of inflammatory factors in breast carcinoma. In an initial approach, we analyzed 65 factors associated with tumor progression and inflammation, in a tumor population classified in good or bad prognosis, based on MMP-11 expression by intratumoral MICs. The most differentially expressed factors were then analyzed in a wider tumor population classified according to MMP-11 expression by MICs and also according to metastasis development. These analyses were carried out by Real-time PCR. The results showed that of the 65 starting factors analyzed, those related with MMP-11 expression by MICs were: IL-1, -5, -6, -8, -17, -18, MMP-1, TIMP-1, ADAM-8, -10, -15, -23, ADAMTS-1, -2, -15, Annexin A2, IFNβ, Claudin-3, CCL-3, MyD88, IRAK-4 and NFκB. Of them, factors more differentially expressed between both groups of tumors were IL-1, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17, IFNβ and NFκB. Thereafter, we confirmed in the wider tumor population, that there is a higher expression of those factors in tumors infiltrated by MMP-11 positive MICs. Altogether these results indicate that tumors developing worse prognosis and identified by MMP-11 expression by intratumoral MICs, shows an up-regulation of inflammatory-related genes.

  1. Using distant supervised learning to identify protein subcellular localizations from full-text scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wu; Blake, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Databases of curated biomedical knowledge, such as the protein-locations reflected in the UniProtKB database, provide an accurate and useful resource to researchers and decision makers. Our goal is to augment the manual efforts currently used to curate knowledge bases with automated approaches that leverage the increased availability of full-text scientific articles. This paper describes experiments that use distant supervised learning to identify protein subcellular localizations, which are important to understand protein function and to identify candidate drug targets. Experiments consider Swiss-Prot, the manually annotated subset of the UniProtKB protein knowledge base, and 43,000 full-text articles from the Journal of Biological Chemistry that contain just under 11.5 million sentences. The system achieves 0.81 precision and 0.49 recall at sentence level and an accuracy of 57% on held-out instances in a test set. Moreover, the approach identifies 8210 instances that are not in the UniProtKB knowledge base. Manual inspection of the 50 most likely relations showed that 41 (82%) were valid. These results have immediate benefit to researchers interested in protein function, and suggest that distant supervision should be explored to complement other manual data curation efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure to light enhances pre-adult fitness in two dark-dwelling sympatric species of ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vijay

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In insects, circadian clocks play a key role in enhancing fitness by regulating life history traits such as developmental time and adult lifespan. These clocks use environmental light/dark (LD cycles to fine-tune a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes. To study the effect of environmental LD conditions on pre-adult fitness components, we used two dark-dwelling sympatric species of ants (the night active Camponotus compressus and the day active Camponotus paria, which normally develop underground and have fairly long pre-adult developmental time. Results Our results suggest that ants develop fastest as pre-adults when maintained under constant light (LL, followed closely by 12:12 hr light/dark (LD, and then constant darkness (DD. While light exposure alters developmental rates of almost all stages of development, the overall pre-adult development in LL is speeded-up (relative to DD by ~37% (34 days in C. compressus and by ~35% (31 days in C. paria. In LD too, development is faster (relative to DD by ~29% (26 days in C. compressus and by ~28% (25 days in C. paria. Pre-adult viability of both species is also higher under LL and LD compared to DD. While pre-adult development time and viability is enhanced in LL and LD, clutch-size undergoes reduction, at least in C. compressus. Conclusion Exposure to light enhances pre-adult fitness in two dark-dwelling species of Camponotus by speeding-up development and by enhancing viability. This suggests that social ants use environmental light/dark cycles to modulate key life history traits such as pre-adult development time and viability.

  3. Genetics of sexual isolation based on courtship song between two sympatric species: Drosophila ananassae and D. pallidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Muneo; Oguma, Yuzuru

    2002-11-01

    Sexual isolation has been considered one of the primary causes of speciation and its genetic study has the potential to reveal the genetics of speciation. In Drosophila, the importance of courtship songs in sexual isolation between closely related species has been well investigated, but studies analysing the genetic basis of the difference in the courtship songs associated with sexual isolation are less well documented. Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila pallidosa are useful for studies of sexual isolation, because of their sympatric distribution and absence of postmating isolation. Courtship songs are known to play a crucial role in sexual isolation between these two species, and the female discrimination behaviour against the courting male has been revealed to be controlled by a very narrow region on the second chromosome. In this study we investigated the genetic basis controlling the song differences associated with their sexual isolation, using intact and wingless males with chromosomes substituted between species. The results obtained from F1 hybrid males between these species indicate the dominance of the song characters favoured by D. pallidosa females. In addition, the results obtained from backcross F2 males indicate that chromosome 2 had a major effect on the control of the song characters associated with sexual isolation.

  4. Shell feature: a new radiomics descriptor for predicting distant failure after radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer and cervix cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongxia; Zhou, Zhiguo; Li, Shulong; Maquilan, Genevieve; Folkert, Michael R.; Iyengar, Puneeth; Westover, Kenneth D.; Albuquerque, Kevin; Liu, Fang; Choy, Hak; Timmerman, Robert; Yang, Lin; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    Distant failure is the main cause of human cancer-related mortalities. To develop a model for predicting distant failure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and cervix cancer (CC) patients, a shell feature, consisting of outer voxels around the tumor boundary, was constructed using pre-treatment positron emission tomography (PET) images from 48 NSCLC patients received stereotactic body radiation therapy and 52 CC patients underwent external beam radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy followed with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. The hypothesis behind this feature is that non-invasive and invasive tumors may have different morphologic patterns in the tumor periphery, in turn reflecting the differences in radiological presentations in the PET images. The utility of the shell was evaluated by the support vector machine classifier in comparison with intensity, geometry, gray level co-occurrence matrix-based texture, neighborhood gray tone difference matrix-based texture, and a combination of these four features. The results were assessed in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC. Collectively, the shell feature showed better predictive performance than all the other features for distant failure prediction in both NSCLC and CC cohorts.

  5. Trastuzumab re-treatment following adjuvant trastuzumab and the importance of distant disease-free interval: the HERA trial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger-Filho, Otto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Procter, Marion; Krieguer, Magalie; Smith, Ian; Baselga, Jose; Cameron, David; Untch, Michael; Jackisch, Christian; Bell, Richard; Gianni, Luca; Goldhirsch, Aron; Piccart, Martine; Gelber, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective analysis conducted using data from patients enrolled onto the Herceptin Adjuvant has two objectives: The first is to evaluate the impact of the time interval between the end of adjuvant trastuzumab and distant recurrence (TDRI) upon overall survival (OS). The second is to describe the duration of trastuzumab-based regimens in the metastatic setting for patients previously treated with adjuvant trastuzumab. The first objective included 187 patients treated with adjuvant trastuzumab and diagnosed with distant recurrence at 4-year median follow-up. The second objective included data from questionnaires sent to investigators retreating patients with trastuzumab upon distant recurrence: 144 of 156 questionnaires were returned (93 %), and 90 patients were selected based on available clinical information and consent for subsequent studies. There was no statistically significant relationship between TDRI following 1 year of adjuvant trastuzumab and OS from distant recurrence: hazard ratio 0.991, p = 0.46. The median OS from distant recurrence was numerically longer among patients with a TDRI of ≥12 months (n = 103) than information beyond disease progression should be included in future clinical studies.

  6. Sympatric Distribution of Three Human Taenia Tapeworms Collected between 1935 and 2005 in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Kim, Kyu-Heon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Rim, Han-Jong

    2008-01-01

    Taeniasis has been known as one of the prevalent parasitic infections in Korea. Until recently, Taenia saginata had long been considered a dominant, and widely distributed species but epidemiological profiles of human Taenia species in Korea still remain unclear. In order to better understand distribution patterns of human Taenia tapeworms in Korea, partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cox1 and ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) were determined, along with morphological examinations, on 68 Taenia specimens obtained from university museum collections deposited since 1935. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-preserved specimens. Phylogenetic relationships among the genotypes (cox1 haplotype) detected in this study were inferred using the neighbor-joining method as a tree building method. Morphological and genetic analyses identified 3 specimens as T. solium, 51 specimens as T. asiatica, and 14 specimens as T. saginata. Our results indicate that all 3 Taenia tapeworms are sympatrically distributed in Korea with T. asiatica dominating over T. saginata and T. solium. PMID:19127329

  7. Effect of substrate size on sympatric sand darter benthic habitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Rizzo, Austin A.; Smith, Dustin M.

    2017-01-01

    The western sand darter, Ammocrypta clara, and the eastern sand darter, A. pellucida, are sand-dwelling fishes that have undergone range-wide population declines, presumably owing to habitat loss. Habitat use studies have been conducted for the eastern sand darter, but literature on the western sand darter remains sparse. To evaluate substrate selection and preference, western and eastern sand darters were collected from the Elk River, West Virginia, one of the few remaining rivers where both species occur sympatrically. In the laboratory, individuals were given the choice to bury into five equally available and randomly positioned substrates ranging from fine sand to granule gravel (0.12–4.0 mm). The western sand darter selected for coarse and medium sand, while the eastern sand darter was more of a generalist selecting for fine, medium, and coarse sand. Substrate selection was significantly different (p = 0.02) between species in the same environment, where the western sand darter preferred coarser substrate more often compared to the eastern sand darter. Habitat degradation is often a limiting factor for many species of rare freshwater fish, and results from this study suggest that western and eastern sand darters may respond differently to variations in benthic substrate composition.

  8. Dental microwear of sympatric rodent species sampled across habitats in southern Africa: Implications for environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Jenny H E; Leichliter, Jennifer; Avenant, Nico L; Ungar, Peter S

    2016-03-01

    Dental microwear textures have proven to be a valuable tool for reconstructing the diets of a wide assortment of fossil vertebrates. Nevertheless, some studies have recently questioned the efficacy of this approach, suggesting that aspects of habitat unrelated to food preference, especially environmental grit load, might have a confounding effect on microwear patterning that obscures the diet signal. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by examining microwear textures of 3 extant sympatric rodent species that vary in diet breadth and are found in a variety of habitat types: Mastomys coucha, Micaelamys namaquensis and Rhabdomys pumilio. We sample each of these species from 3 distinct environmental settings in southern Africa that differ in rainfall and vegetative cover: Nama-Karoo shrublands (semi-desert) and Dry Highveld grasslands in the Free State Province of South Africa, and Afromontane (wet) grasslands in the highlands of Lesotho. While differences between habitat types are evident for some of the species, inconsistency in the pattern suggests that the microwear signal is driven by variation in foods eaten rather than grit-level per se. It is clear that, at least for species and habitats sampled in the current study, environmental grit load does not swamp diet-related microwear signatures. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Identification of distant drug off-targets by direct superposition of binding pocket surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Marcel; Armen, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Correctly predicting off-targets for a given molecular structure, which would have the ability to bind a large range of ligands, is both particularly difficult and important if they share no significant sequence or fold similarity with the respective molecular target ("distant off-targets"). A novel approach for identification of off-targets by direct superposition of protein binding pocket surfaces is presented and applied to a set of well-studied and highly relevant drug targets, including representative kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. The entire Protein Data Bank is searched for similar binding pockets and convincing distant off-target candidates were identified that share no significant sequence or fold similarity with the respective target structure. These putative target off-target pairs are further supported by the existence of compounds that bind strongly to both with high topological similarity, and in some cases, literature examples of individual compounds that bind to both. Also, our results clearly show that it is possible for binding pockets to exhibit a striking surface similarity, while the respective off-target shares neither significant sequence nor significant fold similarity with the respective molecular target ("distant off-target").

  10. Studies on increasing fertility of distant hybrid by irradiation of androgametes of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yichun; Sun Guangzu; Zhang Yuexue

    1994-01-01

    Distant hybridization was carried out by using hexaploid triticale, Heizha 266, as female parent and 2 varieties of spring wheat, Longfumai 3 and Longfumai 5, as male parent which were irradiated by slow irradiation of living bodies with 60 Co gamma rays from 600 to 2400 rad before distant hybridization. Through the observation of pollen mother cells of first generation of distant hybrilization (M 1 ), it was found that the amount of bivalents at meiosis metaphase was 13.65 on average, and was 14.55 on maximum, which were close to theoretical value, but the corresponding amount of bivalents at the same stage produced by unirradiated pollen mother cells were 12.80, which were lower than theorectical value. Chromosome pairing was improved by irradiation. Average setting ratio of M 1 generation affected by irradiation was 52.85%, but the corresponding figure for F 1 generation affected by un-irradiation was 6.49%. It is obvious that irradiation treatment increases setting rate of M 1 hybrid generation. The optimum doses for irradiating androgametes are 1600 and 2400 rad, respectively. However, there are significant differences of irradiation sensibility between different varieties of wheat

  11. Accumulation of Metals in Liver Tissues of Sympatric Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) and Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Southern Part of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Attila; Bidló, András; Bolodár-Varga, Bernadett; Jánoska, Ferenc

    2017-04-01

    Several previous study results have already demonstrated that golden jackal and red fox may serve as biological indicators of trace elements and heavy metal concentrations in the various regions they inhabit. The aim of this study was to evaluate accumulation patterns of targeted elements (Al, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni and Pb) in liver samples of red foxes and golden jackals collected during the same period in the southern part of Romania. The accumulation patterns of trace elements in the livers of sympatric golden jackal and red fox were practically the same. To date, separate studies of the species individually in different habitats have shown that either of the species can be used for ecotoxicological and biomonitoring studies. Moreover, in general gender related studies, no significant differences in the concentrations of the investigated elements were found in either jackals or foxes. Also, average metal concentrations in liver samples do not show significant differences between groups under and above 12 months of age.

  12. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suski, Jamie G.; Salice, Christopher J.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 µS/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 µS/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 µS/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures.

  13. Enhancing Distant Learning through Email Communication: A Case of BOU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K. M. Rezanur; Anwar, Sadat; Numan, Sharker Md.

    2008-01-01

    Today computer has replaced all means of traditional communication significantly. Many distant learning tools claim to be interactive, but few can offer two-way communication. Email is the most popular means of communication medium now-a-days. Therefore, it may be used as an educational tool for learning. In present socioeconomic condition of…

  14. Sympatric and allopatric experimental infections of the planorbid snail Gyraulus chinensis with miracidia of Euparyphium albuferensis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Antoli, C; Marín, A; Trelis, M; Toledo, R; Esteban, J-G

    2010-12-01

    An experimental infection with echinostomatid miracidia in sympatric or 'local' vs. allopatric or 'away' snail combinations, as a model to examine parasite compatibility, was carried out. We employed Euparyphium albuferensis miracidia to infect Gyraulus chinensis snails, from three different natural parks: Albufera (Valencia, Spain); the Ebro Delta (Tarragona, Spain) and Coto de Doñana (Huelva, Spain). Insignificant differences between the three snail strains were noted for the infection rate and the rhythm of daily cercarial production. However, a significantly higher total cercarial production per snail, patent period and life span were observed in local snails. The different infection characteristics in the three G. chinensis strains considered reveal that E. albuferensis miracidia demonstrate local adaptation.

  15. ChIP-seq Mapping of Distant-Acting Enhancers and Their In Vivo Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2011-06-01

    The genomic location and function of most distant-acting transcriptional enhancers in the human genome remains unknown We performed ChIP-seq for various transcriptional coactivator proteins (such as p300) directly from different embryonic mouse tissues, identifying thousands of binding sitesTransgenic mouse experiments show that p300 and other co-activator peaks are highly predictive of genomic location AND tissue-specific activity patterns of distant-acting enhancersMost enhancers are active only in one or very few tissues Genomic location of tissue-specific p300 peaks correlates with tissue-specific expression of nearby genes Most binding sites are conserved, but the global degree of conservation varies between tissues

  16. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia, Alice; Wang, Jun; Shi, Fang-Lei; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-03-18

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species' scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats.

  17. Effects of Distant Reiki On Pain, Anxiety and Fatigue in Oncology Patients in Turkey: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Melike; Can, Gulbeyaz; Kelam, Ayhan; Aydıner, Aydın

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue, stress and pain are common symptoms among cancer patients, affecting the quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of distant Reiki on pain, anxiety and fatigue in oncology patients. Participants in the control group received usual medical and nursing care during their stay. The intervention group received usual care plus five distant Reiki sessions, one each night for 30 min. A face to face interview was performed and patient personal and illness related characteristics were evaluated using the Patient Characteristics form. Pain, stress and fatigue were evaluated according to a numeric rating scale. The experimental group was predominantly composed of women (71.4%), married individuals (40%), and primary school graduates (40%). The control group was predominantly male (72.7%), married (60%), and primary school graduates (60%). The control group demonstrated greater levels of pain (p=0.002), stress (p=0.001) and fatigue (p=0.001). The Reiki group pain score (pReiki may decreasepain, anxiety and fatigue in oncology patients.

  18. Distant galaxy formed stars only 250 million years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the star-birth activity of the earliest galaxies. Observations of a particularly distant galaxy provide evidence for such activity when the Universe was just 2% of its current age.

  19. Distant Tail Behavior During High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the ISEE 3 distant tail data during three intense magnetic storms and have identified the tail response to high-speed solar wind streams, interplanetary magnetic clouds, and near-Earth storms.

  20. Skipping Posterior Dynamic Transpedicular Stabilization for Distant Segment Degenerative Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Solmaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To date, there is still no consensus on the treatment of spinal degenerative disease. Current surgical techniques to manage painful spinal disorders are imperfect. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the prospective results of posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization, a novel surgical approach that skips the segments that do not produce pain. This technique has been proven biomechanically and radiologically in spinal degenerative diseases. Methods. A prospective study of 18 patients averaging 54.94 years of age with distant spinal segment degenerative disease. Indications consisted of degenerative disc disease (57%, herniated nucleus pulposus (50%, spinal stenosis (14.28%, degenerative spondylolisthesis (14.28%, and foraminal stenosis (7.1%. The Oswestry Low-Back Pain Disability Questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS for pain were recorded preoperatively and at the third and twelfth postoperative months. Results. Both the Oswestry and VAS scores showed significant improvement postoperatively (P<0.05. We observed complications in one patient who had spinal epidural hematoma. Conclusion. We recommend skipping posterior transpedicular dynamic stabilization for surgical treatment of distant segment spinal degenerative disease.

  1. Transplantes cardiopulmonar e pulmonar com doador em localidade distante Distant donor procurement for heart-lung and lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sérgio Fragomeni

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Em situações específicas, os transplantes clínicos cardiopulmonar e pulmonar são, hoje, formas estabelecidas de tratamento para estágio final de doença cardiopulmonar e pulmonar. A obtenção de doadores adequados permanece o maior problema e a remoção de órgãos em localidades distantes é, hoje, uma necessidade. Embora muitos métodos de preservação pulmonar possam ser empregados, para períodos isquémicos de até 5 horas, a hipotermia e o uso de solução cardioplégica com infusão da solução de Collins modificada no tronco pulmonar tem sido método simples e eficiente para preservação do bloco coração-pulmão. Descrevemos, aqui, o método corrente que empregamos, com o qual os transplantes cardiopulmonar e pulmonar combinados foram sucedidos de excelente função cárdio-respiratória.In special situations, clinical heart-lung and lung transplantation are today established methods of therapy for end stage cardiopulmonary and pulmonary disease. Adequate donor availability remains a major problem and distant organ procurement is today a necessity. Although many methods of lung preservation can be used, for periods of up to 5 hours, hypothermic storage with cardioplegic arrest and pulmonary artery flush with modified Collins solution has proven to be a simple and reliable method of heart-lung preservation. We here describe our current method of heart-lung block protection, in which heart-lung and double lung transplantation were performed followed by excelent cardiac and pulmonary function.

  2. A DISTANT QUASAR'S BRILLIANT LIGHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The arrow in this image, taken by a ground-based telescope, points to a distant quasar, the brilliant core of an active galaxy residing billions of light-years from Earth. As light from this faraway object travels across space, it picks up information on galaxies and the vast clouds of material between galaxies as it moves through them. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope decoded the quasar's light to find the spectral 'fingerprints' of highly ionized (energized) oxygen, which had mixed with invisible clouds of hydrogen in intergalactic space. The quasar's brilliant beam pierced at least four separate filaments of the invisible hydrogen laced with the telltale oxygen. The presence of oxygen between the galaxies implies there are huge quantities of hydrogen in the universe. Credits: WIYN Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona. The telescope is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories.

  3. Activity, habitat use, feeding behavior, and diet of four sympatric species of Serranidae (Actinopterygii: Perciformes in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Diplectrum formosum (the sand perch, Diplectrum radiale (the aquavina, Epinephelus marginatus (the dusky grouper and Mycteroperca acutirostris (the comb grouper are four sympatric serranid of remarkable ecological and commercial importance. This study investigated the feeding of these four species in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo State (southeastern Brazil, comparing their diet, habitat utilization and morphological features related to foraging. These four serranids are opportunistic visual predators that use a total of nine different tactics to capture their preys, feed mostly on crustaceans during the day and twilight, and keep stationary and quiescent at night. The ecomorphological study was conducted to test its predictive value to infer lifestyles. It was verified that such analysis should be used carefully and must be complemented by field observations. Although morphologically and behaviorally very similar, D. formosum and D. radiale showed different preferences to the substratum type used by large individuals, which are exclusively sit-and-wait predators. On the other hand, E. marginatus displayed more sedentary habits than M. acutirostris, the most versatile predator from the studied species. The studied species of Diplectrum and E. marginatus can be regarded as benthic serranids, while M. acutirostris could be viewed as a nektobenthic species.

  4. La Seducción del mal en estrella distante de Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    En el presente artículo se trabajará en torno a la novela Estrella distante de Roberto Bolaño. La intención del análisis será demostrar cómo se expresa y opera la seducción del mal al interior de la representación y proponer cuáles son las formas en que el mal encarna en una figura representativa de la dictadura militar chilena. This article is based on the Roberto Bolaño novel Estrella Distante. The analysis aims to demonstrate the ways that the seduction of evil is expressed and operates...

  5. Efficiency of entanglement of distant atoms by projective measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares Renteria, Georgina; Zippilli, Stefano; Morigi, Giovanna [Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Rohde, Felix; Schuck, Carsten; Eschner, Juergen [ICFO - Institut de CIencies Fotoniques, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    We compare the efficiency of two schemes for the preparation of entangled states of distant atoms. In these proposals the atoms do not interact and the entanglement is realized by means of the measurement of the scattered field which project the two atoms into the desired state. We quantify the efficiency of the schemes using the fidelity between the state of the system after the detection of a photon and an ideal entangled state of the two atoms. In the first scheme the atoms interact with two optical cavities and the enhanced probability of emission into the cavities allows for high detection efficiency. This scheme is limited by the finite probability of emission of two photons. Thus, even under the assumption of perfect detection efficiency, the fidelity of the scheme never reaches unity. In the second scheme emission of two photons is suppressed by low excitation strength, but the detection efficiency is low since the atoms scatter into free space and only a small fraction of the photons is measured. In this case the fidelity is conditioned on single-photon detection and results to be higher. The comparison is quantitatively evaluated for an ongoing experiment with two distant trapped single Ca+ ions.

  6. Genetic origin and composition of a natural hybrid poplar Populus × jrtyschensis from two distantly related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dechun; Feng, Jianju; Dong, Miao; Wu, Guili; Mao, Kangshan; Liu, Jianquan

    2016-04-18

    The factors that contribute to and maintain hybrid zones between distinct species are highly variable, depending on hybrid origins, frequencies and fitness. In this study, we aimed to examine genetic origins, compositions and possible maintenance of Populus × jrtyschensis, an assumed natural hybrid between two distantly related species. This hybrid poplar occurs mainly on the floodplains along the river valleys between the overlapping distributions of the two putative parents. We collected 566 individuals from 45 typical populations of P. × jrtyschensis, P. nigra and P. laurifolia. We genotyped them based on the sequence variations of one maternally inherited chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragment and genetic polymorphisms at 20 SSR loci. We further sequenced eight nuclear genes for 168 individuals from 31 populations. Two groups of cpDNA haplotypes characteristic of P. nigra and P. laurifolia respectively were both recovered for P. × jrtyschensis. Genetic structures and coalescent tests of two sets of nuclear population genetic data suggested that P. × jrtyschensis originated from hybridizations between the two assumed parental species. All examined populations of P. × jrtyschensis comprise mainly F1 hybrids from interspecific hybridizations between P. nigra and P. laurifolia. In the habitats of P. × jrtyschensis, there are lower concentrations of soil nitrogen than in the habitats occupied by the other two species. Our extensive examination of the genetic composition of P. × jrtyschensis suggested that it is typical of F1-dominated hybrid zones. This finding plus the low concentration of soil nitrogen in the floodplain soils support the F1-dominated bounded hybrid superiority hypothesis of hybrid zone maintenance for this particular hybrid poplar.

  7. Is thermoregulation really unimportant for tropical reptiles? Comparative study of four sympatric snake species from Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, Luca; Akani, Godfrey C.

    2002-05-01

    Most of the studies concerning the thermal and reproductive relationships of snakes have been conducted in temperate regions, whereas very few data are available for African tropical species. In the present study, aspects of the comparative thermal and reproductive ecology of four sympatric freshwater snakes from tropical Africa (the colubrids Natriciteres fuliginoides, N. variegata, Afronatrix anoscopus, and Grayia smythii) are studied with emphasis on exploring whether their thermal ecology relations with reproduction biology may indicate a substantial influence of thermoregulation on their life-history traits (as shown in several studies from temperate-zone reptiles), or whether thermoregulatory biology is less important in tropical reptiles (as suggested in some recent experimental studies). The present study showed that, with minor species-specific differences, thermoregulation certainly has some relevance for the activity and life-history attributes of the studied species, as (i) the females tended to show body temperatures inversely related to their size (snout-vent length), and (ii) gravid specimens tended to maintain higher body temperatures than non-gravid specimens. However, other sets of our data (e.g., the high and constant Tb exhibited during night-time) strongly indicate that these four species of tropical water snakes can maintain high and stable Tb with little overt thermoregulatory behaviour. As is the rule in most of the other snake species studied to date, the maternal size of the females strongly influenced the number of eggs produced, and testifies that reproductive biology models linking reproductive performance to thermal ecology, highlighted in other snakes from temperate and cool regions, may well apply at least to some extent also to these Afrotropical species.

  8. Distant Metastases Following Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy for Patients With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan; Adamovich, Edward; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recent publications have suggested high-risk patients undergoing radical prostatectomy have a lower risk of distant metastases and improved cause-specific survival (CSS) than patients receiving definitive external beam radiation therapy (XRT). To date, none of these studies has compared distant metastases and CSS in brachytherapy patients. In this study, we evaluate such parameters in a consecutive cohort of brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: From April 1995 to June 2007, 1,840 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy. Risk groups were stratified according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network ( (www.nccn.org)) guidelines. Subgroups of 658, 893, and 289 patients were assigned to low, intermediate, and high-risk categories. Median follow-up was 7.2 years. Along with brachytherapy implantation, 901 (49.0%) patients received supplemental XRT, and 670 (36.4%) patients received androgen deprivation therapy (median duration, 4 months). The mode of failure (biochemical, local, or distant) was determined for each patient for whom therapy failed. Cause of death was determined for each deceased patient. Multiple parameters were evaluated for impact on outcome. Results: For the entire cohort, metastases-free survival (MFS) and CSS at 12 years were 98.1% and 98.2%, respectively. When rates were stratified by low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, the 12-year MFS was 99.8%, 98.1%, and 93.8% (p < 0.001), respectively. CSS rates were 99.8%, 98.0%, and 95.3% (p < 0.001) for low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, respectively. Biochemical progression-free survival was 98.7%, 95.9% and 90.4% for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients, respectively (p < 0.001). In multivariate Cox-regression analysis, MFS was mostly closely related to Gleason score and year of treatment, whereas CSS was most closely associated with Gleason score. Conclusions: Excellent CSS and MFS rates are achievable with high

  9. Molecular characterization of sympatrically distributed Neotricula aperta-like snails in the Mekong River, Kratie, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chennan; Saijuntha, Weerachai; Kirinoki, Masashi; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Muth, Sinuon; Meng, Chuor Char; Ai, Yingchun; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Fifty-six samples of Neotricula aperta-like snails were collected from six locations in Cambodia. Their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences were examined using haplotype network and neighbor-joining (NJ) tree analysis. Twenty-seven haplotypes (H1-H27) were observed and were divided into two different groups/lineages. Of 27, 17 haplotypes (H11-H27) were clustered with the reference samples of the γ-race N. aperta. The remaining 10 haplotypes (H1-H10) were clustered in a separate group/lineage, differing from the reference samples of the α-, β-, and γ-race N. aperta, suggesting a new lineage belonging the genus Neotricula. Our results show that both the γ-race and a new lineage were sympatrically present approximately 60 km upstream of the Mekong River near the Kratie port, Cambodia. Further morphological and molecular studies are required to confirm the taxonomic status of this new, unidentified lineage.

  10. Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric species of hermit crabs on a tropical mudflat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Chong, Ving Ching

    2014-02-01

    Shell use and partitioning of two sympatric hermit crab species (Diogenes moosai and Diogenes lopochir), as determined by shell shape, size and availability, were examined from August 2009 to March 2011 in a tropical mudflat (Malaysia). Shells of 14 gastropod species were used but > 85% comprised shells of Cerithidea cingulata, Nassarius cf. olivaceus, Nassarius jacksonianus, and Thais malayensis. Shell partitioning between hermit crab species, sexes, and developmental stages was evident from occupied shells of different species, shapes, and sizes. Extreme bias in shell use pattern by male and female of both species of hermit crabs suggests that shell shape, which depends on shell species, is the major determinant of shell use. The hermit crab must however fit well into the shell so that compatibility between crab size and shell size becomes crucial. Although shell availability possibly influenced shell use and hermit crab distribution, this is not critical in a tropical setting of high gastropod diversity and abundance.

