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Sample records for dissortative mating genetic

  1. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, A.; Weeda, A.C.; Boer, de J.G.; Hoffmeister, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex

  2. Mate choice and genetic monogamy in a biparental, colonial fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedelin, Franziska C; van Dongen, Wouter F D; Wagner, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, in which both sexes provide essential parental care, males as well as females are expected to be choosy. Whereas hundreds of studies have examined monogamy in biparental birds, only several such studies exist in fish. We examined mate choice in the biparental, colonial cichlid fish Neolamprologus caudopunctatus in Lake Tanganyika, Zambia. We genotyped more than 350 individuals at 11 microsatellite loci to investigate their mating system. We found no extrapair paternity, identifying this biparental fish as genetically monogamous. Breeders paired randomly according to their genetic similarity, suggesting a lack of selection against inbreeding avoidance. We further found that breeders paired assortatively by body size, a criterion of quality in fish, suggesting mutual mate choice. In a subsequent mate preference test in an aquarium setup, females showed a strong preference for male size by laying eggs near the larger of 2 males in 13 of 14 trials.

  3. Genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L.

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of phenotypic variation arise in part from plasticity owing to social interactions, and these patterns contribute, in turn, to the form of selection that shapes the variation we observe in natural populations. This proximate–ultimate dynamic brings genetic variation in social environments to the forefront of evolutionary theory. However, the extent of this variation remains largely unknown. Here, we use a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess how mate preferences are influenced by genetic variation in the social environment. We used full-sibling split-families as ‘treatment’ social environments, and reared focal females alongside each treatment family, describing the mate preferences of the focal females. With this method, we detected substantial genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences. The mate preferences of focal females varied according to the treatment families along with which they grew up. We discuss the evolutionary implications of the presence of such genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences, including potential contributions to the maintenance of genetic variation, the promotion of divergence, and the adaptive evolution of social effects on fitness-related traits. PMID:23698010

  4. Genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L

    2013-07-22

    Patterns of phenotypic variation arise in part from plasticity owing to social interactions, and these patterns contribute, in turn, to the form of selection that shapes the variation we observe in natural populations. This proximate-ultimate dynamic brings genetic variation in social environments to the forefront of evolutionary theory. However, the extent of this variation remains largely unknown. Here, we use a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess how mate preferences are influenced by genetic variation in the social environment. We used full-sibling split-families as 'treatment' social environments, and reared focal females alongside each treatment family, describing the mate preferences of the focal females. With this method, we detected substantial genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences. The mate preferences of focal females varied according to the treatment families along with which they grew up. We discuss the evolutionary implications of the presence of such genetic variation in social influence on mate preferences, including potential contributions to the maintenance of genetic variation, the promotion of divergence, and the adaptive evolution of social effects on fitness-related traits.

  5. Inbreeding in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-03-03

    Mar 3, 2015 ... neutral and inherited in a Mendelian fashion. The parasites ... at time t was necessarily the product of the mating of indi- ..... Trends Ecol. Evol. 18, 523–530. Dye 1994 Models for investigating genetic exchange in protozoan populations. In Modelling vector-borne and other parasitic dis- eases (ed.

  6. Genetic determinants of mate recognition in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera

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    Kubanek Julia

    2009-09-01

    , even at synonymous positions, suggests that the repeats are kept nearly identical through a process of concerted evolution. Information-rich molecules like surface glycoproteins are well adapted for chemical communication and aquatic animals may have evolved signaling systems based on these compounds, whereas insects use cuticular hydrocarbons. Conclusion Owing to its critical role in mating, the mate recognition pheromone gene will be a useful molecular marker for exploring the mechanisms and rates of selection and the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation using rotifers as a model system. The phylogenetic variation in the mate recognition pheromone gene can now be studied in conjunction with the large amount of ecological and population genetic data being gathered for the Brachionus plicatilis species complex to understand better the evolutionary drivers of cryptic speciation.

  7. Mate choice for nonadditive genetic benefits correlate with MHC dissimilarity in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agbali, M.; Reichard, Martin; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Smith, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2010), s. 1683-1696 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Additive genetic benefit * female mate choice * genetic compatibility * good genes * mate choice * MHC * nonadditive genetic benefit * olfactory cues * Rhodeus ocellatus * sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.659, year: 2010

  8. Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird

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    Ramey Andrew M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice is accumulating in numerous taxa. In many species, females have been shown to pair with genetically dissimilar mates or with extra-pair partners that are more genetically compatible than their social mates, thereby increasing their offsprings' heterozygosity which often correlates with offspring fitness. While most studies have focused on genetically promiscuous species, few studies have addressed genetically monogamous species, in which mate choice tends to be mutual. Results Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure.

  9. How to design a genetic mating scheme: a basic training package for Drosophila genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roote, John; Prokop, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model organism for biological research. The essential and common instrument of fly research is genetics, the art of applying Mendelian rules in the specific context of Drosophila with its unique classical genetic tools and the breadth of modern genetic tools and strategies brought in by molecular biology, transgenic technologies and the use of recombinases. Training newcomers to fly genetics is a complex and time-consuming task but too important to be left to chance. Surprisingly, suitable training resources for beginners currently are not available. Here we provide a training package for basic Drosophila genetics, designed to ensure that basic knowledge on all key areas is covered while reducing the time invested by trainers. First, a manual introduces to fly history, rationale for mating schemes, fly handling, Mendelian rules in fly, markers and balancers, mating scheme design, and transgenic technologies. Its self-study is followed by a practical training session on gender and marker selection, introducing real flies under the dissecting microscope. Next, through self-study of a PowerPoint presentation, trainees are guided step-by-step through a mating scheme. Finally, to consolidate knowledge, trainees are asked to design similar mating schemes reflecting routine tasks in a fly laboratory. This exercise requires individual feedback but also provides unique opportunities for trainers to spot weaknesses and strengths of each trainee and take remedial action. This training package is being successfully applied at the Manchester fly facility and may serve as a model for further training resources covering other aspects of fly research.

  10. Feral Pigeons (Columba livia Prefer Genetically Similar Mates despite Inbreeding Depression.

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    Gwenaël Jacob

    Full Text Available Avoidance of mating between related individuals is usually considered adaptive because it decreases the probability of inbreeding depression in offspring. However, mating between related partners can be adaptive if outbreeding depression is stronger than inbreeding depression or if females gain inclusive fitness benefits by mating with close kin. In the present study, we used microsatellite data to infer the parentage of juveniles born in a French colony of feral pigeons, which allowed us to deduce parent pairs. Despite detectable inbreeding depression, we found that pairwise relatedness between mates was significantly higher than between nonmates, with a mean coefficient of relatedness between mates of 0.065, approximately half the theoretical value for first cousins. This higher relatedness between mates cannot be explained by spatial genetic structure in this colonial bird; it therefore probably results from an active choice. As inbreeding but not outbreeding depression is observed in the study population, this finding accords with the idea that mating with genetically similar mates can confer a benefit in terms of inclusive fitness. Our results and published evidence suggest that preference for related individuals as mates might be relatively frequent in birds.

  11. Correlations between heterozygosity and measures of genetic similarity: implications for understanding mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S C; Hale, M L; Petrie, M

    2006-03-01

    There is currently considerable interest in testing the effects of genetic compatibility and heterozygosity on animal mate preferences. Evidence for either effect is rapidly accumulating, although results are not always clear-cut. However, correlations between mating preferences and either genetic similarity or heterozygosity are usually tested independently, and the possibility that similarity and heterozygosity may be confounded has rarely been taken into account. Here we show that measures of genetic similarity (allele sharing, relatedness) may be correlated with heterozygosity, using data from 441 human individuals genotyped at major loci in the major histocompatibility complex, and 281 peafowl (Pavo cristatus) individuals genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci. We show that average levels of allele sharing and relatedness are each significantly associated with heterozygosity in both humans and peafowl, that these relationships are influenced by the level of polymorphism, and that these similarity measures may correlate with heterozygosity in qualitatively different ways. We discuss the implications of these inter-relationships for interpretation of mate choice studies. It has recently become apparent that mating preferences for 'good genes' and 'compatible genes' may introduce discordant choice amongst individuals, since the optimal mate for one trait may not be optimal for the other, and our results are consistent with this idea. The inter-relationship between these measures of genetic quality also carries implications for the way in which mate choice studies are designed and interpreted, and generates predictions that can be tested in future research.

  12. Inbreeding in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... My results indicate that levels of inbreeding in parasites are impacted by demographic and/or transmission dynamics (subdivided mating, aggregated transmission dynamics and host spatial structure), and that this inbreeding is poorly estimated by 'equilibrium' levels of inbreeding calculated assuming ...

  13. The Genetic Correlation between Height and IQ: Shared Genes or Assortative Mating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew C.; Garver-Apgar, Christine E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hewitt, John K.; Zietsch, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    Traits that are attractive to the opposite sex are often positively correlated when scaled such that scores increase with attractiveness, and this correlation typically has a genetic component. Such traits can be genetically correlated due to genes that affect both traits (“pleiotropy”) and/or because assortative mating causes statistical correlations to develop between selected alleles across the traits (“gametic phase disequilibrium”). In this study, we modeled the covariation between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, their siblings, and their parents (total N = 7,905) to elucidate the nature of the correlation between two potentially sexually selected traits in humans: height and IQ. Unlike previous designs used to investigate the nature of the height–IQ correlation, the present design accounts for the effects of assortative mating and provides much less biased estimates of additive genetic, non-additive genetic, and shared environmental influences. Both traits were highly heritable, although there was greater evidence for non-additive genetic effects in males. After accounting for assortative mating, the correlation between height and IQ was found to be almost entirely genetic in nature. Model fits indicate that both pleiotropy and assortative mating contribute significantly and about equally to this genetic correlation. PMID:23593038

  14. The joint regulation of genetic gain and inbreeding under mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieve, H M; Kinghorn, B P; Barwick, S A

    1994-01-12

    Stochastic simulation was used to evaluate a range of selection strategies with respect to both additive genetic response and inbreeding. Strategies involving selection on BLUP ebvs or individual phenotype, followed by random mating, were compared with mate selection strategies which used portfolio analysis to give joint consideration to genetic merit and inbreeding. An adapted Mean Of Total Absolute Deviations (MOTAD) method was used in a mate selection model to define optimal matings with regard to aggregate genetic merit and inbreeding for a base population h(2) of 0.2. Compared with random mating following selection on BLUP ebvs, inbreeding levels after 10 years of selection were able to be reduced under BLUP plus mate selection from ∼.23 to as little as .11. Additive genetic gain was either little compromised or increased. The results suggest that information linking expected levels of genetic merit and inbreeding can be used to find the preferred selection strategy. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Gemeinsame Kontrolle von Zuchtfortschritt und Inzucht bei Partnerselektion Es wurde stochastische Simulation zur Auswertung einer Reihe von Selektionsstrategien hinsichtlich Zuchtwertzuwachs und Inzucht verwendet. Strategien mit Selektion auf der Basis von BLUP ebvs oder individuellem Phänotyp mit nachfolgender Zufallspaarung wurden mit Partnerselektionsstrategien verglichen, die Portfolioanalyse zur gemeinsamen Beachtung von Zuchtwert und Inzucht verwendeten. Eine Methode adaptierter MITTELWERTE TOTALER ABSOLUTER ABWEICHUNGEN (MOTAD) Methode wurde beim Partnerselektionsmodell zur Definition optimaler Paarungen in Hinblick auf Gesamtzuchtwert und Inzucht bei einer Populationsheritabilität von 0,2 verwendet. Verglichen mit Zufallspaarung nach Selektion auf BLUP ebvs waren die Inzuchtgrade nach 10 Selektionsjahren von 0,23 auf 0,11 reduziert und additiver Zuchtfortschritt war dabei wenig beeinträchtigt oder nahm sogar zu. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, daß Information, die

  15. Females Choose Mates Based on Genetic Relatedness in a Small Dasyurid Marsupial, the Agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Marissa L; Ward, Simon J; Temple-Smith, Peter D; Selwood, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Females in a variety of taxa mate with more than one male during a single oestrus and exhibit mate preferences for genetically compatible males, but the influence of female mate choice on siring success is not clearly understood. Whether females choose to mate with more than one male or endure forced copulations is also often unknown. Here, we examined the effects of genetic relatedness on female mate choice and siring success in a small semelparous carnivorous marsupial, the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis), during two consecutive breeding seasons. Experimental trials were conducted in captivity over periods of 72 hours using interconnected enclosures in which female antechinus could choose to access any of four separated males, but males were only able to access females that entered their quarters. Females had access to two genetically similar and two genetically dissimilar males simultaneously and all behavioural interactions were observed and scored from continuous video recordings. Genetic similarity between mates and paternity of young was determined by microsatellite analyses. Some females chose to enter and mate with more than one male during a single oestrus period. Although females investigated all males, they spent significantly more time visiting, and mated more times with, genetically dissimilar males. Males that were genetically dissimilar to the female sired 88% of subsequent offspring. Whilst males mated readily with most females, they rejected the advances of some receptive females, indicating a previously unexpected level of male mate choice. The results show that genetic relatedness between mates has a significant influence on mate choice, breeding and siring success in the agile antechinus.

  16. The genetics of complex human behaviour: Cannabis use, personality, sexuality and mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    I investigated the genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences in a variety of complex human behaviours, broadly captured within three domains - 1) cannabis use, 2) personality, and 3) sexuality and mating. Research questions and hypotheses are addressed with large community-based,

  17. Inbreeding in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-03-03

    Mar 3, 2015 ... models have predominantly focussed on the evolution of parasite populations under strong selection or in epidemic situations, and our ... transmission dynamics and life history characteristics in parasite populations. J. Genet. .... history characteristics) on average levels of coancestry between par- asites at ...

  18. Genetic Variability and Distribution of Mating Type Alleles in Field Populations of Leptosphaeria maculans from France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Lilian; Eckert, Maria; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2006-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans is the most ubiquitous fungal pathogen of Brassica crops and causes the devastating stem canker disease of oilseed rape worldwide. We used minisatellite markers to determine the genetic structure of L. maculans in four field populations from France. Isolates were collected at three different spatial scales (leaf, 2-m2 field plot, and field) enabling the evaluation of spatial distribution of the mating type alleles and of genetic variability within and among field populations. Within each field population, no gametic disequilibrium between the minisatellite loci was detected and the mating type alleles were present at equal frequencies. Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur in the field, but the genetic structure of these populations is consistent with annual cycles of randomly mating sexual reproduction. All L. maculans field populations had a high level of gene diversity (H = 0.68 to 0.75) and genotypic diversity. Within each field population, the number of genotypes often was very close to the number of isolates. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that >99.5% of the total genetic variability was distributed at a small spatial scale, i.e., within 2-m2 field plots. Population differentiation among the four field populations was low (GST < 0.02), suggesting a high degree of gene exchange between these populations. The high gene flow evidenced here in French populations of L. maculans suggests a rapid countrywide diffusion of novel virulence alleles whenever novel resistance sources are used. PMID:16391041

  19. Evidence for genetic variation in human mate preferences for sexually dimorphic physical traits.

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    Karin J H Verweij

    Full Text Available Intersexual selection has been proposed as an important force in shaping a number of morphological traits that differ between human populations and/or between the sexes. Important to these accounts is the source of mate preferences for such traits, but this has not been investigated. In a large sample of twins, we assess forced-choice, dichotomous mate preferences for height, skin colour, hair colour and length, chest hair, facial hair, and breast size. Across the traits, identical twins reported more similar preferences than nonidentical twins, suggesting genetic effects. However, the relative magnitude of estimated genetic and environmental effects differed greatly and significantly between different trait preferences, with heritability estimates ranging from zero to 57%.

  20. A sex-specific trade-off between mating preferences for genetic compatibility and body size in a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuenken, Timo; Meuthen, Denis; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Baldauf, Sebastian A.

    2012-01-01

    Mating preferences for genetic compatibility strictly depend on the interplay of the genotypes of potential partners and are therein fundamentally different from directional preferences for ornamental secondary sexual traits. Thus, the most compatible partner is on average not the one with most

  1. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of "yerba mate" (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.) from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascales, Jimena; Bracco, Mariana; Poggio, Lidia; Gottlieb, Alexandra Marina

    2014-12-01

    The "yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., is a crop native to subtropical South America, marketed for the elaboration of the highly popular "mate" beverage. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center (ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay) with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers. For the Uruguayan germplasm, we registered 55 alleles (18 % private), and 80 genotypes (44 % exclusive), whereas 63 alleles (28.6 % private) and 81 genotypes (42 % exclusive) were recorded for individuals from ABP. Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected. Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles (1.15-fold), He (1.19-fold), Rs (1.39-fold), and the between-group genetic distances (1.16-fold). Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource. Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of "yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation.

  2. From homothally to heterothally: Mating preferences and genetic variation within clones of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Rengefors, Karin; Bravo, Isabel; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham is responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a human health threat in coastal waters. Sexuality in this species is of great importance in its bloom dynamics, and has been shown to be very complex but lacks an explanation. For this reason, we tested if unreported homothallic behavior and rapid genetic changes may clarify the sexual system of this alga. To achieve this objective, 12 clonal strains collected from the Spanish coast were analyzed for the presence of sexual reproduction. Mating affinity results, self-compatibility studies, and genetic fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) analysis on clonal strains, showed three facts not previously described for this species: (i) That there is a continuous mating system within G. catenatum, with either self-compatible strains (homothallic), or strains that needed to be outcrossed (heterothallic), and with a range of differences in cyst production among the crosses. (ii) There was intraclonal genetic variation, i.e. genetic variation within an asexual lineage. Moreover, the variability among homothallic clones was smaller than among the heterothallic ones. (iii) Sibling strains (the two strains established by the germination of one cyst) increased their intra- and inter-sexual compatibility with time. To summarize, we have found that G. catenatum's sexual system is much more complex than previously described, including complex homothallic/heterothallic behaviors. Additionally, high rates of genetic variability may arise in clonal strains, although explanations for the mechanisms responsible are still lacking.

  3. Mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions generates less inbreeding without compromising genetic gain in breeding schemes with truncation selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, M; Berg, P; Sørensen, A C

    2009-01-01

    We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis by stoch......We reasoned that mating animals by minimising the covariance between ancestral contributions (MCAC mating) will generate less inbreeding and at least as much genetic gain as minimum-coancestry mating in breeding schemes where the animals are truncation-selected. We tested this hypothesis...

  4. Genetic parentage and mate guarding in the Arctic-breedng Western Sandpiper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, D.; Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2002-01-01

    Extrapair copulations and fertilizations are common among birds, especially in passerines. So far, however, few studies have examined genetic mating systems in socially monogamous shorebirds. Here, we examine parentage in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri). Given that Western Sandpipers nest at high densities on the Arctic tundra, have separate nesting and feeding areas, and show high divorce rates between years, we expected extrapair paternity to be more common in this species compared to other monogamous shorebirds. However, DNA fingerprinting of 98 chicks from 40 families revealed that only 8% of broods contained young sired by extrapair males, and that 5% of all chicks were extrapair. All chicks were the genetic offspring of their social mothers. We found that males followed females more often than the reverse. Also, cuckolded males were separated from their mates for longer than those that did not lose paternity. Although these results suggest a role for male mate guarding, we propose that high potential costs in terms of reduced paternal care likely constrain female Western Sandpipers from seeking extrapair copulations.

  5. Helping Couples Fulfill the "Highest of Life's Goals": Mate Selection, Marriage Counselling, and Genetic Counseling in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, Devon

    2016-02-01

    This article traces the history of modern genetic counseling to mate selection and marriage counselling practices of the early-20th century. Mate selection revolved around a belief that human heredity could be improved and genetic diseases eradicated through better breeding. Marriage counselling, though interested in reproduction, was also concerned with the emotional and psychological well-being of couples. These two practices coalesced most obviously in the work of well-known geneticist Sheldon Reed. Even as marriage and genetic counselling diverged in the post-WWII period, vestiges of these practices remain in contemporary counseling experiences with family planning and genetic screening programs. Emphasizing points of continuity between "positive" eugenic ideologies and modern genetic practices elaborates the diverse origins of genetic counseling. It also exposes how genetic counselors have become involved in genetic enterprises beyond standard clinical settings, and prods at key issues in the interaction between genetic science and social values.

  6. Reconstructing genetic mating systems in the absence of parental information in colonially breeding waterbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussi Gonçalves Priscila F

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA-based studies have demonstrated that avian genetic mating systems vary widely, with many species deviating from long-assumed monogamy by practicing extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism. Colonially breeding waterbirds provide interesting models in which to investigate this question because they show nesting habits proposed to promote alternative reproductive strategies. However, little is known about the genetic mating systems of this group of birds, mainly due to difficulties in obtaining genetic data from incubating adults at nests that are necessary for conducting conventional parentage studies. Here, we inferred kinship patterns among offspring in broods of three co-distributed waterbird species, Wood Stork (Mycteria americana, Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja and Great Egret (Ardea alba egretta, to investigate genetic mating system in the absence of parental data. Results Multi-step analyses combining estimates of relatedness coefficients, formulation of relationship-hypotheses, significance testing of alternative hypotheses, and maximum-likelihood sibship reconstruction techniques revealed evidence that alternative reproductive strategies may be present in natural populations of Wood Storks and Roseate Spoonbills, whereas relatedness of co-nestlings diagnosed in the Great Egrets did not deviate from a hypothesis of genetic monogamy. Specifically, under this analytical framework, inferred kinship relationships revealed that Great Egret nests contained full-sibling nestlings (100%, with the Roseate Spoonbill (RS and Wood Stork (WS exhibiting proportions of half-siblings (RS: 5% and/or unrelated nestlings (RS: 24%; WS: 70%, patterns consistent with extra-pair paternity and conspecific brood parasitism, respectively. Conclusions We provide evidence that genetic monogamy occurs in Brazilian natural breeding colonies of the Great Egret, but is not the sole reproductive strategy employed by the Wood Stork

  7. Molecular genetic variability, population structure and mating system in tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite (SSR markers were developed for the following tropical forage species, using accessions available from the plant genetic resources (PGR collections held by EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation: Brachiaria brizantha, B. humidicola, Panicum maximum, Paspalum spp., Stylosanthes capitata, S. guianensis, S. macrocephala, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema spp. The markers were used to analyze population structure and genetic diversity, evolution and origin of the genetic variability in the center of origin, mating systems and genetic resources in EMBRAPA’s germplasm bank. The results shed light on the amount of genetic variation within and between populations, revealed the need in some cases for further plant collection to adequately represent the species in PGR collections, allowed us to assemble core collections (subsets of the total collections that should contain most of the available diversity and (in the case of the legumes showed the need to avoid unwanted outcrossing when regenerating conserved material. The data will allow plant breeders to better select accessions for hybrid production, discriminate between genotypes and use marker-assisted selection in breeding programs. Our results will also underpin the construction of genetic maps, mapping of genes of agronomic interest and numerous other studies on genetic variability, population structure, gene flow and reproductive systems for the tropical forage species studied in this work.

  8. Plant traits correlated with generation time directly affect inbreeding depression and mating system and indirectly genetic structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Olivier J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the mechanisms that control species genetic structure has always been a major objective in evolutionary studies. The association between genetic structure and species attributes has received special attention. As species attributes are highly taxonomically constrained, phylogenetically controlled methods are necessary to infer causal relationships. In plants, a previous study controlling for phylogenetic signal has demonstrated that Wright's FST, a measure of genetic differentiation among populations, is best predicted by the mating system (outcrossing, mixed-mating or selfing and that plant traits such as perenniality and growth form have only an indirect influence on FST via their association with the mating system. The objective of this study is to further outline the determinants of plant genetic structure by distinguishing the effects of mating system on gene flow and on genetic drift. The association of biparental inbreeding and inbreeding depression with population genetic structure, mating system and plant traits are also investigated. Results Based on data from 263 plant species for which estimates of FST, inbreeding (FIS and outcrossing rate (tm are available, we confirm that mating system is the main influencing factor of FST. Moreover, using an alternative measure of FST unaffected by the impact of inbreeding on effective population size, we show that the influence of tm on FST is due to its impact on gene flow (reduced pollen flow under selfing and on genetic drift (higher drift under selfing due to inbreeding. Plant traits, in particular perenniality, influence FST mostly via their effect on the mating system but also via their association with the magnitude of selection against inbred individuals: the mean inbreeding depression increases from short-lived herbaceous to long-lived herbaceous and then to woody species. The influence of perenniality on mating system does not seem to be related to

  9. Mating practices and the dissemination of genetic disorders in domestic animals, based on the example of dog breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G; Baumung, R

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of simulations and genealogical data of ten dog breeds, three popular mating practices (popular sire effect, line breeding, close breeding) were investigated along with their effects on the dissemination of genetic disorders. Our results showed that the use of sires in these ten breeds is clearly unbalanced. Depending on the breed, the effective number of sires represented between 33% and 70% of the total number of sires. Mating between close relatives was also found to be quite common, and the percentage of dogs inbred after two generations ranged from 1% to about 8%. A more or less long-term genetic differentiation, linked to line breeding practices, was also emphasized in most breeds. F(IT) index based on gene dropping proved to be efficient in differentiating the effects of the different mating practices, and it ranged from -1.3% to 3.2% when real founders were used to begin a gene dropping process. Simulation results confirmed that the popular sire practice leads to a dissemination of genetic disorders. Under a realistic scenario, regarding the imbalance in the use of sires, the dissemination risk was indeed 4.4 times higher than under random mating conditions. In contrast, line breeding and close breeding practices tend to decrease the risk of the dissemination of genetic disorders. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Genetic variation of seedling traits in a random mating population of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.

