WorldWideScience

Sample records for distance based fares

  1. Evaluating the Impacts of Bus Fare on Social Equity Based on IC Card Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowu Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bus fare equity has attracted significant attention in China in the past few years. Compared with developed countries, China’s intelligent transportation systems are in their infancy, with immature bus fare policies being used in many public transit systems. The methods used for evaluating public transit fare equity in developed countries compare different fare policies based on rich data and cannot be directly applied in developing countries like China. In this paper, we present a method that uses IC card data, bus-mounted GPS data, and relevant statistical yearbook data to evaluate the equity of flat bus fare. The method ranks the factors that influence the impacts of bus fare on social equity for different passenger groups and indicates that trip distance and passenger boarding time are the two primary factors for bus fare equity from a resource allocation perspective. Finally, we present a case study that evaluates the flat fare policy for route 204 in Suzhou using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible.

  2. Ticket Fare Optimization for China’s High-Speed Railway Based on Passenger Choice Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzi Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although China’s high-speed railway (HSR is maturing after more than ten years of construction and development, the load factor and revenue of HSR could still be improved by optimizing the ticket fare structure. Different from the present unitary and changeless fare structure, this paper explores the application of multigrade fares to China’s HSR. On the premise that only one fare grade can be offered for each origin-destination (O-D at the same time, this paper addresses the questions of how to adjust ticket price over time to maximize the revenue. First, on the basis of piecewise pricing strategy, a ticket fare optimization model is built, which could be transformed to convex program to be solved. Then, based on the analysis of passenger arrival regularity using historical ticket data of Beijing-Shanghai HSR line, several experiments are performed using the method proposed in the paper to explore the properties of the optimal multigrade fare scheme.

  3. How has problem based learning fared in Pakistan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Waqas; Hyder, Omar

    2012-10-01

    To conduct a systematic review of primary research in undergraduate medical education in Pakistan in order to evaluate PBL programs, examine outcomes and competencies influenced by PBL, and compare them with conventional learning (lecture based learning, LBL). Qualitative content analysis. Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi, from June 2010 - February 2011. Literature was searched using online resources. Studies evaluating outcomes influenced by PBL, or comparing PBL with lecture based learning (LBL) were selected. Due to heterogeneity, a qualitative content analysis was performed in which studies were classified according to the methods of assessment; results were then summarized by outcome and frequencies were calculated. Eleven studies were included. Apart from knowledge acquisition, students gave high ratings to PBL in selected outcomes, alone, and in comparison with LBL. There was a disagreement among results of studies that evaluated knowledge acquisition alone. Based on student perceptions, PBL has many advantages. However, the results of this review are limited due to heterogeneity and methodological weakness of studies, specially the studies that compared exam scores to assess knowledge acquisition.

  4. Optimizing a desirable fare structure for a bus-subway corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Zheng; Ge, Ying-En; Cao, Kai; Jiang, Xi; Meng, Lingyun; Liu, Ding; Gao, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel distance and comfort level. The travel distance factor is represented by the distance-based fare strategy, which is an existing differential strategy. The comfort level one is considered in the area-based fare strategy which is a new differential strategy defined in this paper. Both factors are referred to by the combined fare strategy which is composed of distance-based and area-based fare strategies. The flat fare strategy is applied to determine a reference level of social welfare and obtain the general passenger flow along transit lines, which is used to divide areas or zones along the corridor. This problem is formulated as a bi-level program, of which the upper level maximizes the social welfare and the lower level capturing traveler choice behavior is a variable-demand stochastic user equilibrium assignment model. A genetic algorithm is applied to solve the bi-level program while the method of successive averages is adopted to solve the lower-level model. A series of numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the performance of the models and solution methods. Numerical results indicate that all three differential fare strategies play a better role in enhancing the social welfare than the flat fare strategy and that the fare structure under the combined fare strategy generates the highest social welfare and the largest resulting passenger demand, which implies that the more equity factors a differential fare strategy involves the more desirable fare structure the strategy has.

  5. Optimizing a desirable fare structure for a bus-subway corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Zheng; Ge, Ying-En; Cao, Kai; Jiang, Xi; Meng, Lingyun; Liu, Ding; Gao, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel distance and comfort level. The travel distance factor is represented by the distance-based fare strategy, which is an existing differential strategy. The comfort level one is considered in the area-based fare strategy which is a new differential strategy defined in this paper. Both factors are referred to by the combined fare strategy which is composed of distance-based and area-based fare strategies. The flat fare strategy is applied to determine a reference level of social welfare and obtain the general passenger flow along transit lines, which is used to divide areas or zones along the corridor. This problem is formulated as a bi-level program, of which the upper level maximizes the social welfare and the lower level capturing traveler choice behavior is a variable-demand stochastic user equilibrium assignment model. A genetic algorithm is applied to solve the bi-level program while the method of successive averages is adopted to solve the lower-level model. A series of numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the performance of the models and solution methods. Numerical results indicate that all three differential fare strategies play a better role in enhancing the social welfare than the flat fare strategy and that the fare structure under the combined fare strategy generates the highest social welfare and the largest resulting passenger demand, which implies that the more equity factors a differential fare strategy involves the more desirable fare structure the strategy has. PMID:28981508

  6. Directional output distance functions: endogenous directions based on exogenous normalization constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we develop a model for computing directional output distance functions with endogenously determined direction vectors. We show how this model is related to the slacks-based directional distance function introduced by Fare and Grosskopf and show how to use the slacks-based function to e...

  7. 80537 based distance relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen

    1999-01-01

    A method for implementing a digital distance relay in the power system is described.Instructions are given on how to program this relay on a 80537 based microcomputer system.The problem is used as a practical case study in the course 53113: Micocomputer applications in the power system.The relay...

  8. Integrated Optimization of Bus Line Fare and Operational Strategies Using Elastic Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization approach for designing a transit service system is proposed. Its objective would be the maximization of total social welfare, by providing a profitable fare structure and tailoring operational strategies to passenger demand. These operational strategies include full route operation (FRO, limited stop, short turn, and a mix of the latter two strategies. The demand function is formulated to reflect the attributes of these strategies, in-vehicle crowding, and fare effects on demand variation. The fare is either a flat fare or a differential fare structure; the latter is based on trip distance and achieved service levels. This proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Dalian, China. The optimal results indicate that an optimal combination of operational strategies integrated with a differential fare structure results in the highest potential for increasing total social welfare, if the value of parameter ε related to additional service fee is low. When this value increases up to more than a threshold, strategies with a flat fare show greater benefits. If this value increases beyond yet another threshold, the use of skipped stop strategies is not recommended.

  9. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  10. Well-faring towards Uncertain Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Martin Demant; Pedersen, Susanne Højlund; Meinert, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how societal contexts create different possibilities for faring well towards the future for young marginalized people. Based on a comparative project including ethnographies from Brazil, Uganda, Georgia and Denmark the authors discuss well-faring as a time-oriented process...... based on individual as well as societal conditions. The article argues that in order to understand well-faring it is important to analyse how visions and strategies for the future are shaped in relation to local circumstances. Whether it is possible to envision the future as hopeless or hopeful...

  11. Multi-agent fare optimization model of two modes problem and its analysis based on edge of chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-yan; Li, Xue-mei; Li, Xue-wei; Qiu, He-ting

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a new framework of fare optimization & game model for studying the competition between two travel modes (high speed railway and civil aviation) in which passengers' group behavior is taken into consideration. The small-world network is introduced to construct the multi-agent model of passengers' travel mode choice. The cumulative prospect theory is adopted to depict passengers' bounded rationality, the heterogeneity of passengers' reference point is depicted using the idea of group emotion computing. The conceptions of "Langton parameter" and "evolution entropy" in the theory of "edge of chaos" are introduced to create passengers' "decision coefficient" and "evolution entropy of travel mode choice" which are used to quantify passengers' group behavior. The numerical simulation and the analysis of passengers' behavior show that (1) the new model inherits the features of traditional model well and the idea of self-organizing traffic flow evolution fully embodies passengers' bounded rationality, (2) compared with the traditional model (logit model), when passengers are in the "edge of chaos" state, the total profit of the transportation system is higher.

  12. Domestic airlines fares consumer report. Third report : first quarter 1997 passenger and fare information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In response to an increasing number of inquires about domestic airline prices, the Department of Transportation decided to release a quarterly fare report. This is the third report and is based on data for the first quarter of 1997. For each market, ...

  13. Domestic airlines fares consumer report. Fourth report : second quarter 1997 passenger and fare information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In response to an increasing number of inquires about domestic airline prices, the Department of Transportation decided to release a quarterly fare report. This is the fourth report and is based on data for the second quarter of 1997. For each market...

  14. Distance-Based Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofeng; Lio, Pietro; Hui, Pan

    2016-06-15

    Cellular network data traffic can be offload onto opportunistic networks. This paper proposes a Distance-based Opportunistic Publish/Subscribe (DOPS) content dissemination model, which is composed of three layers: application layer, decision-making layer and network layer. When a user wants new content, he/she subscribes on a subscribing server. Users having the contents decide whether to deliver the contents to the subscriber based on the distance information. If in the meantime a content owner has traveled further in the immediate past time than the distance between the owner and the subscriber, the content owner will send the content to the subscriber through opportunistic routing. Simulations provide an evaluation of the data traffic offloading efficiency of DOPS.

  15. Distance-Based Opportunistic Mobile Data Offloading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular network data traffic can be offload onto opportunistic networks. This paper proposes a Distance-based Opportunistic Publish/Subscribe (DOPS content dissemination model, which is composed of three layers: application layer, decision-making layer and network layer. When a user wants new content, he/she subscribes on a subscribing server. Users having the contents decide whether to deliver the contents to the subscriber based on the distance information. If in the meantime a content owner has traveled further in the immediate past time than the distance between the owner and the subscriber, the content owner will send the content to the subscriber through opportunistic routing. Simulations provide an evaluation of the data traffic offloading efficiency of DOPS.

  16. Distance Ranging Based on Quantum Entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jun-Jun; Han Xiao-Chun; Zeng Gui-Hua; Fang Chen; Zhao Jian-Kang

    2013-01-01

    In the quantum metrology, applications of quantum techniques based on entanglement bring in some better performances than conventional approaches. We experimentally investigate an application of entanglement in accurate ranging based on the second-order coherence in the time domain. By a fitting algorithm in the data processing, the optimization results show a precision of ±200 μm at a distance of 1043.3m. In addition, the influence of jamming noise on the ranging scheme is studied. With some different fitting parameters, the result shows that the proposed scheme has a powerful anti-jamming capability for white noise

  17. Evaluation of Deep Discount Fare Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the success of a fare pricing strategy known as deep discounting, that entails the bulk sale of transit tickets or tokens to customers at a significant discount compared to the full fare single ticket price. This market-driven s...

  18. 14 CFR 399.37 - Joint fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint fares. 399.37 Section 399.37 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.37 Joint fares. There...

  19. Censoring distances based on labeled cortical distance maps in cortical morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Elvan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Alexopolous, Dimitrios; Todd, Richard D; Botteron, Kelly N; Miller, Michael I; Ratnanather, J Tilak

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that shape differences in cortical structures may be manifested in neuropsychiatric disorders. Such morphometric differences can be measured by labeled cortical distance mapping (LCDM) which characterizes the morphometry of the laminar cortical mantle of cortical structures. LCDM data consist of signed/labeled distances of gray matter (GM) voxels with respect to GM/white matter (WM) surface. Volumes and other summary measures for each subject and the pooled distances can help determine the morphometric differences between diagnostic groups, however they do not reveal all the morphometric information contained in LCDM distances. To extract more information from LCDM data, censoring of the pooled distances is introduced for each diagnostic group where the range of LCDM distances is partitioned at a fixed increment size; and at each censoring step, the distances not exceeding the censoring distance are kept. Censored LCDM distances inherit the advantages of the pooled distances but also provide information about the location of morphometric differences which cannot be obtained from the pooled distances. However, at each step, the censored distances aggregate, which might confound the results. The influence of data aggregation is investigated with an extensive Monte Carlo simulation analysis and it is demonstrated that this influence is negligible. As an illustrative example, GM of ventral medial prefrontal cortices (VMPFCs) of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), subjects at high risk (HR) of MDD, and healthy control (Ctrl) subjects are used. A significant reduction in laminar thickness of the VMPFC in MDD and HR subjects is observed compared to Ctrl subjects. Moreover, the GM LCDM distances (i.e., locations with respect to the GM/WM surface) for which these differences start to occur are determined. The methodology is also applicable to LCDM-based morphometric measures of other cortical structures affected by disease.

  20. Censoring Distances Based on Labeled Cortical Distance Maps in Cortical Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan eCeyhan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that shape differences are manifested in cortical structures due to neuropsychiatric disorders. Such morphometric differences can be measured by labeled cortical distance mapping (LCDM which characterizes the morphometry of the laminar cortical mantle of cortical structures. LCDM data consist of signed/labeled distances of gray matter (GM voxels with respect to GM/white matter (WM surface. Volumes and other summary measures for each subject and the pooled distances can help determine the morphometric differences between diagnostic groups, however they do not reveal all the morphometric information con-tained in LCDM distances. To extract more information from LCDM data, censoring of the pooled distances is introduced for each diagnostic group where the range of LCDM distances is partitioned at a fixed increment size; and at each censoring step, the distances not exceeding the censoring distance are kept. Censored LCDM distances inherit the advantages of the pooled distances but also provide information about the location of morphometric differences which cannot be obtained from the pooled distances. However, at each step, the censored distances aggregate, which might confound the results. The influence of data aggregation is investigated with an extensive Monte Carlo simulation analysis and it is demonstrated that this influence is negligible. As an illustrative example, GM of ventral medial prefrontal cortices (VMPFCs of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD, subjects at high risk (HR of MDD, and healthy control (Ctrl subjects are used. A significant reduction in laminar thickness of the VMPFC in MDD and HR subjects is observed compared to Ctrl subjects. Moreover, the GM LCDM distances (i.e., locations with respect to the GM/WM surface for which these differences start to occur are determined. The methodology is also applicable to LCDM-based morphometric measures of other cortical structures affected by disease.

  1. Consumer Airfare Report: Table 5 - Detailed Fare Information For Highest and Lowest Fare Markets Under 750 Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides detailed fare information for highest and lowest fare markets under 750 miles. For a more complete explanation, please read the introductory information at...

  2. Mahalanobis Distance Based Iterative Closest Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Blas, Morten Rufus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    the notion of a mahalanobis distance map upon a point set with associated covariance matrices which in addition to providing correlation weighted distance implicitly provides a method for assigning correspondence during alignment. This distance map provides an easy formulation of the ICP problem that permits...... a fast optimization. Initially, the covariance matrices are set to the identity matrix, and all shapes are aligned to a randomly selected shape (equivalent to standard ICP). From this point the algorithm iterates between the steps: (a) obtain mean shape and new estimates of the covariance matrices from...... the aligned shapes, (b) align shapes to the mean shape. Three different methods for estimating the mean shape with associated covariance matrices are explored in the paper. The proposed methods are validated experimentally on two separate datasets (IMM face dataset and femur-bones). The superiority of ICP...

  3. Antirandom Testing: A Distance-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Hui Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Random testing requires each test to be selected randomly regardless of the tests previously applied. This paper introduces the concept of antirandom testing where each test applied is chosen such that its total distance from all previous tests is maximum. This spans the test vector space to the maximum extent possible for a given number of vectors. An algorithm for generating antirandom tests is presented. Compared with traditional pseudorandom testing, antirandom testing is found to be very effective when a high-fault coverage needs to be achieved with a limited number of test vectors. The superiority of the new approach is even more significant for testing bridging faults.

  4. Smart Cards for Transit : Multi-Use Remotely Interrogated Stored-Data Cards for Fare and Toll Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This project developed relevant information on existing and future, stored readable/writable data card technology for fare and toll payments. The project supports the FTA objective of developing a plan for a common standard card-based fare payment sy...

  5. Calibration Base Lines for Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments (EDMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A calibration base line (CBL) is a precisely measured, straight-line course of approximately 1,400 m used to calibrate Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments...

  6. Algorithms for Speeding up Distance-Based Outlier Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The problem of distance-based outlier detection is difficult to solve efficiently in very large datasets because of potential quadratic time complexity. We address...

  7. The Research on Ticket Fare Optimization for China’s High-Speed Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzi Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant deepening of the railway reform in China, the competition between railway passenger transportation and other modes of passenger transportation has been getting fiercer. In this situation, the existing unitary and changeless fare structure gradually becomes the prevention of railway revenue increase and railway system development. This paper examines a new method for ticket fare optimization strategy based on the revenue management theory. On the premise that only one fare grade can be offered for each OD at the same time, this paper addresses the questions of how to determine the number of fare grades and the price of each fare grade. First, on the basis of piecewise pricing strategy, we build a ticket fare optimization model. After transforming this model to a convex program, we solve the original problem by finding the Kuhn-Tucker (K-T point of the convex program. Finally, we verify the proposed method by real data of Beijing-Shanghai HSR line. The calculating result shows that our pricing strategy can not only increase the revenue, but also play a part in regulating the existing demand and stimulating potential demand.

  8. Use of electronic fare transaction data for corridor planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report documents the initial phase of a project that developed, tested, and used a methodology and tool set for converting electronic transit agency fare card transaction data, the Puget Sound regions ORCA electronic fare card, into informati...

  9. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  10. Image Inpainting Based on Coherence Transport with Adapted Distance Functions

    KAUST Repository

    März, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We discuss an extension of our method image inpainting based on coherence transport. For the latter method the pixels of the inpainting domain have to be serialized into an ordered list. Until now, to induce the serialization we have used the distance to boundary map. But there are inpainting problems where the distance to boundary serialization causes unsatisfactory inpainting results. In the present work we demonstrate cases where we can resolve the difficulties by employing other distance functions which better suit the problem at hand. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. Long-distance configuration of FPGA based on serial communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiang; Song Kezhu; Zhang Sifeng

    2010-01-01

    To solve FPGA configuration in some nuclear electronics, which works in radioactivity environment, the article introduces a way of long-distance configuration with PC and CPLD, based on serial communication. Taking CYCLONE series FPGA and EPCS configuration chip from ALTERA for example, and using the AS configuration mode, we described our design from the aspects of basic theory, hardware connection, software function and communication protocol. With this design, we could configure several FPGAs in the distance of 100 meters, or we could configure on FPGA in the distance of 150 meters. (authors)

  12. 14 CFR 399.31 - Standard industry fare level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard industry fare level. 399.31... Standard industry fare level. (a) Generally. Except as set forth in paragraph (d) of this section, the standard industry fare level (“SIFL”) for coach/standard service in a market is equal to the predominant...

  13. The difference between presence-based education and distance learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Rodríguez, Mònica

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to define distance learning always involve comparisons with presence-based education, as the latter is the most direct reference that the former has. It is on this basis that the convergent points, similarities and differences of the two types of approach are established. This article opens with such a comparison, before going on to focus mainly on distance learning and to examine methodological strategies that should be borne in mind when implementing an e-learning system.

  14. Application of Technology in Project-Based Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mehrabian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Present technology and the accessibility of internet have made distance learning easier, more efficient, and more convenient for students. This technology allows instructors and students to communicate asynchronously, at times and locations of their own choosing, by exchanging printed or electronic information. The use of project-based approach is being recognized in the literature as a potential component of courses in the faculties of engineering, science, and technology. Instructors may have to restructure their course differently to accommodate and facilitate the effectiveness of distance learning. A project-based engineering course, traditionally taught in a classroom settings using live mode at the College of Engineering and Computer Sciences at the University of Central Florida (UCF has been transformed to a distance course taught using distance modes. In this case, pedagogical transitions and adjustments are required, in particular for obtaining an optimal balance between the course material and the project work. Project collaboration in groups requires communication, which is possible with extensive utilization of new information and communication technology, such as virtual meetings. This paper discusses the course transition from live to distance modes and touches on some issues as they relate to the effectiveness of this methodology and the lessons learned from its application within different context. More specifically, this discussion includes the benefit of implementing project-based work in the domain of the distance learning courses.

  15. High Precision Infrared Temperature Measurement System Based on Distance Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the need of real-time remote monitoring of human body surface temperature for optical rehabilitation therapy, a non-contact high-precision real-time temperature measurement method based on distance compensation was proposed, and the system design was carried out. The microcontroller controls the infrared temperature measurement module and the laser range module to collect temperature and distance data. The compensation formula of temperature with distance wass fitted according to the least square method. Testing had been performed on different individuals to verify the accuracy of the system. The results indicate that the designed non-contact infrared temperature measurement system has a residual error of less than 0.2°C and the response time isless than 0.1s in the range of 0 to 60cm. This provides a reference for developing long-distance temperature measurement equipment in optical rehabilitation therapy.

  16. Optimizing distance-based methods for large data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Tobias; Brenner, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Distance-based methods for measuring spatial concentration of industries have received an increasing popularity in the spatial econometrics community. However, a limiting factor for using these methods is their computational complexity since both their memory requirements and running times are in {{O}}(n^2). In this paper, we present an algorithm with constant memory requirements and shorter running time, enabling distance-based methods to deal with large data sets. We discuss three recent distance-based methods in spatial econometrics: the D&O-Index by Duranton and Overman (Rev Econ Stud 72(4):1077-1106, 2005), the M-function by Marcon and Puech (J Econ Geogr 10(5):745-762, 2010) and the Cluster-Index by Scholl and Brenner (Reg Stud (ahead-of-print):1-15, 2014). Finally, we present an alternative calculation for the latter index that allows the use of data sets with millions of firms.

  17. Distance Based Method for Outlier Detection of Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a distance based method for the outlier detection of body sensor networks. Firstly, we use a Kernel Density Estimation (KDE to calculate the probability of the distance to k nearest neighbors for diagnosed data. If the probability is less than a threshold, and the distance of this data to its left and right neighbors is greater than a pre-defined value, the diagnosed data is decided as an outlier. Further, we formalize a sliding window based method to improve the outlier detection performance. Finally, to estimate the KDE by training sensor readings with errors, we introduce a Hidden Markov Model (HMM based method to estimate the most probable ground truth values which have the maximum probability to produce the training data. Simulation results show that the proposed method possesses a good detection accuracy with a low false alarm rate.

  18. Overlapping community detection based on link graph using distance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Li-Jun

    2018-01-01

    The distance dynamics model was recently proposed to detect the disjoint community of a complex network. To identify the overlapping structure of a network using the distance dynamics model, an overlapping community detection algorithm, called L-Attractor, is proposed in this paper. The process of L-Attractor mainly consists of three phases. In the first phase, L-Attractor transforms the original graph to a link graph (a new edge graph) to assure that one node has multiple distances. In the second phase, using the improved distance dynamics model, a dynamic interaction process is introduced to simulate the distance dynamics (shrink or stretch). Through the dynamic interaction process, all distances converge, and the disjoint community structure of the link graph naturally manifests itself. In the third phase, a recovery method is designed to convert the disjoint community structure of the link graph to the overlapping community structure of the original graph. Extensive experiments are conducted on the LFR benchmark networks as well as real-world networks. Based on the results, our algorithm demonstrates higher accuracy and quality than other state-of-the-art algorithms.

  19. RM Methods for Multiple Fare Structure Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    110 9 LIST OF FIGURES 1 INTRODUCTION Figure 1-1: Revenue Losses due to Overprotection and Dilution... overprotection or dilution. If an airline’s objective is to focus on high-yield business travelers and charge only a single high fare for the...Lost Revenue from Customer Surplus Captured Revenue Rejected Passengers Overprotection Dilution Figure 1-1: Revenue Losses due to Overprotection

  20. Spatial generalised linear mixed models based on distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Oscar O; Mateu, Jorge; Melo, Carlos E

    2016-10-01

    Risk models derived from environmental data have been widely shown to be effective in delineating geographical areas of risk because they are intuitively easy to understand. We present a new method based on distances, which allows the modelling of continuous and non-continuous random variables through distance-based spatial generalised linear mixed models. The parameters are estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo maximum likelihood, which is a feasible and a useful technique. The proposed method depends on a detrending step built from continuous or categorical explanatory variables, or a mixture among them, by using an appropriate Euclidean distance. The method is illustrated through the analysis of the variation in the prevalence of Loa loa among a sample of village residents in Cameroon, where the explanatory variables included elevation, together with maximum normalised-difference vegetation index and the standard deviation of normalised-difference vegetation index calculated from repeated satellite scans over time. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Swarm-based wayfinding support in open and distance learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Van den Berg, Bert; Van Es, René; Janssen, José; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Please refer to the original source: Tattersall, C. Manderveld, J., Van den Berg, B., Van Es, R., Janssen, J., & Koper, R. (2005). Swarm-based wayfinding support in open and distance learning. In Alkhalifa, E.M. (Ed). Cognitively Informed Systems: Utilizing Practical Approaches to Enrich Information

  2. An Artificial Intelligence-Based Distance Education System: Artimat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiyev, Vasif; Karal, Hasan; Arslan, Selahattin; Erumit, Ali Kursat; Cebi, Ayca

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the artificial intelligence-based distance education system called ARTIMAT, which has been prepared in order to improve mathematical problem solving skills of the students, in terms of conceptual proficiency and ease of use with the opinions of teachers and students. The implementation has been performed…

  3. Project organized Problem-based learning in Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Project organized problem based learning is a successful concept for on-campus engineering education at Aalborg University. Recently this "Aalborg concept" has been used in networked distance education as well. This paper describes the experiences from two years of Internet-mediated project work...... in a new Master of Information Technology education. The main conclusions are, that the project work is a strong learning motivator, enhancing peer collaboration, for off-campus students as well. However, the concept cannot be directly transferred to off-campus learning. In this paper, the main problems...... experienced with group organized project work in distance education are described, and some possible solutions are listed....

  4. Project-Organized Problem-Based Learning in Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Peter; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Project organized problem based learning is a successful concept for on-campus engineering education at Aalborg University. Recently this "Aalborg concept" has been used in networked distance education as well. This paper describes the experiences from two years of Internet-mediated project work...... in a new Master of Information Technology education. The main conclusions are, that the project work is a strong learning motivator, enhancing peer collaboration, for off-campus students as well. However, the concept cannot be directly transferred to off-campus learning. In this paper, the main problems...... experienced with group organized project work in distance education are described, and some possible solutions are listed....

  5. Research on cardiovascular disease prediction based on distance metric learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhuang; Liu, Kui; Kang, Guixia

    2018-04-01

    Distance metric learning algorithm has been widely applied to medical diagnosis and exhibited its strengths in classification problems. The k-nearest neighbour (KNN) is an efficient method which treats each feature equally. The large margin nearest neighbour classification (LMNN) improves the accuracy of KNN by learning a global distance metric, which did not consider the locality of data distributions. In this paper, we propose a new distance metric algorithm adopting cosine metric and LMNN named COS-SUBLMNN which takes more care about local feature of data to overcome the shortage of LMNN and improve the classification accuracy. The proposed methodology is verified on CVDs patient vector derived from real-world medical data. The Experimental results show that our method provides higher accuracy than KNN and LMNN did, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the Risk predictive model of CVDs based on COS-SUBLMNN.

  6. Project-based Collaborative learning in distance education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Bajard, Christine; Helbo, Jan

    2004-01-01

    ) programme indicates, however, that adjustments are required in transforming the on-campus model to distance education. The main problem is that while project work is an excellent regulator of the learning process for on-campus students, this does not seem to be the case for off-campus students. Consequently......This article describes the experiences drawn from an experiment in transferring positive experience with a project-organised on-campus engineering programme to a technology supported distance education programme. Three years of experience with the Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII......, didactic adjustments have been made based on feedback, in particular from evaluation questionnaires. This process has been very constructive in approaching the goal: a successful model for project organized learning in distance education....

  7. Managing distance and covariate information with point-based clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Whigham

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic perspectives of disease and the human condition often involve point-based observations and questions of clustering or dispersion within a spatial context. These problems involve a finite set of point observations and are constrained by a larger, but finite, set of locations where the observations could occur. Developing a rigorous method for pattern analysis in this context requires handling spatial covariates, a method for constrained finite spatial clustering, and addressing bias in geographic distance measures. An approach, based on Ripley’s K and applied to the problem of clustering with deliberate self-harm (DSH, is presented. Methods Point-based Monte-Carlo simulation of Ripley’s K, accounting for socio-economic deprivation and sources of distance measurement bias, was developed to estimate clustering of DSH at a range of spatial scales. A rotated Minkowski L1 distance metric allowed variation in physical distance and clustering to be assessed. Self-harm data was derived from an audit of 2 years’ emergency hospital presentations (n = 136 in a New Zealand town (population ~50,000. Study area was defined by residential (housing land parcels representing a finite set of possible point addresses. Results Area-based deprivation was spatially correlated. Accounting for deprivation and distance bias showed evidence for clustering of DSH for spatial scales up to 500 m with a one-sided 95 % CI, suggesting that social contagion may be present for this urban cohort. Conclusions Many problems involve finite locations in geographic space that require estimates of distance-based clustering at many scales. A Monte-Carlo approach to Ripley’s K, incorporating covariates and models for distance bias, are crucial when assessing health-related clustering. The case study showed that social network structure defined at the neighbourhood level may account for aspects of neighbourhood clustering of DSH. Accounting for

  8. Distance matrix-based approach to protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L; Wu, Zhijun; Song, Guang; Yang, Lei; Kolinski, Andrzej; Pokarowski, Piotr

    2009-03-01

    Much structural information is encoded in the internal distances; a distance matrix-based approach can be used to predict protein structure and dynamics, and for structural refinement. Our approach is based on the square distance matrix D = [r(ij)(2)] containing all square distances between residues in proteins. This distance matrix contains more information than the contact matrix C, that has elements of either 0 or 1 depending on whether the distance r (ij) is greater or less than a cutoff value r (cutoff). We have performed spectral decomposition of the distance matrices D = sigma lambda(k)V(k)V(kT), in terms of eigenvalues lambda kappa and the corresponding eigenvectors v kappa and found that it contains at most five nonzero terms. A dominant eigenvector is proportional to r (2)--the square distance of points from the center of mass, with the next three being the principal components of the system of points. By predicting r (2) from the sequence we can approximate a distance matrix of a protein with an expected RMSD value of about 7.3 A, and by combining it with the prediction of the first principal component we can improve this approximation to 4.0 A. We can also explain the role of hydrophobic interactions for the protein structure, because r is highly correlated with the hydrophobic profile of the sequence. Moreover, r is highly correlated with several sequence profiles which are useful in protein structure prediction, such as contact number, the residue-wise contact order (RWCO) or mean square fluctuations (i.e. crystallographic temperature factors). We have also shown that the next three components are related to spatial directionality of the secondary structure elements, and they may be also predicted from the sequence, improving overall structure prediction. We have also shown that the large number of available HIV-1 protease structures provides a remarkable sampling of conformations, which can be viewed as direct structural information about the

  9. New method for distance-based close following safety indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharizli, A A; Rahizar, R; Karim, M R; Saifizul, A A

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of fatalities caused by road accidents involving heavy vehicles every year has raised the level of concern and awareness on road safety in developing countries like Malaysia. Changes in the vehicle dynamic characteristics such as gross vehicle weight, travel speed, and vehicle classification will affect a heavy vehicle's braking performance and its ability to stop safely in emergency situations. As such, the aim of this study is to establish a more realistic new distance-based safety indicator called the minimum safe distance gap (MSDG), which incorporates vehicle classification (VC), speed, and gross vehicle weight (GVW). Commercial multibody dynamics simulation software was used to generate braking distance data for various heavy vehicle classes under various loads and speeds. By applying nonlinear regression analysis to the simulation results, a mathematical expression of MSDG has been established. The results show that MSDG is dynamically changed according to GVW, VC, and speed. It is envisaged that this new distance-based safety indicator would provide a more realistic depiction of the real traffic situation for safety analysis.

  10. VCSEL-based sensors for distance and velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Holger; Carpaij, Mark; Gerlach, Philipp; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gudde, Ralph; Hellmig, Jochen; Kolb, Johanna; van der Lee, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    VCSEL based sensors can measure distance and velocity in three dimensional space and are already produced in high quantities for professional and consumer applications. Several physical principles are used: VCSELs are applied as infrared illumination for surveillance cameras. High power arrays combined with imaging optics provide a uniform illumination of scenes up to a distance of several hundred meters. Time-of-flight methods use a pulsed VCSEL as light source, either with strong single pulses at low duty cycle or with pulse trains. Because of the sensitivity to background light and the strong decrease of the signal with distance several Watts of laser power are needed at a distance of up to 100m. VCSEL arrays enable power scaling and can provide very short pulses at higher power density. Applications range from extended functions in a smartphone over industrial sensors up to automotive LIDAR for driver assistance and autonomous driving. Self-mixing interference works with coherent laser photons scattered back into the cavity. It is therefore insensitive to environmental light. The method is used to measure target velocity and distance with very high accuracy at distances up to one meter. Single-mode VCSELs with integrated photodiode and grating stabilized polarization enable very compact and cost effective products. Besides the well know application as computer input device new applications with even higher accuracy or for speed over ground measurement in automobiles and up to 250km/h are investigated. All measurement methods exploit the known VCSEL properties like robustness, stability over temperature and the potential for packages with integrated optics and electronics. This makes VCSEL sensors ideally suited for new mass applications in consumer and automotive markets.

  11. Social optimal shifts and fares of taxi services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salanova Grau, J.M.; Estrada Romeu, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for supporting the decision and policy making related to the optimal determination of shifts and fares of taxi services in a major city. The model is based on the system’s generalized cost function and uses continuous approximations and geometric probabilities for estimating the key performance indicators of the taxi market, which are waiting and access time for the customers (in-vehicle travel time does not depend on the offer side) and benefits for the drivers. The model is based on an econometric model with the inclusion of an elastic demand, which allows the estimation of the optimal values for the two decision variables of the problem: fare structure and the taxi fleet size. The model also accounts for a full-day time period instead of the one-hour time frame models used in most of the taxi models, which allows for providing insights on the daily duration and distribution of the shifts that should be defined by the policy makers. (Author)

  12. Project-Based Collaborative Learning in Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Bajard, C.; Helbo, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the experiences drawn from an experiment in transferring positive experience with a project-organised on-campus engineering programme to a technology supported distance education programme. Three years of experience with the Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII)......, didactic adjustments have been made based on feedback, in particular from evaluation questionnaires. This process has been very constructive in approaching the goal: a successful model for project organized learning in distance education.......) programme indicates, however, that adjustments are required in transforming the on-campus model to distance education. The main problem is that while project work is an excellent regulator of the learning process for on-campus students, this does not seem to be the case for off-campus students. Consequently......This article describes the experiences drawn from an experiment in transferring positive experience with a project-organised on-campus engineering programme to a technology supported distance education programme. Three years of experience with the Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII...

  13. Adaptive density trajectory cluster based on time and space distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fagui; Zhang, Zhijie

    2017-10-01

    There are some hotspot problems remaining in trajectory cluster for discovering mobile behavior regularity, such as the computation of distance between sub trajectories, the setting of parameter values in cluster algorithm and the uncertainty/boundary problem of data set. As a result, based on the time and space, this paper tries to define the calculation method of distance between sub trajectories. The significance of distance calculation for sub trajectories is to clearly reveal the differences in moving trajectories and to promote the accuracy of cluster algorithm. Besides, a novel adaptive density trajectory cluster algorithm is proposed, in which cluster radius is computed through using the density of data distribution. In addition, cluster centers and number are selected by a certain strategy automatically, and uncertainty/boundary problem of data set is solved by designed weighted rough c-means. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can perform the fuzzy trajectory cluster effectively on the basis of the time and space distance, and obtain the optimal cluster centers and rich cluster results information adaptably for excavating the features of mobile behavior in mobile and sociology network.

  14. Distance learning, problem based learning and dynamic knowledge networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, U; Martone, P

    1998-06-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a distance learning model grounded upon a strict integration of problem based learning (PBL), dynamic knowledge networks (DKN) and web tools, such as hypermedia documents, synchronous and asynchronous communication facilities, etc. The main objective is to develop a theory of distance learning based upon the idea that learning is a highly dynamic cognitive process aimed at connecting different concepts in a network of mutually supporting concepts. Moreover, this process is supposed to be the result of a social interaction that has to be facilitated by the web. The model was tested by creating a virtual classroom of medical and nursing students and activating a learning session on the concept of knowledge representation in health sciences.

  15. Didactics, Technology, and Organisation of Project Based Distance Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten Haack; Borch, Ole M.; Helbo, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The didactics, technology, and organization of an ICT supported distance engineering Master education are described. A systematic monitoring and evaluation of the basis year has given useful experience, subsequently used for adjustments and improvements. A successful on-campus project organized...... as asynchronous, which is possible with extensive utilization of new information and communication technology. Virtual meetings are conducted with text, sound and video based communication. Also the organization requires technology. A new learning management system, specifically designed to the didactic form...

  16. IMPACT OF COMPUTER BASED ONLINE ENTREPRENEURSHIP DISTANCE EDUCATION IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwan SHREE RAM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The success of Indian enterprises and professionals in the computer and information technology (CIT domain during the twenty year has been spectacular. Entrepreneurs, bureaucrats and technocrats are now advancing views about how India can ride CIT bandwagon and leapfrog into a knowledge-based economy in the area of entrepreneurship distance education on-line. Isolated instances of remotely located villagers sending and receiving email messages, effective application of mobile communications and surfing the Internet are being promoted as examples of how the nation can achieve this transformation, while vanquishing socio-economic challenges such as illiteracy, high growth of population, poverty, and the digital divide along the way. Likewise, even while a small fraction of the urban population in India has access to computers and the Internet, e-governance is being projected as the way of the future. There is no dearth of fascinating stories about CIT enabled changes, yet there is little discussion about whether such changes are effective and sustainable in the absence of the basic infrastructure that is accessible to the citizens of more advanced economies. When used appropriately, different CITs are said to help expand access to entrepreneurship distance education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise technical and managerial educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching and learning into an engaging, active process connected to real life. This research paper investigates on the impact of computer based online entrepreneurship distance education in India.

  17. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  18. Handwritten Digit Recognition using Edit Distance-Based KNN

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard , Marc; Fromont , Elisa; Habrard , Amaury; Sebban , Marc

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the student project given for the last 5 years to the 1st year Master Students which follow the Machine Learning lecture at the University Jean Monnet in Saint Etienne, France. The goal of this project is to develop a GUI that can recognize digits and/or letters drawn manually. The system is based on a string representation of the dig- its using Freeman codes and on the use of an edit-distance-based K-Nearest Neighbors classifier. In addition to the machine learning knowledge about...

  19. AN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE-BASED DISTANCE EDUCATION SYSTEM: Artimat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasif NABIYEV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the artificial intelligence-based distance education system called as ARTIMAT, which has been prepared in order to improve mathematical problem solving skills of the students, in terms of conceptual proficiency and ease of use with the opinions of teachers and students. The implementation has been performed with 4 teachers and 59 students in 10th grade in an Anatolian High School in Trabzon. Many institutions and organizations in the world approach seriously to distance education besides traditional education. It is inevitable to use the distance education in teaching the problem solving skills in this different dimension of the education. In the studies in Turkey and abroad in the field of mathematics teaching, problem solving skills are generally stated not to be at the desired level and often expressed to have difficulty in teaching. For this reason, difficulties of the students in problem solving have initially been evaluated and the system has been prepared utilizing artificial intelligence algorithms according to the obtained results. In the evaluation of the findings obtained from the application, it has been concluded that the system is responsive to the needs of the students and is successful in general, but that conceptual changes should be made in order that students adapt to the system quickly.

  20. APF-Based Car Following Behavior Considering Lateral Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Sheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of lateral distance on consecutive vehicles, this paper proposes a new car following model based on the artificial potential field theory (APF. Traditional car following behaviors all assume that the vehicles are driving along the middle of a lane. Different from the traditional car following principles, this incorporation of APF offers a potential breakthrough in the fields of car following theory. The individual vehicle can be represented as a unit point charge in electric field, and the interaction of the attractive potential energy and the repellent potential energy between vehicles simplifies the various influence factors on the target vehicle in actual following behavior. Consequently, it can make a better analysis of the following behavior under the lateral separation. Then, the proposed model has been demonstrated in simulation environment, through which the space-time trajectories and the potential energy change regulation are obtained. Simulations verify that the following vehicle's behavior is vulnerable to be affected by lateral distance, where the attractive potential energy tends to become repellent potential energy as the longitudinal distance decreases. The search results prove that the proposed model quantifies the relations between headway and potential energy and better reflects the following process in real-world situation.

  1. Contaminant classification using cosine distances based on multiple conventional sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Che, Han; Smith, Kate; Chang, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Emergent contamination events have a significant impact on water systems. After contamination detection, it is important to classify the type of contaminant quickly to provide support for remediation attempts. Conventional methods generally either rely on laboratory-based analysis, which requires a long analysis time, or on multivariable-based geometry analysis and sequence analysis, which is prone to being affected by the contaminant concentration. This paper proposes a new contaminant classification method, which discriminates contaminants in a real time manner independent of the contaminant concentration. The proposed method quantifies the similarities or dissimilarities between sensors' responses to different types of contaminants. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using data from contaminant injection experiments in a laboratory and compared with a Euclidean distance-based method. The robustness of the proposed method was evaluated using an uncertainty analysis. The results show that the proposed method performed better in identifying the type of contaminant than the Euclidean distance based method and that it could classify the type of contaminant in minutes without significantly compromising the correct classification rate (CCR).

  2. A Game Map Complexity Measure Based on Hamming Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Su, Pan; Li, Wenliang

    With the booming of PC game market, Game AI has attracted more and more researches. The interesting and difficulty of a game are relative with the map used in game scenarios. Besides, the path-finding efficiency in a game is also impacted by the complexity of the used map. In this paper, a novel complexity measure based on Hamming distance, called the Hamming complexity, is introduced. This measure is able to estimate the complexity of binary tileworld. We experimentally demonstrated that Hamming complexity is highly relative with the efficiency of A* algorithm, and therefore it is a useful reference to the designer when developing a game map.

  3. Distance-Based Phylogenetic Methods Around a Polytomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ruth; Sullivant, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Distance-based phylogenetic algorithms attempt to solve the NP-hard least-squares phylogeny problem by mapping an arbitrary dissimilarity map representing biological data to a tree metric. The set of all dissimilarity maps is a Euclidean space properly containing the space of all tree metrics as a polyhedral fan. Outputs of distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms such as UPGMA and neighbor-joining are points in the maximal cones in the fan. Tree metrics with polytomies lie at the intersections of maximal cones. A phylogenetic algorithm divides the space of all dissimilarity maps into regions based upon which combinatorial tree is reconstructed by the algorithm. Comparison of phylogenetic methods can be done by comparing the geometry of these regions. We use polyhedral geometry to compare the local nature of the subdivisions induced by least-squares phylogeny, UPGMA, and neighbor-joining when the true tree has a single polytomy with exactly four neighbors. Our results suggest that in some circumstances, UPGMA and neighbor-joining poorly match least-squares phylogeny.

  4. ANALYSIS OF INA-CBG’S FARE AND GOVERNOR REGULATION FAREON SURGERY AT INPATIENT ROOM OF UNDATA REGIONAL PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN PALU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Ryman Napirah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In order to determine the fares of surgery, there are two types of fares used by hospitals namely Indonesian Case Based Groups fare (INA-CBG s and Governor Regulation fare. This study aimed to identify and analyze both types of fares in orthopedic surgery, general, eyes, midwifery, mouth, ENT, urology at inpatient room of Undata Regional Public Hospital in Palu during year 2014. Method: This was a quantitative study with descriptive approach with 46 cases as the number of surgery. Data were collected through observation and analysis of secondary data were gotten from medical record, pharmaceutical installation of IBS/IDR, inpatient therapy room (Matahari, Aster, and Teratai pavilions and cashier of inpatient room in form of cost details and patient data from January to December 2014. Data Presentation was formed on tables, where the existing fares are grouped based on the component of each cost then summed and calculated the deviation between the two types of fares. Results: This study indicated that orthopedic surgery with deviation of Rp 11.311.365, general surgery with deviation of Rp 6.438.409, eyes surgery with deviation of Rp 45.173.741, midwifery surgery with deviation of Rp 6.645.765, oral surgery with deviation of Rp 6.105.659, and urological surgery with deviation of Rp. 3.809.959. Conclusion: It can be concluded that INA-CBG's fares are higher than Governor Regulation fares except orthopedic surgery, where the Governor Regulation faresare higher than INA-CBG’s fares.

  5. EPR-based distance measurements at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumkacheva, Olesya; Bagryanskaya, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed dipolar (PD) EPR spectroscopy is a powerful technique allowing for distance measurements between spin labels in the range of 2.5-10.0nm. It was proposed more than 30years ago, and nowadays is widely used in biophysics and materials science. Until recently, PD EPR experiments were limited to cryogenic temperatures (TEPR as well as other approaches based on EPR (e.g., relaxation enhancement; RE). In this paper, we review the features of PD EPR and RE at ambient temperatures, in particular, requirements on electron spin phase memory time, ways of immobilization of biomolecules, the influence of a linker between the spin probe and biomolecule, and future opportunities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dialect distances based on orthographic and phonetic transcriptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zulu, N

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available , where transcription segments were compared using the algorithm. In 2003 Gooskens and Heeringa [5] calculated Levenshtein distances between 15 Norwegian dialects and compared them to the distances as perceived by Norwegian listeners... by a clustering algorithm. Figure 2 illustrates the dendrogram derived from the clustering of perceptual distances as perceived by Norwegian listeners for the 15 Norwegian dialects investigated in this research [6]. Figure 2: Dendrogram...

  7. Electronic fare collection options for commuter railroads : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This research is designed to support FTA in its efforts to disseminate knowledge of new technologies within the transit community, in this case focusing on issues associated with automated fare collection (AFC) for commuter rail. By identifying le...

  8. Femtosecond frequency comb based distance measurement in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balling, P.; Kren, P.; Masika, P.; van den Berg, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Interferometric measurement of distance using a femtosecond frequency comb is demonstrated and compared with a counting interferometer displacement measurement. A numerical model of pulse propagation in air is developed and the results are compared with experimental data for short distances. The

  9. Femtosecond frequency comb based distance measurement in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Petr; Kren, Petr; Masika, Pavel; van den Berg, S A

    2009-05-25

    Interferometric measurement of distance using a femtosecond frequency comb is demonstrated and compared with a counting interferometer displacement measurement. A numerical model of pulse propagation in air is developed and the results are compared with experimental data for short distances. The relative agreement for distance measurement in known laboratory conditions is better than 10(-7). According to the model, similar precision seems feasible even for long-distance measurement in air if conditions are sufficiently known. It is demonstrated that the relative width of the interferogram envelope even decreases with the measured length, and a fringe contrast higher than 90% could be obtained for kilometer distances in air, if optimal spectral width for that length and wavelength is used. The possibility of comb radiation delivery to the interferometer by an optical fiber is shown by model and experiment, which is important from a practical point of view.

  10. GPU-based Branchless Distance-Driven Projection and Backprojection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Fu, Lin; De Man, Bruno; Yu, Hengyong

    2017-12-01

    Projection and backprojection operations are essential in a variety of image reconstruction and physical correction algorithms in CT. The distance-driven (DD) projection and backprojection are widely used for their highly sequential memory access pattern and low arithmetic cost. However, a typical DD implementation has an inner loop that adjusts the calculation depending on the relative position between voxel and detector cell boundaries. The irregularity of the branch behavior makes it inefficient to be implemented on massively parallel computing devices such as graphics processing units (GPUs). Such irregular branch behaviors can be eliminated by factorizing the DD operation as three branchless steps: integration, linear interpolation, and differentiation, all of which are highly amenable to massive vectorization. In this paper, we implement and evaluate a highly parallel branchless DD algorithm for 3D cone beam CT. The algorithm utilizes the texture memory and hardware interpolation on GPUs to achieve fast computational speed. The developed branchless DD algorithm achieved 137-fold speedup for forward projection and 188-fold speedup for backprojection relative to a single-thread CPU implementation. Compared with a state-of-the-art 32-thread CPU implementation, the proposed branchless DD achieved 8-fold acceleration for forward projection and 10-fold acceleration for backprojection. GPU based branchless DD method was evaluated by iterative reconstruction algorithms with both simulation and real datasets. It obtained visually identical images as the CPU reference algorithm.

  11. Robust linear discriminant analysis with distance based estimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yai-Fung; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Ali, Hazlina

    2017-11-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the supervised classification techniques concerning relationship between a categorical variable and a set of continuous variables. The main objective of LDA is to create a function to distinguish between populations and allocating future observations to previously defined populations. Under the assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity, the LDA yields optimal linear discriminant rule (LDR) between two or more groups. However, the optimality of LDA highly relies on the sample mean and pooled sample covariance matrix which are known to be sensitive to outliers. To alleviate these conflicts, a new robust LDA using distance based estimators known as minimum variance vector (MVV) has been proposed in this study. The MVV estimators were used to substitute the classical sample mean and classical sample covariance to form a robust linear discriminant rule (RLDR). Simulation and real data study were conducted to examine on the performance of the proposed RLDR measured in terms of misclassification error rates. The computational result showed that the proposed RLDR is better than the classical LDR and was comparable with the existing robust LDR.

  12. The Knowledge Base as an Extension of Distance Learning Reference Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    This study explores knowledge bases as extension of reference services for distance learners. Through a survey and follow-up interviews with distance learning librarians, this paper discusses their interest in creating and maintaining a knowledge base as a resource for reference services to distance learners. It also investigates their perceptions…

  13. Clustering by Partitioning around Medoids using Distance-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    outperforms both the Euclidean and Manhattan distance metrics in certain situations. KEYWORDS: PAM ... version of a dataset, compare the quality of clusters obtained from the Euclidean .... B. Theoretical Framework and Methodology.