  11. Evolution and ecophysiology of the industrial producer Hypocrea jecorina (Anamorph Trichoderma reesei and a new sympatric agamospecies related to it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina S Druzhinina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trichoderma reesei, a mitosporic green mould, was recognized during the WW II based on a single isolate from the Solomon Islands and since then used in industry for production of cellulases. It is believed to be an anamorph (asexual stage of the common pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined molecular evolutionary analysis and multiple methods of phenotype profiling in order to reveal the genetic relationship of T. reesei to H. jecorina. The resulting data show that the isolates which were previously identified as H. jecorina by means of morphophysiology and ITS1 and 2 (rRNA gene cluster barcode in fact comprise several species: i H. jecorina/T. reesei sensu stricto which contains most of the teleomorphs (sexual stages found on dead wood and the wild-type strain of T. reesei QM 6a; ii T. parareesei nom. prov., which contains all strains isolated as anamorphs from soil; iii and two other hypothetical new species for which only one or two isolates are available. In silico tests for recombination and in vitro mating experiments revealed a history of sexual reproduction for H. jecorina and confirmed clonality for T. parareesei nom. prov. Isolates of both species were consistently found worldwide in pantropical climatic zone. Ecophysiological comparison of H. jecorina and T. parareesei nom. prov. revealed striking differences in carbon source utilization, conidiation intensity, photosensitivity and mycoparasitism, thus suggesting adaptation to different ecological niches with the high opportunistic potential for T. parareesei nom. prov. CONCLUSIONS: Our data prove that T. reesei belongs to a holomorph H. jecorina and displays a history of worldwide gene flow. We also show that its nearest genetic neighbour--T. parareesei nom. prov., is a cryptic phylogenetic agamospecies which inhabits the same biogeographic zone. These two species thus provide a so far rare example of sympatric speciation

  12. A Minimal Model to Explore the Influence of Distant Modes on Mode-Coupling Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    The phenomenon of mode-coupling instability is one of the most frequently explored mechanisms to explain self-excited oscillation in sliding systems with friction. A mode coupling instability is usually due to the coupling of two modes. However, further modes can have an important influence on the coupling of two modes. This work extends a well-known minimal model to describe mode-coupling instabilities in order to explore the influence of a distant mode on the classical mode-coupling pattern. This work suggests a new minimal model. The model is explored and it is shown that a third mode can have significant influence on the classical mode-coupling instabilities where two modes are coupling. Different phenomena are analysed and it is pointed out that distant modes can only be ignored in very special cases and that the onset friction-induced oscillations can even be very sensitive to minimal variation of a distant mode. Due to the chosen academic minimal-model and the abandonment of a complex Finite-Element model the insight stays rather phenomenological but a better understanding of the mode-coupling mechnanism can be gained.

  13. Incorporating Relation Paths in Neural Relation Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Wenyuan; Lin, Yankai; Liu, Zhiyuan; Sun, Maosong

    2016-01-01

    Distantly supervised relation extraction has been widely used to find novel relational facts from plain text. To predict the relation between a pair of two target entities, existing methods solely rely on those direct sentences containing both entities. In fact, there are also many sentences containing only one of the target entities, which provide rich and useful information for relation extraction. To address this issue, we build inference chains between two target entities via intermediate...

  14. Mechanisms of rapid sympatric speciation by sex reversal and sexual selection in cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, R; Seehausen, O; van Alphen, J J

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of speciation in cichlid fish were investigated by analyzing population genetic models of sexual selection on sex-determining genes associated with color polymorphisms. The models are based on a combination of laboratory experiments and field observations on the ecology, male and female mating behavior, and inheritance of sex-determination and color polymorphisms. The models explain why sex-reversal genes that change males into females tend to be X-linked and associated with novel colors, using the hypothesis of restricted recombination on the sex chromosomes, as suggested by previous theory on the evolution of recombination. The models reveal multiple pathways for rapid sympatric speciation through the origin of novel color morphs with strong assortative mating that incorporate both sex-reversal and suppressor genes. Despite the lack of geographic isolation or ecological differentiation, the new species coexists with the ancestral species either temporarily or indefinitely. These results may help to explain different patterns and rates of speciation among groups of cichlids, in particular the explosive diversification of rock-dwelling haplochromine cichlids.

  15. Comparison of echolocation clicks from geographically sympatric killer whales and long-finned pilot whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Ida; Wahlberg, Magnus; Simon, Malene

    2010-01-01

    The source characteristics of biosonar signals from sympatric killer whales and long-finned pilot whales in a Norwegian fjord were compared. A total of 137 pilot whale and more than 2000 killer whale echolocation clicks were recorded using a linear four-hydrophone array. Of these, 20 pilot whale...... clicks and 28 killer whale clicks were categorized as being recorded on-axis. The clicks of pilot whales had a mean apparent source level of 196 dB re 1 lPa pp and those of killer whales 203 dB re 1 lPa pp. The duration of pilot whale clicks was significantly shorter (23 ls, S.E.¼1.3) and the centroid...... frequency significantly higher (55 kHz, S.E.¼2.1) than killer whale clicks (duration: 41 ls, S.E.¼2.6; centroid frequency: 32 kHz, S.E.¼1.5). The rate of increase in the accumulated energy as a function of time also differed between clicks from the two species. The differences in duration, frequency...

  16. Genetic recombination events between sympatric Clade A and Clade C lice in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veracx, Aurélie; Boutellis, Amina; Raoult, Didier

    2013-09-01

    Human head and body lice have been classified into three phylogenetic clades (Clades A, B, and C) based on mitochondrial DNA. Based on nuclear markers (the 18S rRNA gene and the PM2 spacer), two genotypes of Clade A head and body lice, including one that is specifically African (Clade A2), have been described. In this study, we sequenced the PM2 spacer of Clade C head lice from Ethiopia and compared these sequences with sequences from previous works. Trees were drawn, and an analysis of genetic diversity based on the cytochrome b gene and the PM2 spacer was performed for African and non-African lice. In the tree drawn based on the PM2 spacer, the African and non-African lice formed separate clusters. However, Clade C lice from Ethiopia were placed within the African Clade A subcluster (Clade A2). This result suggests that recombination events have occurred between Clade A2 lice and Clade C lice, reflecting the sympatric nature of African lice. Finally, the PM2 spacer and cytochrome b gene sequences of human lice revealed a higher level of genetic diversity in Africa than in other regions.

  17. Lung infection rates in two sympatric Tropiduridae lizard species by pentastomids and nematodes in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available We present data on pulmonary infection rates by parasites in the lizards Tropidurus hispidus Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 living sympatrically in the Chapada do Araripe mountain Range, northeastern Brazil. We found no parasite pulmonary infection in T. semitaeniatus. However, two pulmonary parasite species were found in the T. hispidus hosts, the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008 and the nematode Rhabdias sp. Overall prevalence was 5%. Prevalence of R. mottae was 2.5% and corresponded to only one parasite on each infected host. Prevalence of Rhabdias sp. was 2.5% and the range of infection was 1-2 parasites per host. This represents the first record of Rhabdias infecting lizards of the family Tropiduridae in the Neotropical region. Furthermore, we present a comparison of parameters of infection by pulmonary parasites including some recent studies in Brazil.

  18. Spatial relations between sympatric coyotes and red foxes in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.; Hastings, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    Spatial relations between coyotes (Canis latrans) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) on a 360-km2 area in North Dakota were studied during 1977-78. Coyote families occupied large (mean = 61.2 km2), relatively exclusive territories that encompassed about one-half of the study area. Fox families occupied much smaller (mean = 11.9 km2), relatively exclusive, territories that overlapped perimeters of coyote territories and/or encompassed area unoccupied by coyotes. No fox family lived totally within a coyote territory, but 3 fox families lived within the 153.6-km2 home range of an unattached yearling male coyote. Both coyotes and foxes, from families with overlapping territories, tended to use their overlap areas less than was expected by amount of overlap. Encounters between radio-equipped coyotes and foxes from families with overlapping territories occurred less often than was expected by chance. Foxes living near coyotes exhibited considerable tenacity to their territories, and no monitored fox was killed by coyotes during 2,518 fox-days of radio surveillance. A hypothesis for coyote-induced fox population declines, based largely on fox avoidance mechanisms, is presented.

  19. Factors influencing distant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma following combined radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization therapy in patients with hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Shunsuke; Kusakabe, Atsunori; Shinkai, Noboru; Matsuura, Kentaro; Iio, Etsuko; Miyaki, Tomokatsu; Joh, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify important risk factors for distant recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients positive for hepatitis C and without local recurrence. A total of 212 patients (145 males and 67 females) underwent radiofrequency ablation and transcatheter arterial embolization or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization at initial development of hepatocellular carcinoma. All patients were positive for hepatitis C. Child–Pugh classification was A in 115 and B in 97. The indication for radiofrequency ablation was the presence of up to three tumors ≤ 3 cm. The distant recurrence rate was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and tested by Wilcoxon’s method. Cumulative distant recurrence rates at years 1, 3, and 5 were 19%, 62%, and 79%, respectively. On univariate analysis, a ≥ 3 cm tumor, ≥ 50 ng/mL α-fetoprotein level, and < 3.6 g/dL serum albumin level were significant risk factors for distant recurrence, but only a serum albumin level < 3.6 g/dL (P = 0.004) was identified as significant on multivariate analysis. In the group with a pretreatment albumin level ≥ 3.6 g/dL, the distant recurrence rate was compared between patients in whom the albumin level rose, remained unchanged, or decreased by < 0.3 g/dL, and those in whom the level decreased by ≥ 0.3 g/dL. The rate was significantly higher in the latter, with a one-year recurrence rate of 7% versus 15% (P = 0.04). Distant recurrence was significantly decreased in patients with a high serum albumin level. Distant recurrence was more likely to occur in patients with a decreased albumin level, although the pretreatment level was high. Thus, strict follow-up after treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma is necessary in patients with low serum albumin levels

  20. Relationship between energetic particles and plasmas in the distant plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarris, E.T.; Krimigis, S.M.; Lui, A.T.Y.; Ackerson, K.L.; Frank, L.A.; Williams, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of ions from three different instruments on the IMP-7 and 8 spacecraft are combined to yield with differential energy spectra of ions over the entire energy range of approx.100 eV to 4 MeV in the earth's distant (approx.30 to approx.40 R/sub e/) plasma sheet. These spectra, obtained during times of relatively small bulk flow velocities, span the intensity range from approx.10 -5 to 10 5 (cm 2 sec sr keV) -1 , varying smoothly over the entire energy range both when the plasma is cold (approx.1 keV) and hot (approx.9 keV). Overall, the shape of the spectrum resembles a Maxwellian but with a high energy (> or approx. =50 keV) tail described well by a power law (proportionalE -7 ). The high energy tail is displaced in a parallel fashion to higher or lower intensities when the plasma is hot or cold, respectively. The transition between the Maxwellian and the power law occurs at Eapprox. =(g+1)kT. It is found that the energetic particle populations in the plasma sheet appear to be directly related to the mean thermal energies of the corresponding plasmas

  1. Ancient fossil specimens of extinct species are genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi

    2009-01-01

    There exists a remarkable correlation between genetic distance as measured by protein or DNA dissimilarity and time of species divergence as inferred from fossil records. This observation has provoked the molecular clock hypothesis. However, data inconsistent with the hypothesis have steadily accumulated in recent years from studies of extant organisms. Here the published DNA and protein sequences from ancient fossil specimens were examined to see if they would support the molecular clock hypothesis. The hypothesis predicts that ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are. Also, two distinct ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant than their extant sister species are. The findings here do not conform to these predictions. Neanderthals are more distant to chimpanzees and gorillas than modern humans are. Dinosaurs are more distant to frogs than extant birds are. Mastodons are more distant to opossums than other placental mammals are. The genetic distance between dinosaurs and mastodons is greater than that between extant birds and mammals. Therefore, while the molecular clock hypothesis is consistent with some data from extant organisms, it has yet to find support from ancient fossils. Far more damaging to the hypothesis than data from extant organisms, which merely question the constancy of mutation rate, the study of ancient fossil organisms here challenges for the first time the fundamental premise of modern evolution theory that genetic distances had always increased with time in the past history of life on Earth. PMID:18600632

  2. Impact of global climate change on ecosystem-level interactions among sympatric plants from all three photosynthetic pathways. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1997-12-17

    The proposed research will determine biochemical and physiological responses to variations in environmental factors for plants of all three photosynthetic pathways under competitive situations in the field. These responses will be used to predict the effects of global climatic change on an ecosystem in the northwestern Sonoran Desert where the C{sub 3} subshrub Encelia farinosa, the C{sub 4} bunchgrass Hilaria rigida, and the CAM succulent Agave deserti are co-dominants. These perennials are relatively short with overlapping shallow roots facilitating the experimental measurements as well as leading to competition for soil water. Net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods measured in the laboratory will be analyzed using an environmental productivity index (EPI) that can incorporate simultaneous effects of soil water, air temperature, and light. Based on EPI, net CO{sub 2} uptake and hence plant productivity will be predicted for the three species in the field under various treatments. Activity of the two CO{sub 2} fixation enzymes, Rubisco and PEPCase, will be determined for these various environmental conditions; also, partitioning of carbon to various organs will be measured based on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} labeling and dry weight analysis. Thus, enzymatic and partitioning controls on competition among sympatric model plants representing all three photosynthetic pathways will be investigated.

  3. The sublethal effects of endosulfan on the circadian rhythms and locomotor activity of two sympatric parasitoid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpuech, Jean-Marie; Bussod, Sophie; Amar, Aurelien

    2015-08-01

    The organochlorine insecticide endosulfan is dispersed worldwide and significantly contributes to environmental pollution. It is an antagonist of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is also indirectly involved in photoperiodic time measurement. In this study, we show that endosulfan at a dose as low as LC 0.1 modified the rhythm of locomotor activity of two sympatric parasitoid species, Leptopilina boulardi and Leptopilina heterotoma. The insecticide strongly increased the nocturnal activity of both species and synchronized their diurnal activity; these activities were not synchronized under control conditions. Parasitoids are important species in ecosystems because they control the populations of other insects. In this paper, we discuss the possible consequences of these sublethal effects and highlight the importance of such effects in evaluating the consequences of environmental pollution due to insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of the power of multielement aerosol composition emission from distant industrial sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, S.A.; Kutsenogij, K.P.; Chankina, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    The results from the monitoring of the temporal variability of the multielement composition of atmospheric aerosols are presented. They are used to determine the emission power of a series of elements from distant sources.

  5. Very-high-energy gamma rays from a distant quasar: how transparent is the universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, J; Aliu, E; Anderhub, H; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Curtef, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Cea Del Pozo, E; de Los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Mendez, C Delgado; Dominguez, A; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Goebel, F; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Huber, S; Jogler, T; Kneiske, T M; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Otte, N; Oya, I; Panniello, M; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sanchez-Conde, M; Sartori, P; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tluczykont, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Venturini, A; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wittek, W; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2008-06-27

    The atmospheric Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope MAGIC, designed for a low-energy threshold, has detected very-high-energy gamma rays from a giant flare of the distant Quasi-Stellar Radio Source (in short: radio quasar) 3C 279, at a distance of more than 5 billion light-years (a redshift of 0.536). No quasar has been observed previously in very-high-energy gamma radiation, and this is also the most distant object detected emitting gamma rays above 50 gigaelectron volts. Because high-energy gamma rays may be stopped by interacting with the diffuse background light in the universe, the observations by MAGIC imply a low amount for such light, consistent with that known from galaxy counts.

  6. A distant cis acting intronic element induces site-selective RNA editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Chammiran; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard; Ekdahl, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Transcripts have been found to be site selectively edited from adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) in the mammalian brain, mostly in genes involved in neurotransmission. While A-to-I editing occurs at double-stranded structures, other structural requirements are largely unknown. We have investigated...... shown to be important for A-to-I editing. We demonstrate that the element also can induce editing in related but normally not edited RNA sequences. In human, thousands of genes are edited in duplexes formed by inverted repeats in non-coding regions. It is likely that numerous such duplexes can induce...... the requirements for editing at the I/M site in the Gabra-3 transcript of the GABA(A) receptor. We identify an evolutionarily conserved intronic duplex, 150 nt downstream of the exonic hairpin where the I/M site resides, which is required for its editing. This is the first time a distant RNA structure has been...

  7. Genetic polymorphism in sympatric species of the genus Phlebotomus, with special reference to Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus longicuspis (Diptera, Phlebotomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Sánchez J.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA assay was used to study genetic variation within and between five Phlebotomusspecies belonging to three subgenera: P. (Larroussius ariasi, P. (L. longicuspis, P. (L. perniciosus, P.(Paraphlebotomus sergenti and P. (Phlebotomus papatasi sympatric in southern Spain and proven vector of leishmaniasis. Two cluster analysis were proposed: one according to sandfly species and populations, the second according individual specimens of Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus longicuspis s.l. and intermediate morphological specimens between these species. The results obtained are closely correlated with the taxonomy classically accepted for the subgenera and with the automatic classifications made by other authors which use morphological and isoenzymatic data. The validity of the species Phlebotomus longicuspisis also discussed.

  8. On behavioural responses to smell and sight of alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus Heckel for an allopatric and a sympatric population of brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Joakim

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater sculpins and salmonids coexist in many streams throughout the Northern hemisphere, and often constitute an important component of stream ecosystems. Alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus Heckel have been known to predate eggs and fry of brown trout Salmo trutta L., and also to function as a competitor to older brown trout for habitat and prey items. This study was designed to examine possible behavioural differences in activity level and positioning between a sympatric and an allopatri...

  9. Molecular-based rapid inventories of sympatric diversity: a comparison of DNA barcode clustering methods applied to geography-based vs clade-based sampling of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Andrea; Crawford, Andrew J

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers offer a universal source of data for quantifying biodiversity. DNA barcoding uses a standardized genetic marker and a curated reference database to identify known species and to reveal cryptic diversity within wellsampled clades. Rapid biological inventories, e.g. rapid assessment programs (RAPs), unlike most barcoding campaigns, are focused on particular geographic localities rather than on clades. Because of the potentially sparse phylogenetic sampling, the addition of DNA barcoding to RAPs may present a greater challenge for the identification of named species or for revealing cryptic diversity. In this article we evaluate the use of DNA barcoding for quantifying lineage diversity within a single sampling site as compared to clade-based sampling, and present examples from amphibians. We compared algorithms for identifying DNA barcode clusters (e.g. species, cryptic species or Evolutionary Significant Units) using previously published DNA barcode data obtained from geography-based sampling at a site in Central Panama, and from clade-based sampling in Madagascar. We found that clustering algorithms based on genetic distance performed similarly on sympatric as well as clade-based barcode data, while a promising coalescent-based method performed poorly on sympatric data. The various clustering algorithms were also compared in terms of speed and software implementation. Although each method has its shortcomings in certain contexts, we recommend the use of the ABGD method, which not only performs fairly well under either sampling method, but does so in a few seconds and with a user-friendly Web interface.

  10. Screening for distant metastases in head and neck cancer patients by chest CT or whole body FDG-PET: A prospective multicenter trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senft, Asaf; Bree, Remco de; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Kuik, Dirk J.; Golding, Richard P.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Pruim, Jan; Hoogen, Frank J. van den; Roodenburg, Jan L.N.; Leemans, C. Rene

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of the study was to define the added value of whole body FDG-PET in screening for distant metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and risk factors. Materials and methods: In a multi-center prospective study between 1998 and 2003, 145 consecutive HNSCC patients with risk factors for distant metastases underwent chest CT and whole body FDG-PET for screening of distant metastases. The data of 92 evaluable patients who developed distant metastases or who had a follow-up of at least 12 months were analyzed. Besides their performance in clinical practice, the operational characteristics of PET and CT using ROC analyses were investigated. Results: Pretreatment screening identified distant metastases in 19 patients (21%). FDG-PET had a higher sensitivity (53% vs. 37%) and positive predictive value (80% vs. 75%) than CT. The combination of CT and FDG-PET had the highest sensitivity (63%). The ROC analyses of the five point ordinal scales revealed that the 'area under the curve' (AUC) of FDG-PET was significantly higher as compared to CT. Conclusion: In HNSCC patients with risk factors, pretreatment screening for distant metastases by chest CT is improved by FDG-PET

  11. Helminth communities of two sympatric skinks (Mabuya agilis and Mabuya macrorhyncha) from two "restinga" habitats in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D; Bursey, C R; Vicente, J J

    2002-12-01

    The helminth fauna of two sympatric congeneric skinks (Mabuya agilis and M. macrorhyncha) from two distinct "restinga" habitats (Praia das Neves and Grussaí) in southeastern Brazil were studied, totalling four data sets (sample sizes ranging from 11 to 28). A total of ten helminth species were associated with the skinks: Raillietiella sp., Paradistomum parvissimum, Pulchrosomoides elegans, Oochoristica ameivae, Hexametra boddaertii, Parapharyngodon sceleratus, Physalopteroides venancioi, Physaloptera sp., an unidentified acuariid nematode and an unidentified centrorhynchid acanthocephalan. Except for Hexametra boddaertii (found only in Grussaí) and Pulchrosomoides elegans (found only in Praia das Neves), all helminth species were present at both localities. Half of the helminth species were present only as larvae and, in most cases, appear to represent paratenic parasitism. Overall prevalences of infection were high for both host species in both localities. Mabuya agilis tended to have richer and more diverse infracommunities than M. macrorhyncha. Some parameters of infection by individual helminth species seem to be related to the ecology of each Mabuya species. The parasite faunas were qualitatively very similar among species and/or localities, but quantitative similarities were more varied, due to differential representativeness of individual helminth species among host populations. The helminth communities of both skink species can be classified as non-interactive, being composed of site-specialists and immature stages of non-lizard parasites.

  12. Photo-acoustic and video-acoustic methods for sensing distant sound sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Dan; Kozacik, Stephen; Kelmelis, Eric

    2017-05-01

    Long range telescopic video imagery of distant terrestrial scenes, aircraft, rockets and other aerospace vehicles can be a powerful observational tool. But what about the associated acoustic activity? A new technology, Remote Acoustic Sensing (RAS), may provide a method to remotely listen to the acoustic activity near these distant objects. Local acoustic activity sometimes weakly modulates the ambient illumination in a way that can be remotely sensed. RAS is a new type of microphone that separates an acoustic transducer into two spatially separated components: 1) a naturally formed in situ acousto-optic modulator (AOM) located within the distant scene and 2) a remote sensing readout device that recovers the distant audio. These two elements are passively coupled over long distances at the speed of light by naturally occurring ambient light energy or other electromagnetic fields. Stereophonic, multichannel and acoustic beam forming are all possible using RAS techniques and when combined with high-definition video imagery it can help to provide a more cinema like immersive viewing experience. A practical implementation of a remote acousto-optic readout device can be a challenging engineering problem. The acoustic influence on the optical signal is generally weak and often with a strong bias term. The optical signal is further degraded by atmospheric seeing turbulence. In this paper, we consider two fundamentally different optical readout approaches: 1) a low pixel count photodiode based RAS photoreceiver and 2) audio extraction directly from a video stream. Most of our RAS experiments to date have used the first method for reasons of performance and simplicity. But there are potential advantages to extracting audio directly from a video stream. These advantages include the straight forward ability to work with multiple AOMs (useful for acoustic beam forming), simpler optical configurations, and a potential ability to use certain preexisting video recordings. However

  13. Local and distant residence times of contaminants in multi-compartment models. Part II: Application to assessing environmental mobility and long-range atmospheric transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Liisa; Mackay, Don

    2008-01-01

    In Part I, the concepts of inherent, local and distant residence times (DRTs) were reviewed as metrics of the extent to which chemical discharges or emissions in one region or box are transported to distant regions. In this second part, the concepts are applied to geographically relevant systems to illustrate their applicability to the assessment of chemicals for long-range transport potential (LRTP). It is shown that the relative ranking of chemicals as characterized by the DRT method is similar to that of the characteristic travel distance concept. A DRT source-receptor matrix is developed that can express the chemical-specific potential of source regions to contaminate a specific receptor region of concern such as the Arctic. The matrix can be modified to identify for a specific source region the likely destinations of emissions as well as to assess the relative vulnerability of regions in the global environment to contaminants of concern. - The DRT concept is applied to multi-box and geographically explicit models to assess the long-range transport potential of 10 chemicals

  14. Going that extra mile: individuals travel further to maintain face-to-face contact with highly related kin than with less related kin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V Pollet

    Full Text Available The theory of inclusive fitness has transformed our understanding of cooperation and altruism. However, the proximate psychological underpinnings of altruism are less well understood, and it has been argued that emotional closeness mediates the relationship between genetic relatedness and altruism. In this study, we use a real-life costly behaviour (travel time to dissociate the effects of genetic relatedness from emotional closeness. Participants travelled further to see more closely related kin, as compared to more distantly related kin. For distantly related kin, the level of emotional closeness mediated this relationship--when emotional closeness was controlled for, there was no effect of genetic relatedness on travel time. However, participants were willing to travel further to visit parents, children and siblings as compared to more distantly related kin, even when emotional closeness was controlled for. This suggests that the mediating effect of emotional closeness on altruism varies with levels of genetic relatedness.

  15. Thyrotoxicosis associated with distant metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, W.D.; Jones, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    In a man with metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid, thyrotoxicosis developed after total thyroidectomy and was successfully treated with antithyroid medications. Treatment with radioactive iodine decreased the size of the distant metastasis and eventually diminished thyroid hormone production. Follicular carcinoma complicated by hyperthyroidism requires vigorous control of the hypermetabolic state. Treatment with radioactive iodine can effectively reduce metabolic complications and tumor bulk, and yields a remission rate as high as 33%

  16. Echinococcus granulosus: Evidence of a heterodimeric glutathione transferase built up by phylogenetically distant subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbildi, Paula; La-Rocca, Silvana; Lopez, Veronica; Da-Costa, Natalia; Fernandez, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    In the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus, three phylogenetically distant cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) (EgGST1, 2 and 3) were identified. Interestingly, the C-terminal domains of EgGST3 and EgGST2 but not EgGST1, exhibit all amino acids involved in Sigma-class GST dimerization. Here, we provide evidence indicating that EgGST2 and EgGST3 naturally form a heterodimeric structure (EgGST2-3), and also we report the enzymatic activity of the recombinant heterodimer. EgGST2-3 might display novel properties able to influence the infection establishment. This is the first report of a stable heterodimeric GST built up by phylogenetically distant subunits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The memory unsatisfied in Estrella distante of Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Florinda Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    This article sets up to examine the fictional strategies appointed  to shape the complexity of the memory processes in there composition of a traumatic experience. Estrella distante (1996), discusses the identity of the subject and, consequently, questions the supposed transparency of testimonies. Critical memory opens the past to uninterrupted interpretations in order to prevent the crystallization of a solesense of facts.

  18. Alpine crossroads or origin of genetic diversity? Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric microgastropod species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Weigand

    Full Text Available The Alpine Region, constituting the Alps and the Dinaric Alps, has played a major role in the formation of current patterns of biodiversity either as a contact zone of postglacial expanding lineages or as the origin of genetic diversity. In our study, we tested these hypotheses for two widespread, sympatric microgastropod taxa--Carychium minimum O.F. Müller, 1774 and Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae--by using COI sequence data and species potential distribution models analyzed in a statistical phylogeographical framework. Additionally, we examined disjunct transatlantic populations of those taxa from the Azores and North America. In general, both Carychium taxa demonstrate a genetic structure composed of several differentiated haplotype lineages most likely resulting from allopatric diversification in isolated refugial areas during the Pleistocene glacial periods. However, the genetic structure of Carychium minimum is more pronounced, which can be attributed to ecological constraints relating to habitat proximity to permanent bodies of water. For most of the Carychium lineages, the broader Alpine Region was identified as the likely origin of genetic diversity. Several lineages are endemic to the broader Alpine Region whereas a single lineage per species underwent a postglacial expansion to (recolonize previously unsuitable habitats, e.g. in Northern Europe. The source populations of those expanding lineages can be traced back to the Eastern and Western Alps. Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant 'hot-spot' for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages. Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America. We conclude that passive (anthropogenic transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general.

  19. Ensembles generated from crystal structures of single distant homologues solve challenging molecular-replacement cases in AMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigden, Daniel J; Thomas, Jens M H; Simkovic, Felix; Simpkin, Adam; Winn, Martyn D; Mayans, Olga; Keegan, Ronan M

    2018-03-01

    Molecular replacement (MR) is the predominant route to solution of the phase problem in macromolecular crystallography. Although routine in many cases, it becomes more effortful and often impossible when the available experimental structures typically used as search models are only distantly homologous to the target. Nevertheless, with current powerful MR software, relatively small core structures shared between the target and known structure, of 20-40% of the overall structure for example, can succeed as search models where they can be isolated. Manual sculpting of such small structural cores is rarely attempted and is dependent on the crystallographer's expertise and understanding of the protein family in question. Automated search-model editing has previously been performed on the basis of sequence alignment, in order to eliminate, for example, side chains or loops that are not present in the target, or on the basis of structural features (e.g. solvent accessibility) or crystallographic parameters (e.g. B factors). Here, based on recent work demonstrating a correlation between evolutionary conservation and protein rigidity/packing, novel automated ways to derive edited search models from a given distant homologue over a range of sizes are presented. A variety of structure-based metrics, many readily obtained from online webservers, can be fed to the MR pipeline AMPLE to produce search models that succeed with a set of test cases where expertly manually edited comparators, further processed in diverse ways with MrBUMP, fail. Further significant performance gains result when the structure-based distance geometry method CONCOORD is used to generate ensembles from the distant homologue. To our knowledge, this is the first such approach whereby a single structure is meaningfully transformed into an ensemble for the purposes of MR. Additional cases further demonstrate the advantages of the approach. CONCOORD is freely available and computationally inexpensive, so

  20. Feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion in predicting early distant metastasis in patients with stage T3 rectal cancer based on rectal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Chul; Kim, Jai Keun; Lee, Jei Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Jin [Yonsei University Health system, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute of Gastroenterology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Bae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae [Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of mesorectal vascular invasion (MVI) in predicting early distant metastasis developed within 1 year of diagnosis of T3 rectal cancer using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Sixty-five patients with T3 rectal cancer (early metastasis, n = 28; non-metastasis, n = 37) were enrolled in this study. Early distant metastases developed in 28 patients (liver, n = 15; lung, n = 9; both, n = 4). Logistic regression was used to determine the independent predictors for early distant metastasis. In univariate analysis, tumour location, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), lymphovascular invasion (LVI), MRI-detected MVI, and mesorectal fat infiltration (MFI) (odds ratio [OR], 4.533, 9.583, 5.539, 27.046, and 5.539, respectively) were associated with early distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MVI (OR, 29.949; P < 0.002) and LVI (OR, 6.684; P = 0.033) were independent factors for early distant metastasis. Specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of MVI (94.59 %, and 89.47 %, respectively) were significantly higher than those of LVI (64.86 %, and 61.76 %), but sensitivity and negative predictive value were not significantly different between MVI (60.71 %, and 76.09 %) and LVI (75.00 %, and 77.42 %). While sensitivity of MRI-detected MVI was equal to that of CEA in predicting early distant metastasis from T3 rectal cancer, specificity and PPV may be improved by assessing MVI. (orig.)