    2004-01-01

    Forty S/sub 1/ families obtained from a random mating population of sunflower were evaluated in the laboratory for various seedling traits. The objectives of this study were to investigate the extent and nature of genetic variability and to determine the estimates of genotypic and phenotypic correlations among ten seedling traits prevailing in a random mating population of sunflower. The results indicated that significant differences existed among the 40 S/sub 1/ families for all the traits evaluated. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variation were comparatively high for emergence rate index, root/shoot ratio, dry root weight, fresh root weight and fresh shoot weight. The estimates of broad-sense heritability were high and significant for all the traits. The study of genotypic and phenotypic correlations among these traits revealed that generally, the seedlings which took more time to emerge were vigorous for most of the traits except fresh shoot length. However, rapidly emerging seedlings had higher emergence percentage. The root traits appeared to be better indicators of seedling vigour compared to other traits as these traits exhibited strong and positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations among them. (author)

  11. [Genetic diversity and mating system Pinus brutia var. Stankewiczii sukacz. in small localities of Sudak (Crimea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Milchevskaya, Ya G

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of genetic variation at 12 polymorphic isozyme loci, and the mating system has been carried out in mature trees and their seed progeny in three small localities of Pinus brutia var. stankewiczii Sukacz. near the town of Sudak--settlement of Novyi Svet in the Crimea. We found that embryos maintain the same allelic diversity as mother plants but their observed heterozygosity is lower on the average by 37.4%. The significant deviation of genotype distribution from the theoretically expected ratios caused by the deficiency of heterozygotes was observed at 8 out of 12 loci. Multilocus estimate of outcrossing rate (t(m)) in populations varied from 68.9 to 94.9% making on the average 80.7%.

  12. Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex genetic divergence as a bet-hedging strategy in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melissa L; Dionne, Mélanie; Miller, Kristina M; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-22

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-dependent mating preferences have been observed across vertebrate taxa and these preferences are expected to promote offspring disease resistance and ultimately, viability. However, little empirical evidence linking MHC-dependent mate choice and fitness is available, particularly in wild populations. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of previously observed patterns of MHC-dependent mate choice in a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Québec, Canada, by examining the relationship between MHC genetic variation and adult reproductive success and offspring survival over 3 years of study. While Atlantic salmon choose their mates in order to increase MHC diversity in offspring, adult reproductive success was in fact maximized between pairs exhibiting an intermediate level of MHC dissimilarity. Moreover, patterns of offspring survival between years 0+ and 1+, and 1+ and 2+ and population genetic structure at the MHC locus relative to microsatellite loci indicate that strong temporal variation in selection is likely to be operating on the MHC. We interpret MHC-dependent mate choice for diversity as a likely bet-hedging strategy that maximizes parental fitness in the face of temporally variable and unpredictable natural selection pressures.

  13. Mating strategies with genomic information reduce rates of inbreeding in animal breeding schemes without compromising genetic gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Henryon, M; Sørensen, A C

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mating strategies with genomic information realise lower rates of inbreeding (∆F) than with pedigree information without compromising rates of genetic gain (∆G). We used stochastic simulation to compare ∆F and ∆G realised by two mating strategies with pedigree and genomic information in five breeding schemes. The two mating strategies were minimum-coancestry mating (MC) and minimising the covariance between ancestral genetic contributions (MCAC). We also simulated random mating (RAND) as a reference point. Generations were discrete. Animals were truncation-selected for a single trait that was controlled by 2000 quantitative trait loci, and the trait was observed for all selection candidates before selection. The criterion for selection was genomic-breeding values predicted by a ridge-regression model. Our results showed that MC and MCAC with genomic information realised 6% to 22% less ∆F than MC and MCAC with pedigree information without compromising ∆G across breeding schemes. MC and MCAC realised similar ∆F and ∆G. In turn, MC and MCAC with genomic information realised 28% to 44% less ∆F and up to 14% higher ∆G than RAND. These results indicated that MC and MCAC with genomic information are more effective than with pedigree information in controlling rates of inbreeding. This implies that genomic information should be applied to more than just prediction of breeding values in breeding schemes with truncation selection.

  14. Mate choice for major histocompatibility complex genetic divergence as a bet-hedging strategy in the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Melissa L.; Dionne, Mélanie; Miller, Kristina M.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-dependent mating preferences have been observed across vertebrate taxa and these preferences are expected to promote offspring disease resistance and ultimately, viability. However, little empirical evidence linking MHC-dependent mate choice and fitness is available, particularly in wild populations. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of previously observed patterns of MHC-dependent mate choice in a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Québec, Canada, by examining the relationship between MHC genetic variation and adult reproductive success and offspring survival over 3 years of study. While Atlantic salmon choose their mates in order to increase MHC diversity in offspring, adult reproductive success was in fact maximized between pairs exhibiting an intermediate level of MHC dissimilarity. Moreover, patterns of offspring survival between years 0+ and 1+, and 1+ and 2+ and population genetic structure at the MHC locus relative to microsatellite loci indicate that strong temporal variation in selection is likely to be operating on the MHC. We interpret MHC-dependent mate choice for diversity as a likely bet-hedging strategy that maximizes parental fitness in the face of temporally variable and unpredictable natural selection pressures. PMID:21697172

  15. The Relationship between Mating System and Genetic Diversity in Diploid Sexual Populations of Cyrtomium falcatum in Japan.

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    Ryosuke Imai

    Full Text Available The impact of variation in mating system on genetic diversity is a well-debated topic in evolutionary biology. The diploid sexual race of Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern shows mating system variation, i.e., it displays two different types of sexual expression (gametangia formation in gametophytes: mixed (M type and separate (S type. We examined whether there is variation in the selfing rate among populations of this species, and evaluated the relationship between mating system, genetic diversity and effective population size using microsatellites. In this study, we developed eight new microsatellite markers and evaluated genetic diversity and structure of seven populations (four M-type and three S-type. Past effective population sizes (Ne were inferred using Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC. The values of fixation index (FIS, allelic richness (AR and gene diversity (h differed significantly between the M-type (FIS: 0.626, AR: 1.999, h: 0.152 and the S-type (FIS: 0.208, AR: 2.718, h: 0.367 populations (when admixed individuals were removed from two populations. Although evidence of past bottleneck events was detected in all populations by ABC, the current Ne of the M-type populations was about a third of that of the S-type populations. These results suggest that the M-type populations have experienced more frequent bottlenecks, which could be related to their higher colonization ability via gametophytic selfing. Although high population differentiation among populations was detected (FST = 0.581, F'ST = 0.739, there was no clear genetic differentiation between the M- and S-types. Instead, significant isolation by distance was detected among all populations. These results suggest that mating system variation in this species is generated by the selection for single spore colonization during local extinction and recolonization events and there is no genetic structure due to mating system.

  16. The Relationship between Mating System and Genetic Diversity in Diploid Sexual Populations of Cyrtomium falcatum in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ryosuke; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Sadamu; Ebihara, Atsushi; Watano, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The impact of variation in mating system on genetic diversity is a well-debated topic in evolutionary biology. The diploid sexual race of Cyrtomium falcatum (Japanese holly fern) shows mating system variation, i.e., it displays two different types of sexual expression (gametangia formation) in gametophytes: mixed (M) type and separate (S) type. We examined whether there is variation in the selfing rate among populations of this species, and evaluated the relationship between mating system, genetic diversity and effective population size using microsatellites. In this study, we developed eight new microsatellite markers and evaluated genetic diversity and structure of seven populations (four M-type and three S-type). Past effective population sizes (Ne) were inferred using Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). The values of fixation index (FIS), allelic richness (AR) and gene diversity (h) differed significantly between the M-type (FIS: 0.626, AR: 1.999, h: 0.152) and the S-type (FIS: 0.208, AR: 2.718, h: 0.367) populations (when admixed individuals were removed from two populations). Although evidence of past bottleneck events was detected in all populations by ABC, the current Ne of the M-type populations was about a third of that of the S-type populations. These results suggest that the M-type populations have experienced more frequent bottlenecks, which could be related to their higher colonization ability via gametophytic selfing. Although high population differentiation among populations was detected (FST = 0.581, F'ST = 0.739), there was no clear genetic differentiation between the M- and S-types. Instead, significant isolation by distance was detected among all populations. These results suggest that mating system variation in this species is generated by the selection for single spore colonization during local extinction and recolonization events and there is no genetic structure due to mating system.

  17. Genetic and Phytochemical Analysis to Evaluate the Diversity and Relationships of Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) Elite Genetic Resources in a Germplasm Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Juliana Cristhina; Gonela, Adriana; Gonçalves Vidigal, Maria Celeste; Vidigal Filho, Pedro Soares; Sturion, José Alfredo; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical and genetic diversity, relationships and identification of mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) elite genetic resources belonging to the Brazilian germplasm collection and mate breeding program. Mate has been studied due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, especially methylxanthines and phenolic compounds. The samples were collected from the leaves of 76 mate elite genetic resources (16 progenies × 5 localities). Total DNA was extracted from mate leaves and 20 random primers were used for DNA amplification. Methylxanthines (caffeine and theobromine) and phenolic compounds (chlorogenic, neochlorogenic, and criptochlorogenic acids) were quantified by HPLC. The genetic divergence estimated was higher within (92%) than among (8%) the different populations. Analysis of genetic distance between origins provided the formation of two groups by UPGMA cluster analysis, with higher polymorphism (94.9%). The average content of caffeine ranged from 0.01 to 1.38% and theobromine of 0.10 - 0.85% (w/w). The caffeoylquinic acids concentrations (1.43 - 5.38%) showed a gradient 3-CQA > 5-CQA > 4-CQA. The coefficient of genetic variation (CVg) was of low magnitude for all mono-caffeoylquinics acids. Significant correlations (positive and negative) were observed between the phytochemical compounds. Genetic diversity analysis performed by RAPD markers showed a greater intra-populational diversity; genetic resources with low caffeine and higher theobromine content were identified and can be used in breeding programs; the correlation between methylxanthines and phenolic compounds can be used as a good predictor in future studies. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Selection by mating competitiveness improves the performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the genetic sexing strain Tapachula-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P

    2016-10-01

    The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.

  19. Multiple mating strategies explain unexpected genetic mixing of New Zealand fur seals with two congenerics in a recently recolonized population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Melanie L; Goldsworthy, Simon D; Sunnucks, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Human impacts on natural systems can cause local population extinctions, which may promote redistribution of taxa and secondary contact between divergent lineages. In mammalian populations that have mating systems shaped by polygyny and sexual selection, the potential for hybridization to ensue and persist depends on individual and demographic factors. At Macquarie Island, a recently formed fur seal population is comprised of both sexes of breeding Antarctic (Arctocephalus gazella) and subantarctic (A. tropicalis) fur seals, and an itinerant collection of male New Zealand fur seals (A. forsteri), presumed to be non-breeders due to their absence from principle breeding areas. The mating system of the three species is described as resource-defence polygyny: males defend beach territories containing breeding females for exclusive mating rights. A recent genetic study identified a high level of hybridization in the population (17-30%), unexpectedly involving all three species. This study examined the source of involvement in breeding by A. forsteri with respect to mating strategies operating in the population. Ninety-five (10%) pups born from 1992 to 2003 were genetically identified as New Zealand hybrids. Most resulted from reproduction within territories by New Zealand hybrids of both sexes, although some were conceived extra-territorially, indicating that males successfully utilize strategies other than territory holding to achieve paternities. Female reproductive status influenced mating partner and mating location, and females without pups were more likely to conceive extra-territorially and with A. forsteri males. This study illustrates an important consequence of low heterospecific discrimination in a sympatric population of long-lived mammals.

  20. Quantitative Genetic Analyses of Male Color Pattern and Female Mate Choice in a Pair of Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoqing Ding

    Full Text Available The traits involved in sexual selection, such as male secondary sexual characteristics and female mate choice, often co-evolve which can promote population differentiation. However, the genetic architecture of these phenotypes can influence their evolvability and thereby affect the divergence of species. The extraordinary diversity of East African cichlid fishes is often attributed to strong sexual selection and thus this system provides an excellent model to test predictions regarding the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits that contribute to reproductive isolation. In particular, theory predicts that rapid speciation is facilitated when male sexual traits and female mating preferences are controlled by a limited number of linked genes. However, few studies have examined the genetic basis of male secondary sexual traits and female mating preferences in cichlids and none have investigated the genetic architecture of both jointly. In this study, we artificially hybridized a pair of behaviorally isolated cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi and quantified both melanistic color pattern and female mate choice. We investigated the genetic architecture of both phenotypes using quantitative genetic analyses. Our results suggest that 1 many non-additively acting genetic factors influence melanistic color patterns, 2 female mate choice may be controlled by a minimum of 1-2 non-additive genetic factors, and 3 F2 female mate choice is not influenced by male courting effort. Furthermore, a joint analysis of color pattern and female mate choice indicates that the genes underlying these two traits are unlikely to be physically linked. These results suggest that reproductive isolation may evolve rapidly owing to the few genetic factors underlying female mate choice. Hence, female mate choice likely played an important role in the unparalleled speciation of East African cichlid fish.

  1. Males and females contribute unequally to offspring genetic diversity in the polygynandrous mating system of wild boar.

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    Javier Pérez-González

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity across generations depends on both the number of reproducing males and females. Variance in reproductive success, multiple paternity and litter size can all affect the relative contributions of male and female parents to genetic variation of progeny. The mating system of the wild boar (Sus scrofa has been described as polygynous, although evidence of multiple paternity in litters has been found. Using 14 microsatellite markers, we evaluated the contribution of males and females to genetic variation in the next generation in independent wild boar populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Hungary. Genetic contributions of males and females were obtained by distinguishing the paternal and maternal genetic component inherited by the progeny. We found that the paternally inherited genetic component of progeny was more diverse than the maternally inherited component. Simulations showed that this finding might be due to a sampling bias. However, after controlling for the bias by fitting both the genetic diversity in the adult population and the number of reproductive individuals in the models, paternally inherited genotypes remained more diverse than those inherited maternally. Our results suggest new insights into how promiscuous mating systems can help maintain genetic variation.

  2. Variation in sexual dimorphism and assortative mating do not predict genetic divergence in the sexually dimorphic Goodeid fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus

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    C.MACÍAS GARCIA, G.SMITH, C.GONZÁLEZ ZUARTH, J.A. GRAVES,M.G.RITCHIE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism is often used as a proxy for the intensity of sexual selection in comparative studies of sexual selection and diversification. The Mexican Goodeinae are a group of livebearing freshwater fishes with large variation between species in sexual dimorphism in body shape. Previously we found an association between variation in morphological sexual dimorphism between species and the amount of gene flow within populations in the Goodeinae. Here we have examined if morphological differentiation within a single dimorphic species is related to assortative mating or gene flow between populations. In the Amarillo fish Girardinichthys multiradiatus studies have shown that exaggerated male fins are targets of female preferences. We find that populations of the species differ in the level of sexual dimorphism displayed due to faster evolution of differences in male than female morphology. However, this does not predict variation in assortative mating tests in the laboratory; in fact differences in male morphology are negatively correlated with assortative mating. Microsatellite markers reveal significant genetic differences between populations. However, gene flow is not predicted by either morphological differences or assortative mating. Rather, it demonstrates a pattern of isolation by distance with greater differentiation between watersheds. We discuss the caveats of predicting behavioural and genetic divergence from so-called proxies of sexual selection [Current Zoology 58 (3: 437-449, 2012].

  3. A link between altruism and sexual selection: genetic influence on altruistic behaviour and mate preference towards it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tim; Ferguson, Eamonn; Rijsdijk, Fruhling

    2010-11-01

    Altruistic behaviour raises major questions for psychology and biology. One hypothesis proposes that human altruistic behaviour evolved as a result of sexual selection. Mechanisms that seek to explain how sexual selection works suggest genetic influence acting on both the mate preference for the trait and the preferred trait itself. We used a twin study to estimate whether genetic effects influenced responses to psychometric scales measuring mate preference towards altruistic traits (MPAT) and the preferred trait (i.e., 'altruistic personality'). As predicted, we found significant genetic effects influencing variation in both. We also predicted that individuals expressing stronger MPAT and 'altruistic personality' would have mated at a greater frequency in ancestral populations. We found evidence for this in that 67% of the covariance in the phenotypic correlation between the two scales was associated with significant genetic effects. Both sets of findings are thus consistent with the hypothesized link between sexual selection and human altruism towards non-kin. We discuss how this study contributes to our understanding of altruistic behaviour and how further work might extend this understanding.

  4. Genetic variation in the odorant receptors family 13 and the mhc loci influence mate selection in a multiple sclerosis dataset

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    Hauser Stephen L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When selecting mates, many vertebrate species seek partners with major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes different from their own, presumably in response to selective pressure against inbreeding and towards MHC diversity. Attempts at replication of these genetic results in human studies, however, have reached conflicting conclusions. Results Using a multi-analytical strategy, we report validated genome-wide relationships between genetic identity and human mate choice in 930 couples of European ancestry. We found significant similarity between spouses in the MHC at class I region in chromosome 6p21, and at the odorant receptor family 13 locus in chromosome 9. Conversely, there was significant dissimilarity in the MHC class II region, near the HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 genes. We also found that genomic regions with significant similarity between spouses show excessive homozygosity in the general population (assessed in the HapMap CEU dataset. Conversely, loci that were significantly dissimilar among spouses were more likely to show excessive heterozygosity in the general population. Conclusions This study highlights complex patterns of genomic identity among partners in unrelated couples, consistent with a multi-faceted role for genetic factors in mate choice behavior in human populations.

  5. Maintenance of adaptive differentiation by Wolbachia induced bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility: the importance of sib-mating and genetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Antoine; Vavre, Fabrice; Silvain, Jean-François; Dupas, Stéphane

    2009-08-04

    Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are reproductive parasites widespread among arthropods. The most common effect arising from the presence of Wolbachia in a population is Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI), whereby postmating reproductive isolation occurs in crosses between an infected male and an uninfected female, or when a male is infected with a different strain of Wolbachia to that of the female (bidirectional CI). Previous theoretical models have demonstrated that bidirectional CI can contribute to the genetic divergence of populations in haploid and diploid organisms. However, haplodiploid organisms were not considered in these models even though they include Nasonia parasitoid wasps - the best example of the implication of Wolbachia in ongoing speciation. Moreover, previous work did not investigate inbreeding mating systems, which are frequently observed in arthropod species. We developed a stochastic two-island model which simulated three genetic scenarios, diploidy, haploidy, and haplodiploidy, with two CI phenotypes being considered for the latter: (1) male development of female progeny; and (2) mortality of fertilized eggs. We also investigated the effect of varying the proportion of sib mating. In the model each allopatric population was initially fixed for a single allele at a nuclear locus under positive selection and infected with one strain of Wolbachia. Each simulation presupposed that the two populations were fixed for a different allele and a different strain of Wolbachia. The degree of genetic differentiation observed in the locus under selection due to bidirectional CI was much lower for the two haplodiploid phenotypes than for either diploids or haploids. Furthermore, we demonstrated that sib-mating may compensate for the lower efficiency of bidirectional CI in haplodiploids by maintaining genetic divergence. Our model suggests that maintenance of genetic differentiation facilitated by Wolbachia is more likely to occur in diploids and haploids

  6. Maintenance of adaptive differentiation by Wolbachia induced bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility: the importance of sib-mating and genetic systems

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    Branca Antoine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are reproductive parasites widespread among arthropods. The most common effect arising from the presence of Wolbachia in a population is Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI, whereby postmating reproductive isolation occurs in crosses between an infected male and an uninfected female, or when a male is infected with a different strain of Wolbachia to that of the female (bidirectional CI. Previous theoretical models have demonstrated that bidirectional CI can contribute to the genetic divergence of populations in haploid and diploid organisms. However, haplodiploid organisms were not considered in these models even though they include Nasonia parasitoid wasps – the best example of the implication of Wolbachia in ongoing speciation. Moreover, previous work did not investigate inbreeding mating systems, which are frequently observed in arthropod species. Results We developed a stochastic two-island model which simulated three genetic scenarios, diploidy, haploidy, and haplodiploidy, with two CI phenotypes being considered for the latter: (1 male development of female progeny; and (2 mortality of fertilized eggs. We also investigated the effect of varying the proportion of sib mating. In the model each allopatric population was initially fixed for a single allele at a nuclear locus under positive selection and infected with one strain of Wolbachia. Each simulation presupposed that the two populations were fixed for a different allele and a different strain of Wolbachia. The degree of genetic differentiation observed in the locus under selection due to bidirectional CI was much lower for the two haplodiploid phenotypes than for either diploids or haploids. Furthermore, we demonstrated that sib-mating may compensate for the lower efficiency of bidirectional CI in haplodiploids by maintaining genetic divergence. Conclusion Our model suggests that maintenance of genetic differentiation facilitated by

  7. Genetic evaluation of the mating system in the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Aves, Psittacidae by DNA fingerprinting

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    Renato Caparroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of birds are socially monogamous, although genetic studies indicate that many are often not sexually monogamous. In the present study, DNA fingerprinting was used to estimate the genetic relationships between nestlings belonging to the same broods to evaluate the mating system in the socially monogamous macaw, Ara ararauna. We found that in 10 of 11 broods investigated, the nestlings showed genetic similarity levels congruent with values expected among full-sibs, suggesting that they shared the same parents. However, in one brood, the low genetic similarity observed between nestlings could be a result of intraspecific brood parasitism, intraspecific nest competition or extra-pair paternity. These results, along with available behavioral and life-history data, imply that the blue-and-yellow macaw is not only socially, but also genetically monogamous. However, the occurrence of eventual cases of extra-pair paternity cannot be excluded.