  14. 50-Year Window to Establish a Space Faring Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Humankind may only have a short window of 50 years to become a space-faring civilization, after which time the opportunity to do so may become too difficult or impractical to pursue. Current policies for space exploration and infrastructure development implicitly assume a gradualistic approach to technology, budgets, and mission execution -- the common thought has been that there will be plenty of time in humankind's future to become a space-based species, and whatever we are unable to accomplish will be borne by the generations that follow. However, considering natural events, available energy, and human tendencies, the timing to make the most effective effort to achieve multi-planet status might be now, before momentum is lost and we become distracted by Peak Oil and changing energy economies -- restarting a space program after such turmoil may be more difficult than would be practical without cheap, storable, high-energy density petroleum. "Space-faring civilization" is defined as an economically profitable space-based economy that demands the presence of humans off-world in order to sustain a high level of prosperity. An initial foothold for a space-based economy that would fit within the 50-year window might include Earth dependence on rare-earth elements or other hard-to-obtain minerals mined from moons or asteroids, or a permanent settlement on another planet. Using published sources, notional mass and energy requirements for a minimal self-sustaining Mars settlement is calculated, and the number of launch vehicles discussed. Setting the launch schedule to match that of current NASA projections, it could take more than 26 years of semi-annual launches to build up such a self-sustaining human settlement -- a cost and commitment that has not been acknowledged nor planned for. Considering the time required to establish a multi-planet species, this paper frames the required window of decision that, if not taken, could condemn the species to Earth subject to

  15. Local Deep Hashing Matching of Aerial Images Based on Relative Distance and Absolute Distance Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suting Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerial images have features of high resolution, complex background, and usually require large amounts of calculation, however, most algorithms used in matching of aerial images adopt the shallow hand-crafted features expressed as floating-point descriptors (e.g., SIFT (Scale-invariant Feature Transform, SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features, which may suffer from poor matching speed and are not well represented in the literature. Here, we propose a novel Local Deep Hashing Matching (LDHM method for matching of aerial images with large size and with lower complexity or fast matching speed. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is to utilize the deep network model in the local area of the aerial images, and study the local features, as well as the hash function of the images. Firstly, according to the course overlap rate of aerial images, the algorithm extracts the local areas for matching to avoid the processing of redundant information. Secondly, a triplet network structure is proposed to mine the deep features of the patches of the local image, and the learned features are imported to the hash layer, thus obtaining the representation of a binary hash code. Thirdly, the constraints of the positive samples to the absolute distance are added on the basis of the triplet loss, a new objective function is constructed to optimize the parameters of the network and enhance the discriminating capabilities of image patch features. Finally, the obtained deep hash code of each image patch is used for the similarity comparison of the image patches in the Hamming space to complete the matching of aerial images. The proposed LDHM algorithm evaluates the UltraCam-D dataset and a set of actual aerial images, simulation result demonstrates that it may significantly outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm in terms of the efficiency and performance.

  16. TEACHER EDUCATION FOR DISTANCE LEARNING BASED SPECIAL EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzila NABEEL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Special education is a mode of education in which specially designed instruction material and environment is required to meet the diverse requirements of children with special needs. In Pakistan, Open University (AIOU exclusively initiated a program for teacher preparation for Special Children through distance learning. This was a unique program of its kind with no precedence of defined services for Special Teachers’ Preparation. Dept of Special Education AIOU - through Distance learning system, offers study/training at graduate, masters and Ph. D. levels. Teachers are prepared in 6 specialized areas of Visual Impairment, Physical Disabilities, Hearing Impairment, Intellectual Disability, Learning Disability and Inclusive Education. The Open University has a well established regional network, outreach system providing educational counseling and guiding services to its students. University has 32 regional campuses with 86 part-time regional coordinating officers throughout the country for providing assistance to the Regional campuses. Over 900 study centers are established during the semester and are managed through the university’s regional campuses. Each student is assigned to a tutor who is a subject specialist. To maintain consistency of on and off campus observations, University faculty conducts reliability observations with adjunct Supervisors. Their professional growth impacts the quality of the teaching cadre. It was for the first time in the history of teacher training institutes of Pakistan that a teacher training program at Masters Level in the area of Special Education was offered through distance education. This paper gives the experiences, methodology and successes as outcome of the Distance- learning Special-Educator Program in Pakistan. Also highlighted is the Special Teacher Preparation Model through Distance Education System. Increased program completion rates support the fact that Open University faculty have become better

  17. Heterogeneity Measurement Based on Distance Measure for Polarimetric SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiaoli; Chen, Qihao; Liu, Xiuguo

    2018-04-01

    To effectively test the scene heterogeneity for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data, in this paper, the distance measure is introduced by utilizing the similarity between the sample and pixels. Moreover, given the influence of the distribution and modeling texture, the K distance measure is deduced according to the Wishart distance measure. Specifically, the average of the pixels in the local window replaces the class center coherency or covariance matrix. The Wishart and K distance measure are calculated between the average matrix and the pixels. Then, the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean is established for the Wishart and K distance measure, and the two features are defined and applied to reflect the complexity of the scene. The proposed heterogeneity measure is proceeded by integrating the two features using the Pauli basis. The experiments conducted on the single-look and multilook PolSAR data demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method for the detection of the scene heterogeneity.

  18. Portfolio Selection Based on Distance between Fuzzy Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyi Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches portfolio selection problem in fuzzy environment. We introduce a new simple method in which the distance between fuzzy variables is used to measure the divergence of fuzzy investment return from a prior one. Firstly, two new mathematical models are proposed by expressing divergence as distance, investment return as expected value, and risk as variance and semivariance, respectively. Secondly, the crisp forms of the new models are also provided for different types of fuzzy variables. Finally, several numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  19. Distributions of Cognates in Europe as Based on Levenshtein Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Job; Dijkstra, Ton; Grootjen, Franc

    2012-01-01

    Researchers on bilingual processing can benefit from computational tools developed in artificial intelligence. We show that a normalized Levenshtein distance function can efficiently and reliably simulate bilingual orthographic similarity ratings. Orthographic similarity distributions of cognates and non-cognates were identified across pairs of…

  20. Selective Distance-Based K+ Quantification on Paper-Based Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerold, Chase T; Bakker, Eric; Henry, Charles S

    2018-04-03

    In this study, paper-based microfluidic devices (μPADs) capable of K + quantification in aqueous samples, as well as in human serum, using both colorimetric and distance-based methods are described. A lipophilic phase containing potassium ionophore I (valinomycin) was utilized to achieve highly selective quantification of K + in the presence of Na + , Li + , and Mg 2+ ions. Successful addition of a suspended lipophilic phase to a wax printed paper-based device is described and offers a solution to current approaches that rely on organic solvents, which damage wax barriers. The approach provides an avenue for future alkali/alkaline quantification utilizing μPADs. Colorimetric spot tests allowed for K + quantification from 0.1-5.0 mM using only 3.00 μL of sample solution. Selective distance-based quantification required small sample volumes (6.00 μL) and gave responses sensitive enough to distinguish between 1.0 and 2.5 mM of sample K + . μPADs using distance-based methods were also capable of differentiating between 4.3 and 6.9 mM K + in human serum samples. Distance-based methods required no digital analysis, electronic hardware, or pumps; any steps required for quantification could be carried out using the naked eye.

  1. Camera-based micro interferometer for distance sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Matthias; Schädel, Martin; Ortlepp, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Interference of light provides a high precision, non-contact and fast method for measurement method for distances. Therefore this technology dominates in high precision systems. However, in the field of compact sensors capacitive, resistive or inductive methods dominates. The reason is, that the interferometric system has to be precise adjusted and needs a high mechanical stability. As a result, we have usual high-priced complex systems not suitable in the field of compact sensors. To overcome these we developed a new concept for a very small interferometric sensing setup. We combine a miniaturized laser unit, a low cost pixel detector and machine vision routines to realize a demonstrator for a Michelson type micro interferometer. We demonstrate a low cost sensor smaller 1cm3 including all electronics and demonstrate distance sensing up to 30 cm and resolution in nm range.

  2. EPR-based distance measurements at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumkacheva, Olesya; Bagryanskaya, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed dipolar (PD) EPR spectroscopy is a powerful technique allowing for distance measurements between spin labels in the range of 2.5-10.0 nm. It was proposed more than 30 years ago, and nowadays is widely used in biophysics and materials science. Until recently, PD EPR experiments were limited to cryogenic temperatures (T biomolecules, the influence of a linker between the spin probe and biomolecule, and future opportunities.

  3. Computations of Wall Distances Based on Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Paul G.; Rumsey, Chris L.; Spalart, Philippe R.; Bartels, Robert E.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    The use of differential equations such as Eikonal, Hamilton-Jacobi and Poisson for the economical calculation of the nearest wall distance d, which is needed by some turbulence models, is explored. Modifications that could palliate some turbulence-modeling anomalies are also discussed. Economy is of especial value for deforming/adaptive grid problems. For these, ideally, d is repeatedly computed. It is shown that the Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations can be easy to implement when written in implicit (or iterated) advection and advection-diffusion equation analogous forms, respectively. These, like the Poisson Laplacian term, are commonly occurring in CFD solvers, allowing the re-use of efficient algorithms and code components. The use of the NASA CFL3D CFD program to solve the implicit Eikonal and Hamilton-Jacobi equations is explored. The re-formulated d equations are easy to implement, and are found to have robust convergence. For accurate Eikonal solutions, upwind metric differences are required. The Poisson approach is also found effective, and easiest to implement. Modified distances are not found to affect global outputs such as lift and drag significantly, at least in common situations such as airfoil flows.

  4. Rigorous force field optimization principles based on statistical distance minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlcek, Lukas, E-mail: vlcekl1@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States); Joint Institute for Computational Sciences, University of Tennessee, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6173 (United States); Chialvo, Ariel A. [Chemical Sciences Division, Geochemistry & Interfacial Sciences Group, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6110 (United States)

    2015-10-14

    We use the concept of statistical distance to define a measure of distinguishability between a pair of statistical mechanical systems, i.e., a model and its target, and show that its minimization leads to general convergence of the model’s static measurable properties to those of the target. We exploit this feature to define a rigorous basis for the development of accurate and robust effective molecular force fields that are inherently compatible with coarse-grained experimental data. The new model optimization principles and their efficient implementation are illustrated through selected examples, whose outcome demonstrates the higher robustness and predictive accuracy of the approach compared to other currently used methods, such as force matching and relative entropy minimization. We also discuss relations between the newly developed principles and established thermodynamic concepts, which include the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality and the thermodynamic length.

  5. Long distance measurement with a femtosecond laser based frequency comb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, N.; Cui, M.; Zeitouny, M. G.; Urbach, H. P.; van den Berg, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in the field of ultra-short pulse lasers have led to the development of reliable sources of carrier envelope phase stabilized femtosecond pulses. The pulse train generated by such a source has a frequency spectrum that consists of discrete, regularly spaced lines known as a frequency comb. In this case both the frequency repetition and the carrier-envelope-offset frequency are referenced to a frequency standard, like an atomic clock. As a result the accuracy of the frequency standard is transferred to the optical domain, with the frequency comb as transfer oscillator. These unique properties allow the frequency comb to be applied as a versatile tool, not only for time and frequency metrology, but also in fundamental physics, high-precision spectroscopy, and laser noise characterization. The pulse-to-pulse phase relationship of the light emitted by the frequency comb has opened up new directions for long range highly accurate distance measurement.

  6. Bin Ratio-Based Histogram Distances and Their Application to Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Xie, Nianhua; Hu, Ruiguang; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Qiang; Yan, Shuicheng; Maybank, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Large variations in image background may cause partial matching and normalization problems for histogram-based representations, i.e., the histograms of the same category may have bins which are significantly different, and normalization may produce large changes in the differences between corresponding bins. In this paper, we deal with this problem by using the ratios between bin values of histograms, rather than bin values' differences which are used in the traditional histogram distances. We propose a bin ratio-based histogram distance (BRD), which is an intra-cross-bin distance, in contrast with previous bin-to-bin distances and cross-bin distances. The BRD is robust to partial matching and histogram normalization, and captures correlations between bins with only a linear computational complexity. We combine the BRD with the ℓ1 histogram distance and the χ(2) histogram distance to generate the ℓ1 BRD and the χ(2) BRD, respectively. These combinations exploit and benefit from the robustness of the BRD under partial matching and the robustness of the ℓ1 and χ(2) distances to small noise. We propose a method for assessing the robustness of histogram distances to partial matching. The BRDs and logistic regression-based histogram fusion are applied to image classification. The experimental results on synthetic data sets show the robustness of the BRDs to partial matching, and the experiments on seven benchmark data sets demonstrate promising results of the BRDs for image classification.

  7. Multi-image acquisition-based distance sensor using agile laser spot beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; Amin, M Junaid

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel laser-based distance measurement technique that uses multiple-image-based spatial processing to enable distance measurements. Compared with the first-generation distance sensor using spatial processing, the modified sensor is no longer hindered by the classic Rayleigh axial resolution limit for the propagating laser beam at its minimum beam waist location. The proposed high-resolution distance sensor design uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) in combination with an optical imaging device, such as a charged-coupled device (CCD), to produce and capture different laser spot size images on a target with these beam spot sizes different from the minimal spot size possible at this target distance. By exploiting the unique relationship of the target located spot sizes with the varying ECVFL focal length for each target distance, the proposed distance sensor can compute the target distance with a distance measurement resolution better than the axial resolution via the Rayleigh resolution criterion. Using a 30 mW 633 nm He-Ne laser coupled with an electromagnetically actuated liquid ECVFL, along with a 20 cm focal length bias lens, and using five spot images captured per target position by a CCD-based Nikon camera, a proof-of-concept proposed distance sensor is successfully implemented in the laboratory over target ranges from 10 to 100 cm with a demonstrated sub-cm axial resolution, which is better than the axial Rayleigh resolution limit at these target distances. Applications for the proposed potentially cost-effective distance sensor are diverse and include industrial inspection and measurement and 3D object shape mapping and imaging.

  8. Distance-Based Functional Diversity Measures and Their Decomposition: A Framework Based on Hill Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chun-Huo; Chao, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Hill numbers (or the “effective number of species”) are increasingly used to characterize species diversity of an assemblage. This work extends Hill numbers to incorporate species pairwise functional distances calculated from species traits. We derive a parametric class of functional Hill numbers, which quantify “the effective number of equally abundant and (functionally) equally distinct species” in an assemblage. We also propose a class of mean functional diversity (per species), which quantifies the effective sum of functional distances between a fixed species to all other species. The product of the functional Hill number and the mean functional diversity thus quantifies the (total) functional diversity, i.e., the effective total distance between species of the assemblage. The three measures (functional Hill numbers, mean functional diversity and total functional diversity) quantify different aspects of species trait space, and all are based on species abundance and species pairwise functional distances. When all species are equally distinct, our functional Hill numbers reduce to ordinary Hill numbers. When species abundances are not considered or species are equally abundant, our total functional diversity reduces to the sum of all pairwise distances between species of an assemblage. The functional Hill numbers and the mean functional diversity both satisfy a replication principle, implying the total functional diversity satisfies a quadratic replication principle. When there are multiple assemblages defined by the investigator, each of the three measures of the pooled assemblage (gamma) can be multiplicatively decomposed into alpha and beta components, and the two components are independent. The resulting beta component measures pure functional differentiation among assemblages and can be further transformed to obtain several classes of normalized functional similarity (or differentiation) measures, including N-assemblage functional generalizations of

  9. Distance-based functional diversity measures and their decomposition: a framework based on Hill numbers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Huo Chiu

    Full Text Available Hill numbers (or the "effective number of species" are increasingly used to characterize species diversity of an assemblage. This work extends Hill numbers to incorporate species pairwise functional distances calculated from species traits. We derive a parametric class of functional Hill numbers, which quantify "the effective number of equally abundant and (functionally equally distinct species" in an assemblage. We also propose a class of mean functional diversity (per species, which quantifies the effective sum of functional distances between a fixed species to all other species. The product of the functional Hill number and the mean functional diversity thus quantifies the (total functional diversity, i.e., the effective total distance between species of the assemblage. The three measures (functional Hill numbers, mean functional diversity and total functional diversity quantify different aspects of species trait space, and all are based on species abundance and species pairwise functional distances. When all species are equally distinct, our functional Hill numbers reduce to ordinary Hill numbers. When species abundances are not considered or species are equally abundant, our total functional diversity reduces to the sum of all pairwise distances between species of an assemblage. The functional Hill numbers and the mean functional diversity both satisfy a replication principle, implying the total functional diversity satisfies a quadratic replication principle. When there are multiple assemblages defined by the investigator, each of the three measures of the pooled assemblage (gamma can be multiplicatively decomposed into alpha and beta components, and the two components are independent. The resulting beta component measures pure functional differentiation among assemblages and can be further transformed to obtain several classes of normalized functional similarity (or differentiation measures, including N-assemblage functional

  10. Identifying multiple influential spreaders in term of the distance-based coloring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lei; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang [Research Center of Complex Systems Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Liu, Jian-Guo, E-mail: liujg004@ustc.edu.cn [Research Center of Complex Systems Science, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Data Science and Cloud Service Research Centre, Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-02-22

    Identifying influential nodes is of significance for understanding the dynamics of information diffusion process in complex networks. In this paper, we present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. In our method, each node is colored by a kind of color with the rule that the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance of a network. When all nodes are colored, nodes with the same color are sorted into an independent set. Then we choose the nodes at the top positions of the ranking list according to their centralities. The experimental results for an artificial network and three empirical networks show that, comparing with the performance of traditional coloring method, the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 12.82%, 8.16%, 4.45%, 2.93% for the ER, Erdős, Polblogs and Routers networks respectively. - Highlights: • We present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. • Each node is colored by a kind of color where the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance. • For three empirical networks show that the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 8.16% for the Erdos network.

  11. Identifying multiple influential spreaders in term of the distance-based coloring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Lei; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Identifying influential nodes is of significance for understanding the dynamics of information diffusion process in complex networks. In this paper, we present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. In our method, each node is colored by a kind of color with the rule that the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance of a network. When all nodes are colored, nodes with the same color are sorted into an independent set. Then we choose the nodes at the top positions of the ranking list according to their centralities. The experimental results for an artificial network and three empirical networks show that, comparing with the performance of traditional coloring method, the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 12.82%, 8.16%, 4.45%, 2.93% for the ER, Erdős, Polblogs and Routers networks respectively. - Highlights: • We present an improved distance-based coloring method to identify the multiple influential spreaders. • Each node is colored by a kind of color where the distance between initial nodes is close to the average distance. • For three empirical networks show that the improvement ratio of our distance-based coloring method could reach 8.16% for the Erdos network.

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Learning Biology in Distance-Based Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallyburton, Chad L.; Lunsford, Eddie

    2013-01-01

    The history of learning biology through distance education is documented. A review of terminology and unique problems associated with biology instruction is presented. Using published research and their own teaching experience, the authors present recommendations and best practices for managing biology in distance-based formats. They offer ideas…

  13. Image Inpainting Based on Coherence Transport with Adapted Distance Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Mä rz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We discuss an extension of our method image inpainting based on coherence transport. For the latter method the pixels of the inpainting domain have to be serialized into an ordered list. Until now, to induce the serialization we have used

  14. running distance education in studio-based art institutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    tion to increase student enrolment without compounding the problem of overcrowding. This is ... tance education effectively in studio-based art institutions at a lesser cost than through video- ... example, have adopted this system for this pur-.

  15. RSSI-Based Distance Estimation Framework Using a Kalman Filter for Sustainable Indoor Computing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsick Sung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that location information is the key to providing a variety of services in sustainable indoor computing environments, it is required to obtain accurate locations. Locations can be estimated by three distances from three fixed points. Therefore, if the distance between two points can be measured or estimated accurately, the location in indoor environments can be estimated. To increase the accuracy of the measured distance, noise filtering, signal revision, and distance estimation processes are generally performed. This paper proposes a novel framework for estimating the distance between a beacon and an access point (AP in a sustainable indoor computing environment. Diverse types of received strength signal indications (RSSIs are used for WiFi, Bluetooth, and radio signals, and the proposed distance estimation framework is unique in that it is independent of the specific wireless signal involved, being based on the Bluetooth signal of the beacon. Generally, RSSI measurement, noise filtering, and revision are required for distance estimation using RSSIs. The employed RSSIs are first measured from an AP, with multiple APs sometimes used to increase the accuracy of the distance estimation. Owing to the inevitable presence of noise in the measured RSSIs, the application of noise filtering is essential, and further revision is used to address the inaccuracy and instability that characterizes RSSIs measured in an indoor environment. The revised RSSIs are then used to estimate the distance. The proposed distance estimation framework uses one AP to measure the RSSIs, a Kalman filter to eliminate noise, and a log-distance path loss model to revise the measured RSSIs. In the experimental implementation of the framework, both a RSSI filter and a Kalman filter were respectively used for noise elimination to comparatively evaluate the performance of the latter for the specific application. The Kalman filter was found to reduce the accumulated errors by 8

  16. Marginal revenue transformation in airline seat inventory control with two fare families and two markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Brian

    to not offering any lower classes for sale. Furthermore, let Q(S) denote the total probability of purchase of set S and R(S) the total expected revenue from offering set S. The application of the MR transformation to the scenario with two fare families and two markets can be described in three overall principles....... 1) MR transformation from fare families to fare classes The first principle is that given a specific market the adjusted fare defined by the MR transformation is calculated for the subsets of fare classes on the efficient frontier of the set of points {Q(S),R(S)}, for all S. In the case of two fare...... families the sets on the efficient frontier does not necessarily represent nested policies. 2) Nesting of fare family policies The second principle is that given a specific market the subsets on the efficient frontier are forced to be nested. The primary purpose of this principle is that it enables...

  17. Distance tracking scheme for seamless handover in IMS-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes a fast and seamless handover scheme for systems based on IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) architectural framework with Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) access network. In the scheme the location, direction and movement pattern of a Mobile Node (MN) in a network cell are ...

  18. RM Methods for Multiple Fare Structure Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kayser, Matthew R

    2008-01-01

    .... The problem this causes is two-fold: (1) traditional revenue management systems, which operate based on the assumption of demand independence, will see demand "spiral down" into the lowest booking classes as passengers buy the lowest...

  19. Editorial ~ Does "Lean Thinking" Relate to Network-based Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Cookson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Pointing to the “objectivised, rationalized, technologically-based interaction,” Peters (1973 referred to the then prevailing correspondence forms of distance education as “the most industrialized form of education” (p. 313. With such features as assembly line methods; division of labor; centralized processes of teaching materials development, production and dispatching; student admissions enrollment systems; automated registration, course allocation, and student support, and personnel management systems, distance education institutions demonstrated management structures and practices utilized in industrial and business organizations. Large numbers of courses and students were thus “processed” in correspondence, radio, and television-based distance education systems.

  20. Teachers’ Invisible Presence in Net-based Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Hult

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Conferencing – or dialogue – has always been a core activity in liberal adult education. More recently, attempts have been made to transfer such conversations online in the form of computer-mediated conferencing. This transfer has raised a range of pedagogical questions, most notably “Can established practices be continued? Or must new forms of participation and group management be established? This paper addresses these questions. It is based on two sources: (1 3,700 online postings from a variety of Net-based adult education courses in Sweden; and (2 interviews with participants and course-leaders. It comprises a discussion of online conversational activity and, in particular, the absent presence and pedagogic orientation of teachers who steer learners towards explicit and implicit course goals. In other words, it is a reminder that adult education is not a free-floating form of self instruction but, rather, operates within boundaries created and managed by other human beings.

  1. The effect of uncertainties in distance-based ranking methods for multi-criteria decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaini, Nor I.; Utyuzhnikov, Sergei V.

    2017-08-01

    Data in the multi-criteria decision making are often imprecise and changeable. Therefore, it is important to carry out sensitivity analysis test for the multi-criteria decision making problem. The paper aims to present a sensitivity analysis for some ranking techniques based on the distance measures in multi-criteria decision making. Two types of uncertainties are considered for the sensitivity analysis test. The first uncertainty is related to the input data, while the second uncertainty is towards the Decision Maker preferences (weights). The ranking techniques considered in this study are TOPSIS, the relative distance and trade-off ranking methods. TOPSIS and the relative distance method measure a distance from an alternative to the ideal and antiideal solutions. In turn, the trade-off ranking calculates a distance of an alternative to the extreme solutions and other alternatives. Several test cases are considered to study the performance of each ranking technique in both types of uncertainties.

  2. Multiscale Distance Coherence Vector Algorithm for Content-Based Image Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiexian, Zeng; Xiupeng, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale distance coherence vector algorithm for content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is proposed due to the same descriptor with different shapes and the shortcomings of antinoise performance of the distance coherence vector algorithm. By this algorithm, the image contour curve is evolved by Gaussian function first, and then the distance coherence vector is, respectively, extracted from the contour of the original image and evolved images. Multiscale distance coherence vector was obtained by reasonable weight distribution of the distance coherence vectors of evolved images contour. This algorithm not only is invariable to translation, rotation, and scaling transformation but also has good performance of antinoise. The experiment results show us that the algorithm has a higher recall rate and precision rate for the retrieval of images polluted by noise. PMID:24883416

  3. Thickness and clearance visualization based on distance field of 3D objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatomo Inui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for visualizing the thickness and clearance of 3D objects in a polyhedral representation. The proposed method uses the distance field of the objects in the visualization. A parallel algorithm is developed for constructing the distance field of polyhedral objects using the GPU. The distance between a voxel and the surface polygons of the model is computed many times in the distance field construction. Similar sets of polygons are usually selected as close polygons for close voxels. By using this spatial coherence, a parallel algorithm is designed to compute the distances between a cluster of close voxels and the polygons selected by the culling operation so that the fast shared memory mechanism of the GPU can be fully utilized. The thickness/clearance of the objects is visualized by distributing points on the visible surfaces of the objects and painting them with a unique color corresponding to the thickness/clearance values at those points. A modified ray casting method is developed for computing the thickness/clearance using the distance field of the objects. A system based on these algorithms can compute the distance field of complex objects within a few minutes for most cases. After the distance field construction, thickness/clearance visualization at a near interactive rate is achieved.

  4. A method for assigning species into groups based on generalized Mahalanobis distance between habitat model coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.J.; Heglund, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat association models are commonly developed for individual animal species using generalized linear modeling methods such as logistic regression. We considered the issue of grouping species based on their habitat use so that management decisions can be based on sets of species rather than individual species. This research was motivated by a study of western landbirds in northern Idaho forests. The method we examined was to separately fit models to each species and to use a generalized Mahalanobis distance between coefficient vectors to create a distance matrix among species. Clustering methods were used to group species from the distance matrix, and multidimensional scaling methods were used to visualize the relations among species groups. Methods were also discussed for evaluating the sensitivity of the conclusions because of outliers or influential data points. We illustrate these methods with data from the landbird study conducted in northern Idaho. Simulation results are presented to compare the success of this method to alternative methods using Euclidean distance between coefficient vectors and to methods that do not use habitat association models. These simulations demonstrate that our Mahalanobis-distance- based method was nearly always better than Euclidean-distance-based methods or methods not based on habitat association models. The methods used to develop candidate species groups are easily explained to other scientists and resource managers since they mainly rely on classical multivariate statistical methods. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Contact- and distance-based principal component analysis of protein dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Matthias; Sittel, Florian; Stock, Gerhard, E-mail: stock@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Biomolecular Dynamics, Institute of Physics, Albert Ludwigs University, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    To interpret molecular dynamics simulations of complex systems, systematic dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) represent a well-established and popular approach. Apart from Cartesian coordinates, internal coordinates, e.g., backbone dihedral angles or various kinds of distances, may be used as input data in a PCA. Adopting two well-known model problems, folding of villin headpiece and the functional dynamics of BPTI, a systematic study of PCA using distance-based measures is presented which employs distances between C{sub α}-atoms as well as distances between inter-residue contacts including side chains. While this approach seems prohibitive for larger systems due to the quadratic scaling of the number of distances with the size of the molecule, it is shown that it is sufficient (and sometimes even better) to include only relatively few selected distances in the analysis. The quality of the PCA is assessed by considering the resolution of the resulting free energy landscape (to identify metastable conformational states and barriers) and the decay behavior of the corresponding autocorrelation functions (to test the time scale separation of the PCA). By comparing results obtained with distance-based, dihedral angle, and Cartesian coordinates, the study shows that the choice of input variables may drastically influence the outcome of a PCA.

  6. An improved initialization center k-means clustering algorithm based on distance and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanling; Liu, Qun; Xia, Shuyin

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the problem of the random initial clustering center of k means algorithm that the clustering results are influenced by outlier data sample and are unstable in multiple clustering, a method of central point initialization method based on larger distance and higher density is proposed. The reciprocal of the weighted average of distance is used to represent the sample density, and the data sample with the larger distance and the higher density are selected as the initial clustering centers to optimize the clustering results. Then, a clustering evaluation method based on distance and density is designed to verify the feasibility of the algorithm and the practicality, the experimental results on UCI data sets show that the algorithm has a certain stability and practicality.

  7. Implementation of a microcomputer based distance relay for parallel transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadke, A.G.; Jihuang, L.

    1986-01-01

    Distance relaying for parallel transmission lines is a difficult application problem with conventional phase and ground distance relays. It is known that for cross-country faults involving dissimilar phases and ground, three phase tripping may result. This paper summarizes a newly developed microcomputer based relay which is capable of classifying the cross-country fault correctly. The paper describes the principle of operation and results of laboratory tests of this relay

  8. Stochastic Learning of Multi-Instance Dictionary for Earth Mover's Distance based Histogram Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jihong; Liang, Ru-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Dictionary plays an important role in multi-instance data representation. It maps bags of instances to histograms. Earth mover's distance (EMD) is the most effective histogram distance metric for the application of multi-instance retrieval. However, up to now, there is no existing multi-instance dictionary learning methods designed for EMD based histogram comparison. To fill this gap, we develop the first EMD-optimal dictionary learning method using stochastic optimization method. In the stoc...

  9. The correction of vibration in frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system for dynamic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Bingguo; Chen, Fengdong; Zhuang, Zhitao; Xu, Xinke; Gan, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Absolute distance measurement systems are of significant interest in the field of metrology, which could improve the manufacturing efficiency and accuracy of large assemblies in fields such as aircraft construction, automotive engineering, and the production of modern windmill blades. Frequency scanning interferometry demonstrates noticeable advantages as an absolute distance measurement system which has a high precision and doesn't depend on a cooperative target. In this paper , the influence of inevitable vibration in the frequency scanning interferometry based absolute distance measurement system is analyzed. The distance spectrum is broadened as the existence of Doppler effect caused by vibration, which will bring in a measurement error more than 103 times bigger than the changes of optical path difference. In order to decrease the influence of vibration, the changes of the optical path difference are monitored by a frequency stabilized laser, which runs parallel to the frequency scanning interferometry. The experiment has verified the effectiveness of this method.

  10. Weighted Evidence Combination Rule Based on Evidence Distance and Uncertainty Measure: An Application in Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict management in Dempster-Shafer theory (D-S theory is a hot topic in information fusion. In this paper, a novel weighted evidence combination rule based on evidence distance and uncertainty measure is proposed. The proposed approach consists of two steps. First, the weight is determined based on the evidence distance. Then, the weight value obtained in first step is modified by taking advantage of uncertainty. Our proposed method can efficiently handle high conflicting evidences with better performance of convergence. A numerical example and an application based on sensor fusion in fault diagnosis are given to demonstrate the efficiency of our proposed method.

  11. Curriculum Guidelines for a Distance Education Course in Urban Agriculture Based on an Eclectic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaum, Wilma G.; van Rooyen, Hugo G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes research to develop curriculum guidelines for a distance education course in urban agriculture. The course, designed to train the teacher, is based on an eclectic curriculum design model. The course is aimed at the socioeconomic empowerment of urban farmers and is based on sustainable ecological-agricultural principles, an…

  12. Bounded distance decoding of linear error-correcting codes with Gröbner bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulygin, S.; Pellikaan, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of bounded distance decoding of arbitrary linear codes using Gröbner bases is addressed. A new method is proposed, which is based on reducing an initial decoding problem to solving a certain system of polynomial equations over a finite field. The peculiarity of this system is that, when

  13. Teaching Reading Comprehension in English in a Distance Web-Based Course: New Roles for Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hugo Muñoz Marín

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Distance web-based learning is a popular strategy in ELT teaching in Colombia. Despite of the growth of experiences, there are very few studies regarding teachers' participation in these courses. This paper reports preliminary findings of an on-going study aiming at exploring the roles that a teacher plays in an efl reading comprehension distance web-based course. Data analysis suggests that teachers play new roles solving technical problems, providing immediate feedback, interacting with students in a non traditional way, providing time management advice, and acting as a constant motivator. The authors conclude that EFL teachers require training for this new teaching roles and the analysis of web-based distance learning environments as an option under permanent construction that requires their active participation.

  14. Benchmarking Distance Control and Virtual Drilling for Lateral Skull Base Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voormolen, Eduard H J; Diederen, Sander; van Stralen, Marijn; Woerdeman, Peter A; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Viergever, Max A; Regli, Luca; Robe, Pierre A; Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, Jan Willem

    2018-01-01

    Novel audiovisual feedback methods were developed to improve image guidance during skull base surgery by providing audiovisual warnings when the drill tip enters a protective perimeter set at a distance around anatomic structures ("distance control") and visualizing bone drilling ("virtual drilling"). To benchmark the drill damage risk reduction provided by distance control, to quantify the accuracy of virtual drilling, and to investigate whether the proposed feedback methods are clinically feasible. In a simulated surgical scenario using human cadavers, 12 unexperienced users (medical students) drilled 12 mastoidectomies. Users were divided into a control group using standard image guidance and 3 groups using distance control with protective perimeters of 1, 2, or 3 mm. Damage to critical structures (sigmoid sinus, semicircular canals, facial nerve) was assessed. Neurosurgeons performed another 6 mastoidectomy/trans-labyrinthine and retro-labyrinthine approaches. Virtual errors as compared with real postoperative drill cavities were calculated. In a clinical setting, 3 patients received lateral skull base surgery with the proposed feedback methods. Users drilling with distance control protective perimeters of 3 mm did not damage structures, whereas the groups using smaller protective perimeters and the control group injured structures. Virtual drilling maximum cavity underestimations and overestimations were 2.8 ± 0.1 and 3.3 ± 0.4 mm, respectively. Feedback methods functioned properly in the clinical setting. Distance control reduced the risks of drill damage proportional to the protective perimeter distance. Errors in virtual drilling reflect spatial errors of the image guidance system. These feedback methods are clinically feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  16. KM-FCM: A fuzzy clustering optimization algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen ZU

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional fuzzy clustering algorithm uses Euclidean distance as the similarity criterion, which is disadvantageous to the multidimensional data processing. In order to solve this situation, Mahalanobis distance is used instead of the traditional Euclidean distance, and the optimization of fuzzy clustering algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance is studied to enhance the clustering effect and ability. With making the initialization means by Heuristic search algorithm combined with k-means algorithm, and in terms of the validity function which could automatically adjust the optimal clustering number, an optimization algorithm KM-FCM is proposed. The new algorithm is compared with FCM algorithm, FCM-M algorithm and M-FCM algorithm in three standard data sets. The experimental results show that the KM-FCM algorithm is effective. It has higher clustering accuracy than FCM, FCM-M and M-FCM, recognizing high-dimensional data clustering well. It has global optimization effect, and the clustering number has no need for setting in advance. The new algorithm provides a reference for the optimization of fuzzy clustering algorithm based on Mahalanobis distance.

  17. Learning Global-Local Distance Metrics for Signature-Based Biometric Cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Eskander Ekladious

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biometric traits, such as fingerprints, faces and signatures have been employed in bio-cryptosystems to secure cryptographic keys within digital security schemes. Reliable implementations of these systems employ error correction codes formulated as simple distance thresholds, although they may not effectively model the complex variability of behavioral biometrics like signatures. In this paper, a Global-Local Distance Metric (GLDM framework is proposed to learn cost-effective distance metrics, which reduce within-class variability and augment between-class variability, so that simple error correction thresholds of bio-cryptosystems provide high classification accuracy. First, a large number of samples from a development dataset are used to train a global distance metric that differentiates within-class from between-class samples of the population. Then, once user-specific samples are available for enrollment, the global metric is tuned to a local user-specific one. Proof-of-concept experiments on two reference offline signature databases confirm the viability of the proposed approach. Distance metrics are produced based on concise signature representations consisting of about 20 features and a single prototype. A signature-based bio-cryptosystem is designed using the produced metrics and has shown average classification error rates of about 7% and 17% for the PUCPR and the GPDS-300 databases, respectively. This level of performance is comparable to that obtained with complex state-of-the-art classifiers.

  18. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B

    2006-01-01

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily

  19. Research on Single Base-Station Distance Estimation Algorithm in Quasi-GPS Ultrasonic Location System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X C; Su, S J; Wang, Y K; Du, J B [Instrument Department, College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, Hunan, 410073 (China)

    2006-10-15

    In order to identify each base-station in quasi-GPS ultrasonic location system, a unique pseudo-random code is assigned to each base-station. This article primarily studies the distance estimation problem between Autonomous Guide Vehicle (AGV) and single base-station, and then the ultrasonic spread-spectrum distance measurement Time Delay Estimation (TDE) model is established. Based on the above model, the envelope correlation fast TDE algorithm based on FFT is presented and analyzed. It shows by experiments that when the m sequence used in the received signal is as same as the reference signal, there will be a sharp correlation value in their envelope correlation function after they are processed by the above algorithm; otherwise, the will be no prominent correlation value. So, the AGV can identify each base-station easily.

  20. Simulation of Distance Relay for Load Encroachment Alleviation with Agent Based Supervision of Zone3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Badr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cascaded tripping of power lines due to mal-operation of zone-3 distance relays has been one of the main causes of many previous blackouts worldwide. Encroachment of load into zone-3 characteristics during stressed system operation conditions is a basic factor for such mal-operation of the relays. By improving the operation of zone-3, it is possible to prevent mal-operations so that cascaded line tripping can be avoided. For proper study of the behavior of distance relay during faults and load encroachment phenomenon, we must build a model of distance relay, so in this paper a modeling study of distance relay is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink program. However, this model is distinguished from previous models that, examines in detail the third zone of distance relay. Many cases are simulated with changing line loading and fault location to ensure the capability of the relay to detect the fault and thus the maximum load ability limit of distance relay is obtained. In order to prevent cascading events caused by hidden failures in zone-3 relays, agent based relay architectures have been suggested in the recent past. In such architectures each zone-3 relay contains agents that require communication with other agents at various relevant relays in order to distinguish a real zone-3 event from a temporary overload. In this paper, a local master agent is consulted by all zone-3 agents before a tripping decision is made. The master agent maintains a rule base which is updated based on the local topology of the network and real time monitoring of the status of other relays and circuit breakers. Cisco Packet Tracer program is used for running communication network simulations. The result of the simulation indicate that the time estimated to send and receive a packet data unit (PDU message between one relay to anther can satisfy the communication requirement for the proposed scheme with fiber media.

  1. Knowledge Based Artificial Augmentation Intelligence Technology: Next Step in Academic Instructional Tools for Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Dale; LaPierre, Martin; Kebritchi, Mansureh

    2017-01-01

    With augmented intelligence/knowledge based system (KBS) it is now possible to develop distance learning applications to support both curriculum and administrative tasks. Instructional designers and information technology (IT) professionals are now moving from the programmable systems era that started in the 1950s to the cognitive computing era.…

  2. Decoding and finding the minimum distance with Gröbner bases : history and new insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulygin, S.; Pellikaan, G.R.; Woungang, I.; Misra, S.; Misra, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss decoding techniques and finding the minimum distance of linear codes with the use of Grobner bases. First, we give a historical overview of decoding cyclic codes via solving systems polynominal equations over finite fields. In particular, we mention papers of Cooper,.

  3. MOND rotation curves for spiral galaxies with Cepheid-based distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R; Pestana, JLG; Rothberg, B; Sanders, RH

    2002-01-01

    Rotation curves for four spiral galaxies with recently determined Cepheid-based distances are reconsidered in terms of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND). For two of the objects, NGC 2403 and NGC 7331, the rotation curves predicted by MOND are compatible with the observed curves when these galaxies

  4. Distance-Based Image Classification: Generalizing to New Classes at Near Zero Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, T.; Verbeek, J.; Perronnin, F.; Csurka, G.

    2013-01-01

    We study large-scale image classification methods that can incorporate new classes and training images continuously over time at negligible cost. To this end, we consider two distance-based classifiers, the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and nearest class mean (NCM) classifiers, and introduce a new

  5. A distance weighted-based approach for self-organized aggregation in robot swarms

    KAUST Repository

    Khaldi, Belkacem; Harrou, Fouzi; Cherif, Foudil; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    topology to keep the robots together. A distance-weighted function based on a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) interpolation approach is used as a key factor to identify the K-Nearest neighbors taken into account when aggregating the robots. The intra

  6. Preparedness of NGO Health Service Providers in Bangladesh about Distance Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKM ALAMGIR

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional survey was conducted countrywide from 15 January to 01 March 2004 to explore the potentials of health care service providers (physicians, nurses, paramedics etc. for using distance-based learning materials. Face-to-face in-depth interview was taken from 99 randomly selected direct service providers, 45 midlevel clinic mangers/physicians and 06 administrators or policy planners. Quasi-open questionnaire was developed for three different levels. Pre-trained interviewer team assisted data collection at field level. Total procedure was stringently monitored for completeness and consistency to ensure quality data. SPSS software was used to process and analyze both univariate and multivariate multiple responses. Identified need for training areas were- STD/HIV, tuberculosis updates, family planning, treatment of locally endemic diseases, behavioral change communication & marketing and quality management system for managers. About 76.7% clinic managers and 89.1% service providers had primary information about distance-based learning in spite showed interest. About 51.5% desired monthly, 20.6% biweekly and 26.8% wanted bimonthly circulation of the distance-based study materials. About 35.1% expected print materials with regular facilitators while 58.8% demanded stand-by facilitators. The study suggested wide acceptance of distance-based learning methods as supplementary to the continuing medical education among the countrywide health service providers.

  7. Distance-based microfluidic quantitative detection methods for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Li, Jiuxing; Song, Yanling; Zhou, Leiji; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2016-04-07

    Equipment-free devices with quantitative readout are of great significance to point-of-care testing (POCT), which provides real-time readout to users and is especially important in low-resource settings. Among various equipment-free approaches, distance-based visual quantitative detection methods rely on reading the visual signal length for corresponding target concentrations, thus eliminating the need for sophisticated instruments. The distance-based methods are low-cost, user-friendly and can be integrated into portable analytical devices. Moreover, such methods enable quantitative detection of various targets by the naked eye. In this review, we first introduce the concept and history of distance-based visual quantitative detection methods. Then, we summarize the main methods for translation of molecular signals to distance-based readout and discuss different microfluidic platforms (glass, PDMS, paper and thread) in terms of applications in biomedical diagnostics, food safety monitoring, and environmental analysis. Finally, the potential and future perspectives are discussed.

  8. INTERACTION BETWEEN ENTERPRISES AND UNIVERSITIES CIVIL AVIATION BASED TECHNOLOGIES OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education based on modern information technology as a tool for interaction between universities and enterprises of civil aviation. The introduction of the learning process real needs of civil aviation, enabling an airline to use scientific potential of educational institutions for the successful implementation of scientific research aimed at solving urgent problems.

  9. Impact of distance on the network management capability of the home base firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mykhaylenko, Alona; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    For many globally dispersed organizations the home base (HB) is historically the locus of integrative, coordinating and innovating efforts, important for the overall performance. The growing concerns about the offshoring strategies posing threats to the capabilities of the HB draw attention to how...... a HB can continuously sustain its centrality. The well-known challenges of distance in the distributed working arrangements may be regarded as a major threat to the network management capabilities (NMCs) of the HB. Therefore, this paper investigates what role does distance between the HB and its...

  10. Exploring Education Major Focused Adult Learners' Perspectives and Practices of Web-Based Distance Education in Sixteen Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Distance education is not a new concept for all kinds of learners in the modern societies. Many researchers have studied traditional distance education programs for adult learners in the past, but little research has been done on Web-based distance education (WBDE) for adult learners. There are also many popular online universities in the U.S. or…

  11. Accurate and robust phylogeny estimation based on profile distances: a study of the Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmann Sven

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In phylogenetic analysis we face the problem that several subclade topologies are known or easily inferred and well supported by bootstrap analysis, but basal branching patterns cannot be unambiguously estimated by the usual methods (maximum parsimony (MP, neighbor-joining (NJ, or maximum likelihood (ML, nor are they well supported. We represent each subclade by a sequence profile and estimate evolutionary distances between profiles to obtain a matrix of distances between subclades. Results Our estimator of profile distances generalizes the maximum likelihood estimator of sequence distances. The basal branching pattern can be estimated by any distance-based method, such as neighbor-joining. Our method (profile neighbor-joining, PNJ then inherits the accuracy and robustness of profiles and the time efficiency of neighbor-joining. Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of Chlorophyceae with traditional methods (MP, NJ, ML and MrBayes reveals seven well supported subclades, but the methods disagree on the basal branching pattern. The tree reconstructed by our method is better supported and can be confirmed by known morphological characters. Moreover the accuracy is significantly improved as shown by parametric bootstrap.

  12. Horses for courses: a DNA-based test for race distance aptitude in thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Emmeline W; Ryan, Donal P; MacHugh, David E

    2012-12-01

    Variation at the myostatin (MSTN) gene locus has been shown to influence racing phenotypes in Thoroughbred horses, and in particular, early skeletal muscle development and the aptitude for racing at short distances. Specifically, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the first intron of MSTN (g.66493737C/T) is highly predictive of best race distance among Flat racing Thoroughbreds: homozygous C/C horses are best suited to short distance races, heterozygous C/T horses are best suited to middle distance races, and homozygous T/T horses are best suited to longer distance races. Patent applications for this gene marker association, and other linked markers, have been filed. The information contained within the patent applications is exclusively licensed to the commercial biotechnology company Equinome Ltd, which provides a DNA-based test to the international Thoroughbred horse racing and breeding industry. The application of this information in the industry enables informed decision making in breeding and racing and can be used to assist selection to accelerate the rate of change of genetic types among distinct populations (Case Study 1) and within individual breeding operations (Case Study 2).

  13. Quantum Algorithm for K-Nearest Neighbors Classification Based on the Metric of Hamming Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yue; Xue, Xiling; Liu, Heng; Tan, Jianing; Li, Xi

    2017-11-01

    K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm is a common algorithm used for classification, and also a sub-routine in various complicated machine learning tasks. In this paper, we presented a quantum algorithm (QKNN) for implementing this algorithm based on the metric of Hamming distance. We put forward a quantum circuit for computing Hamming distance between testing sample and each feature vector in the training set. Taking advantage of this method, we realized a good analog for classical KNN algorithm by setting a distance threshold value t to select k - n e a r e s t neighbors. As a result, QKNN achieves O( n 3) performance which is only relevant to the dimension of feature vectors and high classification accuracy, outperforms Llyod's algorithm (Lloyd et al. 2013) and Wiebe's algorithm (Wiebe et al. 2014).

  14. The costs of transit fare prepayment programs : a parametric cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the renewed interest in transit fare prepayment plans over the past : 10 years, few transit managers have a clear idea of how much it costs to operate : and maintain a fare prepayment program. This report provides transit managers : with the ...

  15. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This section sets forth the Board's policy on passenger fares for scheduled service by certificated air...

  16. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  17. 76 FR 82115 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Full Fare Price Advertising Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ...] RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Full Fare Price Advertising Requirements AGENCY... amending the time period for compliance with the full fare and other advertising requirements in 14 CFR 399... advertising requirements from January 24, 2012, to January 26, 2012, to provide regulatory relief to...

  18. 76 FR 78145 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Extension of Effect Date for Full Fare Price...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...] RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Extension of Effect Date for Full Fare Price Advertising AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... regarding the time period for compliance with a portion of the full fare and other advertising requirements...

  19. Distance-based relative orbital elements determination for formation flying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanchao; Xu, Ming; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with determination of relative orbital elements based only on distance between satellites in the formation flying system, which has potential application in engineering, especially suited for rapid orbit determination required missions. A geometric simplification is performed to reduce the formation configuration in three-dimensional space to a plane. Then the equivalent actual configuration deviating from its nominal design is introduced to derive a group of autonomous linear equations on the mapping between the relative orbital elements differences and distance errors. The primary linear equations-based algorithm is initially proposed to conduct the rapid and precise determination of the relative orbital elements without the complex computation, which is further improved by least-squares method with more distance measurements taken into consideration. Numerical simulations and comparisons with traditional approaches are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To assess the performance of the two proposed algorithms, accuracy validation and Monte Carlo simulations are implemented in the presence of noises of distance measurements and the leader's absolute orbital elements. It is demonstrated that the relative orbital elements determination accuracy of two approaches reaches more than 90% and even close to the actual values for the least-squares improved one. The proposed approaches can be alternates for relative orbit determination without assistance of additional facilities in engineering for their fairly high efficiency with accuracy and autonomy.

  20. A Process-Based Transport-Distance Model of Aeolian Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, A. K.; Okin, G.; Wainwright, J.; Parsons, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a new approach to modeling aeolian transport based on transport distance. Particle fluxes are based on statistical probabilities of particle detachment and distributions of transport lengths, which are functions of particle size classes. A computational saltation model is used to simulate transport distances over a variety of sizes. These are fit to an exponential distribution, which has the advantages of computational economy, concordance with current field measurements, and a meaningful relationship to theoretical assumptions about mean and median particle transport distance. This novel approach includes particle-particle interactions, which are important for sustaining aeolian transport and dust emission. Results from this model are compared with results from both bulk- and particle-sized-specific transport equations as well as empirical wind tunnel studies. The transport-distance approach has been successfully used for hydraulic processes, and extending this methodology from hydraulic to aeolian transport opens up the possibility of modeling joint transport by wind and water using consistent physics. Particularly in nutrient-limited environments, modeling the joint action of aeolian and hydraulic transport is essential for understanding the spatial distribution of biomass across landscapes and how it responds to climatic variability and change.

  1. Virtual Distances Methodology as Verification Technique for AACMMs with a Capacitive Sensor Based Indexed Metrology Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Raquel; Santolaria, Jorge; Brau, Agustin; Pueo, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new verification procedure for articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMMs) together with a capacitive sensor-based indexed metrology platform (IMP) based on the generation of virtual reference distances. The novelty of this procedure lays on the possibility of creating virtual points, virtual gauges and virtual distances through the indexed metrology platform’s mathematical model taking as a reference the measurements of a ball bar gauge located in a fixed position of the instrument’s working volume. The measurements are carried out with the AACMM assembled on the IMP from the six rotating positions of the platform. In this way, an unlimited number and types of reference distances could be created without the need of using a physical gauge, therefore optimizing the testing time, the number of gauge positions and the space needed in the calibration and verification procedures. Four evaluation methods are presented to assess the volumetric performance of the AACMM. The results obtained proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology as an alternative procedure for verification of AACMMs using the indexed metrology platform. PMID:27869722

  2. Decision-making in honeybee swarms based on quality and distance information of candidate nest sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laomettachit, Teeraphan; Termsaithong, Teerasit; Sae-Tang, Anuwat; Duangphakdee, Orawan

    2015-01-07

    In the nest-site selection process of honeybee swarms, an individual bee performs a waggle dance to communicate information about direction, quality, and distance of a discovered site to other bees at the swarm. Initially, different groups of bees dance to represent different potential sites, but eventually the swarm usually reaches an agreement for only one site. Here, we model the nest-site selection process in honeybee swarms of Apis mellifera and show how the swarms make adaptive decisions based on a trade-off between the quality and distance to candidate nest sites. We use bifurcation analysis and stochastic simulations to reveal that the swarm's site distance preference is moderate>near>far when the swarms choose between low quality sites. However, the distance preference becomes near>moderate>far when the swarms choose between high quality sites. Our simulations also indicate that swarms with large population size prefer nearer sites and, in addition, are more adaptive at making decisions based on available information compared to swarms with smaller population size. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Virtual Distances Methodology as Verification Technique for AACMMs with a Capacitive Sensor Based Indexed Metrology Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Raquel; Santolaria, Jorge; Brau, Agustin; Pueo, Marcos

    2016-11-18

    This paper presents a new verification procedure for articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMMs) together with a capacitive sensor-based indexed metrology platform (IMP) based on the generation of virtual reference distances. The novelty of this procedure lays on the possibility of creating virtual points, virtual gauges and virtual distances through the indexed metrology platform's mathematical model taking as a reference the measurements of a ball bar gauge located in a fixed position of the instrument's working volume. The measurements are carried out with the AACMM assembled on the IMP from the six rotating positions of the platform. In this way, an unlimited number and types of reference distances could be created without the need of using a physical gauge, therefore optimizing the testing time, the number of gauge positions and the space needed in the calibration and verification procedures. Four evaluation methods are presented to assess the volumetric performance of the AACMM. The results obtained proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology as an alternative procedure for verification of AACMMs using the indexed metrology platform.