  1. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths.

  2. The role of ecological factors in determining phylogeographic and population genetic structure of two sympatric island skinks (Plestiodon kishinouyei and P. stimpsonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Kazuki; Toda, Mamoru

    2017-04-01

    We conducted comparative phylogeographic and population genetic analyses of Plestiodon kishinouyei and P. stimpsonii, two sympatric skinks endemic to islands in the southern Ryukyus, to explore different factors that have influenced population structure. Previous phylogenetic studies using partial mitochondrial DNA indicate similar divergence times from their respective closest relatives, suggesting that differences in population structure are driven by intrinsic attributes of either species rather than the common set of extrinsic factors that both presumably have been exposed to throughout their history. In this study, analysis of mtDNA sequences and microsatellite polymorphism demonstrate contrasting patterns of phylogeography and population structure: P. kishinouyei exhibits a lower genetic variability and lower genetic differentiation among islands than P. stimpsonii, consistent with recent population expansion. However, historical demographic analyses indicate that the relatively high genetic uniformity in P. kishinouyei is not attributable to recent expansion. We detected significant isolation-by-distance patterns among P. kishinouyei populations on the land bridge islands, but not among P. stimpsonii populations occurring on those same islands. Our results suggest that P. kishinouyei populations have maintained gene flows across islands until recently, probably via ephemeral Quaternary land bridges. The lower genetic variability in P. kishinouyei may also indicate smaller effective population sizes on average than that of P. stimpsonii. We interpret these differences as a consequence of ecological divergence between the two species, primarily in trophic level and habitat preference.

  3. Climatic and biotic stochasticity: disparate causes of convergent demographies in rare, sympatric plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Laurel R

    2007-12-01

    Species with known demographies may be used as proxies, or approximate models, to predict vital rates and ecological properties of target species that either have not been studied or are species for which data may be difficult to obtain. These extrapolations assume that model and target species with similar properties respond in the same ways to the same ecological factors, that they have similar population dynamics, and that the similarity of vital rates reflects analogous responses to the same factors. I used two rare, sympatric annual plants (sand gilia [Gilia tenuiflora arenaria] and Monterey spineflower [Chorizanthe pungens pungens]) to test these assumptions experimentally. The vital rates of these species are similar and strongly correlated with rainfall, and I added water and/or prevented herbivore access to experimental plots. Their survival and reproduction were driven by different, largely stochastic factors and processes: sand gilia by herbivory and Monterey spineflower by rainfall. Because the causal agents and processes generating similar demographic patterns were species specific, these results demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, that it is critical to identify the ecological processes generating observed effects and that experimental manipulations are usually needed to determine causal mechanisms. Without such evidence to identify mechanisms, extrapolations among species may lead to counterproductive management and conservation practices.

  4. Pestivirus in alpine wild ruminants and sympatric livestock from the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aguilar, X; López-Olvera, J R; Marco, I; Rosell, R; Colom-Cadena, A; Soto-Heras, S; Lavín, S; Cabezón, O

    2016-06-04

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and Border disease virus (BDV) were investigated at the wildlife-livestock interface in the distribution area of chamois in the Cantabrian Mountains, North-Western Spain. From 2010 to 2014, sera from sympatric wild (n=167) and domestic (n=272) ruminants were analysed for pestivirus antibodies by cELISA, virus neutralisation test (VNT) and for the presence of pestiviral RNA using a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Results showed a higher seroprevalence in cattle (59.4 per cent, 13/13 of herds) than in domestic small ruminants (5.9 per cent sheep, 2/8 of flocks; 0 per cent goats of 4 flocks) and wildlife (10.8 per cent in red deer, 0 per cent in roe deer and 0 per cent in Cantabrian chamois). High VNT titres were detected in two cattle herds, suggesting the circulation of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 strains. BVDV-1 RNA was detected in one cattle calf by RT-PCR and sequencing. Conversely to other similar grazing systems, sheep flocks did not play a relevant role in the pestivirus epidemiology in this region. Pestivirus infections in wild ruminants were sporadic and most probably dependent on a domestic source. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Spawning segregation and philopatry are major prezygotic barriers in sympatric cryptic Mugil cephalus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2015-12-01

    The flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, is a commercially vital fish in fisheries and aquaculture worldwide. Genetic analyses have recently revealed three cryptic species of M. cephalus in the Northwest Pacific. These species are sympatric in Taiwanese waters and specific reproductive behaviors have been suggested to be a major prezygotic barrier. Species composition was evaluated in samples of M. cephalus at different growth stages collected from various habitats (offshore spawning ground, estuarine nursery and feeding areas) over several months or years. The gonadosomatic index of adults and the body length of juveniles were recorded to determine the reproductive season and recruitment periods in estuaries. The results revealed partially temporal spawning isolation between species pairs, spatial segregation on specific spawning grounds and strong philopatry preclude hybridization. Thus, the results imply that traditional fisheries of mature fish in the Taiwan Strait target only one species, whereas aquaculture in Taiwan contain juveniles of all three species collected in estuaries. The ecological niche and demography of these species must be investigated further to estimate the impact of juvenile sources on aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. (abstract) The Distant Tail Behavior During High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the ISEE-3 distant tail data during three intense magnetic storms and have identified the tail response to high speed solar wind streams, interplanetary magnetic clouds, and near-Earth storms.

  7. A simple model of the distant Jovian tail with magnetic flux loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzedzielski, S.; Macek, W.; Oberc, P.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of a small rate of magnetic flux loss on a simple hydromagnetic model of the distant Jovian tail was estimated. The loss of flux leads to a 10-15% decrease of the tail radius at Saturn's distance. Possible encounter of the tail with Uranus in 1983 is also briefly discussed. (author)

  8. The memory unsatisfied in Estrella distante of Roberto Bolaño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Florinda Ramírez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article sets up to examine the fictional strategies appointed  to shape the complexity of the memory processes in there composition of a traumatic experience. Estrella distante (1996, discusses the identity of the subject and, consequently, questions the supposed transparency of testimonies. Critical memory opens the past to uninterrupted interpretations in order to prevent the crystallization of a solesense of facts.

  9. Cerambycid Beetle Species with Similar Pheromones are Segregated by Phenology and Minor Pheromone Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert F; Reagel, Peter F; Wong, Joseph C H; Meier, Linnea R; Silva, Weliton Dias; Mongold-Diers, Judith; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2015-05-01

    Recent research has shown that volatile sex and aggregation-sex pheromones of many species of cerambycid beetles are highly conserved, with sympatric and synchronic species that are closely related (i.e., congeners), and even more distantly related (different subfamilies), using the same or similar pheromones. Here, we investigated mechanisms by which cross attraction is averted among seven cerambycid species that are native to eastern North America and active as adults in spring: Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), Cyrtophorus verrucosus (Olivier), Euderces pini (Olivier), Neoclytus caprea (Say), and the congeners Phymatodes aereus (Newman), P. amoenus (Say), and P. varius (F.). Males of these species produce (R)-3-hydroxyhexan-2-one as their dominant or sole pheromone component. Our field bioassays support the hypothesis that cross attraction between species is averted or at least minimized by differences among species in seasonal phenology and circadian flight periods of adults, and/or by minor pheromone components that act as synergists for conspecifics and antagonists for heterospecifics.

  10. Prognostic influence of clinical stage for distant failure in conservation treatment of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjan, N.A.; Murray, K.J.; Walker, A.P.; Derus, S.B.; Komaki, R.U.; Cox, J.D.; Wilson, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    One-hundred twelve patients with clinical stage I-II mammary carcinoma treated with radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery from 1975 through 1985 were evaluated. Median follow-up was 21 months (range, 2-80 months). This study demonstrates the importance of evaluating patients on the basis of tumor and axillary node findings rather than by clinical stage alone. In the authors' series, all T1 patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieved the same excellent local and distant control as node-negative T1 and T2 patients. Distant failure occurred in 70% of T2 N1 patients despite systemic chemotherapy given to the majority of patients. The significance of these data regarding future trials are discussed

  11. Understanding the star formation modes in the distant universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmi, Fadia

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my PhD study consists at attempt to understand what are the main processes at the origin of the star formation in the galaxies over the last 10 billion years. While it was proposed in the past that merging of galaxies has a dominant role to explain the triggering of the star formation in the distant galaxies having high star formation rates, in the opposite, more recent studies revealed scaling laws linking the star formation rate in the galaxies to their stellar mass or their gas mass. The small dispersion of these laws seems to be in contradiction with the idea of powerful stochastic events due to interactions, but rather in agreement with the new vision of galaxy history where the latter are continuously fed by intergalactic gas. We were especially interested in one of this scaling law, the relation between the star formation (SFR) and the stellar mass (M*) of galaxies, commonly called the main sequence of star forming galaxies. We studied this main sequence, SFR-M"*, in function of the morphology and other physical parameters like the radius, the colour, the clumpiness. The goal was to understand the origin of the sequence's dispersion related to the physical processes underlying this sequence in order to identify the main mode of star formation controlling this sequence. This work needed a multi-wavelength approach as well as the use of galaxies profile simulation to distinguish between the different galaxy morphological types implied in the main sequence. (author) [fr

  12. The effects of distant healing performed by a spiritual healer on chronic pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubono, Kenjiro; Thomlinson, Paul; Shealy, C Norman

    2009-01-01

    Many individuals suffer from various kinds of chronic pain. Some controlled studies on distant healing for chronic pain exist, but no definitive conclusion has been established. To study the effects of distant healing performed by a professional Japanese healer on chronic pain. A double-blind randomized controlled study. Holos University, Fair Grove, Missouri. People suffering from chronic pain (not caused by clear organic diseases or that persists long after a reasonable period of healing following injuries or surgery) were recruited through local radio and newspaper advertising. Subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment group or control group using a double-blind procedure. All subjects met the healer at the initial session at Holos University. At the session, a 20-minute group meditation was performed. The healer went back to Japan after the session and started distant healing only to the treatment group for a 2-month period. All participants were asked to meditate for 20 minutes every day during this 2-month period. The visual analog scale and McGill Pain Questionnaire. A total of 17 subjects were recruited, and 16 subjects completed the study. Comparison of pretreatment and posttreatment visual analog scale indicated a slightly significant effect of distant healing (P=.056). The Present Pain Intensity Scale showed significant improvement in the treatment group compared to the control group (P=.0016). The Pain Rating Index showed improvement in the treatment group, but the difference between both groups was not statistically significant (P=.12).

  13. Clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, locoregional and distant metastasis in 115 T1-T2 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma remains high. Oral and oro-pharyngeal carcinomas are the sixth most common cancer in the world. Several clinicopathological parameters have been implicated in prognosis, recurrence and survival, following oral squamous cell carcinoma. In this retrospective analysis, clinicopathological parameters of 115 T1/T2 OSCC were studied and compared to recurrence and death from tumour-related causes. The study protocol was approved by the Joint UCL/UCLH committees of the ethics for human research. The patients' data was entered onto proformas, which were validated and checked by interval sampling. The fields included a range of clinical, operative and histopathological variables related to the status of the surgical margins. Data collection also included recurrence, cause of death, date of death and last clinic review. Causes of death were collated in 4 categories (1) death from locoregional spread, (2) death from distant metastasis, (3) death from bronchopulmonary pneumonia, and (4) death from any non-tumour event that lead to cardiorespiratory failure. The patients' population comprised 65 males and 50 females. Their mean age at the 1st diagnosis of OSCC was 61.7 years. Two-thirds of the patients were Caucasians. Primary sites were mainly identified in the tongue, floor of mouth (FOM), buccal mucosa and alveolus. Most of the identified OSCCs were low-risk (T1N0 and T2N0). All patients underwent primary resection ± neck dissection and reconstruction when necessary. Twenty-two patients needed adjuvant radiotherapy. Pathological analysis revealed that half of the patients had moderately differentiated OSCC. pTNM slightly differed from the cTNM and showed that 70.4% of the patients had low-risk OSCC. Tumour clearance was ultimately achieved in 107 patients. Follow-up resulted in a 3-year survival of 74.8% and a 5-year survival of 72.2%. Recurrence was identified in 23 males and 20 females. The mean age of 1st diagnosis of the

  14. Population genetic relationships between Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties occurring sympatrically and allopatrically in different ecosystems in south-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Marcelo Mattos; Gimenes, Marcos Aparecido; Billot, Claire; Torres, Roseli Buzanelli; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Species delimitation can be problematic, and recently diverged taxa are sometimes viewed as the extremes of a species' continuum in response to environmental conditions. Using population genetic approaches, this study assessed the relationship between two Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties, which occur sympatrically and allopatrically in the landscape of south-east Brazil, where intermediate types are also found. In total, 376 individuals from nine populations in four different ecosystems were sampled, and nine microsatellite markers were used to assess the relative effects of the ecosystems and varieties on the distribution of genetic diversity among populations of this species. As a by-product of this study, several PCR products with more than two alleles were observed. The possibility that extra bands represent non-specific amplification or PCR artefacts was discarded by sequencing a sample of these bands. We suggest that (partial) genome duplication in C. sylvestris most probably explains this phenomenon, which may be a key factor in the differentiation of the two taxa, as it was markedly more frequent in one of the varieties. AMOVA indicated that approx. 22 % of the total genetic diversity was found between the two varieties. Bayesian analysis identified varieties and ecosystems as evolutionary units, rather than the individual populations sampled. The results are in agreement with field observations and support the recognition of two varieties, as well as documenting the occurrence of hybridization between them.

  15. MMP-7 expression may influence the rate of distant recurrences and disease-specific survival in HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Seija I; Jouhi, Lauri; Mohamed, Hesham; Haglund, Caj; Mäkitie, Antti A; Atula, Timo; Hagström, Jaana; Mäkinen, Laura K

    2018-05-02

    The objective of this study was to determine if matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) expression is related to human papilloma virus (HPV) status, clinical parameters, and outcome in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Tumor tissue specimens from 201 OPSCC patients treated with curative intent were available for immunohistochemistry, and the samples were stained with monoclonal MMP-7 antibody. All the patients were followed up at least 3 years or until death. MMP-7 expression did not differ between HPV-positive and HPV-negative patients. MMP-7 was not prognostic among patients with HPV-negative OPSCC. In the HPV-positive subgroup, patients with moderate, high, or very high MMP-7 expression had significantly worse 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) (56.6%) than patients with absent, or low MMP-7 expression (77.2%), and MMP-7 expression appeared as a prognostic factor in the multivariate analysis. In addition, among HPV-positive OPSCC with moderate, high, or very high MMP-7 expression, the 5-year distant recurrence-free survival was significantly lower (69.6%) than in those who had low or absent MMP-7 expression (97.5%). Our results suggest that among HPV-positive OPSCC patients, high MMP-7 expression is related to worse 5-year DSS and increased rate of distant recurrences.

  16. Pretreatment evaluation of distant-site status in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: accuracy of whole-body MRI at 3-Tesla and FDG-PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Shu-Hang; Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Liao, Chun-Ta; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wai, Yau-Yau; Wang, Hung-Ming; Wang, Jiun-Jie; Chen, Min-Chi

    2009-01-01

    We sought to prospectively evaluate the accuracy of 3.0-Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and integrated fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) (FDG-PET-CT), and their combined interpretation for the assessment of distant-site status in 150 patients with untreated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Eighteen (12%) patients were diagnosed as having distant malignancies (15 patients had distant metastases, and three distant synchronous tumours). On a patient-based analysis, WB-MRI and FDG-PET-CT showed similar sensitivity (77.8% vs 72.2%, P > 0.999), specificity (98.5% vs 97.7%, P > 0.999) and diagnostic capability (0.905 vs 0.878, P = 0.669). Combined interpretation of WB-MRI and FDG-PET-CT showed no significant benefit over either technique alone. In conclusion, 3.0-Tesla WB-MRI is a feasible, non-ionising technique that showed similar diagnostic capacity to FDG-PET-CT in assessing distant-site status in patients with untreated NPC and can be recommended as the first-line imaging technique for comprehensive evaluation of such patients. (orig.)

  17. Standardization of Distant Intercessory Prayer for Research on Health and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Kathleen Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, distant (remote) intercessory prayer has been put up against the scientific method of research. Studies are few, variable, and tend to be nongeneralizable. Lack of construct validity of the variable prayer is one of the weaknesses that opens up the research to valid critique and scrutiny. The belief that research in this field is…

  18. THE REGULATION OF DISTANT LABOR RELATIONS AT THE AIRLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how to optimize airline costs applying the Federal Law of 04.05.2013, № 60-FZ on the regulation of labor relations at the remote aviation enterprises of Russia. Taking into account the changes in the economic system of the country areas of transformation of social and labor issues are identified. A model of assessing the impact of teleworking on the company's profits is suggested. The main features of the activities which are ,most suitable for remote operation are determined.

  19. Relevance, distant effect, penalty for the radiation caused by a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    1) A suit or an appeal is not successful if a first partial operating license which has been enforced in the meantime, has not violated any protective rights or interests of the plaintiff. 2) This is especially true if the distant effects of the licensed facility, which have been explained by the plaintiff, don't reach the extent or duration of a violation or endangering of his own rights or legally protected rights. 3) The maximum permissible radiation exposure according to the dose limits occurs in case of distant effects according to paragraph 45 of the Radiological Protection Ordinance. 4) Here, it is the matter of a long-term problem with regard to the management and disposal of nuclear waste, provided that an individual interest is given. 5) The required causal connection cannot be proved in case of only statistically recorded emissions. The mere increase of risk, even if it is accurately founded by statistics, is not sufficient. (orig.) [de

  20. Detection of distant metastasis and prognostic prediction of recurrent salivary gland carcinomas using 18 F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Roh, J-L; Kim, J S; Lee, J H; Choi, S-H; Nam, S Y; Kim, S Y

    2018-04-24

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of 18 F-FDG PET/CT and conventional contrast-enhanced CT for the re-staging of recurrent salivary gland carcinoma (SGC). This study included 58 consecutive patients who underwent recurrent SGCs after definitive treatment. The recurrences were evaluated by 18 F-FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT of the neck and chest. McNemar's test was used to compare the diagnostic accuracy of 18 F-FDG PET/CT with standard neck and chest CT imaging, and a Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the prognostic value of PET/CT. Of 58 patients with recurrent SGCs, 17 (29%) had a local recurrence, 17 (29%) had a regional recurrence, and 38 (66%) had a distant metastasis, with these classifications showing overlap. The sensitivity and accuracy of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of distant metastases were significantly higher than those of CT (P 0.1). The 18 F-FDG PET/CT-positive findings at distant sites were predictors of poor progression-free and overall survival outcome (all P PET/CT is a more effective method than CT for detecting distant site recurrences of SGC. This may lead to prognostic prediction for recurrent SGCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence of bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in three species of sympatric wild ungulates in Nevada: life history strategies may maintain endemic infections in wild populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peregrine Lee Wolff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infection was detected in 2009-10 while investigating a pneumonia die-off in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis, and sympatric mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum in adjacent mountain ranges in Elko County, Nevada. Seroprevalence to BVDV-1 was 81% (N=32 in the bighorns and 100% (N=3 in the mountain goats. Serosurveillance from 2011 to 2015 of surviving bighorns and mountain goats as well as sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, indicated a prevalence of 72% (N=45, 45% (N=51, and 51% (N=342 respectively. All species had antibody titers to BVDV1 and BVDV2. BVDV1 was isolated in cell culture from three bighorn sheep and a mountain goat kid. BVDV2 was isolated from two mule deer. Six deer (N=96 sampled in 2013 were positive for BVDV by antigen-capture ELISA on ear notch. Wild ungulates and cattle concurrently graze public and private lands in these two mountain ranges, thus providing potential for interspecies viral transmission. Like cattle, mule deer, mountain goats, and bighorn sheep can be infected with BVDV and can develop clinical disease including immunosuppression. Winter migration patterns that increase densities and species interaction during the first and second trimester of gestation may contribute to the long term maintenance of the virus in these wild ungulates. More studies are needed to determine the population level impacts of BVDV infection on these three species.

  2. A Pool of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Anyone who has wondered what it might be like to dive into a pool of millions of distant galaxies of different shapes and colours, will enjoy the latest image released by ESO. Obtained in part with the Very Large Telescope, the image is the deepest ground-based U-band image of the Universe ever obtained. It contains more than 27 million pixels and is the result of 55 hours of observations with the VIMOS instrument. A Sea of Galaxies ESO PR Photo 39/08 A Pool of Distant Galaxies This uniquely beautiful patchwork image, with its myriad of brightly coloured galaxies, shows the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), arguably the most observed and best studied region in the entire sky. The CDF-S is one of the two regions selected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), an effort of the worldwide astronomical community that unites the deepest observations from ground- and space-based facilities at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio. Its primary purpose is to provide astronomers with the most sensitive census of the distant Universe to assist in their study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The new image released by ESO combines data obtained with the VIMOS instrument in the U- and R-bands, as well as data obtained in the B-band with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, in the framework of the GABODS survey. The newly released U-band image - the result of 40 hours of staring at the same region of the sky and just made ready by the GOODS team - is the deepest image ever taken from the ground in this wavelength domain. At these depths, the sky is almost completely covered by galaxies, each one, like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, home of hundreds of billions of stars. Galaxies were detected that are a billion times fainter than the unaided eye can see and over a range of colours not directly observable by the eye. This deep image has been essential to the discovery of a large number of new galaxies

  3. Combined Therapy for Distant Metastasis of Sacral Chordoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Özkal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chordomas are known as rare primary malign tumours that have formed from primitive notochord remains. Sacral chordomas grow slowly but locally and aggressively. Chordomas are locally invasive and have low tendency to metastasis and have a poor prognosis in long-term follow-up. Metastasis may be seen in a rate of 5–40% of the chordomas. Metastasis of chordomas is common in liver, lung, lymph nodes, peritoneum, and brain. The treatment approaches, including surgery, have been discussed in the literature before. Susceptibility to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is controversial in these tumours. The success of surgical treatment affects survival directly. In this report, we will report a sacral chordoma case in which an intraperitoneal distant metastasis occurred and discuss the surgical approach.

  4. Radiotherapy-related typing in 842 patients in canton with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiqiang; Xia Yunfei; Liu Qing; Yi, Wei; Liu Xiufang; Han Fei; Luo Wei; Lu Taixiang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to propose the clinical radiotherapy-related typing and to summarize proportional distribution of radiotherapy-related types of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: A total of 842 cases of NPC were randomly selected. According to 5-year follow-up results after radiotherapy, NPC was subdivided into four types: Type I (no primary and regional recurrence and no distant metastasis), Type II (primary or regional recurrence and no distant metastasis), Type III (no primary and regional recurrence, and distant metastasis), and Type IV (primary or regional recurrence, and distant metastasis). Proportion of the four types and relationship between this typing and Zhi-guang Xie typing were analyzed. Results: Distribution of radiotherapy-related types of NPC were 50.6%, 23.2%, 20.7%, and 5.6% for Types I, II, III, and IV, respectively. For Types D and AD of Zhi-guang Xie typing system and Stage III and IV of the 1992 Fuzhou staging system, the proportion of Type III was greater than that of Type II; and for Type A and Stage I and II, there was a larger proportion of Type II than that of Type III. Conclusion: Radiotherapy-related typing, as a new clinical subclassification, could be supplementary for previous clinical typing and staging

  5. Surviving at a distant site: The organotropism of metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi; Siegal, Gene P

    2018-03-01

    Many cancers demonstrate a non-random distribution of sites for distant relapse while others have the propensity to metastasize to multiple organ systems. One of the notable recent findings is that the breast cancer subtypes differ not only in their biological characteristics as primary tumors but also in their capacity for metastatic progression. This information could potentially be utilized in treatment decision making and surveillance strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutral sheet crossings in the distant magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkila, W.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Smith, E.J.; Baker, D.N.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    We have analyzed the magnetic field data from ISEE-3 in the distant magnetotail for 18 crossings of the cross-tail current sheet (or so-called natural sheet) to determine the direction of the normal component B/sub z/. The crossings occurred near the middle of the aberrated magnetotail (0 0.4 nT), consistent with closed field lines connected to the earth. In 3 cases B/sub z/ was very close to zero; in several instances there was structure in B/sub y/, suggesting localized currents with x or z directions. One may have been a magnetopause crossing. The strong preponderance of northward B/sub z/ favors a model of the magnetotail which is dominated by boundary layer plasma, flowing tailward on closed magnetic field lines, which requires the existence of an electric field in the sense from dusk to dawn. 37 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  7. Arabic medical entity tagging using distant learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Cotik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A semantic tagger aiming to detect relevant entities in Arabic medical documents and tagging them with their appropriate semantic class is presented. The system takes profit of a Multilingual Framework covering four languages (Arabic, English, French, and Spanish, in a way that resources available for each language can be used to improve the results of the others, this is specially important for less resourced languages as Arabic. The approach has been evaluated against Wikipedia pages of the four languages belonging to the medical domain. The core of the system is the definition of a base tagset consisting of the three most represented classes in SNOMED-CT taxonomy and the learning of a binary classifier for each semantic category in the tagset and each language, using a distant learning approach over three widely used knowledge resources, namely Wikipedia, Dbpedia, and SNOMED-CT.

  8. The Influence of Diabetes Mellitus and Metformin on Distant Metastases in Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Multicenter Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Beadle, Beth M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zumsteg, Zachary S., E-mail: zachary.zumsteg@cshs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Rivera, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Skinner, Heath D. [Bobby R. Alford Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Osborne, Joseph R. [Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Nancy Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Local control in oropharyngeal cancer has improved to unprecedented rates with combined modality therapy; as a result, distant metastases are becoming a principal challenge. We aimed to determine the impact of diabetes mellitus and metformin use on clinical outcomes in a large population of oropharyngeal cancer patients treated in the modern era. Methods and Materials: We identified 1745 consecutive patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated at 2 large cancer centers with external beam radiation therapy from 1998 to 2011. A total of 184 patients had diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis, of whom 102 were taking metformin. The outcomes assessed included local failure-free survival (LFFS), regional failure-free survival (RFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: The median follow-up time was 4.3 years. The 5-year actuarial rates of DMFS were 89.6% for nondiabetic patients and 78.7% for diabetic nonmetformin users (P=.011) and of OS were 83.0% for nondiabetic patients and 70.7% for diabetic nonmetformin users (P=.048). Diabetic metformin users had 5-year DMFS (90.1%) and OS (89.6%) similar to those of nondiabetic patients. Multivariate analysis (diabetic nonmetformin users as reference) demonstrated improved DMFS for nondiabetic patients (adjusted hazard ratio 0.54; 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.93; P=.03) and a trend toward improved DMFS with metformin use (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.20-1.04; P=.06). LFFS and RFFS were high in all groups and were not significantly different by diabetic status or metformin use. Conclusions: Diabetic patients not using metformin independently have significantly higher rates of distant metastases than do nondiabetic patients, whereas metformin users have rates of distant metastases similar to those of nondiabetic patients. Further prospective investigation is warranted to validate the benefit of metformin in oropharyngeal cancer.

  9. The Influence of Diabetes Mellitus and Metformin on Distant Metastases in Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Multicenter Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Beadle, Beth M.; Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Rivera, Andrew; Skinner, Heath D.; Osborne, Joseph R.; Garden, Adam S.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Local control in oropharyngeal cancer has improved to unprecedented rates with combined modality therapy; as a result, distant metastases are becoming a principal challenge. We aimed to determine the impact of diabetes mellitus and metformin use on clinical outcomes in a large population of oropharyngeal cancer patients treated in the modern era. Methods and Materials: We identified 1745 consecutive patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated at 2 large cancer centers with external beam radiation therapy from 1998 to 2011. A total of 184 patients had diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis, of whom 102 were taking metformin. The outcomes assessed included local failure-free survival (LFFS), regional failure-free survival (RFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: The median follow-up time was 4.3 years. The 5-year actuarial rates of DMFS were 89.6% for nondiabetic patients and 78.7% for diabetic nonmetformin users (P=.011) and of OS were 83.0% for nondiabetic patients and 70.7% for diabetic nonmetformin users (P=.048). Diabetic metformin users had 5-year DMFS (90.1%) and OS (89.6%) similar to those of nondiabetic patients. Multivariate analysis (diabetic nonmetformin users as reference) demonstrated improved DMFS for nondiabetic patients (adjusted hazard ratio 0.54; 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.93; P=.03) and a trend toward improved DMFS with metformin use (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46; 95% confidence interval 0.20-1.04; P=.06). LFFS and RFFS were high in all groups and were not significantly different by diabetic status or metformin use. Conclusions: Diabetic patients not using metformin independently have significantly higher rates of distant metastases than do nondiabetic patients, whereas metformin users have rates of distant metastases similar to those of nondiabetic patients. Further prospective investigation is warranted to validate the benefit of metformin in oropharyngeal cancer.