  8. Mate choice and the genetic basis for colour variation in a polymorphic dart frog: inferences from a wild pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L; Wang, Ian J; Summers, Kyle

    2012-08-01

    Understanding how reproductive barriers evolve during speciation remains an important question in evolution. Divergence in mating preferences may be a common first step in this process. The striking colour pattern diversity of strawberry dart frog (Dendrobates pumilio) populations has likely been shaped by sexual selection. Previous laboratory studies have shown that females attend to male coloration and prefer to court with males of their own colour, suggesting that divergent morphs may be reproductively isolated. To test this hypothesis, we used molecular data to estimate pedigree relationships from a polymorphic population. Whereas in the laboratory both red and yellow females preferred to court with males of their own phenotype, our pedigree shows a pattern of assortative mating only for red females. In the wild, yellow females appear to be less choosy about their mates, perhaps because they incur higher costs associated with searching than females of the more common red phenotype. We also used our pedigree to investigate the genetic basis for colour-pattern variation. The phenotype frequencies we observed were consistent with those expected if dorsal background coloration is controlled by a single locus, with complete dominance of red over yellow. Our results not only help clarify the role of sexual selection in reducing gene flow, but also shed light on the mechanisms underlying colour-pattern variation among sympatric colour morphs. The difference we observed between mating preferences measured under laboratory conditions and the pattern of mate choice observed in the wild highlight the importance of field studies for understanding behavioural reproductive isolation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Genetic considerations in human sex-mate selection: partners share human leukocyte antigen but not short-tandem-repeat identity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Moshe; Kristt, Don; Nardi, Yuval; Klein, Tirza

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies support a role for MHC on mating preference, yet it remains unsettled as to whether mating occurs preferentially between individuals sharing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) determinants or not. Investigating sex-mate preferences in the contemporary Israeli population is of further curiosity being a population with distinct genetic characteristics, where multifaceted cultural considerations influence mate selection. Pairs of male-female sex partners were evaluated in three groups. Two groups represented unmarried (n = 1002) or married (n = 308) couples and a control group of fictitious male-female couples. HLA and short-tandem-repeat (STR) genetic identification markers were assessed for the frequency of shared antigens and alleles. Human leukocyte antigen results showed that Class I and/ or Class II single antigen as well as double antigen sharing was more common in sex partners than in control group couples (P < 0.001). Married versus unmarried pairs were not distinguishable. In contrast, STR-DNA markers failed to differentiate between sex-mates and controls (P = 0.78). Sex partnerships shared HLA determinants more frequently than randomly constituted male-female pairs. The observed phenomenon does not reflect a syngenetic background between sex-mates as STR markers were not selectively shared. Thus, sex-mate selection in man may contravene the evolutionary pressure for genetic diversity in regard to HLA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Runaway sexual selection without genetic correlations: social environments and flexible mate choice initiate and enhance the Fisher process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nathan W; Moore, Allen J

    2012-09-01

    Female mating preferences are often flexible, reflecting the social environment in which they are expressed. Associated indirect genetic effects (IGEs) can affect the rate and direction of evolutionary change, but sexual selection models do not capture these dynamics. We incorporate IGEs into quantitative genetic models to explore how variation in social environments and mate choice flexibility influence Fisherian sexual selection. The importance of IGEs is that runaway sexual selection can occur in the absence of a genetic correlation between male traits and female preferences. Social influences can facilitate the initiation of the runaway process and increase the rate of trait elaboration. Incorporating costs to choice do not alter the main findings. Our model provides testable predictions: (1) genetic covariances between male traits and female preferences may not exist, (2) social flexibility in female choice will be common in populations experiencing strong sexual selection, (3) variation in social environments should be associated with rapid sexual trait divergence, and (4) secondary sexual traits will be more elaborate than previously predicted. Allowing feedback from the social environment resolves discrepancies between theoretical predictions and empirical data, such as why indirect selection on female preferences, theoretically weak, might be sufficient for preferences to become elaborated. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli; McInnis, Donald; Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo; Goncalves, Nilmara; Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio; Nascimento, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  12. Sterile medfly males of the tsl Vienna 8 genetic sexing strain display improved mating performance with ginger root oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: bjordao@cpatsa.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a

  13. Use of noninvasive ‘bug-eggs’ to enable comparative inferences on genetic mating system with and without parental information: A study in a cattle egret colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Elaine Dantas; Moralez-Silva, Emmanuel; Valdes, Talita Alvarenga; Cortiço Corrêa Rodrigues, Vera Lúcia

    2017-01-01

    Colonial waterbirds such as herons, egrets and spoonbills exhibit ecological characteristics that could have promoted the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism and extra-pair copulation. However, an adequate characterization of the genetic mating systems of this avian group has been hindered by the lack of samples of elusive candidate parents which precluded conducting conventional parentage allocation tests. Here, we investigate the genetic mating system of the invasive cattle egret using hematophagous insects contained in fake eggs to collect blood from incubating adults in a wild breeding colony. We tested a protocol with a previously unused Neotropical Triatominae, Panstrongylus megistus, obtained blood samples from males and females in 31 nests built on trees, drew blood from 89 nestlings at those nests, and genotyped all samples at 14 microsatellite loci, including six new species-specific loci. We comparatively addressed the performance of parentage allocation versus kinship classification of nestlings to infer the genetic mating system of cattle egrets. In line with previous behavioral observations, we found evidence in support of a non-monogamous genetic mating system, including extra-pair paternity (EPP) and conspecific brood parasitism (CBP). Parentage allocation tests detected a higher percentage of nests with alternative reproductive tactics (EPP: 61.7%; CBP: 64.5%) than the kinship classification method (EPP: 50.0%; CBP: 43.3%). Overall, these results indicate that rates of alternative reproductive tactics inferred in the absence of parental genetic information could be underestimated and should be interpreted with caution. This study highlights the importance of incorporating samples from candidate parents to adequately determine the genetic mating system of a species. We expand knowledge on the reproductive tactics of colonial waterbirds, contributing novel data on the genetic mating system of the cattle egret, valuable for the design of

  14. Use of noninvasive 'bug-eggs' to enable comparative inferences on genetic mating system with and without parental information: A study in a cattle egret colony.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Isabel Miño

    Full Text Available Colonial waterbirds such as herons, egrets and spoonbills exhibit ecological characteristics that could have promoted the evolution of conspecific brood parasitism and extra-pair copulation. However, an adequate characterization of the genetic mating systems of this avian group has been hindered by the lack of samples of elusive candidate parents which precluded conducting conventional parentage allocation tests. Here, we investigate the genetic mating system of the invasive cattle egret using hematophagous insects contained in fake eggs to collect blood from incubating adults in a wild breeding colony. We tested a protocol with a previously unused Neotropical Triatominae, Panstrongylus megistus, obtained blood samples from males and females in 31 nests built on trees, drew blood from 89 nestlings at those nests, and genotyped all samples at 14 microsatellite loci, including six new species-specific loci. We comparatively addressed the performance of parentage allocation versus kinship classification of nestlings to infer the genetic mating system of cattle egrets. In line with previous behavioral observations, we found evidence in support of a non-monogamous genetic mating system, including extra-pair paternity (EPP and conspecific brood parasitism (CBP. Parentage allocation tests detected a higher percentage of nests with alternative reproductive tactics (EPP: 61.7%; CBP: 64.5% than the kinship classification method (EPP: 50.0%; CBP: 43.3%. Overall, these results indicate that rates of alternative reproductive tactics inferred in the absence of parental genetic information could be underestimated and should be interpreted with caution. This study highlights the importance of incorporating samples from candidate parents to adequately determine the genetic mating system of a species. We expand knowledge on the reproductive tactics of colonial waterbirds, contributing novel data on the genetic mating system of the cattle egret, valuable for the

  15. The effects of assortative mating on the genetic change due to linear index selection in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Gil, M G

    1994-01-12

    The effectiveness of the assortative mating of selected individuals in increasing linear index selection response was tested in Tribolium castaneum. The experiment was designed to increase pupal length and adult weight, using selection and assortative mating with respect to a linear index of these traits. The experiment consisted of a randomly (R) and assortatively (A) mated line, with three replicates in each line. The proportion of selection was 25 %. Phenotypic correlations between mates in line A were not significantly different from 1. Average selection responses did not significantly differ in either line, although there was some indication of an effect of the mating system, since the response for the aggregate value was higher in line A (0.78 ± 0.15 as opposed to 0.57 ± 0.13). Average response for the selection goal and adult weight was statistically significant for both lines. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Auswirkungen assortativer Anpaarung auf genetischen Fortschritt bei Anwendung eines linearen Selektionsindex bei Tribolium Die Wirksamkeit assortativer Anpaarung selektionierter Individuen zur Verstärkung der Selektion mittels linearem Index wurde bei Tribolium castaneum untersucht. Selektion zielte auf längere Puppen und auf Gewichtssteigerung ausgewachsener Tiere. Das Experiment umfaßte eine zufällig angepaarte (R) und eine assortativ angepaarte (A) Linie mit je drei Wiederholungen. Die Remontierung betrug 25%. Die phänotypische Partner-Korrelation bei den in Linie A angepaarten Individuen wich nicht wesentlich von 1 ab. Die durchschnittliche Verbesserung war bei beiden Linien nicht significant verschieden, obwohl es Anzeichen einer Auswirkung des Paarungssystems gab. Die Koeffizienten der Linie A lagen höher (0.78 ± 0.15 gegenüber 0.57 ± 0.13 für Linie R). Die durchnittliche Veränderung des Selektionsziels und des Gewichts der ausgewachsenen Tiere waren statistisch significant. RÉSUMÉ: Les effets de l'accouplement classifié sur le changement g

  16. Selection and genetic gain in rubber tree (Hevea populations using a mixed mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Reginaldo Brito da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The components of genetic variation and genetic gain obtained with three selection methods - individual, combined and multi-effect index selection - were compared in rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] progenies. The rubber tree is a cross pollinating species with a mixed reproductive system in which the self pollination rate is 22%. Twenty-two half sib progenies were planted at experimental stations at Pindorama, Votuporanga and Jaú, in São Paulo State, using a randomized and complete block design, with five replications and ten plants per plot. Dry rubber production was assessed when the plants were three years old. Based on the genetic variability of the populations, Pindorama was the best environment for the expression of variability. At the individual level, heritability was seriously affected when random progenies from an open pollinating population were considered as half sib progenies. Considerable overestimation of genetic gains occurred during individual, combined and multi-effect index selection when the rubber tree reproductive system was not considered as mixed. Selection based on the multi-effect index maximizes genetic progress and should be used more in rubber tree breeding programs.

  17. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration, female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inke van der SLUIJS, Peter D. DIJKSTRA, Charlotte M. LINDEYER et al.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Both inter- and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits. Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can, in theory, lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait. Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow, while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism. Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on. We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference, male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia. We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red. Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire, indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable. We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests. There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires, but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference. Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males, whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias. There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration, possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage, which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism [Current Zoology 59 (2: 221-229, 2013].

  18. Genetic factors predisposing to homosexuality may increase mating success in heterosexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Morley, K.I.; Shekar, S.N.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Keller, M.C.; MacGregor, S.; Wright, M.J.; Bailey, J.M.; Martin, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that human sexual orientation is genetically influenced, so it is not known how homosexuality, which tends to lower reproductive success, is maintained in the population at a relatively high frequency. One hypothesis proposes that while genes predisposing to

  19. No evidence for a genetic association between female mating preference and male secondary sexual trait in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inke van der SLUIJS, Ole SEEHAUSEN, Tom J. M. Van DOOREN,Jacques J. M. van ALPHEN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection by female mating preference for male nuptial coloration has been suggested as a driving force in the rapid speciation of Lake Victoria cichlid fish. This process could have been facilitated or accelerated by genetic associations between female preference loci and male coloration loci. Preferences, as well as coloration, are heritable traits and are probably determined by more than one gene. However, little is known about potential genetic associations between these traits. In turbid water, we found a population that is variable in male nuptial coloration from blue to yellow to red. Males at the extreme ends of the phenotype distribution resemble a reproductively isolated species pair in clear water that has diverged into one species with blue-grey males and one species with bright red males. Females of the turbid water population vary in mating preference coinciding with the male phenotype distribution. For the current study, these females were mated to blue males. We measured the coloration of the sires and male offspring. Parents-offspring regression showed that the sires did not affect male offspring coloration, which confirms earlier findings that the blue species breeds true. In contrast, male offspring coloration was determined by the identity of the dams, which suggests that there is heritable variation in male color genes between females. However, we found that mating preferences of the dams were not correlated with male offspring coloration. Thus, there is no evidence for strong genetic linkage between mating preference and the preferred trait in this population [Current Zoology 56 (1: 57–64 2010].

  20. Widespread genetic linkage of mating signals and preferences in the Hawaiian cricket Laupala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Chris; Ellison, Christopher K.; Shaw, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of novel sexual communication systems is integral to the process of speciation, as it discourages gene flow between incipient species. Physical linkage between genes underlying male–female communication (i.e. sexual signals and preferences for them) facilitates both rapid and coordinated divergence of sexual communication systems between populations and reduces recombination in the face of occasional hybridization between diverging populations. Despite these ramifications of the genetic architecture of sexual communication for sexual selection and speciation, few studies have examined this relationship empirically. Previous studies of the closely related Hawaiian crickets Laupala paranigra and Laupala kohalensis have indirectly suggested that many of the genes underlying the difference in pulse rate of male song are physically linked with genes underlying the difference in female preference for pulse rate. Using marker-assisted introgression, we moved ‘slow pulse rate’ alleles from L. paranigra at five known quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying male pulse rate into the ‘fast pulse rate’ genetic background of L. kohalensis and assessed the effect of these loci on female preference. An astounding four out of five song QTL predicted the preferences of female fourth-generation backcrosses, providing direct evidence for the extensive genetic linkage of song and preference in one of the fastest diversifying genera currently known. PMID:21957135

  1. Cost of Mating and Insemination Capacity of a Genetically Modified Mosquito Aedes aegypti OX513A Compared to Its Wild Type Counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargielowski, Irka; Alphey, Luke; Koella, Jacob C.

    2011-01-01

    The idea of implementing genetics-based insect control strategies modelled on the traditional SIT is becoming increasingly popular. In this paper we compare a genetically modified line of Aedes aegypti carrying a tetracycline repressible, lethal positive feedback system (OX513A) with its wild type counterpart with respect to their insemination capacities and the cost of courtship and mating. Genetically modified males inseminated just over half as many females as the wild type males during their lifetime. Providing days of rest from mating had no significant effect on the total number of females inseminated by males of either line, but it did increase their longevity. Producing sperm had a low cost in terms of energy investment; the cost of transferring this sperm to a receptive female was much higher. Continued mating attempts with refractory females suggest that males could not identify refractory females before investing substantial energy in courtship. Although over a lifetime OX513A males inseminated fewer females, the number of females inseminated over the first three days, was similar between males of the two lines, suggesting that the identified cost of RIDL may have little impact on the outcome of SIT-based control programmes with frequent releases of the genetically modified males. PMID:22022518

  2. Testing the prediction from sexual selection of a positive genetic correlation between human mate preferences and corresponding traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, C.J.H.; Burri, A.V.; Zietsch, B.P.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection can cause evolution in traits that affect mating success, and it has thus been implicated in the evolution of human physical and behavioural traits that influence attractiveness. We use a large sample of identical and nonidentical female twins to test the prediction from mate choice

  3. Mate choice screening in captive solitary carnivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Mate choice studies suggest that choosy females benefit from increased fecundity, litter size, and offspring survival. Thus, providing females with the opportunity to choose among potential mates, deemed genetically suitable based on studbook data, might improve breeding management in production ...

  4. Genetic isolation between two sympatric host plant races of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner. II: assortative mating and host-plant preferences for oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethenod, M-T; Thomas, Y; Rousset, F; Frérot, B; Pélozuelo, L; Genestier, G; Bourguet, D

    2005-02-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner, colonized maize (Zea mays L.) after its introduction into Europe about 500 years ago and is now considered one of the main pests of this crop. In northern France, two sympatric host races have been described: one feeding on maize and the other on mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris L.) and hop (Humulus lupulus L.). In a previous study, we showed that mating between the two races may be impeded by differences in the timing of moth emergence and in the composition of the sex pheromone produced by the females. In this study, we further investigated the genetic isolation of these two races using strains from the maize (Z strain) and mugwort (E strain) races selected for diagnostic alleles at two allozyme loci. In a cage containing maize and mugwort plants and located in natural conditions, mating between individuals of the same strain occurred more often than mating between males and females of the E and Z strains. In particular, we obtained no evidence for crosses between Z females and E males. We also found that females of the Z strain laid their eggs almost exclusively on maize, whereas females of the E strain laid their eggs preferentially, but not exclusively, on mugwort. These results suggest that the genetic differentiation between the two host races may also be favored by host-plant preference, one of the first steps toward sympatric speciation.

  5. Quantitative genetic analysis of methylxanthines and phenolic compounds in mate progenies Análise genética quantitativa de metilxantinas e compostos fenólicos em progênies de erva-mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Lara Cardozo Junior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the contents of methylxanthines, caffeine and theobromine, and phenolic compounds, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, in 51 mate progenies (half-sib families and estimate the heritability of genetic parameters. Mate progenies were from five Brazilian municipalities: Pinhão, Ivaí, Barão de Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu, and Cascavel. The progenies were grown in the Ivaí locality. The contents of the compounds were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The estimation of genetic parameters by the restricted maximum likelihood (REML and the prediction of genotypic values via best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP were obtained by the Selegen - REML/BLUP software. Caffeine (0.248-1.663% and theobromine (0.106-0.807% contents were significantly different (p0.5. The two different progeny groups determined for chlorogenic (1.365-2.281% and caffeic (0.027-0.037% acid contents were not significantly different (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de metilxantinas, cafeína e teobromina, e de compostos fenólicos, ácido clorogênico e ácido cafeico, em 51 progênies de erva-mate e estimar componentes de variância e herdabilidade. As progênies de erva-mate eram oriundas de cinco municipios brasileiros: Pinhão, Ivaí, Barão do Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu e Cascavel. Essas progênies foram cultivadas na localidade de Ivaí. O conteúdo dos compostos foi obtido por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Na estimativa dos componentes da variância e dos parâmetros genotípicos, utilizou-se a metodologia de modelos mistos para a obtenção da melhor predição linear não viciada (BLUP dos efeitos genotípicos e o processo da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML, processados pelo programa Selegen - REML/BLUP. Os conteúdos de cafeína (0,248-1,663 % e teobromina (0,106-0.807% foram significativamente (p0,5. Foram determinados dois diferentes grupos de progênie para

  6. Genetic evidence reveals density-dependent mediated success of alternative mating behaviours in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reichard, Martin; Smith, C.; Jordan, W. C.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2004), s. 1569-1578 ISSN 0962-1083 Grant - others:NATO/Royal Society(GB) fellowship; Royal Society(GB) Joint Project Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : fish * mating tactics * paternity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.375, year: 2004

  7. Is Variability in Mate Choice Similar for Intelligence and Personality Traits? Testing a Hypothesis about the Evolutionary Genetics of Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Emily A.; Shackelford, Todd K.; Buss, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis presented by Penke, Denissen, and Miller (2007a) that condition-dependent traits, including intelligence, attractiveness, and health, are universally and uniformly preferred as characteristics in a mate relative to traits that are less indicative of condition, including personality traits. We analyzed…

  8. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral

  9. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer - eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Madhav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. Results We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m of that observed in the core populations (15 m. Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82 than in the peripheral (Nb = 48 populations. Conclusion Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short

  10. Mating Design and Genetic Structure of a Multi-Parent Advanced Generation Intercross (MAGIC Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

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    Patrick O. Ongom

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC populations are powerful next-generation mapping resources. We describe here the mating design and structure of the first MAGIC population in sorghum, and test its utility for mapping. The population was developed by intercrossing 19 diverse founder lines through a series of paired crosses with a genetic male sterile (MS source, followed by 10 generations of random mating. At the final stage of random mating, 1000 random fertile plants in the population were identified and subjected to six generations of selfing to produce 1000 immortal MAGIC inbred lines. The development of this sorghum MAGIC population took over 15 yr. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS of a subset of 200 MAGIC lines identified 79,728 SNPs, spanning high gene-rich regions. Proportion of SNPs per chromosome ranged from 6 to 15%. Structure analyses produced no evidence of population stratification, portraying the desirability of this population for genome-wide association studies (GWAS. The 19 founders formed three clusters, each with considerable genetic diversity. Further analysis showed that 73% of founder alleles segregated in the MAGIC population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns depicted the MAGIC population to be highly recombined, with LD decaying to r2 ≤ 0.2 at 40 kb and down to r2 ≤ 0.1 at 220 kb. GWAS detected two known plant height genes, DWARF1 (chromosome 9 and DWARF3 (chromosome 7, and a potentially new plant height quantitative trait locus (QTL (QTL-6 on chromosome 6. The MAGIC population was found to be rich in allelic content with high fragmentation of its genome, making it fit for both gene mapping and effective marker-assisted breeding.

  11. Mating Design and Genetic Structure of a Multi-Parent Advanced Generation Intercross (MAGIC) Population of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor(L.) Moench).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongom, Patrick O; Ejeta, Gebisa

    2018-01-04

    Multi-parent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) populations are powerful next-generation mapping resources. We describe here the mating design and structure of the first MAGIC population in sorghum, and test its utility for mapping. The population was developed by intercrossing 19 diverse founder lines through a series of paired crosses with a genetic male sterile (MS) source, followed by 10 generations of random mating. At the final stage of random mating, 1000 random fertile plants in the population were identified and subjected to six generations of selfing to produce 1000 immortal MAGIC inbred lines. The development of this sorghum MAGIC population took over 15 yr. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) of a subset of 200 MAGIC lines identified 79,728 SNPs, spanning high gene-rich regions. Proportion of SNPs per chromosome ranged from 6 to 15%. Structure analyses produced no evidence of population stratification, portraying the desirability of this population for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The 19 founders formed three clusters, each with considerable genetic diversity. Further analysis showed that 73% of founder alleles segregated in the MAGIC population. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns depicted the MAGIC population to be highly recombined, with LD decaying to r 2 [Formula: see text] 0.2 at 40 kb and down to r 2 [Formula: see text] 0.1 at 220 kb. GWAS detected two known plant height genes, DWARF1 (chromosome 9) and DWARF3 (chromosome 7), and a potentially new plant height quantitative trait locus (QTL) ( QTL-6 ) on chromosome 6. The MAGIC population was found to be rich in allelic content with high fragmentation of its genome, making it fit for both gene mapping and effective marker-assisted breeding. Copyright © 2018 Ongom, Ejeta.

  12. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polychronis Rempoulakis

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS that has a white pupae (wp and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C. The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2 strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were

  13. Evaluation of Quality Production Parameters and Mating Behavior of Novel Genetic Sexing Strains of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Taret, Gustavo; Haq, Ihsan Ul; Wornayporn, Viwat; Ahmad, Sohel; Sto Tomas, Ulysses; Dammalage, Thilakasiri; Gembinsky, Keke; Franz, Gerald; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the most important pest of fruits and vegetables in tropical and subtropical countries. The sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches is being used for the successful management of this pest. VIENNA 8 is a genetic sexing strain (GSS) that has a white pupae (wp) and temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation, the latter killing all female embryos when eggs are exposed to high temperatures (34°C). The use of this GSS permits production and the release of only males which has increased the cost effectiveness of the SIT several fold for this pest. An efficient method of identification of recaptured sterile males can further increase the cost effectiveness of the SIT for this pest. Therefore, VIENNA 8-Sergeant2 (Sr2) strain and the transgenic strain VIENNA 8-1260 having visible markers were constructed. All three strains were evaluated for egg production, egg hatch, and egg sterility parameters under semi mass-rearing conditions and mating competitiveness in field cages. VIENNA 8-1260 females produced significantly fewer eggs as compared with the two other strains, which produced similar numbers of eggs. However, egg hatch of all strains was similar. Egg hatch of eggs produced by untreated females that had mated with adult males that had been irradiated with 100 Gy as pupae 2 days before emergence, was different for the three strains, i.e., egg hatch of 0.63%, 0.77%, 0.89% for VIENNA 8, VIENNA 8-1260, and VIENNA 8-Sr2, respectively. Differences in male mating competitiveness of the three strains against wild-type males were gradually reduced with successive generations under semi mass-rearing conditions. However, VIENNA 8 males adapted faster to laboratory conditions as compared with VIENNA 8-Sr2 and VIENNA 8-1260 males with respect to mating competitiveness. VIENNA 8 males of the F10 generation were equally

  14. Multiple-geographic-scale genetic structure of two mangrove tree species: the roles of mating system, hybridization, limited dispersal and extrinsic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M Mori

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants comprise a unique group of organisms that grow within the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical regions and whose distributions are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. To understand how these extrinsic and intrinsic processes influence a more fundamental level of the biological hierarchy of mangroves, we studied the genetic diversity of two Neotropical mangrove trees, Avicenniagerminans and A. schaueriana, using microsatellites markers. As reported for other sea-dispersed species, there was a strong differentiation between A. germinans and A. schaueriana populations sampled north and south of the northeastern extremity of South America, likely due to the influence of marine superficial currents. Moreover, we observed fine-scale genetic structures even when no obvious physical barriers were present, indicating pollen and propagule dispersal limitation, which could be explained by isolation-by-distance coupled with mating system differences. We report the first evidence of ongoing hybridization between Avicennia species and that these hybrids are fertile, although this interspecific crossing has not contributed to an increase in the genetic diversity the populations where A. germinans and A. schaueriana hybridize. These findings highlight the complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape the distribution of the genetic diversity in these sea-dispersed colonizer species.

  15. Multiple-Geographic-Scale Genetic Structure of Two Mangrove Tree Species: The Roles of Mating System, Hybridization, Limited Dispersal and Extrinsic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Gustavo M.; Zucchi, Maria I.; Souza, Anete P.

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove plants comprise a unique group of organisms that grow within the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical regions and whose distributions are influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors. To understand how these extrinsic and intrinsic processes influence a more fundamental level of the biological hierarchy of mangroves, we studied the genetic diversity of two Neotropical mangrove trees, Avicenniagerminans and A. schaueriana, using microsatellites markers. As reported for other sea-dispersed species, there was a strong differentiation between A. germinans and A. schaueriana populations sampled north and south of the northeastern extremity of South America, likely due to the influence of marine superficial currents. Moreover, we observed fine-scale genetic structures even when no obvious physical barriers were present, indicating pollen and propagule dispersal limitation, which could be explained by isolation-by-distance coupled with mating system differences. We report the first evidence of ongoing hybridization between Avicennia species and that these hybrids are fertile, although this interspecific crossing has not contributed to an increase in the genetic diversity the populations where A. germinans and A. schaueriana hybridize. These findings highlight the complex interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic factors that shape the distribution of the genetic diversity in these sea-dispersed colonizer species. PMID:25723532

  16. A molecular genetic examination of the mating system of pumpkinseed sunfish reveals high pay-offs for specialized sneakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Cardenas, Oscar; Webster, Michael S

    2008-05-01

    Intrasexual variation in reproductive behaviour and morphology are common in nature. Often, such variation appears to result from conditional strategies in which some individuals (e.g. younger males or those in poor condition) adopt a low pay-off phenotype as a 'best of a bad job'. Alternatively, reproductive polymorphisms can be maintained by balancing selection, with male phenotypes having equal fitnesses at equilibrium, but examples from nature are rare. Many species of sunfish (genus Lepomis) are thought to have alternative male reproductive behaviours, but most empirical work has focused on the bluegill sunfish and the mating systems of other sunfish remain poorly understood. We studied a population of pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) in upstate New York. Field observations confirm the existence of two male reproductive strategies: 'parentals' were relatively old and large males that maintained nests, and 'sneakers' were relatively young and small males that fertilize eggs by darting into nests of parentals during spawning. The sneaker and parental male strategies appear to be distinct life-history trajectories. Sneaker males represented 39% of the males observed spawning, and sneakers intruded on 43% of all mating attempts. Microsatellite analyses revealed that sneaker males fertilized an average of 15% of the eggs within a nest. This level of paternity by sneaker males appears to be higher than seen in most other fishes, and preliminary analyses suggest that the two male reproductive strategies are maintained as a balanced polymorphism.