  4. Anchoring quartet-based phylogenetic distances and applications to species tree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyari, Erfan; Mirarab, Siavash

    2016-11-11

    Inferring species trees from gene trees using the coalescent-based summary methods has been the subject of much attention, yet new scalable and accurate methods are needed. We introduce DISTIQUE, a new statistically consistent summary method for inferring species trees from gene trees under the coalescent model. We generalize our results to arbitrary phylogenetic inference problems; we show that two arbitrarily chosen leaves, called anchors, can be used to estimate relative distances between all other pairs of leaves by inferring relevant quartet trees. This results in a family of distance-based tree inference methods, with running times ranging between quadratic to quartic in the number of leaves. We show in simulated studies that DISTIQUE has comparable accuracy to leading coalescent-based summary methods and reduced running times.

  5. A distance weighted-based approach for self-organized aggregation in robot swarms

    KAUST Repository

    Khaldi, Belkacem

    2017-12-14

    In this paper, a Distance-Weighted K Nearest Neighboring (DW-KNN) topology is proposed to study self-organized aggregation as an emergent swarming behavior within robot swarms. A virtual physics approach is applied among the proposed neighborhood topology to keep the robots together. A distance-weighted function based on a Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) interpolation approach is used as a key factor to identify the K-Nearest neighbors taken into account when aggregating the robots. The intra virtual physical connectivity among these neighbors is achieved using a virtual viscoelastic-based proximity model. With the ARGoS based-simulator, we model and evaluate the proposed approach showing various self-organized aggregations performed by a swarm of N foot-bot robots.

  6. LIVE AUTHORITY IN THE CLASSROOM IN VIDEO CONFERENCE-BASED SYNCHRONOUS DISTANCE EDUCATION: The Teaching Assistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KARAL

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to define the role of the assistant in a classroom environment where students are taught using video conference-based synchronous distance education. Qualitative research approach was adopted and, among purposeful sampling methods, criterion sampling method was preferred in the scope of the study. The study was carried out during the spring semester of the 2008-2009 academic years. A teaching assistant and a total of 9 sophomore or senior students from the Department of City and Regional Development, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, participated as subjects. The students included in the study sampling were taking lessons from the Middle East Technical University on the basis of synchronous distance education. Among the qualitative research methods, case study method was used and the study data were obtained from the semi-structured interview and observation results. Study data were analyzed with descriptive analysis methods. Data obtained at the end of the study were found to support the suggestion that there should be an authority in the video conference-based synchronous distance education. Findings obtained during the interviews made with the students revealed that some of the teacher’s classroom management related responsibilities are transferred to the assistant present in the classroom during the synchronous distance education. It was concluded at the end of the interviews that a teaching assistant’s presence should be obligatory in the undergraduate synchronous distance classroom environment. However, it was also concluded that there may not be any need for an authority in the classroom environment at the postgraduate education level due to the profile and expectations of the student, which differ from those of students at lower educational levels.

  7. Equivalence Testing of Complex Particle Size Distribution Profiles Based on Earth Mover's Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Absar, Mohammad; Choi, Stephanie; Kozak, Darby; Shen, Meiyu; Weng, Yu-Ting; Zhao, Liang; Lionberger, Robert

    2018-04-12

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is an important property of particulates in drug products. In the evaluation of generic drug products formulated as suspensions, emulsions, and liposomes, the PSD comparisons between a test product and the branded product can provide useful information regarding in vitro and in vivo performance. Historically, the FDA has recommended the population bioequivalence (PBE) statistical approach to compare the PSD descriptors D50 and SPAN from test and reference products to support product equivalence. In this study, the earth mover's distance (EMD) is proposed as a new metric for comparing PSD particularly when the PSD profile exhibits complex distribution (e.g., multiple peaks) that is not accurately described by the D50 and SPAN descriptor. EMD is a statistical metric that measures the discrepancy (distance) between size distribution profiles without a prior assumption of the distribution. PBE is then adopted to perform statistical test to establish equivalence based on the calculated EMD distances. Simulations show that proposed EMD-based approach is effective in comparing test and reference profiles for equivalence testing and is superior compared to commonly used distance measures, e.g., Euclidean and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances. The proposed approach was demonstrated by evaluating equivalence of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion PSDs that were manufactured under different conditions. Our results show that proposed approach can effectively pass an equivalent product (e.g., reference product against itself) and reject an inequivalent product (e.g., reference product against negative control), thus suggesting its usefulness in supporting bioequivalence determination of a test product to the reference product which both possess multimodal PSDs.

  8. Assessing Gait Impairments Based on Auto-Encoded Patterns of Mahalanobis Distances from Consecutive Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Organero, Mario; Davies, Richard; Mawson, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Insole pressure sensors capture the force distribution patterns during the stance phase while walking. By comparing patterns obtained from healthy individuals to patients suffering different medical conditions based on a given similarity measure, automatic impairment indexes can be computed in order to help in applications such as rehabilitation. This paper uses the data sensed from insole pressure sensors for a group of healthy controls to train an auto-encoder using patterns of stochastic distances in series of consecutive steps while walking at normal speeds. Two experiment groups are compared to the healthy control group: a group of patients suffering knee pain and a group of post-stroke survivors. The Mahalanobis distance is computed for every single step by each participant compared to the entire dataset sensed from healthy controls. The computed distances for consecutive steps are fed into the previously trained autoencoder and the average error is used to assess how close the walking segment is to the autogenerated model from healthy controls. The results show that automatic distortion indexes can be used to assess each participant as compared to normal patterns computed from healthy controls. The stochastic distances observed for the group of stroke survivors are bigger than those for the people with knee pain.

  9. The Learning Tutor: A Web based Authoring System to Support Distance Tutoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Abou Khaled

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In distance learning contexts, such as those are being widely promoted and developed with the extensive use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology some important issues have to be carefully addressed, in order to make education more effective and available. Distant students have to face sound organizational problems concerning the working time-management and the regulation of all the learning process. These are far more complex at a distance because of the difficulties to understand and objectively evaluate how the study is progressing in term of knowledge and competence acquisition, both for the students themselves and for the teacher who is supposed to adjust the teaching process in case of need. Moreover, the absence of clear indication for the student of the relative level of importance of each piece of information available comes to be another key issue in distance education. This paper describes a Web-based authoring system, the Learning Tutor, conceived to cover these issues. The environment is composed by several interconnected authoring systems: “The Course Description, the Guiding Thread and the Agenda”, “The Work Plan and Themes Reviewer”, and “The Quizzes self-evaluation facility”. This model of combined tools aims at providing the suitable support for organization, work and time management in distance learning processes using well documented mastery learning principles.

  10. A novel three-stage distance-based consensus ranking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayi, Nazila; Tavana, Madjid

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we propose a three-stage weighted sum method for identifying the group ranks of alternatives. In the first stage, a rank matrix, similar to the cross-efficiency matrix, is obtained by computing the individual rank position of each alternative based on importance weights. In the second stage, a secondary goal is defined to limit the vector of weights since the vector of weights obtained in the first stage is not unique. Finally, in the third stage, the group rank position of alternatives is obtained based on a distance of individual rank positions. The third stage determines a consensus solution for the group so that the ranks obtained have a minimum distance from the ranks acquired by each alternative in the previous stage. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability and exhibit the efficacy of the proposed method and algorithms.

  11. Extended VIKOR Method for Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiattribute Decision-Making Based on a New Distance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An intuitionistic fuzzy VIKOR (IF-VIKOR method is proposed based on a new distance measure considering the waver of intuitionistic fuzzy information. The method aggregates all individual decision-makers’ assessment information based on intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging operator (IFWA, determines the weights of decision-makers and attributes objectively using intuitionistic fuzzy entropy, calculates the group utility and individual regret by the new distance measure, and then reaches a compromise solution. It can be effectively applied to multiattribute decision-making (MADM problems where the weights of decision-makers and attributes are completely unknown and the attribute values are intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs. The validity and stability of this method are verified by example analysis and sensitivity analysis, and its superiority is illustrated by the comparison with the existing method.

  12. Application of energies of optimal frequency bands for fault diagnosis based on modified distance function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamanian, Amir Hosein [Southern Methodist University, Dallas (United States); Ohadi, Abdolreza [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Low-dimensional relevant feature sets are ideal to avoid extra data mining for classification. The current work investigates the feasibility of utilizing energies of vibration signals in optimal frequency bands as features for machine fault diagnosis application. Energies in different frequency bands were derived based on Parseval's theorem. The optimal feature sets were extracted by optimization of the related frequency bands using genetic algorithm and a Modified distance function (MDF). The frequency bands and the number of bands were optimized based on the MDF. The MDF is designed to a) maximize the distance between centers of classes, b) minimize the dispersion of features in each class separately, and c) minimize dimension of extracted feature sets. The experimental signals in two different gearboxes were used to demonstrate the efficiency of the presented technique. The results show the effectiveness of the presented technique in gear fault diagnosis application.

  13. Auditory distance perception in humans: a review of cues, development, neuronal bases, and effects of sensory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Moore, Brian C J; Zahorik, Pavel; Cirstea, Silvia; Pardhan, Shahina

    2016-02-01

    Auditory distance perception plays a major role in spatial awareness, enabling location of objects and avoidance of obstacles in the environment. However, it remains under-researched relative to studies of the directional aspect of sound localization. This review focuses on the following four aspects of auditory distance perception: cue processing, development, consequences of visual and auditory loss, and neurological bases. The several auditory distance cues vary in their effective ranges in peripersonal and extrapersonal space. The primary cues are sound level, reverberation, and frequency. Nonperceptual factors, including the importance of the auditory event to the listener, also can affect perceived distance. Basic internal representations of auditory distance emerge at approximately 6 months of age in humans. Although visual information plays an important role in calibrating auditory space, sensorimotor contingencies can be used for calibration when vision is unavailable. Blind individuals often manifest supranormal abilities to judge relative distance but show a deficit in absolute distance judgments. Following hearing loss, the use of auditory level as a distance cue remains robust, while the reverberation cue becomes less effective. Previous studies have not found evidence that hearing-aid processing affects perceived auditory distance. Studies investigating the brain areas involved in processing different acoustic distance cues are described. Finally, suggestions are given for further research on auditory distance perception, including broader investigation of how background noise and multiple sound sources affect perceived auditory distance for those with sensory loss.

  14. Computation of Thermal Development in Injection Mould Filling, based on the Distance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Per-Åke

    2002-01-01

    The heat transfer in the filling phase of injection moulding is studied, based on Gunnar Aronsson’s distance model for flow expansion ([Aronsson], 1996). The choice of a thermoplastic materials model is motivated by general physical properties, admitting temperature and pressure dependence. Two-phase, per-phase-incompressible, power-law fluids are considered. The shear rate expression takes into account pseudo-radial flow from a point inlet. Instead of using a finite element (FEM) solver for ...

  15. Algorithm for personal identification in distance learning system based on registration of keyboard rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, P. V.; Savinov, A. N.; Bazhenov, R. I.; Sivandaev, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes the method of identifying a person in distance learning systems based on a keyboard rhythm. An algorithm for the organization of access control is proposed, which implements authentication, identification and verification of a person using the keyboard rhythm. Authentication methods based on biometric personal parameters, including those based on the keyboard rhythm, due to the inexistence of biometric characteristics without a particular person, are able to provide an advanced accuracy and inability to refuse authorship and convenience for operators of automated systems, in comparison with other methods of conformity checking. Methods of permanent hidden keyboard monitoring allow detecting the substitution of a student and blocking the key system.

  16. Analysis and Comparison of Information Theory-based Distances for Genomic Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzano, Walter; Cicalese, Ferdinando; Del Sorbo, Maria Rosaria; Vaccaro, Ugo

    2008-07-01

    Genomic string comparison via alignment are widely applied for mining and retrieval of information in biological databases. In some situation, the effectiveness of such alignment based comparison is still unclear, e.g., for sequences with non-uniform length and with significant shuffling of identical substrings. An alternative approach is the one based on information theory distances. Biological data information content is stored in very long strings of only four characters. In last ten years, several entropic measures have been proposed for genomic string analysis. Notwithstanding their individual merit and experimental validation, to the nest of our knowledge, there is no direct comparison of these different metrics. We shall present four of the most representative alignment-free distance measures, based on mutual information. Each one has a different origin and expression. Our comparison involves a sort of arrangement, to reduce different concepts to a unique formalism, so as it has been possible to construct a phylogenetic tree for each of them. The trees produced via these metrics are compared to the ones widely accepted as biologically validated. In general the results provided more evidence of the reliability of the alignment-free distance models. Also, we observe that one of the metrics appeared to be more robust than the other three. We believe that this result can be object of further researches and observations. Many of the results of experimentation, the graphics and the table are available at the following URL: http://people.na.infn.it/˜wbalzano/BIO

  17. Comparison of frequency-distance relationship and Gaussian-diffusion-based methods of compensation for distance-dependent spatial resolution in SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, Vandana; King, Micgael A.; Glick, Stephen J.; Pan, Tin-Su

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to compare resolution recovery versus noise level of two methods for compensation of distance-dependent resolution (DDR) in SPECT imaging. The two methods of compensation were restoration filtering based on the frequency-distance relationship (FDR) prior to iterative reconstruction, and modelling DDR in the projector/backprojector pair employed in iterative reconstruction. FDR restoration filtering was computationally faster than modelling the detector response in iterative reconstruction. Using Gaussian diffusion to model the detector response in iterative reconstruction sped up the process by a factor of 2.5 over frequency domain filtering in the projector/backprojector pair. Gaussian diffusion modelling resulted in a better resolution versus noise tradeoff than either FDR restoration filtering or solely modelling attenuation in the projector/backprojector pair of iterative reconstruction. For the pixel size investigated herein (0.317 cm), accounting for DDR in the projector/backprojector pair by Gaussian diffusion, or by applying a blurring function based on the distance from the face of the collimator at each distance, resulted in very similar resolution recovery and slice noise level. (author)

  18. Protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a 4-distance description of side-chain interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbar Yuval

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate evaluation and modelling of residue-residue interactions within and between proteins is a key aspect of computational structure prediction including homology modelling, protein-protein docking, refinement of low-resolution structures, and computational protein design. Results Here we introduce a method for accurate protein structure modelling and evaluation based on a novel 4-distance description of residue-residue interaction geometry. Statistical 4-distance preferences were extracted from high-resolution protein structures and were used as a basis for a knowledge-based potential, called Hunter. We demonstrate that 4-distance description of side chain interactions can be used reliably to discriminate the native structure from a set of decoys. Hunter ranked the native structure as the top one in 217 out of 220 high-resolution decoy sets, in 25 out of 28 "Decoys 'R' Us" decoy sets and in 24 out of 27 high-resolution CASP7/8 decoy sets. The same concept was applied to side chain modelling in protein structures. On a set of very high-resolution protein structures the average RMSD was 1.47 Å for all residues and 0.73 Å for buried residues, which is in the range of attainable accuracy for a model. Finally, we show that Hunter performs as good or better than other top methods in homology modelling based on results from the CASP7 experiment. The supporting web site http://bioinfo.weizmann.ac.il/hunter/ was developed to enable the use of Hunter and for visualization and interactive exploration of 4-distance distributions. Conclusions Our results suggest that Hunter can be used as a tool for evaluation and for accurate modelling of residue-residue interactions in protein structures. The same methodology is applicable to other areas involving high-resolution modelling of biomolecules.

  19. Strategies Used by Pet Dogs for Solving Olfaction-Based Problems at Various Distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Polgár

    Full Text Available The olfactory acuity of domestic dogs has been well established through numerous studies on trained canines, however whether untrained dogs spontaneously utilize this ability for problem solving is less clear. In the present paper we report two studies that examine what strategies family dogs use in two types of olfaction-based problems as well as their success at various distances. In Study 1, thirty dogs were tasked with distinguishing a target, either their covered owner (Exp 1 or baited food (Exp 2, from three visually identical choices at distances of 0m (touching distance, 1m, and 3m. There were nine consecutive trials for each target. We found that in Exp 1 the dogs successfully chose their owners over strangers at 0m and 1m, but not at 3m, where they used a win-stay strategy instead. In Exp 2 the dogs were only successful in choosing the baited pot at 0m. They used the win-stay strategy at 1m, but chose randomly at 3m. In Study 2, a different group of dogs was tested with their owners (Exp 1 and baited food (Exp 2 at just the 3m distance with two possible targets in 10-10 trials. In Exp 1 the dogs' overall performance was at chance level; however, when analyzed by trial, we noticed that despite tending to find their owners on the first trial, they generally switched to a win-stay strategy in subsequent trials, only to return to correctly choosing their owners based on olfaction in the later trials. In Exp 2, the dogs chose randomly throughout. We also found that dogs who relied on visual information in the warm-up trials were less successful in the olfaction-based test. Our results suggest that despite their ability to successfully collect information through olfaction, family dogs often prioritize other strategies to solve basic choice tasks.

  20. A Study of Faculty Attitudes toward Internet-Based Distance Education: A Survey of Two Jordanian Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward internet-based distance education by the faculty members of two Jordanian public universities, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University and Yarmouk University, as well as to explore the relationship between their attitudes toward internet-based distance education and their perceptions of their…

  1. An Initialization Method Based on Hybrid Distance for k-Means Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Xiangfen; Li, Shunbao; Zhang, Yuping

    2017-11-01

    The traditional [Formula: see text]-means algorithm has been widely used as a simple and efficient clustering method. However, the performance of this algorithm is highly dependent on the selection of initial cluster centers. Therefore, the method adopted for choosing initial cluster centers is extremely important. In this letter, we redefine the density of points according to the number of its neighbors, as well as the distance between points and their neighbors. In addition, we define a new distance measure that considers both Euclidean distance and density. Based on that, we propose an algorithm for selecting initial cluster centers that can dynamically adjust the weighting parameter. Furthermore, we propose a new internal clustering validation measure, the clustering validation index based on the neighbors (CVN), which can be exploited to select the optimal result among multiple clustering results. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing initialization methods on real-world data sets and demonstrates the adaptability of the proposed algorithm to data sets with various characteristics.

  2. Water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiangjun; Shao, Fengjing; Wu, Shunyao; Zhang, Hanlin; Xu, Si

    2017-07-01

    Water quality assessment is crucial for assessment of marine eutrophication, prediction of harmful algal blooms, and environment protection. Previous studies have developed many numeric modeling methods and data driven approaches for water quality assessment. The cluster analysis, an approach widely used for grouping data, has also been employed. However, there are complex correlations between water quality variables, which play important roles in water quality assessment but have always been overlooked. In this paper, we analyze correlations between water quality variables and propose an alternative method for water quality assessment with hierarchical cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis distance. Further, we cluster water quality data collected form coastal water of Bohai Sea and North Yellow Sea of China, and apply clustering results to evaluate its water quality. To evaluate the validity, we also cluster the water quality data with cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance, which are widely adopted by previous studies. The results show that our method is more suitable for water quality assessment with many correlated water quality variables. To our knowledge, it is the first attempt to apply Mahalanobis distance for coastal water quality assessment.

  3. Prediction Model of Collapse Risk Based on Information Entropy and Distance Discriminant Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hujun He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction and risk classification of collapse is an important issue in the process of highway construction in mountainous regions. Based on the principles of information entropy and Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis, we have produced a collapse hazard prediction model. We used the entropy measure method to reduce the influence indexes of the collapse activity and extracted the nine main indexes affecting collapse activity as the discriminant factors of the distance discriminant analysis model (i.e., slope shape, aspect, gradient, and height, along with exposure of the structural face, stratum lithology, relationship between weakness face and free face, vegetation cover rate, and degree of rock weathering. We employ postearthquake collapse data in relation to construction of the Yingxiu-Wolong highway, Hanchuan County, China, as training samples for analysis. The results were analyzed using the back substitution estimation method, showing high accuracy and no errors, and were the same as the prediction result of uncertainty measure. Results show that the classification model based on information entropy and distance discriminant analysis achieves the purpose of index optimization and has excellent performance, high prediction accuracy, and a zero false-positive rate. The model can be used as a tool for future evaluation of collapse risk.

  4. Evaluating visual discomfort in stereoscopic projection-based CAVE system with a close viewing distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weitao; Weng, Dongdong; Feng, Dan; Li, Yuqian; Liu, Yue; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-05-01

    As one of popular immersive Virtual Reality (VR) systems, stereoscopic cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) system is typically consisted of 4 to 6 3m-by-3m sides of a room made of rear-projected screens. While many endeavors have been made to reduce the size of the projection-based CAVE system, the issue of asthenopia caused by lengthy exposure to stereoscopic images in such CAVE with a close viewing distance was seldom tangled. In this paper, we propose a light-weighted approach which utilizes a convex eyepiece to reduce visual discomfort induced by stereoscopic vision. An empirical experiment was conducted to examine the feasibility of convex eyepiece in a large depth of field (DOF) at close viewing distance both objectively and subjectively. The result shows the positive effects of convex eyepiece on the relief of eyestrain.

  5. Wide-Spectrum Microscope with a Long Working Distance Aspherical Objective Based on Obscuration Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an approach for an initial configuration design based on obscuration constraint and on-axis Taylor series expansion to realize the design of long working distance microscope (numerical aperture (NA = 0.13 and working distance (WD = 525 mm with a low obscuration aspherical Schwarzschild objective in wide-spectrum imaging (λ = 400–900 nm. Experiments of the testing on the resolution target and inspection on United States Air Force (USAF resolution chart and a line charge-coupled device (CCD (pixel size of 14 μm × 56 μm with different wavelength light sources (λ = 480 nm, 550 nm, 660 nm, 850 nm were implemented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  6. Image retrieval by information fusion based on scalable vocabulary tree and robust Hausdorff distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Chang; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Yu, Boyang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Scalable Vocabulary Tree (SVT) has been shown to be effective in image retrieval. However, for general images where the foreground is the object to be recognized while the background is cluttered, the performance of the current SVT framework is restricted. In this paper, a new image retrieval framework that incorporates a robust distance metric and information fusion is proposed, which improves the retrieval performance relative to the baseline SVT approach. First, the visual words that represent the background are diminished by using a robust Hausdorff distance between different images. Second, image matching results based on three image signature representations are fused, which enhances the retrieval precision. We conducted intensive experiments on small-scale to large-scale image datasets: Corel-9, Corel-48, and PKU-198, where the proposed Hausdorff metric and information fusion outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by about 13, 15, and 15%, respectively.

  7. Distance Constrained Based Adaptive Flocking Control for Multiagent Networks with Time Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flocking control of multiagent system is a new type of decentralized control method, which has aroused great attention. The paper includes a detailed research in terms of distance constrained based adaptive flocking control for multiagent system with time delay. Firstly, the program on the adaptive flocking with time delay of multiagent is proposed. Secondly, a kind of adaptive controllers and updating laws are presented. According to the Lyapunov stability theory, it is proved that the distance between agents can be larger than a constant during the motion evolution. What is more, velocities of each agent come to the same asymptotically. Finally, the analytical results can be verified by a numerical example.

  8. Signs of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers and fare collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malú de Oliveira Freire

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe the signs of musculoskeletal disorders (SMD in drivers and fare ollectors and to investigate their association with hours worked per day, nutritional status and level of physical activity (PA. A cross-sectional study undertaken with 40 bus drivers and 39 fare collectors working intercity routes. The “Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire” was used to identify SMD. The working day was defi ned according to median values ( ABSTRACT O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os sintomas de distúrbios osteomusculares (SDO em motoristas e cobradores de ônibus e investigar sua associação com jornada de trabalho, estado nutricional e nível de atividade física. Estudo transversal realizado com 40 motoristas e 39 cobradores de ônibus de viagens intermunicipais. Os SDO foram verificados, utilizando-se o Questionário Nórdico de Sintomas Osteomusculares. A jornada de trabalho foi categorizada a partir dos valores da mediana (< 8 horas e ≥ 8 horas. O índice de massa corporal (IMC foi usado para verificar o estado nutricional. O nível de atividade física foi avaliado, usando-se o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (versão curta. As associações foram verifi cadas por teste qui-quadrado. A freqüência de dor em alguma região do corpo (últimos 12 meses foi de 70,0% e 76,9% para motoristas e cobradores respectivamente; 30,0% dos motoristas e 33,3% dos cobradores referiram dor nos últimos 7 dias; 26,6% e 33,3% dos motoristas e cobradores, respectivamente, tiveram que evitar o trabalho devido às dores. As maiores prevalências (últimos 12 meses foram observadas nas seguintes regiões anatômicas: ombros (32,5%, para motoristas e; lombar (48,7%, para cobradores. Houve diferença significativa (p = 0,029 entre motoristas e cobradores quanto ao relato de dor na região “lombar”. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi maior nos motoristas (72,0% do que nos cobradores (33,3%, as diferenças foram signifi cativas (p = 0

  9. Detecting Malicious Nodes in Medical Smartphone Networks Through Euclidean Distance-Based Behavioral Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Weizhi; Li, Wenjuan; Wang, Yu

    2017-01-01

    and healthcare personnel. The underlying network architecture to support such devices is also referred to as medical smartphone networks (MSNs). Similar to other networks, MSNs also suffer from various attacks like insider attacks (e.g., leakage of sensitive patient information by a malicious insider......). In this work, we focus on MSNs and design a trust-based intrusion detection approach through Euclidean distance-based behavioral profiling to detect malicious devices (or called nodes). In the evaluation, we collaborate with healthcare organizations and implement our approach in a real simulated MSN...

  10. Distance selection based on relevance feedback in the context of CBIR using the SFS meta-heuristic with one round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawloud Mosbah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the selection in the context of Content Based-Image Retrieval (CBIR. Instead of addressing features’ selection issue, we deal here with distance selection as a novel paradigm poorly addressed within CBIR field. Whereas distance concept is a very precise and sharp mathematical tool, we extend the study to weak distances: Similarity, quasi-distance, and divergence. Therefore, as many as eighteen (18 such measures as considered: distances: {Euclidian, …}, similarities{Ruzika, …}, quasi-distances: {Neyman-X2, …} and divergences: {Jeffrey, …}. We specifically propose a hybrid system based on the Sequential Forward Selector (SFS meta-heuristic with one round and relevance feedback. The experiments conducted on the Wang database (Corel-1K using color moments as a signature show that our system yields promising results in terms of effectiveness.

  11. USING COMPUTER-BASED TESTING AS ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT METHOD OF STUDENT LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia SAPRIATI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT, Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: Ø students’ inability to sit for the scheduled test, Ø conflicting test schedules, and Ø students’ flexibility to take examination to improve their grades. In 2004, UT initiated a pilot project in the development of system and program for computer-based testing method. Then in 2005 and 2006 tryouts in the use of computer-based testing methods were conducted in 7 Regional Offices that were considered as having sufficient supporting recourses. The results of the tryouts revealed that students were enthusiastic in taking computer-based tests and they expected that the test method would be provided by UT as alternative to the traditional paper and pencil test method. UT then implemented computer-based testing method in 6 and 12 Regional Offices in 2007 and 2008 respectively. The computer-based testing was administered in the city of the designated Regional Office and was supervised by the Regional Office staff. The development of the computer-based testing was initiated with conducting tests using computers in networked configuration. The system has been continually improved, and it currently uses devices linked to the internet or the World Wide Web. The construction of the test involves the generation and selection of the test items from the item bank collection of the UT Examination Center. Thus the combination of the selected items compromises the test specification. Currently UT has offered 250 courses involving the use of computer-based testing. Students expect that more courses are offered with computer-based testing in Regional Offices within easy access by students.

  12. Electronic white cane with GPS radar-based concept as blind mobility enhancement without distance limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Suharsono; Handafiah, Finna; Aprilliyani, Ria; Udhiarto, Arief

    2018-02-01

    The Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs, in July 2012, informed that the number of blind in Indonesia has been the largest among to the people with other disabilities. The most common tools utilized to help the blind was a conventional cane which has limited features and therefore it was difficult to be used as a mobilization tools. Moreover, the conventional cane cannot assist them or their family when the blind gets lost. In this research, we designed and implemented an electronic white cane with the concept of radar and global positioning system (GPS). The purpose of this research was to design and develop an electronic white cane which can enhance the mobility of the blind without distance coverage limitation. Utilizing ultrasonic sensors as a distance measurement and a servo motor as an actuator, the produced radar system is able to map an area with maximum distance and coverage angle of 5 meters and 180° respectively. The blind senses the obstacle around them from the vibration generated by five vibration motors. The vibration becomes more intense when the obstacle is detected closer. In addition, we implemented a GPS to monitor the blind's position and allow their family to find them easily when the blind need a help. Based on the tests performed, we have successfully developed an electronic white cane that can be a solution to improve the blind's mobility.

  13. Protograph based LDPC codes with minimum distance linearly growing with block size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    We propose several LDPC code constructions that simultaneously achieve good threshold and error floor performance. Minimum distance is shown to grow linearly with block size (similar to regular codes of variable degree at least 3) by considering ensemble average weight enumerators. Our constructions are based on projected graph, or protograph, structures that support high-speed decoder implementations. As with irregular ensembles, our constructions are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code with too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code with too many such nodes tends to not exhibit a minimum distance that grows linearly in block length. In this paper we also show that precoding can be used to lower the threshold of regular LDPC codes. The decoding thresholds of the proposed codes, which have linearly increasing minimum distance in block size, outperform that of regular LDPC codes. Furthermore, a family of low to high rate codes, with thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds, is presented. Simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes have low error floors as well as good threshold SNFt performance.

  14. Facial expression recognition and model-based regeneration for distance teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Vinod, V. V.; Sengupta, Kuntal

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents a novel idea of a visual communication system, which can support distance teaching using a network of computers. Here the author's main focus is to enhance the quality of distance teaching by reducing the barrier between the teacher and the student, which is formed due to the remote connection of the networked participants. The paper presents an effective way of improving teacher-student communication link of an IT (Information Technology) based distance teaching scenario, using facial expression recognition results and face global and local motion detection results of both the teacher and the student. It presents a way of regenerating the facial images for the teacher-student down-link, which can enhance the teachers facial expressions and which also can reduce the network traffic compared to usual video broadcasting scenarios. At the same time, it presents a way of representing a large volume of facial expression data of the whole student population (in the student-teacher up-link). This up-link representation helps the teacher to receive an instant feed back of his talk, as if he was delivering a face to face lecture. In conventional video tele-conferencing type of applications, this task is nearly impossible, due to huge volume of upward network traffic. The authors utilize several of their previous publication results for most of the image processing components needs to be investigated to complete such a system. In addition, some of the remaining system components are covered by several on going work.

  15. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  16. Integration of advanced technologies to enhance problem-based learning over distance: Project TOUCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joshua; Caudell, Thomas; Wilks, David; Keep, Marcus F; Mitchell, Steven; Buchanan, Holly; Saland, Linda; Rosenheimer, Julie; Lozanoff, Beth K; Lozanoff, Scott; Saiki, Stanley; Alverson, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Distance education delivery has increased dramatically in recent years as a result of the rapid advancement of communication technology. The National Computational Science Alliance's Access Grid represents a significant advancement in communication technology with potential for distance medical education. The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the TOUCH project (Telehealth Outreach for Unified Community Health; http://hsc.unm.edu/touch) with special emphasis on the process of problem-based learning case development for distribution over the Access Grid. The objective of the TOUCH project is to use emerging Internet-based technology to overcome geographic barriers for delivery of tutorial sessions to medical students pursuing rotations at remote sites. The TOUCH project also is aimed at developing a patient simulation engine and an immersive virtual reality environment to achieve a realistic health care scenario enhancing the learning experience. A traumatic head injury case is developed and distributed over the Access Grid as a demonstration of the TOUCH system. Project TOUCH serves as an example of a computer-based learning system for developing and implementing problem-based learning cases within the medical curriculum, but this system should be easily applied to other educational environments and disciplines involving functional and clinical anatomy. Future phases will explore PC versions of the TOUCH cases for increased distribution. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. 77 FR 47692 - Notice of Transportation Services' Transition From Paper to Electronic Fare Media Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... and effective electronic fare media transition to its participating transit benefit agencies... New Program Distribution Methodology for Transit Benefits This section presents a summary of the..., 2012 on TRANServe's adoption of a new program distribution methodology for transit benefits and...

  18. Ant-Based Phylogenetic Reconstruction (ABPR: A new distance algorithm for phylogenetic estimation based on ant colony optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Vittori

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new distance algorithm for phylogenetic estimation based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO, named Ant-Based Phylogenetic Reconstruction (ABPR. ABPR joins two taxa iteratively based on evolutionary distance among sequences, while also accounting for the quality of the phylogenetic tree built according to the total length of the tree. Similar to optimization algorithms for phylogenetic estimation, the algorithm allows exploration of a larger set of nearly optimal solutions. We applied the algorithm to four empirical data sets of mitochondrial DNA ranging from 12 to 186 sequences, and from 898 to 16,608 base pairs, and covering taxonomic levels from populations to orders. We show that ABPR performs better than the commonly used Neighbor-Joining algorithm, except when sequences are too closely related (e.g., population-level sequences. The phylogenetic relationships recovered at and above species level by ABPR agree with conventional views. However, like other algorithms of phylogenetic estimation, the proposed algorithm failed to recover expected relationships when distances are too similar or when rates of evolution are very variable, leading to the problem of long-branch attraction. ABPR, as well as other ACO-based algorithms, is emerging as a fast and accurate alternative method of phylogenetic estimation for large data sets.

  19. Research on Signature Verification Method Based on Discrete Fréchet Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. L.; Wu, W.

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a multi-feature signature template based on discrete Fréchet distance, which breaks through the limitation of traditional signature authentication using a single signature feature. It solves the online handwritten signature authentication signature global feature template extraction calculation workload, signature feature selection unreasonable problem. In this experiment, the false recognition rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) of the statistical signature are calculated and the average equal error rate (AEER) is calculated. The feasibility of the combined template scheme is verified by comparing the average equal error rate of the combination template and the original template.

  20. A Multiple Criteria Decision Making Method Based on Relative Value Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyur Huan-jyh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new multiple criteria decision-making method called ERVD (election based on relative value distances. The s-shape value function is adopted to replace the expected utility function to describe the risk-averse and risk-seeking behavior of decision makers. Comparisons and experiments contrasting with the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution method are carried out to verify the feasibility of using the proposed method to represent the decision makers’ preference in the decision making process. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach is an appropriate and effective MCDM method.

  1. Finding differentially expressed genes in high dimensional data: Rank based test statistic via a distance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunil; Sadana, Ajit

    2015-12-01

    We present a rank-based test statistic for the identification of differentially expressed genes using a distance measure. The proposed test statistic is highly robust against extreme values and does not assume the distribution of parent population. Simulation studies show that the proposed test is more powerful than some of the commonly used methods, such as paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and significance analysis of microarray (SAM) under certain non-normal distributions. The asymptotic distribution of the test statistic, and the p-value function are discussed. The application of proposed method is shown using a real-life data set. © The Author(s) 2011.

  2. Performance Evaluation and Optimal Management of Distance-Based Registration Using a Semi-Markov Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Joon Suh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the distance-based registration (DBR which is a kind of dynamic location registration scheme in a mobile communication network. In the DBR, the location of a mobile station (MS is updated when it enters a base station more than or equal to a specified distance away from the base station where the location registration for the MS was done last. In this study, we first investigate the existing performance-evaluation methods on the DBR with implicit registration (DBIR presented to improve the performance of the DBR and point out some problems of the evaluation methods. We propose a new performance-evaluation method for the DBIR scheme using a semi-Markov process (SMP which can resolve the controversial issues of the existing methods. The numerical results obtained with the proposed SMP model are compared with those from previous models. It is shown that the SMP model should be considered to get an accurate performance of the DBIR scheme.

  3. Color Texture Image Retrieval Based on Local Extrema Features and Riemannian Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Tan Pham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel efficient method for content-based image retrieval (CBIR is developed in this paper using both texture and color features. Our motivation is to represent and characterize an input image by a set of local descriptors extracted from characteristic points (i.e., keypoints within the image. Then, dissimilarity measure between images is calculated based on the geometric distance between the topological feature spaces (i.e., manifolds formed by the sets of local descriptors generated from each image of the database. In this work, we propose to extract and use the local extrema pixels as our feature points. Then, the so-called local extrema-based descriptor (LED is generated for each keypoint by integrating all color, spatial as well as gradient information captured by its nearest local extrema. Hence, each image is encoded by an LED feature point cloud and Riemannian distances between these point clouds enable us to tackle CBIR. Experiments performed on several color texture databases including Vistex, STex, color Brodazt, USPtex and Outex TC-00013 using the proposed approach provide very efficient and competitive results compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  4. Effect of gap distance on tensile strength of preceramic base metal solder joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattahi, Farnaz; Motamedi, Milad

    2011-01-01

    In order to fabricate prostheses with high accuracy and durability, soldering techniques have been introduced to clinical dentistry. However, these prostheses always fail at their solder joints. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gap distance on the tensile strength of base metal solder joints. Based on ADA/ISO 9693 specifications for tensile test, 40 specimens were fabricated from a Ni-Cr alloy and cut at the midpoint of 3-mm diameter bar and placed at desired positions by a specially designed device. The specimens were divided into four groups of 10 samples according to the desired solder gap distance: Group1: 0.1mm; Group2: 0.25mm; Group3: 0.5mm; and Group4: 0.75mm. After soldering, specimens were tested for tensile strength by a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5mm/min with a preload of 10N. The mean tensile strength values of the groups were 162, 307.8, 206.1 and 336.7 MPa, respectively. The group with 0.75-mm gap had the highest and the group with 0.1-mm gap had the lowest tensile strength. Bonferroni test showed that Group1 and Group4 had statistically different values (P=0.023), but the differences between other groups were not sig-nificant at a significance level of 0.05. There was no direct relationship between increasing soldering gap distance and tensile strength of the solder joints.

  5. Novel Distance Measure in Fuzzy TOPSIS for Supply Chain Strategy Based Supplier Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pardha Saradhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive environment, organizations need to evaluate and select suppliers based on their manufacturing strategy. Identification of supply chain strategy of the organization, determination of decision criteria, and methods of supplier selection are appearing to be the most important components in research area in the field of supply chain management. In this paper, evaluation of suppliers is done based on the balanced scorecard framework using new distance measure in fuzzy TOPSIS by considering the supply chain strategy of the manufacturing organization. To take care of vagueness in decision making, trapezoidal fuzzy number is assumed for pairwise comparisons to determine relative weights of perspectives and criteria of supplier selection. Also, linguistic variables specified in terms of trapezoidal fuzzy number are considered for the payoff values of criteria of the suppliers. These fuzzy numbers satisfied the Jensen based inequality. A detailed application of the proposed methodology is illustrated.

  6. Improving Mobility Performance in Low Vision With a Distance-Based Representation of the Visual Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rheede, Joram J; Wilson, Iain R; Qian, Rose I; Downes, Susan M; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L

    2015-07-01

    Severe visual impairment can have a profound impact on personal independence through its effect on mobility. We investigated whether the mobility of people with vision low enough to be registered as blind could be improved by presenting the visual environment in a distance-based manner for easier detection of obstacles. We accomplished this by developing a pair of "residual vision glasses" (RVGs) that use a head-mounted depth camera and displays to present information about the distance of obstacles to the wearer as brightness, such that obstacles closer to the wearer are represented more brightly. We assessed the impact of the RVGs on the mobility performance of visually impaired participants during the completion of a set of obstacle courses. Participant position was monitored continuously, which enabled us to capture the temporal dynamics of mobility performance. This allowed us to find correlates of obstacle detection and hesitations in walking behavior, in addition to the more commonly used measures of trial completion time and number of collisions. All participants were able to use the smart glasses to navigate the course, and mobility performance improved for those visually impaired participants with the worst prior mobility performance. However, walking speed was slower and hesitations increased with the altered visual representation. A depth-based representation of the visual environment may offer low vision patients improvements in independent mobility. It is important for further work to explore whether practice can overcome the reductions in speed and increased hesitation that were observed in our trial.

  7. Comprehensive long distance and real-time pipeline monitoring system based on fiber optic sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikles, Marc; Ravet, Fabien; Briffod, Fabien [Omnisens S.A., Morges (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    An increasing number of pipelines are constructed in remote regions affected by harsh environmental conditions. These pipeline routes often cross mountain areas which are characterized by unstable grounds and where soil texture changes between winter and summer increase the probability of hazards. Due to the long distances to be monitored and the linear nature of pipelines, distributed fiber optic sensing techniques offer significant advantages and the capability to detect and localize pipeline disturbance with great precision. Furthermore pipeline owner/operators lay fiber optic cable parallel to transmission pipelines for telecommunication purposes and at minimum additional cost monitoring capabilities can be added to the communication system. The Brillouin-based Omnisens DITEST monitoring system has been used in several long distance pipeline projects. The technique is capable of measuring strain and temperature over 100's kilometers with meter spatial resolution. Dedicated fiber optic cables have been developed for continuous strain and temperature monitoring and their deployment along the pipeline has enabled permanent and continuous pipeline ground movement, intrusion and leak detection. This paper presents a description of the fiber optic Brillouin-based DITEST sensing technique, its measurement performance and limits, while addressing future perspectives for pipeline monitoring. (author)

  8. Improved GPS-based Satellite Relative Navigation Using Femtosecond Laser Relative Distance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjik Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for improving Carrier-phase Differential Global Positioning System (CDGPS based realtime satellite relative navigation by applying laser baseline measurement data. The robustness against the space operational environment was considered, and a Synthetic Wavelength Interferometer (SWI algorithm based on a femtosecond laser measurement model was developed. The phase differences between two laser wavelengths were combined to measure precise distance. Generated laser data were used to improve estimation accuracy for the float ambiguity of CDGPS data. Relative navigation simulations in real-time were performed using the extended Kalman filter algorithm. The GPS and laser-combined relative navigation accuracy was compared with GPS-only relative navigation solutions to determine the impact of laser data on relative navigation. In numerical simulations, the success rate of integer ambiguity resolution increased when laser data was added to GPS data. The relative navigational errors also improved five-fold and two-fold, relative to the GPS-only error, for 250 m and 5 km initial relative distances, respectively. The methodology developed in this study is suitable for application to future satellite formation-flying missions.

  9. Analytic processing of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Galyer, Darin

    2018-01-01

    How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame? To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A distance-dependent metal-enhanced fluorescence sensing platform based on molecular beacon design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenpeng; Huang, Hongduan; Chen, Yang; Liu, Feng; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Li, Na

    2014-02-15

    A new metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) based platform was developed on the basis of distance-dependent fluorescence quenching-enhancement effect, which combined the easiness of Ag-thiol chemistry with the MEF property of noble-metal structures as well as the molecular beacon design. For the given sized AgNPs, the fluorescence enhancement factor was found to increase with a d(6) dependency in agreement with fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism at shorter distance and decrease with a d(-3) dependency in agreement with plasmonic enhancement mechanism at longer distance between the fluorophore and the AgNP surface. As a proof of concept, the platform was demonstrated by a sensitive detection of mercuric ions, using thymine-containing molecular beacon to tune silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-enhanced fluorescence. Mercuric ions were detected via formation of a thymine-mercuric-thymine structure to open the hairpin, facilitating fluorescence recovery and AgNP enhancement to yield a limit of detection of 1 nM, which is well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation of the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (10nM) in drinking water. Since the AgNP functioned as not only a quencher to reduce the reagent blank signal but also an enhancement substrate to increase fluorescence of the open hairpin when target mercuric ions were present, the quenching-enhancement strategy can greatly improve the detection sensitivity and can in principle be a universal approach for various targets when combined with molecular beacon design. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Population-Based Analysis of Time to Surgery and Travel Distances for Brachial Plexus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Christopher J; Baty, Jack; Saeed, Mohammed J; Olsen, Margaret A; Osei, Daniel A

    2016-09-01

    Despite the importance of timely evaluation for patients with brachial plexus injuries (BPIs), in clinical practice we have noted delays in referral. Because the published BPI experience is largely from individual centers, we used a population-based approach to evaluate the delivery of care for patients with BPI. We used statewide administrative databases from Florida (2007-2013), New York (2008-2012), and North Carolina (2009-2010) to create a cohort of patients who underwent surgery for BPI (exploration, repair, neurolysis, grafting, or nerve transfer). Emergency department and inpatient records were used to determine the time interval between the injury and surgical treatment. Distances between treating hospitals and between the patient's home ZIP code and the surgical hospital were recorded. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine predictors for time from injury to surgery exceeding 365 days. Within the 222 patients in our cohort, median time from injury to surgery was 7.6 months and exceeded 365 days in 29% (64 of 222 patients) of cases. Treatment at a smaller hospital for the initial injury was significantly associated with surgery beyond 365 days after injury. Patient insurance type, travel distance for surgery, distance between the 2 treating hospitals, and changing hospitals between injury and surgery did not significantly influence time to surgery. Nearly one third of patients in Florida, New York, and North Carolina underwent BPI surgery more than 1 year after the injury. Patients initially treated at smaller hospitals are at risk for undergoing delayed BPI surgery. These findings can inform administrative and policy efforts to expedite timely referral of patients with BPI to experienced centers. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A class-based link prediction using Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andalib, Azam; Babamir, Seyed Morteza

    2016-08-01

    One of the important tasks in relational data analysis is link prediction which has been successfully applied on many applications such as bioinformatics, information retrieval, etc. The link prediction is defined as predicting the existence or absence of edges between nodes of a network. In this paper, we propose a novel method for link prediction based on Distance Dependent Chinese Restaurant Process (DDCRP) model which enables us to utilize the information of the topological structure of the network such as shortest path and connectivity of the nodes. We also propose a new Gibbs sampling algorithm for computing the posterior distribution of the hidden variables based on the training data. Experimental results on three real-world datasets show the superiority of the proposed method over other probabilistic models for link prediction problem.

  13. Using Web-Based, Group Communication Systems to Support Case Study Learning at a Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Rourke

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the capacity of Web-based, group communication systems to support case-based teaching and learning. Eleven graduate students studying at a distance were divided into three groups to collaborate on a case study using either a synchronous voice, an asynchronous voice, or a synchronous text communication system. Participants kept a detailed log of the time they spent on various activities, wrote a 1,500-word reflection on their experience, and participated in a group interview. Analysis of these data reveals that each group supplemented the system that had been assigned to them with additional communication systems in order to complete the project. Each of these systems were used strategically: email was used to share files and arrange meetings, and synchronous voice systems were used to brainstorm and make decisions. Learning achievement was high across groups and students enjoyed collaborating with others on a concrete task.

  14. METHODOLOGY-TECHNOLOGICAL BASES AND COMMUNICATION FACILITIES OF COMMUNICATION IN DISTANCE LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    O. Gnedkova; V. Lyakutin

    2010-01-01

    In this article methodical and technological principles of communication process in distance learning, which are the important constituents of the effective distance course, are analyzed. Communication facilities for the conducting communication process in distance learning are examined. Recommendations for teachers (tutors) for organization of successful and effective learning process with the use of modern communication technologies are pointed.

  15. On the importance of the distance measures used to train and test knowledge-based potentials for proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Martin; Koehl, Patrice; Røgen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    (PPD), while the other had the set of all distances filtered to reflect consistency in an ensemble of decoys (PPE). We tested four types of metric to characterize the distance between the decoy and the native structure, two based on extrinsic geometry (RMSD and GTD-TS*), and two based on intrinsic...... geometry (Q* and MT). The corresponding eight potentials were tested on a large collection of decoy sets. We found that it is usually better to train a potential using an intrinsic distance measure. We also found that PPE outperforms PPD, emphasizing the benefits of capturing consistent information...

  16. Improving UWB-Based Localization in IoT Scenarios with Statistical Models of Distance Error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica, Stefania; Ferrari, Gianluigi

    2018-05-17

    Interest in the Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly increasing, as the number of connected devices is exponentially growing. One of the application scenarios envisaged for IoT technologies involves indoor localization and context awareness. In this paper, we focus on a localization approach that relies on a particular type of communication technology, namely Ultra Wide Band (UWB). UWB technology is an attractive choice for indoor localization, owing to its high accuracy. Since localization algorithms typically rely on estimated inter-node distances, the goal of this paper is to evaluate the improvement brought by a simple (linear) statistical model of the distance error. On the basis of an extensive experimental measurement campaign, we propose a general analytical framework, based on a Least Square (LS) method, to derive a novel statistical model for the range estimation error between a pair of UWB nodes. The proposed statistical model is then applied to improve the performance of a few illustrative localization algorithms in various realistic scenarios. The obtained experimental results show that the use of the proposed statistical model improves the accuracy of the considered localization algorithms with a reduction of the localization error up to 66%.

  17. A long distance voice transmission system based on the white light LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunyu; Wei, Chang; Wang, Yulian; Wang, Dachi; Yu, Benli; Xu, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A long distance voice transmission system based on a visible light communication technology (VLCT) is proposed in the paper. Our proposed system includes transmitter, receiver and the voice signal processing of single chip microcomputer. In the compact-sized LED transmitter, we use on-off-keying and not-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) to easily realize high speed modulation, and then systematic complexity is reduced. A voice transmission system, which possesses the properties of the low-noise and wide modulation band, is achieved by the design of high efficiency receiving optical path and using filters to reduce noise from the surrounding light. To improve the speed of the signal processing, we use single chip microcomputer to code and decode voice signal. Furthermore, serial peripheral interface (SPI) is adopted to accurately transmit voice signal data. The test results of our proposed system show that the transmission distance of this system is more than100 meters with the maximum data rate of 1.5 Mbit/s and a SNR of 30dB. This system has many advantages, such as simple construction, low cost and strong practicality. Therefore, it has extensive application prospect in the fields of the emergency communication and indoor wireless communication, etc.