  10. Validation of the 18-gene classifier as a prognostic biomarker of distant metastasis in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skye Hung-Chun Cheng

    Full Text Available We validated an 18-gene classifier (GC initially developed to predict local/regional recurrence after mastectomy in estimating distant metastasis risk. The 18-gene scoring algorithm defines scores as: <21, low risk; ≥21, high risk. Six hundred eighty-three patients with primary operable breast cancer and fresh frozen tumor tissues available were included. The primary outcome was the 5-year probability of freedom from distant metastasis (DMFP. Two external datasets were used to test the predictive accuracy of 18-GC. The 5-year rates of DMFP for patients classified as low-risk (n = 146, 21.7% and high-risk (n = 537, 78.6% were 96.2% (95% CI, 91.1%-98.8% and 80.9% (74.6%-81.9%, respectively (median follow-up interval, 71.8 months. The 5-year rates of DMFP of the low-risk group in stage I (n = 62, 35.6%, stage II (n = 66, 20.1%, and stage III (n = 18, 10.3% were 100%, 94.2% (78.5%-98.5%, and 90.9% (50.8%-98.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that 18-GC is an independent prognostic factor of distant metastasis (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.8-14.1; p = 0.0017 for scores of ≥21. External validation showed that the 5-year rate of DMFP in the low- and high-risk patients was 94.1% (82.9%-100% and 80.3% (70.7%-89.9%, p = 0.06 in a Singapore dataset, and 89.5% (81.9%-94.1% and 73.6% (67.2%-79.0%, p = 0.0039 in the GEO-GSE20685 dataset, respectively. In conclusion, 18-GC is a viable prognostic biomarker for breast cancer to estimate distant metastasis risk.

  11. Factors Affecting Element Concentrations in Eggshells of Three Sympatrically Nesting Waterbirds in Northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitowski, Ignacy; Jakubas, Dariusz; Indykiewicz, Piotr; Wiącek, Dariusz

    2018-02-01

    Avian eggshells are convenient samples in biomonitoring studies, because they are easily accessible, especially from colonially or semicolonially breeding birds. In the present study, concentrations of 17 elements, including heavy metals and essential elements in post-hatch eggshells, were compared among three species of waterbirds of differing strategies for gaining reserves for egg production and diet: mallard, Anas platyrhynchos (ML, a capital breeder, mainly herbivorous), common tern, Sterna hirundo (CT, an income breeder, piscivorous) and black-headed gull, Chroicocephalus ridibundus (BHG, mixed strategy, omnivorous) and breeding sympatrically in three sites in North Poland. Analyses revealed that Fe, Zn, and Cu levels differed the most in the studied species, which may be explained by various contributions of fish, aquatic plants, and soil invertebrates in their diets. Generally, the studied species' eggshells accumulated amounts of elements comparable to those reported for other waterbirds without putting the growth and development of the embryo at risk. The only exception was very high levels of Cr in ML and CT, which may be explained by their foraging on aquatic organisms in waterbodies polluted by this element. Intersite differences in eggshell concentrations of Ni, Sr, Hg and Cr in CT (an income breeder) may be explained by the influence of local pollution sources (small factories, polluted river).

  12. Traditional ecological knowledge reveals the extent of sympatric lake trout diversity and habitat preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Marin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multidisciplinary approaches to conservation have become increasingly important in northern regions. Because many First Nations communities have relied on freshwater fish populations for essential food over millennia, community members often possess traditional ecological knowledge (TEK. We consulted Cree First Nation fishers to collate TEK for one of Canada's most important subsistence fishes (lake trout in Québec's largest lake (Mistassini, 2335 km2. We further integrated TEK with what was regionally known scientifically about the species, toward effective fisheries conservation. Cree fishers described a richer diversity of sympatric lake trout forms than did scientific research that was conducted simultaneously, based on color, size, fin accent patterns, scale texture and depth, and spatial preferences. Traditional ecological knowledge also provided descriptions of lake trout seasonal movements, spawning locations, and reproductive timing that were not captured by scientific research, and highlighted several concerns or temporal changes of import to future management initiatives. Our study highlights the wealth of TEK on harvested species in First Nations communities. It further illustrates how TEK can reveal not only distinctions within species of relevance to natural resource management and taxonomy, but also informs upon the extent of such population differentiation, thereby providing important conservation benefits for remote and northern regions.

  13. The impact of geographic unit of analysis on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival and distant summary stage - a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Morrell, Stephen; Aranda, Sanchia; Roder, David; You, Hui; Niyonsenga, Theo; Walton, Richard; Baker, Deborah; Currow, David

    2016-12-13

    When using area-level disadvantage measures, size of geographic unit can have major effects on recorded socioeconomic cancer disparities. This study examined the extent of changes in recorded socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival and distant stage when the measure of socioeconomic disadvantage was based on smaller Census Collection Districts (CDs) instead of Statistical Local Areas (SLAs). Population-based New South Wales Cancer Registry data were used to identify cases diagnosed with primary invasive cancer in 2000-2008 (n=264,236). Logistic regression and competing risk regression modelling were performed to examine socioeconomic differences in odds of distant stage and hazard of cancer death for all sites combined and separately for breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancers. For all sites collectively, associations between socioeconomic disadvantage and cancer survival and distant stage were stronger when the CD-based socioeconomic disadvantage measure was used compared with the SLA-based measure. The CD-based measure showed a more consistent socioeconomic gradient with a linear upward trend of risk of cancer death/distant stage with increasing socioeconomic disadvantage. Site-specific analyses provided similar findings for the risk of death but less consistent results for the likelihood of distant stage. The use of socioeconomic disadvantage measure based on the smallest available spatial unit should be encouraged in the future. Implications for Public Health: Disadvantage measures based on small spatial units can more accurately identify socioeconomic cancer disparities to inform priority settings in service planning. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Influence of road network and population demand assumptions in evacuation modeling for distant tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kevin; Wood, Nathan J.; Frazier, Tim G.

    2017-01-01

    Tsunami evacuation planning in coastal communities is typically focused on local events where at-risk individuals must move on foot in a matter of minutes to safety. Less attention has been placed on distant tsunamis, where evacuations unfold over several hours, are often dominated by vehicle use and are managed by public safety officials. Traditional traffic simulation models focus on estimating clearance times but often overlook the influence of varying population demand, alternative modes, background traffic, shadow evacuation, and traffic management alternatives. These factors are especially important for island communities with limited egress options to safety. We use the coastal community of Balboa Island, California (USA), as a case study to explore the range of potential clearance times prior to wave arrival for a distant tsunami scenario. We use a first-in–first-out queuing simulation environment to estimate variations in clearance times, given varying assumptions of the evacuating population (demand) and the road network over which they evacuate (supply). Results suggest clearance times are less than wave arrival times for a distant tsunami, except when we assume maximum vehicle usage for residents, employees, and tourists for a weekend scenario. A two-lane bridge to the mainland was the primary traffic bottleneck, thereby minimizing the effect of departure times, shadow evacuations, background traffic, boat-based evacuations, and traffic light timing on overall community clearance time. Reducing vehicular demand generally reduced clearance time, whereas improvements to road capacity had mixed results. Finally, failure to recognize non-residential employee and tourist populations in the vehicle demand substantially underestimated clearance time.

  15. Limited trophic partitioning among sympatric delphinids off a tropical oceanic atoll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Young

    Full Text Available Understanding trophic relationships among marine predators in remote environments is challenging, but it is critical to understand community structure and dynamics. In this study, we used stable isotope analysis of skin biopsies to compare the isotopic, and thus, trophic niches of three sympatric delphinids in the waters surrounding Palmyra Atoll, in the Central Tropical Pacific: the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra, Gray's spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris longirostris, and the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus. δ15N values suggested that T. truncatus occupied a significantly higher trophic position than the other two species. δ13C values did not significantly differ between the three delphinds, potentially indicating no spatial partitioning in depth or distance from shore in foraging among species. The dietary niche area-determined by isotopic variance among individuals-of T. truncatus was also over 30% smaller than those of the other species taken at the same place, indicating higher population specialization or lower interindividual variation. For P. electra only, there was some support for intraspecific variation in foraging ecology across years, highlighting the need for temporal information in studying dietary niche. Cumulatively, isotopic evidence revealed surprisingly little evidence for trophic niche partitioning in the delphinid community of Palmyra Atoll compared to other studies. However, resource partitioning may happen via other behavioral mechanisms, or prey abundance or availability may be adequate to allow these three species to coexist without any such partitioning. It is also possible that isotopic signatures are inadequate to detect trophic partitioning in this environment, possibly because isotopes of prey are highly variable or insufficiently resolved to allow for differentiation.

  16. One Year Genome Evolution of Lausannevirus in Allopatric versus Sympatric Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Linda; Bertelli, Claire; Pillonel, Trestan; Salamin, Nicolas; Greub, Gilbert

    2017-06-01

    Amoeba-resisting microorganisms raised a great interest during the last decade. Among them, some large DNA viruses present huge genomes up to 2.5 Mb long, exceeding the size of small bacterial genomes. The rate of genome evolution in terms of mutation, deletion, and gene acquisition in these genomes is yet unknown. Given the suspected high plasticity of viral genomes, the microevolution of the 346 kb genome of Lausannevirus, a member of Megavirales, was studied. Hence, Lausannevirus was co-cultured within the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii over one year. Despite a low number of mutations, the virus showed a genome reduction of 3.7% after 12 months. Lausannevirus genome evolution in sympatric conditions was investigated by its co-culture with Estrella lausannensis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, in the amoeba A. castellanii during one year. Cultures were split every 3 months. Genome sequencing revealed that in these conditions both, Lausannevirus and E. lausannensis, show stable genome, presenting no major rearrangement. In fact, after one year they acquired from 2 to 7 and from 4 to 10 mutations per culture for Lausannevirus and E. lausannensis, respectively. Interestingly, different mutations in the endonuclease encoding genes of Lausannevirus were observed in different subcultures, highlighting the importance of this gene product in the replication of Lausannevirus. Conversely, mutations in E. lausannensis were mainly located in a gene encoding for a phosphoenolpyruvate-protein phosphotransferase (PtsI), implicated in sugar metabolism. Moreover, in our conditions and with our analyses we detected no horizontal gene transfer during one year of co-culture. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Host-seeking behaviors of mosquitoes experimentally infected with sympatric field isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: no evidence for host manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eVantaux

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that Plasmodium parasites can manipulate mosquito feeding behaviours such as motivation and avidity to feed on vertebrate hosts, in ways that increase the probability of parasite transmission. These studies, however, have been mainly carried out on non-natural and/or laboratory based model systems and hence may not reflect what occurs in the field. We now need to move closer to the natural setting, if we are to fully capture the ecological and evolutionary consequences of these parasite-induced behavioral changes. As part of this effort, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the long and short-range behavioural responses to human stimuli in the mosquito Anopheles coluzzii during different stages of infection with sympatric field isolates of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in Burkina Faso. First, we used a dual-port olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odor to gauge mosquito long-range host-seeking behaviors. Second, we used a locomotor activity monitor system to assess mosquito short-range behaviors. Compared to control uninfected mosquitoes, P. falciparum infection had no significant effect neither on long-range nor on short-range behaviors both at the immature and mature stages. This study, using a natural mosquito-malaria parasite association, indicates that manipulation of vector behavior may not be a general phenomenon. We speculate that the observed contrasting phenotypes with model systems might result from coevolution of the human parasite and its natural vector. Future experiments, using other sympatric malaria mosquito populations or species are required to test this hypothesis. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of following up discoveries in laboratory model systems with studies on natural parasite–mosquito interactions to accurately predict the epidemiological, ecological and evolutionary consequences of parasite manipulation of vector

  18. Contrasting Effects of Aqueous Tissue Extracts from an Invasive Plant, Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata, on the Performance of Its Sympatric Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Mei Hsu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch. Bip., a common weed in lowland Taiwan, is listed as one of the twenty most noxious invasive plants in Taiwan. In this study, we examined the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and roots of the invasive plant on germination and growth of seedlings (estimated by measuring the elongation of hypocotyls and radicals of the same species and two other sympatric species, B. bipinnata and Ageraturem conyzoides. The objective of this study was to understand whether the aqueous tissue extracts affected the performance of the target species and whether these effects varied among tissue types and among target species. We found that the germination percentage of seeds of B. bipinnata was significantly reduced by root and leaf extracts, that of B. pilosa var. radiata was also significantly reduced by the application of root extract, while that of A. conyzoides was not affected by any of the three tissue extracts. The application of stem and leaf extracts inhibited the elongation of radicals of B. pilosa var. radiata, consequently, the growth of seedlings of this species was decreased in these two treatments. Though the elongation of hypocotyls was stimulated by leaf extract, the overall growth of seedlings of B. bipinnata was not affected by any tissue extract. In contrast, all three extracts stimulated the elongation of hypocotyls and radicals of A. conyzoides, consequently, the overall growth of seedlings of this plant was promoted by all three extracts. These results revealed that aqueous extracts from tissue of B. pilosa var. radiata had differential effect on the emergence and seedling growth of the three target species. The inhibition effect of its root and leaf extracts on the germination of B. bipinnata may partially explain the overwhelming dominance of B. pilosa var. radiata over B. bipinnata when they are sympatric.

  19. Topological networks for quantum communication between distant qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nicolai; Büchler, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    Efficient communication between qubits relies on robust networks, which allow for fast and coherent transfer of quantum information. It seems natural to harvest the remarkable properties of systems characterized by topological invariants to perform this task. Here, we show that a linear network of coupled bosonic degrees of freedom, characterized by topological bands, can be employed for the efficient exchange of quantum information over large distances. Important features of our setup are that it is robust against quenched disorder, all relevant operations can be performed by global variations of parameters, and the time required for communication between distant qubits approaches linear scaling with their distance. We demonstrate that our concept can be extended to an ensemble of qubits embedded in a two-dimensional network to allow for communication between all of them.

  20. Exploring the Structure of the Distant Universe with MUSE Data Cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Mason; Christensen, Lise

    2018-01-01

    The mass distribution in intergalactic and circumgalactic space is not well known since it is difficult to characterize objects in the distant universe. An ideal tool for studying such distant structure is the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) of the Very Large Telescope array, which employs a wide field-of-view and a large spectral range to produce high spatial resolution datasets. Here we exploit the 2 spatial dimensions and 1 spectral dimension of a particular MUSE “data cube” to identify and characterize emission line sources near the line-of-sight to quasar PKS1937-101, which lies at a redshift of z=3.787. In particular, we search for galaxy companions to a z=3.572 Lyman-limit system measured in the quasar spectrum and find an associated Lyman-alpha emitter at z=3.556 with a projected distance of 30.2 kpc from the quasar line-of-sight. Through a combination of automated source extraction and manual investigation, we also identify 25 emission line galaxies and 1 other Lyman-alpha emitter in our field. The proximity of several of these objects to the quasar line-of-sight allows us to reliably identify absorption lines in the quasar spectrum that can be associated with observed emission lines with resolved fluxes. This will help characterize the metallicities and kinematics of galaxy halos and circumgalactic media in the early universe.

  1. Environmental and Body Concentrations of Heavy Metals at Sites Near and Distant from Industrial Complexes in Ulsan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joo Hyun; Oh, Inbo; Kim, Ahra; Lee, Jiho; Sim, Chang Sun; Yoo, Cheolin; Park, Sang Jin; Kim, Geun Bae; Kim, Yangho

    2018-01-29

    Industrial pollution may affect the heavy metal body burden of people living near industrial complexes. We determined the average concentrations of atmospheric heavy metals in areas close to and distant from industrial complexes in Korea, and the body concentrations of these heavy metals in residents living near and distant from these facilities. The atmospheric data of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) were from the Regional Air Monitoring Network in Ulsan. We recruited 1,148 participants, 872 who lived near an industrial complex ("exposed" group) and 276 who lived distant from industrial complexes ("non-exposed" group), and measured their concentrations of blood lead, urinary cadmium, and urinary total mercury. The results showed that atmospheric and human concentrations of heavy metals were higher in areas near industrial complexes. In addition, residents living near industrial complexes had higher individual and combined concentrations (cadmium + lead + mercury) of heavy metals. We conclude that residents living near industrial complexes are exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals, and should be carefully monitored. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. The consumption discount rate for the distant future (if we do not die out)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeylen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Gollier and Weitzman (2010) show that if future consumption discount rates are uncertain and persistent, the consumption discount rate should decline to its lowest possible value for events in the most distant future. In this paper, I argue that the lowest possible growth rate of consumption per

  3. Quest for the most distant objects in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanipe, J.

    1988-01-01

    Far out in the distant universe, between 10 billion and 11 billion years away in space and time, lies a region where the majority of known quasars resides. Astronomers have known about this stratum of quasars for over two decades and have spent the better part of that time trying to understand why these objects seem predisposed to congregate at this distance. The most plausible explanation is that there were more quasars 10 billion or 11 billion years ago than there are now and that this region represents, in effect, the quasar spawning grounds. For astronomers this quasar stratum has played an important role in demarcating the edge of the observable universe. Beyond lies only a handful of more distant quasars, and beyond that lies a vast, impenetrable region that extends back to a time before the quasars formed, when matter and photons went their separate ways 700,000 years after the Big Bang. But a recent flurry of back-to-back quasar discoveries may spell the beginning of the end of this theory. Between August 1986 and late September 1987 more than a half-dozen quasars were detected at 12 billion light-years, which is beyond what astronomers had considered the edge of the universe. Although the new quasars may not seem to be too far out of bounds, a little distance translates into a lot of time in the development of the young universe. The final stroke would be the discovery of quasars or possibly primeval galaxies in a region of space thought to predate the formation of galaxies. Theorists would then be forced to discard established models that explain how galaxies formed and evolved and to devise new theories that better reflect observations. This would cause a major revolution in astronomy

  4. The two sides of adversity: the effect of distant versus recent adversity on updating emotional content in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levens, Sara M; Armstrong, Laura Marie; Orejuela-Dávila, Ana I; Alverio, Tabitha

    2017-09-01

    Previous research suggests that adversity can have both adaptive and maladaptive effects, yet the emotional and working memory processes that contribute to more or less adaptive outcomes are unclear. The present study sought to investigate how updating emotional content differs in adolescents who have experienced past, recent, or no adversity. Participants who had experienced distant adversity (N = 53), no adversity (N = 58), or recent adversity only (N = 20) performed an emotion n-back task with emotional facial expressions. Results revealed that the distant adversity group exhibited significantly faster reaction times (RTs) than the no adversity and recent adversity only groups. In contrast, the recent adversity only group exhibited significantly slower RTs and more errors than the distant adversity and no adversity groups. These results suggest an emotion and executive control pathway by which both the benefits and negative effects of adversity may be conferred. Results also highlight the importance of time in assessing the impact of adversity.

  5. The Distant Tail Behavior During High Speed Solar Wind Streams and Magnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the ISEE-3 distant tail data during three intense (Dststorms and have identified the tail response to high speed solar wind streams, interplanetary magnetic clouds, and near-Earth storms. The three storms have a peak Dst ranging from -150 to -220 nT, and occur on Jan. 9, Feb. 4, and Aug. 8, 1993.

  6. Uncovering the spatially distant feedback loops of global trade: A network and input-output approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, Christina; Sun, Laixiang; Feng, Kuishuang; He, Jiaying; Hubacek, Klaus

    2017-05-15

    Land-use change is increasingly driven by global trade. The term "telecoupling" has been gaining ground as a means to describe how human actions in one part of the world can have spatially distant impacts on land and land-use in another. These interactions can, over time, create both direct and spatially distant feedback loops, in which human activity and land use mutually impact one another over great expanses. In this paper, we develop an analytical framework to clarify spatially distant feedbacks in the case of land use and global trade. We use an innovative mix of multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis and stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs) for analyzing the co-evolution of changes in trade network patterns with those of land use, as embodied in trade. Our results indicate that the formation of trade ties and changes in embodied land use mutually impact one another, and further, that these changes are linked to disparities in countries' wealth. Through identifying this feedback loop, our results support ongoing discussions about the unequal trade patterns between rich and poor countries that result in uneven distributions of negative environmental impacts. Finally, evidence for this feedback loop is present even when controlling for a number of underlying mechanisms, such as countries' land endowments, their geographical distance from one another, and a number of endogenous network tendencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Migratory neighbors and distant invaders: tumor-associated niche cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wels, Jared; Kaplan, Rosandra N.; Rafii, Shahin; Lyden, David

    2008-01-01

    The cancer environment is comprised of tumor cells as well as a wide network of stromal and vascular cells participating in the cellular and molecular events necessary for invasion and metastasis. Tumor secretory factors can activate the migration of host cells, both near to and far from the primary tumor site, as well as promote the exodus of cells to distant tissues. Thus, the migration of stromal cells and tumor cells among specialized microenvironments takes place throughout tumor and metastatic progression, providing evidence for the systemic nature of a malignancy. Investigations of the tumor–stromal and stromal–stromal cross-talk involved in cellular migration in cancer may lead to the design of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:18316475

  8. Primary colectomy in patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases improves overall survival: results of a multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoui, Mehdi; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Mesli, Farida; Mitry, Emmanuel; Aparicio, Thomas; Des Guetz, Gaetan; DesGuetz, Gaetan; Louvet, Christophe; Landi, Bruno; Tiret, Emmanuel; Sobhani, Iradj

    2011-08-01

    Whether patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases should be managed by primary colectomy followed by chemotherapy or immediate chemotherapy without resection of the primary tumor is still controversial. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors associated with survival in patients with stage IV colon cancer and unresectable distant metastases. This large retrospective multicentric study included 6 academic hospitals. This study was conducted at 6 Paris University Hospitals (Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris; Saint Antoine, Henri Mondor, Ambroise Paré, Hôpital Europeen Gorges Pompidou, Bichat, and Avicenne). Between 1998 and 2007, 208 patients with good performance status and stage IV colon cancer with unresectable distant metastases received chemotherapy, either as initial management or after primary tumor resection. Survival was estimated by use of the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors associated with survival were tested by means of a log-rank test. Results were expressed as median values with 95% confidence intervals. Factors independently related to survival were tested using a Cox regression model adjusted for a propensity score. Of the 208 patients, 85 underwent colectomy before chemotherapy, whereas 123 were treated with use of primary chemotherapy with or without biotherapy. At univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with survival: primary colectomy (P = .031), secondary curative surgery (P < .001), well-differentiated primary tumor (P < .001), exclusive liver metastases (P < .027), absence of need for colonic stent (P = .009), and addition of antiangiogenic (P = .001) or anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (P = .013) drugs to chemotherapy. After Cox multivariate analysis and after adjusting for the propensity score, all of these factors, with the exception of two, colonic stent and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor drug, were found to be independently associated with overall

  9. Habitat predictors of genetic diversity for two sympatric wetland-breeding amphibian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Anna M; Maerz, John C; Smith, Lora L; Glenn, Travis C

    2017-08-01

    Population genetic diversity is widely accepted as important to the conservation and management of wildlife. However, habitat features may differentially affect evolutionary processes that facilitate population genetic diversity among sympatric species. We measured genetic diversity for two pond-breeding amphibian species (Dwarf salamanders, Eurycea quadridigitata ; and Southern Leopard frogs, Lithobates sphenocephalus ) to understand how habitat characteristics and spatial scale affect genetic diversity across a landscape. Samples were collected from wetlands on a longleaf pine reserve in Georgia. We genotyped microsatellite loci for both species to assess population structures and determine which habitat features were most closely associated with observed heterozygosity and rarefied allelic richness. Both species exhibited significant population genetic structure; however, structure in Southern Leopard frogs was driven primarily by one outlier site. Dwarf salamander allelic richness was greater at sites with less surrounding road area within 0.5 km and more wetland area within 1.0 and 2.5 km, and heterozygosity was greater at sites with more wetland area within 0.5 km. In contrast, neither measure of Southern Leopard frog genetic diversity was associated with any habitat features at any scale we evaluated. Genetic diversity in the Dwarf salamander was strongly associated with land cover variables up to 2.5 km away from breeding wetlands, and/or results suggest that minimizing roads in wetland buffers may be beneficial to the maintenance of population genetic diversity. This study suggests that patterns of genetic differentiation and genetic diversity have associations with different habitat features across different spatial scales for two syntopic pond-breeding amphibian species.

  10. Grounded Eyes on Distant Watery Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    , the authorshigh-resolution observations allowed them to resolve not only the stellar spectrum, but also the spectral lines fromthe hot Jupiter exoplanet itself.Obtaining a thermal spectrum of the planet permitted the team to break the usual observational degeneracy that occurs with exoplanet observations: they were able to disentangle the planet mass and its orbital inclination angle. Piskorz and collaborators found that the planet is roughly 1.7 Jupiter masses and its orbit is inclined 24 relative to our line of sight.Artists illustration of the closest three planets in the upsilon Andromedae system. The system also has a distant red-dwarf binary companion, as well as a possible fourth planet. [NASA/ESA/A. Feild (STScI)]These measurements of the orbital structure of upsilon Andromedae are critical for understanding this unusual system. With non-coplanar planets and a distant red-dwarf companion, the upsilon Andromedae system has long been suspected to lie on the precipice of instability. The new measurements of upsilon Andromeda bs orbital properties will help us to better understand how the system may have formed, evolved, and survived to today.Water FoundOne of the biggest benefits of spectroscopy of an exoplanet is the potentialto learn about its atmospheric composition. Using their NIRSPEC observations of upsilon Andromedae b and detailed atmospheric modeling, Piskorz and collaborators found that the planets opacity structure is dominated by water vapor at the wavelengths they probed.This detection of water vapor in upsilon Andromedae bs atmosphere and the constraints on the planets orbital properties demonstrate the power and potential of ground-based, high-resolution spectroscopy for characterizing exoplanets and constraining the architecture of distantsolar systems.CitationDanielle Piskorz et al 2017 AJ 154 78. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa7dd8

  11. Three-dimensional foraging habitat use and niche partitioning in two sympatric seabird species, Phalacrocorax auritus and P. penicillatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck-Richardson, Adam G.; Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, Daniel D.; Cushing, Daniel A.; Lerczak, James A.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that co-existing, morphologically similar species will partition prey resources when faced with resource limitations. We investigated local movements, foraging dive behavior, and foraging habitat selection by breeding adults of 2 closely related cormorant species, double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and Brandt’s cormorants P. penicillatus. These species nest sympatrically at East Sand Island in the Columbia River estuary at the border of Oregon and Washington states, USA. Breeding individuals of each species were tracked using GPS tags with integrated temperature and depth data-loggers. The overall foraging areas and core foraging areas (defined as the 95% and 50% kernel density estimates of dive locations, respectively) of double-crested cormorants were much larger and covered a broader range of riverine, mixed-estuarine, and nearshore marine habitats. Brandt’s cormorant foraging areas were less expansive, were exclusively marine, and mostly overlapped with double-crested cormorant foraging areas. Within these areas of overlap, Brandt’s cormorants tended to dive deeper (median depth = 6.48 m) than double-crested cormorants (median depth = 2.67 m), and selected dive locations where the water was deeper. Brandt’s cormorants also utilized a deeper, more benthic portion of the water column than did double-crested cormorants. Nevertheless, the substantial overlap in foraging habitat between the 2 cormorant species in the Columbia River estuary, particularly for Brandt’s cormorants, suggests that superabundant prey resources allow these 2 large and productive cormorant colonies to coexist on a single island near the mouth of the Columbia River.

  12. Etonogestrel implant migration to the vasculature, chest wall, and distant body sites: cases from a pharmacovigilance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sarah; Niak, Ali; Gada, Neha; Brinker, Allen; Jones, S Christopher

    2017-12-01

    To describe clinical outcomes of etonogestrel implant patients with migration to the vasculature, chest wall and other distant body sites spontaneously reported to the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. We performed a standardized Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) query in the FAERS database (through November 15, 2015), with reports coded with one or more MedDRA preferred terms that indicate complications with device placement or migration of the device from the original site of insertion to the vasculature, chest wall and other distant body sites. We excluded any cases previously described in the medical literature. We identified 38 cases of pronounced etonogestrel implant migration. Migration locations included the lung/pulmonary artery (n=9), chest wall (n=1), vasculature at locations other than the lung/pulmonary artery (n=14) and extravascular migrations (n=14) to other body sites (e.g., the axilla and clavicle/neck line/shoulder). The majority of cases were asymptomatic and detected when the patient desired implant removal; however, seven cases reported symptoms such as pain, discomfort and dyspnea in association with implant migration. Three cases also describe pulmonary fibrosis and skin reactions as a result of implant migration to the vasculature, chest wall and other distant body sites. Sixteen cases reported surgical removal in an operating room setting. Our FAERS case series demonstrates etonogestrel implant migration to the vasculature, chest wall and other body sites distant from the site of original insertion. As noted by the sponsor in current prescribing information, a key determinant in the risk for etonogestrel contraceptive implant migration appears to be improper insertion technique. Although migration of etonogestrel implants to the vasculature is rare, awareness of migration and education on proper insertion technique may reduce the risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A comparison of spatial and movement patterns between sympatric predators: bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas and Atlantic tarpon (Megalops atlanticus.