  17. The effects of disruptive and stabilizing selection on body size in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Genetic analysis of two lines with different reactions to disruptive selection with mating of opposite extremes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Scharloo, W.

    1974-01-01

    A genetic analysis was made of two lines which when subjected to disruptive selection with compulsary mating of opposite extremes (D−) showed a different response viz. one, D−-1, showing predominantly an increase of environmental variance and possibly interaction variance, the other, D−-2, showing

  18. Relationships between population density, fine-scale genetic structure, mating system and pollen dispersal in a timber tree from African rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duminil, J; Daïnou, K; Kaviriri, D K; Gillet, P; Loo, J; Doucet, J-L; Hardy, O J

    2016-03-01

    Owing to the reduction of population density and/or the environmental changes it induces, selective logging could affect the demography, reproductive biology and evolutionary potential of forest trees. This is particularly relevant in tropical forests where natural population densities can be low and isolated trees may be subject to outcross pollen limitation and/or produce low-quality selfed seeds that exhibit inbreeding depression. Comparing reproductive biology processes and genetic diversity of populations at different densities can provide indirect evidence of the potential impacts of logging. Here, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity, mating system and gene flow in three Central African populations of the self-compatible legume timber species Erythrophleum suaveolens with contrasting densities (0.11, 0.68 and 1.72 adults per ha). The comparison of inbreeding levels among cohorts suggests that selfing is detrimental as inbred individuals are eliminated between seedling and adult stages. Levels of genetic diversity, selfing rates (∼16%) and patterns of spatial genetic structure (Sp ∼0.006) were similar in all three populations. However, the extent of gene dispersal differed markedly among populations: the average distance of pollen dispersal increased with decreasing density (from 200 m in the high-density population to 1000 m in the low-density one). Overall, our results suggest that the reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the species are not affected by current logging practices. However, further investigations need to be conducted in low-density populations to evaluate (1) whether pollen limitation may reduce seed production and (2) the regeneration potential of the species.

  19. Positive assortative mating with selection restrictions on group coancestry enhances gain while conserving genetic diversity in long-term forest tree breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, O; Mullin, T J

    2003-08-01

    Selection and mating principles in a closed breeding population (BP) were studied by computer simulation. The BP was advanced, either by random assortment of mates (RAM), or by positive assortative mating (PAM). Selection was done with high precision using clonal testing. Selection considered both genetic gain and gene diversity by "group-merit selection", i.e. selection for breeding value weighted by group coancestry of the selected individuals. A range of weights on group coancestry was applied during selection to vary parent contributions and thereby adjust the balance between gain and diversity. This resulted in a series of scenarios with low to high effective population sizes measured by status effective number. Production populations (PP) were selected only for gain, as a subset of the BP. PAM improved gain in the PP substantially, by increasing the additive variance (i.e. the gain potential) of the BP. This effect was more pronounced under restricted selection when parent contributions to the next generation were more balanced with within-family selection as the extreme, i.e. when a higher status effective number was maintained in the BP. In that case, the additional gain over the BP mean for the clone PP and seed PPs was 32 and 84% higher, respectively, for PAM than for RAM in generation 5. PAM did not reduce gene diversity of the BP but increased inbreeding, and in that way caused a departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The effect of inbreeding was eliminated by recombination during the production of seed orchard progeny. Also, for a given level of inbreeding in the seed orchard progeny or in a mixture of genotypes selected for clonal deployment, gain was higher for PAM than for RAM. After including inbreeding depression in the simulation, inbreeding was counteracted by selection, and the enhancement of PAM on production population gain was slightly reduced. In the presence of inbreeding depression the greatest PP gain was achieved at still higher

  20. Desiring mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durber, Dean

    2006-01-01

    The discourse of gay liberation reads silence surrounding personal participation in same-sex sexualized pleasures as a sign of repression, oppression and a positioning in the closet. In contrast, coming out is an important step towards accepting one's true homosexual self. The demand for the emancipation of the homosexual type further suggests that all same-sex sexualized contact signifies the homosexuality of the subjects involved, regardless of whether they recognize this or not. This compulsory homosexualization of men who have sexualized contact with men does not apply to relationships between male friends ("mates"). A "mateship" union grants a level of privacy otherwise eradicated by a gay liberation movement insistent on the public confession of a homosexual orientation. To remain silent about corporeal pleasures poses a threat to the modernist preference for control of bodies and to the established gay identity. Silence offers a space for the construction of new modes of same-sex intimate relationships within a queer framework.

  1. Heterozygosity-based assortative mating in blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus): implications for the evolution of mate choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Navas, Vicente; Ortego, Joaquín; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    The general hypothesis of mate choice based on non-additive genetic traits suggests that individuals would gain important benefits by choosing genetically dissimilar mates (compatible mate hypothesis) and/or more heterozygous mates (heterozygous mate hypothesis). In this study, we test these hypotheses in a socially monogamous bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We found no evidence for a relatedness-based mating pattern, but heterozygosity was positively correlated between social mates, suggesting that blue tits may base their mating preferences on partner's heterozygosity. We found evidence that the observed heterozygosity-based assortative mating could be maintained by both direct and indirect benefits. Heterozygosity reflected individual quality in both sexes: egg production and quality increased with female heterozygosity while more heterozygous males showed higher feeding rates during the brood-rearing period. Further, estimated offspring heterozygosity correlated with both paternal and maternal heterozygosity, suggesting that mating with heterozygous individuals can increase offspring genetic quality. Finally, plumage crown coloration was associated with male heterozygosity, and this could explain unanimous mate preferences for highly heterozygous and more ornamented individuals. Overall, this study suggests that non-additive genetic traits may play an important role in the evolution of mating preferences and offers empirical support to the resolution of the lek paradox from the perspective of the heterozygous mate hypothesis. PMID:19474042

  2. The evolution of mate choice and mating biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Robert; Jennions, Michael D; Morley, Josephine

    2003-03-22

    We review the current status of three well-established models (direct benefits, indirect benefits and sensory drive) and one newcomer (antagonistic chase-away) of the evolution of mate choice and the biases that are expressed during choice. We highlight the differences and commonalities in the underlying genetics and evolutionary dynamics of these models. We then argue that progress in understanding the evolution of mate choice is currently hampered by spurious distinctions among models and a misguided tendency to test the processes underlying each model as mutually exclusive alternatives. Finally, we suggest potentially fruitful directions for future theoretical and empirical research.

  3. The effects of genetic manipulation, dieldrin treatment and irradiation on the mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis in field cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hanano; Vreysen, Marc J B; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Munhenga, Givemore; Damiens, David D

    2014-08-13

    To enable the release of only sterile male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes for the sterile insect technique, the genetic background of a wild-type strain was modified to create a genetic sexing strain ANO IPCL1 that was based on a dieldrin resistance mutation. Secondly, the eggs of ANO IPCL1 require treatment with dieldrin to allow complete elimination of female L1 larvae from the production line. Finally, male mosquito pupae need to be treated with an irradiation dose of 75 Gy for sterilization. The effects of these treatments on the competitiveness of male An. arabiensis were studied. The competitiveness of ANO IPCL1 males that were treated either with irradiation or both dieldrin and irradiation, was compared with that of the wild-type strain (An. arabiensis Dongola) at a 1:1 ratio in 5.36 m3 semi-field cages located in a climate-controlled greenhouse. In addition, three irradiated: untreated male ratios were tested in semi-field cages (1:1, 5:1 and 10:1) and their competition for virgin wild-type females was assessed. The ANO IPCL1 males were equally competitive as the wild-type males in this semi-field setting. The ANO IPCL1 males irradiated at 75 Gy were approximately half as competitive as the unirradiated wild-type males. ANO IPCL1 males that had been treated with dieldrin as eggs, and irradiated with 75 Gy as pupae were slightly more competitive than males that were only irradiated. Ratios of 1:1, 5:1 and 10:1 irradiated ANO IPCL1 males: untreated wild-type males resulted in 31, 66 and 81% induced sterility in the female cage population, respectively. An irradiation dose of 75 Gy reduced the competitiveness of male ANO IPCL1 significantly and will need to be compensated by releasing higher numbers of sterile males in the field. However, the dieldrin treatment used to eliminate females appears to have an unexpected radioprotectant effect, however the mechanism is not understood. A sterile to wild-type ratio of 10:1 effectively reduced the population

  4. Variation in human mate choice: Simultaneously investigating heritability, parental influence, sexual imprinting, and assortative mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Heath, A.C.; Martin, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Human mate choice is central to individuals' lives and to the evolution of the species, but the basis of variation in mate choice is not well understood. Here we looked at a large community-based sample of twins and their partners and parents (N > 20,000 individuals) to test for genetic and family

  5. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 2. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ubiquitous: evidence from sperm competition in laboratory populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and Drosophila nasuta albomicans. B. Shruthi S. R. Ramesh. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 2 ...

  6. Quantitative genetics of traits associated with hip dysplasia in a canine pedigree constructed by mating dysplastic Labrador Retrievers with unaffected Greyhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Stuart; Todhunter, Rory J; Quaas, Richard; Casella, George; Wu, Rongling; Lust, George; Williams, Alma Jo; Hamilton, Samuel; Dykes, Nathan L; Yeager, Amy; Gilbert, Robert O; Burton-Wurster, Nancy I; Acland, Gregory M

    2002-07-01

    To determine the genetic influence on expression of traits associated with canine hip dysplasia. 193 dogs from an experimental canine pedigree. An experimental canine pedigree was developed for linkage analysis of hip dysplasia by mating dysplastic Labrador Retrievers with nondysplastic Greyhounds. A statistical model was designed to test the effects of Labrador Retriever and Greyhound alleles on age at detection of femoral capital epiphyseal ossification, 8-month distraction index, and 8-month dorsolateral subluxation score. The additive effect was significant for age at detection of femoral capital epiphyseal ossification. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates (+/-SD) for this trait were 6.4+/-1.95, 10.2+/-2.0, 10.8+/-3.1, 11.4+/-2.1, and 13.6+/-4.6 days of age for Greyhounds, Greyhound backcross dogs, F1 dogs, Labrador Retriever backcross dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. The additive effect was also significant for the distraction index. Estimates for this trait were 0.21+/-0.07, 0.29+/-0.15, 0.44+/-0.12, 0.52+/-0.18, and 0.6+/-0.17 for the same groups, respectively. For the dorsolateral subluxation score, additive and dominance effects were significant. Estimates for this trait were 73.5+/-4.1, 71.3+/-6.5, 69.1+/-6.0, 50.6+/-12.9, and 48.4+/-7.7%, respectively, for the same groups. In this canine pedigree, traits associated with canine hip dysplasia are heritable. Phenotypic differences exist among founder dogs of each breed and their crosses. This pedigree should be useful for identification of quantitative trait loci underlying the dysplastic phenotype.

  7. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration, female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Inke van der SLUIJS, Peter D. DIJKSTRA, Charlotte M. LINDEYER et al.

    2013-01-01

    Both inter- and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits. Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can, in theory, lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait. Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow, while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymo...

  8. Evaluation of mating type distribution and genetic diversity of three Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence genes, PWL-2, AVR-Pii and Avr-Piz-t, in Thailand rice blast isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyaluk Sirisathaworn

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease, caused by the filamentous ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae, has been ranked among the most important diseases of rice. The molecular mechanisms against this fungus follow the idea of “gene-for-gene interaction”, in which a plant resistance (R gene product recognizes a fungal avirulence (Avr effector and triggers the defense response. However, the Avr genes have been shown to be rapidly evolving resulting in high levels of genetic diversity. This study investigated genetic diversity that is influenced by sexual recombination and mutation for the adaptation of rice blast fungus to overcome the defense response. Mating type distribution and the nucleotide sequence variation of three avirulence genes were evaluated—PWL-2, Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t. In total, 77 rice blast isolates collected from infected rice plants in northern, northeastern and central Thailand in 2005, 2010 and 2012, were used in the analysis with mating type and avirulence gene-specific primers. The results revealed that all the tested blast isolates belonged to the mating type MAT1-2, suggesting a lack of sexual recombination within the population. The successful rates of PWL-2, Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t gene-specific primer amplification were 100%, 60% and 54%, respectively. Base substitution mutation was observed in coding regions of the Avr-Pii and Avr-Piz-t genes. Although these results showed a low level of genetic diversity in Thai rice blast isolates, non-synonymous mutations did occur which revealed common mechanisms of selective pressure that are prone to adaptation of Avr genes. The information on nucleotide sequence variation and the genetic diversity of Avr genes obtained from this study could be useful for planning novel strategies in the development of rice breeding programs in Thailand.

  9. Female sexual polymorphism and fecundity consequences of male mating harassment in the wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Gosden

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and phenotypic variation in female response towards male mating attempts has been found in several laboratory studies, demonstrating sexually antagonistic co-evolution driven by mating costs on female fitness. Theoretical models suggest that the type and degree of genetic variation in female resistance could affect the evolutionary outcome of sexually antagonistic mating interactions, resulting in either rapid development of reproductive isolation and speciation or genetic clustering and female sexual polymorphisms. However, evidence for genetic variation of this kind in natural populations of non-model organisms is very limited. Likewise, we lack knowledge on female fecundity-consequences of matings and the degree of male mating harassment in natural settings. Here we present such data from natural populations of a colour polymorphic damselfly. Using a novel experimental technique of colour dusting males in the field, we show that heritable female colour morphs differ in their propensity to accept male mating attempts. These morphs also differ in their degree of resistance towards male mating attempts, the number of realized matings and in their fecundity-tolerance to matings and mating attempts. These results show that there may be genetic variation in both resistance and tolerance to male mating attempts (fitness consequences of matings in natural populations, similar to the situation in plant-pathogen resistance systems. Male mating harassment could promote the maintenance of a sexual mating polymorphism in females, one of few empirical examples of sympatric genetic clusters maintained by sexual conflict.

  10. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration, female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs, Inke; Dijkstra, Peter D.; Lindeyer, Charlotte M.; Visser, Bertanne; Smith, Alan M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Both inter- and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits. Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can, in theory, lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on

  11. Higher fine-scale genetic structure in peripheral than in core populations of a long-lived and mixed-mating conifer--eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Madhav; Rajora, Om P

    2012-04-05

    Fine-scale or spatial genetic structure (SGS) is one of the key genetic characteristics of plant populations. Several evolutionary and ecological processes and population characteristics influence the level of SGS within plant populations. Higher fine-scale genetic structure may be expected in peripheral than core populations of long-lived forest trees, owing to the differences in the magnitude of operating evolutionary and ecological forces such as gene flow, genetic drift, effective population size and founder effects. We addressed this question using eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) as a model species for declining to endangered long-lived tree species with mixed-mating system. We determined the SGS in two core and two peripheral populations of eastern white cedar from its Maritime Canadian eastern range using six nuclear microsatellite DNA markers. Significant SGS ranging from 15 m to 75 m distance classes was observed in the four studied populations. An analysis of combined four populations revealed significant positive SGS up to the 45 m distance class. The mean positive significant SGS observed in the peripheral populations was up to six times (up to 90 m) of that observed in the core populations (15 m). Spatial autocorrelation coefficients and correlograms of single and sub-sets of populations were statistically significant. The extent of within-population SGS was significantly negatively correlated with all genetic diversity parameters. Significant heterogeneity of within-population SGS was observed for 0-15 m and 61-90 m between core and peripheral populations. Average Sp, and gene flow distances were higher in peripheral (Sp = 0.023, σg = 135 m) than in core (Sp = 0.014, σg = 109 m) populations. However, the mean neighborhood size was higher in the core (Nb = 82) than in the peripheral (Nb = 48) populations. Eastern white cedar populations have significant fine-scale genetic structure at short distances. Peripheral populations have several

  12. Firefly Mating Algorithm for Continuous Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarita Ritthipakdee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a swarm intelligence algorithm, called firefly mating algorithm (FMA, for solving continuous optimization problems. FMA uses genetic algorithm as the core of the algorithm. The main feature of the algorithm is a novel mating pair selection method which is inspired by the following 2 mating behaviors of fireflies in nature: (i the mutual attraction between males and females causes them to mate and (ii fireflies of both sexes are of the multiple-mating type, mating with multiple opposite sex partners. A female continues mating until her spermatheca becomes full, and, in the same vein, a male can provide sperms for several females until his sperm reservoir is depleted. This new feature enhances the global convergence capability of the algorithm. The performance of FMA was tested with 20 benchmark functions (sixteen 30-dimensional functions and four 2-dimensional ones against FA, ALC-PSO, COA, MCPSO, LWGSODE, MPSODDS, DFOA, SHPSOS, LSA, MPDPGA, DE, and GABC algorithms. The experimental results showed that the success rates of our proposed algorithm with these functions were higher than those of other algorithms and the proposed algorithm also required fewer numbers of iterations to reach the global optima.

  13. Dissortativity and duplications in oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Pramod; Yadav, Alok; Rai, Aparna; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    More than 300 000 new cases worldwide are being diagnosed with oral cancer annually. Complexity of oral cancer renders designing drug targets very difficult. We analyse protein-protein interaction network for the normal and oral cancer tissue and detect crucial changes in the structural properties of the networks in terms of the interactions of the hub proteins and the degree-degree correlations. Further analysis of the spectra of both the networks, while exhibiting universal statistical behaviour, manifest distinction in terms of the zero degeneracy, providing insight to the complexity of the underlying system.

  14. Variabilidade genética e limite da seleção em populações de diferentes tipos de acasalamento Genetic variability and selection limit in populations of different mating designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Cunha

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Populações de cinco diferentes tipos de acasalamento, submetidas à seleção baseada no melhor preditor linear não-viesado (BLUP, foram avaliadas quanto às perdas genéticas por fixação de alelos desfavoráveis e limite da seleção, durante 50 gerações. Foram utilizados dados simulados na obtenção do genoma dos indivíduos de todas as populações. Uma característica quantitativa de herdabilidade 0,10 foi estudada em populações de seleção, com a seguinte estrutura de dados: razão sexual de 10, 20, 25 e 50 e tamanho efetivo da população de 36,36, 19,05, 15,38, e 7,84, respectivamente. Para cada razão sexual, formaram-se populações correspondentes aos tipos de acasalamento efetuados entre os reprodutores, em todas as gerações: acasalamentos preferenciais entre meios-irmãos e irmãos completos, acasalamentos preferenciais entre meios-irmãos, acasalamentos ao acaso, exclusão de acasalamentos entre irmãos completos e exclusão de acasalamentos entre meios-irmãos e irmãos completos. Valores percentuais mais baixos para locos fixados desfavoravelmente e limite da seleção mais alto foram observados na menor razão sexual (d= 10, na qual houve também melhor distinção entre os tipos de acasalamento estudados.Populations of five different mating designs, submitted to selection based on best linear unbiased predicto (BLUPr, were evaluated regarding to genetic losses by fixation of unfavorable alleles and selection limit, during 50 generations. Simulated data were used to obtain the genome of all individuals of the populations. A quantitative trait with heritability of 0.10 was studied in the selected populations, with the following structure: sexual ratio of 10, 20, 25, and 50 and effective population size of 36.36, 19.05, 15.38 and 7.84, respectively. For each sexual ratio different populations were generated corresponding to the following mating designs: preferential matings between half and full sibs, preferential

  15. The mating behavior of Iguana iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Over a 19 month period I observed the social behaviors of individually recognized green iguanas, Iguana iguana, at three sites in the llanos of Venezuela. The behavior of iguanas outside the mating season differed from that seen during the mating season in three major ways: (1) during normal waking hours outside the breeding season, adult iguanas spent the majority of time immobile, apparently resting; (2) their interactions involved fewer high intensity displays; and (3) their day to day movements were often nomadic. During the mating season, one site was watched continuously during daylight hours (iguanas sleep throughout the night), allowing a complete count of all copulation attempts (N = 250) and territorial interactions. At all sites, dominant males controlled access to small mating territories. Within the territories there did not appear to be any resources needed by females or their offspring. Thus, females could choose mates directly on the basis of male phenotype. Females aggregated in the mating territories of the largest males and mated preferentially with them. Territorial males copulated only once per day, although on several occasions more than one resident female was receptive on the same day. A few small nonterritorial males exhibited pseudofemale behavior (i.e., they abstained from sexual competition), but most nonterritorial males stayed on the periphery of mating territories and attempted to force copulations on unguarded females (peripheral male behavior). Uncooperative females were mounted by as many as three males simultaneously. Females resisted 95% of the 200 observed mating attempts by peripheral males, but only 56% of the attempts by territorial males (N = 43). The selectivity of the females probably increased the genetic representation of the territorial males in the next generation. During the mating season females maintained a dominance hierarchy among themselves. Low ranked females tended to be excluded from preferred

  16. Low-impact mating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor); Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Morales, Ray H. (Inventor); Robertson, Brandan R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An androgynous mating system for mating two exoatmospheric space modules comprising a first mating assembly capable of mating with a second mating assembly; a second mating assembly structurally identical to said first mating assembly, said first mating assembly comprising; a load ring; a plurality of load cell subassemblies; a plurality of actuators; a base ring; a tunnel; a closed loop control system; one or more electromagnets; and one or more striker plates, wherein said one or more electomagnets on said second mating assembly are capable of mating with said one or more striker plates on said first mating assembly, and wherein said one or more striker plates is comprised of a plate of predetermined shape and a 5-DOF mechanism capable of maintaining predetermined contact requirements during said mating of said one or more electromagnets and said one or more striker plates.

  17. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. cost of mating; immune defence; male size; sexual conflict; Drosophila melanogaster; Serratia marcescens. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 90, No. 3, December 2011. 427 ... can accrue due to persistent male harassment quite indepen- dent of mating (Lew et al. 2006). There is ample evidence to show the variation in ...

  18. Genetic diversity, QoI fungicide resistance, and mating type distribution of Cercospora sojina-Implications for the disease dynamics of frogeye leaf spot on soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sandesh Kumar; Cochran, Alicia; Mengistu, Alemu; Lamour, Kurt; Castro-Rocha, Arturo; Young-Kelly, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Frogeye leaf spot (FLS), caused by Cercospora sojina, causes significant damage to soybean in the U.S. One control strategy is the use of quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides. QoI resistant isolates were first reported in Tennessee (TN) in 2010. To investigate the disease dynamics of C. sojina, we collected 437 C. sojina isolates in 2015 from Jackson and Milan, TN and used 40 historical isolates collected from 2006-2009 from TN and ten additional states for comparison. A subset of 186 isolates, including historical isolates, were genotyped for 49 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and the QoI resistance locus, revealing 35 unique genotypes. The genotypes clustered into three groups with two groups containing only sensitive isolates and the remaining group containing all resistant isolates and a dominant clonal lineage of 130 isolates. All 477 C. sojina isolates were genotyped for the QoI locus revealing 344 resistant and 133 sensitive isolates. All isolates collected prior to 2015 were QoI sensitive. Both mating type alleles (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2) were found in Jackson and Milan, TN and recovered from single lesions suggesting sexual recombination may play a role in the epidemiology of field populations. Analysis of C. sojina isolates using SNP markers proved useful to investigate population diversity and to elaborate on diversity as it relates to QoI resistance and mating type.

  19. Insect mating signal and mate preference phenotypes covary among host plant genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Darren; Rodríguez, Rafael L

    2015-03-01

    Sexual selection acting on small initial differences in mating signals and mate preferences can enhance signal-preference codivergence and reproductive isolation during speciation. However, the origin of initial differences in sexual traits remains unclear. We asked whether biotic environments, a source of variation in sexual traits, may provide a general solution to this problem. Specifically, we asked whether genetic variation in biotic environments provided by host plants can result in signal-preference phenotypic covariance in a host-specific, plant-feeding insect. We used a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) to assess patterns of variation in male mating signals and female mate preferences induced by genetic variation in host plants. We employed a novel implementation of a quantitative genetics method, rearing field-collected treehoppers on a sample of naturally occurring replicated host plant clone lines. We found remarkably high signal-preference covariance among host plant genotypes. Thus, genetic variation in biotic environments influences the sexual phenotypes of organisms living on those environments in a way that promotes assortative mating among environments. This consequence arises from conditions likely to be common in nature (phenotypic plasticity and variation in biotic environments). It therefore offers a general answer to how divergent sexual selection may begin. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. Mating system variation and assortative mating of sympatric bromeliads (Pitcairnia spp.) endemic to neotropical inselbergs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Paggi, Gecele Matos; Lexer, Christian; Wendt, Tânia

    2015-05-01

    The mating system is an important component of the complex set of reproductive isolation barriers causing plant speciation. However, empirical evidence showing that the mating system may promote reproductive isolation in co-occurring species is limited. The mechanisms by which the mating system can act as a reproductive isolation barrier are also largely unknown. Here we studied progeny arrays genotyped with microsatellites and patterns of stigma-anther separation (herkogamy) to understand the role of mating system shifts in promoting reproductive isolation between two hybridizing taxa with porous genomes, Pitcairnia albiflos and P. staminea (Bromeliaceae). In P. staminea, we detected increased selfing and reduced herkogamy in one sympatric relative to two allopatric populations, consistent with mating system shifts in sympatry acting to maintain the species integrity of P. staminea when in contact with P. albiflos. Mating system variation is a result of several factors acting simultaneously in these populations. We report mating system shifts as one possible reproductive barrier between these species, acting in addition to numerous other prezygotic (i.e., flower phenology and pollination syndromes) and postzygotic barriers (Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller genetic incompatibilities). © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. Plant Mating Systems Often Vary Widely Among Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Whitehead

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most flowering plants are hermaphroditic, yet the proportion of seeds fertilized by self and outcross pollen varies widely among species, ranging from predominant self-fertilization to exclusive outcrossing. A population's rate of outcrossing has important evolutionary outcomes as it influences genetic structure, effective population size, and offspring fitness. Because most mating system studies have quantified outcrossing rates for just one or two populations, past reviews of mating system diversity have not been able to characterize the extent of variation among populations. Here we present a new database of more than 30 years of mating system studies that report outcrossing rates for three or more populations per species. This survey, which includes 741 populations from 105 species, illustrates substantial and prevalent among-population variation in the mating system. Intermediate outcrossing rates (mixed mating are common; 63% of species had at least one mixed mating population. The variance among populations and within species was not significantly correlated with pollination mode or phylogeny. Our review underscores the need for studies exploring variation in the relative influence of ecological and genetic factors on the mating system, and how this varies among populations. We conclude that estimates of outcrossing rates from single populations are often highly unreliable indicators of the mating system of an entire species.