  18. International Trade Modelling Using Open Flow Networks: A Flow-Distance Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Jiang; Li, Yixiao; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen

    2015-01-01

    This paper models and analyzes international trade flows using open flow networks (OFNs) with the approaches of flow distances, which provide a novel perspective and effective tools for the study of international trade. We discuss the establishment of OFNs of international trade from two coupled viewpoints: the viewpoint of trading commodity flow and that of money flow. Based on the novel model with flow distance approaches, meaningful insights are gained. First, by introducing the concepts of trade trophic levels and niches, countries' roles and positions in the global supply chains (or value-added chains) can be evaluated quantitatively. We find that the distributions of trading "trophic levels" have the similar clustering pattern for different types of commodities, and summarize some regularities between money flow and commodity flow viewpoints. Second, we find that active and competitive countries trade a wide spectrum of products, while inactive and underdeveloped countries trade a limited variety of products. Besides, some abnormal countries import many types of goods, which the vast majority of countries do not need to import. Third, harmonic node centrality is proposed and we find the phenomenon of centrality stratification. All the results illustrate the usefulness of the model of OFNs with its network approaches for investigating international trade flows.

  19. Technique for long and absolute distance measurement based on laser pulse repetition frequency sweeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Alves, D.; Abreu, Manuel; Cabral, A.; Jost, Michael; Rebordão, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we present a technique to perform long and absolute distance measurements based on mode-locked diode lasers. Using a Michelson interferometer, it is possible to produce an optical cross-correlation between laser pulses of the reference arm with the pulses from the measurement arm, adjusting externally their degree of overlap either changing the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) or the position of the reference arm mirror for two (or more) fixed frequencies. The correlation of the travelling pulses for precision distance measurements relies on ultra-short pulse durations, as the uncertainty associated to the method is dependent on the laser pulse width as well as on a highly stable PRF. Mode-locked Diode lasers are a very appealing technology for its inherent characteristics, associated to compactness, size and efficiency, constituting a positive trade-off with regard to other mode-locked laser sources. Nevertheless, main current drawback is the non-availability of frequency-stable laser diodes. The laser used is a monolithic mode-locked semiconductor quantum-dot (QD) laser. The laser PRF is locked to an external stabilized RF reference. In this work we will present some of the preliminary results and discuss the importance of the requirements related to laser PRF stability in the final metrology system accuracy.

  20. Air temperature measurements based on the speed of sound to compensate long distance interferometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrua Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure the real time temperature distribution along an interferometer path based on the propagation of acoustic waves is presented. It exploits the high sensitivity of the speed of sound in air to the air temperature. In particular, it takes advantage of a special set-up where the generation of the acoustic waves is synchronous with the amplitude modulation of a laser source. A photodetector converts the laser light to an electronic signal considered as reference, while the incoming acoustic waves are focused on a microphone and generate a second signal. In this condition, the phase difference between the two signals substantially depends on the temperature of the air volume interposed between the sources and the receivers. The comparison with the traditional temperature sensors highlighted the limit of the latter in case of fast temperature variations and the advantage of a measurement integrated along the optical path instead of a sampling measurement. The capability of the acoustic method to compensate the interferometric distance measurements due to air temperature variations has been demonstrated for distances up to 27 m.

  1. A ROBUST METHOD FOR STEREO VISUAL ODOMETRY BASED ON MULTIPLE EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE CONSTRAINT AND RANSAC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual Odometry (VO is a critical component for planetary robot navigation and safety. It estimates the ego-motion using stereo images frame by frame. Feature points extraction and matching is one of the key steps for robotic motion estimation which largely influences the precision and robustness. In this work, we choose the Oriented FAST and Rotated BRIEF (ORB features by considering both accuracy and speed issues. For more robustness in challenging environment e.g., rough terrain or planetary surface, this paper presents a robust outliers elimination method based on Euclidean Distance Constraint (EDC and Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC algorithm. In the matching process, a set of ORB feature points are extracted from the current left and right synchronous images and the Brute Force (BF matcher is used to find the correspondences between the two images for the Space Intersection. Then the EDC and RANSAC algorithms are carried out to eliminate mismatches whose distances are beyond a predefined threshold. Similarly, when the left image of the next time matches the feature points with the current left images, the EDC and RANSAC are iteratively performed. After the above mentioned, there are exceptional remaining mismatched points in some cases, for which the third time RANSAC is applied to eliminate the effects of those outliers in the estimation of the ego-motion parameters (Interior Orientation and Exterior Orientation. The proposed approach has been tested on a real-world vehicle dataset and the result benefits from its high robustness.

  2. Unifying distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators for hydrologic model assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qinbo; Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Chen, Xi; Schulte, Achim

    2014-05-01

    The goodness-of-fit indicator, i.e. efficiency criterion, is very important for model calibration. However, recently the knowledge about the goodness-of-fit indicators is all empirical and lacks a theoretical support. Based on the likelihood theory, a unified distance-based goodness-of-fit indicator termed BC-GED model is proposed, which uses the Box-Cox (BC) transformation to remove the heteroscedasticity of model errors and the generalized error distribution (GED) with zero-mean to fit the distribution of model errors after BC. The BC-GED model can unify all recent distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators, and reveals the mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) that are widely used goodness-of-fit indicators imply statistic assumptions that the model errors follow the Gaussian distribution and the Laplace distribution with zero-mean, respectively. The empirical knowledge about goodness-of-fit indicators can be also easily interpreted by BC-GED model, e.g. the sensitivity to high flow of the goodness-of-fit indicators with large power of model errors results from the low probability of large model error in the assumed distribution of these indicators. In order to assess the effect of the parameters (i.e. the BC transformation parameter λ and the GED kurtosis coefficient β also termed the power of model errors) of BC-GED model on hydrologic model calibration, six cases of BC-GED model were applied in Baocun watershed (East China) with SWAT-WB-VSA model. Comparison of the inferred model parameters and model simulation results among the six indicators demonstrates these indicators can be clearly separated two classes by the GED kurtosis β: β >1 and β ≤ 1. SWAT-WB-VSA calibrated by the class β >1 of distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators captures high flow very well and mimics the baseflow very badly, but it calibrated by the class β ≤ 1 mimics the baseflow very well, because first the larger value of β, the greater emphasis is put on

  3. Agent-Based Modeling of Consumer Decision making Process Based on Power Distance and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozmand, O.; Ghasem-Aghaee, N.; Hofstede, G.J.; Nematbakhsh, M.A.; Baraani, A.; Verwaart, T.

    2011-01-01

    Simulating consumer decision making processes involves different disciplines such as: sociology, social psychology, marketing, and computer science. In this paper, we propose an agent-based conceptual and computational model of consumer decision-making based on culture, personality and human needs.

  4. Distance Based Root Cause Analysis and Change Impact Analysis of Performance Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance regression testing is applied to uncover both performance and functional problems of software releases. A performance problem revealed by performance testing can be high response time, low throughput, or even being out of service. Mature performance testing process helps systematically detect software performance problems. However, it is difficult to identify the root cause and evaluate the potential change impact. In this paper, we present an approach leveraging server side logs for identifying root causes of performance problems. Firstly, server side logs are used to recover call tree of each business transaction. We define a novel distance based metric computed from call trees for root cause analysis and apply inverted index from methods to business transactions for change impact analysis. Empirical studies show that our approach can effectively and efficiently help developers diagnose root cause of performance problems.

  5. Long-distance transmission of light in a scintillator-based radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Jonathan L.; Talbott, Dale V.; Hehlen, Markus P.

    2017-07-11

    Scintillator-based radiation detectors capable of transmitting light indicating the presence of radiation for long distances are disclosed herein. A radiation detector can include a scintillator layer and a light-guide layer. The scintillator layer is configured to produce light upon receiving incident radiation. The light-guide layer is configured to receive light produced by the scintillator layer and either propagate the received light through the radiation detector or absorb the received light and emit light, through fluorescence, that is propagated through the radiation detector. A radiation detector can also include an outer layer partially surrounding the scintillator layer and light-guide layer. The index of refraction of the light-guide layer can be greater than the index of refraction of adjacent layers.

  6. Role of Distance-Based Routing in Traffic Dynamics on Mobile Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2013-06-01

    Despite of intensive investigations on transportation dynamics taking place on complex networks with fixed structures, a deep understanding of networks consisting of mobile nodes is challenging yet, especially the lacking of insight into the effects of routing strategies on transmission efficiency. We introduce a distance-based routing strategy for networks of mobile agents toward enhancing the network throughput and the transmission efficiency. We study the transportation capacity and delivering time of data packets associated with mobility and communication ability. Interestingly, we find that the transportation capacity is optimized at moderate moving speed, which is quite different from random routing strategy. In addition, both continuous and discontinuous transitions from free flow to congestions are observed. Degree distributions are explored in order to explain the enhancement of network throughput and other observations. Our work is valuable toward understanding complex transportation dynamics and designing effective routing protocols.

  7. Ratbot automatic navigation by electrical reward stimulation based on distance measurement in unknown environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liqiang; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Chen; Zheng, Nenggan; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    Traditional automatic navigation methods for bio-robots are constrained to configured environments and thus can't be applied to tasks in unknown environments. With no consideration of bio-robot's own innate living ability and treating bio-robots in the same way as mechanical robots, those methods neglect the intelligence behavior of animals. This paper proposes a novel ratbot automatic navigation method in unknown environments using only reward stimulation and distance measurement. By utilizing rat's habit of thigmotaxis and its reward-seeking behavior, this method is able to incorporate rat's intrinsic intelligence of obstacle avoidance and path searching into navigation. Experiment results show that this method works robustly and can successfully navigate the ratbot to a target in the unknown environment. This work might put a solid base for application of ratbots and also has significant implication of automatic navigation for other bio-robots as well.

  8. Tactile-Sight: A Sensory Substitution Device Based on Distance-Related Vibrotactile Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cancar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory substitution is a research field of increasing interest with regard to technical, applied and theoretical issues. Among the latter, it is of central interest to understand the form in which humans perceive the environment. Ecological psychology, among other approaches, proposes that we can detect higher-order informational variables (in the sense that they are defined over substantial spatial and temporal intervals that specify our interaction with the environment. When using a vibrotactile sensory substitution device, it is reasonable to ask if stimulation on the skin may be exploitable to detect higher-order variables. Motivated by this question, a portable vibrotactile sensory substitution device was built, using distance-based information as a source and driving a large number of vibrotactile actuators (72 in the reported version, 120 max. The portable device was designed to explore real environments, allowing natural unrestricted movement for the user while providing contingent real-time vibrotactile information. Two preliminary experiments were performed. In the first one, participants were asked to detect the time to contact of an approaching ball in a simulated (desktop environment. Reasonable performance was observed in all experimental conditions, including the one with only tactile stimulation. In the second experiment, a portable version of the device was used in a real environment, where participants were asked to hit an approaching ball. Participants were able to coordinate their arm movements with vibrotactile stimulation in appropriate timing. We conclude that vibrotactile flow can be generated by distance-based activation of the actuators and that this stimulation on the skin allows users to perceive time-to-contact related environmental properties.

  9. Kullback-Leibler distance-based enhanced detection of incipient anomalies

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-09-09

    Accurate and effective anomaly detection and diagnosis of modern engineering systems by monitoring processes ensure reliability and safety of a product while maintaining desired quality. In this paper, an innovative method based on Kullback-Leibler divergence for detecting incipient anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data is presented. We use a partial least square (PLS) method as a modeling framework and a symmetrized Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD) as an anomaly indicator, where it is used to quantify the dissimilarity between current PLS-based residual and reference probability distributions obtained using fault-free data. Furthermore, this paper reports the development of two monitoring charts based on the KLD. The first approach is a KLD-Shewhart chart, where the Shewhart monitoring chart with a three sigma rule is used to monitor the KLD of the response variables residuals from the PLS model. The second approach integrates the KLD statistic into the exponentially weighted moving average monitoring chart. The performance of the PLS-based KLD anomaly-detection methods is illustrated and compared to that of conventional PLS-based anomaly detection methods. Using synthetic data and simulated distillation column data, we demonstrate the greater sensitivity and effectiveness of the developed method over the conventional PLS-based methods, especially when data are highly correlated and small anomalies are of interest. Results indicate that the proposed chart is a very promising KLD-based method because KLD-based charts are, in practice, designed to detect small shifts in process parameters. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Ranking and selection of commercial off-the-shelf using fuzzy distance based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a tremendous growth of the use of the component based software engineering (CBSE approach for the development of software systems. The selection of the best suited COTS components which fulfils the necessary requirement for the development of software(s has become a major challenge for the software developers. The complexity of the optimal selection problem increases with an increase in alternative potential COTS components and the corresponding selection criteria. In this research paper, the problem of ranking and selection of Data Base Management Systems (DBMS components is modeled as a multi-criteria decision making problem. A ‘Fuzzy Distance Based Approach (FDBA’ method is proposed for the optimal ranking and selection of DBMS COTS components of an e-payment system based on 14 selection criteria grouped under three major categories i.e. ‘Vendor Capabilities’, ‘Business Issues’ and ‘Cost’. The results of this method are compared with other Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP which is termed as a typical multi-criteria decision making approach. The proposed methodology is explained with an illustrated example.

  11. A DISTANCE EDUCATION MODEL FOR JORDANIAN STUDENTS BASED ON AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad SHAHER MASHHOUR

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance education is expanding worldwide. Numbers of students enrolled in distance education are increasing at very high rates. Distance education is said to be the future of education because it addresses educational needs of the new millennium. This paper represents the findings of an empirical study on a sample of Jordanian distance education students into a requirement model that addresses the need of such education at the national level. The responses of the sample show that distance education is offering a viable and satisfactory alternative to those who cannot enroll in regular residential education. The study also shows that the shortcomings of the regular and the current form of distance education in Jordan can be overcome by the use of modern information technology.

  12. Comparison of efficiency of distance measurement methodologies in mango (Mangifera indica) progenies based on physicochemical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, E O S; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M; Souza, A M; Santos, C A F; Lima Neto, F P; Corrêa, R X

    2012-03-14

    We investigated seven distance measures in a set of observations of physicochemical variables of mango (Mangifera indica) submitted to multivariate analyses (distance, projection and grouping). To estimate the distance measurements, five mango progeny (total of 25 genotypes) were analyzed, using six fruit physicochemical descriptors (fruit weight, equatorial diameter, longitudinal diameter, total soluble solids in °Brix, total titratable acidity, and pH). The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the seven distance measurements were, except for the Mahalanobis' generalized distance (0.41 ≤ rs ≤ 0.63), high and significant (rs ≥ 0.91; P < 0.001). Regardless of the origin of the distance matrix, the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean grouping method proved to be the most adequate. The various distance measurements and grouping methods gave different values for distortion (-116.5 ≤ D ≤ 74.5), cophenetic correlation (0.26 ≤ rc ≤ 0.76) and stress (-1.9 ≤ S ≤ 58.9). Choice of distance measurement and analysis methods influence the.

  13. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  14. Distance based control system for machine vision-based selective spraying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, B.L.; Tian, L.F.; Tang, L.

    2002-01-01

    For effective operation of a selective sprayer with real-time local weed sensing, herbicides must be delivered, accurately to weed targets in the field. With a machine vision-based selective spraying system, acquiring sequential images and switching nozzles on and off at the correct locations are

  15. Improved nonlinear fault detection strategy based on the Hellinger distance metric: Plug flow reactor monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2017-03-18

    Fault detection has a vital role in the process industry to enhance productivity, efficiency, and safety, and to avoid expensive maintenance. This paper proposes an innovative multivariate fault detection method that can be used for monitoring nonlinear processes. The proposed method merges advantages of nonlinear projection to latent structures (NLPLS) modeling and those of Hellinger distance (HD) metric to identify abnormal changes in highly correlated multivariate data. Specifically, the HD is used to quantify the dissimilarity between current NLPLS-based residual and reference probability distributions obtained using fault-free data. Furthermore, to enhance further the robustness of these methods to measurement noise, and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of residuals is used before the application of the HD-based monitoring scheme. The performances of the developed NLPLS-HD fault detection technique is illustrated using simulated plug flow reactor data. The results show that the proposed method provides favorable performance for detection of faults compared to the conventional NLPLS method.

  16. Inferring nonlinear gene regulatory networks from gene expression data based on distance correlation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Guo

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dependence is general in regulation mechanism of gene regulatory networks (GRNs. It is vital to properly measure or test nonlinear dependence from real data for reconstructing GRNs and understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms within the cellular system. A recently developed measurement called the distance correlation (DC has been shown powerful and computationally effective in nonlinear dependence for many situations. In this work, we incorporate the DC into inferring GRNs from the gene expression data without any underling distribution assumptions. We propose three DC-based GRNs inference algorithms: CLR-DC, MRNET-DC and REL-DC, and then compare them with the mutual information (MI-based algorithms by analyzing two simulated data: benchmark GRNs from the DREAM challenge and GRNs generated by SynTReN network generator, and an experimentally determined SOS DNA repair network in Escherichia coli. According to both the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve and the precision-recall (PR curve, our proposed algorithms significantly outperform the MI-based algorithms in GRNs inference.

  17. Regularization based on steering parameterized Gaussian filters and a Bhattacharyya distance functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Emerson P.

    2001-08-01

    Template regularization embeds the problem of class separability. In the machine vision perspective, this problem is critical when a textural classification procedure is applied to non-stationary pattern mosaic images. These applications often present low accuracy performance due to disturbance of the classifiers produced by exogenous or endogenous signal regularity perturbations. Natural scene imaging, where the images present certain degree of homogeneity in terms of texture element size or shape (primitives) shows a variety of behaviors, especially varying the preferential spatial directionality. The space-time image pattern characterization is only solved if classification procedures are designed considering the most robust tools within a parallel and hardware perspective. The results to be compared in this paper are obtained using a framework based on multi-resolution, frame and hypothesis approach. Two strategies for the bank of Gabor filters applications are considered: adaptive strategy using the KL transform and fix configuration strategy. The regularization under discussion is accomplished in the pyramid building system instance. The filterings are steering Gaussians controlled by free parameters which are adjusted in accordance with a feedback process driven by hints obtained from sequence of frames interaction functionals pos-processed in the training process and including classification of training set samples as examples. Besides these adjustments there is continuous input data sensitive adaptiveness. The experimental result assessments are focused on two basic issues: Bhattacharyya distance as pattern characterization feature and the combination of KL transform as feature selection and adaptive criterion with the regularization of the pattern Bhattacharyya distance functional (BDF) behavior, using the BDF state separability and symmetry as the main indicators of an optimum framework parameter configuration.

  18. METHODS OF DISTANCE MEASUREMENT’S ACCURACY INCREASING BASED ON THE CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF STEREO IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Kozlov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of increasing the accuracy of restoring a three-dimensional picture of space using two-dimensional digital images, it is necessary to use new effective techniques and algorithms for processing and correlation analysis of digital images. Actively developed tools that allow you to reduce the time costs for processing stereo images, improve the quality of the depth maps construction and automate their construction. The aim of the work is to investigate the possibilities of using various techniques for processing digital images to improve the measurements accuracy of the rangefinder based on the correlation analysis of the stereo image. The results of studies of the influence of color channel mixing techniques on the distance measurements accuracy for various functions realizing correlation processing of images are presented. Studies on the analysis of the possibility of using integral representation of images to reduce the time cost in constructing a depth map areproposed. The results of studies of the possibility of using images prefiltration before correlation processing when distance measuring by stereo imaging areproposed.It is obtained that using of uniform mixing of channels leads to minimization of the total number of measurement errors, and using of brightness extraction according to the sRGB standard leads to an increase of errors number for all of the considered correlation processing techniques. Integral representation of the image makes it possible to accelerate the correlation processing, but this method is useful for depth map calculating in images no more than 0.5 megapixels. Using of image filtration before correlation processing can provide, depending on the filter parameters, either an increasing of the correlation function value, which is useful for analyzing noisy images, or compression of the correlation function.

  19. Implementing Practical Based Courses under Open and Distance Learning System: A Study of the Perception of Learners and Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basantia, Tapan Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Implementing practical based courses under Open and Distance Learning (ODL) system is a very difficult and challenging task as the teaching of practical based courses involves intensive practical work. For removing the difficulties and challenges in implementing the practical based courses under ODL system, there is a need to study the existing…

  20. Network-level accident-mapping: Distance based pattern matching using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Lipika; Quddus, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    The objective of an accident-mapping algorithm is to snap traffic accidents onto the correct road segments. Assigning accidents onto the correct segments facilitate to robustly carry out some key analyses in accident research including the identification of accident hot-spots, network-level risk mapping and segment-level accident risk modelling. Existing risk mapping algorithms have some severe limitations: (i) they are not easily 'transferable' as the algorithms are specific to given accident datasets; (ii) they do not perform well in all road-network environments such as in areas of dense road network; and (iii) the methods used do not perform well in addressing inaccuracies inherent in and type of road environment. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new accident mapping algorithm based on the common variables observed in most accident databases (e.g. road name and type, direction of vehicle movement before the accident and recorded accident location). The challenges here are to: (i) develop a method that takes into account uncertainties inherent to the recorded traffic accident data and the underlying digital road network data, (ii) accurately determine the type and proportion of inaccuracies, and (iii) develop a robust algorithm that can be adapted for any accident set and road network of varying complexity. In order to overcome these challenges, a distance based pattern-matching approach is used to identify the correct road segment. This is based on vectors containing feature values that are common in the accident data and the network data. Since each feature does not contribute equally towards the identification of the correct road segments, an ANN approach using the single-layer perceptron is used to assist in "learning" the relative importance of each feature in the distance calculation and hence the correct link identification. The performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated based on a reference accident dataset from the UK confirming that

  1. LAND-MAN: a new curriculum based on open distance learning for Asian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, F. M.; Dhital, M. R.; Petley, D.

    2003-04-01

    Land-Man is a one-year Asian-European partnership project (Asia-Link EU programme), aiming to implement both a new curriculum and a new distance learning model in the field of landslides management which deals with situations that occur prior to, during, and after the landslide. The emphasis in Land-Man is placed on establishing methodologies, guidelines, and tools to develop Open and Distance Learning (ODL) for the future improvement and harmonisation of education in Landslides Management. Decision-makers, postgraduate students in environmental, earth and engineering disciplines, as well as professionals may benefit from the project. During the implementation of activities, the clear intention is to use internet-based tools in order to strengthen the co-operation between partners and thus lay a stable, cross-cultural, internet-oriented foundation for the future ODL-based educational model. At the end of the project, an ODL-based model for Asian-European Landslides Management Education will be designed and based on specially assembled, multimedia products. In particular, the project aims to provide tutors/professors with training by supplying them with appropriate materials and support to enable them to change to the new teaching model and by focusing on assessment of training, self-esteem, comfort level, commitment, and enthusiasm for tutors. The project also aims to nurture positive attitudes towards distance learning by changing the techniques whereby students learn landslides management, using the latest educational strategies and technology. Although the management of territory is the responsibility of national and local authorities, personnel in these departments can have limited training and experience in natural hazard and, particularly, in landslides management plans. This project will not only hypothesise, through a new curriculum, how management planning can be undertaken, but will also consider how to bring together practitioners and decision makers

  2. Distance and Density Similarity Based Enhanced k-NN Classifier for Improving Fault Diagnosis Performance of Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification algorithm is presented, which uses a density based similarity measure in addition to a distance based similarity measure to improve the diagnostic performance in bearing fault diagnosis. Due to its use of distance based similarity measure alone, the classification accuracy of traditional k-NN deteriorates in case of overlapping samples and outliers and is highly susceptible to the neighborhood size, k. This study addresses these limitations by proposing the use of both distance and density based measures of similarity between training and test samples. The proposed k-NN classifier is used to enhance the diagnostic performance of a bearing fault diagnosis scheme, which classifies different fault conditions based upon hybrid feature vectors extracted from acoustic emission (AE signals. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme, which uses the enhanced k-NN classifier, yields better diagnostic performance and is more robust to variations in the neighborhood size, k.

  3. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Internet-Based Distance Learning through the VClass e-Education Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadchadaporn Pukkaew

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the effectiveness of internet-based distance learning (IBDL through the VClass live e-education platform. The research examines (1 the effectiveness of IBDL for regular and distance students and (2 the distance students’ experience of VClass in the IBDL course entitled Computer Programming 1. The study employed the common definitions of evaluation to attain useful statistical results. The measurement instruments used were test scores and questionnaires. The sample consisted of 59 first-year undergraduate students, most of whom were studying computer information systems at Rajamangala University of Technology Lanna Chiang Mai in Thailand. The results revealed that distance students engaged in learning behavior only occasionally but that the effectiveness of learning was the same for distance and regular students. Moreover, the provided computer-mediated communications (CMC (e.g., live chat, email, and discussion board were sparingly used, primarily by male distance students. Distance students, regular students, the instructor, and the tutor agreed to use a social networking site, Facebook, rather than the provided CMC during the course. The evaluation results produce useful information that is applicable for developing and improving IBDL practices.

  4. High Girth Column-Weight-Two LDPC Codes Based on Distance Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabofetswe Malema

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available LDPC codes of column weight of two are constructed from minimal distance graphs or cages. Distance graphs are used to represent LDPC code matrices such that graph vertices that represent rows and edges are columns. The conversion of a distance graph into matrix form produces an adjacency matrix with column weight of two and girth double that of the graph. The number of 1's in each row (row weight is equal to the degree of the corresponding vertex. By constructing graphs with different vertex degrees, we can vary the rate of corresponding LDPC code matrices. Cage graphs are used as examples of distance graphs to design codes with different girths and rates. Performance of obtained codes depends on girth and structure of the corresponding distance graphs.

  5. New Cepheid distances to nearby galaxies based on BVRI CCD photometry. III - NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, W.L.; Madore, B.F.; Hawley, S.L.; Horowitz, I.K.; Mould, J.; Navarrete, M.; Sallmen, S. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States) JPL, Pasadena, CA (United States) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (United States) Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile) California, University, Berkeley (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A true distance modulus of (m - M) sub 0 = 26.66 +/- 0.10 mag (corresponding to 2.1 +/- 0.1 Mpc) has been determined for the Sculptor Group spiral galaxy NGC 300. New CCD data have been obtained for a sample of known Cepheids in this galaxy from which apparent distance moduli at B, V, R, and I wavelengths are determined. Combining the data available at different wavelenghts, and assuming a true distance modulus to the LMC of 18.5 mag, a true distance modulus is obtained for NGC 300, corrected for the effects of interstellar reddening. The availability of a new distance to NGC 300 brings to five the total number of galaxies with new CCD photometry of Cepheids, useful for calibration of the Hubble constant. 26 refs.

  6. Hyperplane distance neighbor clustering based on local discriminant analysis for complex chemical processes monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chunhong; Xiao, Shaoqing; Gu, Xiaofeng [Jiangnan University, Wuxi (China)

    2014-11-15

    The collected training data often include both normal and faulty samples for complex chemical processes. However, some monitoring methods, such as partial least squares (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), require fault-free data to build the normal operation model. These techniques are applicable after the preliminary step of data clustering is applied. We here propose a novel hyperplane distance neighbor clustering (HDNC) based on the local discriminant analysis (LDA) for chemical process monitoring. First, faulty samples are separated from normal ones using the HDNC method. Then, the optimal subspace for fault detection and classification can be obtained using the LDA approach. The proposed method takes the multimodality within the faulty data into account, and thus improves the capability of process monitoring significantly. The HDNC-LDA monitoring approach is applied to two simulation processes and then compared with the conventional FDA based on the K-nearest neighbor (KNN-FDA) method. The results obtained in two different scenarios demonstrate the superiority of the HDNC-LDA approach in terms of fault detection and classification accuracy.

  7. A Simple Density with Distance Based Initial Seed Selection Technique for K Means Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajidha Syed Azimuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Open issues with respect to K means algorithm are identifying the number of clusters, initial seed concept selection, clustering tendency, handling empty clusters, identifying outliers etc. In this paper we propose a novel and a simple technique considering both density and distance of the concepts in a dataset to identify initial seed concepts for clustering. Many authors have proposed different techniques to identify initial seed concepts; but our method ensures that the initial seed concepts are chosen from different clusters that are to be generated by the clustering solution. The hallmark of our algorithm is that it is a single pass algorithm that does not require any extra parameters to be estimated. Further, our seed concepts are one among the actual concepts and not the mean of representative concepts as is the case in many other algorithms. We have implemented our proposed algorithm and compared the results with the interval based technique of Fouad Khan. We see that our method outperforms the interval based method. We have also compared our method with the original random K means and K Means++ algorithms.

  8. Reachable Distance Space: Efficient Sampling-Based Planning for Spatially Constrained Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xinyu Tang,

    2010-01-25

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end-effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the number of the robot\\'s degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling of configurations, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning and, in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end-effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1,000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1,000-link multi-loop systems of varying topologies in less than a second. © 2010 The Author(s).

  9. Estimation of cylinder orientation in three-dimensional point cloud using angular distance-based optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Ting; Hu, Shuowen; Bethel, James S.

    2017-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has become a widely used tool in remote sensing for mapping, surveying, modeling, and a host of other applications. The motivation behind this work is the modeling of piping systems in industrial sites, where cylinders are the most common primitive or shape. We focus on cylinder parameter estimation in three-dimensional point clouds, proposing a mathematical formulation based on angular distance to determine the cylinder orientation. We demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the technique on synthetically generated cylinder point clouds (where the true axis orientation is known) as well as on real LIDAR data of piping systems. The proposed algorithm is compared with a discrete space Hough transform-based approach as well as a continuous space inlier approach, which iteratively discards outlier points to refine the cylinder parameter estimates. Results show that the proposed method is more computationally efficient than the Hough transform approach and is more accurate than both the Hough transform approach and the inlier method.

  10. Application of affinity propagation algorithm based on manifold distance for transformer PD pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, B. G.; Huo, K. X.; Yao, Z. F.; Lou, J.; Li, X. Y.

    2018-03-01

    It is one of the difficult problems encountered in the research of condition maintenance technology of transformers to recognize partial discharge (PD) pattern. According to the main physical characteristics of PD, three models of oil-paper insulation defects were set up in laboratory to study the PD of transformers, and phase resolved partial discharge (PRPD) was constructed. By using least square method, the grey-scale images of PRPD were constructed and features of each grey-scale image were 28 box dimensions and 28 information dimensions. Affinity propagation algorithm based on manifold distance (AP-MD) for transformers PD pattern recognition was established, and the data of box dimension and information dimension were clustered based on AP-MD. Study shows that clustering result of AP-MD is better than the results of affinity propagation (AP), k-means and fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM). By choosing different k values of k-nearest neighbor, we find clustering accuracy of AP-MD falls when k value is larger or smaller, and the optimal k value depends on sample size.

  11. Symmetrical compression distance for arrhythmia discrimination in cloud-based big-data services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Castellano, J M; Mora-Jiménez, I; Santiago-Mozos, R; Chavarría-Asso, F; Cano-González, A; García-Alberola, A; Rojo-Álvarez, J L

    2015-07-01

    The current development of cloud computing is completely changing the paradigm of data knowledge extraction in huge databases. An example of this technology in the cardiac arrhythmia field is the SCOOP platform, a national-level scientific cloud-based big data service for implantable cardioverter defibrillators. In this scenario, we here propose a new methodology for automatic classification of intracardiac electrograms (EGMs) in a cloud computing system, designed for minimal signal preprocessing. A new compression-based similarity measure (CSM) is created for low computational burden, so-called weighted fast compression distance, which provides better performance when compared with other CSMs in the literature. Using simple machine learning techniques, a set of 6848 EGMs extracted from SCOOP platform were classified into seven cardiac arrhythmia classes and one noise class, reaching near to 90% accuracy when previous patient arrhythmia information was available and 63% otherwise, hence overcoming in all cases the classification provided by the majority class. Results show that this methodology can be used as a high-quality service of cloud computing, providing support to physicians for improving the knowledge on patient diagnosis.

  12. Hyperplane distance neighbor clustering based on local discriminant analysis for complex chemical processes monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chunhong; Xiao, Shaoqing; Gu, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The collected training data often include both normal and faulty samples for complex chemical processes. However, some monitoring methods, such as partial least squares (PLS), principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA) and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA), require fault-free data to build the normal operation model. These techniques are applicable after the preliminary step of data clustering is applied. We here propose a novel hyperplane distance neighbor clustering (HDNC) based on the local discriminant analysis (LDA) for chemical process monitoring. First, faulty samples are separated from normal ones using the HDNC method. Then, the optimal subspace for fault detection and classification can be obtained using the LDA approach. The proposed method takes the multimodality within the faulty data into account, and thus improves the capability of process monitoring significantly. The HDNC-LDA monitoring approach is applied to two simulation processes and then compared with the conventional FDA based on the K-nearest neighbor (KNN-FDA) method. The results obtained in two different scenarios demonstrate the superiority of the HDNC-LDA approach in terms of fault detection and classification accuracy

  13. On the importance of the distance measures used to train and test knowledge-based potentials for proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Carlsen

    Full Text Available Knowledge-based potentials are energy functions derived from the analysis of databases of protein structures and sequences. They can be divided into two classes. Potentials from the first class are based on a direct conversion of the distributions of some geometric properties observed in native protein structures into energy values, while potentials from the second class are trained to mimic quantitatively the geometric differences between incorrectly folded models and native structures. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between energy and geometry when training the second class of knowledge-based potentials. We assume that the difference in energy between a decoy structure and the corresponding native structure is linearly related to the distance between the two structures. We trained two distance-based knowledge-based potentials accordingly, one based on all inter-residue distances (PPD, while the other had the set of all distances filtered to reflect consistency in an ensemble of decoys (PPE. We tested four types of metric to characterize the distance between the decoy and the native structure, two based on extrinsic geometry (RMSD and GTD-TS*, and two based on intrinsic geometry (Q* and MT. The corresponding eight potentials were tested on a large collection of decoy sets. We found that it is usually better to train a potential using an intrinsic distance measure. We also found that PPE outperforms PPD, emphasizing the benefits of capturing consistent information in an ensemble. The relevance of these results for the design of knowledge-based potentials is discussed.

  14. Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for finding edit distance based motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Soumitra; Xiao, Peng; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2016-08-18

    Motif search is an important step in extracting meaningful patterns from biological data. The general problem of motif search is intractable and there is a pressing need to develop efficient, exact and approximation algorithms to solve this problem. In this paper, we present several novel, exact, sequential and parallel algorithms for solving the (l,d) Edit-distance-based Motif Search (EMS) problem: given two integers l,d and n biological strings, find all strings of length l that appear in each input string with atmost d errors of types substitution, insertion and deletion. One popular technique to solve the problem is to explore for each input string the set of all possible l-mers that belong to the d-neighborhood of any substring of the input string and output those which are common for all input strings. We introduce a novel and provably efficient neighborhood exploration technique. We show that it is enough to consider the candidates in neighborhood which are at a distance exactly d. We compactly represent these candidate motifs using wildcard characters and efficiently explore them with very few repetitions. Our sequential algorithm uses a trie based data structure to efficiently store and sort the candidate motifs. Our parallel algorithm in a multi-core shared memory setting uses arrays for storing and a novel modification of radix-sort for sorting the candidate motifs. The algorithms for EMS are customarily evaluated on several challenging instances such as (8,1), (12,2), (16,3), (20,4), and so on. The best previously known algorithm, EMS1, is sequential and in estimated 3 days solves up to instance (16,3). Our sequential algorithms are more than 20 times faster on (16,3). On other hard instances such as (9,2), (11,3), (13,4), our algorithms are much faster. Our parallel algorithm has more than 600 % scaling performance while using 16 threads. Our algorithms have pushed up the state-of-the-art of EMS solvers and we believe that the techniques introduced in

  15. Mapping Rice Cropping Systems in Vietnam Using an NDVI-Based Time-Series Similarity Measurement Based on DTW Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time-series data has been widely used in the fields of crop and rice classification. The cloudy and rainy weather characteristics of the monsoon season greatly reduce the likelihood of obtaining high-quality optical remote sensing images. In addition, the diverse crop-planting system in Vietnam also hinders the comparison of NDVI among different crop stages. To address these problems, we apply a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW distance-based similarity measure approach and use the entire yearly NDVI time series to reduce the inaccuracy of classification using a single image. We first de-noise the NDVI time series using S-G filtering based on the TIMESAT software. Then, a standard NDVI time-series base for rice growth is established based on field survey data and Google Earth sample data. NDVI time-series data for each pixel are constructed and the DTW distance with the standard rice growth NDVI time series is calculated. Then, we apply thresholds to extract rice growth areas. A qualitative assessment using statistical data and a spatial assessment using sampled data from the rice-cropping map reveal a high mapping accuracy at the national scale between the statistical data, with the corresponding R2 being as high as 0.809; however, the mapped rice accuracy decreased at the provincial scale due to the reduced number of rice planting areas per province. An analysis of the results indicates that the 500-m resolution MODIS data are limited in terms of mapping scattered rice parcels. The results demonstrate that the DTW-based similarity measure of the NDVI time series can be effectively used to map large-area rice cropping systems with diverse cultivation processes.

  16. Experimental Study on Damage Detection in Timber Specimens Based on an Electromechanical Impedance Technique and RMSD-Based Mahalanobis Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dansheng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the electromechanical impedance (EMI method, the PZT patch performs the functions of both sensor and exciter. Due to the high frequency actuation and non-model based characteristics, the EMI method can be utilized to detect incipient structural damage. In recent years EMI techniques have been widely applied to monitor the health status of concrete and steel materials, however, studies on application to timber are limited. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the EMI technique for damage detection in timber specimens. In addition, the conventional damage index, namely root mean square deviation (RMSD is employed to evaluate the level of damage. On that basis, a new damage index, Mahalanobis distance based on RMSD, is proposed to evaluate the damage severity of timber specimens. Experimental studies are implemented to detect notch and hole damage in the timber specimens. Experimental results verify the availability and robustness of the proposed damage index and its superiority over the RMSD indexes.

  17. Computer-Based Learning in Open and Distance Learning Institutions in Nigeria: Cautions on Use of Internet for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okopi, Fidel Onjefu; Odeyemi, Olajumoke Janet; Adesina, Adewale

    2015-01-01

    The study has identified the areas of strengths and weaknesses in the current use of Computer Based Learning (CBL) tools in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) institutions in Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, the following research questions were proposed: (i) What are the computer-based learning tools (soft and hard ware) that are actually in…

  18. A novel genome signature based on inter-nucleotide distances profiles for visualization of metagenomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xian-Hua; Yu, Zu-Guo; Ma, Yuan-Lin; Han, Guo-Sheng; Anh, Vo

    2017-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in visualization of metagenomic data. The present study focuses on the visualization of metagenomic data using inter-nucleotide distances profile. We first convert the fragment sequences into inter-nucleotide distances profiles. Then we analyze these profiles by principal component analysis. Finally the principal components are used to obtain the 2-D scattered plot according to their source of species. We name our method as inter-nucleotide distances profiles (INP) method. Our method is evaluated on three benchmark data sets used in previous published papers. Our results demonstrate that the INP method is good, alternative and efficient for visualization of metagenomic data.

  19. Study of variations of radiofrequency power density from mobile phone base stations with distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayinmode, B. O.; Farai, I. P.

    2013-01-01

    The variations of radiofrequency (RF) radiation power density with distance around some mobile phone base stations (BTSs), in ten randomly selected locations in Ibadan, western Nigeria, were studied. Measurements were made with a calibrated hand-held spectrum analyser. The maximum Global System of Mobile (GSM) communication 1800 signal power density was 323.91 μW m -2 at 250 m radius of a BTS and that of GSM 900 was 1119.00 μW m -2 at 200 m radius of another BTS. The estimated total maximum power density was 2972.00 μW m -2 at 50 m radius of a different BTS. This study shows that the maximum carrier signal power density and the total maximum power density from a BTS may be observed averagely at 200 and 50 m of its radius, respectively. The result of this study demonstrates that exposure of people to RF radiation from phone BTSs in Ibadan city is far less than the recommended limits by International scientific bodies. (authors)

  20. Identifying the true oysters (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) with mitochondrial phylogeny and distance-based DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Qi; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2011-09-01

    Oysters (family Ostreidae), with high levels of phenotypic plasticity and wide geographic distribution, are a challenging group for taxonomists and phylogenetics. As a useful tool for molecular species identification, DNA barcoding might offer significant potential for oyster identification and taxonomy. This study used two mitochondrial fragments, cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the large ribosomal subunit (16S rDNA), to assess whether oyster species could be identified by phylogeny and distance-based DNA barcoding techniques. Relationships among species were estimated by the phylogenetic analyses of both genes, and then pairwise inter- and intraspecific genetic divergences were assessed. Species forming well-differentiated clades in the molecular phylogenies were identical for both genes even when the closely related species were included. Intraspecific variability of 16S rDNA overlapped with interspecific divergence. However, average intra- and interspecific genetic divergences for COI were 0-1.4% (maximum 2.2%) and 2.6-32.2% (minimum 2.2%), respectively, indicating the existence of a barcoding gap. These results confirm the efficacy of species identification in oysters via DNA barcodes and phylogenetic analysis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. A Hybrid Distance-Based Ideal-Seeking Consensus Ranking Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Tavana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordinal consensus ranking problems have received much attention in the management science literature. A problem arises in situations where a group of k decision makers (DMs is asked to rank order n alternatives. The question is how to combine the DM rankings into one consensus ranking. Several different approaches have been suggested to aggregate DM responses into a compromise or consensus ranking; however, the similarity of consensus rankings generated by the different algorithms is largely unknown. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid distance-based ideal-seeking consensus ranking model (DCM. The proposed hybrid model combines parts of the two commonly used consensus ranking techniques of Beck and Lin (1983 and Cook and Kress (1985 into an intuitive and computationally simple model. We illustrate our method and then run a Monte Carlo simulation across a range of k and n to compare the similarity of the consensus rankings generated by our method with the best-known method of Borda and Kendall (Kendall 1962 and the two methods proposed by Beck and Lin (1983 and Cook and Kress (1985. DCM and Beck and Lin's method yielded the most similar consensus rankings, whereas the Cook-Kress method and the Borda-Kendall method yielded the least similar consensus rankings.

  2. How do e-book readers enhance learning opportunities for distance work-based learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Witthaus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the incorporation of e-book readers into the delivery of two distance-taught master's programmes in Occupational Psychology (OP and one in Education at the University of Leicester, UK. The programmes attract work-based practitioners in OP and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, respectively. Challenges in curriculum delivery included the need for more flexibility in the curricula, better access to essential readings and maximising the benefit of learners' limited study time. As part of a suite of pilot changes to curriculum design and delivery, 28 Sony PRS-505™ e-book readers were pre-loaded with course materials and sent out to students. The evidence suggests that the students' learning experiences improved as a result of four key benefits afforded by the e-book readers: enhanced flexibility in curriculum delivery to accommodate the mobile lifestyle of our learners, improved efficiency in the use of study time, especially short breaks during the working day, new strategies for reading course materials and cost. We discuss the opportunities and limitations associated with the e-book readers used and the challenges encountered in the study.

  3. Distinguishability notion based on Wootters statistical distance: Application to discrete maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Ignacio S.; Portesi, M.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2017-08-01

    We study the distinguishability notion given by Wootters for states represented by probability density functions. This presents the particularity that it can also be used for defining a statistical distance in chaotic unidimensional maps. Based on that definition, we provide a metric d ¯ for an arbitrary discrete map. Moreover, from d ¯ , we associate a metric space with each invariant density of a given map, which results to be the set of all distinguished points when the number of iterations of the map tends to infinity. Also, we give a characterization of the wandering set of a map in terms of the metric d ¯ , which allows us to identify the dissipative regions in the phase space. We illustrate the results in the case of the logistic and the circle maps numerically and analytically, and we obtain d ¯ and the wandering set for some characteristic values of their parameters. Finally, an extension of the metric space associated for arbitrary probability distributions (not necessarily invariant densities) is given along with some consequences. The statistical properties of distributions given by histograms are characterized in terms of the cardinal of the associated metric space. For two conjugate variables, the uncertainty principle is expressed in terms of the diameters of the associated metric space with those variables.

  4. Distance-Based Behaviors for Low-Complexity Control in Multiagent Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierpaoli, Pietro

    Several biological examples show that living organisms cooperate to collectively accomplish tasks impossible for single individuals. More importantly, this coordination is often achieved with a very limited set of information. Inspired by these observations, research on autonomous systems has focused on the development of distributed control techniques for control and guidance of groups of autonomous mobile agents, or robots. From an engineering perspective, when coordination and cooperation is sought in large ensembles of robotic vehicles, a reduction in hardware and algorithms' complexity becomes mandatory from the very early stages of the project design. The research for solutions capable of lowering power consumption, cost and increasing reliability are thus worth investigating. In this work, we studied low-complexity techniques to achieve cohesion and control on swarms of autonomous robots. Starting from an inspiring example with two-agents, we introduced effects of neighbors' relative positions on control of an autonomous agent. The extension of this intuition addressed the control of large ensembles of autonomous vehicles, and was applied in the form of a herding-like technique. To this end, a low-complexity distance-based aggregation protocol was defined. We first showed that our protocol produced a cohesion aggregation among the agent while avoiding inter-agent collisions. Then, a feedback leader-follower architecture was introduced for the control of the swarm. We also described how proximity measures and probability of collisions with neighbors can also be used as source of information in highly populated environments.

  5. Reachable Distance Space: Efficient Sampling-Based Planning for Spatially Constrained Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Xinyu Tang,; Thomas, S.; Coleman, P.; Amato, N. M.

    2010-01-01

    reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the number of the robot's degrees of freedom

  6. Establishing the existence of a distance-based upper bound for a fuzzy DEA model using duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleimani-damaneh, M.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper [Soleimani-damaneh M. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2008;36:217-25.], I established the existence of a distance-based fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of a fuzzy DEA model, using the properties of a discussed signed distance, and provided an effective approach to solve that model. In this paper a new dual-based proof for the existence of the above-mentioned upper bound is provided which gives a useful insight into the theory of fuzzy DEA.

  7. A New Model of Stopping Sight Distance of Curve Braking Based on Vehicle Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-xia Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with straight-line braking, cornering brake has longer braking distance and poorer stability. Therefore, drivers are more prone to making mistakes. The braking process and the dynamics of vehicles in emergency situations on curves were analyzed. A biaxial four-wheel vehicle was simplified to a single model. Considering the braking process, dynamics, force distribution, and stability, a stopping sight distance of the curve braking calculation model was built. Then a driver-vehicle-road simulation platform was built using multibody dynamic software. The vehicle test of brake-in-turn was realized in this platform. The comparison of experimental and calculated values verified the reliability of the computational model. Eventually, the experimental values and calculated values were compared with the stopping sight distance recommended by the Highway Route Design Specification (JTGD20-2006; the current specification of stopping sight distance does not apply to cornering brake sight distance requirements. In this paper, the general values and limits of the curve stopping sight distance are presented.

  8. Student's vacation travel: a reference dependent model of airline fares preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigolon, A.B.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of student vacation travel choice analysis using a reference dependent model of airline fare preferences. Findings suggests, as expected, that the preferences/utility decreases with increasing levels of cost. The evaluation of the airfare, however, becomes

  9. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development (USAID), private voluntary organizations (PVOs), the World Food Program (WFP), the Foreign... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection... Chain Management system (WBSCM) is a new procurement system in development to replace FARES at a later...

  10. Second Best Decision Making of Railway Operators: How to fix Fares, Frequency and Vehicle Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Woudenberg, van Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Railway networks are characterised by variations in demand on different links. Optimal strategies therefore call for a differentiated treatment of fares, frequencies and vehicle sizes in various links. However, for several reasons, railway operators may apply uniform levels for these decision

  11. The Bad Old Days: How Higher Education Fared during the Great Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    It is hard to predict exactly how academe should respond to the most serious economic crisis since the 1930s. In this article, the author suggests the possibility of assessing some possible options by looking at how higher education fared during the Great Depression. After all, despite its enormous growth since World War II, academe's…

  12. Modeling and optimization of the single-leg multi-fare class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a static overbooking model for a single-leg multi-fare class flight. A realistic distribution of no-show data in modeling the cost function was considered using data collected from the Ethiopian airlines. The overbooking model developed considers the interaction (i.e. the transfer of an extra passenger in a ...

  13. Effect of fare and travel time on the demand for domestic air transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, S. E.; Liu, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    An econometric travel demand model was presented. The model was used for analyzing long haul domestic passenger markets in the United States. The results showed the sensitivities of demand to changes in fares and speed reflecting technology through more efficient aircraft designs.

  14. Impact localization in dispersive waveguides based on energy-attenuation of waves with the traveled distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajlouni, Sa'ed; Albakri, Mohammad; Tarazaga, Pablo

    2018-05-01

    An algorithm is introduced to solve the general multilateration (source localization) problem in a dispersive waveguide. The algorithm is designed with the intention of localizing impact forces in a dispersive floor, and can potentially be used to localize and track occupants in a building using vibration sensors connected to the lower surface of the walking floor. The lower the wave frequencies generated by the impact force, the more accurate the localization is expected to be. An impact force acting on a floor, generates a seismic wave that gets distorted as it travels away from the source. This distortion is noticeable even over relatively short traveled distances, and is mainly caused by the dispersion phenomenon among other reasons, therefore using conventional localization/multilateration methods will produce localization error values that are highly variable and occasionally large. The proposed localization approach is based on the fact that the wave's energy, calculated over some time window, decays exponentially as the wave travels away from the source. Although localization methods that assume exponential decay exist in the literature (in the field of wireless communications), these methods have only been considered for wave propagation in non-dispersive media, in addition to the limiting assumption required by these methods that the source must not coincide with a sensor location. As a result, these methods cannot be applied to the indoor localization problem in their current form. We show how our proposed method is different from the other methods, and that it overcomes the source-sensor location coincidence limitation. Theoretical analysis and experimental data will be used to motivate and justify the pursuit of the proposed approach for localization in a dispersive medium. Additionally, hammer impacts on an instrumented floor section inside an operational building, as well as finite element model simulations, are used to evaluate the performance of

  15. Clustering by Partitioning around Medoids using Distance-Based Similarity Measures on Interval-Scaled Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Nkweteyim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It is reported in this paper, the results of a study of the partitioning around medoids (PAM clustering algorithm applied to four datasets, both standardized and not, and of varying sizes and numbers of clusters. The angular distance proximity measure in addition to the two more traditional proximity measures, namely the Euclidean distance and Manhattan distance, was used to compute object-object similarity. The data used in the study comprise three widely available datasets, and one that was constructed from publicly available climate data. Results replicate some of the well known facts about the PAM algorithm, namely that the quality of the clusters generated tend to be much better for small datasets, that the silhouette value is a good, even if not perfect, guide for the optimal number of clusters to generate, and that human intervention is required to interpret generated clusters. Additionally, results also indicate that the angular distance measure, which traditionally has not been widely used in clustering, outperforms both the Euclidean and Manhattan distance metrics in certain situations.