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    Neil Hammerschlag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators can impact ecosystems through trophic cascades such that differential patterns in habitat use can lead to spatiotemporal variation in top down forcing on community dynamics. Thus, improved understanding of predator movements is important for evaluating the potential ecosystem effects of their declines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We satellite-tagged an apex predator (bull sharks, Carcharhinus leucas and a sympatric mesopredator (Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus in southern Florida waters to describe their habitat use, abundance and movement patterns. We asked four questions: (1 How do the seasonal abundance patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare? (2 How do the movement patterns of bull sharks and tarpon compare, and what proportion of time do their respective primary ranges overlap? (3 Do tarpon movement patterns (e.g., straight versus convoluted paths and/or their rates of movement (ROM differ in areas of low versus high bull shark abundance? and (4 Can any general conclusions be reached concerning whether tarpon may mitigate risk of predation by sharks when they are in areas of high bull shark abundance? CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite similarities in diet, bull sharks and tarpon showed little overlap in habitat use. Bull shark abundance was high year-round, but peaked in winter; while tarpon abundance and fishery catches were highest in late spring. However, presence of the largest sharks (>230 cm coincided with peak tarpon abundance. When moving over deep open waters (areas of high shark abundance and high food availability tarpon maintained relatively high ROM in directed lines until reaching shallow structurally-complex areas. At such locations, tarpon exhibited slow tortuous movements over relatively long time periods indicative of foraging. Tarpon periodically concentrated up rivers, where tracked bull sharks were absent. We propose that tarpon trade-off energetic costs of both food assimilation and

  14. Change over time in the effect of grade and ER on risk of distant failure in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, Rebecca; Nixon, Asa J.; O'Neill, Anne; Harris, Jay R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Most analyses of the effect of patient and tumor characteristics on long-term outcome in breast cancer use the Cox proportional hazard (prohaz) model, which assumes that hazard rates for any two subsets are proportional (i.e., hazard ratios are constant) over time. We examined whether this assumption is correct for predicting time to distant failure in breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving therapy and speculated on the biologic implications of these findings. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1081 patients treated for clinical stage I or II invasive breast cancer with a complete gross excision and ≥60 Gy to the tumor bed had pure infiltrating ductal carcinoma on central pathologic review. 37 patients (3%) were lost to followup after 7-181 months. Median followup for 694 survivors was 12 years (8-23 yrs.). Time to distant failure was defined to be time to regional nodal failure or distant metastases and was not censored for local recurrence, contralateral breast cancer, or death from other causes. We evaluated the following characteristics: histologic grade (modified Bloom-Richardson, 219 grade I, 482 grade II, 380 grade III), estrogen receptor (252 ER neg, 386 ER pos, 443 ER unk), positive axillary nodes (0,1-3,≥4, no axillary dissection in 214), adjuvant chemotherapy (in 291 patients), T stage, lymphatic vessel invasion, mononuclear cell response, clinical size in mm, age at diagnosis, and necrosis. Results: A stepwise prohaz model found all the above characteristics except the last three to be significant (all p 0 (i.e., grade III has a larger risk) but for following years, the log hazard ratio is < 0 (i.e., grade II has a large risk; see Figure for estimated log hazard ratio and 95% CI). The test for non-proportionality of grade II vs. grade I (p=0.08) and ER positive vs negative (p=0.06) were suggestive but the log hazard ratios never cross 0 (i.e., no reversal of direction of risk). Conclusions: Tumor grade clearly

  15. Differences in growth trajectory and strategy of two sympatric congeneric species in an Indonesian floodplain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshihiro; Ngakan, Oka Putu; Suzuki, Eizi

    2005-01-01

    Whole-plant development trajectories and sapling leaf displays were compared for two sympatric congeneric species, Pterospermum diversifolium and P. javanicum, in a tropical floodplain forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. We assessed their growth strategies and developed hypotheses for their coexistence within the community. Pterospermum diversifolium retains a monoaxial growth habit that promotes quick stem elongation; thus, it is taller when branches are initiated than is P. javanicum. The species differed significantly in height growth and total crown expansion per unit increment of biomass: monoaxial P. diversifolium saplings devote more effort to stem elongation, whereas branched P. javanicum saplings devote more effort to branch expansion. Monoaxial P. diversifolium sustained more severe self-shading than P. javanicum. The sapling growth strategy of P. diversifolium appears to be dynamic, emphasizing the opportunistic use of light following a disturbance, whereas that of P. javanicum appears to be static, optimizing leaf display for current light conditions. The advantages of these strategies depend on context, and the two species may coexist within a community by adopting different regeneration niches based on differing understory light conditions: P. diversifolium is favored over P. javanicum at high light levels, but the opposite is true at low light levels.

  16. Region specific changes in nonapeptide levels during client fish interactions with allopatric and sympatric cleaner fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C; Cardoso, Sónia C; Mazzei, Renata; André, Gonçalo I; Morais, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships are crucially dependent on individual ability to learn and remember ecologically relevant cues. However, the way animals recognize cues before engaging in any social interaction and how their response is regulated by brain neuromodulators remains unclear. We examined the putative involvement of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), acting at different brain regions, during fish decision-making in the context of cooperation, by trying to identify how fish distinguish and recognize the value of other social partners or species. We hypothesized that the behavioural responses of cleaner fish clients to different social contexts would be underlain by changes in brain AVT and IT levels. We have found that changes in AVT at the level of forebrain and optic tectum are linked with a response to allopatric cleaners (novel or unfamiliar stimuli) while those at cerebellum are associated with the willingness to be cleaned (in response to sympatric cleaners). On the other hand, higher brain IT levels that were solely found in the diencephalon, also in response to allopatric cleaners. Our results are the first to implicate these nonapeptides, AVT in particular, in the assessment of social cues which enable fish to engage in mutualistic activities.

  17. A NEW DISTANT MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN THE PAN-STARRS1 3π SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schlafly, Edward F.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Denneau, Larry; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Sweeney, William E.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new satellite in the outer halo of the Galaxy, the first Milky Way satellite found in the stacked photometric catalog of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1) Survey. From follow-up photometry obtained with WFI on the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope, we argue that the object, located at a heliocentric distance of 145 ± 17 kpc, is the most distant Milky Way globular cluster yet known. With a total magnitude of M V = –4.3 ± 0.2 and a half-light radius of 20 ± 2 pc, it shares the properties of extended globular clusters found in the outer halo of our Galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. The discovery of this distant cluster shows that the full spatial extent of the Milky Way globular cluster system has not yet been fully explored

  18. A multiscale investigation of habitat use and within-river distribution of sympatric sand darter species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Strager, Michael P.; Rizzo, Austin A.

    2018-01-01

    The western sand darter Ammocrypta clara, and eastern sand darter Ammocrypta pellucida, are sand-dwelling fishes of conservation concern. Past research has emphasized the importance of studying individual populations of conservation concern, while recent research has revealed the importance of incorporating landscape scale processes that structure habitat mosaics and local populations. We examined habitat use and distributions of western and eastern sand darters in the lower Elk River of West Virginia. At the sandbar habitat use scale, western sand darters were detected in sandbars with greater area, higher proportions of coarse grain sand and faster bottom current velocity, while the eastern sand darter used a wider range of sandbar habitats. The landscape scale analysis revealed that contributing drainage area was an important predictor for both species, while sinuosity, which presumably represents valley type, also contributed to the western sand darter’s habitat suitability. Sandbar quality (area, grain size, and velocity) and fluvial geomorphic variables (drainage area and valley type) are likely key driving factors structuring sand darter distributions in the Elk River. This multiscale study of within-river species distribution and habitat use is unique, given that only a few sympatric populations are known of western and eastern sand darters.

  19. The effects of living distantly from peritoneal dialysis units on peritonitis risk, microbiology, treatment and outcomes: a multi-centre registry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine whether distance between residence and peritoneal dialysis (PD) unit influenced peritonitis occurrence, microbiology, treatment and outcomes. Methods The study included all patients receiving PD between 1/10/2003 and 31/12/2008, using ANZDATA Registry data. Results 365 (6%) patients lived ≥100 km from their nearest PD unit (distant group), while 6183 (94%) lived peritonitis in distant patients (1.34 years, 95% CI 1.07-1.61) was significantly shorter than in local patients (1.68 years, 95% CI 1.59-1.77, p = 0.001), whilst overall peritonitis rates were higher in distant patients (incidence rate ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.20-1.46). Living ≥100 km away from a PD unit was independently associated with a higher risk of S. aureus peritonitis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.09-2.47). Distant patients with first peritonitis episodes were less likely to be hospitalised (64% vs 73%, p = 0.008) and receive antifungal prophylaxis (4% vs 10%, p = 0.01), but more likely to receive vancomycin-based antibiotic regimens (52% vs 42%, p peritonitis outcomes, distant patients were more likely to be cured with antibiotics alone (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.24). All other outcomes were comparable between the two groups. Conclusions Living ≥100 km away from a PD unit was associated with increased risk of S. aureus peritonitis, modified approaches to peritonitis treatment and peritonitis outcomes that were comparable to, or better than patients living closer to a PD unit. Staphylococcal decolonisation should receive particular consideration in remote living patients. PMID:22702659

  20. Comparative mtDNA analyses of three sympatric macropodids from a conservation area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Husband, Thomas P

    2016-07-01

    Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei), New Guinea pademelon (Thylogale browni), and small dorcopsis (Dorcopsulus vanheurni) are sympatric macropodid taxa, of conservation concern, that inhabit the Yopno-Urawa-Som (YUS) Conservation Area on the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. We sequenced three partial mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes from the three taxa to (i) investigate network structure; and (ii) identify conservation units within the YUS Conservation Area. All three taxa displayed a similar pattern in the spatial distribution of their mtDNA haplotypes and the Urawa and Som rivers on the Huon may have acted as a barrier to maternal gene flow. Matschie's tree kangaroo and New Guinea pademelon within the YUS Conservation Area should be managed as single conservation units because mtDNA nucleotides were not fixed for a given geographic area. However, two distinct conservation units were identified for small dorcopsis from the two different mountain ranges within the YUS Conservation Area.

  1. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, W R; Crow, C B

    1983-10-01

    In July 1981, investigations on parasites, diseases, and herd health status were conducted on sympatric populations of sika deer (Cervus nippon) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge (Maryland) and Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (Virginia) on the Delmarva Peninsula. Five adult deer of each species were collected from each location and subjected to thorough necropsy examinations and laboratory tests. White-tailed deer at both locations harbored protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites typically associated with this species throughout the southeastern United States. In contrast, sika deer at both locations harbored only light burdens of ticks, chiggers, and sarcocysts. Serologic tests for antibodies to seven infectious disease agents revealed evidence of exposure to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and parainfluenza3 virus in white-tailed deer, but only BVD virus in sika deer. At both locations the general health status of sika deer was superior to that of white-tailed deer.

  2. Feminism and Society: Solidarity Amongst Pakistani Women Still a Distant Dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Farhat Jabeen

    2013-06-01

    Patriarchal structure of society, socio-customary practices and discrimination against women are very serious concerns/issues which need to be understood as multidimensional problem. This paper examines the role of feminism on gender development in south Asian perspective especially in Pakistan. Pakistani women seem to have been circumscribed in bounds of religious, cultural and national ideologies as envisioned by the patriarchy of Pakistan. Due to certain cultural, male domination state of affairs the solidarity amongst Pakistani women still distant dream. Current research paper would draw attention to issue mentioned above.

  3. DISTANT HYBRIDS IN F4 (VITIS VINIFERA L. X MUSCADINIA ROTUNDIFOLIA MICHX. AND OF CULTIVARS OF VITIS VINIFERA L. AND OF CONCERNING THE CONTENT OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniu ALEXANDROV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of obtaining distant hybrids, as well as any crossing of cultivars of Vitis vinifera L. with representatives of species possessing the necessary qualities (resistance to diseases and pests, low temperature, etc. may change the spectrum of chemical and biochemical compounds responsible for flavour, colour and taste of grapes, obtained juice and wine. Botanical description of distant hybrids was performed during all phases of the vegetative stages; the organs of the plants were studied from spring, at bud unfolding, until early autumn, at the fall of the leaves. For the determination of diglucoside-3,5-malvidin, the fluorimetric method, for determining the methyl anthranilate, the gas chromatographic method was applied. Based on the analyzes of biochemical constituents of grapes of the distant hybrids: DRX-M4-578; -502; -571; -660; -609; -580; etc., compared to the traditional cultivars „Feteasca albă” and „Rară neagră”, it has been found that these varieties are similar. So, the distant hybrids of grapevine haven’t inherited unwanted characters for vines, some of them are strictly limited (diglucoside-3,5-malvidol. These hybrids don’t have the specific characteristics of direct production hybrids, characterised by the foxat taste of the grape berries, caused by the presence of the methyl anthranilate. The distant hybrids studied according to the classical uvologic and technological principles can be classified as follows: 5 distant hybrids are attributed to the table vine species and 2 distant hybrids have mixed properties. According to the physical and biochemical indices of the grapes of the studied distant hybrids, their characteristics are similar to European vine species.

  4. Overexpression of ETV4 protein in triple-negative breast cancer is associated with a higher risk of distant metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan ZY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zhong-Yu Yuan,1–3,* Ting Dai,1,2,* Shu-Sen Wang,1–3 Rou-Jun Peng,1–3 Xing-Hua Li,1,2 Tao Qin,1–3 Li-Bing Song,1,2 Xi Wang1,2,41State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 2Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Breast Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China  *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC present a higher probability of distant metastasis and lack of effective targeted therapy. ETS translocation variant 4 (ETV4 is an ETS (E-26 transcription factor and has been associated with tumor metastasis. However, the clinical and functional significance of ETV4 in TNBC still remains unclear. Methods: A human tumor metastasis polymerase chain reaction array was used to profile differential expression of tumor metastasis-related genes in TNBC tissue. Real-time reverse transcription and Western blot analyses were performed to verify ETV4 expression in TNBC cells and tissue. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of ETV4 protein in 135 TNBC tissue samples for association between ETV4 protein expression and clinical outcomes. Results: A total total of eight upregulated (CCL7, KISS1, MET, MMP7, NR4A3, ETV4, TIMP3, and TSHR and three downregulated (ITGA7, SSTR, and MMP2 genes were identified between TNBC tissue and the luminal subtype of breast cancer tissue. ETV4 messenger ribonucleic acid was more than five-fold upregulated in TNBC tissue compared with the control tissue. ETV4 overexpression was found in 57.0% of 135 TNBC cases. Overexpression of ETV4 protein was associated with an advanced stage and a higher proportion of positive lymph node and lymphovascular invasion. Patients with an ETV4

  5. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Amorocho

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%. The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%. Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  6. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  7. Two-step frequency conversion for connecting distant quantum memories by transmission through an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shuhei; Ikeda, Kohei; Okamura, Kotaro; Yoshii, Kazumichi; Hong, Feng-Lei; Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Kosaka, Hideo

    2018-06-01

    Long-distance quantum communication requires entanglement between distant quantum memories. For this purpose, photon transmission is necessary to connect the distant memories. Here, for the first time, we develop a two-step frequency conversion process (from a visible wavelength to a telecommunication wavelength and back) involving the use of independent two-frequency conversion media where the target quantum memories are nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamonds (with an emission/absorption wavelength of 637.2 nm), and experimentally characterize the performance of this process acting on light from an attenuated CW laser. A total conversion efficiency of approximately 7% is achieved. The noise generated in the frequency conversion processes is measured, and the signal-to-noise ratio is estimated for a single photon signal emitted by a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The developed frequency conversion system has future applications via transmission through a long optical fiber channel at a telecommunication wavelength for a quantum repeater network.

  8. Use of field-portable ultrasonography reveals differences in developmental phenology and maternal egg provisioning in two sympatric viviparous snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Chism, Kenneth R; Bronikowski, Anne M; Brummett, Lilly J; Combrink, Lucia L; Davis, Courtney L; Holden, Kaitlyn G; Kabey, Nicole M; Miller, David A W

    2018-03-01

    A thorough understanding of the life cycles underlying the demography of wild species is limited by the difficulty of observing hidden life-history traits, such as embryonic development. Major aspects of embryonic development, such as the rate and timing of development, and maternal-fetal interactions can be critical features of early-life fitness and may impact population trends via effects on individual survival. While information on development in wild snakes and lizards is particularly limited, the repeated evolution of viviparity and diversity of reproductive mode in this clade make it a valuable subject of study. We used field-portable ultrasonography to investigate embryonic development in two sympatric garter snake species, Thamnophis sirtalis and Thamnophis elegans in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California. This approach allowed us to examine previously hidden reproductive traits including the timing and annual variation in development and differences in parental investment in young. Both species are viviparous, occupy similar ecological niches, and experience the same annual environmental conditions. We found that T. sirtalis embryos were more developmentally advanced than T. elegans embryos during June of three consecutive years. We also found that eggs increased in volume more substantially across developmental stages in T. elegans than in T. sirtalis , indicating differences in maternal provisioning of embryos via placental transfer of water. These findings shed light on interspecific differences in parental investment and timing of development within the same environmental context and demonstrate the value of field ultrasonography for pursuing questions relating to the evolution of reproductive modes, and the ecology of development.

  9. Multilocus analysis of divergence and introgression in sympatric and allopatric sibling species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Alejandra S; Ferreira, Gabriel E M; Mazzoni, Camila J; Souza, Nataly A; Machado, Ricardo C; Bruno, Rafaela V; Peixoto, Alexandre A

    2013-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of sibling species. In Brazil, a number of very closely related sibling species have been revealed by the analyses of copulation songs, sex pheromones and molecular markers. However, the level of divergence and gene flow between the sibling species remains unclear. Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided in two main groups: one producing Burst-type songs and the Cembrene-1 pheromone and a second more diverse group producing various Pulse song subtypes and different pheromones. We analyzed 21 nuclear loci in two pairs of Brazilian populations: two sympatric populations from the Sobral locality (1S and 2S) in northeastern Brazil and two allopatric populations from the Lapinha and Pancas localities in southeastern Brazil. Pancas and Sobral 2S are populations of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species while Lapinha and Sobral 1S are two putative incipient species producing the same pheromone and similar Pulse song subtypes. The multilocus analysis strongly suggests the occurrence of gene flow during the divergence between the sibling species, with different levels of introgression between loci. Moreover, this differential introgression is asymmetrical, with estimated gene flow being higher in the direction of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species. The results indicate that introgressive hybridization has been a crucial phenomenon in shaping the genome of the L. longipalpis complex. This has possible epidemiological implications and is particularly interesting considering the potential for increased introgression caused by man-made environmental changes and the current trend of leishmaniasis urbanization in Brazil.

  10. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N; Lappin, Michael R; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mathew; Logan, Kenneth A; Sweanor, Linda L; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Mcbride, Roy; Cunningham, Mark C; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened > 1000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure; providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban land use predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest interspecific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intraspecific

  11. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N.; Lappin, Michael R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mathew W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M.; McBride, Roy; Cunnigham, Mark C.; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse S.; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened >1,000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure-providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban landuse predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest inter-specific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey. Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intra

  12. Do deterministic processes influence the phenotypic patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although urbanization is perhaps the most damaging, persistent, and rapidly expanding form of anthropogenic pressure on natural ecosystems, data on the patterns and processes of sympatric bat species in urban landscapes are relatively scant. We quantified the packing and dispersion of sympatric animalivorous bats ...

  13. The systematics and independent evolution of cave ecomorphology in distantly related clades of Bent-toed Geckos (Genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827) from the Mekong Delta and islands in the Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismer, L Lee; Wood, P L Jr; Tri, Ngo Van; Murdoch, Matthew L

    2015-06-26

    An integrative taxonomic analysis of the distantly related Cyrtodactylus condorensis and intermedius species complexes of the Mekong Delta revealed that C. paradoxus is a junior synonym of C. condorensis and that C. thochuensis is a junior synonym of C. leegrismeri. Additionally, the analysis revealed that a cave-dwelling ecomorpholgy has evolved independently early on in the evolution of both complexes (represented by C. hontreensis in the intermedius complex and C. grismeri and C. eisenmani in the condorensis complex) and cave ecomorphs exist in sympatry-but not syntopy-with general scansorial ecomorphs. Multiple, recent, cyclical, glacioeustatic driven changes in sea levels across the Sunda Shelf are hypothesized to account for the evolution and distribution of the widely separated, conspecific insular populations of C. condorensis and C. leegrismeri. The independent evolution of cave ecomorphology is proposed to have been driven by competition avoidance. Habitat islands across the Mekong Delta are an important source of endemism and in need of protection.

  14. The shared preference niche of sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in a tropical forest mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Robert; Garshelis, David L; Chutipong, Wanlop; Seuaturien, Naret

    2011-01-20

    Ecologically similar species often coexist by partitioning use of habitats or resources. Such partitioning can occur through divergent or shared niches. We investigated overlap in habitat use and spatial co-occurrence by sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in three habitats in Thailand, and thereby assessed which niche model best accounts for their coexistence. We used density of species-specific signs to assess habitat use. Signs of both bear species occurred in all three habitats, and on >60% of sampling transects. Both species fed mostly on fruit; insect feeding signs were uncommon, and were mostly from sun bears. Significant differences in habitat use occurred only in montane forest, the habitat in which fruit was most abundant; incidence of black bear sign there was six times higher than that of sun bears. Habitat use was similar between the two species in the other habitats, which comprised 85% of the area. Of 10 habitat attributes examined, fruiting tree density was the best predictor of occurrence for both species. Models that included interspecific competition (fresh foraging activity of the other species) were less supported than the top models without competition. Bear species co-occurrence at both coarse and fine spatial scales and use of the same resources (fruit trees) indicated common niche preferences. However, their habitat use differed in ways expected from their physical differences: larger black bears dominated in the most fruit-rich habitat, and smaller sun bears used less-preferred insects. These results indicate broadly overlapping fundamental niches combined with asymmetric competition-features consistent with the concept of shared preference niches. This model of the niche has received little attention in ecology, but appears to be relatively common in nature.

  15. The shared preference niche of sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in a tropical forest mosaic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Steinmetz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecologically similar species often coexist by partitioning use of habitats or resources. Such partitioning can occur through divergent or shared niches. We investigated overlap in habitat use and spatial co-occurrence by sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in three habitats in Thailand, and thereby assessed which niche model best accounts for their coexistence.We used density of species-specific signs to assess habitat use. Signs of both bear species occurred in all three habitats, and on >60% of sampling transects. Both species fed mostly on fruit; insect feeding signs were uncommon, and were mostly from sun bears. Significant differences in habitat use occurred only in montane forest, the habitat in which fruit was most abundant; incidence of black bear sign there was six times higher than that of sun bears. Habitat use was similar between the two species in the other habitats, which comprised 85% of the area. Of 10 habitat attributes examined, fruiting tree density was the best predictor of occurrence for both species. Models that included interspecific competition (fresh foraging activity of the other species were less supported than the top models without competition.Bear species co-occurrence at both coarse and fine spatial scales and use of the same resources (fruit trees indicated common niche preferences. However, their habitat use differed in ways expected from their physical differences: larger black bears dominated in the most fruit-rich habitat, and smaller sun bears used less-preferred insects. These results indicate broadly overlapping fundamental niches combined with asymmetric competition-features consistent with the concept of shared preference niches. This model of the niche has received little attention in ecology, but appears to be relatively common in nature.

  16. The effect of distant reiki on pain in women after elective Caesarean section: a double-blinded randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderVaart, Sondra; Berger, Howard; Tam, Carolyn; Goh, Y Ingrid; Gijsen, Violette M G J; de Wildt, Saskia N; Taddio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 25% of all babies in North America are delivered via Caesarean section (C-section). Though a common surgical procedure, C-section recovery can be painful. Opioids, specifically codeine, are commonly used to ease pain; however, its active metabolite, morphine, passes into breast milk, and may produce unwanted side effects in neonates; therefore, alternatives to opioids are being sought. Reiki is an ancient Japanese form of healing where practitioners transfer healing energy through light touch and positive healing intention. Although 1.2 million Americans use reiki to reduce pain or depression, there is a lack of strong evidence supporting its effectiveness. A recent systematic review showed existing studies to be of poor methodological quality, with the common limitation of lack of blinding. To overcome this issue, the authors used distant reiki to assess its effectiveness in reducing pain following an elective C-section. Methods In this randomised, double-blinded study, women who underwent an elective C-section were allocated to either usual care (control, n=40) or three distant reiki sessions in addition to usual care (n=40). Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The primary endpoint was the Area Under the VAS-Time Curve (AUC) for days 1–3. Secondary measures included: the proportion of women who required opioid medications and dose consumed, rate of healing and vital signs. Results AUC for pain was not significantly different in the distant reiki and control groups (mean±SD; 212.1±104.7 vs 223.1±117.8; p=0.96). There were no significant differences in opioid consumption or rate of healing; however, the distant reiki group had a significantly lower heart rate (74.3±8.1 bpm vs 79.8±7.9 bpm, p=0.003) and blood pressure (106.4±9.7 mm Hg vs 111.9±11.0 mm Hg, p=0.02) post surgery. Conclusion Distant reiki had no significant effect on pain following an elective C-section. Clinical Trial Registration

  17. The timing of bud break in warming conditions: variation among seven sympatric conifer species from Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Isabel, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Phenological changes are expected with the ongoing global warming, which could create mismatches in the growth patterns among sympatric species or create synchrony with insect herbivores. In this study, we performed a comparative assessment of the timings of bud break among seven conifer species of Eastern Canada by evaluating seedling development in growth chambers under different temperatures (16, 20 and 24 °C). Bud break occurred earliest in Larix laricina, while Pinus strobus and Pinus resinosa had the latest. Warmer conditions advanced bud break, with the greatest effects being observed at the lower temperatures. Mixed models estimated that one additional degree of temperature produced advancements of 5.3 and 2.1 days at 16 and 20 °C, respectively. The hypothesis of an asynchronous change between species under warming was demonstrated only for the last phenological phases (split buds and exposed shoots), and principally in pines. Abies balsamea showed changes in bud break comparable with the other species analysed, rejecting the hypothesis of mismatches under warmer conditions. The observed non-linear responses of the timings of bud break to warming suggest that the major changes in bud phenology should be expected at the lowest temperatures.

  18. Comparison of nest-site selection patterns of different sympatric raptor species as a tool for their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirazidis, K.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the nest-site selection patterns of four tree-nesting sympatric raptor species in Dadia National Park (Greece were compared in order to provide a sound conservation tool for their long-term management in the area. The species studied were the Black vulture (Aegypius monachus, the Lesser-spotted eagle (Aquila pomarina, the Booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus and the Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis. Twenty-six variables illustrating the landscape context and vegetation structure of nesting sites were analysed. Multivariate-ANOVA and Discriminant Function Analysis were used to test for significant differentiations in nest-site characteristics among the species. The species studied were initially differentiated by geomorphology and distance to foraging areas. Once these were determined their nesting areas were established according to forest structure. Our results indicate that forest management should integrate the preservation of mature forest stands with sparse canopy and forest heterogeneity in order to conserve suitable nesting habitats for the raptors. Specific conservation measures such as restriction of road construction should be implemented in order to protect the active nests and provisions should be made for adequate nesting sites for the Black vulture, which is sensitive to human disturbance.

  19. The horror of madness in Estrella distante and Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rocco

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the thematic dimension of madness present in the novels Estrella distante and Nocturno de Chile by Roberto Bolaño in order to determine the various ways by which the narrator subjectivity develops a critical consciousness of madness from the traumatic experience of the Chilean dictatorship. Also, this dimension evidences the articulation of a language of madness as literary aesthetics of artistic experience of limits: the horror. Accordingly, a preliminary analysis of contemporary history as a meeting place between violent media versus artistic media that account for the chiaroscuro of Latin American modernity is offered.

  20. Hints about Dark, Light-Bending Matter in the Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    New infrared observations of a gravitational lens About 20 cases of gravitationally lensed (GL) quasars are known. This special physical effect, also known as a cosmic mirage, occurs when the rays of light of a distant quasar on their way to us pass near a massive object, for instance a galaxy. As a result, two or more images of the same quasar will be seen near each other. This phenomenon is described in more detail in the Appendix. A new study by a group of three European astronomers, headed by Frederic Courbin ( Institut d'Astrophysique, Universite de Liege, Belgium, and Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, France) [1], has led to the discovery of the object responsible for the double images of a remote quasar in the gravitational lens HE 1104-1805 . The investigation is based on infrared observations at the ESO La Silla Observatory in Chile and the `lensing system' turns out to be a distant, massive galaxy. Nevertheless, the geometry of the object is unusual and an additional gravitational lens of `dark' (invisible) matter may possibly be involved. This gravitational lens is also particularly well suited for future cosmological studies that aim at the determination of the Hubble constant and the expansion rate of the Universe. A new and detailed study of gravitational lenses It is rare among the relatively few, confirmed cases of gravitational lensing in the distant Universe, that the distribution of matter in the lensing system is well known. However, it is exactly this information that is needed to derive cosmological parameters by means of photometric monitoring of the brightness of the individual images in a gravitational lens [2]. The three astronomers have therefore undertaken a detailed study of some previously known gravitational lenses (or good candidate objects) with the primary aim to detect and map the associated lensing matter (refered to as the gravitational deflector or lensing object ). This is observationally quite difficult and time-consuming since

  1. DIMEL - A New Interactive System for Distant E-Learning Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Katansky

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the basic results of a study, dealing with the problems of e-learning and e-teaching development in the University of Sofia. A new system - DIMEL (Distant and Interactive Management of E-Learning was implemented by the „Management of Education” training courses with adult students. The courses are part of the continuing vocational training (the qualifications upgrading of school principals, vice principals and other managing staff in the sector of education. The system DIMEL uses an original interactive training management technology, covering the field of e-learning and e-teaching activities, via digital library logistic platform. The author performs this project research in collaboration with the University Library „St. Kliment Ohridski”.

  2. Cavity Mediated Manipulation of Distant Spin Currents Using a Cavity-Magnon-Polariton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lihui; Harder, Michael; Hyde, Paul; Zhang, Zhaohui; Hu, Can-Ming; Chen, Y P; Xiao, John Q

    2017-05-26

    Using electrical detection of a strongly coupled spin-photon system comprised of a microwave cavity mode and two magnetic samples, we demonstrate the long distance manipulation of spin currents. This distant control is not limited by the spin diffusion length, instead depending on the interplay between the local and global properties of the coupled system, enabling systematic spin current control over large distance scales (several centimeters in this work). This flexibility opens the door to improved spin current generation and manipulation for cavity spintronic devices.