  2. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DST Unit on Evolution and Genetics, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, ... sperm competition has been studied in different species of. Drosophila, such a .... Proportions of first male and second male progeny of doubly mated female and the results of paired-sample t-test carried out.

  3. Last mated male sperm precedence in doubly mated females is not ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DST Unit on Evolution and Genetics, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri,. Mysore 570 006, India .... using SPSS software (ver. 16.0). Results ... Proportions of first male and second male progeny of doubly mated female and the results of paired-sample t-test carried out independently for ...

  4. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  5. Genetic diversity and the mating system of a rare Mexican Piñon, Pinus pinceana, and a comparison with Pinus maximartinezii (Pinaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; Miguel A. Capó-Arteaga; Paul D. Hodgskiss; Hassan Sbay; Celestino Flores-López; M. Thompson Conkle; Basilio Bermejo-Velázquez

    2001-01-01

    Weeping piñon (Pinus pinceana) has a restricted and fragmented range, trees are widely scattered within populations, and reproduction is limited. Nevertheless, genetic diversity was high; based on 27 isozyme loci in 18 enzyme systems, unbiased expected heterozygosity averaged 0.174. Differentiation also was high (FST = 0.152),...

  6. MHC-based patterns of social and extra-pair mate choice in the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Komdeur, J; Burke, T; von Schantz, T; Richardson, David S.

    2005-01-01

    The existence and nature of indirect genetic benefits to mate choice remain contentious. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which play a vital role in determining pathogen resistance in vertebrates, may be the link between mate choice and the genetic inheritance of vigour in offspring.

  7. Extra-group mating increases inbreeding risk in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, X A; York, J E; Cram, D L; Young, A J

    2013-11-01

    In many cooperatively breeding species, females mate extra-group, the adaptive value of which remains poorly understood. One hypothesis posits that females employ extra-group mating to access mates whose genotypes are more dissimilar to their own than their social mates, so as to increase offspring heterozygosity. We test this hypothesis using life history and genetic data from 36 cooperatively breeding white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali) groups. Contrary to prediction, a dominant female's relatedness to her social mate did not drive extra-group mating decisions and, moreover, extra-group mating females were significantly more related to their extra-group sires than their social mates. Instead, dominant females were substantially more likely to mate extra-group when paired to a dominant male of low heterozygosity, and their extra-group mates (typically dominants themselves) were significantly more heterozygous than the males they cuckolded. The combined effects of mating with extra-group males of closer relatedness, but higher heterozygosity resulted in extra-group-sired offspring that were no more heterozygous than their within-group-sired half-siblings. Our findings are consistent with a role for male-male competition in driving extra-group mating and suggest that the local kin structure typical of cooperative breeders could counter potential benefits to females of mating extra-group by exposing them to a risk of inbreeding. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Female fitness optimum at intermediate mating rates under traumatic mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolanda Lange

    Full Text Available Traumatic mating behaviors often bear signatures of sexual conflict and are then typically considered a male strategy to circumvent female choice mechanisms. In an extravagant mating ritual, the hermaphroditic sea slug Siphopteron quadrispinosum pierces the integument of their mating partners with a syringe-like penile stylet that injects prostate fluids. Traumatic injection is followed by the insertion of a spiny penis into the partner's gonopore to transfer sperm. Despite traumatic mating, field mating rates exceed those required for female fertilization insurance, possibly because costs imposed on females are balanced by direct or indirect benefits of multiple sperm receipt. To test this idea, we exposed animals to a relevant range of mating opportunity regimes and assessed the effects on mating behavior and proxies of female fitness. We find penis intromission duration to decrease with mating rates, and a female fecundity maximum at intermediate mating rates. The latter finding indicates that benefits beyond fertilization insurance can make higher mating rates also beneficial from a female perspective in this traumatically mating species.

  9. Analysis of homothallic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain mating during must fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrona, Jesús; Ramírez, Manuel

    2007-04-01

    Genetic instability and genome renewal may cause loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in homothallic wine yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), leading to the elimination of the recessive lethal or deleterious alleles that decrease yeast fitness. LOH was not detected in genetically stable wine yeasts during must fermentation. However, after sporulation, the heterozygosity of the new yeast population decreased during must fermentation. The frequency of mating between just-germinated haploid cells from different tetrads was very low, and the mating of haploid cells from the same ascus was favored because of the physical proximity. Also, mating restriction between haploid cells from the same ascus was found, leading to a very low frequency of self spore clone mating. This mating restriction slowed down the LOH process of the yeast population, maintaining the heterozygote frequency higher than would be expected assuming a fully random mating of the haploid yeasts or according to the Mortimer genome renewal proposal. The observed LOH occurs because of the linkage of the locus MAT to the chromosome III centromere, without the necessity for self spore clone mating or the high frequency of gene conversion and rapid asymmetric LOH observed in genetically unstable yeasts. This phenomenon is enough in itself to explain the high level of homozygosis found in natural populations of wine yeasts. The LOH process for centromere-linked markers would be slower than that for the nonlinked markers, because the linkage decreases the frequency of newly originated heterozygous yeasts after each round of sporulation and mating. This phenomenon is interesting in yeast evolution and may cause important sudden phenotype changes in genetically stable wine yeasts.

  10. The evolution of postpairing male mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Nan; Servedio, Maria R; Lloyd, Huw; Sun, Yue-Hua

    2017-06-01

    An increasing number of empirical studies in animals have demonstrated male mate choice. However, little is known about the evolution of postpairing male choice, specifically which occurs by differential allocation of male parental care in response to female signals. We use a population genetic model to examine whether such postpairing male mate choice can evolve when males face a trade-off between parental care and extra-pair copulations (EPCs). Specifically, we assume that males allocate more effort to providing parental care when mated to preferred (signaling) females, but they are then unable to allocate additional effort to seek EPCs. We find that both male preference and female signaling can evolve in this situation, under certain conditions. First, this evolution requires a relatively large difference in parental investment between males mated to preferred versus nonpreferred females. Second, whether male choice and female signaling alleles become fixed in a population versus cycle in their frequencies depends on the additional fecundity benefits from EPCs that are gained by choosy males. Third, less costly female signals enable both signaling and choice alleles to evolve under more relaxed conditions. Our results also provide a new insight into the evolution of sexual conflict over parental care. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Narcissism Guides Mate Selection: Humans Mate Assortatively, as Revealed by Facial Resemblance, following an Algorithm of “Self Seeking Like”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies suggest that mating and pair formation is not likely to be random. Computer simulations suggested that sex among genetically complex organisms requires mate choice strategies for its evolutionary maintenance, to reduce excessive genetic variance produced by out-crossing. One strategy achieving this aim efficiently in computer simulations is assortative mating modeled as “self seeking like”. Another one is selection of “good genes”. Assortative mating increases the probability of finding a genetically similar mate, without fomenting inbreeding, achieving assortative mating without hindering the working of other mate selection strategies which aim to maximize the search for “good genes”, optimizing the working of sex in evolutionary terms. Here we present indirect evidence that in a significant proportion of human reproductive couples, the partners show much higher facial resemblances than can be expected by random pair formation, or as the outcome of “matching for attractiveness” or the outcome of competition for the most attractive partner accessible, as had been previously assumed. The data presented is compatible with the hypothesis derived from computer simulations, that human mate selection strategies achieve various aims: “self seeking like” (including matching for attractiveness and mating with the best available genes.

  12. Female extrapair mate choice in a cooperative breeder: trading sex for help and increasing offspring heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2007-08-07

    Sexual conflict between males and females over mating is common. Females that copulate with extrapair mates outside the pair-bond may gain (i) direct benefits such as resources or increased paternal care, (ii) indirect genetic benefits for their offspring, or (iii) insurance against infertility in their own social mate. Few studies have been able to demonstrate the different contexts in which females receive varying types of benefits from extrapair mates. Here, I examined sexual conflict, female extrapair mate choice, and patterns of extrapair paternity in the cooperatively breeding superb starling Lamprotornis superbus using microsatellite markers. Although extrapair paternity was lower than many other avian cooperative breeders (14% of offspring and 25% of nests), females exhibited two distinct mating patterns: half of the extrapair fertilizations were with males from inside the group, whereas half were with males from outside the group. Females with few potential helpers copulated with extrapair mates from within their group and thereby gained direct benefits in the form of additional helpers at the nest, whereas females paired to mates that were relatively less heterozygous than themselves copulated with extrapair mates from outside the group and thereby gained indirect genetic benefits in the form of increased offspring heterozygosity. Females did not appear to gain fertility insurance from copulating with extrapair mates. This is the first study to show that individuals from the same population mate with extrapair males and gain both direct and indirect benefits, but that they do so in different contexts.

  13. [Mating behavior in mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster at different population densities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, N E; Sheremet, O Iu; Vorobieva, L I

    2006-04-01

    The effects of mutations and genetic background on the mating activity of male and receptivity of female Drosophila melanogaster have been studied at different population densities. Population density, as well as its combinations with other factors, significantly affects mating behavior of D. melanogaster. There are two distinct trends in the effect of this factor on mating behavior: the maximum larval overpopulation may cause either a significant suppression of the behaviors studied or an increase in their expressivity. The mating behaviors of wa and cn mutants against a certain genetic background changed similarly in response to varying population density.

  14. Diploids in the Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A population homozygous for the alpha mating type originate via unisexual mating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous environmental human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is traditionally considered a haploid fungus with a bipolar mating system. In nature, the alpha mating type is overwhelmingly predominant over a. How genetic diversity is generated and maintained by this heterothallic fungus in a largely unisexual alpha population is unclear. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions generating both diploid intermediates and haploid recombinant progeny. Same-sex mating (alpha-alpha also occurs in nature as evidenced by the existence of natural diploid alphaADalpha hybrids that arose by fusion between two alpha cells of different serotypes (A and D. How significantly this novel sexual style contributes to genetic diversity of the Cryptococcus population was unknown. In this study, approximately 500 natural C. neoformans isolates were tested for ploidy and close to 8% were found to be diploid by fluorescence flow cytometry analysis. The majority of these diploids were serotype A isolates with two copies of the alpha MAT locus allele. Among those, several are intra-varietal allodiploid hybrids produced by fusion of two genetically distinct alpha cells through same-sex mating. The majority, however, are autodiploids that harbor two seemingly identical copies of the genome and arose via either endoreplication or clonal mating. The diploids identified were isolated from different geographic locations and varied genotypically and phenotypically, indicating independent non-clonal origins. The present study demonstrates that unisexual mating produces diploid isolates of C. neoformans in nature, giving rise to populations of hybrids and mixed ploidy. Our findings underscore the importance of same-sex mating in shaping the current population structure of this important human pathogenic fungus, with implications for mechanisms of selfing and inbreeding in other microbial pathogens.

  15. Extrapair mating between relatives in the barn swallow: a role for kin selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Oddmund; Jacobsen, Frode; Robertson, Raleigh J; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2005-12-22

    Why do females of many species mate with more than one male? One of the main hypotheses suggests that female promiscuity is an insurance mechanism against the potential detrimental effects of inbreeding. Accordingly, females should preferably mate with less related males in multiple or extrapair mating. Here we analyse paternity, relatedness among mating partners, and relatedness between parents and offspring, in the socially monogamous North American barn swallow (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster). In contrast to the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis, we found that extrapair mating partners were more related than expected by random choice, and tended to be more related than social partners. Furthermore, extrapair mating resulted in genetic parents being more related to their extrapair young than to their withinpair young. We propose a new hypothesis for extrapair mating based on kin selection theory as a possible explanation to these findings.

  16. Absence of evidence for MHC-dependent mate selection within HapMap populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Derti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex (MHC of immunity genes has been reported to influence mate choice in vertebrates, and a recent study presented genetic evidence for this effect in humans. Specifically, greater dissimilarity at the MHC locus was reported for European-American mates (parents in HapMap Phase 2 trios than for non-mates. Here we show that the results depend on a few extreme data points, are not robust to conservative changes in the analysis procedure, and cannot be reproduced in an equivalent but independent set of European-American mates. Although some evidence suggests an avoidance of extreme MHC similarity between mates, rather than a preference for dissimilarity, limited sample sizes preclude a rigorous investigation. In summary, fine-scale molecular-genetic data do not conclusively support the hypothesis that mate selection in humans is influenced by the MHC locus.

  17. Visibility and Persistence of Marker Dyes and Effect on the Quality and Mating Competitiveness of Mass-Reared Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae): Anastrepha obliqua and Bisexual and Genetic Sexing (Tapachula-7) Strains of A. ludens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; López, Gladis; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    Fluorescent dyes are commonly used in the sterile insect technique (SIT) for marking insects for a proper identification after recapture. However, the quality of the mark must be balanced against insect performance, because dyes can negatively affect some parameters of insect performance and reduce their effectiveness in control with the SIT. We determined the visibility and persistence and the effect of dyes on the quality of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (bisexual and genetic sexing strains) by testing four concentrations of a dye (Day-Glo) from 0 to 2.5 g dye/kg of pupae. Visibility and persistence of the mark were positively affected by dose and negatively affected by the length of time the samples were kept in a solution of 75% alcohol. However, upon dissection, even the lowest dose of dye was visible under a fluorescence microscope. Between dyed and undyed pupae (control), no significant differences were observed in rates of emergence, fliers and flight ability, and survival in two tests, with water and without food and without water and food, at any of the concentrations tested. Furthermore, no significant difference in mating competitiveness was detected between control pupae and those dyed at 1.0 and 2.5 g dye/kg pupae. We discuss our results with the possibility of reducing the dose of dye in these three flies, because the heads are large enough to capture sufficient particles to permit identification with the current methods of detection. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ying; Yu, Jin-Feng; Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  19. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  20. Mating behaviour and mate choice experiments in some tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In single choice experiments random mating was assumed when mating frequency was independent of male body mass. This occurred in both populations of ... in one population of Odontopyge sp. 3. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to processes of male-male competition and female choice.

  1. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. No detectable fertility benefit from a single additional mating in wild stalk-eyed flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Harley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple mating by female insects is widespread, and the explanation(s for repeated mating by females has been the subject of much discussion. Females may profit from mating multiply through direct material benefits that increase their own reproductive output, or indirect genetic benefits that increase offspring fitness. One particular direct benefit that has attracted significant attention is that of fertility assurance, as females often need to mate multiply to achieve high fertility. This hypothesis has never been tested in a wild insect population.Female Malaysian stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni mate repeatedly during their lifetime, and have been shown to be sperm limited under both laboratory and field conditions. Here we ask whether receiving an additional mating alleviates sperm limitation in wild females. In our experiment one group of females received a single additional mating, while a control group received an interrupted, and therefore unsuccessful, mating. Females that received an additional mating did not lay more fertilised eggs in total, nor did they lay proportionately more fertilised eggs. Female fertility declined significantly through time, demonstrating that females were sperm limited. However, receipt of an additional mating did not significantly alter the rate of this decline.Our data suggest that the fertility consequences of a single additional mating were small. We discuss this effect (or lack thereof, and suggest that it is likely to be attributed to small ejaculate size, a high proportion of failed copulations, and the presence of X-linked meiotic drive in this species.

  3. MATE. Multi Aircraft Training Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauland, G.; Bove, T.; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2002-01-01

    . The cockpit switches and instruments in MATE are computer-generated graphics. The graphics are back projected onto semi-transparent touch screen panels in a hybrid cockpit mock-up. Thus, the MATE is relativelycheap, it is always available, it is reconfigurable (e.g. between types of aircraft...

  4. Mating rate influences female reproductive investment in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, Lymnaea stagnalis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffer, J.N.A.; Schwegler, D.; Ellers, J.; Koene, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple mating often imposes direct fitness costs on females but can provide indirect benefits such as enhanced genetic diversity and offspring quality. The costs and benefits of multiple mating have been investigated extensively in separate-sex species but less so in simultaneous hermaphrodites,

  5. Mate choice screening in captive solitary carnivores: The role of male behavior and cues on mate preference and paternity in females of a model species, American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noer, Christina Lehmkuhl; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg; Anistoroaei, Razvan; Stelvig, Mikkel; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2017-12-01

    Mate choice studies suggest that choosy females benefit from increased fecundity, litter size, and offspring survival. Thus, providing females with the opportunity to choose among potential mates, deemed genetically suitable based on studbook data, might improve breeding management in production and zoo animals and thereby the sustainability of captive populations. Investigating mate preference via odor from potential mates before animal transfer is a proposed strategy for incorporating mate choice into breeding management. In this study, we test whether olfactory cues and signals from males can be used to assess and measure female mate preference in American mink. Eighteen females were subjected to a 4-day stimulus test in which females showed a preference for one of two males' urine and feces. Subsequently, each female was subjected to a 10-day mate preference test involving the same two males of the first test. Paternity tests revealed that 13 females had offspring, which could be assigned to only one male, suggesting that these females performed a mate choice. In nine of these females preference during the stimulus test was directed toward the male that fathered their offspring. Our results suggest that even though there was a preference difference in scent stimulus trials from potential mates this preference was not predictive of eventual mate preference or paternity. Other factors such as aspects of male behavior seem to play a role, when the mates are introduced. Our study supports that mate preference and mate choice are complex matters influenced by multiple cues and signals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Assortative Mating by Ethnicity in Longevous Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sebastiani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS, and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS. In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations. These findings in studies of human longevity suggest that spouses marrying into longevous families may not be powerful controls for genetic association studies, and that there may be important ethnicity-specific, genetic influences and/or gene–environment interactions that influence extreme survival in old generations. In addition, the decreasing trend of genetic similarity of more recent generations might have ramifications for the incidence of homozygous rare variants necessary for survival to the most extreme ages.

  7. Assortative Mating by Ethnicity in Longevous Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Gurinovich, Anastasia; Bae, Harold; Andersen, Stacy L; Perls, Thomas T

    2017-01-01

    Recent work shows strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation of the Framingham Heart Study. Here, we extend this analysis to two studies of human longevity: the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), and the New England Centenarian Study (NECS). In the LLFS, we identified 890 spouse pairs spanning two generations, while in the NECS we used data from 102 spouse pairs including offspring of centenarians. We used principal components of genome-wide genotype data to demonstrate strong evidence of ancestry-based assortative mating in spouse pairs of the older generation and also confirm the decreasing trend of endogamy in more recent generations. These findings in studies of human longevity suggest that spouses marrying into longevous families may not be powerful controls for genetic association studies, and that there may be important ethnicity-specific, genetic influences and/or gene-environment interactions that influence extreme survival in old generations. In addition, the decreasing trend of genetic similarity of more recent generations might have ramifications for the incidence of homozygous rare variants necessary for survival to the most extreme ages.

  8. High incidence of GJB2 gene mutations among assortatively mating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High incidence of GJB2 gene mutations among assortatively mating hearing impaired families in Kerala: future implications. Amritkumar Pavithra, Justin Margret Jeffrey, Jayasankaran Chandru, Arabandi Ramesh and C. R. Srikumari Srisailapathy. J. Genet. 93, 207–213. Table 1. Consolidated table of GJB2 mutation status ...

  9. High incidence of GJB2 gene mutations among assortatively mating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hearing impaired families in Kerala: future implications. Amritkumar Pavithra, Justin Margret Jeffrey, Jayasankaran Chandru, Arabandi Ramesh and C. R. Srikumari Srisailapathy. J. Genet. 93, 207–213. Table 1. Consolidated table of GJB2 mutation status in the eight Kerala families screened. Mating pattern/ID no. Individual ...

  10. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  11. Demography and mating system shape the genome-wide impact of purifying selection in Arabis alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Tedder, Andrew; Nowak, Michael D; Toräng, Per; Wunder, Jörg; Wötzel, Stefan; Steige, Kim A; Kourmpetis, Yiannis; Odong, Thomas; Drouzas, Andreas D; Bink, Marco C A M; Ågren, Jon; Coupland, George; Slotte, Tanja

    2018-01-23

    Plant mating systems have profound effects on levels and structuring of genetic variation and can affect the impact of natural selection. Although theory predicts that intermediate outcrossing rates may allow plants to prevent accumulation of deleterious alleles, few studies have empirically tested this prediction using genomic data. Here, we study the effect of mating system on purifying selection by conducting population-genomic analyses on whole-genome resequencing data from 38 European individuals of the arctic-alpine crucifer Arabis alpina We find that outcrossing and mixed-mating populations maintain genetic diversity at similar levels, whereas highly self-fertilizing Scandinavian A. alpina show a strong reduction in genetic diversity, most likely as a result of a postglacial colonization bottleneck. We further find evidence for accumulation of genetic load in highly self-fertilizing populations, whereas the genome-wide impact of purifying selection does not differ greatly between mixed-mating and outcrossing populations. Our results demonstrate that intermediate levels of outcrossing may allow efficient selection against harmful alleles, whereas demographic effects can be important for relaxed purifying selection in highly selfing populations. Thus, mating system and demography shape the impact of purifying selection on genomic variation in A. alpina These results are important for an improved understanding of the evolutionary consequences of mating system variation and the maintenance of mixed-mating strategies.

  12. Structural Relations among Negative Affect, Mate Value, and Mating Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Randi Kirsner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared the ability of models based on evolutionary economic theory and Life History (LH Theory to explain relations among self-reported negative affect, mate value, and mating effort. Method: Two hundred thirty-eight undergraduates provided multiple measures of these latent constructs, permitting us to test a priori predictions based on Kirsner, Figueredo, and Jacobs (2003. We compared the fit of the initial model to the fit of five alternative theory-driven models using nested model comparisons of Structural Equations Models. Rejecting less parsimonious and explanatory models eliminated the original model. Two equally parsimonious models explained the data pattern well. The first, based on evolutionary economic theory, specified that Negative Affect increases both Personal Mate Value and Mating Effort via the direct effects specified in the original model. The second, based on LH Theory, specified that Negative Affect, Personal Mate Value, and Mating Effort relate spuriously through a common latent construct, the LH Factor. The primary limitation of the present study is generalizability. We used self-reports taken from a young, university-based sample that included a spectrum of affective states. We cannot know how well these models generalize to an older population or to actual behavior. Both models predict the presence of a rich pattern of mate acquisition and retention behaviors, including an alarming set of behavioral tactics often not considered or targeted during treatment. Moreover, each model suggests a unique set of problems may arise after an effective intervention. We describe several ways to distinguish these models empirically.