  16. Genetic distances and phylogenetic trees of different Awassi sheep populations based on DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, R M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed to estimate evolutionary distances and to reconstruct phylogeny trees between different Awassi sheep populations. Thirty-two sheep individuals from three different geographical areas of Jordan and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were randomly sampled. DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and sequenced using the T7 promoter universal primer. Different phylogenetic trees were reconstructed from 0.64-kb DNA sequences using the MEGA software with the best general time reverse distance model. Three methods of distance estimation were then used. The maximum composite likelihood test was considered for reconstructing maximum likelihood, neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees. The maximum likelihood tree indicated three major clusters separated by cytosine (C) and thymine (T). The greatest distance was shown between the South sheep and North sheep. On the other hand, the KSA sheep as an outgroup showed shorter evolutionary distance to the North sheep population than to the others. The neighbor-joining and UPGMA trees showed quite reliable clusters of evolutionary differentiation of Jordan sheep populations from the Saudi population. The overall results support geographical information and ecological types of the sheep populations studied. Summing up, the resulting phylogeny trees may contribute to the limited information about the genetic relatedness and phylogeny of Awassi sheep in nearby Arab countries.

  17. Fault Diagnosis of Supervision and Homogenization Distance Based on Local Linear Embedding Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the problems of uneven distribution of reality fault samples and dimension reduction effect of locally linear embedding (LLE algorithm which is easily affected by neighboring points, an improved local linear embedding algorithm of homogenization distance (HLLE is developed. The method makes the overall distribution of sample points tend to be homogenization and reduces the influence of neighboring points using homogenization distance instead of the traditional Euclidean distance. It is helpful to choose effective neighboring points to construct weight matrix for dimension reduction. Because the fault recognition performance improvement of HLLE is limited and unstable, the paper further proposes a new local linear embedding algorithm of supervision and homogenization distance (SHLLE by adding the supervised learning mechanism. On the basis of homogenization distance, supervised learning increases the category information of sample points so that the same category of sample points will be gathered and the heterogeneous category of sample points will be scattered. It effectively improves the performance of fault diagnosis and maintains stability at the same time. A comparison of the methods mentioned above was made by simulation experiment with rotor system fault diagnosis, and the results show that SHLLE algorithm has superior fault recognition performance.

  18. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component. PMID:27043580

  19. Investigation of shear distance in Michelson interferometer-based shearography for mechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Yoon, Dong-Jin; Kim, Jung-Seok; Vautrin, Alain

    2008-01-01

    Shearography is a growing industrial field in both quantitative mechanical characterization and relatively qualitative non-destructive testing. In shearography, shear distance is the most important parameter to control measurement performances. In this paper, the role of the shear distance is systematically investigated, focusing on the application of full-field mechanical characterization. A modified Michelson interferometer is considered as the shearing device, which is most commonly adopted for mechanical characterization applications because it enables easy and precise shearing and phase shifting. This paper also includes theoretical and experimental investigations of the relationship between shear distance and performance issues such as the immeasurable zone in the target with discontinuity, signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity and shear distortion. In addition, this study is verified with actual shearographic results and a phase-shifting grid method capable of full-field displacement evaluation in the submicrometer regime

  20. Genetic distance of Malaysian mousedeer based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and D-loop region sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Mohamad-Azam Akmal Abu; Rovie-Ryan, Jeffrine Japning; Ampeng, Ahmad; Yaakop, Salmah; Nor, Shukor Md; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir

    2018-04-01

    Mousedeer is one of the primitive mammals that can be found mainly in Southeast-Asia region. There are two species of mousedeer in Malaysia which are Tragulus kanchil and Tragulus napu. Both species can be distinguish by size, coat coloration, and throat pattern but clear diagnosis still cannot be found. The objective of the study is to show the genetic distance relationship between T. kanchil and T. napu and their population based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and D-loop region. There are 42 sample of mousedeer were used in this study collected by PERHILITAN from different locality. Another 29 D-loop sequence were retrieved from Genbank for comparative analysis. All sample were amplified using universal primer and species-specific primer for COI and D-loop genes via PCR process. The amplified sequences were analyzed to determine genetic distance of T. kanchil and T. napu. From the analysis, the average genetic distance between T. kanchil and T. napu based on locus COI and D-loop were 0.145 and 0.128 respectively. The genetic distance between populations of T. kanchil based on locus COI was between 0.003-0.013. For locus D-loop, genetic distance analysis showed distance in relationship between west-coast populations to east-coast population of T. kanchil. COI and D-loop mtDNA region provided a clear picture on the relationship within the mousedeer species. Last but not least, conservation effort toward protecting this species can be done by study the molecular genetics and prevent the extinction of this species.

  1. A Voice-Based E-Examination Framework for Visually Impaired Students in Open and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeta, Ambrose A.; Inam, Itorobong A.; Daramola, Olawande

    2018-01-01

    Voice-based systems allow users access to information on the internet over a voice interface. Prior studies on Open and Distance Learning (ODL) e-examination systems that make use of voice interface do not sufficiently exhibit intelligent form of assessment, which diminishes the rigor of examination. The objective of this paper is to improve on…

  2. Proximity and Distance in Knowledge Relationships : From Micro to Structural Considerations based on Territorial Knowledge Dynamics (TKDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespo, Joan; Vicente, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Crespo J. and Vicente J. Proximity and distance in knowledge relationships: from micro to structural considerations based on territorial knowledge dynamics (TKDs), Regional Studies. Among the key parameters identified in territorial knowledge dynamics (TKDs), this paper focuses on the balance and

  3. Vision-Based Detection and Distance Estimation of Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Gökçe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Detection and distance estimation of micro unmanned aerial vehicles (mUAVs is crucial for (i the detection of intruder mUAVs in protected environments; (ii sense and avoid purposes on mUAVs or on other aerial vehicles and (iii multi-mUAV control scenarios, such as environmental monitoring, surveillance and exploration. In this article, we evaluate vision algorithms as alternatives for detection and distance estimation of mUAVs, since other sensing modalities entail certain limitations on the environment or on the distance. For this purpose, we test Haar-like features, histogram of gradients (HOG and local binary patterns (LBP using cascades of boosted classifiers. Cascaded boosted classifiers allow fast processing by performing detection tests at multiple stages, where only candidates passing earlier simple stages are processed at the preceding more complex stages. We also integrate a distance estimation method with our system utilizing geometric cues with support vector regressors. We evaluated each method on indoor and outdoor videos that are collected in a systematic way and also on videos having motion blur. Our experiments show that, using boosted cascaded classifiers with LBP, near real-time detection and distance estimation of mUAVs are possible in about 60 ms indoors (1032 × 778 resolution and 150 ms outdoors (1280 × 720 resolution per frame, with a detection rate of 0.96 F-score. However, the cascaded classifiers using Haar-like features lead to better distance estimation since they can position the bounding boxes on mUAVs more accurately. On the other hand, our time analysis yields that the cascaded classifiers using HOG train and run faster than the other algorithms.

  4. Smart-system of distance learning of visually impaired people based on approaches of artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samigulina, Galina A.; Shayakhmetova, Assem S.

    2016-11-01

    Research objective is the creation of intellectual innovative technology and information Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people. The organization of the available environment for receiving quality education for visually impaired people, their social adaptation in society are important and topical issues of modern education.The proposed Smart-system of distance learning for visually impaired people can significantly improve the efficiency and quality of education of this category of people. The scientific novelty of proposed Smart-system is using intelligent and statistical methods of processing multi-dimensional data, and taking into account psycho-physiological characteristics of perception and awareness learning information by visually impaired people.

  5. A spectral method to detect community structure based on distance modularity matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-08-01

    There are many community organizations in social and biological networks. How to identify these community structure in complex networks has become a hot issue. In this paper, an algorithm to detect community structure of networks is proposed by using spectra of distance modularity matrix. The proposed algorithm focuses on the distance of vertices within communities, rather than the most weakly connected vertex pairs or number of edges between communities. The experimental results show that our method achieves better effectiveness to identify community structure for a variety of real-world networks and computer generated networks with a little more time-consumption.

  6. Fault diagnosis of rolling bearings based on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and Mahalanobis distance criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshan; Chen, Qian

    2013-07-01

    Vibration data of faulty rolling bearings are usually nonstationary and nonlinear, and contain fairly weak fault features. As a result, feature extraction of rolling bearing fault data is always an intractable problem and has attracted considerable attention for a long time. This paper introduces multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) to analyze bearing vibration data and proposes a novel method for fault diagnosis of rolling bearings based on MF-DFA and Mahalanobis distance criterion (MDC). MF-DFA, an extension of monofractal DFA, is a powerful tool for uncovering the nonlinear dynamical characteristics buried in nonstationary time series and can capture minor changes of complex system conditions. To begin with, by MF-DFA, multifractality of bearing fault data was quantified with the generalized Hurst exponent, the scaling exponent and the multifractal spectrum. Consequently, controlled by essentially different dynamical mechanisms, the multifractality of four heterogeneous bearing fault data is significantly different; by contrast, controlled by slightly different dynamical mechanisms, the multifractality of homogeneous bearing fault data with different fault diameters is significantly or slightly different depending on different types of bearing faults. Therefore, the multifractal spectrum, as a set of parameters describing multifractality of time series, can be employed to characterize different types and severity of bearing faults. Subsequently, five characteristic parameters sensitive to changes of bearing fault conditions were extracted from the multifractal spectrum and utilized to construct fault features of bearing fault data. Moreover, Hilbert transform based envelope analysis, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet transform (WT) were utilized to study the same bearing fault data. Also, the kurtosis and the peak levels of the EMD or the WT component corresponding to the bearing tones in the frequency domain were carefully checked

  7. The Effects of Land-Use Patterns on Home-Based Tour Complexity and Total Distances Traveled: A Path Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Abreu e Silva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the relationships between the number of complex tours (with one or more intermediate stops and simple home-based tours, total distances traveled by mode, and land-use patterns both at the residence and at the workplace using path analysis. The model includes commuting distance, car ownership and motorcycle ownership, which are intermediate variables in the relationship between land use, tour complexity and distances traveled by mode. The dataset used here was collected in a region comprising four municipalities located in the north of Portugal that are made up of urban areas, their sprawling suburbs, and surrounding rural hinterland. The results confirm the association between complex tours and higher levels of car use. Land-use patterns significantly affect travelled distances by mode either directly and indirectly via the influence of longer-term decisions like vehicle ownership and commuting distance. The results obtained highlight the role of socioeconomic variables in influencing tour complexity; in particular, households with children, household income, and workers with a college degree tend to do more complex tours. Land-use patterns mediate the effects of tour complexity on the kilometers travelled by different modes. Increasing densities in central areas, and particularly the concentration of jobs, have relevant benefits by reducing car kilometers driven.

  8. Multiwavelength Raman-fiber-laser-based long-distance remote sensor for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Geun; Tran, T V A; Kim, Sang-Hyuck; Lee, Sang Bae

    2005-06-01

    We propose a simple and flexible multiwavelength Raman-fiber-laser-based long-distance remote-sensing scheme for simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature by use of fiber Bragg gratings. By combining two uniform fiber Bragg gratings with a tunable chirped fiber grating, we readily achieve simultaneous two-channel sensing probes with a high extinction ratio of more than approximately 50 dB over a 50-km distance. When strain and temperature are applied, lasing wavelength separation and shift occur, respectively, since the two uniform fiber Bragg gratings have identical material composition and different cladding diameters. This allows simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature for long-distance sensing applications of more than 50 km.

  9. A Physically—Based Geometry Model for Transport Distance Estimation of Rainfall-Eroded Soil Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Gui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimations of rainfall-induced soil erosion are mostly derived from the weight of sediment measured in natural runoff. The transport distance of eroded soil is important for evaluating landscape evolution but is difficult to estimate, mainly because it cannot be linked directly to the eroded sediment weight. The volume of eroded soil is easier to calculate visually using popular imaging tools, which can aid in estimating the transport distance of eroded soil through geometry relationships. In this study, we present a straightforward geometry model to predict the maximum sediment transport distance incurred by rainfall events of various intensity and duration. In order to verify our geometry prediction model, a series of experiments are reported in the form of a sediment volume. The results show that cumulative rainfall has a linear relationship with the total volume of eroded soil. The geometry model can accurately estimate the maximum transport distance of eroded soil by cumulative rainfall, with a low root-mean-square error (4.7–4.8 and a strong linear correlation (0.74–0.86.

  10. Communication Barriers in Distance Education: "Text-Based Internet-Enabled Online Courses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaj, Fahme; Isman, Aytekin

    2004-01-01

    With the rapid technological changes and the diverse people demands and conditions, traditional educational systems and institutions are forced to provide additional educational opportunities. A number of educational establishments are contributing to these conditions and demands by developing and offering distance education programs. Distance…

  11. A Chroma-based Tempo-insensitive Distance Measure for Cover Song Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Ellis, Dan P. W.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    In the context of music, a cover version is a remake of a song, often with significant stylistic variation. In this paper we describe a distance measure between sampled audio files that is designed to be insensitive to instrumentation, time shift, temporal scaling and transpositions. The algorithm...

  12. Optimal coordination of distance and over-current relays in series compensated systems based on MAPSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravej, Zahra; Jazaeri, Mostafa; Gholamzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ► Optimal coordination problem between distance relays and Directional Over-Current Relays (DOCRs) is studied. ► A new problem formulation for both uncompensated and series compensated system is proposed. ► In order to solve the coordination problem a Modified Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (MAPSO) is employed. ► The optimum results are found in both uncompensated and series compensated systems. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel problem formulation for optimal coordination between distance relays and Directional Over-Current Relays (DOCRs) in series compensated systems is proposed. The integration of the series capacitor (SC) into the transmission line makes the coordination problem more complex. The main contribution of this paper is a new systematic method for computing the optimal second zone timing of distance relays and optimal settings of DOCRs, in series compensated and uncompensated transmission systems, which have a combined protection scheme with DOCRs and distance relays. In order to solve this coordination problem, which is a nonlinear and non-convex problem, a Modified Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (MAPSO) is employed. The new proposed method is supported by obtained results from a typical test case and a real power system network.

  13. Implementing Electronic Conferencing within a Distance-Based University: University of South Africa Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzinger, E.; Padayachee, K.; Tolmay, M.

    2010-01-01

    The outcome of this paper is primarily to survey and analyse student interactions with electronic conferencing systems and to reflect on the impact of such a system on the students' learning within an open distance learning context. This pilot study is articulated within action research methodology to generate critical reflection on collaborative,…

  14. CORSEN, a new software dedicated to microscope-based 3D distance measurements: mRNA-mitochondria distance, from single-cell to population analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdren, Laurent; Delaveau, Thierry; Marquenet, Emelie; Jacq, Claude; Garcia, Mathilde

    2010-07-01

    Recent improvements in microscopy technology allow detection of single molecules of RNA, but tools for large-scale automatic analyses of particle distributions are lacking. An increasing number of imaging studies emphasize the importance of mRNA localization in the definition of cell territory or the biogenesis of cell compartments. CORSEN is a new tool dedicated to three-dimensional (3D) distance measurements from imaging experiments especially developed to access the minimal distance between RNA molecules and cellular compartment markers. CORSEN includes a 3D segmentation algorithm allowing the extraction and the characterization of the cellular objects to be processed--surface determination, aggregate decomposition--for minimal distance calculations. CORSEN's main contribution lies in exploratory statistical analysis, cell population characterization, and high-throughput assays that are made possible by the implementation of a batch process analysis. We highlighted CORSEN's utility for the study of relative positions of mRNA molecules and mitochondria: CORSEN clearly discriminates mRNA localized to the vicinity of mitochondria from those that are translated on free cytoplasmic polysomes. Moreover, it quantifies the cell-to-cell variations of mRNA localization and emphasizes the necessity for statistical approaches. This method can be extended to assess the evolution of the distance between specific mRNAs and other cellular structures in different cellular contexts. CORSEN was designed for the biologist community with the concern to provide an easy-to-use and highly flexible tool that can be applied for diverse distance quantification issues.

  15. Measuring distance “as the horse runs”: Cross-scale comparison of terrain-based metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Ghandehari, M; Leyk, S; Stanislawski, Larry V.; Brantley, M E; Qiang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Distance metrics play significant roles in spatial modeling tasks, such as flood inundation (Tucker and Hancock 2010), stream extraction (Stanislawski et al. 2015), power line routing (Kiessling et al. 2003) and analysis of surface pollutants such as nitrogen (Harms et al. 2009). Avalanche risk is based on slope, aspect, and curvature, all directly computed from distance metrics (Gutiérrez 2012). Distance metrics anchor variogram analysis, kernel estimation, and spatial interpolation (Cressie 1993). Several approaches are employed to measure distance. Planar metrics measure straight line distance between two points (“as the crow flies”) and are simple and intuitive, but suffer from uncertainties. Planar metrics assume that Digital Elevation Model (DEM) pixels are rigid and flat, as tiny facets of ceramic tile approximating a continuous terrain surface. In truth, terrain can bend, twist and undulate within each pixel.Work with Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) data or High Resolution Topography to achieve precise measurements present challenges, as filtering can eliminate or distort significant features (Passalacqua et al. 2015). The current availability of lidar data is far from comprehensive in developed nations, and non-existent in many rural and undeveloped regions. Notwithstanding computational advances, distance estimation on DEMs has never been systematically assessed, due to assumptions that improvements are so small that surface adjustment is unwarranted. For individual pixels inaccuracies may be small, but additive effects can propagate dramatically, especially in regional models (e.g., disaster evacuation) or global models (e.g., sea level rise) where pixels span dozens to hundreds of kilometers (Usery et al 2003). Such models are increasingly common, lending compelling reasons to understand shortcomings in the use of planar distance metrics. Researchers have studied curvature-based terrain modeling. Jenny et al. (2011) use curvature to generate

  16. DESIGNING INSTRUCTION FOR THE TRADITIONAL, ADULT, AND DISTANCE LEARNER: A New Engine for Technology-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Tomei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult students demand a wider variety of instructional strategies that encompass real-world, interactive, cooperative, and discovery learning experiences.Designing Instruction for the Traditional, Adult, and Distance Learner: A New Engine for Technology-Based Teaching explores how technology impacts the process of devising instructional plans as well as learning itself in adult students. Containing research from leading international experts, this publication proposes realistic and accurate archetypes to assist educators in incorporating state-of-the-art technologies into online instruction.This text proposes a new paradigm for designing, developing, implementing, and assessed technology-based instruction. It addresses three target populations of today's learner: traditional, adult, and distance education. The text proposes a new model of instructional system design (ISD for developing effective technology-based education that involves a five-step process focusing on the learner, learning theories, resources, delivery modalities, and outcomes.

  17. [Problem based learning by distance education and analysis of a training system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Cécile

    2004-12-01

    This article presents and analyses a training system aiming at acquiring skills in nursing cares. The aims followed are the development: --of an active pedagogic method: learning through problems (LTP); --of the interdisciplinary and intercultural approach, the same problems being solves by students from different disciplines and cultures; --of the use of the new technologies of information and communication (NTIC) so as to enable a maximal "distance" cooperation between the various partners of the project. The analysis of the system shows that the pedagogic aims followed by LTP are reached. The pluridisciplinary and pluricultural approach, to be optimal, requires great coordination between the partners, balance between the groups of students from different countries and disciplines, training and support from the tutors in the use of the distance teaching platform.

  18. Anatomy-Based navigation for ventriculostomy: Nasion-coronal suture distance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevci Özdemir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we aimed to determine a landmark that can be measured through the skin with nasal mid-point (bregma to coronal suture, and additionally an average value was calculated. We report, to our knowledge, the distance between the nasion-coronal sutures is reported for the first time in Turkish population. Methods: The study included 30 craniums and 30 frontal bones. Each skull from midline nasal suture to coronal suture curved up at the distance was measured with tape measure. Results: Mean values were determined. Nasal suture between coronal suture distance average 12,2 cm (min10,3 cm, up to 13,5 cm were detected. Conclusion: Nasal suture is an easily palpable area through the skin. A small incision is carried down through skin to bone at the spot 12 cm back from the nasion 3 cm lateral to the midline for ventricular drainage operation. This data provide practical information for neurosurgeon and is available everywhere. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 368-370

  19. Stereo camera based virtual cane system with identifiable distance tactile feedback for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghun; Kim, Kwangtaek; Lee, Sangyoun

    2014-06-13

    In this paper, we propose a new haptic-assisted virtual cane system operated by a simple finger pointing gesture. The system is developed by two stages: development of visual information delivery assistant (VIDA) with a stereo camera and adding a tactile feedback interface with dual actuators for guidance and distance feedbacks. In the first stage, user's pointing finger is automatically detected using color and disparity data from stereo images and then a 3D pointing direction of the finger is estimated with its geometric and textural features. Finally, any object within the estimated pointing trajectory in 3D space is detected and the distance is then estimated in real time. For the second stage, identifiable tactile signals are designed through a series of identification experiments, and an identifiable tactile feedback interface is developed and integrated into the VIDA system. Our approach differs in that navigation guidance is provided by a simple finger pointing gesture and tactile distance feedbacks are perfectly identifiable to the blind.

  20. Stereo Camera Based Virtual Cane System with Identifiable Distance Tactile Feedback for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghun Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new haptic-assisted virtual cane system operated by a simple finger pointing gesture. The system is developed by two stages: development of visual information delivery assistant (VIDA with a stereo camera and adding a tactile feedback interface with dual actuators for guidance and distance feedbacks. In the first stage, user’s pointing finger is automatically detected using color and disparity data from stereo images and then a 3D pointing direction of the finger is estimated with its geometric and textural features. Finally, any object within the estimated pointing trajectory in 3D space is detected and the distance is then estimated in real time. For the second stage, identifiable tactile signals are designed through a series of identification experiments, and an identifiable tactile feedback interface is developed and integrated into the VIDA system. Our approach differs in that navigation guidance is provided by a simple finger pointing gesture and tactile distance feedbacks are perfectly identifiable to the blind.

  1. Method paper--distance and travel time to casualty clinics in Norway based on crowdsourced postcode coordinates: a comparison with other methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guttorm Raknes

    Full Text Available We describe a method that uses crowdsourced postcode coordinates and Google maps to estimate average distance and travel time for inhabitants of a municipality to a casualty clinic in Norway. The new method was compared with methods based on population centroids, median distance and town hall location, and we used it to examine how distance affects the utilisation of out-of-hours primary care services. At short distances our method showed good correlation with mean travel time and distance. The utilisation of out-of-hours services correlated with postcode based distances similar to previous research. The results show that our method is a reliable and useful tool for estimating average travel distances and travel times.

  2. Method paper--distance and travel time to casualty clinics in Norway based on crowdsourced postcode coordinates: a comparison with other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raknes, Guttorm; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method that uses crowdsourced postcode coordinates and Google maps to estimate average distance and travel time for inhabitants of a municipality to a casualty clinic in Norway. The new method was compared with methods based on population centroids, median distance and town hall location, and we used it to examine how distance affects the utilisation of out-of-hours primary care services. At short distances our method showed good correlation with mean travel time and distance. The utilisation of out-of-hours services correlated with postcode based distances similar to previous research. The results show that our method is a reliable and useful tool for estimating average travel distances and travel times.

  3. Distance-Based Tear Lactoferrin Assay on Microfluidic Paper Device Using Interfacial Interactions on Surface-Modified Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kentaro; Henares, Terence G; Suzuki, Koji; Citterio, Daniel

    2015-11-11

    "Distance-based" detection motifs on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) allow quantitative analysis without using signal readout instruments in a similar manner to classical analogue thermometers. To realize a cost-effective and calibration-free distance-based assay of lactoferrin in human tear fluid on a μPAD not relying on antibodies or enzymes, we investigated the fluidic mobilities of the target protein and Tb(3+) cations used as the fluorescent detection reagent on surface-modified cellulosic filter papers. Chromatographic elution experiments in a tear-like sample matrix containing electrolytes and proteins revealed a collapse of attractive electrostatic interactions between lactoferrin or Tb(3+) and the cellulosic substrate, which was overcome by the modification of the paper surface with the sulfated polysaccharide ι-carrageenan. The resulting μPAD based on the fluorescence emission distance successfully analyzed 0-4 mg mL(-1) of lactoferrin in complex human tear matrix with a lower limit of detection of 0.1 mg mL(-1) by simple visual inspection. Assay results of 18 human tear samples including ocular disease patients and healthy volunteers showed good correlation to the reference ELISA method with a slope of 0.997 and a regression coefficient of 0.948. The distance-based quantitative signal and the good batch-to-batch fabrication reproducibility relying on printing methods enable quantitative analysis by simply reading out "concentration scale marks" printed on the μPAD without performing any calibration and using any signal readout instrument.

  4. Safety distance assessment of industrial toxic releases based on frequency and consequence: A case study in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Ma, W.C.; Chen, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    A case study on the safety distance assessment of a chemical industry park in Shanghai, China, is presented in this paper. Toxic releases were taken into consideration. A safety criterion based on frequency and consequence of major hazard accidents was set up for consequence analysis. The exposure limits for the accidents with the frequency of more than 10 -4 , 10 -5 -10 -4 and 10 -6 -10 -5 per year were mortalities of 1% (or SLOT), 50% (SLOD) and 75% (twice of SLOD) respectively. Accidents with the frequency of less than 10 -6 per year were considered incredible and ignored in the consequence analysis. Taking the safety distance of all the hazard installations in a chemical plant into consideration, the results based on the new criterion were almost smaller than those based on LC50 or SLOD. The combination of the consequence and risk based results indicated that the hazard installations in two of the chemical plants may be dangerous to the protection targets and measurements had to be taken to reduce the risk. The case study showed that taking account of the frequency of occurrence in the consequence analysis would give more feasible safety distances for major hazard accidents and the results were more comparable to those calculated by risk assessment.

  5. Receipt and use of half-fare airline coupons at selected Department of Energy field locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-11

    The receipt and use of half-fare coupons obtained by employees of DOE field offices and DOE contractors while traveling at DOE expense were reviewed. These coupons, issued by United Airlines and American Airlines, provided for air travel at half-fare if used before December 15, 1979. Potential savings to DOE through coupon use ranging from $50,000 to $100,000 were lost, because of ineffective management action by both federal and contractor officials. Recommendations were that DOE ascertain the extent of the failure of contractors to recover coupons from their employees and recover from the contractors the amounts lost. IG submitted a draft of this final report for comment and received the comments of the Controller, the Director of Administration, and the Director of Procurement and Contracts Management. The comments included useful information; and where appropriate, the final report was changed to reflect the comments. In addition, the comments in their entirety are contained in the appendices.

  6. AIDS cannot be an exception to offer of lower bus fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-28

    U.S. District Judge Joe Billy McDade ruled that the Metro Link bus system of Rock Island, IL cannot exclude people with AIDS from a special rate program afforded to those with mobility, visual, or hearing impairments. The suit was brought by the American Civil Liberties Union on behalf of [name removed] who wished to obtain a reduced-fare card because his AIDS condition severely impaired his ability to walk. Metro Link's application for reduced fare explicitly states that those whose sole disability is AIDS are ineligible for the program. Judge McDade ruled that the application violates the American Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Rehabilitation Act because it discriminated against [name removed] exclusively because of his disability. The policy also violated [name removed]'s right to equal protection under the 14th Amendment.

  7. A prepaid case study: Ready Credit’s general-purpose & transit-fare programs

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Keitel

    2012-01-01

    Today, prepaid cards are used in dozens of payment applications. To examine the most recent developments, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia hosted a workshop on August 22, 2011. Leading the workshop was Tim Walsh, president and chief executive officer of Ready Credit Corporation, a firm that developed network-branded prepaid cards for use in transit-fare systems and also markets general-purpose, reloadable prepaid cards to consumers. Walsh discussed the uniq...

  8. How Do the Elderly Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Saunders; Timothy M. Smeeding

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study How Do the Elderly in Taiwan Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project Peter Saunders and Timothy M. Smeeding Social Policy Research Centre, Discussion Paper, No.81 Abstract This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to estimate and compare four dimensions of the well-being of the aged in Taiwan and eight other countries - the United States, Japan, Australia, Poland, Finland, German...

  9. 41 CFR 301-10.107 - Are there any exceptions to the use of a contract city-pair fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regard to scheduling travel during normal working hours; (c) A non-contract carrier offers a lower fare... mission requirements; or (e) Smoking is permitted on the contract air carrier and the nonsmoking section...

  10. Examining Diverse World Examples in Transit Fare Collection Systems for Bus and a Model System for Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Hatipoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The migration from the rural to urban areas since Industrial Revolution up to present has resulted in a global and significant urbanization phenomenon. Transportation, due to the increasing population in the cities, stands out as one of the major problems. Convenient transportation in the cities depends primarily on an efficient and productive public transportation system. Enable to use public transportation system in efficient, pricing varieties and fare payment options/ medias are applied in the transportation are very important. In order public transportation system to be efficient pricing variations and fare payment collection methods should be considered. Pricing varieties increase demands for public transportation and the ease of fare payment increases speed and capacity of public transportation. In this study, bus pricing policies and fare payment options in the cities of Geneva, London, Tokyo and Curitiba which are prominent with successful public transportation policies are examined and practice proposals are presented for the city of Ankara City.

  11. Niche public transport operational and capital investment strategies to minimize fares in the light of increased energy costs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letebele, MO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel costs are a significant component of a public transport fare. It is therefore of critical importance for measures aimed at containing household public transport expenditure to explore alternative ways of reducing fuel consumption or fuel...

  12. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  13. FARE-CAFE: a database of functional and regulatory elements of cancer-associated fusion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korla, Praveen Kumar; Cheng, Jack; Huang, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chen, Huey-Yi; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation (CT) is of enormous clinical interest because this disorder is associated with various major solid tumors and leukemia. A tumor-specific fusion gene event may occur when a translocation joins two separate genes. Currently, various CT databases provide information about fusion genes and their genomic elements. However, no database of the roles of fusion genes, in terms of essential functional and regulatory elements in oncogenesis, is available. FARE-CAFE is a unique combination of CTs, fusion proteins, protein domains, domain-domain interactions, protein-protein interactions, transcription factors and microRNAs, with subsequent experimental information, which cannot be found in any other CT database. Genomic DNA information including, for example, manually collected exact locations of the first and second break points, sequences and karyotypes of fusion genes are included. FARE-CAFE will substantially facilitate the cancer biologist's mission of elucidating the pathogenesis of various types of cancer. This database will ultimately help to develop 'novel' therapeutic approaches. Database URL: http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/FARE-CAFE. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Sinekia Palatum Molle dan Pilar Tonsil ke Dinding Faring Posterior pada Pasien Tuberkulosis Paru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desno Marbun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tuberkulosis paru masih merupakan penyakit infeksi yang sering dijumpai dan masalah kesehatan di dunia. Sinekia yang disebabkan oleh infeksi kronik tuberkulosis pada daerah faring merupakan kasus yang jarang terjadi. Pembentukan sinekia ini menyebabkan obstruksi saluran napas bagian atas dan dapat menyebabkan gangguan menelan. Laporan kasus ini dimaksudkan untuk memaparkan penatalaksanaan pasien tuberkulosis paru disertai kelainan sinekia palatum molle dan pilar tonsil ke dinding faring posterior. Seorang pasien laki-laki usia 40 tahun terdiagnosis tuberkulosis milier yang telah mendapatkan pengobatan antituberkulosis 4 bulan datang dengan keluhan hidung tersumbat, suara sengau, dan gangguan menelan sejak 2 bulan sebelum masuk rumah sakit. Dilakukan pelepasan sinekia dengan cara reseksi dan insisi palatum molle pendekatan intraoral dengan panduan endoskopi, didapatkan massa jaringan granuloma pada tepi sinekia tersebut. Hasil pemeriksaan histopatologi berupa jaringan granuloma tuberkulosis. Pascaoperasi pasien dapat bernapas lancar melalui hidung dan gangguan menelan menghilang. Simpulan, operasi pelepasan sinekia diputuskan mengingat gangguan obstruksi saluran napas atas. Penatalaksanaan sinekia palatum molle dan pilar tonsil ke dinding faring posterior dengan operasi memberikan hasil yang baik untuk patensi jalan napas dan fungsi menelan.

  15. modelling distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Love

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance predicting functions may be used in a variety of applications for estimating travel distances between points. To evaluate the accuracy of a distance predicting function and to determine its parameters, a goodness-of-fit criteria is employed. AD (Absolute Deviations, SD (Squared Deviations and NAD (Normalized Absolute Deviations are the three criteria that are mostly employed in practice. In the literature some assumptions have been made about the properties of each criterion. In this paper, we present statistical analyses performed to compare the three criteria from different perspectives. For this purpose, we employ the ℓkpθ-norm as the distance predicting function, and statistically compare the three criteria by using normalized absolute prediction error distributions in seventeen geographical regions. We find that there exist no significant differences between the criteria. However, since the criterion SD has desirable properties in terms of distance modelling procedures, we suggest its use in practice.

  16. New conformity indices based on the calculation of distances between the target volume and the volume of reference isodose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J M; Park, S-Y; Ye, S-J; Kim, J H; Carlson, J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present conformity indices (CIs) based on the distance differences between the target volume (TV) and the volume of reference isodose (VRI). Methods: The points on the three-dimensional surfaces of the TV and the VRI were generated. Then, the averaged distances between the points on the TV and the VRI were calculated (CIdistance). The performance of the presented CIs were evaluated by analysing six situations, which were a perfect match, an expansion and a reduction of the distance from the centroid to the VRI compared with the distance from the centroid to the TV by 10%, a lateral shift of the VRI by 3 cm, a rotation of the VRI by 45° and a spherical-shaped VRI having the same volume as the TV. The presented CIs were applied to the clinical prostate and head and neck (H&N) plans. Results: For the perfect match, CIdistance was 0 with 0 as the standard deviation (SD). When expanding and reducing, CIdistance was 10 and −10 with SDs 11. The average value of the CIdistance in the prostate and H&N plans was 0.13 ± 7.44 and 6.04 ± 23.27, respectively. Conclusion: The performance of the CIdistance was equal or better than those of the conventional CIs. Advances in knowledge: The evaluation of target conformity by the distances between the surface of the TV and the VRI could be more accurate than evaluation with volume information. PMID:25225915

  17. [Mahalanobis distance based hyperspectral characteristic discrimination of leaves of different desert tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai-jun; Zhang, Hui-fang; Gao, Ya-qi; Li, Xia; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Yan-fei

    2014-12-01

    The hyperspectral reflectance of Populus euphratica, Tamarix hispida, Haloxylon ammodendron and Calligonum mongolicum in the lower reaches of Tarim River and Turpan Desert Botanical Garden was measured by using the HR-768 field-portable spectroradiometer. The method of continuum removal, first derivative reflectance and second derivative reflectance were used to deal with the original spectral data of four tree species. The method of Mahalanobis Distance was used to select the bands with significant differences in the original spectral data and transform spectral data to identify the different tree species. The progressive discrimination analyses were used to test the selective bands used to identify different tree species. The results showed that The Mahalanobis Distance method was an effective method in feature band extraction. The bands for identifying different tree species were most near-infrared bands. The recognition accuracy of four methods was 85%, 93.8%, 92.4% and 95.5% respectively. Spectrum transform could improve the recognition accuracy. The recognition accuracy of different research objects and different spectrum transform methods were different. The research provided evidence for desert tree species classification, monitoring biodiversity and the analysis of area in desert by using large scale remote sensing method.

  18. A Contribution for the Automatic Sleep Classification Based on the Itakura-Saito Spectral Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Eduardo; Batista, Arnaldo; Rodrigues, Rui; Ortigueira, Manuel; Bárbara, Cristina; Martinho, Cristina; Rato, Raul

    Sleep staging is a crucial step before the scoring the sleep apnoea, in subjects that are tested for this condition. These patients undergo a whole night polysomnography recording that includes EEG, EOG, ECG, EMG and respiratory signals. Sleep staging refers to the quantification of its depth. Despite the commercial sleep software being able to stage the sleep, there is a general lack of confidence amongst health practitioners of these machine results. Generally the sleep scoring is done over the visual inspection of the overnight patient EEG recording, which takes the attention of an expert medical practitioner over a couple of hours. This contributes to a waiting list of two years for patients of the Portuguese Health Service. In this work we have used a spectral comparison method called Itakura distance to be able to make a distinction between sleepy and awake epochs in a night EEG recording, therefore automatically doing the staging. We have used the data from 20 patients of Hospital Pulido Valente, which had been previously visually expert scored. Our technique results were promising, in a way that Itakura distance can, by itself, distinguish with a good degree of certainty the N2, N3 and awake states. Pre-processing stages for artefact reduction and baseline removal using Wavelets were applied.

  19. No evidence for a decrease of nuclear decay rates with increasing heliocentric distance based on radiochronology of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Wieler, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    It has been argued that the decay rates of several radioactive nuclides are slightly lower at Earth's aphelion than at perihelion, and that this effect might depend on heliocentric distance. It might then be expected that nuclear decay rates be considerably lower at larger distances from the sun, e.g., in the asteroid belt at 2-3 AU from where most meteorites originate. If so, ages of meteorites obtained by analyses of radioactive nuclides and their stable daughter isotopes might be in error, since these ages are based on decay rates determined on Earth. Here we evaluate whether the large data base on nuclear cosmochronology offers any hint for discrepancies which might be due to radially variable decay rates. Chlorine-36 (t1/2 = 301,000 a) is produced in meteorites by interactions with cosmic rays and is the nuclide for which a decay rate dependence from heliocentric distance has been proposed, which, in principle, can be tested with our approach and the current data base. We show that compilations of 36Cl concentrations measured in meteorites offer no support for a spatially variable 36Cl decay rate. For very short-lived cosmic-ray produced radionuclides (half-lives uranium decay rates in different meteorite parent bodies in the asteroid belt. Moreover, the oldest U-Pb ages of meteorites agree with the main-sequence age of the sun derived from helioseismology within the formal ˜1% uncertainty of the latter. Meteorite ages also provide no evidence for a decrease of decay rates with heliocentric distance for nuclides such as 87Rb (decay mode β-) 40K (β- and electron capture), and 147Sm (α).

  20. A Replica Detection Scheme Based on the Deviation in Distance Traveled Sliding Window for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekha Kumar Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Node replication attack possesses a high level of threat in wireless sensor networks (WSNs and it is severe when the sensors are mobile. A limited number of replica detection schemes in mobile WSNs (MWSNs have been reported till date, where most of them are centralized in nature. The centralized detection schemes use time-location claims and the base station (BS is solely responsible for detecting replica. Therefore, these schemes are prone to single point of failure. There is also additional communication overhead associated with sending time-location claims to the BS. A distributed detection mechanism is always a preferred solution to the above kind of problems due to significantly lower communication overhead than their counterparts. In this paper, we propose a distributed replica detection scheme for MWSNs. In this scheme, the deviation in the distance traveled by a node and its replica is recorded by the observer nodes. Every node is an observer node for some nodes in the network. Observers are responsible for maintaining a sliding window of recent time-distance broadcast of the nodes. A replica is detected by an observer based on the degree of violation computed from the deviations recorded using the time-distance sliding window. The analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to achieve higher detection probability compared to distributed replica detection schemes such as Efficient Distributed Detection (EDD and Multi-Time-Location Storage and Diffusion (MTLSD.

  1. A Ground-Based Study on Extruder Standoff Distance for the 3D Printing in Zero Gravity Technology Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Beshears, R. D.; Rolin, T. D.; Rabenberg, E. M.; Soohoo, H. A.; Ledbetter, F. E., III; Bell, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of phase I specimens produced as part of the 3D printing in zero G technology demonstration mission exhibited some differences in structure and performance for specimens printed onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and specimens produced on the ground with the same printer prior to its launch. This study uses the engineering test unit for the printer, identical to the unit on ISS, to conduct a ground-based investigation of the impact of the distance between the extruder tip and the build tray on material outcomes. This standoff distance was not held constant for the phase I flight prints and is hypothesized to be a major source of the material variability observed in the phase I data set.

  2. Students’ Perceptions About Learning Environment of a Distance Course Based on Technology Acceptance Model: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman UZUN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Technology Acceptance Model (TAM is a measure to assess the underlying reasons about the use of a technology. In this study an extended version of TAM were used. This extended version composed of three factors. These are “perceived motivation towards learning environment”, “perceived usefulness” and “perceived ease of use”. In this study, the learning environment of a distance course was investigated to see students’ perceptions. This distance course was delivered from one university to the other university via video-conferencing with ITL Learning Gateway content management system during the whole semester. The participants were the 32 first year vocational higher education institution students. The descriptive findings revealed that each factor of TAM perceived by students as having moderate advantages. It is believed that the underlying reason of this situation was based on the students’ low computer competency and e-learning experiences.

  3. Automated choroid segmentation based on gradual intensity distance in HD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Fan, Wen; Niu, Sijie; Shi, Jiajia; Shen, Honglie; Yuan, Songtao

    2015-04-06

    The choroid is an important structure of the eye and plays a vital role in the pathology of retinal diseases. This paper presents an automated choroid segmentation method for high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) images, including Bruch's membrane (BM) segmentation and choroidal-scleral interface (CSI) segmentation. An improved retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) complex removal algorithm is presented to segment BM by considering the structure characteristics of retinal layers. By analyzing the characteristics of CSI boundaries, we present a novel algorithm to generate a gradual intensity distance image. Then an improved 2-D graph search method with curve smooth constraints is used to obtain the CSI segmentation. Experimental results with 212 HD-OCT images from 110 eyes in 66 patients demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high segmentation accuracy. The mean choroid thickness difference and overlap ratio between our proposed method and outlines drawn by experts was 6.72µm and 85.04%, respectively.

  4. DECK: Distance and environment-dependent, coarse-grained, knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakser Ilya A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational approaches to protein-protein docking typically include scoring aimed at improving the rank of the near-native structure relative to the false-positive matches. Knowledge-based potentials improve modeling of protein complexes by taking advantage of the rapidly increasing amount of experimentally derived information on protein-protein association. An essential element of knowledge-based potentials is defining the reference state for an optimal description of the residue-residue (or atom-atom pairs in the non-interaction state. Results The study presents a new Distance- and Environment-dependent, Coarse-grained, Knowledge-based (DECK potential for scoring of protein-protein docking predictions. Training sets of protein-protein matches were generated based on bound and unbound forms of proteins taken from the DOCKGROUND resource. Each residue was represented by a pseudo-atom in the geometric center of the side chain. To capture the long-range and the multi-body interactions, residues in different secondary structure elements at protein-protein interfaces were considered as different residue types. Five reference states for the potentials were defined and tested. The optimal reference state was selected and the cutoff effect on the distance-dependent potentials investigated. The potentials were validated on the docking decoys sets, showing better performance than the existing potentials used in scoring of protein-protein docking results. Conclusions A novel residue-based statistical potential for protein-protein docking was developed and validated on docking decoy sets. The results show that the scoring function DECK can successfully identify near-native protein-protein matches and thus is useful in protein docking. In addition to the practical application of the potentials, the study provides insights into the relative utility of the reference states, the scope of the distance dependence, and the coarse-graining of

  5. How minorities fare under referendums: A cross-national study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Hug, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Referendums are often viewed as a threat to the rights of minorities. Empirical studies, so far, have tried to deal with the impact of referendums on minorities and civil rights at the subnational level by comparing either referendum or policy outcomes across subnational units. These units are......' preferences, either by protecting minority rights or reducing them. We test this proposition with national-level information on preferences and institutions as well as minority policies from countries spanning the whole globe......., however, often constrained by the national level of government. Hence, to understand the full effect of referendums on minority policies, cross-national comparisons are required. Based on existing game-theoretical models, we argue that referendums and initiatives push policies towards the voters...

  6. The medicolegal landscape of spine surgery: how do surgeons fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhni, Melvin C; Park, Paul J; Jimenez, Jesus; Saifi, Comron; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Ha, Alex; Figueroa-Santana, Bianca; Lehman, Ronald A; Weidenbaum, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Because of the limited and confidential nature of most legal data, scarce literature is available to physicians about reasons for litigation in spine surgery. To optimally compensate patients while protecting physicians, further understanding of the medicolegal landscape is needed for high-risk procedures such as spine surgery. Based on these, surgeons can explore ways to better protect both their patients and themselves. To characterize the current medicolegal environment of spine surgery by analyzing a recent dataset of malpractice litigation. A retrospective study. All malpractice cases involving spine surgery available to public query between the years of 2010 and 2014. Case outcome for spine surgery malpractice cases between the years of 2010 and 2014. WestlawNext was used to analyze spine surgery malpractice cases at the state and federal level between the years 2010 and 2014. WestlawNext is a subscription-based, legal search engine that contains publicly available federal and state court records. All monetary values were inflation adjusted for 2016. One hundred three malpractice cases were categorized by case descriptors and outcome measures. Claims were categorized as either intraoperative complaints or preoperative complaints. Rulings in favor of the defendant (surgeon) were noted in 75% (77 of 103) of the cases. Lack of informed consent was cited in 34% of cases. For the 26 cases won by the plaintiff, the average amount in settlement was $2,384,775 versus $3,945,456 in cases brought before a jury. Cases involving consent averaged a compensation of $2,029,884, whereas cases involving only intraoperative complaints averaged a compensation of $3,667,530. A significant correlation was seen between increased compensation for plaintiffs and cases involving orthopedic surgeons (p=.020) or nerve injury (p=.005). Wrong-level surgery may be associated with lower plaintiff compensation (p=.055). The length of cases resulting in defense verdicts averaged 5.51 years

  7. Food Image Recognition via Superpixel Based Low-Level and Mid-Level Distance Coding for Smart Home Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannan Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Food image recognition is a key enabler for many smart home applications such as smart kitchen and smart personal nutrition log. In order to improve living experience and life quality, smart home systems collect valuable insights of users’ preferences, nutrition intake and health conditions via accurate and robust food image recognition. In addition, efficiency is also a major concern since many smart home applications are deployed on mobile devices where high-end GPUs are not available. In this paper, we investigate compact and efficient food image recognition methods, namely low-level and mid-level approaches. Considering the real application scenario where only limited and noisy data are available, we first proposed a superpixel based Linear Distance Coding (LDC framework where distinctive low-level food image features are extracted to improve performance. On a challenging small food image dataset where only 12 training images are available per category, our framework has shown superior performance in both accuracy and robustness. In addition, to better model deformable food part distribution, we extend LDC’s feature-to-class distance idea and propose a mid-level superpixel food parts-to-class distance mining framework. The proposed framework show superior performance on a benchmark food image datasets compared to other low-level and mid-level approaches in the literature.

  8. Incidence of chronic knee lesions in long-distance runners based on training level: Findings at MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia; Schueller, Gerd; Uffmann, Martin; Bader, Till

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of chronic knee changes in long-distance runners based on the training status, including distance, running frequency, training pace, and running experience. Methods: MRI of the knee was performed in 26 non-professional runners 5 days after their last training unit. Lesions of the menisci and cartilage (5-point scale), bone marrow and ligaments (3-point scale), and joint effusion were evaluated. A total score comprising all knee lesions in each runner was evaluated. The incidence of the knee changes was correlated with the training level, gender, and age of the runners. Results: Grade 1 lesions of the menisci were found in six runners with a high training level, and in only four runners with a low training level. Grade 1 cartilage lesions were found in three high-trained runners and in one low-trained runner, and grade 2 lesions were found in one high-trained runner and in two low-trained runners, respectively. Grade 1 anterior cruciate ligament lesions were seen in three runners with a high- and in two runners with a low-training level. Runners with a higher training level showed a statistically significant higher score for all chronic knee lesions than those with a lower training level (p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI findings indicate that a higher training level in long-distance runners is a risk factor for chronic knee lesions

  9. Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-hop Machine-to-Machine Networks Based on Hop Distance Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haejoon Jung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave. To be specific, we focus on hop distance statistics and their impacts on system performances in multi-hop wireless networks (MWNs with directional antenna arrays in mmWave for M2M communications. Different from microwave systems, in mmWave communications, wireless channel suffers from blockage by obstacles that heavily attenuate line-of-sight signals, which may result in limited per-hop progress in MWNs. We consider two routing strategies aiming at different types of applications and derive the probability distributions of their hop distances. Moreover, we provide their baseline statistics assuming the blockage-free scenario to quantify the impact of blockages. Based on the hop distance analysis, we propose a method to estimate the end-to-end performances (e.g., outage probability, hop count, and transmit energy of the mmWave MWNs, which provides important insights into mmWave MWN design without time-consuming and repetitive end-to-end simulation.

  10. Computing distance distributions from dipolar evolution data with overtones: RIDME spectroscopy with Gd(iii)-based spin labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Katharina; Mertens, Valerie; Qi, Mian; Nalepa, Anna I; Godt, Adelheid; Savitsky, Anton; Jeschke, Gunnar; Yulikov, Maxim

    2017-07-21

    Extraction of distance distributions between high-spin paramagnetic centers from relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) data is affected by the presence of overtones of dipolar frequencies. As previously proposed, we account for these overtones by using a modified kernel function in Tikhonov regularization analysis. This paper analyzes the performance of such an approach on a series of model compounds with the Gd(iii)-PyMTA complex serving as paramagnetic high-spin label. We describe the calibration of the overtone coefficients for the RIDME kernel, demonstrate the accuracy of distance distributions obtained with this approach, and show that for our series of Gd-rulers RIDME technique provides more accurate distance distributions than Gd(iii)-Gd(iii) double electron-electron resonance (DEER). The analysis of RIDME data including harmonic overtones can be performed using the MATLAB-based program OvertoneAnalysis, which is available as open-source software from the web page of ETH Zurich. This approach opens a perspective for the routine use of the RIDME technique with high-spin labels in structural biology and structural studies of other soft matter.

  11. Incidence of chronic knee lesions in long-distance runners based on training level: Findings at MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller-Weidekamm, Claudia [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: claudia.schueller-weidekamm@meduniwien.ac.at; Schueller, Gerd [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Uffmann, Martin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bader, Till [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of chronic knee changes in long-distance runners based on the training status, including distance, running frequency, training pace, and running experience. Methods: MRI of the knee was performed in 26 non-professional runners 5 days after their last training unit. Lesions of the menisci and cartilage (5-point scale), bone marrow and ligaments (3-point scale), and joint effusion were evaluated. A total score comprising all knee lesions in each runner was evaluated. The incidence of the knee changes was correlated with the training level, gender, and age of the runners. Results: Grade 1 lesions of the menisci were found in six runners with a high training level, and in only four runners with a low training level. Grade 1 cartilage lesions were found in three high-trained runners and in one low-trained runner, and grade 2 lesions were found in one high-trained runner and in two low-trained runners, respectively. Grade 1 anterior cruciate ligament lesions were seen in three runners with a high- and in two runners with a low-training level. Runners with a higher training level showed a statistically significant higher score for all chronic knee lesions than those with a lower training level (p < 0.05). Conclusions: MRI findings indicate that a higher training level in long-distance runners is a risk factor for chronic knee lesions.