  3. Stable Water Use Efficiency under Climate Change of Three Sympatric Conifer Species at the Alpine Treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Gerhard; Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Leo, Marco; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten Erhard Edgar

    2016-01-01

    The ability of treeline associated conifers in the Central Alps to cope with recent climate warming and increasing CO2 concentration is still poorly understood. We determined tree ring stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Pinus cembra, Picea abies, and Larix decidua trees from 1975 to 2010. Stable isotope ratios were compared with leaf level gas exchange measurements carried out in situ between 1979 and 2007. Results indicate that tree ring derived intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) of P. cembra, P. abies and L. decidua remained constant during the last 36 years despite climate warming and rising atmospheric CO2. Temporal patterns in Δ(13)C and Δ(18)O mirrored leaf level gas exchange assessments, suggesting parallel increases of CO2-fixation and stomatal conductance of treeline conifer species. As at the study site soil water availability was not a limiting factor iWUE remained largely stable throughout the study period. The stability in iWUE was accompanied by an increase in basal area increment (BAI) suggesting that treeline trees benefit from both recent climate warming and CO2 fertilization. Finally, our results suggest that iWUE may not change species composition at treeline in the Austrian Alps due to similar ecophysiological responses to climatic changes of the three sympatric study species.

  4. Two Women with Multiple Disabilities Communicate with Distant Partners via a Special Text Messaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa A.; Oliva, Doretta; Alberti, Gloria; Carrella, Luigina

    2013-01-01

    This study extended the research on a special text messaging system, which allows persons with multiple disabilities to (a) write and send messages to distant partners and (b) have messages from those partners read out to them. The study involved two women with multiple disabilities (including blindness or minimal residual vision). The system…

  5. Parasite species of the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and a sympatric widespread carnivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Figueiredo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites have a profound impact on wildlife population dynamics. However, until some years ago, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of wildlife parasites were neglected comparatively with the studies on humans and domestic animals. In this study, we determined the parasite prevalence of two sympatric wild canids: the endangered Iberian wolf (Canis lupus signatus and the widespread red fox (Vulpes vulpes, in central Portugal. From November 2014 to July 2015, fresh fecal samples from both species were collected monthly in several transects distributed throughout the study area. All samples were submitted to several coprological techniques. In total, 6 helminth parasites (Crenosoma vulpis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, Toxascaris leonina, and a protozoa (Balantidium coli were identified based on size and morphology. The red fox was infected by seven different parasites while the Iberian wolf was infected by four. All parasites present in wolf were also present in the red fox. C. vulpis had the higher prevalence in red fox, while Ancylostomatidae were the most prevalent parasites in wolf. To our knowledge, this is the first study in this isolated subpopulation of the Iberian wolf. Our results show that both carnivores carry parasites that are of concern as they are pathogenic to humans and other wild and domestic animals. We suggest that surveillance programs must also include monitoring protocols of wildlife; particularly endangered species.

  6. Incipient sympatric speciation in Midas cichlid fish from the youngest and one of the smallest crater lakes in Nicaragua due to differential use of the benthic and limnetic habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautt, Andreas F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Torres-Dowdall, Julian; Meyer, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how speciation can occur without geographic isolation remains a central objective in evolutionary biology. Generally, some form of disruptive selection and assortative mating are necessary for sympatric speciation to occur. Disruptive selection can arise from intraspecific competition for resources. If this competition leads to the differential use of habitats and variation in relevant traits is genetically determined, then assortative mating can be an automatic consequence (i.e., habitat isolation). In this study, we caught Midas cichlid fish from the limnetic (middle of the lake) and benthic (shore) habitats of Crater Lake Asososca Managua to test whether some of the necessary conditions for sympatric speciation due to intraspecific competition and habitat isolation are given. Lake As. Managua is very small (Midas cichlids, Amphilophus tolteca. We found that fish from the limnetic habitat were more elongated than fish collected from the benthic habitat, as would be predicted from ecomorphological considerations. Stable isotope analyses confirmed that the former also exhibit a more limnetic lifestyle than the latter. Furthermore, split-brood design experiments in the laboratory suggest that phenotypic plasticity is unlikely to explain much of the observed differences in body elongation that we observed in the field. Yet, neutral markers (microsatellites) did not reveal any genetic clustering in the population. Interestingly, demographic inferences based on RAD-seq data suggest that the apparent lack of genetic differentiation at neutral markers could simply be due to a lack of time, as intraspecific competition may only have begun a few hundred generations ago.

  7. Diet and seasonal changes in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees at Kahuzi-Biega National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Juichi; Basabose, Augustin Kanyunyi

    2006-01-01

    Based on 8 years of observations of a group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri) and a unit-group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living sympatrically in the montane forest at Kahuzi-Biega National Park, we compared their diet and analyzed dietary overlap between them in relation to fruit phenology. Data on fruit consumption were collected mainly from fecal samples, and phenology of preferred ape fruits was estimated by monitoring. Totals of 231 plant foods (116 species) and 137 plant foods (104 species) were recorded for gorillas and chimpanzees, respectively. Among these, 38% of gorilla foods and 64% of chimpanzee foods were eaten by both apes. Fruits accounted for the largest overlap between them (77% for gorillas and 59% for chimpanzees). Gorillas consumed more species of vegetative foods (especially bark) exclusively whereas chimpanzees consumed more species of fruits and animal foods exclusively. Although the number of fruit species available in the montane forest of Kahuzi is much lower than that in lowland forest, the number of fruit species per chimpanzee fecal sample (average 2.7 species) was similar to that for chimpanzees in the lowland habitats. By contrast, the number of fruit species per gorilla fecal sample (average 0.8 species) was much lower than that for gorillas in the lowland habitats. Fruit consumption by both apes tended to increase during the dry season when ripe fruits were more abundant in their habitat. However, the number of fruit species consumed by chimpanzees did not change according to ripe fruit abundance. The species differences in fruit consumption may be attributed to the wide ranging of gorillas and repeated usage of a small range by chimpanzees and/or to avoidance of inter-specific contact by chimpanzees. The different staple foods (leaves and bark for gorillas and fig fruits for chimpanzees) characterize the dietary divergence between them in the montane forest of Kahuzi, where fruit is

  8. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today

  9. ABCB1 and ABCC2 and the risk of distant metastasis in Thai breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensorn I

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Insee Sensorn,1,* Chonlaphat Sukasem,2,* Ekaphop Sirachainan,3 Montri Chamnanphon,2 Ekawat Pasomsub,4 Narumol Trachu,5 Porntip Supavilai,1 Darawan Pinthong,1 Sansanee Wongwaisayawan6 1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 2Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 3Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 4Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 5Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, 6Division of Anatomical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters have been extensively studied with regard to tamoxifen treatment outcomes. However, the results are inconclusive. Analysis of organ-specific metastasis may reveal the association of these pharmacogenetic factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of CYP3A5, CYP2D6, ABCB1, and ABCC2 polymorphisms on the risk of all distant and organ-specific metastases in Thai patients who received tamoxifen adjuvant therapy. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of 73 patients with breast cancer who received tamoxifen adjuvant therapy. CYP3A5 (6986A>G, CYP2D6 (100C>T, ABCB1 (3435C>T, and ABCC2 (-24C>T were genotyped using allelic discrimination real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. The impacts of prognostic clinical factors and genetic variants on disease-free survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis. Results: In the univariate analysis, primary tumor size >5 cm was significantly associated with increased risk of distant metastasis (P=0

  10. TNF-α -308 A allele is associated with an increased risk of distant metastasis in rectal cancer patients from Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, an important factor in systematic inflammation, is reportedly involved in several cancer types. The TNF-α -308 G>A (rs1800629 polymorphism in the promoter region influences TNF-α production. The association between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and colorectal cancer (CRC is not fully understood, especially the connections between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and clinical features of CRC. In this study, TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism was genotyped in 1140 individuals with or without CRC from Southwestern China. In case-control studies, we found no association between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and CRC risk. Analysis of the correlations between TNF-α -308 G>A polymorphism and clinical features of CRC revealed that TNF-α -308 A allele was associated with higher body mass index (BMI larger tumor size, and distant tumor metastasis in all CRC patients. Notably, rectal cancer (a subtype of CRC patients with TNF-α -308 A allele had a very high risk of distant tumor metastasis [odds ratio (OR = 4.481; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.072-9.693; P = 0.00025]. The association between TNF-α -308 A allele and distant tumor metastasis remained even significant after adjusting all clinical characteristics (OR = 7.099; 95% CI: 2.482-20.301; P = 0.000256 in rectal cancer patients. Our results suggested that TNF-α -308 A allele was significantly associated with distant tumor metastasis in rectal cancer patients.

  11. Diversity between and within: Approaches to Teaching about Distant Place in the Secondary School Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Liz

    2014-01-01

    This study outlines some challenges of teaching about distant place and demonstrates how different strategies can influence school students' framings of diversity. The analysis is based on an interpretive case study of 13-14?year-old students learning about Japan in a UK school. Their changing representations of Japan were tracked in detail over a…

  12. The construction of distant total distributed measuring and controlling system based on RS-232 communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chengying; Li Tiantuo; Zhu Wenkai; Zhang Quanhu

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the construction of distant total distributed measuring and controlling system based on RS-232 communication. The merits of this system are simple construction, reliable performance, big communication distance, and wide covering range. The system fits in with application in radiation environment. The author also discusses the system's hardware equipment and communication protocol

  13. Plasma and magnetic field variations in the distant magnetotail associated with near-earth substorm effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Bame, S. J.; Mccomas, D. J.; Zwickl, R. D.; Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of many individual event periods in the ISEE 3 deep-tail data set has suggested that magnetospheric substorms produce a characteristic pattern of effects in the distant magnetotail. During the growth, or tail-energy-storage phase of substorms, the magnetotail appears to grow diametrically in size, often by many earth radii. Subsequently, after the substorm expansive phase onset at earth, the distant tail undergoes a sequence of plasma, field, and energetic-particle variations as large-scale plasmoids move rapidly down the tail following their disconnection from the near-earth plasma sheet. ISEE 3 data are appropriate for the study of these effects since the spacecraft remained fixed within the nominal tail location for long periods. Using newly available auroral electrojet indices (AE and AL) and Geo particle data to time substorm onsets at earth, superposed epoch analyses of ISEE 3 and near-earth data prior to, and following, substorm expansive phase onsets have been performed. These analyses quantify and extend substantially the understanding of the deep-tail pattern of response to global substorm-induced dynamical effects.

  14. Waiting for Shadows from the Distant Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    How can we hope to measure the hundreds of thousands of objects in our distant solar system? A team of astronomers is harnessing citizen science to begin to tackle this problem!A light curve from an occultation collected by a RECON site in Quincy, California. As the objects shadow passes, the background stars light dims. [RECON/Charley Arrowsmith (Feather River College)]Occultation InformationEstimates currently place the number of Kuiper belt objects larger than 100 km across at over 100,000. Knowing the sizes and characteristics of these objects is important for understanding the composition of the outer solar system and constraining models of the solar systems formation and evolution.Unfortunately, measuring small, dim bodies at large distances is incredibly difficult! One of the best ways to obtain the sizes of these objects is to watch as they occult a distant star. Timing the object as it passes across the face of the star can give us a good measure of its size and shape, when observed from multiple stations in the path of the shadow.An Extended NetworkOccultations by nearby objects (like main-belt asteroids) can be predicted fairly accurately, but those by trans-Neptunian objects are much more poorly constrained. Only ~900 trans-Neptunian objects have approximately known paths, and occultation-shadow predictions for these objects are often only accurate to ~1000km on the Earths surface. So how can we ensure that theres a telescope in the right location, ready to observe when an occultation occurs?Map of the 56 RECON sites distributed over 2000 km in the western United States. [Buie et al. 2016]The simplest answer is to set up a huge network of observing stations, and wait for the shadows to come to the network. With this approach, even if the predicted path isnt precisely known, some of the stations will still observe the occultation.Due to the number of stations needed, this project lends itself perfectly to citizen science. In a recently published paper by

  15. DISCOVERY OF THREE DISTANT, COLD BROWN DWARFS IN THE WFC3 INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC PARALLELS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, D.; Siana, B.; McCarthy, P.; Hathi, N. P.; Dressler, A.; Burgasser, A. J.; Malkan, M.; Ross, N. R.; Scarlata, C.; Henry, A.; Colbert, J.; Atek, H.; Rafelski, M.; Teplitz, H.; Bunker, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of three late-type (≥T4.5) brown dwarfs, including a probable Y dwarf, in the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) survey. We use the G141 grism spectra to determine the spectral types of the dwarfs and derive distance estimates based on a comparison with nearby T dwarfs with known parallaxes. These are the most distant spectroscopically confirmed T/Y dwarfs, with the farthest at an estimated distance of ∼400 pc. We compare the number of cold dwarfs found in the WISP survey with simulations of the brown dwarf mass function. The number found is generally consistent with an initial stellar mass function dN/dM∝M –α with α = 0.0-0.5, although the identification of a Y dwarf is somewhat surprising and may be indicative of either a flatter absolute magnitude/spectral-type relation than previously reported or an upturn in the number of very-late-type brown dwarfs in the observed volume.

  16. Thick tumor capsule is a valuable risk factor for distant metastasis in follicular thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbashi, Wataru; Sugitani, Iwao; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi; Mitani, Hiroki; Toda, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Keiko; Sato, Yukiko

    2018-02-01

    While the biological behavior of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) has been studied in great detail using clinical experience, few studies have investigated pre- or intraoperative factors related to the risk of distant metastasis (DM) among patients with FTC. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of FTC with DM. This study retrospectively investigated 102 patients with FTC who underwent surgery between 1988 and 2013. We compared clinicopathological characteristics between FTC with and without DM. Univariate analysis revealed nodal metastasis (p=0.045), serum thyroglobulin (Tg) at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm; pthick tumor capsule (≥1mm), serum Tg at initial operation (≥1000ng/ml), and macroscopically widely invasive appearance as risk factors independently associated with development of DM. Patients with these risk factors should undergo total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multilocus Analysis of Divergence and Introgression in Sympatric and Allopatric Sibling Species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis Complex in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Camila J.; Souza, Nataly A.; Machado, Ricardo C.; Bruno, Rafaela V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, is a complex of sibling species. In Brazil, a number of very closely related sibling species have been revealed by the analyses of copulation songs, sex pheromones and molecular markers. However, the level of divergence and gene flow between the sibling species remains unclear. Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided in two main groups: one producing Burst-type songs and the Cembrene-1 pheromone and a second more diverse group producing various Pulse song subtypes and different pheromones. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 21 nuclear loci in two pairs of Brazilian populations: two sympatric populations from the Sobral locality (1S and 2S) in northeastern Brazil and two allopatric populations from the Lapinha and Pancas localities in southeastern Brazil. Pancas and Sobral 2S are populations of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species while Lapinha and Sobral 1S are two putative incipient species producing the same pheromone and similar Pulse song subtypes. The multilocus analysis strongly suggests the occurrence of gene flow during the divergence between the sibling species, with different levels of introgression between loci. Moreover, this differential introgression is asymmetrical, with estimated gene flow being higher in the direction of the Burst/Cembrene-1 species. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that introgressive hybridization has been a crucial phenomenon in shaping the genome of the L. longipalpis complex. This has possible epidemiological implications and is particularly interesting considering the potential for increased introgression caused by man-made environmental changes and the current trend of leishmaniasis urbanization in Brazil. PMID:24147172

  18. Risk factors of distant metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with postoperative irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takashi; Beppu, Michiko; Kawakami, Yousuke; Nogawa, Takayoshi; Chiba, Take; Hiura, Masamichi

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of risk factors for recurrence in non-irradiated sites in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix who received postoperative irradiation. It also discusses clinical experience with such patients, particularly those with a poor prognosis, based on a review of the literature. The study was conducted at the National Shikoku Cancer Center in 62 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (mean age=50.5, range=30-66) who received 10 MeV postoperative irradiation with a Linac between 1981 and 1990. An analysis was performed in terms of sites and times of recurrence, risk factors for distant metastasis, and groups at high risk for distant metastasis. Based on the results of the study as well as the review of the literature, it was concluded that squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is sensitive to radiation therapy and that the clinical outcome of local treatment is satisfactory. However, systemic chemotherapy should be considered for patients who are suspected of having minute distant metastasis at the time of surgical operation, i.e., those with moderate to severe vascular space invasion, multiple lymph node metastasis, parametrium infiltration, and/or endometrial infiltration. (K.H.)

  19. Comparative profiling of miRNAs and target gene identification in distant-grafting between tomato and Lycium (goji berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A B M Khaldun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local translocation of small RNAs between cells is proved. Long distance translocation between rootstock and scion is also well documented in the homo-grafting system, but the process in distant-grafting is widely unexplored where rootstock and scion belonging to different genera. Micro RNAs are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding, gene silencing RNAs that regulate target genes of a wide range of important biological pathways in plants. In this study, tomato was grafted onto goji (Lycium chinense Mill. to reveal the insight of miRNAs regulation and expression patterns within a distant-grafting system. Goji is an important traditional Chinese medicinal plant with enriched phytochemicals. Illumina sequencing technology has identified 68 evolutionary known miRNAs of 37 miRNA families. Moreover, 168 putative novel miRNAs were also identified. Compared with control tomato, 43 (11 known and 32 novels and 163 (33 known and 130 novels miRNAs were expressed significantly different in shoot and fruit of grafted tomato, respectively. The fruiting stage was identified as the most responsive in the distant-grafting approach and 123 miRNAs were found as up-regulating in the grafted fruit which is remarkably higher compare to the grafted shoot tip (28. Potential targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be involved in diverse metabolic and regulatory pathways. ADP binding activities, molybdopterin synthase complex and RNA helicase activity were found as enriched terms in GO (Gene Ontology analysis. Additionally, ‘metabolic pathways’ was revealed as the most significant pathway in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis. The information of the small RNA transcriptomes that are obtained from this study might be the first miRNAs elucidation for a distant-grafting system, particularly between goji and tomato. The results from this study will provide the insights into the molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in the

  20. Convergent evolution of Hawaiian and Australo-Pacific honeyeaters from distant songbird ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Robert C; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L

    2008-12-23

    The Hawaiian "honeyeaters," five endemic species of recently extinct, nectar-feeding songbirds in the genera Moho and Chaetoptila, looked and acted like Australasian honeyeaters (Meliphagidae), and no taxonomist since their discovery on James Cook's third voyage has classified them as anything else. We obtained DNA sequences from museum specimens of Moho and Chaetoptila collected in Hawaii 115-158 years ago. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences supports monophyly of the two Hawaiian genera but, surprisingly, reveals that neither taxon is a meliphagid honeyeater, nor even in the same part of the songbird radiation as meliphagids. Instead, the Hawaiian species are divergent members of a passeridan group that includes deceptively dissimilar families of songbirds (Holarctic waxwings, neotropical silky flycatchers, and palm chats). Here we designate them as a new family, the Mohoidae. A nuclear-DNA rate calibration suggests that mohoids diverged from their closest living ancestor 14-17 mya, coincident with the estimated earliest arrival in Hawaii of a bird-pollinated plant lineage. Convergent evolution, the evolution of similar traits in distantly related taxa because of common selective pressures, is illustrated well by nectar-feeding birds, but the morphological, behavioral, and ecological similarity of the mohoids to the Australasian honeyeaters makes them a particularly striking example of the phenomenon.

  1. Evaluation of distant results after lamivudine discontinuation in children with chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate distant results after discontinuation of long term lamivudine treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. Furthermore, the emergence of HBV polymerase gene variants in YMDD motif during therapy was examined. Additionally, the most commonly occurring type of mutation in the polymerase YMDD region were investigated. The study involved 27 HBeAg positive children with chronic hepatitis B. Children included to lamivudine therapy were previously treated without effects with interferon alpha.

  2. The evolution of early-type galaxies in distant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, S.A.; Eisenhardt, P.R.; Dickinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from an optical-infrared photometric study of early-type (E+S0) galaxies in 19 galaxy clusters out to z=0.9. The galaxy sample is selected on the basis of morphologies determined from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images and is photometrically defined in the K band in order to minimize redshift-dependent selection biases. Using new ground-based photometry in five optical and infrared bands for each cluster, we examine the evolution of the color-magnitude relation for early-type cluster galaxies, considering its slope, intercept, and color scatter around the mean relation. New multiwavelength photometry of galaxies in the Coma Cluster is used to provide a baseline sample at z∼0 with which to compare the distant clusters. The optical - IR colors of the early-type cluster galaxies become bluer with increasing redshift in a manner consistent with the passive evolution of an old stellar population formed at an early cosmic epoch. The degree of color evolution is similar for clusters at similar redshift and does not depend strongly on the optical richness or X-ray luminosity of the cluster, which suggests that the history of early-type galaxies is relatively insensitive to environment, at least above a certain density threshold. The slope of the color-magnitude relationship shows no significant change out to z=0.9, which provides evidence that it arises from a correlation between galaxy mass and metallicity, not age. Finally, the intrinsic scatter in the optical - IR colors of the galaxies is small and nearly constant with redshift, which indicates that the majority of giant, early-type galaxies in clusters share a common star formation history, with little perturbation due to uncorrelated episodes of later star formation. Taken together, our results are consistent with models in which most early-type galaxies in rich clusters are old, formed the majority of their stars at high redshift in a well-synchronized fashion, and evolved quiescently

  3. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D Leonhardt

    Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spec., revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia. Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association.

  4. Microbial Communities of Three Sympatric Australian Stingless Bee Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing – among other taxa – host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4–5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  5. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  6. Life history and ecology of Cambarus halli (Hobbs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennard, S.; Peterson, J.T.; Hawthorne, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    The life history of Cambarus halli, a crayfish endemic to the Tallapoosa River Basin, GA, was studied at four sites within the Tallapoosa River. Two sites had allopatric populations of C. halli, and two sites had populations of C. halli sympatric with C. englishi. Three age classes existed across sites. For Cambarus halli, total number of pleopodal eggs was positively related to carapace length, but egg size was only weakly positively related to carapace length. Cambarus halli were smaller across age classes at sympatric sites, but had greater growth rates than at allopatric sites. Cambarus halli density estimates were lower at sympatric sites, while proportions of reproductively active age-1 and age-2 individuals were higher at allopatric sites (63% vs. 33%).

  7. Same Old Story: The Problem of Object-Based Thinking as a Basis for Teaching Distant Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Fran

    2013-01-01

    The English Geography National Curriculum encourages primary teachers to focus on similarities and differences when teaching distant places. The issues this raises are particularly acute when teaching geography in the context of the Global South. In this article I argue that comparisons based on object-based thinking can lead to views of the…

  8. La seducción del mal en Estrella Distante de Roberto Bolaño

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    En el presente artículo se trabajará en torno a la novela Estrella distante de Roberto Bolaño. La intención del análisis será demostrar cómo se expresa y opera la seducción del mal al interior de la representación y proponer cuáles son las formas en que el mal encarna en una figura representativa de la dictadura militar chilena.

  9. Using diets of Canis breeding pairs to assess resource partitioning between sympatric red wolves and coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Joseph W.; Ashley, Annaliese K.; Dellinger, Justin A.; Gittleman, John L.; van Manen, Frank T.; Chamberlain, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Foraging behaviors of red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) are complex and their ability to form congeneric breeding pairs and hybridize further complicates our understanding of factors influencing their diets. Through scat analysis, we assessed prey selection of red wolf, coyote, and congeneric breeding pairs formed by red wolves and coyotes, and found that all 3 had similar diets. However, red wolf and congeneric pairs consumed more white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) than coyote pairs. Coyotes forming breeding pairs with red wolves had 12% more white-tailed deer in their diet than conspecifics paired with coyotes. Contrary to many studies on coyotes in the southeastern United States, we found coyotes in eastern North Carolina to be primarily carnivorous with increased consumption of deer during winter. Although prey selection was generally similar among the 3 groups, differences in diet among different breeding pairs were strongly associated with body mass. Larger breeding pairs consumed more white-tailed deer, and fewer rabbits (Sylvilagus spp.) and other small mammals. Partitioning of food resources by sympatric red wolves and coyotes is likely via differences in the proportions of similar prey consumed, rather than differences in types of prey exploited. Consequently, our results suggest coexistence of red wolves and coyotes in the southeastern United States may not be possible because there are limited opportunities for niche partitioning to reduce competitive interactions.

  10. Stable water use efficiency under climate change of three sympatric conifer species at the Alpine treeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard eWieser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of treeline associated conifers in the Central Alps to cope with recent climate warming and increasing CO2 concentration is still poorly understood. We determined tree ring stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of Pinus cembra, Picea abies and Larix decidua trees from 1975-2010. Stable isotope ratios were compared with leaf level gas exchange measurements carried out in situ between 1979 and 2007. Results indicate that tree ring derived intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE of P. cembra, P. abies and L. decidua remained constant during the last 36 years despite climate warming and rising atmospheric CO2. Temporal patterns in Δ13C and Δ18O mirrored leaf level gas exchange assessments, suggesting parallel increases of CO2-fixation and stomatal conductance of treeline conifer species. As at the study site soil water availability was not a limiting factor iWUE remained largely stable throughout the study period. The stability in iWUE was accompanied by an increase in basal area increment (BAI suggesting that treeline trees benefit from both recent climate warming and CO2 fertilization. Finally, our results suggest that iWUE may not change species composition at treeline in the Austrian Alps due to similar ecophysiological responses to climatic changes of the three sympatric study species.

  11. Niche partitioning in sympatric Gorilla and Pan from Cameroon: implications for life history strategies and for reconstructing the evolution of hominin life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Gabriele A; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain size in a 20th century museum collection of sympatric Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes from Central Cameroon. Using δ13C and δ15N of individuals' hair, we assessed whether and how differences in diet and habitat use may have impacted on ape development. The results show that, overall, gorilla hair δ13C and δ15N values are more variable than those of chimpanzees, and that gorillas are consistently lower in δ13C and δ15N compared to chimpanzees. Within a restricted, isotopically-constrained area, gorilla brain development appears delayed relative to dental mineralization/eruption [or dental development is accelerated relative to brains]: only about 87.8% of adult brain size is attained by the time first permanent molars come into occlusion, whereas it is 92.3% in chimpanzees. Even when M1s are already in full functional occlusion, gorilla brains lag behind those of chimpanzee (91% versus 96.4%), relative to tooth development. Both bootstrap analyses and stable isotope results confirm that these results are unlikely due to sampling error. Rather, δ15N values imply that gorillas are not fully weaned (physiologically mature) until well after M1 are in full functional occlusion. In chimpanzees the transition from infant to adult feeding appears (a) more gradual and (b) earlier relative to somatic development. Taken together, the findings are consistent with life history theory that predicts delayed development when non-density dependent mortality is low, i.e. in closed habitats, and with the "risk aversion" hypothesis for frugivorous species as a means to avert starvation. Furthermore, the results highlight

  12. Niche partitioning in sympatric Gorilla and Pan from Cameroon: implications for life history strategies and for reconstructing the evolution of hominin life history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A Macho

    Full Text Available Factors influencing the hominoid life histories are poorly understood, and little is known about how ecological conditions modulate the pace of their development. Yet our limited understanding of these interactions underpins life history interpretations in extinct hominins. Here we determined the synchronisation of dental mineralization/eruption with brain size in a 20th century museum collection of sympatric Gorilla gorilla and Pan troglodytes from Central Cameroon. Using δ13C and δ15N of individuals' hair, we assessed whether and how differences in diet and habitat use may have impacted on ape development. The results show that, overall, gorilla hair δ13C and δ15N values are more variable than those of chimpanzees, and that gorillas are consistently lower in δ13C and δ15N compared to chimpanzees. Within a restricted, isotopically-constrained area, gorilla brain development appears delayed relative to dental mineralization/eruption [or dental development is accelerated relative to brains]: only about 87.8% of adult brain size is attained by the time first permanent molars come into occlusion, whereas it is 92.3% in chimpanzees. Even when M1s are already in full functional occlusion, gorilla brains lag behind those of chimpanzee (91% versus 96.4%, relative to tooth development. Both bootstrap analyses and stable isotope results confirm that these results are unlikely due to sampling error. Rather, δ15N values imply that gorillas are not fully weaned (physiologically mature until well after M1 are in full functional occlusion. In chimpanzees the transition from infant to adult feeding appears (a more gradual and (b earlier relative to somatic development. Taken together, the findings are consistent with life history theory that predicts delayed development when non-density dependent mortality is low, i.e. in closed habitats, and with the "risk aversion" hypothesis for frugivorous species as a means to avert starvation. Furthermore, the

  13. Study of Co-Located and Distant Collaboration with Symbolic Support via a Haptics-Enhanced Virtual Reality Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shih-Ching; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Wang, Jin-Liang; Zhan, Shi-Yi

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to investigate how multi-symbolic representations (text, digits, and colors) could effectively enhance the completion of co-located/distant collaborative work in a virtual reality context. Participants' perceptions and behaviors were also studied. A haptics-enhanced virtual reality task was developed to conduct…

  14. SU-F-R-46: Predicting Distant Failure in Lung SBRT Using Multi-Objective Radiomics Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Z; Folkert, M; Iyengar, P; Zhang, Y; Wang, J [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To predict distant failure in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using a new multi-objective radiomics model. Methods: Currently, most available radiomics models use the overall accuracy as the objective function. However, due to data imbalance, a single object may not reflect the performance of a predictive model. Therefore, we developed a multi-objective radiomics model which considers both sensitivity and specificity as the objective functions simultaneously. The new model is used to predict distant failure in lung SBRT using 52 patients treated at our institute. Quantitative imaging features of PET and CT as well as clinical parameters are utilized to build the predictive model. Image features include intensity features (9), textural features (12) and geometric features (8). Clinical parameters for each patient include demographic parameters (4), tumor characteristics (8), treatment faction schemes (4) and pretreatment medicines (6). The modelling procedure consists of two steps: extracting features from segmented tumors in PET and CT; and selecting features and training model parameters based on multi-objective. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as the predictive model, while a nondominated sorting-based multi-objective evolutionary computation algorithm II (NSGA-II) is used for solving the multi-objective optimization. Results: The accuracy for PET, clinical, CT, PET+clinical, PET+CT, CT+clinical, PET+CT+clinical are 71.15%, 84.62%, 84.62%, 85.54%, 82.69%, 84.62%, 86.54%, respectively. The sensitivities for the above seven combinations are 41.76%, 58.33%, 50.00%, 50.00%, 41.67%, 41.67%, 58.33%, while the specificities are 80.00%, 92.50%, 90.00%, 97.50%, 92.50%, 97.50%, 97.50%. Conclusion: A new multi-objective radiomics model for predicting distant failure in NSCLC treated with SBRT was developed. The experimental results show that the best performance can be obtained by combining

  15. [Pollination ecology of three sympatric species of Oenocarpus (Arecaceae) in the Colombian Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez A, Luis Alberto; Isaza, Carolina; Galeano, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of pollination mechanisms is vital for developing management and conservation actions of economically important species. In order to understand the pollination mechanisms of the promising palms in the genus Oenocarpus (Arecaceae), we studied floral morphology and biology, of three sympatric species in the Colombian Amazon: O. bataua, O. balickii and O. minor. During the period 2010-2012 we made direct and continuous observations of inflorescences (visitors, pollinators, and reproductive success) of the three species in every development phase. We determined the association of the palms with their floral visitors through a complex or interaction network, whereas specificity or preference of the insects for each individual palm was assessed through paired similarity analysis, similarity analysis (ANOSIM), and ordering analysis based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMSD). The three species flowered throughout the year; their inflorescences have long rachillae that hang close to each other from a short rachis, and they bear flowers in dyads or triads. Inflorescences are protandrous, thermogenic; anthesis takes place during daytime but pollination is nocturnal. We recorded 79 species of insects, mainly beetles, 33 of which visited O. balickii, 63 visited O. bataua, and 33 visited 0. minor. Although they shared some visitors, their abundance during the pistillate phase, as well as their pollen loads showed that only a few species of Curculionidae and Nitidulidae are the principal pollinators of the three studied species. Differences in network structure between staminate and pistillate phases, as well as difference in abundance found with the ANOSIM and NMSD similarity tests, suggest a high specificity of pollinators, leading to reproductive isolation among.the three species. Because all pollinating beetles were found to develop their life cycles within the inflorescences, we hypothesize the occurrence of a specialized system of mutual dependence

  16. Distant Migration of Multiple Siliconomas in Lower Extremities following Breast Implant Rupture: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Joo Hyun; Song, Seung Yong; Lew, Dae Hyun; Lee, Dong Won

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Siliconoma from ruptured breast implants has been reported in multiple body sites, including but not limited to the breast parenchyma, axillary lymph nodes, upper arm, and even lower leg. In this regard, we report a rare case of distant silicone migration to the lower extremities after traumatic breast implant rupture. A 55-year-old Asian woman who received bilateral augmentation mammoplasty 20 years ago presented with ruptured breast implants from a car accident 2 years earlier. Mag...