  13. Mating competitiveness of sterile genetic sexing strain males (GAMA) under laboratory and semi-field conditions: Steps towards the use of the Sterile Insect Technique to control the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhenga, Givemore; Brooke, Basil D; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Slabbert, Kobus; Kemp, Alan; Dandalo, Leonard C; Wood, Oliver R; Lobb, Leanne N; Govender, Danny; Renke, Marius; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2016-03-02

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton is primarily responsible for malaria transmission in South Africa after successful suppression of other major vector species using indoor spraying of residual insecticides. Control of An. arabiensis using current insecticide based approaches is proving difficult owing to the development of insecticide resistance, and variable feeding and resting behaviours. The use of the sterile insect technique as an area-wide integrated pest management system to supplement the control of An. arabiensis was proposed for South Africa and is currently under investigation. The success of this technique is dependent on the ability of laboratory-reared sterile males to compete with wild males for mates. As part of the research and development of the SIT technique for use against An. arabiensis in South Africa, radio-sensitivity and mating competitiveness of a local An. arabiensis sexing strain were assessed. The optimal irradiation dose inducing male sterility without compromising mating vigour was tested using Cobalt 60 irradiation doses ranging from 70-100 Gy. Relative mating competitiveness of sterile laboratory-reared males (GAMA strain) compared to fertile wild-type males (AMAL strain) for virgin wild-type females (AMAL) was investigated under laboratory and semi-field conditions using large outdoor cages. Three different sterile male to fertile male to wild-type female ratios were evaluated [1:1:1, 5:1:1 and 10:1:1 (sterile males: fertile, wild-type males: fertile, wild-type females)]. Irradiation at the doses tested did not affect adult emergence but had a moderate effect on adult survivorship and mating vigour. A dose of 75 Gy was selected for the competitiveness assays. Mating competitiveness experiments showed that irradiated GAMA male mosquitoes are a third as competitive as their fertile AMAL counterparts under semi-field conditions. However, they were not as competitive under laboratory conditions. An inundative ratio of 10:1 induced the

  14. Blackmailing: the keystone in the human mating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watve Milind G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human mating system is characterized by bi-parental care and faithful monogamy is highly valued in most cultures. Marriage has evolved as a social institution and punishment for extra pair mating (EPM or adultery is common. However, similar to other species with bi-parental care, both males and females frequently indulge in EPM in secrecy since it confers certain gender specific genetic benefits. Stability of faithful monogamy is therefore a conundrum. We model human mating system using game theory framework to study the effects of factors that can stabilize or destabilize faithful committed monogamy. Results Although mate guarding can partly protect the genetic interests, we show that it does not ensure monogamy. Social policing enabled by gossiping is another line of defense against adultery unique to humans. However, social policing has a small but positive cost to an individual and therefore is prone to free riding. We suggest that since exposure of adultery can invite severe punishment, the policing individuals can blackmail opportunistically whenever the circumstances permit. If the maximum probabilistic benefit of blackmailing is greater than the cost of policing, policing becomes a non-altruistic act and stabilizes in the society. We show that this dynamics leads to the coexistence of different strategies in oscillations, with obligate monogamy maintained at a high level. Deletion of blackmailing benefit from the model leads to the complete disappearance of obligate monogamy. Conclusions Obligate monogamy can be maintained in the population in spite of the advantages of EPM. Blackmailing, which makes policing a non-altruistic act, is crucial for the maintenance of faithful monogamy. Although biparental care, EPM, mate guarding and punishment are shared by many species, gossiping and blackmailing make the human mating system unique.

  15. Blackmailing: the keystone in the human mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watve, Milind G; Damle, Anuja; Ganguly, Bratati; Kale, Anagha; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2011-11-29

    The human mating system is characterized by bi-parental care and faithful monogamy is highly valued in most cultures. Marriage has evolved as a social institution and punishment for extra pair mating (EPM) or adultery is common. However, similar to other species with bi-parental care, both males and females frequently indulge in EPM in secrecy since it confers certain gender specific genetic benefits. Stability of faithful monogamy is therefore a conundrum. We model human mating system using game theory framework to study the effects of factors that can stabilize or destabilize faithful committed monogamy. Although mate guarding can partly protect the genetic interests, we show that it does not ensure monogamy. Social policing enabled by gossiping is another line of defense against adultery unique to humans. However, social policing has a small but positive cost to an individual and therefore is prone to free riding. We suggest that since exposure of adultery can invite severe punishment, the policing individuals can blackmail opportunistically whenever the circumstances permit. If the maximum probabilistic benefit of blackmailing is greater than the cost of policing, policing becomes a non-altruistic act and stabilizes in the society. We show that this dynamics leads to the coexistence of different strategies in oscillations, with obligate monogamy maintained at a high level. Deletion of blackmailing benefit from the model leads to the complete disappearance of obligate monogamy. Obligate monogamy can be maintained in the population in spite of the advantages of EPM. Blackmailing, which makes policing a non-altruistic act, is crucial for the maintenance of faithful monogamy. Although biparental care, EPM, mate guarding and punishment are shared by many species, gossiping and blackmailing make the human mating system unique.

  16. Structure, function, and phylogeny of the mating locus in the Rhizopus oryzae complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P Gryganskyi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhizopus oryzae species complex is a group of zygomycete fungi that are common, cosmopolitan saprotrophs. Some strains are used beneficially for production of Asian fermented foods but they can also act as opportunistic human pathogens. Although R. oryzae reportedly has a heterothallic (+/- mating system, most strains have not been observed to undergo sexual reproduction and the genetic structure of its mating locus has not been characterized. Here we report on the mating behavior and genetic structure of the mating locus for 54 isolates of the R. oryzae complex. All 54 strains have a mating locus similar in overall organization to Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina, Zygomycota. In all of these fungi, the minus (- allele features the SexM high mobility group (HMG gene flanked by an RNA helicase gene and a TP transporter gene (TPT. Within the R. oryzae complex, the plus (+ mating allele includes an inserted region that codes for a BTB/POZ domain gene and the SexP HMG gene. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, including the mating loci (HMG, TPT, RNA helicase, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA, RPB2, and LDH genes, identified two distinct groups of strains. These correspond to previously described sibling species R. oryzae sensu stricto and R. delemar. Within each species, discordant gene phylogenies among multiple loci suggest an outcrossing population structure. The hypothesis of random-mating is also supported by a 50:50 ratio of plus and minus mating types in both cryptic species. When crossed with tester strains of the opposite mating type, most isolates of R. delemar failed to produce zygospores, while isolates of R. oryzae produced sterile zygospores. In spite of the reluctance of most strains to mate in vitro, the conserved sex locus structure and evidence for outcrossing suggest that a normal sexual cycle occurs in both species.

  17. Structure, Function, and Phylogeny of the Mating Locus in the Rhizopus oryzae Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryganskyi, Andrii P.; Lee, Soo Chan; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Smith, Matthew E.; Bonito, Gregory; Porter, Teresita M.; Anishchenko, Iryna M.; Heitman, Joseph; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2010-01-01

    The Rhizopus oryzae species complex is a group of zygomycete fungi that are common, cosmopolitan saprotrophs. Some strains are used beneficially for production of Asian fermented foods but they can also act as opportunistic human pathogens. Although R. oryzae reportedly has a heterothallic (+/−) mating system, most strains have not been observed to undergo sexual reproduction and the genetic structure of its mating locus has not been characterized. Here we report on the mating behavior and genetic structure of the mating locus for 54 isolates of the R. oryzae complex. All 54 strains have a mating locus similar in overall organization to Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina, Zygomycota). In all of these fungi, the minus (−) allele features the SexM high mobility group (HMG) gene flanked by an RNA helicase gene and a TP transporter gene (TPT). Within the R. oryzae complex, the plus (+) mating allele includes an inserted region that codes for a BTB/POZ domain gene and the SexP HMG gene. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, including the mating loci (HMG, TPT, RNA helicase), ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA, RPB2, and LDH genes, identified two distinct groups of strains. These correspond to previously described sibling species R. oryzae sensu stricto and R. delemar. Within each species, discordant gene phylogenies among multiple loci suggest an outcrossing population structure. The hypothesis of random-mating is also supported by a 50∶50 ratio of plus and minus mating types in both cryptic species. When crossed with tester strains of the opposite mating type, most isolates of R. delemar failed to produce zygospores, while isolates of R. oryzae produced sterile zygospores. In spite of the reluctance of most strains to mate in vitro, the conserved sex locus structure and evidence for outcrossing suggest that a normal sexual cycle occurs in both species. PMID:21151560

  18. Assortative mating in poison-dart frogs based on an ecologically important trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R Graham; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2007-09-01

    The origin of new species can be influenced by both deterministic and stochastic factors. Mate choice and natural selection may be important deterministic causes of speciation (as opposed to the essentially stochastic factors of geographic isolation and genetic drift). Theoretical models predict that speciation is more likely when mate choice depends on an ecologically important trait that is subject to divergent natural selection, although many authors have considered such mating/ecology pleiotropy, or "magic-traits" to be unlikely. However, phenotypic signals are important in both mate choice and ecological processes such as avoiding predation. In chemically defended species, it may be that the phenotypic characteristics influencing mate choice are the same signals being used to transmit a warning to potential predators, although few studies have demonstrated this in wild populations. We tested for assortative mating between two color morphs of the Strawberry Poison-Dart Frog, Dendrobates pumilio, a group with striking geographic variation in aposematic color patterns. We found that females significantly prefer individuals of their own morph under two different light treatments, indicating strong assortative mating based on multiple coloration cues that are also important ecological signals. This study provides a rare example of one phenotypic trait affecting both ecological viability and nonrandom mating, indicating that mating/ecology pleiotropy is plausible in wild populations, particularly for organisms that are aposematically colored and visually orienting.

  19. Spontaneous zygogenesis (Z-mating) in mecillinam-rounded bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratia, Jean-Pierre

    2007-12-01

    In Escherichia coli the process of spontaneous zygogenesis (Z-mating), i.e. complete genetic mixing in the absence of a conjugative plasmid, was investigated further. Spontaneous-zygogenesis-promoting (Szp+) cells displayed strong clustering with each other and with ordinary F* cells in the optimal cell density range for Z-mating. When induced to rounding by the drug mecillinam, they aggregated into large, dense, stainable syncytium-like cells leaving giant ghosts upon lysis. In Z-mating mixtures of mecillinam-treated cells, these giant cells co-purified with mating products as other cells died. Giant cells recovering from mecillinam treatment yielded monstrous, branching forms, whereas non-Szp+ coccal cells reverted to rods in one step, and some 29% of the colonies formed were identified as deriving from entities possessing two distinct genomes. Z-mating was examined between E. coli and a distantly related Serratia marcescens strain. In the presence of calcium, mecillinam-rounded cells of a stable non-complementing diploid hybrid with the E. coli phenotype segregated normally dividing cells of the Serratia form.

  20. Beyond magic traits: Multimodal mating cues in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérot, Claire; Frérot, Brigitte; Leppik, Ene; Joron, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Species coexistence involves the evolution of reproductive barriers opposing gene flow. Heliconius butterflies display colorful patterns affecting mate choice and survival through warning signaling and mimicry. These patterns are called "magic traits" for speciation because divergent natural selection may promote mimicry shifts in pattern whose role as mating cue facilitates reproductive isolation. By contrast, between comimetic species, natural selection promotes pattern convergence. We addressed whether visual convergence interferes with reproductive isolation by testing for sexual isolation between two closely related species with similar patterns, H. timareta thelxinoe and H. melpomene amaryllis. Experiments with models confirmed visual attraction based on wing phenotype, leading to indiscriminate approach. Nevertheless, mate choice experiments showed assortative mating. Monitoring male behavior toward live females revealed asymmetry in male preference, H. melpomene males courting both species equally while H. timareta males strongly preferred conspecifics. Experiments with hybrid males suggested an important genetic component for such asymmetry. Behavioral observations support a key role for short-distance cues in determining male choice in H. timareta. Scents extracts from wings and genitalia revealed interspecific divergence in chemical signatures, and hybrid female scent composition was significantly associated with courtship intensity by H. timareta males, providing candidate chemical mating cues involved in sexual isolation. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Effects of diet, ginger root oil, and elevation on the mating competitiveness of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a mass-reared, genetic sexing strain in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd E; Rendon, Pedro; Hernandez, Emilio; Salgado, Sergio; McInnis, Donald; Villalobos, Ethel; Liedo, Pablo

    2003-08-01

    The release of sterile males is a key component of an areawide program to eradicate the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from Guatemala and southern Mexico. The objective of our study was to assess the effects of adult diet, exposure to ginger root oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), and elevation on the mating competitiveness of the sterile males used in an areawide program. Sterile males were maintained on a protein-sugar (protein-fed) or a sugar-only (protein-deprived) diet and were exposed (for 4 h 1 d before testing) or not exposed to ginger root oil. In field-cage trials conducted at a high (1,500 m) and low (700 m) site, we monitored the influence of these treatments on the mating success of sterile males in competition with wild males (reared exclusively on the protein-sugar diet and without ginger root oil exposure) for wild females. Elevation and ginger root oil exposure had significant effects, with sterile males having higher mating success at the low-elevation site and ginger root oil-exposed males having greater success than ginger root oil-deprived males at both sites. Diet did not have a significant overall effect, and its influence varied with elevation (dietary protein seemed to provide an advantage at the high-elevation site but not at the low-elevation site). Possible implications of these findings for eradication programs against the Mediterranean fruit fly are discussed.

  2. MHC-based patterns of social and extra-pair mate choice in the Seychelles warbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David S; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; von Schantz, Torbjörn

    2005-01-01

    The existence and nature of indirect genetic benefits to mate choice remain contentious. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, which play a vital role in determining pathogen resistance in vertebrates, may be the link between mate choice and the genetic inheritance of vigour in offspring. Studies have shown that MHC-dependent mate choice can occur in mammal and fish species, but little work has focused on the role of the MHC in birds. We tested for MHC-dependent mating patterns in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). There was no influence of MHC class I exon 3 variation on the choice of social mate. However, females were more likely to obtain extra-pair paternity (EPP) when their social mate had low MHC diversity, and the MHC diversity of the extra-pair male was significantly higher than that of the cuckolded male. There was no evidence that females were mating disassortatively, or that they preferred males with an intermediate number of MHC bands. Overall, the results are consistent with the ‘good genes’ rather than the ‘genetic compatibility’ hypothesis. As female choice will result in offspring of higher MHC diversity, MHC-dependent EPP may provide indirect benefits in the Seychelles warbler if survival is positively linked to MHC diversity. PMID:15870038

  3. Female mating strategy during precopulatory mate guarding in spider mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.

    2009-01-01

    In some taxa, females choose their mates indirectly by using male combat. In the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai, adult males guard prereproductive quiescent females. In a dual choice experiment, more males first approached females already guarded by a conspecific male than approached

  4. Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Poul; Gertsch, P J; Frydenberg, J

    1999-01-01

    Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies...... under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (... to have lower queen mating frequencies, similar to those found in most other ants. We tested this prediction by analysing queen mating frequency and colony kin structure in three basal attine species: Myrmicocrypta ednaella, Apterostigma collare and Cyphomyrmex longiscapus. Microsatellite marker analyses...

  5. Molecular assessment of mating strategies in a population of Atlantic spotted dolphins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Green

    Full Text Available Similar to other small cetacean species, Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis have been the object of concentrated behavioral study. Although mating and courtship behaviors occur often and the social structure of the population is well-studied, the genetic mating system of the species is unknown. To assess the genetic mating system, we genotyped females and their progeny at ten microsatellite loci. Genotype analysis provided estimates of the minimum number of male sires necessary to account for the allelic diversity observed among the progeny. Using the estimates of male sires, we determined whether females mated with the same or different males during independent estrus events. Using Gerud2.0, a minimum of two males was necessary to account for the genetic variation seen among progeny arrays of all tested females. ML-Relate assigned the most likely relationship between offspring pairs; half or full sibling. Relationship analysis supported the conservative male estimates of Gerud2.0 but in some cases, half or full sibling relationships between offspring could not be fully resolved. Integrating the results from Gerud2.0, ML-Relate with previous observational and paternity data, we constructed two-, three-, and four-male pedigree models for each genotyped female. Because increased genetic diversity of offspring may explain multi-male mating, we assessed the internal genetic relatedness of each offspring's genotype to determine whether parent pairs of offspring were closely related. We found varying levels of internal relatedness ranging from unrelated to closely related (range -0.136-0.321. Because there are several hypothesized explanations for multi-male mating, we assessed our data to determine the most plausible explanation for multi-male mating in our study system. Our study indicated females may benefit from mating with multiple males by passing genes for long-term viability to their young.

  6. Mating-type determination in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe how mating-type tests are conducted in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Two methods can be employed: matings with h− and h+ tester strains and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for mat1 content....

  7. Protecting artificial team-mates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; McGee, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on conversational, competitive, and cooperative systems suggests that people respond differently to humans and AI agents in terms of perception and evaluation of observed team-mate behavior. However, there has not been research examining the relationship between participants' pr...

  8. Mating system evolution and worker caste diversity in Pheidole ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming H; Wheeler, Diana E; Fjerdingstad, Else J

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of social groups is generally optimized by a division of labour, achieved through behavioural or morphological diversity of members. In social insects, colonies may increase the morphological diversity of workers by recruiting standing genetic variance for size and shape via multiply mated queens (polyandry) or multiple-breeding queens (polygyny). However, greater worker diversity in multi-lineage species may also have evolved due to mutual worker policing if there is worker reproduction. Such policing reduces the pressure on workers to maintain reproductive morphologies, allowing the evolution of greater developmental plasticity and the maintenance of more genetic variance for worker size and shape in populations. Pheidole ants vary greatly in the diversity of worker castes. Also, their workers lack ovaries and are thus invariably sterile regardless of the queen mating frequency and numbers of queens per colony. This allowed us to perform an across-species study examining the genetic effects of recruiting more patrilines on the developmental diversity of workers in the absence of confounding effects from worker policing. Using highly variable microsatellite markers, we found that the effective mating frequency of the soldier-polymorphic P. rhea (avg. meN = 2.65) was significantly higher than that of the dimorphic P. spadonia (avg. meN = 1.06), despite a significant paternity skew in P. rhea (avg. B = 0.10). Our findings support the idea that mating strategies of queens may co-evolve with selection to increase the diversity of workers. We also detected patriline bias in the production of different worker sizes, which provides direct evidence for a genetic component to worker polymorphism. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Parent-offspring conflict in mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Dubbs, Shelli L.

    Prevailing evolutionary approaches to human mating have largely ignored the fact that mating decisions are heavily influenced by parents and other kin. This is significant because parents and children often have conflicting mate preferences. We provide a brief review of how parents have influenced

  10. Determination of mating frequency by radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Miah, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Radioisotope ( 32 P) was used to study the frequency of mating of an insect. The radioactivity counts correlated positively with the number of matings. Radioactivity was also detected from the eggs and excised embryos. This work suggests that radioisotope like ( 32 P) may be conveninently used to detect virginity and mating frequency of female insects without killing them. (author)

  11. BUFO PARDALIS (ANURA: BUFONIDAE): MATING CALL AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the calls of one of these species, Bufo pardalis. Hewitt, were not analysed by Tandy & Keith. (1972). Furthennore there is some confusion in the literature regarding the mating call of this species. For these reasons this mating call is here clarified. The mating call of B. pardaiis was first described by Ranger (in Hewitt 1935) as ...

  12. A note on mate allocation for dominance handling in genomic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Miguel A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of non-additive genetic effects in animal breeding is important because it increases the accuracy of breeding value prediction and the value of mate allocation procedures. With the advent of genomic selection these ideas should be revisited. The objective of this study was to quantify the efficiency of including dominance effects and practising mating allocation under a whole-genome evaluation scenario. Four strategies of selection, carried out during five generations, were compared by simulation techniques. In the first scenario (MS, individuals were selected based on their own phenotypic information. In the second (GSA, they were selected based on the prediction generated by the Bayes A method of whole-genome evaluation under an additive model. In the third (GSD, the model was expanded to include dominance effects. These three scenarios used random mating to construct future generations, whereas in the fourth one (GSD + MA, matings were optimized by simulated annealing. The advantage of GSD over GSA ranges from 9 to 14% of the expected response and, in addition, using mate allocation (GSD + MA provides an additional response ranging from 6% to 22%. However, mate selection can improve the expected genetic response over random mating only in the first generation of selection. Furthermore, the efficiency of genomic selection is eroded after a few generations of selection, thus, a continued collection of phenotypic data and re-evaluation will be required.

  13. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates

    OpenAIRE

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E.; Kuehl, Linn K.; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nude...

  14. Relative Effects of Juvenile and Adult Environmental Factors on Mate Attraction and Recognition in the Cricket, Allonemobius socius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvido, Alexander E.; Fernandes, Pearl R.; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    Finding a mate is a fundamental aspect of sexual reproduction. To this end, specific-mate recognition systems (SMRS) have evolved that facilitate copulation between producers of the mating signal and their opposite-sex responders. Environmental variation, however, may compromise the efficiency with which SMRS operate. In this study, the degree to which seasonal climate experienced during juvenile and adult life-cycle stages affects the SMRS of a cricket, Allonemobius socius (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) was assessed. Results from two-choice behavioral trials suggest that adult ambient temperature, along with population and family origins, mediate variation in male mating call, and to a lesser extent directional response of females for those calls. Restricted maximum-likelihood estimates of heritability for male mating call components and for female response to mating call appeared statistically nonsignificant. However, appreciable “maternal genetic effects” suggest that maternal egg provisioning and other indirect maternal determinants of the embryonic environment significantly contributed to variation in male mating call and female response to mating calls. Thus, environmental factors can generate substantial variation in A. socius mating call, and, more importantly, their marginal effect on female responses to either fast-chirp or long-chirp mating calls suggest negative fitness consequences to males producing alternative types of calls. Future studies of sexual selection and SMRS evolution, particularly those focused on hybrid zone dynamics, should take explicit account of the loose concordance between signal producers and responders suggested by the current findings. PMID:20673114

  15. Quantitative trait locus analysis of mating behavior and male sex pheromones in Nasonia wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Wenwen; Mousset, Mathilde; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Vermeulen, Cornelis J.; Johannes, Frank; van de Zande, Louis; Ritchie, Michael G.; Schmitt, Thomas; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation.

  16. Optimization of selection contribution and mate allocations in monoecious tree breeding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallander, Jon; Waldmann, Patrik

    2009-11-06

    The combination of optimized contribution dynamic selection and various mating schemes was investigated over seven generations for a typical tree breeding scenario. The allocation of mates was optimized using a simulated annealing algorithm for various object functions including random mating (RM), positive assortative mating (PAM) and minimization of pair-wise coancestry between mates (MCM) all combined with minimization of variance in family size and coancestry. The present study considered two levels of heritability (0.05 and 0.25), two restrictions on relatedness (group coancestry; 1 and 2%) and two maximum permissible numbers of crosses in each generation (100 and 400). The infinitesimal genetic model was used to simulate the genetic architecture of the trait that was the subject of selection. A framework of the long term genetic contribution of ancestors was used to examine the impacts of the mating schemes on population parameters. MCM schemes produced on average, an increased rate of genetic gain in the breeding population, although the difference between schemes was small but significant after seven generations (up to 7.1% more than obtained with RM). In addition, MCM reduced the level of inbreeding by as much as 37% compared with RM, although the rate of inbreeding was similar after three generations of selection. PAM schemes yielded levels of genetic gain similar to those produced by RM, but the increase in the level of inbreeding was substantial (up to 43%). The main reason why MCM schemes yielded higher genetic gains was the improvement in managing the long term genetic contribution of founders in the population; this was achieved by connecting unrelated families. In addition, the accumulation of inbreeding was reduced by MCM schemes since the variance in long term genetic contributions of founders was smaller than in the other schemes. Consequently, by combining an MCM scheme with an algorithm that optimizes contributions of the selected individuals

  17. Self-Perceived Mate Value, Facial Attractiveness, and Mate Preferences: Do Desirable Men Want It All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnocky, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men's sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men's expressed mate preferences. Results showed that self-perceived mate value was unrelated to men's facial attractiveness as rated by women. Men who believed they were of high mate value were more likely than lower mate value men to prefer to marry at a younger age; to have a spouse who was younger than them; and to have a partner who was sociable, ambitious, high in social status, with good financial prospects, a desire for children, health, good looks, and mutual attraction. Objective male facial attractiveness was generally unrelated to heightened mate preferences, with the exception of heightened preference for similar religious background and good physical health. Findings suggest that men who perceive themselves as high in overall mate value are selective in their mate choice in a manner similar to high mate value women.

  18. Parental Mate Choice Manipulation Tactics: Exploring Prevalence, Sex and Personality Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Apostolou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Parents and children are genetically related but not genetically identical, which means that their genetic interests overlap but also diverge. In the area of mating, this translates into children making mate choices that are not in the best interest of their parents. Parents may then resort to manipulation in order to influence their children's mating decisions in a way that best promotes the former's interests. This paper attempts to identify the structure of manipulation tactics that parents employ on their daughters and sons, as well as on their daughters' and sons' mates, and also to estimate their prevalence. On the basis of the structure of the derived tactics, four hypotheses are tested: Mothers are more willing than fathers to use manipulation tactics; parents are willing to use more manipulation on their daughters than on their sons; the personality of parents predicts the use of tactics on their children and on their children's mates; and the personality of children and of children's mates predicts the use of tactics on them. Evidence from two independent studies provides support for the first three hypotheses, but mixed support for the fourth hypothesis. The implications of these findings are further discussed.

  19. Phytochemical profile of morphologically selected yerba-mate progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Teresa Valduga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yerba-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil is a native South American species. Plant progenies are populations that differ in terms of their productivity, morphology and phytochemical profile. This study aimed to determine the concentration of primary and secondary metabolites, such as antioxidants, in leaves, of yerba-mate progenies selected based on morphological characteristics. We evaluated the centesimal composition of secondary metabolites in the leaves of five yerba-mate plants. Methylxanthines and phenolic compounds were determined by UPLC-PDA, and antioxidant activity by measuring DPPH scavenging. Significant differences were found in centesimal composition and the contents of caffeine, theobromine, rutin and chlorogenic acid, as well as antioxidant activities, in selected progenies. The IC50 values were correlated with the chlorogenic acid levels (r2 = 0.5242 and soluble content (r2 = 0.7686. The morphological characteristics observed in yerba-mate leaves can be used as a tool for plant selection, to obtain matrices with different phytochemical profiles as a genetic material source.

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF MATING PATTERNS FOR CONSERVATION OF THE ENDANGERED PLANT ERIOGONUM OVALIFOLIUM VAR. VINEUM (POLYGONACEAE). (R826102)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mating patterns have direct application to: conservation because of their influence on structuring genetic diversity within and among populations and on maintaining that diversity over time. We measured population and family outcrossing rates, biparental inbreeding correlation of...