  12. Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-hop Machine-to-Machine Networks Based on Hop Distance Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Haejoon; Lee, In-Ho

    2018-01-12

    As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC) device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave. To be specific, we focus on hop distance statistics and their impacts on system performances in multi-hop wireless networks (MWNs) with directional antenna arrays in mmWave for M2M communications. Different from microwave systems, in mmWave communications, wireless channel suffers from blockage by obstacles that heavily attenuate line-of-sight signals, which may result in limited per-hop progress in MWNs. We consider two routing strategies aiming at different types of applications and derive the probability distributions of their hop distances. Moreover, we provide their baseline statistics assuming the blockage-free scenario to quantify the impact of blockages. Based on the hop distance analysis, we propose a method to estimate the end-to-end performances (e.g., outage probability, hop count, and transmit energy) of the mmWave MWNs, which provides important insights into mmWave MWN design without time-consuming and repetitive end-to-end simulation.

  13. Distance-Based Configurational Entropy of Proteins from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Fortuna, Sara; Soler, Miguel Angel; VanSchouwen, Bryan; Brancolini, Giorgia; Corni, Stefano; Melacini, Giuseppe; Esposito, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of configurational entropy from molecular dynamics trajectories is a difficult task which is often performed using quasi-harmonic or histogram analysis. An entirely different approach, proposed recently, estimates local density distribution around each conformational sample by measuring the distance from its nearest neighbors. In this work we show this theoretically well grounded the method can be easily applied to estimate the entropy from conformational sampling. We consider a set of systems that are representative of important biomolecular processes. In particular: reference entropies for amino acids in unfolded proteins are obtained from a database of residues not participating in secondary structure elements;the conformational entropy of folding of β2-microglobulin is computed from molecular dynamics simulations using reference entropies for the unfolded state;backbone conformational entropy is computed from molecular dynamics simulations of four different states of the EPAC protein and compared with order parameters (often used as a measure of entropy);the conformational and rototranslational entropy of binding is computed from simulations of 20 tripeptides bound to the peptide binding protein OppA and of β2-microglobulin bound to a citrate coated gold surface. This work shows the potential of the method in the most representative biological processes involving proteins, and provides a valuable alternative, principally in the shown cases, where other approaches are problematic.

  14. Marginal Abatement Cost of CO2 in China Based on Directional Distance Function: An Industry Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial sectors account for around 70% of the total energy-related CO2 emissions in China. It is of great importance to measure the potential for CO2 emissions reduction and calculate the carbon price in industrial sectors covered in the Emissions Trading Scheme and carbon tax. This paper employs the directional distance function to calculate the marginal abatement costs of CO2 emissions during 2005–2011 and makes a comparative analysis between our study and the relevant literature. Our empirical results show that the marginal abatement costs vary greatly from industry to industry: high marginal abatement costs occur in industries with low carbon intensity, and vice versa. In the application of the marginal abatement cost, the abatement distribution scheme with minimum cost is established under different abatement targets. The conclusions of abatement distribution scheme indicate that those heavy industries with low MACs and high carbon intensity should take more responsibility for emissions reduction and vice versa. Finally, the policy implications for marginal abatement cost are provided.

  15. International cooperation in veterinary public health curricula using web-based distance interactive education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Len J; Barnier, Valérie M; de Balogh, Katalin K

    2003-01-01

    The expanding field of Veterinary Public Health places new demands on the knowledge and skills of veterinarians. Veterinary curricula must therefore adapt to this new profile. Through the introduction of case studies dealing with up-to-date issues, students are being trained to solve (real-life) problems and come up with realistic solutions. At the Department of Public Health and Food Safety of the Veterinary Faculty at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands, positive experiences have resulted from the new opportunities offered by the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education. The possibility of creating a virtual classroom on the Internet through the use of WebCT software has enabled teachers and students to tackle emerging issues by working together with students in other countries and across disciplines. This article presents some of these experiences, through which international exchange of ideas and realities were stimulated, in addition to consolidating relations between universities in different countries. Long-distance education methodologies provide an important tool to achieve the increasing need for international cooperation in Veterinary Public Health curricula.

  16. 3D GIS BASED EVALUATION OF THE AVAILABLE SIGHT DISTANCE TO ASSESS SAFETY OF URBAN ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bassani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The available sight distance (ASD in front of the driver to detect possible conflicts with unexpected obstacles is fundamental for traffic safety. In the last 20 years, road design software (RDS has been continuously updated with dedicated modules to estimate ASD, thus assessing the quality of project from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, the evaluation of ASD still represents an issue in the case of existing road, and the object of discussion in the research community. To avoid problems related to the limitation associated with the use of digital terrain models typically employed in RDS, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS software can use digital surface models (DSM which are more flexible in the modelling of sight obstruction due to vegetation, street furniture, and vertical surfaces largely diffused in urbanized areas. The paper deals with the evaluation of GIS in the estimation of ASD in a typical urban road where the density of sight obstruction along the roadside is relatively high. The work explores the case study of a collector road in the city of Turin (Italy. Results confirm the potentiality of GIS software in capturing the complex morphology of the urban environment, thus confirming that GIS could become an important analysis tool for road engineers in the field of road safety. The investigation here described is part of the Pro-VISION Project (funded in 2014 by the Regione Piemonte, Italy.

  17. The Comparative Instructional Effectiveness of Print-Based and Video-Based Instructional Materials for Teaching Practical Skills at a Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Print-based instructional materials have been more popular than any other medium for teaching practical skills during the delivery of technical and vocational education and training via distance learning. However, the approach has its shortcomings and in recent times alternatives have been sought. The comparative instructional effectiveness of one…

  18. Distance-based kinematics of the five-oblique-axis thumb model with intersecting axes at the metacarpophalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Nicolas; Dollar, Aaron M

    2017-07-01

    This paper proposes a novel and simple method to compute all possible solutions of the inverse kinematics problem of the five-oblique-axis thumb model with intersecting axes at the metacarpophalangeal joint. This thumb model is one of the suggested results by a magnetic-resonance-imaging-based study that, in contrast to those based on cadaver fingers or on the tracking of the surface of the fingers, takes into account muscle and ligament behaviors and avoids inaccuracies resulting from the movement of the skin with respect to the bones. The proposed distance-based inverse kinematics method eliminates the use of arbitrary reference frames as is usually required by standard approaches; this is relevant because the numerical conditioning of the resulting system of equations with such traditional approaches depends on the selected reference frames. Moreover, contrary to other parametrizations (e.g., Denavit-Hartenberg parameters), the suggested distance-based parameters for the thumb have a natural, human-understandable geometric meaning that makes them easier to be determined from any posture. These characteristics make the proposed approach of interest for those working in, for instance, measuring and modeling the movement of the human hand, developing rehabilitation devices such as orthoses and prostheses, or designing anthropomorphic robotic hands.

  19. Hierarchical distance-based fuzzy approach to evaluate urban water supply systems in a semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekta, Tahereh Sadeghi; Khazaei, Mohammad; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Nasseri, Simin; Yari, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical distance-based fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making was served as a tool to evaluate the drinking water supply systems of Qom, a semi-arid city located in central part of Iran. A list of aspects consisting of 6 criteria and 35 sub-criteria were evaluated based on a linguistic term set by five decision-makers. Four water supply alternatives including "Public desalinated distribution system", "PET Bottled Drinking Water", "Private desalinated water suppliers" and "Household desalinated water units" were assessed based on criteria and sub-criteria. Data were aggregated and normalized to apply Performance Ratings of Alternatives. Also, the Performance Ratings of Alternatives were aggregated again to achieve the Aggregate Performance Ratings. The weighted distances from ideal solution and anti-ideal solution were calculated after secondary normalization. The proximity of each alternative to the ideal solution was determined as the final step. The alternatives were ranked based on the magnitude of ideal solutions. Results showed that "Public desalinated distribution system" was the most appropriate alternative to supply the drinking needs of Qom population. Also, "PET Bottled Drinking Water" was the second acceptable option. A novel classification of alternatives to satisfy the drinking water requirements was proposed which is applicable for the other cities located in semi-arid regions of Iran. The health issues were considered as independent criterion, distinct from the environmental issues. The constraints of high-tech alternatives were also considered regarding to the level of dependency on overseas.

  20. The influence of selection on the evolutionary distance estimated from the base changes observed between homologous nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, J; Kawai, Y; Sugaya, N

    2001-11-21

    In most studies of molecular evolution, the nucleotide base at a site is assumed to change with the apparent rate under functional constraint, and the comparison of base changes between homologous genes is thought to yield the evolutionary distance corresponding to the site-average change rate multiplied by the divergence time. However, this view is not sufficiently successful in estimating the divergence time of species, but mostly results in the construction of tree topology without a time-scale. In the present paper, this problem is investigated theoretically by considering that observed base changes are the results of comparing the survivals through selection of mutated bases. In the case of weak selection, the time course of base changes due to mutation and selection can be obtained analytically, leading to a theoretical equation showing how the selection has influence on the evolutionary distance estimated from the enumeration of base changes. This result provides a new method for estimating the divergence time more accurately from the observed base changes by evaluating both the strength of selection and the mutation rate. The validity of this method is verified by analysing the base changes observed at the third codon positions of amino acid residues with four-fold codon degeneracy in the protein genes of mammalian mitochondria; i.e. the ratios of estimated divergence times are fairly well consistent with a series of fossil records of mammals. Throughout this analysis, it is also suggested that the mutation rates in mitochondrial genomes are almost the same in different lineages of mammals and that the lineage-specific base-change rates indicated previously are due to the selection probably arising from the preference of transfer RNAs to codons.

  1. Semantic distance-based creation of clusters of pharmacovigilance terms and their evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuch, Marie; Grabar, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the activity related to the collection, analysis and prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by drugs or biologics. The detection of adverse drug reactions is performed using statistical algorithms and groupings of ADR terms from the MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Drug Regulatory Activities) terminology. Standardized MedDRA Queries (SMQs) are the groupings which become a standard for assisting the retrieval and evaluation of MedDRA-coded ADR reports worldwide. Currently 84 SMQs have been created, while several important safety topics are not yet covered. Creation of SMQs is a long and tedious process performed by the experts. It relies on manual analysis of MedDRA in order to find out all the relevant terms to be included in a SMQ. Our objective is to propose an automatic method for assisting the creation of SMQs using the clustering of terms which are semantically similar. The experimental method relies on a specific semantic resource, and also on the semantic distance algorithms and clustering approaches. We perform several experiments in order to define the optimal parameters. Our results show that the proposed method can assist the creation of SMQs and make this process faster and systematic. The average performance of the method is precision 59% and recall 26%. The correlation of the results obtained is 0.72 against the medical doctors judgments and 0.78 against the medical coders judgments. These results and additional evaluation indicate that the generated clusters can be efficiently used for the detection of pharmacovigilance signals, as they provide better signal detection than the existing SMQs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Is Joint Attention Detectable at a Distance? Three Automated, Internet-Based Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Rupert; Beeharee, Ashweeni

    2016-01-01

    Joint attention is the shared focus of two or more individuals on the same object. Sensory cues, such as detecting the direction of another person's gaze, play a major role in establishing joint attention. It may also involve a kind of mental resonance that might be felt by the people involved. The aim of this study was to find out whether people could feel when another person was looking at the same picture at the same time, even when the participants were many miles apart. Participants registered online with their names and e-mail addresses, and worked in pairs. After they both logged on for the test they were simultaneously shown one of two photographs, with a 0.5 probability of seeing the same picture. After 20s they were asked if their partner was looking at the same picture or not. After both had registered their guess, the next trial began, with a different pair of pictures. The main outcome measure was the proportion of correct guesses, compared with the 50% mean chance expectation. This test was symmetrical in that all participants were both "senders" and "receivers." In the first experiment, with 11,160 trials, the hit rate was 52.8% (P < 1 × 10(-6)); in the second experiment with 2720 trials, 51.3% (P = .09). The third experiment involved music as well as pictures, and with 8860 trials, the hit rate was 51.9% (P = .0003). Some partners were more than 1000 miles apart, but there were no significant effect of distance. Participants who received immediate feedback about whether their guess was right or wrong did not score significantly better than those without feedback. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal Fare, Vacancy Rate, and Subsidies under Log-Linear Demand with the Consideration of Externalities for a Cruising Taxi Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsiao Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Externality is an important issue for formulating the regulation policy of a taxi market. However, this issue is rarely taken into account in the current policy-making process, and it has not been adequately explored in prior research. This study extends the model proposed by Chang and Chu in 2009 with the aim of exploring the effect of externality on the optimization of the regulation policy of a cruising taxi market. A closed-form solution for optimizing the fare, vacancy rate, and subsidy of the market is derived. The results show that when the externality of taxi trips is taken into consideration, the optimal vacancy rate should be lower and the subsidy should be higher than they are under current conditions where externality is not considered. The results of the sensitivity analysis on the occupied and vacant distance indicate that the relation of the vacant distance to the marginal external cost is more sensitive than the occupied distance. The result of the sensitivity analysis on the subsidy shows the existence of a negative relationship between the marginal external cost and the optimal subsidy.

  4. A Fuzzy Neural Network Based on Non-Euclidean Distance Clustering for Quality Index Model in Slashing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxian Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality index model in slashing process is difficult to build by reason of the outliers and noise data from original data. To the above problem, a fuzzy neural network based on non-Euclidean distance clustering is proposed in which the input space is partitioned into many local regions by the fuzzy clustering based on non-Euclidean distance so that the computation complexity is decreased, and fuzzy rule number is determined by validity function based on both the separation and the compactness among clusterings. Then, the premise parameters and consequent parameters are trained by hybrid learning algorithm. The parameters identification is realized; meanwhile the convergence condition of consequent parameters is obtained by Lyapunov function. Finally, the proposed method is applied to build the quality index model in slashing process in which the experimental data come from the actual slashing process. The experiment results show that the proposed fuzzy neural network for quality index model has lower computation complexity and faster convergence time, comparing with GP-FNN, BPNN, and RBFNN.

  5. Adult Students' Perceptions in Distance Education Learning Environments Based on a Videoconferencing Platform – QoE Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Malinovski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education learning environments provide tremendous convenience and flexibility, allowing busy, mobile adult learners to engage in education while coping with their limited resources in terms of time, energy and finances. Following a student-centered approach this study investigates adult students’ subjective perceptions while using distance education systems based on a videoconferencing platform as Quality of Experience (QoE. Based on a literature review, sociological behavior and expectations, we have constructed a structural equation model (SEM illustrating relations among different variables that can predict positive levels of adult students’ QoE, thus providing guidelines for proper development. We have tested the model using a survey of 198 primary education school teachers involved in a videoconferencing-based learning program for teacher enhancement. Results show a good fit to the model developed. The analysis showed that adult students’ QoE is directly influenced by appropriateness of teacher-student interaction and ease of participation, as well predicted by students’ motivation to attend similar trainings. Additionally, we found that variances in technical quality did not directly influence their QoE from the learning sessions.

  6. The Practice of Professional Doctorates: The Case of a U.K.-Based Distance DBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Colin; Sommer, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    In light of the prominent role of socio-materiality in contemporary social scientific, and particularly educational research, this article uses two practice-based theories to investigate the experiences of German business management professionals on a U.K.-based DBA delivered in Germany. We specifically take concepts from cultural historical…

  7. A Distance Instructional System with Learning Performance Evaluation Mechanism: Moodle-Based Educational System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying-Chen; Terashima, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a Moodle-based educational system has been constructed by providing friendly interface to fit most students in e-learning. For the website implementation, the authors take the course "Multimedia Implementation Using JAVA" as a case study. From the modified Moodle-based educational system, the browsing time of each web page for…

  8. An integrated information management system based DSS for problem solving and decision making in open & distance learning institutions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Khanna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system based DSS is developed for Open and Distance Learning (ODL institutions in India. The system has been web structured with the most suitable newly developed modules. A DSS model has been developed for solving semi-structured and unstructured problems including decision making with regard to various programmes and activities operating in the ODLIs. The DSS model designed for problem solving is generally based on quantitative formulas, whereas for problems involving imprecision and uncertainty, a fuzzy theory based DSS is employed. The computer operated system thus developed would help the ODLI management to quickly identify programmes and activities that require immediate attention. It shall also provide guidance for obtaining the most appropriate managerial decisions without any loss of time. As a result, the various subsystems operating in the ODLI are able to administer its activities more efficiently and effectively to enhance the overall performance of the concerned ODL institution to a new level.

  9. Web-based distance continuing education: a new way of thinking for students and instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, J A; Schardt, C; Kochi, J K

    2000-07-01

    As people have more difficulty taking time away from work to attend conferences and workshops, the idea of offering courses via the Web has become more desirable. Addressing a need voiced by Medical Library Association membership, the authors developed a Web-based continuing-education course on the subject of the librarian's role in evidence-based medicine. The aim of the course was to provide medical librarians with a well-constructed, content-rich learning experience available to them at their convenience via the Web. This paper includes a discussion of the considerations that need to be taken into account when developing Web-based courses, the issues that arise when the information delivery changes from face-to-face to online, the changing role of the instructor, and the pros and cons of offering Web-based versus traditional courses. The results of the beta test and future plans for the course are also discussed.

  10. Kullback-Leibler distance-based enhanced detection of incipient anomalies

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi; Sun, Ying; Madakyaru, Muddu

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and effective anomaly detection and diagnosis of modern engineering systems by monitoring processes ensure reliability and safety of a product while maintaining desired quality. In this paper, an innovative method based on Kullback

  11. Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. FRASER

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS, and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI. Furthermore, science educators’ own PCK, and the limitations of a predominantly paper-based distance education (DE model of delivery are challenges that they have to face when introducing PCK and authentic inquiry-based learning experiences. It deprives them and their students from optimal engagement in a science-oriented community of practice, and leaves little opportunity to establish flourishing communities of inquiry. This study carried out a contextual analysis of the tutorial material to assess the PCK that the student teachers had been exposed to. This comprised the ideas of a community of inquiry, a community of science, the conceptualization of PCK, scientific inquiry, and the 5E Instructional Model of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. The analysis confirmed that the lecturers had a good understanding of NOS, NOSI and science process skills, but found it difficult to design interventions to optimize the PCK development of students through communities of inquiry. Paper-based tutorials are ideal to share theory, policies and practices, but fail to monitor the engagement of learners in communities of inquiry. The article concludes with a number of suggestions to address the apparent lack of impact power of the paper-based mode of delivery, specifically in relation to inquiry-based teaching and learning (IBTL.

  12. Factor 10 Visions project: Higher Education Sector Towards Sustainable Higher Education: Environmental impacts of campus-based and distance higher education systems

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Robin; Potter, Stephen; Yarrow, Karen; Smith, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This report gives the findings of a major UK study of the environmental impacts of four different methods of providing higher education (HE) courses: Conventional campus-based full-time courses; Conventional campus-based part-time courses; Print-based distance taught courses; Part electronically-delivered distance taught courses.\\ud This is an environmental assessment of these different HE systems and does not assess their educational effectiveness or socio-economic costs and benefits.\\ud KEY...

  13. An Efficient Seam Elimination Method for UAV Images Based on Wallis Dodging and Gaussian Distance Weight Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jinyan; Li, Xiaojuan; Duan, Fuzhou; Wang, Junqian; Ou, Yang

    2016-05-10

    The rapid development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing conforms to the increasing demand for the low-altitude very high resolution (VHR) image data. However, high processing speed of massive UAV data has become an indispensable prerequisite for its applications in various industry sectors. In this paper, we developed an effective and efficient seam elimination approach for UAV images based on Wallis dodging and Gaussian distance weight enhancement (WD-GDWE). The method encompasses two major steps: first, Wallis dodging was introduced to adjust the difference of brightness between the two matched images, and the parameters in the algorithm were derived in this study. Second, a Gaussian distance weight distribution method was proposed to fuse the two matched images in the overlap region based on the theory of the First Law of Geography, which can share the partial dislocation in the seam to the whole overlap region with an effect of smooth transition. This method was validated at a study site located in Hanwang (Sichuan, China) which was a seriously damaged area in the 12 May 2008 enchuan Earthquake. Then, a performance comparison between WD-GDWE and the other five classical seam elimination algorithms in the aspect of efficiency and effectiveness was conducted. Results showed that WD-GDWE is not only efficient, but also has a satisfactory effectiveness. This method is promising in advancing the applications in UAV industry especially in emergency situations.

  14. Stochastic learning of multi-instance dictionary for earth mover’s distance-based histogram comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Jihong

    2016-09-17

    Dictionary plays an important role in multi-instance data representation. It maps bags of instances to histograms. Earth mover’s distance (EMD) is the most effective histogram distance metric for the application of multi-instance retrieval. However, up to now, there is no existing multi-instance dictionary learning methods designed for EMD-based histogram comparison. To fill this gap, we develop the first EMD-optimal dictionary learning method using stochastic optimization method. In the stochastic learning framework, we have one triplet of bags, including one basic bag, one positive bag, and one negative bag. These bags are mapped to histograms using a multi-instance dictionary. We argue that the EMD between the basic histogram and the positive histogram should be smaller than that between the basic histogram and the negative histogram. Base on this condition, we design a hinge loss. By minimizing this hinge loss and some regularization terms of the dictionary, we update the dictionary instances. The experiments over multi-instance retrieval applications shows its effectiveness when compared to other dictionary learning methods over the problems of medical image retrieval and natural language relation classification. © 2016 The Natural Computing Applications Forum

  15. Optimization methods of pulse-to-pulse alignment using femtosecond pulse laser based on temporal coherence function for practical distance measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Linghui; Guo, Yin; Lin, Jiarui; Cui, Pengfei; Zhu, Jigui

    2018-02-01

    An interferometer technique based on temporal coherence function of femtosecond pulses is demonstrated for practical distance measurement. Here, the pulse-to-pulse alignment is analyzed for large delay distance measurement. Firstly, a temporal coherence function model between two femtosecond pulses is developed in the time domain for the dispersive unbalanced Michelson interferometer. Then, according to this model, the fringes analysis and the envelope extraction process are discussed. Meanwhile, optimization methods of pulse-to-pulse alignment for practical long distance measurement are presented. The order of the curve fitting and the selection of points for envelope extraction are analyzed. Furthermore, an averaging method based on the symmetry of the coherence function is demonstrated. Finally, the performance of the proposed methods is evaluated in the absolute distance measurement of 20 μ m with path length difference of 9 m. The improvement of standard deviation in experimental results shows that these approaches have the potential for practical distance measurement.

  16. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin; Heilmeier, Hermann; Bringezu, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of surface and ground water. Decision making in favor of or against bio-based and conventional fossil product alternatives therefore often requires weighing of environmental impacts. In this article, we apply distance-to-target weighing methodology to aggregate LCA results obtained in four different environmental impact categories (i.e., non-renewable energy consumption, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, and acidification potential) to one environmental index. We include 45 bio- and fossil-based product pairs in our analysis, which we conduct for Germany. The resulting environmental indices for all product pairs analyzed range from -19.7 to +0.2 with negative values indicating overall environmental benefits of bio-based products. Except for three options of packaging materials made from wheat and cornstarch, all bio-based products (including energy, fuels, and materials) score better than their fossil counterparts. Comparing the median values for the three options of biomass utilization reveals that bio-energy (-1.2) and bio-materials (-1.0) offer significantly higher environmental benefits than bio-fuels (-0.3). The results of this study reflect, however, subjective value judgments due to the weighing methodology applied. Given the uncertainties and controversies associated not only with distance-to-target methodologies in particular but also with weighing approaches in general, the authors strongly recommend using weighing for decision finding only as a

  17. Testing efficacy of distance and tree-based methods for DNA barcoding of grasses (Poaceae tribe Poeae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Joanne L; Walsh, Neville G; Cantrill, David J; Holmes, Gareth D; Murphy, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, Poaceae tribe Poeae are represented by 19 genera and 99 species, including economically and environmentally important native and introduced pasture grasses [e.g. Poa (Tussock-grasses) and Lolium (Ryegrasses)]. We used this tribe, which are well characterised in regards to morphological diversity and evolutionary relationships, to test the efficacy of DNA barcoding methods. A reference library was generated that included 93.9% of species in Australia (408 individuals, [Formula: see text] = 3.7 individuals per species). Molecular data were generated for official plant barcoding markers (rbcL, matK) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We investigated accuracy of specimen identifications using distance- (nearest neighbour, best-close match, and threshold identification) and tree-based (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) methods and applied species discovery methods (automatic barcode gap discovery, Poisson tree processes) based on molecular data to assess congruence with recognised species. Across all methods, success rate for specimen identification of genera was high (87.5-99.5%) and of species was low (25.6-44.6%). Distance- and tree-based methods were equally ineffective in providing accurate identifications for specimens to species rank (26.1-44.6% and 25.6-31.3%, respectively). The ITS marker achieved the highest success rate for specimen identification at both generic and species ranks across the majority of methods. For distance-based analyses the best-close match method provided the greatest accuracy for identification of individuals with a high percentage of "correct" (97.6%) and a low percentage of "incorrect" (0.3%) generic identifications, based on the ITS marker. For tribe Poeae, and likely for other grass lineages, sequence data in the standard DNA barcode markers are not variable enough for accurate identification of specimens to species rank. For recently diverged grass species similar challenges are

  18. The Role of Microcomputer-Based Laboratories in Learning To Make Graphs of Distance and Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasell, Heather

    Two questions about the effects of microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) activities on graphing skills were addressed in this study: (1) the extent to which activities help students link their concrete experiences with motion with graphic representations of these experiences; and (2) the degree of importance of the real-time aspect of the MBL in…

  19. Assessing Measurement Distances for OTA Testing of Massive MIMO Base Station at 28 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Fan, Wei; Kyrolainen, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    metrics. The first metric is a new power metric based on assumptions of a code book of fixed beams and planar waves. The second one is the multi-user (MU) MIMO sum rate capacity. The intention is to evaluate physical dimensions in metres with respect to different BS array sizes. Simulation results...

  20. Stochastic learning of multi-instance dictionary for earth mover’s distance-based histogram comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Jihong; Liang, Ru-Ze

    2016-01-01

    Dictionary plays an important role in multi-instance data representation. It maps bags of instances to histograms. Earth mover’s distance (EMD) is the most effective histogram distance metric for the application of multi-instance retrieval. However

  1. An Unbiased Distance-based Outlier Detection Approach for High-dimensional Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hoang Vu; Gopalkrishnan, Vivekanand; Assent, Ira

    2011-01-01

    than a global property. Different from existing approaches, it is not grid-based and dimensionality unbiased. Thus, its performance is impervious to grid resolution as well as the curse of dimensionality. In addition, our approach ranks the outliers, allowing users to select the number of desired...... outliers, thus mitigating the issue of high false alarm rate. Extensive empirical studies on real datasets show that our approach efficiently and effectively detects outliers, even in high-dimensional spaces....

  2. Web-based lecture technologies: blurring the boundaries between face-to-face and distance learning

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Karen; Gosper, Maree; McNeill, Margot; Preston, Greg; Green, David; Phillips, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Web-based lecture technologies (WBLT) have gained popularity amongst universities in Australia as a tool for delivering lecture recordings to students in close to real time. This paper reports on a selection of results from a larger research project investigating the impact of WBLT on teaching and learning. Results show that while staff see the advantages for external students, they question the extent to which these advantages apply to internal students. In contrast both cohorts of students ...

  3. The Ethical Implications of Cultural Intervention by Space-faring Civilizations -- What Science Fiction Has to Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupa, M.

    Science fiction (Scifi) plays out the concerns of our possible scientistic futures; it is a source for exploring the deep rooted psychological concerns of mankind with science and the humanities. In this paper it is proposed Scifi is a valid source of hypotheses to examine, not as "evidence", but as candidate ­ often cautionary ­ notions, i.e., scenarios to be studied. Scifi represents a kind of Jungian mythological based story-telling, putting forward tales that express our conscious/unconscious concerns. Thus, when looking into ethical questions like, "where will techno-progressive futures take us?", we import into them these archetypes, hopes and fears, as a result they frequently reappear as familiar tropes. In this respect it is appropriate not to ignore them, but to openly challenge/appreciate them: to see what scenarios are indeed likely and how they may impact us reciprocally. This paper examines some of these aspects, and provides examples of how they are represented in the Scifi genre, in particular with consideration of the ethical implications of cultural intervention by space-faring civilizations. Given the specific analysis/examples provided, it concludes with an ethical scenario analysis (a dialectic argument), within the limiting conditions of the Drake Equation, Fermi Paradox and Cultural History. It comments on the potential existential risk of the Active SETI programmes recently initiated, indeed the need for an ethical exosociological review of all proposed Interstellar projects that express an "Intervention-Propensity".

  4. Distance-Based Access Modifiers Applied to Safety in Home Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kjeld Høyer; Schougaard, Kari Rye; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2004-01-01

    Home networks and the interconnection of home appliances is a classical theme in ubiquitous computing research. Security is a recurring concern, but there is a lack of awareness of safety: preventing the computerized house from harming the inhabitants, even in a worst-case scenario where...... be performed within a physical proximity that ensures safety. We use a declarative approach integrated with an IDL language to express location-based restrictions on operations. This model has been implemented in a middleware for home audio-video devices, using infrared communication and a local-area network...

  5. High efficiency and flexible working distance digital in-line holographic microscopy based on Fresnel zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Peng; Yang, Fan; Li, Fanxing; Hu, Song; Yan, Wei; Hua, Yilei

    2017-01-01

    Traditional digital in-line holography suffers from twin-image noise problems and extremely short working distances between the object and light source. Here, we propose lensless Fourier transform digital in-line holographic microscopy based on a single optical element. A Fresnel zone plate is used to split the incident light into two parts: one is scattered along the original direction, the other is gathered at a focal point and the sample is put behind the focus. The interference fringe pattern, formed by the two beams, is recorded digitally by a CCD camera. A novel reconstruction algorithm is proposed to present the object image. The proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the proposed technique can eliminate the twin-image noise problem, improving the image contrast with high efficiency, and increasing the flexibility of the working distance. Furthermore, a wide field of view and no contact make it a promising tool for the study of materials science, biology and microelectronics. (paper)

  6. Distance distribution of bystander effects in alpha-particle irradiated cell populations using a CR-39-based culture dish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, S.; Pusset, D.; Toledo, S.M. de; Azzam, E.I.; Fromm, M.

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of induced biological effects from irradiated to non-irradiated cells is known to occur in cell cultures exposed to low fluences of charged particles. These bystander effects are currently investigated using microbeam or non-microbeam (broad beams) irradiation techniques. Identification of the targeted and non-targeted bystander cells is critical to our understanding of mechanisms underlying such effects. We developed a novel cell culture dish where the base consists of a thin CR-39 sheet grafted on a thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil. The validity of this device in identifying not only irradiated cells, but also the cellular compartment traversed by the particle track is described. We have optimized track etch parameters that do not interfere with measurement of induced biological endpoints under normal incident irradiation. Thus the culture dishes can be used to determine distance distributions for the propagation of induced biological effects from a hit cell to bystander cells. We describe the computer code developed to determine the distance distributions of propagated biological stress responses in normal human fibroblast cells exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles

  7. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  8. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  9. Web-based lecture technologies: blurring the boundaries between face-to-face and distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Woo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Web-based lecture technologies (WBLT have gained popularity amongst universities in Australia as a tool for delivering lecture recordings to students in close to real time. This paper reports on a selection of results from a larger research project investigating the impact of WBLT on teaching and learning. Results show that while staff see the advantages for external students, they question the extent to which these advantages apply to internal students. In contrast both cohorts of students were positive about the benefits of the technologies for their learning and they adopted similar strategies for their use. With the help of other technologies, some external students and staff even found WBLT useful for fostering communication between internal and external students. As such, while the traditional boundary between internal and external students seems to remain for some staff, students seem to find the boundary much less clear.

  10. Influence of introduction of e-based distance learning on student experience and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    A new project based course offered by Arctic Technology Centre, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University in collaboration, targets students from the whole circumpolar area. It was developed over a three year period from...... for the students’ selfevaluation, while they did not contribute to their learning. Some contradiction between the group work format of the projects and the online teaching method was experienced by the students. Also student satisfaction decreased slightly - influenced by inconvenient features of the used learning...... being taught in class to being taught 100% online. We evaluated the results by analyzing the students’ performance and experience of the course during the three years. The students’ performance increased over the period of transforming the course. Multiple choice quizzes showed to be efficient tools...

  11. Ab initio and template-based prediction of multi-class distance maps by two-dimensional recursive neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alberto JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein structures from their sequences is still one of the open grand challenges of computational biology. Some approaches to protein structure prediction, especially ab initio ones, rely to some extent on the prediction of residue contact maps. Residue contact map predictions have been assessed at the CASP competition for several years now. Although it has been shown that exact contact maps generally yield correct three-dimensional structures, this is true only at a relatively low resolution (3–4 Å from the native structure. Another known weakness of contact maps is that they are generally predicted ab initio, that is not exploiting information about potential homologues of known structure. Results We introduce a new class of distance restraints for protein structures: multi-class distance maps. We show that Cα trace reconstructions based on 4-class native maps are significantly better than those from residue contact maps. We then build two predictors of 4-class maps based on recursive neural networks: one ab initio, or relying on the sequence and on evolutionary information; one template-based, or in which homology information to known structures is provided as a further input. We show that virtually any level of sequence similarity to structural templates (down to less than 10% yields more accurate 4-class maps than the ab initio predictor. We show that template-based predictions by recursive neural networks are consistently better than the best template and than a number of combinations of the best available templates. We also extract binary residue contact maps at an 8 Å threshold (as per CASP assessment from the 4-class predictors and show that the template-based version is also more accurate than the best template and consistently better than the ab initio one, down to very low levels of sequence identity to structural templates. Furthermore, we test both ab-initio and template-based 8

  12. Molecular identification of birds: performance of distance-based DNA barcoding in three genes to delimit parapatric species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Aliabadian

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (cox1 or COI has been successful in species identification across a wide array of taxa but in some cases failed to delimit the species boundaries of closely allied allopatric species or of hybridising sister species.In this study we extend the sample size of prior studies in birds for cox1 (2776 sequences, 756 species and target especially species that are known to occur parapatrically, and/or are known to hybridise, on a Holarctic scale. In order to obtain a larger set of taxa (altogether 2719 species, we include also DNA sequences of two other mitochondrial genes: cytochrome b (cob (4614 sequences, 2087 species and 16S (708 sequences, 498 species. Our results confirm the existence of a wide gap between intra- and interspecies divergences for both cox1 and cob, and indicate that distance-based DNA barcoding provides sufficient information to identify and delineate bird species in 98% of all possible pairwise comparisons. This DNA barcoding gap was not statistically influenced by the number of individuals sequenced per species. However, most of the hybridising parapatric species pairs have average divergences intermediate between intraspecific and interspecific distances for both cox1 and cob.DNA barcoding, if used as a tool for species discovery, would thus fail to identify hybridising parapatric species pairs. However, most of them can probably still assigned to known species by character-based approaches, although development of complementary nuclear markers will be necessary to account for mitochondrial introgression in hybridising species.

  13. GPU-Based Cloud Service for Smith-Waterman Algorithm Using Frequency Distance Filtration Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ta Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the conventional means of analyzing the similarity between a query sequence and database sequences, the Smith-Waterman algorithm is feasible for a database search owing to its high sensitivity. However, this algorithm is still quite time consuming. CUDA programming can improve computations efficiently by using the computational power of massive computing hardware as graphics processing units (GPUs. This work presents a novel Smith-Waterman algorithm with a frequency-based filtration method on GPUs rather than merely accelerating the comparisons yet expending computational resources to handle such unnecessary comparisons. A user friendly interface is also designed for potential cloud server applications with GPUs. Additionally, two data sets, H1N1 protein sequences (query sequence set and human protein database (database set, are selected, followed by a comparison of CUDA-SW and CUDA-SW with the filtration method, referred to herein as CUDA-SWf. Experimental results indicate that reducing unnecessary sequence alignments can improve the computational time by up to 41%. Importantly, by using CUDA-SWf as a cloud service, this application can be accessed from any computing environment of a device with an Internet connection without time constraints.

  14. GPU-based cloud service for Smith-Waterman algorithm using frequency distance filtration scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng-Ta; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Hung, Che Lun

    2013-01-01

    As the conventional means of analyzing the similarity between a query sequence and database sequences, the Smith-Waterman algorithm is feasible for a database search owing to its high sensitivity. However, this algorithm is still quite time consuming. CUDA programming can improve computations efficiently by using the computational power of massive computing hardware as graphics processing units (GPUs). This work presents a novel Smith-Waterman algorithm with a frequency-based filtration method on GPUs rather than merely accelerating the comparisons yet expending computational resources to handle such unnecessary comparisons. A user friendly interface is also designed for potential cloud server applications with GPUs. Additionally, two data sets, H1N1 protein sequences (query sequence set) and human protein database (database set), are selected, followed by a comparison of CUDA-SW and CUDA-SW with the filtration method, referred to herein as CUDA-SWf. Experimental results indicate that reducing unnecessary sequence alignments can improve the computational time by up to 41%. Importantly, by using CUDA-SWf as a cloud service, this application can be accessed from any computing environment of a device with an Internet connection without time constraints.

  15. Interval MULTIMOORA method with target values of attributes based on interval distance and preference degree: biomaterials selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafezalkotob, Arian; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2017-06-01

    A target-based MADM method covers beneficial and non-beneficial attributes besides target values for some attributes. Such techniques are considered as the comprehensive forms of MADM approaches. Target-based MADM methods can also be used in traditional decision-making problems in which beneficial and non-beneficial attributes only exist. In many practical selection problems, some attributes have given target values. The values of decision matrix and target-based attributes can be provided as intervals in some of such problems. Some target-based decision-making methods have recently been developed; however, a research gap exists in the area of MADM techniques with target-based attributes under uncertainty of information. We extend the MULTIMOORA method for solving practical material selection problems in which material properties and their target values are given as interval numbers. We employ various concepts of interval computations to reduce degeneration of uncertain data. In this regard, we use interval arithmetic and introduce innovative formula for interval distance of interval numbers to create interval target-based normalization technique. Furthermore, we use a pairwise preference matrix based on the concept of degree of preference of interval numbers to calculate the maximum, minimum, and ranking of these numbers. Two decision-making problems regarding biomaterials selection of hip and knee prostheses are discussed. Preference degree-based ranking lists for subordinate parts of the extended MULTIMOORA method are generated by calculating the relative degrees of preference for the arranged assessment values of the biomaterials. The resultant rankings for the problem are compared with the outcomes of other target-based models in the literature.

  16. Evaluation of Key Dependent S-Box Based Data Security Algorithm using Hamming Distance and Balanced Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balajee Maram K.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data security is a major issue because of rapid evolution of data communication over unsecured internetwork. Here the proposed system is concerned with the problem of randomly generated S-box. The generation of S-box depends on Pseudo-Random-Number-Generators and shared-secret-key. The process of Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator depends on large prime numbers. All Pseudo-Random-Numbers are scrambled according to shared-secret-key. After scrambling, the S-box is generated. In this research, large prime numbers are the inputs to the Pseudo-Random-Number-Generator. The proposed S-box will reduce the complexity of S-box generation. Based on S-box parameters, it experimentally investigates the quality and robustness of the proposed algorithm which was tested. It yields better results with the S-box parameters like Hamming Distance, Balanced Output and Avalanche Effect and can be embedded to popular cryptography algorithms

  17. The trade-off between trips and distance travelled in analyzing the emissions impacts of center-based telecommuting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtarian, P.L. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Institute of Transportation Studies; Varma, K.V. [Decision Focus Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Several travel indicators were compared between telecommuting (TC) days and non-telecommuting days for a sample of 72 center-based telecommuters in California. Distance travelled decreased significantly on TC days, with average reductions of 51 person-miles (58%) and 35 vehicle-miles (53%). When weighted by telecommuting frequency, average reductions of 11.9% in PMT and 11.5% in VMT were found over a five-day work week. Person-trips and vehicle-trips increased slightly (but not significantly) on TC days. Despite the increase in trip rates, TC-day reductions were found for all pollutants analyzed: 15% for total organic gas emissions, 21% for carbon monoxide, 35% for oxides of nitrogen, and 51% for particulate matter. (author)

  18. Severity Classification of a Seismic Event based on the Magnitude-Distance Ratio Using Only One Seismological Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Ochoa Gutiérrez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Seismic event characterization is often accomplished using algorithms based only on information received at seismological stations located closest to the particular event, while ignoring historical data received at those stations. These historical data are stored and unseen at this stage. This characterization process can delay the emergency response, costing valuable time in the mitigation of the adverse effects on the affected population. Seismological stations have recorded data during many events that have been characterized by classical methods, and these data can be used as previous "knowledge" to train such stations to recognize patterns. This knowledge can be used to make faster characterizations using only one three-component broadband station by applying bio-inspired algorithms or recently developed stochastic methods, such as kernel methods. We trained a Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm with seismograph data recorded by INGEOMINAS's National Seismological Network at a three-component station located near Bogota, Colombia. As input model descriptors, we used the following: (1 the integral of the Fourier transform/power spectrum for each component, divided into 7 windows of 2 seconds and beginning at the P onset time, and (2 the ratio between the calculated logarithm of magnitude (Mb and epicentral distance. We used 986 events with magnitudes greater than 3 recorded from late 2003 to 2008. The algorithm classifies events with magnitude-distance ratios (a measure of the severity of possible damage caused by an earthquake greater than a background value. This value can be used to estimate the magnitude based on a known epicentral distance, which is calculated from the difference between P and S onset times. This rapid (< 20 seconds magnitude estimate can be used for rapid response strategies. The results obtained in this work confirm that many hypocentral parameters and a rapid location of a seismic event can be obtained using a few

  19. Einstein at a distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambourne, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines the challenges and rewards that can arise when the teaching of Einsteinian physics has to be accomplished by means of distance education. The discussion is mainly based on experiences gathered over the past 35 years at the UK Open University, where special and general relativity, relativistic cosmology and other aspects of Einsteinian physics, have been taught at a variety of levels, and using a range of techniques, to students studying at a distance.

  20. 41 CFR 301-53.5 - Are there exceptions to the mandatory use of contract city-pair fares and an agency's travel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mandatory use of contract city-pair fares and an agency's travel management service? 301-53.5 Section 301-53.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY... the mandatory use of contract city-pair fares and an agency's travel management service? Yes, the...

  1. Reliability-Based and Cost-Oriented Product Optimization Integrating Fuzzy Reasoning Petri Nets, Interval Expert Evaluation and Cultural-Based DMOPSO Using Crowding Distance Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxi Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization, the target product reliability is apportioned to subsystems or components to achieve the maximum reliability and minimum cost. Main challenges to conducting such optimization design lie in how to simultaneously consider subsystem division, uncertain evaluation provided by experts for essential factors, and dynamic propagation of product failure. To overcome these problems, a reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization method integrating fuzzy reasoning Petri net (FRPN, interval expert evaluation and cultural-based dynamic multi-objective particle swarm optimization (DMOPSO using crowding distance sorting is proposed in this paper. Subsystem division is performed based on failure decoupling, and then subsystem weights are calculated with FRPN reflecting dynamic and uncertain failure propagation, as well as interval expert evaluation considering six essential factors. A mathematical model of reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization is established, and the cultural-based DMOPSO with crowding distance sorting is utilized to obtain the optimized design scheme. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the numerical example of the optimization design for a computer numerically controlled (CNC machine tool.

  2. A proposed scalable design and simulation of wireless sensor network-based long-distance water pipeline leakage monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazyad, Abdulaziz S; Seddiq, Yasser M; Alotaibi, Ahmed M; Al-Nasheri, Ahmed Y; BenSaleh, Mohammed S; Obeid, Abdulfattah M; Qasim, Syed Manzoor

    2014-02-20

    Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  3. A Proposed Scalable Design and Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Long-Distance Water Pipeline Leakage Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz S. Almazyad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Anomalies such as leakage and bursts in water pipelines have severe consequences for the environment and the economy. To ensure the reliability of water pipelines, they must be monitored effectively. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs have emerged as an effective technology for monitoring critical infrastructure such as water, oil and gas pipelines. In this paper, we present a scalable design and simulation of a water pipeline leakage monitoring system using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID and WSN technology. The proposed design targets long-distance aboveground water pipelines that have special considerations for maintenance, energy consumption and cost. The design is based on deploying a group of mobile wireless sensor nodes inside the pipeline and allowing them to work cooperatively according to a prescheduled order. Under this mechanism, only one node is active at a time, while the other nodes are sleeping. The node whose turn is next wakes up according to one of three wakeup techniques: location-based, time-based and interrupt-driven. In this paper, mathematical models are derived for each technique to estimate the corresponding energy consumption and memory size requirements. The proposed equations are analyzed and the results are validated using simulation.

  4. Ancestry inference using principal component analysis and spatial analysis: a distance-based analysis to account for population substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jinyoung; Han, Younghun; Gorlov, Ivan P; Busam, Jonathan A; Seldin, Michael F; Amos, Christopher I

    2017-10-16

    Accurate inference of genetic ancestry is of fundamental interest to many biomedical, forensic, and anthropological research areas. Genetic ancestry memberships may relate to genetic disease risks. In a genome association study, failing to account for differences in genetic ancestry between cases and controls may also lead to false-positive results. Although a number of strategies for inferring and taking into account the confounding effects of genetic ancestry are available, applying them to large studies (tens thousands samples) is challenging. The goal of this study is to develop an approach for inferring genetic ancestry of samples with unknown ancestry among closely related populations and to provide accurate estimates of ancestry for application to large-scale studies. In this study we developed a novel distance-based approach, Ancestry Inference using Principal component analysis and Spatial analysis (AIPS) that incorporates an Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) interpolation method from spatial analysis to assign individuals to population memberships. We demonstrate the benefits of AIPS in analyzing population substructure, specifically related to the four most commonly used tools EIGENSTRAT, STRUCTURE, fastSTRUCTURE, and ADMIXTURE using genotype data from various intra-European panels and European-Americans. While the aforementioned commonly used tools performed poorly in inferring ancestry from a large number of subpopulations, AIPS accurately distinguished variations between and within subpopulations. Our results show that AIPS can be applied to large-scale data sets to discriminate the modest variability among intra-continental populations as well as for characterizing inter-continental variation. The method we developed will protect against spurious associations when mapping the genetic basis of a disease. Our approach is more accurate and computationally efficient method for inferring genetic ancestry in the large-scale genetic studies.

  5. INFLUENCE OF SERVICE QUALITY AND FARE TOWARD CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND ITS IMPACT ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY OF EXPRESS TAXI IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to: to examine empirically the effect of service quality to customer satisfaction on Express taxi, to examine empirically the effect of fare to customer satisfaction on Express taxi, to examine empirically the effect of customer satisfaction to customer loyalty on Express taxi, to examine empirically the effect of service quality to customer loyalty on Express taxi, and to examine empirically the effect of fare to customer loyalty on Express taxi. Data collection using survey methods. Sample of this study are 200 respondents who have using services of Express taxi more than two times in last three months. Data analysis using SPSS version 23 and SEM (Structural Equation Modeling LISREL version 8.7. Results of hypothesis testing showed: service quality have positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction, fare have positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction, customer satisfaction have positive and significant effect on customer loyalty, service quality have positive and not significant effect to on customer loyalty. fare have positive and significant effect to on customer loyalty. Rated fit model with value of RMSEA 0.043, value of RMR 0.043, value of CMIN/DF 1.88, value of NFI 0.96, value of NNFI 0.98, and value of CFI 0.98. The results of this research beneficial to transportation company, especially Express taxi in Jakarta, to create better strategy in improving customer loyalty.

  6. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  7. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  8. An optimization method for the distance between exits of buildings considering uncertainties based on arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Qimiao; Wang, Jinhui; Lu, Shouxiang; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    The distance between exits is an important design parameter in fire safety design of buildings. In order to find the optimal distance between exits under uncertainties with a low computational cost, the surrogate model (i.e. approximation model) of evacuation time is constructed by the arbitrary

  9. Distance costs and the degree of inter-partner involvement in international relational-based technology alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kranenburg, H.L.; Hagedoorn, J.; Lorenz-Orlean, S.

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the effect of specific institutional and distance cost issues, in particular the protection of intellectual property rights and geographic distance, on the preference of companies for different governance modalities in terms of the degree of their involvement in international

  10. A Modified Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour Model to Analyze User Intention towards Distance-Based Electronic Toll Collection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chung Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a modified decomposed theory of planned behaviour model (DTPB that integrates satisfaction and trust into the original DTPB model to explore what kind of factors affect the user intention towards distance-based electronic toll collection (ETC services. The proposed model is empirically tested by using data collected from a questionnaire survey with a computer assisted telephone interview system. Empirical analysis is carried out in three stages that combine confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling (SEM, and Bayesian network: (1 examination of reliability and validity of the measurement model; (2 analysis of structural model; (3 prediction of the probability of user intention change based on rigorous framework of SEM. The results confirm that the satisfaction and trust have positive effects on the behaviour intention, also validating that five constructs have indirect effects on the behaviour intention through attitude and perceived behaviour control. Compatibility is the most important influence factor, followed by perceived usefulness, facilitating conditions, self-efficacy, and perceived ease of use. The findings of this study identify potential improvements for ETC operator, such as contributing to the society to enhance the company image and trust of enterprise with charity activities, and simultaneously upgrading the information platform of website, software, and Apps.