  17. Distant clusters of galaxies in the 2XMM/SDSS footprint: follow-up observations with the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitz, A.; Lamer, G.; Schwope, A.; Takey, A.

    2017-11-01

    Context. Galaxy clusters at high redshift are important to test cosmological models and models for the growth of structure. They are difficult to find in wide-angle optical surveys, however, leaving dedicated follow-up of X-ray selected candidates as one promising identification route. Aims: We aim to increase the number of galaxy clusters beyond the SDSS-limit, z 0.75. Methods: We compiled a list of extended X-ray sources from the 2XMMp catalogue within the footprint of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Fields without optical counterpart were selected for further investigation. Deep optical imaging and follow-up spectroscopy were obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope, Arizona (LBT), of those candidates not known to the literature. Results: From initially 19 candidates, selected by visually screening X-ray images of 478 XMM-Newton observations and the corresponding SDSS images, 6 clusters were found in the literature. Imaging data through r,z filters were obtained for the remaining candidates, and 7 were chosen for multi-object (MOS) spectroscopy. Spectroscopic redshifts, optical magnitudes, and X-ray parameters (flux, temperature, and luminosity) are presented for the clusters with spectroscopic redshifts. The distant clusters studied here constitute one additional redshift bin for studies of the LX-T relation, which does not seem to evolve from high to low redshifts. Conclusions: The selection method of distant galaxy clusters presented here was highly successful. It is based solely on archival optical (SDSS) and X-ray (XMM-Newton) data. Out of 19 selected candidates, 6 of the 7 candidates selected for spectroscopic follow-up were verified as distant clusters, a further candidate is most likely a group of galaxies at z 1.21. Out of the remaining 12 candidates, 6 were known previously as galaxy clusters, one object is a likely X-ray emission from an AGN radio jet, and for 5 we see no clear evidence for them to be high-redshift galaxy clusters. Based on

  18. Diet of two sympatric felids (Leopardus tigrinus and Leopardus wiedii in a remnant of Atlantic forest, in the montane region of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil (English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Brandão Seibert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the diet of two sympatric felids, the oncilla and the margay, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Fecal samples were collected from 2003 to 2005. Of the 52 fecal samples examined, 34 were confirmed to be from the oncilla and 18 of them from the margay. Small mammals (Rodentia and Didelphimorphia were the most important food item, followed by insects and birds. The food habit of the oncilla and the margay in the area were classified as a specialist carnivore, feeding in a variety of prey, which mammals were the most consumed item. The coexistence between those species may involve spatial and temporal segregation and the use of complementary items in the diet. (English

  19. Spatio-temporal isotopic signatures (δ13 C and δ15 N) reveal that two sympatric West African mullet species do not feed on the same basal production sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loc'h, F; Durand, J-D; Diop, K; Panfili, J

    2015-04-01

    Potential trophic competition between two sympatric mullet species, Mugil cephalus and Mugil curema, was explored in the hypersaline estuary of the Saloum Delta (Senegal) using δ(13) C and δ(15) N composition of muscle tissues. Between species, δ(15) N compositions were similar, suggesting a similar trophic level, while the difference in δ(13) C compositions indicated that these species did not feed from exactly the same basal production sources or at least not in the same proportions. This result provides the first evidence of isotopic niche segregation between two limno-benthophageous species belonging to the geographically widespread, and often locally abundant, Mugilidae family. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. Trophic niches of sympatric tropical tuna in the Western Indian Ocean inferred by stable isotopes and neutral fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardenne, Fany; Bodin, Nathalie; Chassot, Emmanuel; Amiel, Aurélien; Fouché, Edwin; Degroote, Maxime; Hollanda, Stéphanie; Pethybridge, Heidi; Lebreton, Benoit; Guillou, Gaël; Ménard, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the trophic ecology of three sympatric tropical tuna species (bigeye BET, skipjack SKJ, and yellowfin YFT) sampled in the Western Indian Ocean throughout 2013. Specifically we explored inter-specific resource partitioning and ontogenetic variability using neutral fatty acids and stable isotope analysis of liver and muscle from small (⩽100 cm fork length, FL) and large (>100 cm FL) tuna collected in mixed schools at the surface by purse-seine. Both biochemical tracers were used to calculate trophic niche indices that collectively revealed high potential for resource overlap, especially among small tuna. Resource overlap appeared strongest between BET and YFT, with SKJ tissues having high carbon isotope (δ13C) values (-17 ± 0.3‰), lower nitrogen isotope (δ15N) values (11.4 ± 0.6‰), and higher relative proportion of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than the two other species, indicating a different diet. Size was found to be a strong predictor for most biochemical tracers in the three species with δ13C, δ15N and total lipid content in the liver. In the larger species (YFT and BET), proportions of mono-unsaturated fatty acids typically increased with size, while quantities of PUFA decreased. In addition to ontogenetic variability, trophic markers were shown to vary between sampling area and season: higher lipid reserves and δ15N values, and lower δ13C values occurred during monsoon periods around Seychelles than in the Mozambique Channel (parted from about 1500 km). Our multi-tracer approach reveals the magnitude of potential competitive interactions in mixed tropical tuna schools at both small and large sizes and demonstrates that ontogenetic niche differentiation acts as a major factor of coexistence in tropical tuna.

  1. Development and validation of a gene expression-based signature to predict distant metastasis in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin-Ran; Li, Ying-Qin; Liang, Shao-Bo; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fang; Ge, Wen-Xiu; Tang, Ling-Long; Mao, Yan-Ping; He, Qing-Mei; Yang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Yuan; Wen, Xin; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Ya-Qin; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Sun, Ying; Yun, Jing-Ping; Zeng, Jing; Li, Li; Liu, Li-Zhi; Liu, Na; Ma, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Gene expression patterns can be used as prognostic biomarkers in various types of cancers. We aimed to identify a gene expression pattern for individual distant metastatic risk assessment in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort analysis, we included 937 patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma from three Chinese hospitals: the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China), the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University (Guilin, China), and the First People's Hospital of Foshan (Foshan, China). Using microarray analysis, we profiled mRNA gene expression between 24 paired locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumours from patients at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center with or without distant metastasis after radical treatment. Differentially expressed genes were examined using digital expression profiling in a training cohort (Guangzhou training cohort; n=410) to build a gene classifier using a penalised regression model. We validated the prognostic accuracy of this gene classifier in an internal validation cohort (Guangzhou internal validation cohort, n=204) and two external independent cohorts (Guilin cohort, n=165; Foshan cohort, n=158). The primary endpoint was distant metastasis-free survival. Secondary endpoints were disease-free survival and overall survival. We identified 137 differentially expressed genes between metastatic and non-metastatic locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma tissues. A distant metastasis gene signature for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (DMGN) that consisted of 13 genes was generated to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups in the training cohort. Patients with high-risk scores in the training cohort had shorter distant metastasis-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 4·93, 95% CI 2·99-8·16; padvanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma and might be able to predict which patients benefit

  2. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies and Quasars. II. Improved Optical and UV Scaling Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Peterson, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We present four improved empirical relationships useful for estimating the central black hole mass in nearby AGNs and distant luminous quasars alike using either optical or UV single-epoch spectroscopy. These mass-scaling relationships between line widths and luminosity are based on recently...

  3. ESA's XMM-Newton gains deep insights into the distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    First image from the XMM-LSS survey hi-res Size hi-res: 87 kb Credits: ESA First image from the XMM-LSS survey The first image from the XMM-LSS survey is actually a combination of fourteen separate 'pointings' of the space observatory. It represents a region of the sky eight times larger than the full Moon and contains around 25 clusters. The circles represent the sources previously known from the 1991 ROSAT All-Sky Survey. A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region hi-res Size hi-res: 86 kb Credits: ESA A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region A computer programme zooms in on an interesting region of the image and identifies the possible cluster. Each point on this graph represents a single X-ray photons detected by XMM-Newton. Most come from distant actie galaxies and the computer must perform a sophisticated, statistical computation to determine which X-ray come from clusters. Contour map of clusters hi-res Size hi-res: 139 kb Credits: ESA Contour map of clusters The computer programme transforms the XMM-Newton data into a contour map of the cluster's probable extent and superimposes it over the CFHT snapshot, allowing the individual galaxies in the cluster to be targeted for further observations with ESO's VLT, to measure its distance and locate the cluster in the universe. Unlike grains of sand on a beach, matter is not uniformly spread throughout the Universe. Instead, it is concentrated into galaxies like our own which themselves congregate into clusters. These clusters are 'strung' throughout the Universe in a web-like structure. Astronomers have studied this large-scale structure of the nearby Universe but have lacked the instruments to extend the search to the large volumes of the distant Universe. Thanks to its unrivalled sensitivity, in less than three hours, ESA's X-ray observatory XMM-Newton can see back about 7000 million years to a cosmological era when the Universe was about half its present size, and clusters of galaxies

  4. Distant retrograde orbits and the asteroid hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzi, Ettore; Ceccaroni, Marta; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.; Rossi, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    Distant Retrograde Orbits (DROs) gained a novel wave of fame in space mission design because of their numerous advantages within the framework of the US plans for bringing a large asteroid sample in the vicinity of the Earth as the next target for human exploration. DROs are stable solutions of the three-body problem that can be used whenever an object, whether of natural or artificial nature, is required to remain in the neighborhood of a celestial body without being gravitationally captured by it. As such, they represent an alternative option to Halo orbits around the collinear Lagrangian points L1 and L2. Also known under other names ( e.g., quasi-satellite orbits, cis-lunar orbits, family- f orbits) these orbital configurations found interesting applications in several mission profiles, like that of a spacecraft orbiting around the small irregularly shaped satellite of Mars Phobos or the large Jovian moon Europa. In this paper a basic explanation of the DRO dynamics is presented in order to clarify some geometrical properties that characterize them. Their accessibility is then discussed from the point of view of mission analysis under different assumptions. Finally, their relevance within the framework of the present asteroid hazard protection programs is shown, stressing the significant increase in warning time they would provide in the prediction of impactors coming from the direction of the Sun.

  5. A new species of the genus Mahanarva Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Cercopidae, with a key to the species from Central America and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Castro–Valderrama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The genus Mahanarva Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea: Cercopidae currently includes two subgenera: Mahanarva Distant, 1909 with 38 species and six subspecies, and Ipiranga Fennah, 1968 with nine species. The Manaharva species are all from the Americas, and a few species are important pests in pasture grasses and sugarcane. There are no reports of any Manaharva species from North America, including Mexico and areas to the north. Here, a new species is described from Mexico and a key to the species of Mahanarva from Central America and Mexico is proposed.

  6. Cosmopolitanism and Subversion of 'Home' in Caryl Phillips's A Distant Shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan McCluskey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The novels of Caryl Phillips have most commonly been approached from post-colonial theoretical perspectives, a trend which appears entirely appropriate given their recurrent themes of immigration, ethnic discrimination and the legacy of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. However, the analysis below contends that the publication of A Distant Shore marked a change of direction in Phillips's oeuvre towards a less formally experimental but thematically more cosmopolitan form of writing that conspicuously sets out to subvert and redefine the idea of 'home'. Using the critical frameworks of Avtar Brah, Paul Gilroy and Jacques Derrida, the discussion will illustrate how Phillips critically re-imagines the notion 'home' in order to signify an inclusive space of cosmopolitan conviviality and openness.

  7. Analysis of Population Substructure in Two Sympatric Populations of Gran Chaco, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevini, Federica; Yao, Daniele Yang; Lomartire, Laura; Barbieri, Annalaura; Vianello, Dario; Ferri, Gianmarco; Moretti, Edgardo; Dasso, Maria Cristina; Garagnani, Paolo; Pettener, Davide; Franceschi, Claudio; Luiselli, Donata; Franceschi, Zelda Alice

    2013-01-01

    Sub-population structure and intricate kinship dynamics might introduce biases in molecular anthropology studies and could invalidate the efforts to understand diseases in highly admixed populations. In order to clarify the previously observed distribution pattern and morbidity of Chagas disease in Gran Chaco, Argentina, we studied two populations (Wichí and Criollos) recruited following an innovative bio-cultural model considering their complex cultural interactions. By reconstructing the genetic background and the structure of these two culturally different populations, the pattern of admixture, the correspondence between genealogical and genetic relationships, this integrated perspective had the power to validate data and to link the gap usually relying on a singular discipline. Although Wichí and Criollos share the same area, these sympatric populations are differentiated from the genetic point of view as revealed by Non Recombinant Y Chromosome genotyping resulting in significantly high Fst values and in a lower genetic variability in the Wichí population. Surprisingly, the Amerindian and the European components emerged with comparable amounts (20%) among Criollos and Wichí respectively. The detailed analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed that the two populations have as much as 87% of private haplotypes. Moreover, from the maternal perspective, despite a common Amerindian origin, an Andean and an Amazonian component emerged in Criollos and in Wichí respectively. Our approach allowed us to highlight that quite frequently there is a discrepancy between self-reported and genetic kinship. Indeed, if self-reported identity and kinship are usually utilized in population genetics as a reliable proxy for genetic identity and parental relationship, in our model populations appear to be the result not only and not simply of the genetic background but also of complex cultural determinants. This integrated approach paves the way to a rigorous reconstruction of

  8. Behavioural adaptations of two sympatric sandhoppers living on a mesotidal European Atlantic sandy beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Filipa; Marques, João Carlos; Scapini, Felicita

    2014-06-01

    Behavioural adaptations of supralittoral species on sandy beaches are expressed as responses to environmental changes and constitute a key factor in their survival and evolution. Two sympatric talitrid amphipods (Talitrus saltator and Britorchestia brito) from a mesotidal exposed sandy beach on the European Atlantic coast (Portugal) were compared as regards orientation and littoral zonation patterns under natural conditions. Orientation experiments were carried out during spring and summer 2011 and 2012 at Quiaios beach, a highly dynamic exposed sandy beach. Multiple regression models were fitted to the angular data and the environmental effects on orientation were investigated for each species. Both talitrids were shown to be well orientated towards the shoreline and finely adapted to the mesotidal environment but a different use of local cues and climatic features between the two species was apparent. T. saltator showed a lower precision in the orientation performance (with a bimodal distribution sea- and land-wards), with less dependence on the sun cues and higher dependence on climatic features. In addition, the zonation of T. saltator was across the land-sea axis during both seasons. For B. brito the landscape vision, sun visibility and the tidal range enhanced the orientation to the shoreline. On this mesotidal Atlantic beach, T. saltator appeared to have a more flexible orientation with respect to B. brito, which appeared to be more dependent on the conditions offered by the intertidal zone, a behaviour confirmed by its restricted zonation below the high tide mark. Consequently, T. saltator showed a more flexible behaviour that may be considered an important evolutionary adaptation to dynamic and mesotidal sandy beaches.

  9. Treatment and outcome of 32 patients with distant metastases of Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma: a single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besic, Nikola; Schwarzbartl-Pevec, Andreja; Vidergar-Kralj, Barbara; Crnic, Tea; Gazic, Barbara; Marolt Music, Maja

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that patients with Hürthle cell thyroid carcinoma (HCTC) have a poor prognosis. Furthermore, distant metastases represent the most frequent cause of thyroid cancer-related death of patients with HCTC. The aim of this study was to report the treatment and outcomes of patients with distant metastases. Altogether 108 patients were treated for HCTC from 1972 to 2011 in our tertiary center and 32 patients (19 females, 13 males; median age 64.5 years) had either initially proven metastatic disease (N = 12) or distant progression of HCTC after initial treatment (N = 20). Patients with metastases were followed for 1–226 (median 77) months. Data were collected on the patients’ gender and age, extent of their disease, morphologic characteristics, therapy, outcome, and survival rate. Statistical correlation between possible prognostic factors and cause-specific survival from time of detection of metastases was analyzed by univariate analysis and log-rank test. The most common were lung metastases, followed by bone, mediastinum, kidney, and liver in 24, 8, 2, 1, and 1 case, respectively. Total thyroidectomy, lobectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy and neck dissection were performed in 19, 10, 3, and 7 patients, respectively. Radioiodine (RAI) ablation of thyroid remnant was performed in 30 patients, while 20 of them had RAI therapy (median 4 times). RAI uptake in metastases was present in 16 patients and ranged from 0.05 % to 12 %. Chemotherapy was used in 13 patients and external beam radiotherapy in 19 patients. Locoregional control of disease was achieved in 19/21 (90 %) cases who succumbed due to HCTC. Estimated 10-year disease-specific survival for all patients was 60 %. 10-year disease-specific survival for patients with pulmonary metastases and other sites metastases was 60 % and 62 %, respectively. 10-year disease-specific survival for patients with single organ and multiple organ metastases was 52 %, and 100 %, respectively. Estimated median

  10. A Proteome Translocation Response to Complex Desert Stress Environments in Perennial Phragmites Sympatric Ecotypes with Contrasting Water Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Xiaodan; Shi, Lu; Wang, Chuanjing; Fu, Bing; Qiu, Tianhang; Cui, Suxia

    2017-01-01

    After a long-term adaptation to desert environment, the perennial aquatic plant Phragmites communis has evolved a desert-dune ecotype. The desert-dune ecotype (DR) of Phragmites communis showed significant differences in water activity and protein distribution compared to its sympatric swamp ecotype (SR). Many proteins that were located in the soluble fraction of SR translocated to the insoluble fraction of DR, suggesting that membrane-associated proteins were greatly reinforced in DR. The unknown phenomenon in plant stress physiology was defined as a proteome translocation response. Quantitative 2D-DIGE technology highlighted these 'bound' proteins in DR. Fifty-eight kinds of proteins were identified as candidates of the translocated proteome in Phragmites . The majority were chloroplast proteins. Unexpectedly, Rubisco was the most abundant protein sequestered by DR. Rubisco activase, various chaperons and 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin were major components in the translocation response. Conformational change was assumed to be the main reason for the Rubisco translocation due to no primary sequence difference between DR and SR. The addition of reductant in extraction process partially reversed the translocation response, implying that intracellular redox status plays a role in the translocation response of the proteome. The finding emphasizes the realistic significance of the membrane-association of biomolecule for plant long-term adaptation to complex stress conditions.

  11. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  12. Split-course chemoradiotherapy with S-1, a novel oral fluorouracil, and cisplatin for distant metastases of oesophageal cancer stage IVb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwase H

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of split-course chemoradiotherapy with S-1, a novel oral fluorouracil, together with cisplatin in patients with distant oesophageal cancer stage IVb metastasis. Methods: Forty-one patients with distant oesophageal cancer metastasis and performance status 0 or 1 received split-course chemoradiotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin. All 41 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Chemoradiotherapy comprised two courses of 30-Gy radiotherapy over three weeks plus daily oral S-1 (70mg/m2/day for two weeks and a 24 h cisplatin infusion (70mg/m2 on Day 8, with a two week interval between the two courses. Results: The most frequent adverse events (AEs were grade 3 and 4 neutropenia (29.2%, thrombocytopenia (9.8%, and anaemia (7.3%. Non-haematological AEs were generally mild. AEs in the initial course of chemoradiotherapy remitted during the second interval week. Overall, the complete response rate was 22.0% and endoscopic complete response rate for primary lesion was 65.9%. Thirty-one patients (75.6% became asymptomatic and regained normal swallowing function. The overall median survival time was 12 months. Conclusion: This retrospective investigation showed that split-course chemoradiotherapy with S-1 and cisplatin had an encouraging safety profile together with good efficacy. Potentially, this regimen may become a standard for distant metastasis of oesophageal cancer stage IVb.

  13. High E6 Gene Expression Predicts for Distant Metastasis and Poor Survival in Patients With HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khwaja, Shariq S.; Baker, Callie; Haynes, Wesley; Spencer, Christopher R.; Gay, Hiram; Thorstad, Wade [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Adkins, Douglas R. [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Nussenbaum, Brian [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Chernock, Rebecca D. [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Lewis, James S. [Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Wang, Xiaowei, E-mail: xwang@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)–positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) have a favorable prognosis. As a result, de-escalation clinical trials are under way. However, approximately 10% of patients will experience distant recurrence even with standard-of-care treatment. Here, we sought to identify novel biomarkers to better risk-stratify HPV-positive patients with OPSCC. Methods and Materials: Gene expression profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on HPV-positive OPSCC primary tumor specimens from patients with and without distant metastasis (DM). Results: RNA-seq analysis of 39 HPV-positive OPSCC specimens revealed that patients with DM had 2-fold higher E6 gene expression levels than did patients without DM (P=.029). This observation was confirmed in a validation cohort comprising 93 patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. The mean normalized E6 expression level in the 17 recurring primary specimens was 13 ± 2 compared with 8 ± 1 in the remaining 76 nonrecurring primaries (P=.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis established an E6 expression level of 7.3 as a cutoff for worse recurrence-free survival (RFS). Patients from this cohort with high E6 gene expression (E6-high) (n=51, 55%) had more cancer-related deaths (23% vs 2%, P<.001) and DM (26% vs 5%, P<.001) than did patients with low E6 gene expression (E6-low) (n=42, 45%). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that E6-high had worse RFS (95% vs 69%, P=.004) and cancer-specific survival (97% vs 79%, P=.007). E6-high maintained statistical significance in multivariate regression models balancing surgery, chemotherapy, nodal stage, and smoking status. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that tumors with high E6 expression were associated with P53, epidermal growth factor receptor, activating transcription factor-2, and transforming growth factor-β signaling pathways. Conclusion: High E6 gene expression

  14. Tissue-specific RNA expression marks distant-acting developmental enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Short non-coding transcripts can be transcribed from distant-acting transcriptional enhancer loci, but the prevalence of such enhancer RNAs (eRNAs within the transcriptome, and the association of eRNA expression with tissue-specific enhancer activity in vivo remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression dynamics of tissue-specific non-coding RNAs in embryonic mouse tissues via deep RNA sequencing. Overall, approximately 80% of validated in vivo enhancers show tissue-specific RNA expression that correlates with tissue-specific enhancer activity. Globally, we identified thousands of tissue-specifically transcribed non-coding regions (TSTRs displaying various genomic hallmarks of bona fide enhancers. In transgenic mouse reporter assays, over half of tested TSTRs functioned as enhancers with reproducible activity in the predicted tissue. Together, our results demonstrate that tissue-specific eRNA expression is a common feature of in vivo enhancers, as well as a major source of extragenic transcription, and that eRNA expression signatures can be used to predict tissue-specific enhancers independent of known epigenomic enhancer marks.

  15. Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sokbom; Park, Jung-Yeol; Lim, Myung-Chul; Song, Yong-Joong; Park, Se-Hyun; Kim, Seok-Ki; Chung, Dae-Chul; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort. Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently. To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio (LR) less than 0.2 was set to be a cutoff. Results: Among the training cohort, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and a high serum squamous cancer cell (SCC) antigen level were significant risk factors (p = 0.015 and 0.025, respectively). Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: (1) FIGO Stage IIB or less and (2) pretreatment SCC < 2.4 (Model A). Positive pelvic node on PET completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and thus was considered as another prediction model (Model B). In the test cohort, although Model A did not showed diagnostic performance, Model B completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and showed a sensitivity of 100% with negative LR of 0. Across the training and test cohort (n = 116), the false negative rate was 0 (95% confidence interval 0%-7.6%). Conclusions: Positive pelvic node on PET is a useful marker in prediction of distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

  16. Convergent and divergent patterns of morphological differentiation provide more evidence for reproductive character displacement in a wood cricket Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choe Jae

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ecological character displacement, traits involved in reproductive isolation may not evolve in arbitrary directions when changes in these traits are by-products of adaptation to an ecological niche. In reproductive character displacement, however, selection acts directly on reproductive characters to enhance the degree of reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. Thus, the direction of change in reproductive characters may be arbitrary in relation to changes in other morphological characters. We characterized both tegminal characters and characters indicative of body size in sympatric and allopatric populations of Gryllus fultoni, a species displaying character displacement in its calling song characters in areas of sympatry with G. vernalis populations, to infer the nature and direction of selection acting on reproductive and morphological characters in sympatry. Results Except for mirror area, the number of teeth in a file, and ovipositor length of G. fultoni, all male and female morphological characters in G. fultoni and G. vernalis exhibited a uniform tendency to decrease in size with increasing latitude. There was no significant variation in female morphological characters between sympatric and allopatric G. fultoni populations. However, males of sympatric and allopatric G. fultoni populations significantly differed in head width, hind femur length, and mirror area even after controlling for clinal factors. Head width and hind femur length of G. fultoni were more similar to those of G. vernalis in sympatric populations than in allopatric populations, resulting in morphological convergence of G. fultoni and G. vernalis in sympatry. However, the mirror area of G. fultoni displayed the divergent pattern in relation to the sympatric G. vernalis populations. Conclusion Divergence-enhancing selection may be acting on mirror area as well as calling song characters, whereas local adaptation or clinal effects may

  17. Ixodes ricinus defensins attack distantly-related pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonk, M.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Estrada--Pena, A.; Vilcinskas, A.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Rahnamaeian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2015), s. 358-365 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antimicrobial peptide * Defensin * Ixodes ricinus * Listeria monocytogenes * Staphylococcus aureus * Staphylococcus epidermidis * Escherichia coli * Pseudomonas aeruginosa * Fusarium spp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.620, year: 2015

  18. Distant and Regional Atmospheric Circulation Influences Governing Integrated Water Vapor Transport and the Occurrence of Extreme Precipitation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosart, L. F.; Papin, P. P.; Bentley, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will show how the evolution of the large-scale and regional-scale atmospheric circulation contributes to the occurrence of extreme precipitation events (EPEs). An EPE requires that tropospheric moisture flux convergence (MFC) and the associated removal of hydrometeors be balanced by moisture replenishment via integrated (water) vapor transport (IVT) to continuously replenish condensed moisture. Moisture source regions may be distant or regional. Distant moisture sources may require the interaction of lower- and upper-level jet streams with a pre-existing mobile atmospheric disturbance to produce sufficient lift to condense moisture. Pre-existing regional moisture sources may require frontal lifting the presence of MFC to condense moisture. In cases of long-range IVT, such as moisture from a western North Pacific typhoon being drawn poleward along an atmospheric river (AR) toward the west coast of North America, moisture may be transported 1000s of kilometers along a low-level jet before a combination of dynamic and orographic lift results in an EPE. Alternatively, in the case of a typical summer warm and humid air mass over the continental United States, unused moisture may exist for several days in this air mass before sufficient MFC associated with a thermally direct mesoscale frontal circulation can concentrate and condense the moisture. In this case, there may be no long-range IVT via ARs. Instead, the atmospheric circulations may evolve to produce sustained MFC associated with mesoscale frontal circulations, especially in the presence of complex terrain, to produce an EPE. During this presentation, examples of EPEs associated with long-range IVT and distant MFC versus EPEs associated with regional MFC and mesoscale frontal circulations will be illustrated.