  1. Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Likelihood of getting certain diseases Mental abilities Natural talents An abnormal trait (anomaly) that is passed down ... one of them has a genetic disorder. Information Human beings have cells with 46 chromosomes . These consist ...

  2. The mating type-like loci of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Carrillo, Patricia; Robledo-Márquez, Karina A; Ramírez-Zavaleta, Candy Y; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid and opportunistic fungal pathogen that has not known sexual cycle, has conserved the majority of the genes required for mating and cell type identity. The C. glabrata genome contains three mating-type-like loci called MTL1, MTL2 and MTL3. The three loci encode putative transcription factors, a1, α1 and α2 that regulate cell type identity and sexual reproduction in other fungi like the closely related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTL1 can contain either a or α information. MTL2, which contains a information and MTL3 with α information, are relatively close to two telomeres. MTL1 and MTL2 are transcriptionally active, while MTL3 is subject to an incomplete silencing nucleated at the telomere that depends on the silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, yKu70/80, Rif1, Rap1 and Sum1. C. glabrata does not seem to maintain cell type identity, as cell type-specific genes are expressed regardless of the type (or even absence) of mating information. These data highlight important differences in the control of mating and cell type identity between the non-pathogenic yeast S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which might explain the absence of a sexual cycle in C. glabrata. The fact that C. glabrata has conserved the vast majority of the genes involved in mating might suggest that some of these genes perhaps have been rewired to control other processes important for the survival inside the host as a commensal or as a human pathogen. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Practical implementation of optimal management strategies in conservation programmes: a mate selection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, J.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity is, from a genetic point of view, a key objective of conservation programmes. The selection of individuals contributing offspring and the decision of the mating scheme are the steps on which managers can control genetic diversity, specially on ‘ex situ’ programmes. Previous studies have shown that the optimal management strategy is to look for the parents’ contributions that yield minimum group coancestry (overall probability of identity by descent in the population and, then, to arrange mating couples following minimum pairwise coancestry. However, physiological constraints make it necessary to account for mating restrictions when deciding the contributions and, therefore, these should be implemented in a single step along with the mating plan. In the present paper, a single-step method is proposed to optimise the management of a conservation programme when restrictions on the mating scheme exist. The performance of the method is tested by computer simulation. The strategy turns out to be as efficient as the two-step method, regarding both the genetic diversity preserved and the fitness of the population.

  4. Genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubitschek, H.E.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: genetic effects of high LET radiations; genetic regulation, alteration, and repair; chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli; effects of radioisotope decay in the DNA of microorganisms; initiation and termination of DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis; mutagenesis in mouse myeloma cells; lethal and mutagenic effects of near-uv radiation; effect of 8-methoxypsoralen on photodynamic lethality and mutagenicity in Escherichia coli; DNA repair of the lethal effects of far-uv; and near uv irradiation of bacterial cells

  5. Ancestry dynamics in a South American population: The impact of gene flow and preferential mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2017-07-01

    European ancestry in many populations in Latin America at autosomal loci is often higher than that from X-linked loci indicating more European male ancestry and more Amerindian female ancestry. Generally, this has been attributed to more European male gene flow but could also result from an advantage to European mating or reproductive success. Population genetic models were developed to investigate the dynamics of gene flow and mating or reproductive success. Using estimates of autosomal and X-chromosome European ancestry, the amount of male gene flow or mating or reproductive advantage for Europeans, or those with European ancestry, was estimated. In a population from Antioquia, Colombia with an estimated 79% European autosomal ancestry and an estimated 69% European X-chromosome ancestry, about 15% male gene flow from Europe or about 20% mating or reproductive advantage of Europeans over Amerindians resulted in these levels of European ancestry in the contemporary population. Combinations of gene flow and mating advantage were nearly additive in their impact. Gene flow, mating advantage, or a combination of both factors, are consistent with observed levels of European ancestry in a Latin American population. This approach provides a general methodology to determine the levels of gene flow and mating differences that can explain the observed contemporary differences in ancestry from autosomes and X-chromosomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance among isolates of Escherichia coli O157: H7 from feces and hides of super-shedders and low-shedding pen-mates in two commercial beef feedlots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanford Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle shedding at least 104 CFU Escherichia coli O157:H7/g feces are described as super-shedders and have been shown to increase transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to other cattle in feedlots. This study investigated relationships among fecal isolates from super-shedders (n = 162, perineal hide swab isolates (PS from super-shedders (n = 137 and fecal isolates from low-shedder (4 CFU/g feces pen-mates (n = 496 using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. A subsample of these fecal isolates (n = 474 was tested for antimicrobial resistance. Isolates of E. coli O157:H7 were obtained from cattle in pens (avg. 181 head at 2 commercial feedlots in southern Alberta with each steer sampled at entry to the feedlot and prior to slaughter. Results Only 1 steer maintained super-shedder status at both samplings, although approximately 30% of super-shedders in sampling 1 had low-shedder status at sampling 2. A total of 85 restriction endonuclease digestion clusters (REPC; 90% or greater similarity and 86 unique isolates (P = 0.94. Only 2/21 super-shedders had fecal isolates in the same REPC at both samplings. Fecal and PS isolates from individual super-shedders generally belonged to different REPCs, although fecal isolates of E. coli O157:H7 from super- and low-shedders showed greater similarity (P P = 0.69, although all super-shedder isolates with antimicrobial resistance (n = 3 were resistant to multiple antimicrobials. Conclusions Super-shedders did not have increased antimicrobial resistance compared to low-shedder pen mates. Our data demonstrated that PFGE profiles of individual super-shedders varied over time and that only 1/162 steers remained a super-shedder at 2 samplings. In these two commercial feedlots, PFGE subtypes of E. coli O157:H7 from fecal isolates of super- and low-shedders were frequently different as were subtypes of fecal and perineal hide isolates from super-shedders.

  7. Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; McGue, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The sequenced genomes of individuals aged ≥80 years, who were highly educated, self-referred volunteers and with no self-reported chronic diseases were compared to young controls. In these data, healthy ageing is a distinct phenotype from exceptional longevity and genetic factors that protect...

  8. The effects of selection for early (day) and late (dusk) mating lines of hybrids of Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meats, A; Pike, N; An, X; Raphael, K; Wang, W Y S

    2003-11-01

    Bactrocera neohumeralis and Bactrocera tryoni are closely related tephritid fruit fly species. B. neohumeralis mates throughout the day (in bright light) and B. tryoni mates at dusk. The two species can also be distinguished by the colour of their calli (prothoracic sclerites) which are brown and yellow, respectively. The F1 hybrids can mate both in bright light just before dusk and during dusk and have calli that are partly brown and partly yellow. The F2 hybrids have a wider range of callus patterns and mating occurs more widely in the day as well as at dusk. We directly selected hybrid stocks for mating time, creating 'early' (day-mating) and 'late' (dusk-mating) lines. As an apparently inadvertent consequence, the two types of line respectively had predominantly brown and predominantly yellow calli and thus came to closely resemble the original two species in both behaviour and appearance. Lines that were evenly selected (half for day and half for dusk) essentially retained the mating pattern of F2 hybrids. Selection for callus colour alone also affected the distribution of mating times in a predictable way. We propose a genetical model to account for the results and discuss them in the light of the apparent maintenance of species integrity in nature.

  9. Multiple mating reveals complex patterns of assortative mating by personality and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wey, Tina W; Chang, Ann T; Fogarty, Sean; Sih, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns of non-random mating is central to predicting the consequences of sexual selection. Most studies quantifying assortative mating focus on testing for correlations among partners' phenotypes in mated pairs. Few studies have distinguished between assortative mating arising from preferences for similar partners (expressed by all or a subset of the population) vs. from phenotypic segregation in the environment. Also, few studies have assessed the robustness of assortative mating against temporal changes in social conditions. We tracked multiple matings by stream water striders (Aquarius remigis) across variable social conditions to investigate mating patterns by both body size and behavioural type (personality). We documented temporal changes in partner availability and used a mixed model approach to analyse individual behaviours and changes in mating status recorded on an hourly basis. We assessed whether all or only a subset of individuals in the population expressed a tendency to mate with similar phenotypes. Our analyses took into account variation in the level of competition and in the phenotypes of available partners. Males and females exhibited significant assortative mating by body size: the largest males and females, and the smallest males and females mated together more often than random. However, individuals of intermediate size were equally likely to mate with small, intermediate or large partners. Individuals also displayed two contrasting patterns of assortative mating by personality (activity level). Individuals generally mated preferentially with partners of similar activity level. However, beyond that general trend, individuals with more extreme personalities tended to exhibit disassortative mating: the most active males mated disproportionately with less active females and the least active males tended to mate with more active females. Our analyses thus revealed multiple, distinct patterns of nonrandom mating. These mating

  10. Honey bee queens do not count mates to assess their mating success

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mating system of honey bees (genus Apis) is extremely polyandrous, where reproductive females (queens) typically mate with 12 or more males (drones) during their mating flight(s). The evolutionary implications for hyperpolyandry have been subject to considerable debate and empirical testing beca...

  11. Reduced population size does not affect the mating strategy of a vulnerable and endemic seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Cristina; Neves, Verónica C.; Andris, Malvina; Dubois, Marie-Pierre; Jarne, Philippe; Bolton, Mark; Bried, Joël

    2017-12-01

    Bottleneck episodes may occur in small and isolated animal populations, which may result in decreased genetic diversity and increased inbreeding, but also in mating strategy adjustment. This was evaluated in the vulnerable and socially monogamous Monteiro's Storm-petrel Hydrobates monteiroi, a seabird endemic to the Azores archipelago which has suffered a dramatic population decline since the XVth century. To do this, we conducted a genetic study (18 microsatellite markers) in the population from Praia islet, which has been monitored over 16 years. We found no evidence that a genetic bottleneck was associated with this demographic decline. Monteiro's Storm-petrels paired randomly with respect to genetic relatedness and body measurements. Pair fecundity was unrelated to genetic relatedness between partners. We detected only two cases of extra-pair parentage associated with an extra-pair copulation (out of 71 offspring). Unsuccessful pairs were most likely to divorce the next year, but genetic relatedness between pair mates and pair breeding experience did not influence divorce. Divorce enabled individuals to improve their reproductive performances after re-mating only when the new partner was experienced. Re-pairing with an experienced partner occurred more frequently when divorcees changed nest than when they retained their nest. This study shows that even in strongly reduced populations, genetic diversity can be maintained, inbreeding does not necessarily occur, and random pairing is not risky in terms of pair lifetime reproductive success. Given, however, that we found no clear phenotypic mate choice criteria, the part played by non-morphological traits should be assessed more accurately in order to better understand seabird mating strategies.

  12. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easi...

  13. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  14. Mating competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes irradiated with a partially or fully sterilizing dose in small and large laboratory cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helinski, M.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Male mating competitiveness is a crucial parameter in many genetic control programs including the sterile insect technique (SIT). We evaluated competitiveness of male Anopheles arabiensis Patton as a function of three experimental variables: (1) small or large cages for mating, (2) the effects of

  15. Evolution of assortative mating in a population expressing dominance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristan A Schneider

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the influence of dominance on the evolution of assortative mating. We perform a population-genetic analysis of a two-locus two-allele model. We consider a quantitative trait that is under a mixture of frequency-independent stabilizing selection and density- and frequency-dependent selection caused by intraspecific competition for a continuum of resources. The trait is determined by a single (ecological locus and expresses intermediate dominance. The second (modifier locus determines the degree of assortative mating, which is expressed in females only. Assortative mating is based on similarities in the quantitative trait ('magic trait' model. Analytical conditions for the invasion of assortment modifiers are derived in the limit of weak selection and weak assortment. For the full model, extensive numerical iterations are performed to study the global dynamics. This allows us to gain a better understanding of the interaction of the different selective forces. Remarkably, depending on the size of modifier effects, dominance can have different effects on the evolution of assortment. We show that dominance hinders the evolution of assortment if modifier effects are small, but promotes it if modifier effects are large. These findings differ from those in previous work based on adaptive dynamics.

  16. Evolutionary transition from single to multiple mating in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Frydenberg, Jane

    1999-01-01

    Queens of leafcutter ants exhibit the highest known levels of multiple mating (up to 10 mates per queen) among ants. Multiple mating may have been selected to increase genetic diversity among nestmate workers, which is hypothesized to be critical in social systems with large, long-lived colonies...... under severe pressure of pathogens. Advanced fungus-growing (leafcutter) ants have large numbers (104-106 workers) and long-lived colonies, whereas basal genera in the attine tribe have small (workers) colonies with probably substantially shorter lifespans. Basal attines are therefore expected...... and highly productive social structure of the higher attine ants, which is fully dependent on the rearing of an ancient clonal fungus, may have necessitated high genetic diversity among nestmate workers. This is not the case in the lower attines, which rear fungi that were more recently derived from free...

  17. Age Variation in Mating Strategies and Mate Preferences: Beliefs versus Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Bleske-Rechek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We conducted three studies to (1 investigate individuals' beliefs about change in mating desires over the course of emerging adulthood and (2 determine whether those beliefs reflect actual variation in mating desires among emerging adults of varied ages (late teens through twenties. In Study 1, 103 men and women gave their thoughts on how college students change, if at all, in what they most desire in a relationship and relationship partner as they move from being incoming freshmen to graduating seniors. In Studies 2 and 3, using a college sample and then an internet sample (n s = 288 and 307, men and women between the ages of 18 and 26 completed mating strategies inventories and allotted a limited number of “mate dollars” to 10 mate characteristics. Findings suggest that although emerging adults believe that their peers' mating desires change systematically over time, emerging adults' self-reported mating desires vary little with age.

  18. Adolescent Bullying, Dating, and Mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Volk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally believed to be the result of maladaptive development, bullying perpetration is increasingly being viewed as a potentially adaptive behavior. We were interested in determining whether adolescents who bully others enjoy a key evolutionary benefit: increased dating and mating (sexual opportunities. This hypothesis was tested in two independent samples consisting of 334 adolescents and 144 university students. The data partly supported our prediction that bullying, but not victimization, would predict dating behavior. The data for sexual behavior more clearly supported our hypothesis that bullying behavior predicts an increase in sexual opportunities even when accounting for age, sex, and self-reports of attractiveness, likeability, and peer victimization. These results are generally congruent with the hypothesis that bullying perpetration is, at least in part, an evolutionary adaptive behavior.

  19. The role of mating preferences in shaping interspecific divergence in mating signals in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacek

    2000-10-05

    Vertebrates represent one of the best-studied groups in terms of the role that mating preferences have played in the evolution of exaggerated secondary sexual characters and mating behaviours within species. Vertebrate species however, also exhibit enormous interspecific diversity in features of mating signals that has potentially led to reproductive isolation and speciation in many groups. The role that sexual selection has played in interspecific divergence in mating signals has been less fully explored. This review summarizes our current knowledge of how mating preferences within species have shaped interspecific divergence in mate recognition signals among the major vertebrate groups. Certain signal modalities appear to characterize mating signal diversification among different vertebrate taxa. Acoustic signals play an important role in mating decisions in anuran amphibians and birds. Here, different properties of the signal may convey information regarding individual, neighbor and species recognition. Mating preferences for particular features of the acoustic signal have led to interspecific divergence in calls and songs. Divergence in morphological traits such as colouration or ornamentation appears to be important in interspecific diversity in certain groups of fishes and birds. Pheromonal signals serve as the primary basis for species-specific mating cues in many salamander species, most mammals and even some fishes. The evolution of interspecific divergence in elaborate courtship displays may have played an important role in speciation of lizards, and particular groups of fishes, salamanders, birds and mammals. While much research has focused on the importance of mating preferences in shaping the evolution of these types of mating signals within species, the link between intraspecific preferences and interspecific divergence and speciation remains to be more fully tested. Future studies should focus on identifying how variation in mating preferences within

  20. Why men matter: mating patterns drive evolution of human lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripad D Tuljapurkar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory predicts that senescence, a decline in survival rates with age, is the consequence of stronger selection on alleles that affect fertility or mortality earlier rather than later in life. Hamilton quantified this argument by showing that a rare mutation reducing survival is opposed by a selective force that declines with age over reproductive life. He used a female-only demographic model, predicting that female menopause at age ca. 50 yrs should be followed by a sharp increase in mortality, a "wall of death." Human lives obviously do not display such a wall. Explanations of the evolution of lifespan beyond the age of female menopause have proven difficult to describe as explicit genetic models. Here we argue that the inclusion of males and mating patterns extends Hamilton's theory and predicts the pattern of human senescence. We analyze a general two-sex model to show that selection favors survival for as long as men reproduce. Male fertility can only result from matings with fertile females, and we present a range of data showing that males much older than 50 yrs have substantial realized fertility through matings with younger females, a pattern that was likely typical among early humans. Thus old-age male fertility provides a selective force against autosomal deleterious mutations at ages far past female menopause with no sharp upper age limit, eliminating the wall of death. Our findings illustrate the evolutionary importance of males and mating preferences, and show that one-sex demographic models are insufficient to describe the forces that shape human senescence.

  1. Rapid and Efficient CRISPR/Cas9-Based Mating-Type Switching of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Xiong Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and highly efficient mating-type switching of Saccharomyces cerevisiae enables a wide variety of genetic manipulations, such as the construction of strains, for instance, isogenic haploid pairs of both mating-types, diploids and polyploids. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate a double-strand break at the MAT locus and, in a single cotransformation, both haploid and diploid cells were switched to the specified mating-type at ∼80% efficiency. The mating-type of strains carrying either rod or ring chromosome III were switched, including those lacking HMLα and HMRa cryptic mating loci. Furthermore, we transplanted the synthetic yeast chromosome V to build a haploid polysynthetic chromosome strain by using this method together with an endoreduplication intercross strategy. The CRISPR/Cas9 mating-type switching method will be useful in building the complete synthetic yeast (Sc2.0 genome. Importantly, it is a generally useful method to build polyploids of a defined genotype and generally expedites strain construction, for example, in the construction of fully a/a/α/α isogenic tetraploids.

  2. Sexual conflict inhibits female mate choice for major histocompatibility complex dissimilarity in Chinook salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Shawn R; Bortoluzzi, Romina N; Heath, Daniel D; Neff, Bryan D

    2010-03-22

    In many species females prefer major histocompatibility complex (MHC) dissimilar mates, which may improve offspring resistance to pathogens. However, sexual conflict may interfere with female preference when males attempt to mate with all females, regardless of compatibility. Here we used semi-natural spawning channels to examine how mating behaviour and genetic similarity at the MHC class II peptide binding region affected parentage patterns in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We found that females directed aggression at more MHC-similar males than expected by chance, providing a possible mechanism of female MHC choice in salmon. Males also directed aggression towards MHC-similar females, which was consistent with males harassing unreceptive mates. Males' aggression was positively correlated with their reproductive success, and it appeared to overcome female aversion to mating with MHC-similar males, as females who were the target of high levels of male aggression had lower than expected MHC divergence in their offspring. Indeed, offspring MHC divergence was highest when the sex ratio was female-biased and male harassment was likely to be less intense. These data suggest that male harassment can reduce female effectiveness in selecting MHC-compatible mates, and sexual conflict can thus have an indirect cost to females.

  3. Female house sparrows "count on" male genes: experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mate preference in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biard Clotilde

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Females can potentially assess the quality of potential mates using their secondary sexual traits, and obtain "good genes" that increase offspring fitness. Another potential indirect benefit from mating preferences is genetic compatibility, which does not require extravagant or viability indicator traits. Several studies with mammals and fish indicate that the genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC influence olfactory cues and mating preferences, and such preferences confer genetic benefits to offspring. We investigated whether individual MHC diversity (class I influences mating preferences in house sparrows (Passer domesticus. Results Overall, we found no evidence that females preferred males with high individual MHC diversity. Yet, when we considered individual MHC allelic diversity of the females, we found that females with a low number of alleles were most attracted to males carrying a high number of MHC alleles, which might reflect a mating-up preference by allele counting. Conclusions This is the first experimental evidence for MHC-dependent mating preferences in an avian species to our knowledge. Our findings raise questions about the underlying mechanisms through which birds discriminate individual MHC diversity among conspecifics, and they suggest a novel mechanism through which mating preferences might promote the evolution of MHC polymorphisms and generate positive selection for duplicated MHC loci.

  4. alpha AD alpha hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: evidence of same-sex mating in nature and hybrid fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, alpha and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT alpha over a in C. neoformans populations limits alpha-a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especially between alpha isolates. Whether same-sex mating occurs in nature and contributes to the current population structure was unknown. In this study, natural alpha AD alpha hybrids that arose by fusion between two alpha cells of different serotypes (A and D were identified and characterized, providing definitive evidence that same-sex mating occurs naturally. A novel truncated allele of the mating-type-specific cell identity determinant SXI1 alpha was also identified as a genetic factor likely involved in this process. In addition, laboratory-constructed alpha AD alpha strains exhibited hybrid vigor both in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible explanation for their relative abundance in nature despite the fact that AD hybrids are inefficient in meiosis/sporulation and are trapped in the diploid state. These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population.

  5. Kinship structure and mating system in a solitary subterranean rodent, the silvery mole-rat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patzenhauerová, Hana; Bryja, Josef; Šumbera, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 5 (2010), s. 757-767 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : subterranean rodent * kinship structure * mating system * dispersal Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2010

  6. MHC class II-assortative mate choice in European badgers (Meles meles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sin, Yung Wa; Annavi, Geetha; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D.; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W.; Dugdale, Hannah

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a crucial role in the immune system, and in some species, it is a target by which individuals choose mates to optimize the fitness of their offspring, potentially mediated by olfactory cues. Under the genetic compatibility hypothesis, individuals are

  7. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about mating patterns is essential for understanding and explaining rates of reproduction and genetic potential of copepods populations. The aim of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of multiple paternity in Temora longicornis, (2) the effect of multiple paternity (if present...

  8. ship between IS-month mating mass and average lifetime repro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: 18-month mating mass, average lifetime reproduction, phenotypic correlation. Livemass per se, or livemass gain are often used as criteria in selection indices for woolled and mutton sheep. Recent local research findings do, however, indicate the possibility of a negative genetic relationship between growth rate ...

  9. Analysis of half diallel mating designs I: a practical analysis procedure for ANOVA approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; J.N. King

    1998-01-01

    Procedures to analyze half-diallel mating designs using the SAS statistical package are presented. The procedure requires two runs of PROC and VARCOMP and results in estimates of additive and non-additive genetic variation. The procedures described can be modified to work on most statistical software packages which can compute variance component estimates. The...

  10. Parents Just Don't Understand : Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mate Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbs, Shelli L.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research reveals that children and parents are not in complete agreement over which traits are most important for the mate of the child. Children tend to prefer traits that suggest genetic quality, whereas parents prefer characteristics that suggest high parental investment and cooperation

  11. Demography and mating system shape the genome-wide impact of purifying selection in Arabis alpina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laenen, Benjamin; Tedder, Andrew; Nowak, Michael D.; Toräng, Per; Wunder, Jörg; Wötzel, Stefan; Steige, Kim A.; Kourmpetis, Yiannis; Odong, Thomas; Drouzas, Andreas D.; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Ågren, Jon; Coupland, George; Slotte, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Plant mating systems have profound effects on levels and structuring of genetic variation and can affect the impact of natural selection. Although theory predicts that intermediate outcrossing rates may allow plants to prevent accumulation of deleterious alleles, few studies have empirically tested

  12. What determines sex roles in mate searching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Wong, Bob B M

    2007-05-01

    In a seminal paper, Hammerstein and Parker (1987) described how sex roles in mate searching can be frequency dependent: the need for one sex to perform mate searching is diminished when the opposite sex takes on the greater searching effort. Intriguingly, this predicts that females are just as likely to search as males, despite a higher potential reproductive rate by the latter sex. This prediction, however, is not supported by data: male mate searching prevails in nature. Counterexamples also exist in the empirical literature. Depending on the taxon studied, female mate searching can arise in either low- or high-density conditions, and suggested explanations differ accordingly. We examine these puzzling observations by building two models (with and without sperm competition). When sperm competition is explicitly included, male mate searching becomes the dominant pattern; when it is excluded, male mate searching predominates only if we assume that costs of searching are higher for females. Consequently, two hypotheses emerge from our models. The multiple-mating hypothesis explains male searching on the basis of the ubiquity of sperm competition, and predicts that female searching can arise in low-density situations in which sperm can become limiting. It can also explain cases of female pheromone production, where males pay the majority of search costs. The sex-specific cost hypothesis predicts the opposite pattern of female searching in high-density conditions, and it potentially applies to some species in which sperm limitation is unlikely.