  11. An analysis of Greek seismicity based on Non Extensive Statistical Physics: The interdependence of magnitude, interevent time and interevent distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstathiou, Angeliki; Tzanis, Andreas; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    The context of Non Extensive Statistical Physics (NESP) has recently been suggested to comprise an appropriate tool for the analysis of complex dynamic systems with scale invariance, long-range interactions, long-range memory and systems that evolve in a fractal-like space-time. This is because the active tectonic grain is thought to comprise a (self-organizing) complex system; therefore, its expression (seismicity) should be manifested in the temporal and spatial statistics of energy release rates. In addition to energy release rates expressed by the magnitude M, measures of the temporal and spatial interactions are the time (Δt) and hypocentral distance (Δd) between consecutive events. Recent work indicated that if the distributions of M, Δt and Δd are independent so that the joint probability p(M,Δt,Δd) factorizes into the probabilities of M, Δt and Δd, i.e. p(M,Δt,Δd)= p(M)p(Δt)p(Δd), then the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related, not only to magnitude as the celebrated Gutenberg - Richter law predicts, but also to interevent time and distance by means of well-defined power-laws consistent with NESP. The present work applies these concepts to investigate the self-organization and temporal/spatial dynamics of seismicity in Greece and western Turkey, for the period 1964-2011. The analysis was based on the ISC earthquake catalogue which is homogenous by construction with consistently determined hypocenters and magnitude. The presentation focuses on the analysis of bivariate Frequency-Magnitude-Time distributions, while using the interevent distances as spatial constraints (or spatial filters) for studying the spatial dependence of the energy and time dynamics of the seismicity. It is demonstrated that the frequency of earthquake occurrence is multiply related to the magnitude and the interevent time by means of well-defined multi-dimensional power-laws consistent with NESP and has attributes of universality,as its holds for a broad

  12. Automated segmentation of ultrasonic breast lesions using statistical texture classification and active contour based on probability distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Cheng, H D; Huang, Jianhua; Tian, Jiawei; Liu, Jiafeng; Tang, Xianglong

    2009-08-01

    Because of its complicated structure, low signal/noise ratio, low contrast and blurry boundaries, fully automated segmentation of a breast ultrasound (BUS) image is a difficult task. In this paper, a novel segmentation method for BUS images without human intervention is proposed. Unlike most published approaches, the proposed method handles the segmentation problem by using a two-step strategy: ROI generation and ROI segmentation. First, a well-trained texture classifier categorizes the tissues into different classes, and the background knowledge rules are used for selecting the regions of interest (ROIs) from them. Second, a novel probability distance-based active contour model is applied for segmenting the ROIs and finding the accurate positions of the breast tumors. The active contour model combines both global statistical information and local edge information, using a level set approach. The proposed segmentation method was performed on 103 BUS images (48 benign and 55 malignant). To validate the performance, the results were compared with the corresponding tumor regions marked by an experienced radiologist. Three error metrics, true-positive ratio (TP), false-negative ratio (FN) and false-positive ratio (FP) were used for measuring the performance of the proposed method. The final results (TP = 91.31%, FN = 8.69% and FP = 7.26%) demonstrate that the proposed method can segment BUS images efficiently, quickly and automatically.

  13. Information networks in the stock market based on the distance of the multi-attribute dimensions between listed companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Li, Huajiao; Liu, Xueyong; Jiang, Meihui

    2018-04-01

    In the stock market, there are widespread information connections between economic agents. Listed companies can obtain mutual information about investment decisions from common shareholders, and the extent of sharing information often determines the relationships between listed companies. Because different shareholder compositions and investment shares lead to different formations of the company's governance mechanisms, we map the investment relationships between shareholders to the multi-attribute dimensional spaces of the listed companies (each shareholder investment in a company is a company dimension). Then, we construct the listed company's information network based on co-shareholder relationships. The weights for the edges in the information network are measured with the Euclidean distance between the listed companies in the multi-attribute dimension space. We define two indices to analyze the information network's features. We conduct an empirical study that analyzes Chinese listed companies' information networks. The results from the analysis show that with the diversification and decentralization of shareholder investments, almost all Chinese listed companies exchanged information through common shareholder relationships, and there is a gradual reduction in information sharing capacity between listed companies that have common shareholders. This network analysis has benefits for risk management and portfolio investments.

  14. Innovation in Health Policy Education: Project-Based Service Learning at a Distance for Graduate Midwifery Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoover, Cheri

    2015-01-01

    Core competencies for midwifery practice include an understanding of systems of health care delivery and advocacy for legislation and policy initiatives that promote quality in health care. Today's rapidly changing health care environment, due in part to the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, mandates that midwives possess greater literacy in health policy and comfort with political action than ever before. Frequently disinterested in politics and intimidated by the policymaking process, student midwives lack the foundational knowledge and practical skills needed to meet this professional obligation. The Midwifery Institute of Philadelphia University graduate program educates both student nurse-midwives and student midwives in health policy using an innovative, project-based service-learning approach featuring real-world collaborative experiences. This novel teaching style is ideally suited for instruction at a distance because of the diversity of experience brought to the virtual classroom by students in widely disparate geopolitical locations. As students accomplish measurable objectives within their individually developed projects and reflect with classmates about their experiences, they feel empowered to effect change and report lower perceived barriers to future political engagement. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. PRACTICE-ORIENTED TRAINING BASED ON DISTANCE LEARNING WEB-TECHNOLOGIES (THE EXAMPLE OF WEB-PLATFORM FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITY OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD, IGENERATION)

    OpenAIRE

    Olga R. Chepyuk; Anton O. Shalyminov

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the possibility of organizing a practice-based learning using modern web-based technologies of distance learning like cMOOC. The authors share their experience of practical implementation of proprietary technology in the organization of a University course of innovative entrepreneurship. Based on their practice results authors propose the concept of a new generation of educational platforms based on the four vectors of development. 

  16. PRACTICE-ORIENTED TRAINING BASED ON DISTANCE LEARNING WEB-TECHNOLOGIES (THE EXAMPLE OF WEB-PLATFORM FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITY OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD, IGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga R. Chepyuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibility of organizing a practice-based learning using modern web-based technologies of distance learning like cMOOC. The authors share their experience of practical implementation of proprietary technology in the organization of a University course of innovative entrepreneurship. Based on their practice results authors propose the concept of a new generation of educational platforms based on the four vectors of development. 

  17. E-learning based distance education programme on Remote Sensing and Geoinformation Science - An initiative of IIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnatak, H.; Raju, P. L. N.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.; Srivastav, S. K.; Gupta, P. K.

    2014-11-01

    IIRS has initiated its interactive distance education based capacity building under IIRS outreach programme in year 2007 where more than 15000+ students were trained in the field of geospatial technology using Satellite based interactive terminals and internet based learning using A-View software. During last decade the utilization of Internet technology by different user groups in the society is emerged as a technological revaluation which has directly affect the life of human being. The Internet is used extensively in India for various purposes right from entrainment to critical decision making in government machinery. The role of internet technology is very important for capacity building in any discipline which can satisfy the needs of maximum users in minimum time. Further to enhance the outreach of geospatial science and technology, IIRS has initiated e-learning based certificate courses of different durations. The contents for e-learning based capacity building programme are developed for various target user groups including mid-career professionals, researchers, academia, fresh graduates, and user department professionals from different States and Central Government ministries. The official website of IIRS e-learning is hosted at elearning.iirs.gov.in" target="_blank">http://elearning.iirs.gov.in. The contents of IIRS e-learning programme are flexible for anytime, anywhere learning keeping in mind the demands of geographically dispersed audience and their requirements. The program is comprehensive with variety of online delivery modes with interactive, easy to learn and having a proper blend of concepts and practical to elicit students' full potential. The course content of this programme includes Image Statistics, Basics of Remote Sensing, Photogrammetry and Cartography, Digital Image Processing, Geographical Information System, Global Positioning System, Customization of Geospatial tools and Applications of Geospatial Technologies. The syllabus of the

  18. Optical–Mid-infrared Period–Luminosity Relations for W UMa-type Contact Binaries Based on Gaia DR 1: 8% Distance Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodian; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Wang, Shu; Feng, Yuting

    2018-06-01

    W Ursa Majoris (W UMa)-type contact binary systems (CBs) are useful statistical distance indicators because of their large numbers. Here, we establish (orbital) period–luminosity relations (PLRs) in 12 optical to mid-infrared bands (GBVRIJHK s W1W2W3W4) based on 183 nearby W UMa-type CBs with accurate Tycho–Gaia parallaxes. The 1σ dispersion of the PLRs decreases from optical to near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. The minimum scatter, 0.16 mag, implies that W UMa-type CBs can be used to recover distances to 7% precision. Applying our newly determined PLRs to 19 open clusters containing W UMa-type CBs demonstrates that the PLR and open cluster CB distance scales are mutually consistent to within 1%. Adopting our PLRs as secondary distance indicators, we compiled a catalog of 55,603 CB candidates, of which 80% have distance estimates based on a combination of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared photometry. Using Fourier decomposition, 27,318 high-probability W UMa-type CBs were selected. The resulting 8% distance accuracy implies that our sample encompasses the largest number of objects with accurate distances within a local volume with a radius of 3 kpc available to date. The distribution of W UMa-type CBs in the Galaxy suggests that in different environments, the CB luminosity function may be different: larger numbers of brighter (longer-period) W UMa-type CBs are found in younger environments.

  19. Influence of Distance to Hospital and Insurance Status on the Rates of Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy, a National Cancer Data Base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Erin P; Unkart, Jonathan T; Bryant, Alex; Murphy, James; Blair, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated the impact of travel distance and insurance status on contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) rates in breast cancer. We queried the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for women >18 years of age with a nonmetastatic primary breast cancer of ductal, lobular, or mixed histology. Patient- and facility-specific CPM rates were calculated based on insurance, race, and distance to treatment center. Standard univariable and multivariable regression analysis was performed. Overall, the CPM rate was 6.5% for the 864,105 patients identified. Most patients traveled CPM. However, distance to the treatment center and insurance type had a greater absolute impact on rates of CPM for Black and Hispanic patients. Absolute CPM rate increases for patients >100 miles from a treatment center compared with those CPM rates. Increased travel distance is independently associated with increased rates of CPM for all patients and increased facility-specific rates of CPM. Black and Hispanic patients were found to be more vulnerable to the impact of travel distance and insurance status on rates of CPM.

  20. The Effect of a Peer-Based Personal Stories Intervention on Focus of Anxiety and Social Distance towards People with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Iris; Graham, James A.

    2017-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a peer-based personal stories intervention on intergroup anxiety (i.e., self-focused and other-focused anxiety) and social distance. They hypothesized that the college students who attend the personal stories program (intervention group) will have significantly reduced anxiety overall and reduced social distance…

  1. Science Teacher Educators' Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, William J.

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS), and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI).…

  2. Perceptions of the Impact of Online Learning as a Distance-Based Learning Model on the Professional Practices of Working Nurses in Northern Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine; Hanna, Mary; Warry, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Nurses in Canada face diverse challenges to their ongoing educational pursuits. As a result, they have been early adopters of courses and programs based on distance education principles and, in particular, online learning models. In the study described in this paper, nurses studying at two northern universities, in programs involving online…

  3. Chebyshev Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-01-01

    In [21], Marco Riccardi formalized that ℝN-basis n is a basis (in the algebraic sense defined in [26]) of ℰTn${\\cal E}_T^n $ and in [20] he has formalized that ℰTn${\\cal E}_T^n $ is second-countable, we build (in the topological sense defined in [23]) a denumerable base of ℰTn${\\cal E}_T^n $.

  4. Chebyshev Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In [21], Marco Riccardi formalized that ℝN-basis n is a basis (in the algebraic sense defined in [26] of ℰTn${\\cal E}_T^n $ and in [20] he has formalized that ℰTn${\\cal E}_T^n $ is second-countable, we build (in the topological sense defined in [23] a denumerable base of ℰTn${\\cal E}_T^n $.

  5. Evaluating distance-based clustering for user (browse and click) sessions in a domain-specific collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhauer, Jeremy; Delcambre, Lois M.L.; Lykke, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    to the question that they are answering. Since a large class of machine learning algorithms use a distance measure at the core, we evaluate the suitability of common machine learning distance measures to distinguish sessions of users searching for the answer to same or different questions. We found that two......We seek to improve information retrieval in a domain-specific collection by clustering user sessions from a click log and then classifying later user sessions in real time. As a preliminary step, we explore the main assumption of this approach: whether user sessions in such a site are related...

  6. Are people living next to mobile phone base stations more strained? Relationship of health concerns, self-estimated distance to base station, and psychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W

    2009-12-01

    Coeval with the expansion of mobile phone technology and the associated obvious presence of mobile phone base stations, some people living close to these masts reported symptoms they attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Public and scientific discussions arose with regard to whether these symptoms were due to EMF or were nocebo effects. The aim of this study was to find out if people who believe that they live close to base stations show psychological or psychobiological differences that would indicate more strain or stress. Furthermore, we wanted to detect the relevant connections linking self-estimated distance between home and the next mobile phone base station (DBS), daily use of mobile phone (MPU), EMF-health concerns, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, and psychological strain parameters. Fifty-seven participants completed standardized and non-standardized questionnaires that focused on the relevant parameters. In addition, saliva samples were used as an indication to determine the psychobiological strain by concentration of alpha-amylase, cortisol, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and substance P. Self-declared base station neighbors (DBS base station neighbors are more strained than others. EMF-related health concerns cannot explain these findings. Further research should identify if actual EMF exposure or other factors are responsible for these results.

  7. Project-based Collaborative learning in distance education in "The Aalborg PBL Model – Progress, Diversity and Challenges" (Eds.: Anette Kolmos, Flemming K. Fink and Lone Krogh)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten; Bajard, C.; Helbo, Jan

    This article describes the experiences drawn from an experiment in transferring positive experience with a project-organised on-campus engineering programme to a technology supported distance education programme. Three years of experience with the Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII)......, didactic adjustments have been made based on feedback, in particular from evaluation questionnaires. This process has been very constructive in approaching the goal: a successful model for project organized learning in distance education.......) programme indicates, however, that adjustments are required in transforming the on-campus model to distance education. The main problem is that while project work is an excellent regulator of the learning process for on-campus students, this does not seem to be the case for off-campus students. Consequently...

  8. Validation of physics model of FARE-Tool by comparison of RFSP flux simulations with measurements at discrete refuelling steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shad, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    In CANDU 6 the on-power refuelling is done in the direction of the coolant flow through the channel, flow being in alternate direction in adjacent channels. The channel flow pushes the fuel string (a total of 20 bundles with the 8-bundle fuelling scheme) towards the downstream Fuelling Machine (FM), obviating the need for the upstream FM to insert the rams into the active core to push the fuel. In some channels of the outer core region, however, the coolant flow is low and the hydraulic drag is not enough to push the fuel string. In these channels a Flow Assist Ram Extension (FARE) tool is used during refuelling to augment the flow and hence enhance the hydraulic drag required to push the fuel string. The FARE-Tool is a strong neutron absorber and its use results in a severe local flux depression. During the refuelling process, when the FARE-Tool travels in the immediate vicinity of a Reactor Regulating System (RRS) detector, the spatial control system causes a short-term zone-fill reduction in an attempt to maintain the reference zone powers. This short term zone drain may in turn result in a single channel ROP trip of the SDS l or SDS2 reactor protection system. Therefore, the control room operator is always interested in minimizing the occurrence of this category of trip for obvious economic reasons. The physics modelling of the FARE-Tool used in the 2-neutron-energy-group 3-dimensional diffusion code RFSP is validated by comparing the simulated response of the in-core detectors with the measured response of the same detectors during refuelling. These measurements were recorded during a specially scheduled refuelling of channel B09 at the Point Lepreau Generating Station on 1993 July 6 at 3591 Equivalent Full Power Days (EFPDs). 3 refs., 10 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Compiling an Evidence-Based Improvement Plan for the Support of Distance-Education Students at a Southern African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhakhane, Bothephana; Wilkinson, Annette C.; Ndeya-Ndereya, Charity N.

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates how an event guide can be used to organise, systematise and prioritise the large amount of findings from an extensive study. The study aimed to enhance student support at a distance-education institute in a Southern African country (Lesotho). In this case study an improvement-oriented evaluation of the strengths,…

  10. Adult Students' Perceptions in Distance Education Learning Environments Based on a Videoconferencing Platform--QoE Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovski, Toni; Vasileva-Stojanovska, Tatjana; Jovevski, Dobri; Vasileva, Marina; Trajkovik, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Distance education learning environments provide tremendous convenience and flexibility, allowing busy, mobile adult learners to engage in education while coping with their limited resources in terms of time, energy and finances. Following a student-centered approach this study investigates adult students' subjective perceptions while using…

  11. Decoding linear error-correcting codes up to half the minimum distance with Gröbner bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulygin, S.; Pellikaan, G.R.; Sala, M.; Mora, T.; Perret, L.; Sakata, S.; Traverso, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this short note we show how one can decode linear error-correcting codes up to half the minimum distance via solving a system of polynomial equations over a finite field. We also explicitly present the reduced Gröbner basis for the system considered.

  12. Influencing Mechanism of Potential Factors on Passengers’ Long-Distance Travel Mode Choices Based on Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the public transportation users’ preferences to long-distance travel modes would contribute to reasonable developing policies and resource allocation. This paper aims to explore the influencing mechanism of potential factors on the long-distance travel mode choice. A survey was conducted to collect the data. The analysis of variance (ANOVA approach was applied to analyze the correlation relationship between potential factors and travel mode choice behavior. The results showed that, except gender, service demand for safety and departure time, all of the other factors significantly influenced the travel mode choice behavior. Specifically, passengers with higher education level and income level were more likely to choose high-speed railway (HSR and plane; passengers caring about travel expense were more likely to choose ordinary train, whereas plane and HSR may be chosen more by passengers caring more about comfort, punctuality and efficiency; the more passengers were satisfied with travel modes’ service performance, the more they would be likely to choose them; the most competitive distance ranges for coach, ordinary train, HSR and plane were below 500 km, 500–1000 km, 500–1500 km and over 1500 km, respectively. Besides, the structural equation modeling (SEM technique was applied to investigate the influencing mechanism of factors on the long-distance travel mode choice. The results revealed that travel distance was the most significant variable directly influencing passengers’ mode choices, followed by the service demand, performance evaluation, and personal attributes. Furthermore, personal attributes were verified to have an indirect effect on travel mode choice behavior by significantly affecting the service demand and performance evaluation.

  13. Distance walked and run as improved metrics over time-based energy estimation in epidemiological studies and prevention; evidence from medication use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available The guideline physical activity levels are prescribed in terms of time, frequency, and intensity (e.g., 30 minutes brisk walking, five days a week or its energy equivalence and assume that different activities may be combined to meet targeted goals (exchangeability premise. Habitual runners and walkers may quantify exercise in terms of distance (km/day, and for them, the relationship between activity dose and health benefits may be better assessed in terms of distance rather than time. Analyses were therefore performed to test: 1 whether time-based or distance-based estimates of energy expenditure provide the best metric for relating running and walking to hypertensive, high cholesterol, and diabetes medication use (conditions known to be diminished by exercise, and 2 the exchangeability premise.Logistic regression analyses of medication use (dependent variable vs. metabolic equivalent hours per day (METhr/d of running, walking and other exercise (independent variables using cross-sectional data from the National Runners' (17,201 male, 16,173 female and Walkers' Health Studies (3,434 male, 12,384 female.Estimated METhr/d of running and walking activity were 38% and 31% greater, respectively, when calculated from self-reported time than distance in men, and 43% and 37% greater in women, respectively. Percent reductions in the odds for hypertension and high cholesterol medication use per METhr/d run or per METhr/d walked were ≥ 2-fold greater when estimated from reported distance (km/wk than from time (hr/wk. The per METhr/d odds reduction was significantly greater for the distance- than the time-based estimate for hypertension (runners: P<10(-5 for males and P=0.003 for females; walkers: P=0.03 for males and P<10(-4 for females, high cholesterol medication use in runners (P<10(-4 for males and P=0.02 for females and male walkers (P=0.01 for males and P=0.08 for females and for diabetes medication use in male runners (P<10(-3.Although causality

  14. The grating projection system: a laser light pattern projection technique for long distance illumination based on the Talbot effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagner, J L; Jones, A R

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by the Talbot effect, a grating projection system was designed. Periodic patterns were produced from a projection of a diffraction grating illuminated by a spherical wave of monochromatic coherent light. The diffracted light was collimated by a lens, the focal distance of which was at the centre of the incident spherical wave. Experiments demonstrated that the diffracted orders were also spherical waves centred on the same transverse plane as the incident light. The periodic illumination observed at different locations along the optic axis was proven to be the result of interference between the diffracted orders. It was demonstrated that this system could be used to measure velocities up to 20 m s -1 of particles crossing the fringes at distances up to 3 m

  15. Estimation of septic tank setback distances based on transport of E. coli and F-RNA phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Liping; Close, Murray; Goltz, Mark; Sinton, Lester; Davies, Helen; Hall, Carollyn; Stanton, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Setback distances between septic tank systems and the shorelines of Lake Okareka, New Zealand were determined from model simulations for a worst-case scenario, using the highest hydraulic conductivity and gradient measured in the field, removal rates of the microbial indicators (Escherichia coli and F-RNA phages) determined from a column experiment, and maximum values of the design criteria for the disposal system, and assuming an absence of an unsaturated zone, a continuous discharge of the raw effluent from a failed or non-complying treatment system (both indicators at concentrations of 1x10(7) counts/100 ml) into the groundwater and no sorption of pathogens in the aquifer. Modelling results suggest that the minimal setback distances were 16 m to satisfy the New Zealand Recreational Water Quality Guidelines for E. coli <126 per 100 ml (Ministry for the Environment, 1999) and 48 m to meet the Drinking-Water Standards for New Zealand 2000 for enteric virus <1 per 100 l (Ministry of Health, 2000). These distances may be applicable for other lakeshores in pumice sand aquifers with groundwater velocities <7 m/day. Findings of laboratory column and batch experiments provided an insight into the microbial attenuation and transport processes in pumice sand aquifers. Bacterial removal was predominately through filtration (87-88%) and partially by die-off (12-13%), while viral removal was by both die-off (45%) and filtration (55%). In addition, microbial die-off in groundwater without aquifer material (i.e., free microbes) was much lower than die-off in groundwater with aquifer material (i.e., sorbed microbes) and contributed only 2-6% to the total removal. This implies that the setback distances estimated from die-off rates for the free microbes, determined in the laboratory without considering aquifer media and other removal processes, which are often reported in the literature, could be larger than necessary.

  16. Distance courses on the subject «Management of information projects» based on technology Moodle

    OpenAIRE

    ZIANGIROVA LINEZA FAATOVNA

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to development of a remote course on discipline "Management of information projects" in the direction of preparation "Applied informatics" on the basis of distance learning MOODLE (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) system. There are considered the methodology of information systems introduction, decisions introduction organization unified model in the methodologies of Microsoft Solutions Framework (MSF), the project integration and contents managemen...

  17. Comparing On-Campus and Distance Education assessment in the form of Project Organized Problem Based Learning (POPBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Borch, Ole

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the first experiences in on-line assessment in the POPBL distance education: Master of Industrial Information technology (MII) at Aalborg University, Denmark (AAU). The accomplished assessment of some projects and some courses has been changed from a normal on-campus seminar...... activity to an on-line event. The modifications in roles for teacher, censor and student are reported and some recommendations and unsolved problems are identified....

  18. Effects of Interval Training-Based Glycolytic Capacity on Physical Fitness in Recreational Long-Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatoń Marek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 8-week-long interval training (targeting glycolytic capacity on selected markers of physical fitness in amateur long-distance runners. Methods. The study involved 17 amateur long-distance runners randomly divided into an experimental (n = 8 and control (n = 9 group. The control group performed three or four continuous training sessions per week whereas the experimental group performed two interval running training sessions and one continuous running training session. A graded treadmill exercise test and the 12-min Cooper test were performed pre- and post-training. Results. O2max and the rate of recovery increased in the experimental group. Relative oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and heart rate speed decreased in low- (6 km/h and medium-intensity (12 km/h running. Conclusions. Both training modalities showed similar results. However, the significant differences in training volume (4-8 min interval training vs. 40-150 min continuous training indicates that the modalities targeting glycolytic capacity may be more efficient for amateur runners prepare for long-distance events.

  19. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially ‘concentrating’ feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows, 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land with home-grown feed (HGF providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate: CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate: CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements. However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based

  20. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. R.; Garcia, S. C.; Clark, C. E. F.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially ‘concentrating’ feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  1. Olfaction-based Detection Distance: A Quantitative Analysis of How Far Away Dogs Recognize Tortoise Odor and Follow It to Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindee Valentin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of detector dogs has been demonstrated to be effective and safe for finding Mojave desert tortoises and provides certain advantages over humans in field surveys. Unlike humans who rely on visual cues for target identification, dogs use primarily olfactory cues and can therefore locate targets that are not visually obvious. One of the key benefits of surveying with dogs is their efficiency at covering ground and their ability to detect targets from long distances. Dogs may investigate potential targets using visual cues but confirm the presence of a target based on scent. Everything that emits odor does so via vapor-phase molecules and the components comprising a particular scent are carried primarily though bulk movement of the atmosphere. It is the ability to search for target odor and then go to its source that makes dogs ideal for rapid target recognition in the field setting. Using tortoises as targets, we quantified distances that dogs detected tortoise scent, followed it to source, and correctly identified tortoises as targets. Detection distance data were collected during experimental trials with advanced global positioning system (GPS technology and then analyzed using geographic information system (GIS modeling techniques. Detection distances ranged from 0.5 m to 62.8 m for tortoises on the surface. We did not observe bias with tortoise size, age class, sex or the degree to which tortoises were handled prior to being found by the dogs. The methodology we developed to quantify olfaction-based detection distance using dogs can be applied to other targets that dogs are trained to find.

  2. The effects of alignment quality, distance calculation method, sequence filtering, and region on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene-based studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Schloss

    Full Text Available Pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified fragments that target variable regions within the 16S rRNA gene has quickly become a powerful method for analyzing the membership and structure of microbial communities. This approach has revealed and introduced questions that were not fully appreciated by those carrying out traditional Sanger sequencing-based methods. These include the effects of alignment quality, the best method of calculating pairwise genetic distances for 16S rRNA genes, whether it is appropriate to filter variable regions, and how the choice of variable region relates to the genetic diversity observed in full-length sequences. I used a diverse collection of 13,501 high-quality full-length sequences to assess each of these questions. First, alignment quality had a significant impact on distance values and downstream analyses. Specifically, the greengenes alignment, which does a poor job of aligning variable regions, predicted higher genetic diversity, richness, and phylogenetic diversity than the SILVA and RDP-based alignments. Second, the effect of different gap treatments in determining pairwise genetic distances was strongly affected by the variation in sequence length for a region; however, the effect of different calculation methods was subtle when determining the sample's richness or phylogenetic diversity for a region. Third, applying a sequence mask to remove variable positions had a profound impact on genetic distances by muting the observed richness and phylogenetic diversity. Finally, the genetic distances calculated for each of the variable regions did a poor job of correlating with the full-length gene. Thus, while it is tempting to apply traditional cutoff levels derived for full-length sequences to these shorter sequences, it is not advisable. Analysis of beta-diversity metrics showed that each of these factors can have a significant impact on the comparison of community membership and structure. Taken together, these results

  3. Teaching basic medical sciences at a distance: strategies for effective teaching and learning in internet-based courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, Peggy A; Nour, Abdelfattah Y M

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the Internet has become an effective and accessible delivery mechanism for distance education. In 2003, 81% of all institutions of higher education offered at least one fully online or hybrid course. By 2005, the proportion of institutions that listed online education as important to their long-term goals had increased by 8%. This growth in available online courses and their increased convenience and flexibility have stimulated dramatic increases in enrollment in online programs, including the Veterinary Technology Distance Learning Program (VT-DLP) at Purdue University. Regardless of the obvious benefits, distance learning (DL) can be frustrating for the learners if course developers are unable to merge their knowledge about the learners, the process of instructional design, and the appropriate uses of technology and interactivity options into effective course designs. This article describes strategies that we have used to increase students' learning of physiology content in an online environment. While some of these are similar, if not identical, to strategies that might be used in a face-to-face (f2f) environment (e.g., case studies, videos, concept maps), additional strategies (e.g., animations, virtual microscopy) are needed to replace or supplement what might normally occur in a f2f course. We describe how we have addressed students' need for instructional interaction, specifically in the context of two foundational physiology courses that occur early in the VT-DLP. Although the teaching and learning strategies we have used have led to increasingly high levels of interaction, there is an ongoing need to evaluate these strategies to determine their impact on students' learning of physiology content, their development of problem-solving skills, and their retention of information.

  4. 239pu alpha spectrum analysis based on PIPS detector response function and variations with vacuum and distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Shi; Xian-Guo Tuo; Huai-Liang Li; Jian-Bo Yang; Yi Cheng; Hong-Long Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Effect factors of the absorption of the source,air,entrance window,and dead layer of a detector must be considered in the measurement of monoenergetic alpha particles,along with statsfical noise and other factors that collectively cause the alpha spectrum to exhibit a well-known low-energy tail.Therefore,the establishment of an alpha spectrum detector response function from the perspective of a signaling system must consider the various factors mentioned above.The detector response function is the convolution of an alphaparticle pulse function,two exponential functions,and a Gaussian function,followed by calculation of the parameters of the detector response function using the weighted leastsquares fitting method as proposed in this paper.In our experiment,239pu alpha spectra were measured by a highresolution,passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS)detector at 10 levels of vacuum and 10 source-detector distances.The spectrum-fitting results were excellent as evaluated by reduced Chi-square (x2) and correlation coefficients.Finally,the variation of parameters with vacuum level and source-detector distance was studied.Results demonstrate that ο,τ1,and τ2 exhibit no obvious trend of variation with vacuum in the range 2000-20,000 mTorr,and at a confidence level of 95%,the values of τ1 and τ2 decline in a similar fashion with source-detector distance by the power exponential function,while the value of ο declines linearly.

  5. Content-based retrieval of brain tumor in contrast-enhanced MRI images using tumor margin information and learned distance metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Feng, Qianjin; Yu, Mei; Lu, Zhentai; Gao, Yang; Xu, Yikai; Chen, Wufan

    2012-11-01

    A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) method for T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) images of brain tumors is presented for diagnosis aid. The method is thoroughly evaluated on a large image dataset. Using the tumor region as a query, the authors' CBIR system attempts to retrieve tumors of the same pathological category. Aside from commonly used features such as intensity, texture, and shape features, the authors use a margin information descriptor (MID), which is capable of describing the characteristics of tissue surrounding a tumor, for representing image contents. In addition, the authors designed a distance metric learning algorithm called Maximum mean average Precision Projection (MPP) to maximize the smooth approximated mean average precision (mAP) to optimize retrieval performance. The effectiveness of MID and MPP algorithms was evaluated using a brain CE-MRI dataset consisting of 3108 2D scans acquired from 235 patients with three categories of brain tumors (meningioma, glioma, and pituitary tumor). By combining MID and other features, the mAP of retrieval increased by more than 6% with the learned distance metrics. The distance metric learned by MPP significantly outperformed the other two existing distance metric learning methods in terms of mAP. The CBIR system using the proposed strategies achieved a mAP of 87.3% and a precision of 89.3% when top 10 images were returned by the system. Compared with scale-invariant feature transform, the MID, which uses the intensity profile as descriptor, achieves better retrieval performance. Incorporating tumor margin information represented by MID with the distance metric learned by the MPP algorithm can substantially improve the retrieval performance for brain tumors in CE-MRI.

  6. Distance determination of NPP and oil reservoir on enhanced oil recovery based on heat loss and safety in view point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlan Dewita; Dedy Priambodo; Sudi Ariyanto

    2013-01-01

    EOR is a method used to increasing oil recovery by injecting material or other to the reservoir. There are 3 EOR technique have been used in the world, namely thermal injection, chemical injection dan Miscible. Thermal injection method is the method most widely used in the world, however, one drawback is the loss of heat during steam distribution to the injection wells. In Indonesia, EOR application has been successfully done in the field of Duri, Chevron uses steam injection method, but still use petroleum as a fuel for steam production. In order to save oil reserves, it was done the introduction of co-generation nuclear power plants to supply some of the heat of nuclear power plants for EOR processes. In cogeneration nuclear power plant, the safety aspect is main priority. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the distance NPP with oil wells by considering heat loss and safety aspects. The method of study and calculations done using Tempo Cycle program. The study results showed that in the distance of 400 meter as exclusion zone of PBMR reactor, with pipe insulation thickness 1 in, the amount of heat loss of 277, 883 kw, while in pipe isolation thickness 2 in, amount of heat loss became 162,634 kw and with isolation thickness 3 in, amount of heat loss 120,767 kw., heat loss can be overcome and provide insulation pipes and improve the quality of saturated steam into superheated. (author)

  7. Scenario-based energy efficiency and productivity in China: A non-radial directional distance function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Zhou, P.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2013-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency and productivity is one of the most cost-effective ways for achieving the sustainable development target in China. This paper employs non-radial directional distance function approach to empirically investigate energy efficiency and energy productivity by including CO 2 emissions as an undesirable output. Three production scenarios, namely energy conservation (EC), energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER), and energy conservation, emission reduction and economic growth (ECEREG), are specified to assess China's energy efficiency and productivity growth during the period of Eleventh Five-Year Plan. Our empirical results show that there exist substantial differences in China's total-factor energy efficiency and productivity under different scenarios. Under the ECEREG scenario, the national average total-factor energy efficiency score was 0.6306 in 2005–2010, while the national average total-factor energy productivity increased by 0.27% annually during the period. The main driving force for energy productivity growth in China was energy technological change rather than energy efficiency change. - Highlights: • China's regional energy efficiency and productivity in 2005–2010 are evaluated. • Three production scenarios are considered. • Non-radial directional distance function with CO 2 emissions is employed. • Technological change is the main driver for China's energy productivity growth

  8. Partial Correlation-Based Retinotopically Organized Resting-State Functional Connectivity Within and Between Areas of the Visual Cortex Reflects More Than Cortical Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Debra Ann; Lam, Jack; Lewis, Lindsay B; Carbonell, Felix; Mendola, Janine D; Shmuel, Amir

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between cortical areas. Recent evidence suggests that synchronous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI reflect functional organization at a scale finer than that of visual areas. In this study, we investigated whether RSFCs within and between lower visual areas are retinotopically organized and whether retinotopically organized RSFC merely reflects cortical distance. Subjects underwent retinotopic mapping and separately resting-state fMRI. Visual areas V1, V2, and V3, were subdivided into regions of interest (ROIs) according to quadrants and visual field eccentricity. Functional connectivity (FC) was computed based on Pearson's linear correlation (correlation), and Pearson's linear partial correlation (correlation between two time courses after the time courses from all other regions in the network are regressed out). Within a quadrant, within visual areas, all correlation and nearly all partial correlation FC measures showed statistical significance. Consistently in V1, V2, and to a lesser extent in V3, correlation decreased with increasing eccentricity separation. Consistent with previously reported monkey anatomical connectivity, correlation/partial correlation values between regions from adjacent areas (V1-V2 and V2-V3) were higher than those between nonadjacent areas (V1-V3). Within a quadrant, partial correlation showed consistent significance between regions from two different areas with the same or adjacent eccentricities. Pairs of ROIs with similar eccentricity showed higher correlation/partial correlation than pairs distant in eccentricity. Between dorsal and ventral quadrants, partial correlation between common and adjacent eccentricity regions within a visual area showed statistical significance; this extended to more distant eccentricity regions in V1. Within and between quadrants, correlation decreased

  9. The Distance to M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. ALS-based hummock size-distance relationship assessment of Mt Shasta debris avalanche deposit, Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, Riccardo; Carn, Simon; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The failure of destabilized volcano flanks is a likely occurrence during the lifetime of a stratovolcano, generating large debris avalanches and drastically changing landforms around volcanoes. The significant hazards associated with these events in the Cascade range were demonstrated, for example, by the collapse of Mt St Helens (WA), which triggered its devastating explosive eruption in 1980. The rapid modification of the landforms due to these events makes it difficult to estimate the magnitude of prehistoric avalanches. However, the widespread preservation of hummocks along the course of rockslide-debris avalanches is highly significant for understanding the physical characteristics of these landslides. Mt Shasta is a 4,317 m high, snow-capped, steep-sloped stratovolcano located in Northern California. The current edifice began forming on the remnants of an ancestral Mt Shasta that collapsed ~300-380k years ago producing one of the largest debris avalanches known on Earth. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) covers a surface of ~450 km2 across the Shasta valley, with an estimated volume of ~26 km3. We analyze ALS data on hummocks from the prehistoric Shasta valley DAD in northern California (USA) to derive the relationship between hummock size and distance from landslide source, and interpret the geomorphic significance of the intercept and slope coefficients of the observed functional relationships. Given the limited extent of the ALS survey (i.e. 40 km2), the high-resolution dataset is used for validation of the morphological parameters extracted from freely available, broader coverage DTMs such as the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The ALS dataset also permits the identification of subtle topographic features not apparent in the field or in coarser resolution datasets, including a previously unmapped fault, of crucial importance for both seismic and volcanic hazard assessment in volcanic areas. We present evidence from the Shasta DAD of neotectonic

  11. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  12. Environmental innovation through transport policy. The implementation of the free fare policy on public transport in Tallinn, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2016-07-01

    Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)

  13. Phase-coded microwave signal generation based on a single electro-optical modulator and its application in accurate distance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Ge, Xiaozhong; Gao, Bindong; Pan, Shilong

    2015-08-24

    A novel scheme for photonic generation of a phase-coded microwave signal is proposed and its application in one-dimension distance measurement is demonstrated. The proposed signal generator has a simple and compact structure based on a single dual-polarization modulator. Besides, the generated phase-coded signal is stable and free from the DC and low-frequency backgrounds. An experiment is carried out. A 2 Gb/s phase-coded signal at 20 GHz is successfully generated, and the recovered phase information agrees well with the input 13-bit Barker code. To further investigate the performance of the proposed signal generator, its application in one-dimension distance measurement is demonstrated. The measurement accuracy is less than 1.7 centimeters within a measurement range of ~2 meters. The experimental results can verify the feasibility of the proposed phase-coded microwave signal generator and also provide strong evidence to support its practical applications.

  14. Estimation of miniature forest parameters, species, tree shape, and distance between canopies by means of Monte-Carlo based radiative transfer model with forestry surface model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.; Arai, K.

    2007-01-01

    A method for estimation of forest parameters, species, tree shape, distance between canopies by means of Monte-Carlo based radiative transfer model with forestry surface model is proposed. The model is verified through experiments with the miniature model of forest, tree array of relatively small size of trees. Two types of miniature trees, ellipse-looking and cone-looking canopy are examined in the experiments. It is found that the proposed model and experimental results show a coincidence so that the proposed method is validated. It is also found that estimation of tree shape, trunk tree distance as well as distinction between deciduous or coniferous trees can be done with the proposed model. Furthermore, influences due to multiple reflections between trees and interaction between trees and under-laying grass are clarified with the proposed method

  15. Efficiency droop suppression of distance-engineered surface plasmon-coupled photoluminescence in GaN-based quantum well LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ag coated microgroove with extreme large aspect-ratio of 500:1 was fabricated on p-GaN capping layer to investigate the coupling behavior between quantum wells and surface plasmon in highly spatial resolution. Significant photoluminescence enhancement was observed when the distance between Ag film and QWs was reduced from 220 nm to about 20 nm. A maximum enhancement ratio of 18-fold was achieved at the groove bottom where the surface plasmonic coupling was considered the strongest. Such enhancement ratio was found highly affected by the excitation power density. It also shows high correlation to the internal quantum efficiency as a function of coupling effect and a maximum Purcell Factor of 1.75 was estimated at maximum coupling effect, which matches number calculated independently from the time-resolved photoluminescence measurement. With such Purcell Factor, the efficiency was greatly enhanced and the droop was significantly suppressed.

  16. Precise Positioning Method for Logistics Tracking Systems Using Personal Handy-Phone System Based on Mahalanobis Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Naoaki; Kawahara, Yasuhiro; Hosaka, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kenji

    Focusing on the Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) positioning service used in physical distribution logistics, a positioning error offset method for improving positioning accuracy is invented. A disadvantage of PHS positioning is that measurement errors caused by the fluctuation of radio waves due to buildings around the terminal are large, ranging from several tens to several hundreds of meters. In this study, an error offset method is developed, which learns patterns of positioning results (latitude and longitude) containing errors and the highest signal strength at major logistic points in advance, and matches them with new data measured in actual distribution processes according to the Mahalanobis distance. Then the matching resolution is improved to 1/40 that of the conventional error offset method.

  17. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

    2014-05-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

  18. Vehicle based localization system for locomotives on the base of slip depending distance measurment; Fahrzeugautarkes Ortungssystem fuer Lokomotiven auf der Basis schlupfbehafteter Wegmessung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, C.

    2003-07-01

    More and more railway operating companies use telematic systems for a more efficient use of their infrastructure in order to improve their traffic products. Almost every telematic task requires a vehicle localization. Thus a high demand for localization systems emerges. In many cases the high cost of investment and a growing attentiveness for cost efficiency hinders the implementation of high performance systems. This thesis describes the development and testing of a vehicle based localization system for locomotives. The method is based on a distance measurement on the propelled axles. The systems estimates the wheel slip depending on the momentary traction force and vehicle speed and corrects the original measurement. The special thing about this system is, that it uses only the existing technical infrastructure of locomotives. So there is no need to provide costly extra sensors. Thus the system could be installed with little preparation at low cost in almost all locomotives of German Rail. The vehicle localization was tested as part of a one-year pilot operation of a computer based energy efficient train control system (Energiesparende Fahrweise: ESF) of German Rail. During this time the system proofed a significant reduction of the distance measurement error caused by the wheel slip during regular train operation. Hence a wide range of non-safety-relevant telematic tasks would be able to use the system. This compose gives a review of important terms and aspects of localization and the characteristic connection of the friction coefficient and wheel slip of railway vehicles. The compose continues with the description of the development and testing of the system. The evaluation of the measurements and the resulting performance and quality of the localization information show the suitability of the system for an operational vehicle localization of medium quality at low cost. (orig.) [German] Telematische Systeme helfen de Eisenbahn-Betreibern, die Verkehrswege

  19. Tracking frequency laser distance gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.D.; Reasenberg, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced astronomical missions with greatly enhanced resolution and physics missions of unprecedented accuracy will require laser distance gauges of substantially improved performance. We describe a laser gauge, based on Pound-Drever-Hall locking, in which the optical frequency is adjusted to maintain an interferometer's null condition. This technique has been demonstrated with pm performance. Automatic fringe hopping allows it to track arbitrary distance changes. The instrument is intrinsically free of the nm-scale cyclic bias present in traditional (heterodyne) high-precision laser gauges. The output is a radio frequency, readily measured to sufficient accuracy. The laser gauge has operated in a resonant cavity, which improves precision, can suppress the effects of misalignments, and makes possible precise automatic alignment. The measurement of absolute distance requires little or no additional hardware, and has also been demonstrated. The proof-of-concept version, based on a stabilized HeNe laser and operating on a 0.5 m path, has achieved 10 pm precision with 0.1 s integration time, and 0.1 mm absolute distance accuracy. This version has also followed substantial distance changes as fast as 16 mm/s. We show that, if the precision in optical frequency is a fixed fraction of the linewidth, both incremental and absolute distance precision are independent of the distance measured. We discuss systematic error sources, and present plans for a new version of the gauge based on semiconductor lasers and fiber-coupled components

  20. THE DISTANCE TO M104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    M104 (NGC 4594; the Sombrero galaxy) is a nearby, well-studied elliptical galaxy included in scores of surveys focused on understanding the details of galaxy evolution. Despite the importance of observations of M104, a consensus distance has not yet been established. Here, we use newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging to measure the distance to M104 based on the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method. Our measurement yields the distance to M104 to be 9.55 ± 0.13 ± 0.31 Mpc equivalent to a distance modulus of 29.90 ± 0.03 ± 0.07 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. The most discrepant previous results are due to Tully–Fisher method distances, which are likely inappropriate for M104 given its peculiar morphology and structure. Our results are part of a larger program to measure accurate distances to a sample of well-known spiral galaxies (including M51, M74, and M63) using the TRGB method.

  1. THE DISTANCE TO M51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  2. Training for Distance Teaching through Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorath, Jill; Harris, Simon; Encinas, Fatima

    2002-01-01

    Describes a mixed-mode bachelor degree course in English language teaching at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico) that was designed to help practicing teachers write appropriate distance education materials by giving them the experience of being distance students. Includes a course outline and results of a course evaluation. (Author/LRW)

  3. Determination of safety distance limits for a human near a cellular base station antenna, adopting the IEEE standard or ICNIRP guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Justin; Marx, Bernd; Buhl, Johannes; Hombach, Volker

    2002-09-01

    This paper investigates the minimum distance for a human body in the near field of a cellular telephone base station antenna for which there is compliance with the IEEE or ICNIRP threshold values for radio frequency electromagnetic energy absorption in the human body. First, local maximum specific absorption rates (SARs), measured and averaged over volumes equivalent to 1 and to 10 g tissue within the trunk region of a physical, liquid filled shell phantom facing and irradiated by a typical GSM 900 base station antenna, were compared to corresponding calculated SAR values. The calculation used a homogeneous Visible Human body model in front of a simulated base station antenna of the same type. Both real and simulated base station antennas operated at 935 MHz. Antenna-body distances were between 1 and 65 cm. The agreement between measurements and calculations was excellent. This gave confidence in the subsequent calculated SAR values for the heterogeneous Visible Human model, for which each tissue was assigned the currently accepted values for permittivity and conductivity at 935 MHz. Calculated SAR values within the trunk of the body were found to be about double those for the homogeneous case. When the IEEE standard and the ICNIRP guidelines are both to be complied with, the local SAR averaged over 1 g tissue was found to be the determining parameter. Emitted power values from the antenna that produced the maximum SAR value over 1 g specified in the IEEE standard at the base station are less than those needed to reach the ICNIRP threshold specified for the local SAR averaged over 10 g. For the GSM base station antenna investigated here operating at 935 MHz with 40 W emitted power, the model indicates that the human body should not be closer to the antenna than 18 cm for controlled environment exposure, or about 95 cm for uncontrolled environment exposure. These safe distance limits are for SARs averaged over 1 g tissue. The corresponding safety distance limits

  4. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  5. Contrast Enhancement Method Based on Gray and Its Distance Double-Weighting Histogram Equalization for 3D CT Images of PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is a new detection method for 3D nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards (PCBs. However, the obtained 3D image of PCBs exhibits low contrast because of several factors, such as the occurrence of metal artifacts and beam hardening, during the process of CBCT imaging. Histogram equalization (HE algorithms cannot effectively extend the gray difference between a substrate and a metal in 3D CT images of PCBs, and the reinforcing effects are insignificant. To address this shortcoming, this study proposes an image enhancement algorithm based on gray and its distance double-weighting HE. Considering the characteristics of 3D CT images of PCBs, the proposed algorithm uses gray and its distance double-weighting strategy to change the form of the original image histogram distribution, suppresses the grayscale of a nonmetallic substrate, and expands the grayscale of wires and other metals. The proposed algorithm also enhances the gray difference between a substrate and a metal and highlights metallic materials. The proposed algorithm can enhance the gray value of wires and other metals in 3D CT images of PCBs. It applies enhancement strategies of changing gray and its distance double-weighting mechanism to adapt to this particular purpose. The flexibility and advantages of the proposed algorithm are confirmed by analyses and experimental results.

  6. Hyperspectral Image-Based Night-Time Vehicle Light Detection Using Spectral Normalization and Distance Mapper for Intelligent Headlight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heekang Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a vehicle light detection method using a hyperspectral camera instead of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD or Complementary metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS camera for adaptive car headlamp control. To apply Intelligent Headlight Control (IHC, the vehicle headlights need to be detected. Headlights are comprised from a variety of lighting sources, such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs, High-intensity discharge (HID, and halogen lamps. In addition, rear lamps are made of LED and halogen lamp. This paper refers to the recent research in IHC. Some problems exist in the detection of headlights, such as erroneous detection of street lights or sign lights and the reflection plate of ego-car from CCD or CMOS images. To solve these problems, this study uses hyperspectral images because they have hundreds of bands and provide more information than a CCD or CMOS camera. Recent methods to detect headlights used the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM, Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM, and Euclidean Distance Mapper (EDM. The experimental results highlight the feasibility of the proposed method in three types of lights (LED, HID, and halogen.

  7. Investigation of Genetic Distance among Parental Lines of Hybrid Rice Based on Cluster Analysis of Morphological Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baluch-Zehi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available conditions. Thus, these varieties could be suitable option for yield increase and an effective step toward food security. Selection of parental lines has essential role in developing ideal combinations. Therefore, it is essential to study the relationship and genetic diversity among parental lines in hybrid rice. Sixteen hybrid rice parental lines including 6 restorer lines (Poya, Sepidrud, Pajohesh, R2, R9 and IR50 and 5 CMS lines (Neda, Nemat, Dasht, Champa and Amol 3 with their 5 maintainers were studied at Research Farm of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during 2011. Analysis of variance showed significant variations for all of the studied traits, which shows great diversity among the genotypes. The number of fertile tillers and length to width ratio of grain showed positive and significant correlation with yield. But, grain width showed negative and significant correlation with yield. Results of principal component analysis revealed that 3 components explained 75.64% of the total variations. Cluster analysis at 15 genetic distance criteria grouped genotypes in 4 clusters. In exploration of heterosis phenomenon, parents must be far away from each other. So, the results of this study suggested crosses between CMS lines of Neda A, Nemat A and Champa A with each of restorer lines R9, R2, IR50 and Poya for experimental hybrid seed production.

  8. ON A FAIR MANIFOLD FARE RATING ON A LONG TRAFFIC LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav PALÚCH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the possibilities to design a fair manifold tariff on a long traffic line. If a single tariff is used on a long bus or railway line, passengers travelling long distances are favoured at the expense of those travelling short distances. The fairest approach to tariff is setting an individual tariff for every origin–destination relation of line stops that expresses real travel costs. However, sometimes the individual tariff is too complicated and is therefore replaced by double-, triple- or manifold tariff. This paper shows how to design a manifold tariff in order to minimize unfairness to passengers.

  9. A health impact assessment of proposed public transportation service cuts and fare increases in Boston, Massachusetts (U.S.A.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Ito, Kate; Buonocore, Jonathan J; Levy, Jonathan I; Arcaya, Mariana C

    2014-08-07

    Transportation decisions have health consequences that are often not incorporated into policy-making processes. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a process that can be used to evaluate health effects of transportation policy. We present a rapid HIA, conducted over eight weeks, evaluating health and economic effects of proposed fare increases and service cuts to Boston, Massachusetts' public transportation system. We used transportation modeling in concert with tools allowing for quantification and monetization of multiple pathways. We estimated health and economic costs of proposed public transportation system changes to be hundreds of millions of dollars per year, exceeding the budget gap the public transportation authority was required to close. Significant health pathways included crashes, air pollution, and physical activity. The HIA enabled stakeholders to advocate for more modest fare increases and service cuts, which were eventually adopted by decision makers. This HIA was among the first to quantify and monetize multiple pathways linking transportation decisions with health and economic outcomes, using approaches that could be applied in different settings. Including health costs in transportation decisions can lead to policy choices with both economic and public health benefits.