  19. Oxidative stress may be involved in distant organ failure in tourniquet shock model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikata, Rie; Kato, Naho; Hiraiwa, Kouichi

    2014-03-01

    Crush syndrome is characterized by prolonged shock resulting from extensive muscle damage and multiple organ failure. However, the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure has not yet been completely elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the molecular biological and histopathological aspects of distant organ injury in crush syndrome by using tourniquet shock model mice. DNA microarray analysis of the soleus muscle showed an increase in the mRNA levels of Cox-2, Hsp70, c-fos, and IL-6, at 3h after ischemia/reperfusion injury at the lower extremity. In vivo staining with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) showed edema and degeneration in the soleus muscle, but no change in the distant organs. Immunohistological staining of the HSP70 protein revealed nuclear translocation in the soleus muscle, kidney, liver, and lung. The c-fos mRNA levels were elevated in the soleus muscle, kidney, and liver, displaying nuclear translocation of c-FOS protein. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) analysis suggested the involvement of apoptosis in ischemia/reperfusion injury in the soleus muscle. Apoptotic cells were not found in greater quantities in the kidney. Oxidative stress, as determined using a free radical elective evaluator (d-ROM test), markedly increased after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, examination of immunohistological changes and determination of oxidative stress are proposed to be useful in evaluating the extent of tourniquet shock, even before changes are observed by HE staining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of relatives on the efficiency and error rate of familial searching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori V Rohlfs

    Full Text Available We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011, for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability (80~99% of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a 3~18% probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative, there is a substantial risk of falsely identifying a more distant Y-haplotype sharing relative in the database as a first-degree relative, with the consequence that their immediate family may become the target for further investigation. This risk falls disproportionately on those ethnic groups that are currently overrepresented in state and federal databases.

  1. Distant metastases and synchronous second primary tumors in patients with newly diagnosed oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas: evaluation of 18F-FDG PET and extended-field multi-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Shu-Hang; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Chin, Shu-Chyn; Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, Chin-Yu.; Wang, Hung-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have a high risk of having distant metastases or second primary tumors. We prospectively evaluate the clinical usefulness of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET), extended-field multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), and their side-by-side visual correlation for the detection of distant malignancies in these two tumors at presentation. A total of 160 patients with SCC of the oropharynx (n = 74) or hypopharynx (n=86) underwent 18 F-FDG PET and extended-field MDCT to detect distant metastases or second primary tumors. Suspected lesions were investigated by means of biopsy, clinical, or imaging follow-up. Twenty-six (16.3%) of our 160 patients were found to have distant malignancy. Diagnostic yields of 18 F-FDG PET and MDCT were 12.5% and 8.1%, respectively. The sensitivity of 18 F-FDG PET for detection of distant malignancies was 1.5-fold higher than that of MDCT (76.9% vs. 50.0%, P=0.039), while its specificity was slightly lower (94.0% vs. 97.8%, P=0.125). Side-by-side visual correlation of MDCT and 18 F-FDG PET improved the sensitivity and specificity up to 80.8% and 98.5%, respectively, leading to alteration of treatment in 13.1% of patients. A significant difference in survival rates between its positive and negative results was observed. 18 F-FDG PET and extended-field MDCT had acceptable diagnostic yields for detection of distant malignancies in untreated oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal SCC. 18 F-FDG PET was 1.5-fold more sensitive than MDCT, but had more false-positive findings. Their visual correlation improved the diagnostic accuracy, treatment planning, and prognosis prediction. (orig.)

  2. Breast Carcinoma with Oncotype DX Recurrence Score Lower Than 18: Rate of Distant Metastases in a Large Series with Clinical Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hannah Y; Krystel-Whittemore, Melissa; Patil, Sujata; Pareja, Fresia; Bowser, Zenica L; Dickler, Maura N.; Norton, Larry; Morrow, Monica; Hudis, Clifford A.; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds A 21-gene expression assay (Oncotype DX™ Recurrence Score (“RS”)) that utilizes RT-PCR is used clinically in early-stage estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast carcinoma (ER+/HER2− BC) to determine both prognosis with tamoxifen therapy and the utility of adding adjuvant chemotherapy. Use of the assay is associated with reductions in overall chemotherapy usage. This study examined the treatments and outcomes in patients with low recurrence scores. Methods We reviewed the institutional database to identify patients with node-negative, ER+/HER2− BC and the 21-gene recurrence score results treated at our center between September 2008 and August 2013. Results We identified 1406 consecutive patients with node-negative ER+/HER2− BC and low RS [RS 0–10: n=510; RS 11–17: n=896]. The median age at BC diagnosis was 56 years; 63 (4%) patients were younger than 40 years. Overall, 1361 (97%) of patients received endocrine therapy and 170 (12%) received chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 46 months. Six patients (0.4%) developed distant metastases (one patient with RS = 5, and five with RS of 11–17). In the RS 11–17 cohort, the absolute rate of distant metastasis among patients <40 years old was 7.1% (3/42), versus 0.2% (2/854) among patients ≥40 years. Conclusions Our data document a 0.4% rate of distant metastasis within 5 years of BC diagnosis among patients with node-negative ER+/HER2− BC of RS<18. Patients younger than 40 years at BC diagnosis were observed to have a higher rate of distant metastases. Analysis of data from other studies is necessary to further validate this observation. PMID:27526056

  3. New Horizons High-Phase Observations of Distant Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbiscer, A.; Porter, S.; Spencer, J. R.; Buie, M. W.; Benecchi, S.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Buratti, B. J.; Ennico Smith, K.; Olkin, C.; Stern, S. A.; Young, L. A.; Cheng, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    From its unique vantage point far from the Sun, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft has observed Kuiper Belt Objects at separations ranging from 0.1 to 70 AU, and at solar phase angles far larger than those attainable from Earth. We have constructed the first KBO solar phase curves with substantial phase angle coverage for targets including Haumea, Makemake, Quaoar, Arawn (Porter et al. 2016, Astrophys. J. Lett. 828, L15), and 2002 MS4. We compare the phase functions of these KBOs with those of objects in the Pluto system and other Solar System bodies such as comets, asteroids, and icy satellites. For KBOs with known geometric albedos, these measurements enable calculation of the phase integral, an important photometric property that characterizes the energy balance on a distant KBO surface. During its approach to 2014 MU69, and following its close encounter on 1 January 2019, New Horizons will continue to exploit its capabilities as NASA's only observatory within the Kuiper Belt itself.

  4. Interactive tele-education applied to a distant clinical microbiology specialization university course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazzi, Denise B; Rossi, Flávia; Wen, Chao L

    2011-09-01

    The microbiology laboratory provides a strategic support for infectious disease diagnosis and also alerts the medical community about bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The microbiologists' training is a challenge in Brazil, a country with an extensive territory, a diverse population, and disparity of resource allocation. The aim of this study was to implement an interactive tele-educational course in clinical microbiology to reach distant laboratory workers and to improve their professional skills. The course scientific content was defined according to competences associated, distributed in 560 h, with laboratory practices (knowledge matrix-contextual education). The 11-module course structure comprised 70% distance learning, 22% on campus (integrated modules), and 8% monographs. The group included 7 physicians and 21 microbiologists from 20 different Brazilian cities. The time flexibility and location were the two main reasons for student participation, thus decreasing absences to the workplace, different from the traditional teaching methodologies. The group performance was measured by monthly evaluations, and 1 year postcourse, the researcher visited their workplace. There was significant improvement in microbiological practices performed before compared with after group participation. Therefore, 76.9% of laboratory practices were modified because of the knowledge acquired in the course. Students showed behavioral changes in relation to performance in infection control as well as on the dissemination of their knowledge. This specialization course using distance education did not compromise the quality. This educational methodology represents an alternative to teach clinical microbiology to laboratory workers from remote hospitals, as a nationwide continuing educational strategy.

  5. Combined staging at one stop using MR mammography. Evaluation of an extended protocol to screen for distant metastasis in primary breast cancer. Initial results and diagnostic accuracy in a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietzel, M.; Zoubi, R.; Burmeister, H.P.; Kaiser, W.A.; Baltzer, P.A.T. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Runnebaum, I.B. [University Hospital Jena (Germany). Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Accurate staging of primary breast cancer is essential for the therapeutic approach. Modern whole-body MR scanners would allow local and distant staging during a single examination. Accordingly, we designed a dedicated protocol for this purpose and prospectively evaluated the diagnostic accuracy. Materials and Methods: 65 consecutive breast cancer patients underwent pre-therapeutic MRI (1.5 T). A bilateral breast protocol (axial: T1w/GRE dynamic contrast-enhanced, T2w/TSE; TA: 10 min) was extended to screen for distant metastasis at one stop without repositioning (coronal: T2w/HASTE, T1w/VIBE; FOV: thorax, abdomen and spine; TA: 90 sec; multichannel surface coils). The standard of reference was S3 guideline-compliant staging examinations. Global assessment regarding the presence of distant metastasis was performed independently by two experienced and blinded radiologists (five-level confidence score). Inter-rater agreement (weighted kappa) and observer scoring were analyzed (contingency tables). Results: The prevalence of synchronous metastases was 7.7 % (n = 5). The protocol enabled global assessment regarding the presence of distant metastasis with high accuracy (sensitivity: 100 %; specificity: 98.3 %) and inter-rater agreement (kappa: 0.92). Conclusion: Applying the extended MRI protocol, accurate screening for distant metastasis was possible in combination with a dedicated breast examination. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of the breeding biology of sympatric red-tailed Hawks, White-tailed Hawks, and Crested Caracaras in south Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actkinson, M.A.; Kuvlesky, W.P.; Boal, C.W.; Brennan, L.A.; Hernandez, F.

    2009-01-01

    We compared the breeding biology of sympatric nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), White-tailed Hawks (Buteo albicaudatus), and Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway) in south Texas during 2003 and 2004. We monitored 46 breeding attempts by Red-tailed Hawks, 56 by White-tailed Hawks, and 27 by Crested Caracaras. Observed nesting success was similar for Red-tailed Hawks (62%) and Crested Caracaras (61%), but lower for White-tailed Hawks (51%). Daily survival rates (0.99) were the same for all three species. Red-tailed Hawks and White-tailed Hawks both fledged 1.13 young per nesting pair and Crested Caracaras fledged 1.39 young per nesting pair. All three species nested earlier in 2004 than in 2003; in addition, the overall nesting density of these three species almost doubled from 2003 (1.45 pairs/km2) to 2004 (2.71 pairs/km2). Estimated productivity of all three species was within the ranges reported from other studies. Given extensive and progressive habitat alteration in some areas of south Texas, and the limited distributions of White-tailed Hawks and Crested Caracaras, the presence of large ranches managed for free-range cattle production and hunting leases likely provides important habitat and may be key areas for conservation of these two species. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  7. An Infectious Disease and Mortality Survey in a Population of Free-Ranging African Wild Dogs and Sympatric Domestic Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flacke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease can cause declines in wildlife populations and significantly threaten their survival. Recent expansion of human and domestic animal populations has made wildlife more susceptible to transmission of pathogens from domestic animal hosts. We conducted a pathogen surveillance and mortality survey for the population of African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa, from January 2006–February 2007. Samples were obtained from 24 wild dogs for canine distemper virus (CDV and canine parvovirus (CPV serological testing. Data were collected on the presence of CDV, CPV, and rabies virus in the KZN domestic dog (Canis familiaris population from 2004–06. The presence of these pathogens was confirmed in domestic dogs throughout KZN. Wild dogs exhibited 0% and 4.2% prevalence for CDV and CPV antibodies, respectively. In 2006 the largest wild dog pack in KZN was reduced from 26 individuals to a single animal; disease due to rabies virus was considered the most probable cause. This study provides evidence that CDV, CPV and rabies are potential threats to African wild dog conservation in KZN. The most economical and practical way to protect wild dogs from canine pathogens may be via vaccination of sympatric domestic dogs; however, such programmes are currently limited.

  8. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Cunha-Barros, M; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A f; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-06-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts' bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100%) prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets) and ecology (especially microhabitat use).

  9. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha C.F.D.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hosts’ bodies for each Tropidurus species. All four species of Tropidurus at Morro do Chapéu were parasited by the chigger mite, with high (97-100% prevalences. Host body size significantly explained the intensity of mite infestation for all species, except T. erythrocephalus. The body regions with highest intensity of infestation in the four lizard species were the mite pockets. The spacial niche width of the chigger varied consistently among the four lizards species studied being highest for T. erytrocephalus and lowest for T. cocorobensis. We conclude that the distribution and intensity with which lizards of the genus Tropidurus are infested by Eutrombicula alfreddugesi larvae results from the interaction between aspects of host morphology (such as body size and the occurrence and distribution of mite pockets and ecology (especially microhabitat use.

  10. Foragers of sympatric Asian honey bee species intercept competitor signals by avoiding benzyl acetate from Apis cerana alarm pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ping; Cheng, Yanan; Qu, Yufeng; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Jianjun; Bell, Heather; Tan, Ken; Nieh, James

    2017-07-27

    While foraging, animals can form inter- and intraspecific social signalling networks to avoid similar predators. We report here that foragers of different native Asian honey bee species can detect and use a specialized alarm pheromone component, benzyl acetate (BA), to avoid danger. We analysed the volatile alarm pheromone produced by attacked workers of the most abundant native Asian honey bee, Apis cerana and tested the responses of other bee species to these alarm signals. As compared to nest guards, A. cerana foragers produced 3.38 fold higher levels of BA. In foragers, BA and (E)-dec-2-en-1-yl acetate (DA) generated the strongest antennal electrophysiological responses. BA was also the only compound that alerted flying foragers and inhibited A. cerana foraging. BA thereby decreased A. cerana foraging for risky sites. Interestingly, although BA occurs only in trace amounts and is nearly absent in sympatric honeybee species (respectively only 0.07% and 0.44% as much in A. dorsata and A. florea), these floral generalists detected and avoided BA as strongly as they did to their own alarm pheromone on natural inflorescences. These results demonstrate that competing pollinators can take advantage of alarm signal information provided by other species.

  11. Detection of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced breast cancer: role of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and conventional imaging with computed tomography scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Cunha, Rodrigo Rodrigues da; Conrado, Jorge Luis Fonseca de Acioli; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Barbosa, Paula Nicole Vieira Pinto; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: rodrigo.rcunha@hotmail.com [A. C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hospital Beneficincia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and conventional imaging tests for the detection of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Materials and Methods: We included 81 patients with breast cancer who had undergone {sup 18}-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT before treatment. Conventional imaging included the following: bone scintigraphy; chest X-ray (in 14.5%) or CT (in 85.5%); and abdominal ultrasound (in 10.8%), CT (in 87.8%), or magnetic resonance imaging (in 1.4%). Histopathology and clinical/imaging follow-up served as reference. Results: Distant metastases were observed in nine patients (11.1%). On patient-based analysis, conventional imaging identified distant metastases in all 9 patients. In one patient, the initial {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT failed to demonstrate bone metastases that was evident on bone scintigraphy. In two patients, the CT scan failed to show extra-axillary lymph node metastases that were identified on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. There was no significant difference between {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and conventional imaging in terms of their sensitivity for the detection of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Conclusion: This study showed that {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and conventional imaging with CT scans had similar sensitivity for the diagnosis of distant metastases in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can add information about extra-axillary lymph node involvements. (author)

  12. Capítulo 7. Estrella distante de Roberto Bolaño: la distancia que acerca

    OpenAIRE

    Mellado, Luciana A.

    2018-01-01

    Narrar el horror. La experiencia y el relato desmembrados La novela Estrella distante (1996) del escritor chileno Roberto Bolaño muestra cómo la experiencia del horror provoca una crisis de comunicabilidad que repercute en la organización discursiva de la violencia social. Los principios constructivos del texto permiten visibilizar, en el plano formal rasgos del contexto político y social representado narrativamente, del mundo histórico al que el narrador se acerca por los bordes e interstici...

  13. The opacity of spiral galaxy disks. IV. Radial extinction profiles from counts of distant galaxies seen through foreground disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, BW; Gonzalez, RA; Allen, RJ; van der Kruit, PC

    Dust extinction can be determined from the number of distant field galaxies seen through a spiral disk. To calibrate this number for the crowding and confusion introduced by the foreground image, Gonzalez et al. and Holwerda et al. developed the Synthetic Field Method (SFM), which analyzes synthetic

  14. Wet periods in northeastern Brazil over the past 210 kyr linked to distant climate anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Auler, Augusto S; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Cristalli, Patricia S; Smart, Peter L; Richards, David A; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2004-12-09

    The tropics are the main source of the atmosphere's sensible and latent heat, and water vapour, and are therefore important for reconstructions of past climate. But long, accurately dated records of southern tropical palaeoclimate, which would allow the establishment of climatic connections to distant regions, have not been available. Here we present a 210,000-year (210-kyr) record of wet periods in tropical northeastern Brazil--a region that is currently semi-arid. The record is obtained from speleothems and travertine deposits that are accurately dated using the U/Th method. We find wet periods that are synchronous with periods of weak East Asian summer monsoons, cold periods in Greenland, Heinrich events in the North Atlantic and periods of decreased river runoff to the Cariaco basin. We infer that the wet periods may be explained with a southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. This widespread synchroneity of climate anomalies suggests a relatively rapid global reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere system. We conclude that the wet periods probably affected rainforest distribution, as plant fossils show that forest expansion occurred during these intermittent wet intervals, and opened a forest corridor between the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests.

  15. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    galaxies as they were 5,000 million years ago. Knowing the intensity of the X-ray emission as measured by ROSAT and also the distance, the astronomers were then able to estimate the total X-ray energy emitted by this cluster. It was found to be extremely high [3], in fact higher than that of any other cluster ever observed by ROSAT. It amounts to no less than 1.5 million million times the total energy emitted by the Sun. It is believed that this strong X-ray emission originates in a hot gas located between the galaxies in the cluster. The high temperature indicates that the components of the gas move very rapidly; this is related to the strong gravitational field within the cluster. THE GRAVITATIONAL ARCS To their great surprise and delight, the astronomers also discovered two bright arcs, 5 - 6 arcseconds long and symmetrically placed about 35 arcseconds to the North-East and South-West of the brightest galaxies in the cluster (see the photo). They were detected on exposures of only 3 minutes duration with the 2.2-metre telescope and are among the brightest such arcs ever found. At the indicated distance, the arcs are situated at a projected distance of about 500,000 light-years from the centre of the cluster. It is an interesting possibility that the two arcs may in fact be two images of the same, very distant galaxy, that is situated far beyond RXJ1347.5-1145 and whose light has been bent and split by this cluster's strong gravitational field. This strange phenomenon was first discovered in the late 1970's and is referred to as gravitational lensing. Quite a few examples are now known, in most cases in the form of double or multiple images of quasars. About three dozen cases involve well visible galaxy clusters and elongated arcs, but few, if any, of these arcs are as bright as those seen in the present cluster. This particular arc configuration enables a very accurate determination of the total mass of the cluster, once the distance of the background galaxy has been

  16. Genetic divergence between two sympatric species of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in the paralytic gene, a locus associated with insecticide resistance and lovesong production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RMMA Lins

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is the main vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. L. longipalpis s.l. is a species complex but until recently the existence of cryptic sibling species among Brazilian populations was a controversial issue. A fragment of paralytic (para, a voltage dependent sodium channel gene associated with insecticide resistance and courtship song production in Drosophila, was isolated and used as a molecular marker to study the divergence between two sympatric siblings of the L. longipalpis complex from Sobral, Brazil. The results revealed para as the first single locus DNA marker presenting fixed differences between the two species in this locality. In addition, two low frequency amino-acid changes in an otherwise very conserved region of the channel were observed, raising the possibility that it might be associated with incipient resistance in this vector. To the best of our knowledge, the present study represents the first population genetics analysis of insecticide resistance genes in this important leishmaniasis vector.

  17. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The Pattern of Failure Is Distant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam; Drzymala, Robert E.; Trovo, Marco; Jones, Griffin; Denning, Mary Dee

    2010-01-01

    Background: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) represents a substantial paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with medically inoperable Stage I/II non-small-cell lung cancer. We reviewed our experience using either three- or five-fraction SBRT for peripheral or central tumors, respectively. Methods and Materials: A total of 91 patients signed an institutional review board-approved consent form, were treated with SBRT, and have had ≥6 months of follow-up. Patients were referred for SBRT because of underlying comorbidities (poor performance status in 31 or poor lung function in 52) or refusal of surgery (8 patients). Of the cancers, 83 were peripheral and eight were central. Peripheral cancers received a mean dose of 18 Gy x three fractions. Cancers within 2 cm of the bronchus, esophagus, or brachial plexus were treated with 9 Gy x five fractions. Results: The median follow-up duration for these patients was 18 months (range, 6-42 months). TNM staging was as follows: 58 patients with T1N0M0, 22 with T2N0M0, 2 with T3N0M0 (chest wall), and 6 with T1N0M1 cancers. The median tumor diameter was 2 cm (range, 1-5 cm). The median forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 46% (range, 17-133%) and the median carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO) was 49% (range, 15-144%). Two-year local tumor control was achieved in 86% of patients. The predominant pattern of failure was the development of distant metastasis or second lung cancer. The development of distant metastasis was the only significant prognostic factor for overall survival on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Local tumor control was shown to be high using SBRT for non-small-cell lung cancer. Overall survival is highly coerrelated with the development of distant metastasis.

  18. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål, Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Latif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra, were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis.

  19. How could sympatric megaherbivores coexist? Example of niche partitioning within a proboscidean community from the Miocene of Europe

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    Calandra, Ivan; Göhlich, Ursula B.; Merceron, Gildas

    2008-09-01

    Although low in diversity, megaherbivores (mammals weighting over 103 kg) and especially proboscideans have a powerful impact on the structure and dynamics of present-day ecosystems. During the Neogene (23 to 2.6 Ma) of Europe, the diversity and geographic distribution of these megaherbivores was much greater. Nonetheless, their role in past ecosystems is unclear. Nutrition is one of the main bonds between organisms and their environment. Therefore, the ecology of organisms can be inferred from their dietary habits. The present study is aimed at characterizing the feeding habits of diverse megaherbivores through dental microwear analyses. This method was applied on cheek teeth of three sympatric species of proboscideans from the middle/late Miocene of the Molasse Basin in Southern Germany: Gomphotherium subtapiroideum, Gomphotherium steinheimense, and Deinotherium giganteum. The microwear signatures are significantly different between these taxa, suggesting differences in feeding habits and ecological niches within a woodland environment. D. giganteum probably browsed on dicotyledonous foliages whereas the two species of gomphotheres were neither strict grazers nor strict browsers and instead probably fed on a large spectrum of vegetal resources. The differences of occlusal molar morphology between the two gomphotheres are supported by the dental microwear pattern. Indeed, G. subtapiroideum probably ingested more abrasive material than G. steinheimense. Thus, our results suggest that these proboscideans did not compete for food resources.

  20. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, M. A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Mazid, M. S.; Ali, M. E.; Ahmed, F.; Omar, M. Y.; Tan, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP) combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra), were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis. PMID:22593700

  1. Contrasting patterns of genetic divergence in two sympatric pseudo-metallophytes: Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L.

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    Ye M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of genetic divergence between populations of facultative metallophytes have been investigated extensively. However, most previous investigations have focused on a single plant species making it unclear if genetic divergence shows common patterns or, conversely, is species-specific. The herbs Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L. are two pseudo-metallophytes thriving in both normal and cupriferous soils along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Their non-metallicolous and metallicolous populations are often sympatric thus providing an ideal opportunity for comparative estimation of genetic structures and divergence under the selective pressure derived from copper toxicity. Results In the present study, patterns of genetic divergence of R. acetosa and C. communis , including metal tolerance, genetic structure and genetic relationships between populations, were investigated and compared using hydroponic experiments, AFLP, ISSR and chloroplast genetic markers. Our results show a significant reduction in genetic diversity in metallicolous populations of C. communis but not in R. acetosa . Moreover, genetic differentiation is less in R. acetosa than in C. communis , the latter species also shows a clustering of its metallicolous populations. Conclusions We propose that the genetic divergences apparent in R. acetosa and C. communis , and the contrasting responses of the two species to copper contamination, might be attributed to the differences in their intrinsic physiological and ecological properties. No simple and generalised conclusions on genetic divergence in pseudo-metallophytes can thus be drawn.

  2. Timing of births in sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus).

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    Strier, K B; Mendes, S L; Santos, R R

    2001-10-01

    We monitored the birth patterns of sympatric brown howler monkeys (Alouatta fusca clamitans) and northern muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides hypoxanthus) during a 4-yr period from October 1996 to August 2000 at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Brown howler monkey births (n = 34) occurred throughout the year, and birth frequencies did not differ between rainy and dry season months. The aseasonal birth patterns of the howler monkeys differed significantly from the dry season concentration and dry month peak in muriqui births (n = 23). We found no effects of infant sex or the number of females on interbirth intervals (IBIs) in our 10 howler monkey study troops. IBIs of brown howler monkeys averaged 21.2 +/- 2.5 mo (n = 8, median = 21.0 mo), and were significantly shorter following dry season births than rainy season births. Their IBIs and yearling survivorship (74%) were similar to those reported for other species of howler monkeys, but yearling survivorship was much lower than that of muriquis (94%), whose IBIs were more than 12 mo longer than those of the howler monkeys. Our study extends comparative knowledge of birth patterns in Alouatta to a poorly known species, and provides insights into the different ways in which diet and life history may affect the timing of births in large-bodied platyrrhines under the same seasonal ecological conditions. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Overexpression of the LH receptor increases distant metastases in an endometrial cancer mouse model

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    Serena ePillozzi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the present study was to define the role of luteinizing hormone receptor (LH-R expression in endometrial cancer (EC, using preclinical mouse models, to further transfer these data to the clinical setting. Methods. The role of LH-R over-expression was studied using EC cells (Hec1A, e.g. cells with low endogenous LH-R expression transfected with the LH-R (Hec1A-LH-R. In vitro cell proliferation was measured through the WST1 assay, whereas cell invasion was measured trough the matrigel assay. The effects of LH/hCG-R overexpresion in vivo were analyzed in an appropriately developed preclinical mouse model of EC, which mimicked postmenopausal conditions. The model consisted in an orthotopic xenograft of Hec1A cells into immunodeficient mice treated daily with recombinant LH, to assure high levels of LH. Results. In vitro data indicated that LH-R overexpression increased Hec1A invasiveness. In vivo results showed that tumors arising from Hec1A-LH-R cells injection displayed a higher local invasion and a higher number of distant metastases, mainly in the lung, compared to tumors obtained from the injection of Hec1A cells. LH withdrawl strongly inhibited local and distant metastatic spread of tumors, especially those arising from Hec1A-LH-R cells. Conclusions. The overexpression of the LH-R increases the ability of EC cells to undergo local invasion and metastatic spread. This occurs in the presence of high LH serum concentrations.

  4. OSSOS. V. Diffusion in the Orbit of a High-perihelion Distant Solar System Object

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    Bannister, Michele T.; Shankman, Cory; Volk, Kathryn; Chen, Ying-Tung; Kaib, Nathan; Gladman, Brett J.; Jakubik, Marian; Kavelaars, J. J.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Alexandersen, Mike; Pike, Rosemary E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of the minor planet 2013 SY99 on an exceptionally distant, highly eccentric orbit. With a perihelion of 50.0 au, 2013 SY99’s orbit has a semimajor axis of 730 ± 40 au, the largest known for a high-perihelion trans-Neptunian object (TNO), and well beyond those of (90377) Sedna and 2012 VP113. Yet, with an aphelion of 1420 ± 90 au, 2013 SY99’s orbit is interior to the region influenced by Galactic tides. Such TNOs are not thought to be produced in the current known planetary architecture of the solar system, and they have informed the recent debate on the existence of a distant giant planet. Photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Gemini North, and Subaru indicate 2013 SY99 is ˜250 km in diameter and moderately red in color, similar to other dynamically excited TNOs. Our dynamical simulations show that Neptune’s weak influence during 2013 SY99’s perihelia encounters drives diffusion in its semimajor axis of hundreds of astronomical units over 4 Gyr. The overall symmetry of random walks in the semimajor axis allows diffusion to populate 2013 SY99’s orbital parameter space from the 1000 to 2000 au inner fringe of the Oort cloud. Diffusion affects other known TNOs on orbits with perihelia of 45 to 49 au and semimajor axes beyond 250 au. This provides a formation mechanism that implies an extended population, gently cycling into and returning from the inner fringe of the Oort cloud.

  5. Four new species of the genus Mongoliana Distant (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Wang, Yinglun; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-01-05

    Four new species in the planthopper genus Mongoliana Distant from southern China (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) are reported. Three of them, M. bistriata sp. nov., M. latistriata sp. nov. and M. albimaculata sp. nov., are described and illustrated; the fourth new one, M. arcuata sp. nov., is briefly described for M. triangularis Chen, Zhang & Chang which was a misidentification of M. triangularis Che, Wang & Chou. M. recurrens (Butler, 1875) is re-described and remarks for its current status is given. A key to all known species of Mongoliana is provided. The distribution and morphological peculiarities of the genus are briefly discussed.

  6. Influence of life history strategies on sensitivity, population growth and response to climate for sympatric alpine birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Scott

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The life history strategy of a species can influence how populations of that species respond to environmental variation. In this study, we used a matrix modeling approach to examine how life history differences among sympatric rock and white-tailed ptarmigan affect the influence of demographic rates on population growth (λ and the potential response to a changing climate. Rock ptarmigan have a slower life history strategy than white-tailed ptarmigan in the study region with lower annual reproductive effort but higher adult survival. Results Ba