  10. A Health Impact Assessment of Proposed Public Transportation Service Cuts and Fare Increases in Boston, Massachusetts (U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter James

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportation decisions have health consequences that are often not incorporated into policy-making processes. Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a process that can be used to evaluate health effects of transportation policy. We present a rapid HIA, conducted over eight weeks, evaluating health and economic effects of proposed fare increases and service cuts to Boston, Massachusetts’ public transportation system. We used transportation modeling in concert with tools allowing for quantification and monetization of multiple pathways. We estimated health and economic costs of proposed public transportation system changes to be hundreds of millions of dollars per year, exceeding the budget gap the public transportation authority was required to close. Significant health pathways included crashes, air pollution, and physical activity. The HIA enabled stakeholders to advocate for more modest fare increases and service cuts, which were eventually adopted by decision makers. This HIA was among the first to quantify and monetize multiple pathways linking transportation decisions with health and economic outcomes, using approaches that could be applied in different settings. Including health costs in transportation decisions can lead to policy choices with both economic and public health benefits.

  11. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  12. Investigating energy-based pool structure selection in the structure ensemble modeling with experimental distance constraints: The example from a multidomain protein Pub1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanhua; Liu, Wei; Bao, Chenglong; Tong, Dudu; Ji, Hui; Shen, Zuowei; Yang, Daiwen; Lu, Lanyuan

    2018-05-01

    The structural variations of multidomain proteins with flexible parts mediate many biological processes, and a structure ensemble can be determined by selecting a weighted combination of representative structures from a simulated structure pool, producing the best fit to experimental constraints such as interatomic distance. In this study, a hybrid structure-based and physics-based atomistic force field with an efficient sampling strategy is adopted to simulate a model di-domain protein against experimental paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) data that correspond to distance constraints. The molecular dynamics simulations produce a wide range of conformations depicted on a protein energy landscape. Subsequently, a conformational ensemble recovered with low-energy structures and the minimum-size restraint is identified in good agreement with experimental PRE rates, and the result is also supported by chemical shift perturbations and small-angle X-ray scattering data. It is illustrated that the regularizations of energy and ensemble-size prevent an arbitrary interpretation of protein conformations. Moreover, energy is found to serve as a critical control to refine the structure pool and prevent data overfitting, because the absence of energy regularization exposes ensemble construction to the noise from high-energy structures and causes a more ambiguous representation of protein conformations. Finally, we perform structure-ensemble optimizations with a topology-based structure pool, to enhance the understanding on the ensemble results from different sources of pool candidates. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Classroom-based and distance learning education and training courses in end-of-life care for health and social care staff: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsford, David; Jackson, Georgina; O'Brien, Terri; Yates, Sue; Duxbury, Joy

    2013-03-01

    Staff from a range of health and social care professions report deficits in their knowledge and skills when providing end-of-life and palliative care, and education and training has been advocated at a range of levels. To review the literature related to classroom-based and distance learning education and training initiatives for health and social care staff in end-of-life and palliative care, in terms of their target audience, extent, modes of delivery, content and teaching and learning strategies, and to identify the most effective educational strategies for enhancing care. A systematic review of the literature evaluating classroom-based and distance learning education and training courses for health and social care staff in end-of-life and palliative care. Online databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO between January 2000 and July 2010. Studies were selected that discussed specific education and training initiatives and included pre-and post-test evaluation of participants' learning. 30 studies met eligibility criteria. The majority reported successful outcomes, though there were some exceptions. Level of prior experience and availability of practice reinforcement influenced learning. Participative and interactive learning strategies were predominantly used along with discussion of case scenarios. Multi-professional learning was infrequently reported and service user and carer input to curriculum development and delivery was reported in only one study. Classroom-based education and training is useful for enhancing professionals' skills and perceived preparedness for delivering end-of-life care but should be reinforced by actual practice experience.

  14. Characteristics of the Web-Based Learning Environment in Distance Education: Students' Perceptions of Their Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, Hanafi; Rahman, Zuraidah; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted regarding students' perceptions on the characteristics of the learning requirements in a web-based learning environment. Various aspects of on-line learning were studied including the general web-based support system for the students, the learning materials, instructional strategies of the learning materials and the learning…

  15. Phylogenetic inference with weighted codon evolutionary distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Alexis; Michel, Christian J

    2009-04-01

    We develop a new approach to estimate a matrix of pairwise evolutionary distances from a codon-based alignment based on a codon evolutionary model. The method first computes a standard distance matrix for each of the three codon positions. Then these three distance matrices are weighted according to an estimate of the global evolutionary rate of each codon position and averaged into a unique distance matrix. Using a large set of both real and simulated codon-based alignments of nucleotide sequences, we show that this approach leads to distance matrices that have a significantly better treelikeness compared to those obtained by standard nucleotide evolutionary distances. We also propose an alternative weighting to eliminate the part of the noise often associated with some codon positions, particularly the third position, which is known to induce a fast evolutionary rate. Simulation results show that fast distance-based tree reconstruction algorithms on distance matrices based on this codon position weighting can lead to phylogenetic trees that are at least as accurate as, if not better, than those inferred by maximum likelihood. Finally, a well-known multigene dataset composed of eight yeast species and 106 codon-based alignments is reanalyzed and shows that our codon evolutionary distances allow building a phylogenetic tree which is similar to those obtained by non-distance-based methods (e.g., maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood) and also significantly improved compared to standard nucleotide evolutionary distance estimates.

  16. Continuity Properties of Distances for Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred; Mao, Hua; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate distance functions on finite state Markov processes that measure the behavioural similarity of non-bisimilar processes. We consider both probabilistic bisimilarity metrics, and trace-based distances derived from standard Lp and Kullback-Leibler distances. Two desirable...

  17. Level of Bus Performance Based On the Relationship Between Distance and Travel Time of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM Bus Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetijo Joewono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UTHM bus service is an important transport mode for most students at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn because it such primary public vehicle to support students movements around the campus, within and outside student apartments. This service is often associated with the quality of service in terms of time, stops and comforts. Therefore, this following study is focused on investigation on several UTHM bas routes which was based on bas operations such as distance and travel time/travel distance that would determine the level of service provided. Primary data were collected mainly to obtain information relate to speed, bas position, time movement/circulations of bus and time headway. These were obtained by installing GPS-Slute Gear i-trail along bus travels. In addition, additional data were collected by exploring previous studies regarding to the bus services such as Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010. The approach used was based on assessment of progress used to determine the level of quest service and such obstacle frequently occurs with results on bus delays, volume of unequal that can be overcome according to the assessments that have been provided.

  18. New neural network classifier of fall-risk based on the Mahalanobis distance and kinematic parameters assessed by a wearable device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giansanti, Daniele; Macellari, Velio; Maccioni, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Fall prevention lacks easy, quantitative and wearable methods for the classification of fall-risk (FR). Efforts must be thus devoted to the choice of an ad hoc classifier both to reduce the size of the sample used to train the classifier and to improve performances. A new methodology that uses a neural network (NN) and a wearable device are hereby proposed for this purpose. The NN uses kinematic parameters assessed by a wearable device with accelerometers and rate gyroscopes during a posturography protocol. The training of the NN was based on the Mahalanobis distance and was carried out on two groups of 30 elderly subjects with varying fall-risk Tinetti scores. The validation was done on two groups of 100 subjects with different fall-risk Tinetti scores and showed that, both in terms of specificity and sensitivity, the NN performed better than other classifiers (naive Bayes, Bayes net, multilayer perceptron, support vector machines, statistical classifiers). In particular, (i) the proposed NN methodology improved the specificity and sensitivity by a mean of 3% when compared to the statistical classifier based on the Mahalanobis distance (SCMD) described in Giansanti (2006 Physiol. Meas. 27 1081–90); (ii) the assessed specificity was 97%, the assessed sensitivity was 98% and the area under receiver operator characteristics was 0.965. (note)

  19. Brownian distance covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new class of multivariate dependence coefficients applicable to random vectors of arbitrary and not necessarily equal dimension. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but generalize and extend these classical bivariate measures of dependence. Distance correlation characterizes independence: it is zero if and only if the random vectors are independent. The notion of covariance with...

  20. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  1. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156419912; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X; Heilmeier, H.; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of

  2. Distance Learning Engineering Students Languish under Project-Based Learning, but Thrive in Case Studies and Practical Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Arthur James

    2016-01-01

    The International Engineering Alliance lists 12 important graduate attributes that students must demonstrate during their higher educational career. One of these important graduate attributes is the ability to solve problems, which can be demonstrated by the use of project-based learning, case studies, and practical workshops. The purpose of this…

  3. Distance collaborations with industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

    1998-06-01

    The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

  4. Accelerating Smith-Waterman Alignment for Protein Database Search Using Frequency Distance Filtration Scheme Based on CPU-GPU Collaborative System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Hong, Yang; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Hung, Che-Lun

    2015-01-01

    The Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm has been widely utilized for searching biological sequence databases in bioinformatics. Recently, several works have adopted the graphic card with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) and their associated CUDA model to enhance the performance of SW computations. However, these works mainly focused on the protein database search by using the intertask parallelization technique, and only using the GPU capability to do the SW computations one by one. Hence, in this paper, we will propose an efficient SW alignment method, called CUDA-SWfr, for the protein database search by using the intratask parallelization technique based on a CPU-GPU collaborative system. Before doing the SW computations on GPU, a procedure is applied on CPU by using the frequency distance filtration scheme (FDFS) to eliminate the unnecessary alignments. The experimental results indicate that CUDA-SWfr runs 9.6 times and 96 times faster than the CPU-based SW method without and with FDFS, respectively.

  5. Propagation and stability characteristics of a 500-m-long laser-based fiducial line for high-precision alignment of long-distance linear accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwada, Tsuyoshi; Satoh, Masanori; Telada, Souichi; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2013-09-01

    A laser-based alignment system with a He-Ne laser has been newly developed in order to precisely align accelerator units at the KEKB injector linac. The laser beam was first implemented as a 500-m-long fiducial straight line for alignment measurements. We experimentally investigated the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam passing through laser pipes in vacuum. The pointing stability at the last fiducial point was successfully obtained with the transverse displacements of ±40 μm level in one standard deviation by applying a feedback control. This pointing stability corresponds to an angle of ±0.08 μrad. This report contains a detailed description of the experimental investigation for the propagation and stability characteristics of the laser beam in the laser-based alignment system for long-distance linear accelerators.

  6. Reducing the distance in distance-caregiving by technology innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazelle E Benefield

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lazelle E Benefield1, Cornelia Beck21College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; 2Pat & Willard Walker Family Memory Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USAAbstract: Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1 the elder and the family caregiver(s may reside in the same household; or 2 the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation.Keywords: caregiving, family, distance, technology, elders

  7. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  8. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  9. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  10. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups : a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, Astrid; Wijlhuizen, Gert Jan; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Chorus, Astrid; Hopman-Rock, Marijke

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE ( Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  11. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: a comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by Exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  12. Falls incidence underestimates the risk of fall-related injuries in older age groups: A comparison with the FARE (Falls risk by exposure)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Heuvelen, M.J.G. van; Chorus, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: up till now, the risk of falls has been expressed as falls incidence (i.e. the number of falls or fallers per 100 person-years). However, the risk of an accident or injury is the probability of having an accident or injury per unit of exposure. The FARE (Falls risk by Exposure) is a

  13. A Closer Look at Distance Learning From Students' Perspective: A Qualitative Analysis of Web Based Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nega Debela

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analyze responses of 40 respondents from Marshall University. The on-line survey that was conducted in 2003 asks: "What are the advantages/disadvantages of taking college web-based courses?" on behalf of the university's English As a Second Language program. Nud*ist 6 and Sphinx Survey, were used to analyze the qualitative data gathered from the online students at Marshall University. After reviewing and analyzing the survey, several themes have emerged. Online courses have also been perceived beneficial, because they are more convenient and are more accessible. Many students see Web CT as a great way to continue their education. Absence of long travel time was one of the major positive aspects listed by many of the students. A detailed examination of the qualitative data reveals that most disadvantages relate in some way to lack of face to face interaction.

  14. Satellite Based Live and Interactive Distance Learning Program in the Field of Geoinformatics - a Perspective of Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Gupta, P. K.; Roy, P. S.

    2011-09-01

    Geoinformatics is a highly specialized discipline that deals with Remote Sensing, Geographical Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and field surveys for assessing, quantification, development and management of resources, planning and infrastructure development, utility services etc. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), a premier institute and one of its kinds has played a key role for capacity Building in this specialized area since its inception in 1966. Realizing the large demand, IIRS has started outreach program in basics of Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS for universities and institutions. EDUSAT (Educational Satellite) is the communication satellite built and launched by ISRO in 2004 exclusively for serving the educational sector to meet the demand for an interactive satellite based distance education system for the country. IIRS has used EDUSAT (shifted to INSAT 4 CR recently due to termination of services from EDUSAT) for its distance learning program to impart basic training in Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS, catering to the universities spread across India. The EDUSAT based training is following similar to e-learning method but has advantage of live interaction sessions between teacher and the students when the lecture is delivered using EDUSAT satellite communication. Because of its good quality reception the interactions are not constrained due to bandwidth problems of Internet. National Natural Resource Management System, Department of Space, Government of India, under Standing Committee in Training and Technology funded this unique program to conduct the basic training in Geoinformatics. IIRS conducts 6 weeks basic training course on "Remote Sensing, GIS and GPS" regularly since the year 2007. The course duration is spread over the period of 3 months beginning with the start of the academic year (1st semester) i.e., July to December every year, for university students. IIRS has utilized EDUSAT satellite for conducting 4 six weeks

  15. Energy efficiency in the European Union: What can be learned from the joint application of directional distance functions and slacks-based measures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Calvet, Roberto; Conesa, David; Gómez-Calvet, Ana Rosa; Tortosa-Ausina, Emili

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the efficiency of electricity and derived heat generation in the European Union (EU). • We consider both desirable and undesirable outputs. • In our specifications both directional distance functions and slacks-based measure models are used. • Results show remarkable efficiency differences among EU countries. • This would call for further intensification of harmonization environmental policies in the EU. - Abstract: Over the last few years concerns have increased about the energy mix in many countries. These concerns have been of greater magnitude for countries with a common energy regulation such as European Union (EU) member states. An important aspect to take into account when choosing a given energy mix is the efficiency involved in its generation. In this context, the present study analyzes the efficiency with which electricity and derived heat was produced in 25 EU member states over the last decade. This analysis considers not only the inputs and outputs involved but, more importantly, which undesirable by-products were generated during the production process, a relevant issue for EU climate policy. To this end, two nonparametric frontier models are applied: first, a Directional Distance Function (DDF), based on Briec’s (1997) [16] proposal and, second, a modified version of Tone’s (2001) [51] Slacks-Based Measure (SBM) model, both of which are especially appropriate in this particular context due to their treatment of undesirable outputs. Results are partly innovative since, with few exceptions, applications on this issue are relatively scarce. From a policy implications’ point of view, our achievements are also interesting because they reveal remarkable efficiency differences among EU countries: those countries from the latest EU enlargements account for the lowest efficiencies, with large opportunities for improvement in CO 2 abatement and primary energy saving. Results also show stable efficiencies along the

  16. Updating land-cover change via analysis based on elevation and distance to settlements: A case study from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ihsan Kad\\u0131o\\u011Fullar\\u0131

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Conocer el cambio del paisaje y la dinámica del bosque con base en los parámetros topográficos y las actividades humanas es importante para el manejo sostenible de los ecosistemas forestales. Objetivo: Actualizar el análisis de los cambios en el uso del suelo y cobertura terrestre en Gümüşhane Forest Enterprise en el noreste de Turquía. Materiales y métodos: Los cambios en las mejoras forestales en un periodo 26 años (1987-2013 se analizaron de acuerdo con las clases de uso de suelo y cobertura terrestre utilizando planes de manejo forestal. Las transiciones temporales entre el uso del suelo y los tipos de cobertura se documentaron y evaluaron con base en los parámetros topográficos y la distancia de los asentamientos, utilizando mapas de elevación y buffers de anillo. Resultados y discusión: El periodo mostró una rápida mejoría forestal con un incremento de 50,910 ha y tasa de mejora anual de 1.58 %. Mientras que la zona de elevación más arbolada (66.6 % - 40,124 ha se localizó entre 1,501 y 2,000 m, la tasa de forestación más alta (22.4 % - 13,509 ha se encontró a una distancia de más de 500 m de las áreas de asentamiento entre 1971 y 2013. Los bosques de Gümüşhane se fragmentaron debido a un aumento de áreas forestales productivas entre 1971 y 2013. Conclusión: Se obtuvieron datos importantes sobre la dinámica de los ecosistemas forestales en Gümüşhane Forest Enterprise. Existe un fuerte vínculo entre los cambios en el uso de suelo y la cubierta forestal, la presión social, la distancia de los asentamientos y la clase de elevación.

  17. Long Distance Metabolic Regulation through Adipose-Derived Circulating Exosomal miRNAs: A Trail for RNA-Based Therapies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs in regulating physiological and pathological states has been intensively elucidated during last 15 years. The discovery of circulating miRNAs (cir-miRNAs in variety of body fluids, is, however a recent focus of interest in understanding pathophysiological states of their originating cells/organs. Yet another stimulating debate that takes miRNAs to the next level is their presence in exosomes, and this is truly interesting area of research. Exosomes are cell-derived extracellular vesicles, and are naturally equipped biological vehicles that not only enable functional transfer of miRNAs between cells (horizontal transfer but also foster inter-organ communication, presumably guided by organ specific receptors—decorated on their surface. However, understandings on inter-organ communication elicited by tissue specific exosomal-miRNA fingerprints remain elusive. Recently, Thomou et al., has discovered that adipose tissue contributes a large fraction of adipose specific exosomal-miRNA fingerprints in blood circulation. Experimental evidence emphasize adipose tissue as major depot of cir-miRNAs that sail through blood flow and reach to distal organs—primarily in the liver, where they regulate gene expression of host tissue and elicit metabolic control. This appears to be a genetic form of adipokines (endocrine factors secreted from adipose tissue. We review such offshore metabolic insults, and make an effort to address few important missing links between miRNAs processing and their incorporation into exosomes. We provide potential perspectives on how this knowledge could be steered towards RNA-based therapeutics for monitoring complex metabolic diseases and beyond.

  18. A new reliability measure based on specified minimum distances before the locations of random variables in a finite interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todinov, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    A new reliability measure is proposed and equations are derived which determine the probability of existence of a specified set of minimum gaps between random variables following a homogeneous Poisson process in a finite interval. Using the derived equations, a method is proposed for specifying the upper bound of the random variables' number density which guarantees that the probability of clustering of two or more random variables in a finite interval remains below a maximum acceptable level. It is demonstrated that even for moderate number densities the probability of clustering is substantial and should not be neglected in reliability calculations. In the important special case where the random variables are failure times, models have been proposed for determining the upper bound of the hazard rate which guarantees a set of minimum failure-free operating intervals before the random failures, with a specified probability. A model has also been proposed for determining the upper bound of the hazard rate which guarantees a minimum availability target. Using the models proposed, a new strategy, models and reliability tools have been developed for setting quantitative reliability requirements which consist of determining the intersection of the hazard rate envelopes (hazard rate upper bounds) which deliver a minimum failure-free operating period before random failures, a risk of premature failure below a maximum acceptable level and a minimum required availability. It is demonstrated that setting reliability requirements solely based on an availability target does not necessarily mean a low risk of premature failure. Even at a high availability level, the probability of premature failure can be substantial. For industries characterised by a high cost of failure, the reliability requirements should involve a hazard rate envelope limiting the risk of failure below a maximum acceptable level

  19. Research on volume metrology method of large vertical energy storage tank based on internal electro-optical distance-ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huadong; Shi, Haolei; Yi, Pengju; Liu, Ying; Li, Cunjun; Li, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    A Volume Metrology method based on Internal Electro-optical Distance-ranging method is established for large vertical energy storage tank. After analyzing the vertical tank volume calculation mathematical model, the key processing algorithms, such as gross error elimination, filtering, streamline, and radius calculation are studied for the point cloud data. The corresponding volume values are automatically calculated in the different liquids by calculating the cross-sectional area along the horizontal direction and integrating from vertical direction. To design the comparison system, a vertical tank which the nominal capacity is 20,000 m3 is selected as the research object, and there are shown that the method has good repeatability and reproducibility. Through using the conventional capacity measurement method as reference, the relative deviation of calculated volume is less than 0.1%, meeting the measurement requirements. And the feasibility and effectiveness are demonstrated.

  20. Comparative studies of parameters based on the most probable versus an approximate linear extrapolation distance estimates for circular cylindrical absorbing rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassef, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates and techniques that are valid to calculate the linear extrapolation distance for an infinitely long circular cylindrical absorbing region are reviewed. Two estimates, in particular, are put into consideration, that is the most probable and the value resulting from an approximate technique based on matching the integral transport equation inside the absorber with the diffusion approximation in the surrounding infinite scattering medium. Consequently, the effective diffusion parameters and the blackness of the cylinder are derived and subjected to comparative studies. A computer code is set up to calculate and compare the different parameters, which is useful in reactor analysis and serves to establish a beneficial estimates that are amenable to direct application to reactor design codes

  1. Teaching evidence-based practice in a distance education occupational therapy doctoral program: strategies for professional growth and advancing the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Centennial Vision of the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) projects that by 2017 all occupational therapy (OT) practice areas will be supported by evidence. Achieving this goal requires preparing clinicians with the skills to assimilate, analyze, and apply research to their areas of practice and communicate the value of OT services to consumers and payers. These skills are at the heart of evidence-based practice (EBP). Educators must be prepared to teach EBP skills in both entry-level and postprofessional programs. This article outlines how EBP can be taught to postprofessional occupational therapy clinical doctoral students using a distance education format. Key features of a successful EBP course include having access to full-text electronic articles, opportunities for students to explore the literature in their own areas of interest, consistent and timely feedback on written work and discussion topics, and opportunities to collaborate with peers.

  2. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  4. Estimating the brain pathological age of Alzheimer’s disease patients from MR image data based on the separability distance criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongming; Li, Fan; Wang, Pin; Zhu, Xueru; Liu, Shujun; Qiu, Mingguo; Zhang, Jingna; Zeng, Xiaoping

    2016-10-01

    Traditional age estimation methods are based on the same idea that uses the real age as the training label. However, these methods ignore that there is a deviation between the real age and the brain age due to accelerated brain aging. This paper considers this deviation and searches for it by maximizing the separability distance value rather than by minimizing the difference between the estimated brain age and the real age. Firstly, set the search range of the deviation as the deviation candidates according to prior knowledge. Secondly, use the support vector regression (SVR) as the age estimation model to minimize the difference between the estimated age and the real age plus deviation rather than the real age itself. Thirdly, design the fitness function based on the separability distance criterion. Fourthly, conduct age estimation on the validation dataset using the trained age estimation model, put the estimated age into the fitness function, and obtain the fitness value of the deviation candidate. Fifthly, repeat the iteration until all the deviation candidates are involved and get the optimal deviation with maximum fitness values. The real age plus the optimal deviation is taken as the brain pathological age. The experimental results showed that the separability was apparently improved. For normal control-Alzheimer’s disease (NC-AD), normal control-mild cognition impairment (NC-MCI), and MCI-AD, the average improvements were 0.178 (35.11%), 0.033 (14.47%), and 0.017 (39.53%), respectively. For NC-MCI-AD, the average improvement was 0.2287 (64.22%). The estimated brain pathological age could be not only more helpful to the classification of AD but also more precisely reflect accelerated brain aging. In conclusion, this paper offers a new method for brain age estimation that can distinguish different states of AD and can better reflect the extent of accelerated aging.

  5. Distance Education in Technological Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R .C. SHARMA

    2005-04-01

    provides details on how the multi-media systems like radio, audio cassettes, telephone, video cassettes, video discs, education television and computer based education etc can be successfully adopted. There are factors like socio-political, economic, human and administrative, and economic, which manipulate the application of information communication technology in education in developing countries. The authors in their chapters on satellite communication and virtual university explain the advancements. The book also gives details of how the library services could be arranged for the distance learners in developing countries. Skills in distance teaching are crucial to the successful counseling and teaching as the learners have varied characteristics. These skills contribute to the effective distance teaching in traditional as well as online distance education settings. A major portion of the book has been dedicated to the e-learning and virtual university initiatives. Cases from YashwantRao Chawan Maharastra Open University, a project C-MODE which deals with offering education through virtual academy and application of non-broadcasting and broadcasting media technologies to distance education can be found in these chapters.Research in and research on distance education is very significant. Quality and Quantity of research in distance education has been a source of prime concern of educators. The readers can find here an overview of review and critiques of researches in the field of open and distance learning in the Indian context and what are various changing paradigms of research in distance education. The authors strongly suggest undertaking researches on pedagogy, educational media and management of distance education. The book contains useful information for the beginners in basic distance education and those who are interested in knowing what happened and what is happening in developing countries. Biodata and Adresses of Reviewer Ramesh Chandra Sharma holds a PhD in

  6. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  7. Is there a relationship between geographic distance and uptake of HIV testing services? A representative population-based study of Chinese adults in Guangzhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chen

    Full Text Available Achieving high coverage of HIV testing services is critical in many health systems, especially where HIV testing services remain centralized and inconvenient for many. As a result, planning the optimal spatial distribution of HIV testing sites is increasingly important. We aimed to assess the relationship between geographic distance and uptake of HIV testing services among the general population in Guangzhou, China. Utilizing spatial epidemiological methods and stratified household random sampling, we studied 666 adults aged 18-59. Computer-assisted interviews assessed self-reported HIV testing history. Spatial scan statistic assessed the clustering of participants who have ever been tested for HIV, and two-level logistic regression models assessed the association between uptake of HIV testing and the mean driving distance from the participant's residence to all HIV testing sites in the research sites. The percentage of participants who have ever been tested for HIV was 25.2% (168/666, 95%CI: 21.9%, 28.5%, and the majority (82.7% of participants tested for HIV in Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, public hospitals or STIs clinics. None reported using self-testing. Spatial clustering analyses found a hotspot included 48 participants who have ever been tested for HIV and 25.8 expected cases (Rate Ratio = 1.86, P = 0.002. Adjusted two-level logistic regression found an inverse relationship between geographic distance (kilometers and ever being tested for HIV (aOR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.84, 0.96. Married or cohabiting participants (aOR = 2.14, 95%CI: 1.09, 4.20 and those with greater social support (aOR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.07 were more likely to be tested for HIV. Our findings underscore the importance of considering the geographical distribution of HIV testing sites to increase testing. In addition, expanding HIV testing coverage by introducing non-facility based HIV testing services and self-testing might be useful to achieve the goal that

  8. Examining the Effects of Chromatic Aberration, Object Distance, and Eye Shape on Image-Formation in the Mirror-Based Eyes of the Bay Scallop Argopecten irradians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, Daniel I; Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Chhetri, Raghav K; Oldenburg, Amy L; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    The eyes of scallops form images using a concave spherical mirror and contain two separate retinas, one layered on top of the other. Behavioral and electrophysiological studies indicate that the images formed by these eyes have angular resolutions of about 2°. Based on previous ray-tracing models, it has been thought that the more distal of the two retinas lies near the focal point of the mirror and that the proximal retina, positioned closer to the mirror at the back of the eye, receives light that is out-of-focus. Here, we propose three mechanisms through which both retinas may receive focused light: (1) chromatic aberration produced by the lens may cause the focal points for longer and shorter wavelengths to fall near the distal and proximal retinas, respectively; (2) focused light from near and far objects may fall on the distal and proximal retinas, respectively; and (3) the eyes of scallops may be dynamic structures that change shape to determine which retina receives focused light. To test our hypotheses, we used optical coherence tomography (OCT), a method of near-infrared optical depth-ranging, to acquire virtual cross-sections of live, intact eyes from the bay scallop Argopecten irradians Next, we used a custom-built ray-tracing model to estimate the qualities of the images that fall on an eye's distal and proximal retinas as functions of the wavelengths of light entering the eye (400-700 nm), object distances (0.01-1 m), and the overall shape of the eye. When we assume 550 nm wavelength light and object distances greater than 0.01 m, our model predicts that the angular resolutions of the distal and proximal retinas are 2° and 7°, respectively. Our model also predicts that neither chromatic aberration nor differences in object distance lead to focused light falling on the distal and proximal retinas simultaneously. However, if scallops can manipulate the shapes of their eyes, perhaps through muscle contractions, we speculate that they may be able

  9. Interaction in Distance Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

  10. SU-F-R-27: Use Local Shape Descriptor Based On Geodesic Distance to Predict Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer After Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H; Yan, L; Huang, K; Kong, F; Jin, J [Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA (Georgia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The shape of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) image represents the heterogeneity of tumor growth in various directions, and thus could be associated with tumor malignancy. We have proposed a median geodesic distance (MGD) to represent the local complexity of the shape and use a normalized MGD (NMGD) to quantify the shape, and found a potential correlation of NMGD to survival in a 20-patient pilot study. This study was to verify the finding in a larger patient cohort. Methods: Geodesic distance of two vertices on a surface is defined as the shortest path on the surface connecting the two vertices. The MGD was calculated for each vertex on the surface to display the local complexity of the shape. The NMGD was determined as: NMGD = 100*standard deviation(MGDs)/mean(MGDs). We applied the NMGD to 40 NSCLC patients who were enrolled in prospective PET image protocols and received radiotherapy. Each patient had a pre-treatment PET scan with the resolution of 4mm*4mm*5mm. Tumors were contoured by a professional radiation oncologist and triangulation meshes were built up based on the contours. Results: The mean and standard deviation of NMGD was 6.4±3.0. The OS was 33.1±16.9 months for low NMGD group, and 15.4±15.6 months for the high NMGD group. The low NMGD group had significant better OS than the high NMGD group (p=0.0013). Conclusion: NMGD could be used as a shape biomarker to predict survival and the MGD could be combined with image texture in future to increase prediction accuracy. This study was supported by Award Number 1R01CA166948 from the NIH and National Cancer Institute.

  11. Combining and Comparing Coalescent, Distance and Character-Based Approaches for Barcoding Microalgaes: A Test with Chlorella-Like Species (Chlorophyta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmei Zou

    Full Text Available Several different barcoding methods of distinguishing species have been advanced, but which method is the best is still controversial. Chlorella is becoming particularly promising in the development of second-generation biofuels. However, the taxonomy of Chlorella-like organisms is easily confused. Here we report a comprehensive barcoding analysis of Chlorella-like species from Chlorella, Chloroidium, Dictyosphaerium and Actinastrum based on rbcL, ITS, tufA and 16S sequences to test the efficiency of traditional barcoding, GMYC, ABGD, PTP, P ID and character-based barcoding methods. First of all, the barcoding results gave new insights into the taxonomic assessment of Chlorella-like organisms studied, including the clear species discrimination and resolution of potentially cryptic species complexes in C. sorokiniana, D. ehrenbergianum and C. Vulgaris. The tufA proved to be the most efficient barcoding locus, which thus could be as potential "specific barcode" for Chlorella-like species. The 16S failed in discriminating most closely related species. The resolution of GMYC, PTP, P ID, ABGD and character-based barcoding methods were variable among rbcL, ITS and tufA genes. The best resolution for species differentiation appeared in tufA analysis where GMYC, PTP, ABGD and character-based approaches produced consistent groups while the PTP method over-split the taxa. The character analysis of rbcL, ITS and tufA sequences could clearly distinguish all taxonomic groups respectively, including the potentially cryptic lineages, with many character attributes. Thus, the character-based barcoding provides an attractive complement to coalescent and distance-based barcoding. Our study represents the test that proves the efficiency of multiple DNA barcoding in species discrimination of microalgaes.

  12. Combining and Comparing Coalescent, Distance and Character-Based Approaches for Barcoding Microalgaes: A Test with Chlorella-Like Species (Chlorophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shanmei; Fei, Cong; Song, Jiameng; Bao, Yachao; He, Meilin; Wang, Changhai

    2016-01-01

    Several different barcoding methods of distinguishing species have been advanced, but which method is the best is still controversial. Chlorella is becoming particularly promising in the development of second-generation biofuels. However, the taxonomy of Chlorella–like organisms is easily confused. Here we report a comprehensive barcoding analysis of Chlorella-like species from Chlorella, Chloroidium, Dictyosphaerium and Actinastrum based on rbcL, ITS, tufA and 16S sequences to test the efficiency of traditional barcoding, GMYC, ABGD, PTP, P ID and character-based barcoding methods. First of all, the barcoding results gave new insights into the taxonomic assessment of Chlorella-like organisms studied, including the clear species discrimination and resolution of potentially cryptic species complexes in C. sorokiniana, D. ehrenbergianum and C. Vulgaris. The tufA proved to be the most efficient barcoding locus, which thus could be as potential “specific barcode” for Chlorella-like species. The 16S failed in discriminating most closely related species. The resolution of GMYC, PTP, P ID, ABGD and character-based barcoding methods were variable among rbcL, ITS and tufA genes. The best resolution for species differentiation appeared in tufA analysis where GMYC, PTP, ABGD and character-based approaches produced consistent groups while the PTP method over-split the taxa. The character analysis of rbcL, ITS and tufA sequences could clearly distinguish all taxonomic groups respectively, including the potentially cryptic lineages, with many character attributes. Thus, the character-based barcoding provides an attractive complement to coalescent and distance-based barcoding. Our study represents the test that proves the efficiency of multiple DNA barcoding in species discrimination of microalgaes. PMID:27092945

  13. Adaptive Distance Protection for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hengwei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    is adopted to accelerate the tripping speed of the relays on the weak lines. The protection methodology is tested on a mid-voltage microgrid network in Aalborg, Denmark. The results show that the adaptive distance protection methodology has good selectivity and sensitivity. What is more, this system also has......Due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation resources, more and more microgrids can be found in distribution systems. This paper proposes a phasor measurement unit based distance protection strategy for microgrids in distribution system. At the same time, transfer tripping scheme...

  14. Distance-transitive graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite

  15. Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

  16. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2009-01-01

    Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

  17. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  18. Distance Education at Silesian University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Klosowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Distance Learning Platform used by Silesian University of Technology. Distance Learning Platform is based on modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment, represents LMS (Learning Management Systems technology, a software package designed to help educators create quality online courses. Currently on Distance Learning Platform at Silesian University of Technology are available over 520 online courses created for students of twelve University's faculties. Number of Distance Learning Platform users exceeds 12000. Distance Learning Platform works as typically asynchronous e-learning service, but in the future more synchronous e-learning services will be added. Distance Learning Platform has great potential to create a successful elearning experience by providing a plethora of excellent tools that can be used to enhance conventional classroom instruction, in hybrid courses, or any distance learning arrangements.

  19. Measuring and testing dependence by correlation of distances

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Bakirov, Nail K.

    2007-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new measure of dependence between random vectors. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but unlike the classical definition of correlation, distance correlation is zero only if the random vectors are independent. The empirical distance dependence measures are based on certain Euclidean distances between sample elements rather than sample moments, yet have a compact representation analogous to the clas...

  20. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Motion planning for spatially constrained robots is difficult due to additional constraints placed on the robot, such as closure constraints for closed chains or requirements on end effector placement for articulated linkages. It is usually computationally too expensive to apply sampling-based planners to these problems since it is difficult to generate valid configurations. We overcome this challenge by redefining the robot\\'s degrees of freedom and constraints into a new set of parameters, called reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot\\'s number of degrees of freedom. In addition to supporting efficient sampling, we show that the RD-space formulation naturally supports planning, and in particular, we design a local planner suitable for use by sampling-based planners. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach for several systems including closed chain planning with multiple loops, restricted end effector sampling, and on-line planning for drawing/sculpting. We can sample single-loop closed chain systems with 1000 links in time comparable to open chain sampling, and we can generate samples for 1000-link multi-loop systems of varying topology in less than a second. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Geodesic distance in planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy

  2. Real-Time Pathogen Detection in the Era of Whole-Genome Sequencing and Big Data: Comparison of k-mer and Site-Based Methods for Inferring the Genetic Distances among Tens of Thousands of Salmonella Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Pettengill

    Full Text Available The adoption of whole-genome sequencing within the public health realm for molecular characterization of bacterial pathogens has been followed by an increased emphasis on real-time detection of emerging outbreaks (e.g., food-borne Salmonellosis. In turn, large databases of whole-genome sequence data are being populated. These databases currently contain tens of thousands of samples and are expected to grow to hundreds of thousands within a few years. For these databases to be of optimal use one must be able to quickly interrogate them to accurately determine the genetic distances among a set of samples. Being able to do so is challenging due to both biological (evolutionary diverse samples and computational (petabytes of sequence data issues. We evaluated seven measures of genetic distance, which were estimated from either k-mer profiles (Jaccard, Euclidean, Manhattan, Mash Jaccard, and Mash distances or nucleotide sites (NUCmer and an extended multi-locus sequence typing (MLST scheme. When analyzing empirical data (whole-genome sequence data from 18,997 Salmonella isolates there are features (e.g., genomic, assembly, and contamination that cause distances inferred from k-mer profiles, which treat absent data as informative, to fail to accurately capture the distance between samples when compared to distances inferred from differences in nucleotide sites. Thus, site-based distances, like NUCmer and extended MLST, are superior in performance, but accessing the computing resources necessary to perform them may be challenging when analyzing large databases.

  3. Real-Time Pathogen Detection in the Era of Whole-Genome Sequencing and Big Data: Comparison of k-mer and Site-Based Methods for Inferring the Genetic Distances among Tens of Thousands of Salmonella Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, James B; Pightling, Arthur W; Baugher, Joseph D; Rand, Hugh; Strain, Errol

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of whole-genome sequencing within the public health realm for molecular characterization of bacterial pathogens has been followed by an increased emphasis on real-time detection of emerging outbreaks (e.g., food-borne Salmonellosis). In turn, large databases of whole-genome sequence data are being populated. These databases currently contain tens of thousands of samples and are expected to grow to hundreds of thousands within a few years. For these databases to be of optimal use one must be able to quickly interrogate them to accurately determine the genetic distances among a set of samples. Being able to do so is challenging due to both biological (evolutionary diverse samples) and computational (petabytes of sequence data) issues. We evaluated seven measures of genetic distance, which were estimated from either k-mer profiles (Jaccard, Euclidean, Manhattan, Mash Jaccard, and Mash distances) or nucleotide sites (NUCmer and an extended multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme). When analyzing empirical data (whole-genome sequence data from 18,997 Salmonella isolates) there are features (e.g., genomic, assembly, and contamination) that cause distances inferred from k-mer profiles, which treat absent data as informative, to fail to accurately capture the distance between samples when compared to distances inferred from differences in nucleotide sites. Thus, site-based distances, like NUCmer and extended MLST, are superior in performance, but accessing the computing resources necessary to perform them may be challenging when analyzing large databases.

  4. A cognitively grounded measure of pronunciation distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn Wieling

    Full Text Available In this study we develop pronunciation distances based on naive discriminative learning (NDL. Measures of pronunciation distance are used in several subfields of linguistics, including psycholinguistics, dialectology and typology. In contrast to the commonly used Levenshtein algorithm, NDL is grounded in cognitive theory of competitive reinforcement learning and is able to generate asymmetrical pronunciation distances. In a first study, we validated the NDL-based pronunciation distances by comparing them to a large set of native-likeness ratings given by native American English speakers when presented with accented English speech. In a second study, the NDL-based pronunciation distances were validated on the basis of perceptual dialect distances of Norwegian speakers. Results indicated that the NDL-based pronunciation distances matched perceptual distances reasonably well with correlations ranging between 0.7 and 0.8. While the correlations were comparable to those obtained using the Levenshtein distance, the NDL-based approach is more flexible as it is also able to incorporate acoustic information other than sound segments.

  5. Learning Design Implementation for Distance e-Learning: Blending Rapid e-Learning Techniques with Activity-Based Pedagogies to Design and Implement a Socio-Constructivist Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santally, Mohammad Issack; Rajabalee, Yousra; Cooshna-Naik, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how modern technologies are changing the teacher-student-content relationships from the conception to the delivery of so-called "distance" education courses. The concept of Distance Education has greatly evolved in the digital era of 21st Century. With the widespread use and access to the Internet, exponential growth…

  6. Accelerating Smith-Waterman Alignment for Protein Database Search Using Frequency Distance Filtration Scheme Based on CPU-GPU Collaborative System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Smith-Waterman (SW algorithm has been widely utilized for searching biological sequence databases in bioinformatics. Recently, several works have adopted the graphic card with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs and their associated CUDA model to enhance the performance of SW computations. However, these works mainly focused on the protein database search by using the intertask parallelization technique, and only using the GPU capability to do the SW computations one by one. Hence, in this paper, we will propose an efficient SW alignment method, called CUDA-SWfr, for the protein database search by using the intratask parallelization technique based on a CPU-GPU collaborative system. Before doing the SW computations on GPU, a procedure is applied on CPU by using the frequency distance filtration scheme (FDFS to eliminate the unnecessary alignments. The experimental results indicate that CUDA-SWfr runs 9.6 times and 96 times faster than the CPU-based SW method without and with FDFS, respectively.

  7. REPRESENTATIONS OF DISTANCE: DIFFERENCES IN UNDERSTANDING DISTANCE ACCORDING TO TRAVEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvor Riber Larsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how Danish tourists represent distance in relation to their holiday mobility and how these representations of distance are a result of being aero-mobile as opposed to being land-mobile. Based on interviews with Danish tourists, whose holiday mobility ranges from the European continent to global destinations, the first part of this qualitative study identifies three categories of representations of distance that show how distance is being ‘translated’ by the tourists into non-geometric forms: distance as resources, distance as accessibility, and distance as knowledge. The representations of distance articulated by the Danish tourists show that distance is often not viewed in ‘just’ kilometres. Rather, it is understood in forms that express how transcending the physical distance through holiday mobility is dependent on individual social and economic contexts, and on whether the journey was undertaken by air or land. The analysis also shows that being aeromobile is the holiday transportation mode that removes the tourists the furthest away from physical distance, resulting in the distance travelled by air being represented in ways that have the least correlation, in the tourists’ minds, with physical distance measured in kilometres.

  8. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  9. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  10. New indices for home nursing care resource disparities in rural and urban areas, based on geocoding and geographic distance barriers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shyang-Woei; Yen, Chia-Feng; Chiu, Tzu-Ying; Chi, Wen-Chou; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-10-08

    Aging in place is the crucial object of long-term care policy worldwide. Approximately 15.6-19.4% of people aged 15 or above live with a disability, and 15.3% of them have moderate or severe disabilities. The allocation of home nursing care services is therefore an important issue. Service providers in Taiwan vary substantially across regions, and between rural and urban areas. There are no appropriate indices for describing the capacity of providers that it is due to the distances from care recipients. This study therefore aimed to describe and compare distance barriers for home nursing care providers using indices of the "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance". This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012 and 2013 using geocoding and a geographic information system to identify the distance from the providers' locations to participants' homes in urban (Taipei City) and rural (Hualien County) areas in Taiwan. Data were collected in-person by professionals in Taiwanese hospitals using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. The indices were calculated using regression curves, and the first inflection points were determined as the points on the curves where the first and second derivatives equaled 0. There were 5627 participants from urban areas and 956 from rural areas. In urban areas, the profit willing distance was 550-600 m, and we were unable to identify them in rural areas. This demonstrates that providers may need to supply services even when there is little profit. The tolerance limited distance were 1600-1650 m in urban areas and 1950-2000 m in rural areas. In rural areas, 33.3% of those living inside the tolerance limited distance and there was no provider within this distance, but this figure fell to just 13.9% in urban areas. There were strong disparities between urban and rural areas in home nursing care resource allocation. Our new "profit willing distance" and the "tolerance limited distance" are

  11. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  12. Examining the effects of a mindfulness-based distance learning professional training module on personal and professional functioning: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Whitesman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training people to deliver mindfulness-based interventions (MBI is becoming an important activity as mindfulness has been shown to have clinical benefits across a variety of conditions. Training courses must not only address the principles, skills and theory of mindfulness, but the trainers themselves must be able to embody the practice. There is limited research on the ability of teachers-in-training to embody the practice as a result of teacher training programmes. This study explored the extent to which a short course enabled future teachers to embody mindfulness practice. This first module was part of a larger course of four modules to prepare future teachers of MBIs. Methods Qualitative data was obtained from 10 out of 35 end of course written assignments that asked respondents to reflect on their experience of mindfulness practice during the course. These were systematically selected and a focus group interview was also conducted with local participants. Data was analysed by means of the framework method and key themes identified. Results The combination of a retreat and on-line learning was perceived to be effective. Students reported significant changes in personal functioning as a result of daily mindfulness practice: self-awareness, improved relationships, enhanced connectedness, better self-regulation, enhanced compassion and curiosity towards self and others and self-acceptance. Participants began to introduce elements of mindfulness into their professional practice. Conclusions The first module of a post-graduate training programme for health professionals who want to teach MBIs successfully supported students to embody, explore and apply mindfulness in their lives. The integrated teaching modalities of residential retreat and distance-based on-line learning appeared effective.

  13. The External Performance Appraisal of China Energy Regulation: An Empirical Study Using a TOPSIS Method Based on Entropy Weight and Mahalanobis Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Xin; Li, Dan-Dan; Zheng, Hong-Hao

    2018-01-30

    In China's industrialization process, the effective regulation of energy and environment can promote the positive externality of energy consumption while reducing negative externality, which is an important means for realizing the sustainable development of an economic society. The study puts forward an improved technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution based on entropy weight and Mahalanobis distance (briefly referred as E-M-TOPSIS). The performance of the approach was verified to be satisfactory. By separately using traditional and improved TOPSIS methods, the study carried out the empirical appraisals on the external performance of China's energy regulation during 1999~2015. The results show that the correlation between the performance indexes causes the significant difference between the appraisal results of E-M-TOPSIS and traditional TOPSIS. The E-M-TOPSIS takes the correlation between indexes into account and generally softens the closeness degree compared with traditional TOPSIS. Moreover, it makes the relative closeness degree fluctuate within a small-amplitude. The results conform to the practical condition of China's energy regulation and therefore the E-M-TOPSIS is favorably applicable for the external performance appraisal of energy regulation. Additionally, the external economic performance and social responsibility performance (including environmental and energy safety performances) based on the E-M-TOPSIS exhibit significantly different fluctuation trends. The external economic performance dramatically fluctuates with a larger fluctuation amplitude, while the social responsibility performance exhibits a relatively stable interval fluctuation. This indicates that compared to the social responsibility performance, the fluctuation of external economic performance is more sensitive to energy regulation.

  14. An internet-based survey in Japan concerning social distance and stigmatization toward the mentally ill among doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tomoo; Hanya, Manako; Kishi, Masanori; Kondo, Yuki; Cates, Marshall E; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-28

    Stigma associated with psychiatric disorders tends to be manifested as negative attitudes or behavior toward the mentally ill. It has negative influences, such as leading to difficulty in establishing trust-based relationships and interfering with medical treatment. In order to reduce such stigma, it is necessary to clarify its extent and characteristics in healthcare professionals. Considering this, an Internet-based questionnaire survey was conducted, involving doctors (n = 186), nurses (n = 161), and pharmacists (n = 192) in comparison with the general public (n = 331), and using the Whatley Social Distance Scale (WSDS) and Index of Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (IATM) as stigma-related indices. Median total WSDS scores and interquartile range were as follows: doctors: 15.5(12.0-18.0), nurses: 14.0(12.0-16.5), pharmacists: 15.0(13.0-17.0), and the general public: 16.0(13.0-18.0). Similarly, median IATM scores were as follows: doctors: 39.0(36.0-42.0), nurses: 39.0(37.0-43.0), pharmacists: 40.0(36.0-42.0), and the general public: 37.0(33.0-41.0). IATM scores were significantly higher in the professional groups than the general public group. Both healthcare professionals and the general public with prior exposure to mental illness were more favorable attitudes toward the mentally ill. Especially among healthcare professionals, they working in psychiatric departments were more favorable attitudes. These results suggest that the stigma of healthcare professionals toward the mentally ill was shown to have a smaller and relatively favorable attitude than that of the general public. In order to correct the stigma it was suggested that a good contact experience with the patient such as work and training in psychiatry is effective. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Machine learning enhanced optical distance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Presented for the first time is a machine learning enhanced optical distance sensor. The distance sensor is based on our previously demonstrated distance measurement technique that uses an Electronically Controlled Variable Focus Lens (ECVFL) with a laser source to illuminate a target plane with a controlled optical beam spot. This spot with varying spot sizes is viewed by an off-axis camera and the spot size data is processed to compute the distance. In particular, proposed and demonstrated in this paper is the use of a regularized polynomial regression based supervised machine learning algorithm to enhance the accuracy of the operational sensor. The algorithm uses the acquired features and corresponding labels that are the actual target distance values to train a machine learning model. The optimized training model is trained over a 1000 mm (or 1 m) experimental target distance range. Using the machine learning algorithm produces a training set and testing set distance measurement errors of learning. Applications for the proposed sensor include industrial scenario distance sensing where target material specific training models can be generated to realize low <1% measurement error distance measurements.

  16. Student and Faculty Issues in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, David L.

    Occupational safety and health faculty and occupational safety and health professionals (i.e., the potential audience for graduate level distance education programs) were surveyed to determine the considerations for a distance education-based graduate occupational safety and health program. Findings are reported related to the demand for distance…

  17. Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry; Dron, Jon

    2011-01-01

    This paper defines and examines three generations of distance education pedagogy. Unlike earlier classifications of distance education based on the technology used, this analysis focuses on the pedagogy that defines the learning experiences encapsulated in the learning design. The three generations of cognitive-behaviourist, social constructivist,…

  18. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  19. A NEW CEPHEID DISTANCE TO THE GIANT SPIRAL M101 BASED ON IMAGE SUBTRACTION OF HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE/ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2011-01-01

    We accurately determine a new Cepheid distance to M101 (NGC 5457) using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys V and I time series photometry of two fields within the galaxy. We make a slight modification to the ISIS image subtraction package to obtain optimal differential light curves from HST data. We discovered 827 Cepheids with periods between 3 and 80 days, the largest extragalactic sample of Cepheids observed with HST by a factor of two. With this large Cepheid sample, we find that the relative distance of M101 from the Large Magellanic Cloud is Δμ LMC = 10.63 ± 0.04 (random) ± 0.06 (systematic) mag. If we use the geometrically determined maser distance to NGC 4258 as our distance anchor, the distance modulus of M101 is μ 0 = 29.04 ± 0.05 (random) ± 0.18 (systematic) mag or D = 6.4 ± 0.2 (random) ± 0.5 (systematic) Mpc. The uncertainty is dominated by the maser distance estimate (±0.15 mag), which should improve over the next few years. We determine a steep metallicity dependence, γ, for our Cepheid sample through two methods, yielding γ = -0.80 ± 0.21 (random) ± 0.06 (systematic) mag dex -1 and γ = -0.72 +0.22 -0.25 (random) ± 0.06 (systematic) mag dex -1 . We see marginal evidence for variations in the Wesenheit period-luminosity relation slope as a function of deprojected galactocentric radius. We also use the tip of the red giant branch method to independently determine the distance modulus to M101 of μ 0 = 29.05 ± 0.06 (random) ± 0.12 (systematic) mag.

  20. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...