  13. Effects of stress on human mating preferences: stressed individuals prefer dissimilar mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Deuter, Christian E; Kuehl, Linn K; Schulz, André; Blumenthal, Terry D; Schachinger, Hartmut

    2010-07-22

    Although humans usually prefer mates that resemble themselves, mating preferences can vary with context. Stress has been shown to alter mating preferences in animals, but the effects of stress on human mating preferences are unknown. Here, we investigated whether stress alters men's preference for self-resembling mates. Participants first underwent a cold-pressor test (stress induction) or a control procedure. Then, participants viewed either neutral pictures or pictures of erotic female nudes whose facial characteristics were computer-modified to resemble either the participant or another participant, or were not modified, while startle eyeblink responses were elicited by noise probes. Erotic pictures were rated as being pleasant, and reduced startle magnitude compared with neutral pictures. In the control group, startle magnitude was smaller during foreground presentation of photographs of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to self-resembling mates. In the stress group, startle magnitude was larger during foreground presentation of self-resembling female nudes compared with other-resembling female nudes and non-manipulated female nudes, indicating a higher approach motivation to dissimilar mates. Our findings show that stress affects human mating preferences: unstressed individuals showed the expected preference for similar mates, but stressed individuals seem to prefer dissimilar mates.

  14. In-Law and Mate Preferences in Chinese Society and the Role of Traditional Cultural Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qingke; Li, Yujie; Yu, Shushuang

    2017-01-01

    Using 347 parent-child dyads as participants, this study directly examined in-law and mate preferences in a typical collectivist culture. The results showed (1) traits indicating social status and parental investment were more highly valued by the parents, while traits indicating genetic quality and traits related to romantic love were more highly valued by the children. (2) Parental preferences were moderated by gender of the in-laws. Good earning capacity was more preferred by parents in a son-in-law, traits connoting genetic quality and reproductive fitness were more preferred by parents in a daughter-in-law. (3) There was more convergence in in-law and mate preferences in Chinese culture than in Western cultures. (4) Traditional cultural values (i.e., filial piety) can be used as a predictor of traditional mate preferences and less parent-child divergences. Additionally, greater preference for kind and understanding by parents than by children as well as by daughters than by sons, and greater preference for social status by the daughters' than by the sons' parents have not been observed in the rating and the ranking instrument. These findings illustrated how culture handles the parent-child disagreement over mating by authorizing greater parental influence on children's mating decisions.

  15. Good vs complementary genes for parasite resistance and the evolution of mate choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lively Curtis M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female mate choice may be adaptive when males exhibit heritable genetic variation at loci encoding resistance to infectious disease. The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis predicts that females should assess the genetic quality of males by monitoring traits that indicate health and vigor (condition-dependent choice, or CD. Alternatively, some females may employ a more direct method of screening and select mates based on the dissimilarity of alleles at the major histocompatibility loci (we refer to this as opposites-attract, or OA. Empirical studies suggest that both forms of mate choice exist, but little is known about the potential for natural selection to shape the two strategies in nature. Results We used computer simulation models to examine the evolutionary fates of the two forms of mate choice in populations at risk for infection by debilitating parasites. We found that populations exhibiting random mating (no mate choice can be invaded and replaced completely by individuals practicing CD type mate choice. We also found that an allele encoding OA choice can increase when rare in randomly mating populations, but that it does not go to fixation under selection. A similar result was obtained when the OA strategy was introduced into populations practicing CD mate choice. As before, we found that the OA choice allele will increase when rare, and that it will not go to fixation under selection. The converse however was not true, as CD individuals gain no rare advantage when introduced into an OA population. Conclusions Taken together, the results suggest that, when rare, OA is the best strategy for parasite evasion (of those considered here. The consequence of OA increasing in the population, however, is to reduce the parasite driven genotype oscillations and facilitate the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium at the disease-resistance loci. This leads to a neutrally stable situation in which different strategies have equal fitness, and

  16. Realization of the chess mate solver application

    OpenAIRE

    Vučković Vladan V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents details of the chess mate solver application, which is a part of the author’s Geniss general chess application. The problem chess is an important domain connected with solving of the chess problems. The Geniss Mate Solver (G.M.S.) application solves Mate-in-N-move problems. Main techniques used for the implementation of the application are full-width searching with Alpha-Beta pruning technique and zero evaluation function. The application is written in Delphi for Windows p...

  17. Speciation is not necessarily easier in species with sexually monomorphic mating signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S; Henry, C S

    2015-11-01

    Should we have different expectations regarding the likelihood and pace of speciation by sexual selection when considering species with sexually monomorphic mating signals? Two conditions that can facilitate rapid species divergence are Felsenstein's one-allele mechanism and a genetic architecture that includes a genetic association between signal and preference loci. In sexually monomorphic species, the former can manifest in the form of mate choice based on phenotype matching. The latter can be promoted by selection acting upon genetic loci for divergent signals and preferences expressed simultaneously in each individual, rather than acting separately on signal loci in males and preference loci in females. Both sexes in the Chrysoperla carnea group of green lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) produce sexually monomorphic species-specific mating signals. We hybridized the two species C. agilis and C. carnea to test for evidence of these speciation-facilitating conditions. Hybrid signals were more complex than the parents and we observed a dominant influence of C. carnea. We found a dominant influence of C. agilis on preferences in the form of hybrid discrimination against C. carnea. Preferences in hybrids followed patterns predicting preference loci that determine mate choice rather than a one-allele mechanism. The genetic association between signal and preference we detected in the segregating hybrid crosses indicates that speciation in these species with sexually monomorphic mating signals can have occurred rapidly. However, we need additional evidence to determine whether such genetic associations form more readily in sexually monomorphic species compared to dimorphic species and consequently facilitate speciation. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Plant mating systems in a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Christopher G; Kalisz, Susan; Geber, Monica A; Sargent, Risa; Elle, Elizabeth; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Goodwillie, Carol; Johnston, Mark O; Kelly, John K; Moeller, David A; Porcher, Emmanuelle; Ree, Richard H; Vallejo-Marín, Mario; Winn, Alice A

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human disturbance can negatively impact plant-pollinator interactions such as outcross pollination. We present a meta-analysis of 22 studies involving 27 plant species showing a significant reduction in the proportion of seeds outcrossed in response to anthropogenic habitat modifications. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of disturbance on plant mating systems, and in particular whether reproductive assurance through selfing effectively compensates for reduced outcrossing. The extent to which disturbance reduces pollinator versus mate availability could generate diverse selective forces on reproductive traits. Investigating how anthropogenic change influences plant mating will lead to new opportunities for better understanding of how mating systems evolve, as well as of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of human activities and how to mitigate them. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  20. Mating with large males decreases the immune defence of females ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mating has been widely reported to be a costly event for females. Studies indicate that female cost of mating in terms of fecundity and survivorship can be affected by their mates, leading to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. However, as of now, there is no evidence that the female cost of mating in terms of immune ...

  1. Status and Mating Success Amongst Visual Artists

    OpenAIRE

    Clegg, Helen; Nettle, Daniel; Miell, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Geoffrey Miller has hypothesized that producing artwork functions as a mating display. Here we investigate the relationship between mating success and artistic success in a sample of 236 visual artists. We derived two measures of artistic success, one based on self-perception and the other on more objective variables to do with artistic output and attitudes, as well as a measure of artistic identity. More subjectively successful male artists and those males with a stronger artistic identity h...

  2. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from green and toasted mate tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Patricia de Abreu Marques; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira

    2011-05-01

    The production and distribution of toasted mate tea in Brazil has increased, which has resulted in its greater consumption. Mate tea is obtained by roasting non-fermented erva-mate in order to produce toasted erva-mate or toasted mate tea. However, although the product is much appreciated, studies of its chemical composition and the concentration of polyphenols, particularly flavonols present in toasted mate tea, are few and often controversial. This paper elucidates some misunderstandings involving the nomenclature of erva-mate and toasted mate, and mainly provides an overview of the composition of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of toasted mate tea and its raw material, erva-mate, in comparison with other teas, the compositions of which were found in the literature.

  3. From vigilance to violence: mate retention tactics in married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, D M; Shackelford, T K

    1997-02-01

    Although much research has explored the adaptive problems of mate selection and mate attraction, little research has investigated the adaptive problem of mate retention. We tested several evolutionary psychological hypotheses about the determinants of mate retention in 214 married people. We assessed the usage of 19 mate retention tactics ranging from vigilance to violence. Key hypothesized findings include the following: Men's, but not women's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's youth and physical attractiveness. Women's, but not men's, mate retention positively covaried with partner's income and status striving. Men's mate retention positively covaried with perceived probability of partner's infidelity. Men, more than women, reported using resource display, submission and debasement, and intrasexual threats to retain their mates. Women, more than men, reported using appearance enhancement and verbal signals of possession. Discussion includes an evolutionary psychological analysis of mate retention in married couples.

  4. Mating system and early viability resistance to habitat fragmentation in a bird-pollinated eucalypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, M F; Ottewell, K M; Gardner, M G; Marklund, M H K; Stead, M G; Harris, J B C; Lowe, A J

    2015-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation has been shown to disrupt ecosystem processes such as plant-pollinator mutualisms. Consequently, mating patterns in remnant tree populations are expected to shift towards increased inbreeding and reduced pollen diversity, with fitness consequences for future generations. However, mating patterns and phenotypic assessments of open-pollinated progeny have rarely been combined in a single study. Here, we collected seeds from 37 Eucalyptus incrassata trees from contrasting stand densities following recent clearance in a single South Australian population (intact woodland=12.6 trees ha(-1); isolated pasture=1.7 trees ha(-1); population area=10 km(2)). 649 progeny from these trees were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. We estimated genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure, indirect contemporary pollen flow and mating patterns for adults older than the clearance events and open-pollinated progeny sired post-clearance. A proxy of early stage progeny viability was assessed in a common garden experiment. Density had no impact on mating patterns, adult and progeny genetic diversity or progeny growth, but was associated with increased mean pollen dispersal. Weak spatial genetic structure among adults suggests high historical gene flow. We observed preliminary evidence for inbreeding depression related to stress caused by fungal infection, but which was not associated with density. Higher observed heterozygosities in adults compared with progeny may relate to weak selection on progeny and lifetime-accumulated mortality of inbred adults. E. incrassata appears to be resistant to the negative mating pattern and fitness changes expected within fragmented landscapes. This pattern is likely explained by strong outcrossing and regular long-distance pollen flow.

  5. Determination of the mating system of Tucumã palm using microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Linorio Ferreyra Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Amazonian Tucumã palm (Astrocaryum aculeatum produces edible fruit, traditionally consumed in indigenouscommunities and increasingly in urban centers. The species is incipiently domesticated and little studied, despite its growingeconomic importance for smallholder farmers and gatherers. Studies on the mating system are required for the conservation anduse of the species’ genetic resources. Our objective was to estimate mating system parameters of the Tucumã palm using microsatellitemarkers. Plants of 11 progenies of a spontaneous population were genotyped with eight microsatellite loci and the mating systemparameters estimated. The population outcrossing rate was estimated at 0.978, and ranged from 0.774 to 1at the family level. Theestimates of the correlation of paternity (0.176 and 0.205 suggest a low probability of full-sibs within progenies. Tucumã palm is apredominantly allogamous species and the open-pollinated progenies consist predominantly of half-sibs.

  6. The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri (Marasmiaceae) possesses biallelic A and B mating loci but reproduces clonally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Valderrama, J R; Aime, M C

    2016-06-01

    The cacao pathogen Moniliophthora roreri belongs to the mushroom-forming family Marasmiaceae, but it has never been observed to produce a fruiting body, which calls to question its capacity for sexual reproduction. In this study, we identified potential A (HD1 and HD2) and B (pheromone precursors and pheromone receptors) mating genes in M. roreri. A PCR-based method was subsequently devised to determine the mating type for a set of 47 isolates from across the geographic range of the fungus. We developed and generated an 11-marker microsatellite set and conducted association and linkage disequilibrium (standardized index of association, IA(s)) analyses. We also performed an ancestral reconstruction analysis to show that the ancestor of M. roreri is predicted to be heterothallic and tetrapolar, which together with sliding window analyses support that the A and B mating loci are likely unlinked and follow a tetrapolar organization within the genome. The A locus is composed of a pair of HD1 and HD2 genes, whereas the B locus consists of a paired pheromone precursor, Mr_Ph4, and receptor, STE3_Mr4. Two A and B alleles but only two mating types were identified. Association analyses divided isolates into two well-defined genetically distinct groups that correlate with their mating type; IA(s) values show high linkage disequilibrium as is expected in clonal reproduction. Interestingly, both mating types were found in South American isolates but only one mating type was found in Central American isolates, supporting a prior hypothesis of clonal dissemination throughout Central America after a single or very few introductions of the fungus from South America.

  7. Good mates retain us right: investigating the relationship between mate retention strategies, mate value, and relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salkicevic, Svjetlana; Stanic, Ajana L; Grabovac, Masa T

    2014-12-07

    Mate retention strategies are an important tool in keeping a partner, and their use is determined by the mate value (MV) of the partner one is trying to keep. The type of strategy used is also dependent on one's own MV: mates of lower MV are more prone to exhibiting strategies that are cost-inflicting for their partners, whereas partner-benefiting strategies are used by mates of higher value. The type of strategies used affects relationship satisfaction (RS), and is also affected by the perceived difference in MVs. However, it is unclear how someone's perception of their partner's MV is related to that partner's behavior and their own RS. To this aim, we investigated the relationship between these variables on a sample of 178 couples. Our results showed that benefit-inducing strategies were used more by--and towards--partners of higher MV, and were positively connected with RS. Cost-inflicting strategies were more used by--and towards--partners of lower MV, and were negatively connected with RS. Less MV difference was positively correlated with RS and benefiting strategies, and negatively correlated with cost-inflicting strategies. It seems that good mates use strategies that benefit their partners, which, in turn, make them more valuable and, consequently, their partner more satisfied.

  8. Diversidade genética e sistema de reprodução em uma população base de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. procedente de Katherine River, Austrália. Genetic diversity and mating system in a base population of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. from Katherine River, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno SEBBENN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar pormarcadores microssatélites a diversidade genéticae o sistema de reprodução de uma população basede Eucalyptus camaldulensis composta por 25 progênies de polinização aberta, localizada naFazenda de Ensino e Pesquisa da UNESP de IlhaSolteira, em Selvíria MS. Foram genotipadas 100 árvores de 25 progênies de polinização aberta(4 árvores/progênie para oito locos microssatélites.Todos os locos avaliados foram polimórficos.A heterozigosidade observada nas matrizesfoi significativamente maior que aobservada nas progênies , o queindica que algum processo está reduzindo aheterozigosidade nas progênies. O índice defixação observado nas matrizes foisignificativamente menor que o detectado nasprogênies sugerindo seleção a favorde heterozigotos. A estimativa da taxa decruzamento multiloco foi alta, massignificativamente diferente da unidade (1,0,revelando que a espécie é de sistema mistode reprodução com predomínio de cruzamentos.A taxa de cruzamento entre parentes foitambém alta e significativamente diferente de zero, o que juntamente coma taxa de autofecundação explicam a alta taxa deendogamia detectada nas progênies. De modogeral, foi observada alta diversidade genética nasárvores matrizes e nas progênies. Como adiversidade genética é fundamental para programasde conservação e melhoramento genético, esteresultado indica que a população estudada tem altopotencial para ser usada para estes propósitos.The aim of this work was to evaluatethe genetic diversity and the mating system ofa base population of Eucalyptus camaldulensis,composed of 25 open-pollinated families, located inthe experimental station of UNESP Ilha Solteira,in Selvíria MS. One hundred individuals from 25families (4 trees/family were genotyped througheight microsatellite loci. All evaluated loci werepolymorphic. The observed heterozigosity in theseed-trees was significantly higherthan observed in offspring

  9. Mating systems and sexual selection in male-pregnant pipefishes and seahorses: insights from microsatellite-based studies of maternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A G; Avise, J C

    2001-01-01

    In pipefishes and seahorses (family Syngnathidae), the males provide all postzygotic care of offspring by brooding embryos on their ventral surfaces. In some species, this phenomenon of male "pregnancy" results in a reversal of the usual direction of sexual selection, such that females compete more than males for access to mates, and secondary sexual characteristics evolve in females. Thus the syngnathids can provide critical tests of theories related to the evolution of sex differences and sexual selection. Microsatellite-based studies of the genetic mating systems of several species of pipefishes and seahorses have provided insights into important aspects of the natural history and evolution of these fishes. First, males of species with completely enclosed pouches have complete confidence of paternity, as might be predicted from parental investment theory for species in which males invest so heavily in offspring. Second, a wide range of genetic mating systems have been documented in nature, including genetic monogamy in a seahorse, polygynandry in two species of pipefish, and polyandry in a third pipefish species. The genetic mating systems appear to be causally related to the intensity of sexual selection, with secondary sex characters evolving most often in females of the more polyandrous species. Third, genetic studies of captive-breeding pipefish suggest that the sexual selection gradient (or Bateman gradient) may be a substantially better method for characterizing the mating system than previously available techniques. Finally, these genetic studies of syngnathid mating systems have led to some general insights into the occurrence of clustered mutations at microsatellite loci, the utility of linked loci in studies of parentage, and the use of parentage data for direct estimation of adult population size.

  10. Male choice of mates and mating resources in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Casalini, M.; Reichard, Martin; Phillips, A.; Smith, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2013), s. 1199-1204 ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1163 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : body size * fecundity * male mate choice * mating system * oviposition * sperm competition * territoriality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2013

  11. Male mate choice, male quality, and the potential for sexual selection on female traits under polygyny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L; Servedio, Maria R

    2017-01-01

    Observations of male mate choice are increasingly common, even in species with traditional sex roles. In addition, female traits that bear the hallmarks of secondary sexual characters are increasingly reported. These concurrent empirical trends have led to the repeated inference that, even under polygyny, male mate choice is a mechanism of sexual selection on female traits. It is often either assumed or argued that in these cases females are competing for males of superior "quality"; females might experience sexual selection under polygyny if they compete for mates that provide either direct or indirect benefits. However, the theoretical foundation of this testable hypothesis remains largely uninvestigated. We develop a population genetic model to probe the logic of this hypothesis and demonstrate that, contrary to common inferences, male mate choice, variation in male quality (in the form of a direct fecundity benefit to females), and female ornamentation can coexist in a population without any sexual selection on female ornamentation taking place at all. Furthermore, even in a "best case scenario" where high quality males with a preference for ornamented females are able to mate disproportionately more often with them, the evolution of female traits by sexual selection may be relatively weak. We discuss the implication of these findings for ongoing empirical and theoretical research on the evolution of sexual-signaling in females. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Social and extra-pair mating in relation to major histocompatibility complex variation in common yellowthroats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmer, Jennifer L.; Dunn, Peter O.; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R.; Whittingham, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Females are thought to gain better-quality genes for their offspring by mating with particular males. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a critical role in adaptive immunity, and several studies have examined female mate choice in relation to MHC variation. In common yellowthroats, females prefer males that have larger black facial masks, an ornament associated with MHC variation, immune function and condition. Here we also tested whether mating patterns are directly correlated with MHC diversity or similarity. Using pyrosequencing, we found that the presence of extra-pair young in the brood was not related to male MHC diversity or similarity between the female and her within-pair mate. Furthermore, extra-pair sires did not differ in overall diversity from males they cuckolded, or in their similarity to the female. MHC diversity is extremely high in this species, and it may limit the ability of females to assess MHC variation in males. Thus, mating may be based on ornaments, such as mask size, which are better indicators of overall male health and genetic quality. PMID:23055067

  13. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  14. Mate-Choice Copying in Single and Coupled Women: The Influence of Mate Acceptance and Mate Rejection Decisions of other Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of humans and non-human animals indicate that females tend to change the likelihood of choosing a potential mate based on the decisions of other females; this is known as mate-choice copying. In a sample of both single and coupled women, we examined the influence of other women's (model mate-choice decisions, including mate acceptance and mate rejection, on participants' attractiveness ratings of men (target and willingness of mate selection. We also examined whether different types of relationships between the target men and the model women affected mate-choice copying. We found that both the single and coupled women showed mate-choice copying, but their response patterns differed. The significant effects for single women were dependent on a decrease in attractiveness ratings when they perceived the models' mate rejection. However, the significant findings for coupled women relied on an increase in attractiveness ratings when they observed the models' mate acceptance. Furthermore, the relationship status between the target men and the model women affected the magnitude of mate-choice copying effects for the single women. Specifically, they showed less mate-choice copying when the targets and models were in a committed romantic relationship than when in a temporary relationship.

  15. Visual mate choice in poison frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, K; Symula, R; Clough, M; Cronin, T

    1999-11-07

    We investigated female mate choice on the basis of visual cues in two populations of Dendrobates pumilio, the strawberry poison frog, from the Bocas del Toro Archipelago in Panama, Central America. Mate choice experiments were carried out by presenting subject females of each of two morphs of this species (orange and green) from two different island populations (Nancy Key and Pope Island) with object frogs (one of each morph) under glass at one end of a terrarium. Recorded calls were played simultaneously from behind both object frogs. The experiments were carried out under two light regimes: (i) white light, and (ii) relatively monochromatic filtered blue light. Subject females from each population displayed a significant preference for their own morph under white light, but not under blue light. These results indicate that female D. pumilio use visual cues in mate choice, and suggest that colour may be the visual cue they use.

  16. Realization of the chess mate solver application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Vladan V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents details of the chess mate solver application, which is a part of the author’s Geniss general chess application. The problem chess is an important domain connected with solving of the chess problems. The Geniss Mate Solver (G.M.S. application solves Mate-in-N-move problems. Main techniques used for the implementation of the application are full-width searching with Alpha-Beta pruning technique and zero evaluation function. The application is written in Delphi for Windows programming environment and the searching engine is completely coded in assembly language (about 10000 lines. This hybrid software structure enables efficient program development by using high-level programming environment and the realization of a very fast searching engine at the same time. The machine code is manually coded and could achieve above 7 million generated positions per second on the 1Ghz Celeron PC.

  17. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Functional pleiotropy and mating system evolution in plants: frequency-independent mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Otto, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Mutations that alter the morphology of floral displays (e.g., flower size) or plant development can change multiple functions simultaneously, such as pollen export and selfing rate. Given the effect of these various traits on fitness, pleiotropy may alter the evolution of both mating systems and floral displays, two characters with high diversity among angiosperms. The influence of viability selection on mating system evolution has not been studied theoretically. We model plant mating system evolution when a single locus simultaneously affects the selfing rate, pollen export, and viability. We assume frequency-independent mating, so our model characterizes prior selfing. Pleiotropy between increased viability and selfing rate reduces opportunities for the evolution of pure outcrossing, can favor complete selfing despite high inbreeding depression, and notably, can cause the evolution of mixed mating despite very high inbreeding depression. These results highlight the importance of pleiotropy for mating system evolution and suggest that selection by nonpollinating agents may help explain mixed mating, particularly in species with very high inbreeding depression. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Intrasexual competition facilitates the evolution of alternative mating strategies in a colour polymorphic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Gonzales, Jorge L; Uy, J Albert C

    2010-12-23

    Intense competition for access to females can lead to males exploiting different components of sexual selection, and result in the evolution of alternative mating strategies (AMSs). Males of Poecilia parae, a colour polymorphic fish, exhibit five distinct phenotypes: drab-coloured (immaculata), striped (parae), structural-coloured (blue) and carotenoid-based red and yellow morphs. Previous work indicates that immaculata males employ a sneaker strategy, whereas the red and yellow morphs exploit female preferences for carotenoid-based colours. Mating strategies favouring the maintenance of the other morphs remain to be determined. Here, we report the role of agonistic male-male interactions in influencing female mating preferences and male mating success, and in facilitating the evolution of AMSs. Our study reveals variation in aggressiveness among P. parae morphs during indirect and direct interactions with sexually receptive females. Two morphs, parae and yellow, use aggression to enhance their mating success (i.e., number of copulations) by 1) directly monopolizing access to females, and 2) modifying female preferences after winning agonistic encounters. Conversely, we found that the success of the drab-coloured immaculata morph, which specializes in a sneak copulation strategy, relies in its ability to circumvent both male aggression and female choice when facing all but yellow males. Strong directional selection is expected to deplete genetic variation, yet many species show striking genetically-based polymorphisms. Most studies evoke frequency dependent selection to explain the persistence of such variation. Consistent with a growing body of evidence, our findings suggest that a complex form of balancing selection may alternatively explain the evolution and maintenance of AMSs in a colour polymorphic fish. In particular, this study demonstrates that intrasexual competition results in phenotypically distinct males exhibiting clear differences in their levels of

  20. Intrasexual competition facilitates the evolution of alternative mating strategies in a colour polymorphic fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uy J Albert C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intense competition for access to females can lead to males exploiting different components of sexual selection, and result in the evolution of alternative mating strategies (AMSs. Males of Poecilia parae, a colour polymorphic fish, exhibit five distinct phenotypes: drab-coloured (immaculata, striped (parae, structural-coloured (blue and carotenoid-based red and yellow morphs. Previous work indicates that immaculata males employ a sneaker strategy, whereas the red and yellow morphs exploit female preferences for carotenoid-based colours. Mating strategies favouring the maintenance of the other morphs remain to be determined. Here, we report the role of agonistic male-male interactions in influencing female mating preferences and male mating success, and in facilitating the evolution of AMSs. Results Our study reveals variation in aggressiveness among P. parae morphs during indirect and direct interactions with sexually receptive females. Two morphs, parae and yellow, use aggression to enhance their mating success (i.e., number of copulations by 1 directly monopolizing access to females, and 2 modifying female preferences after winning agonistic encounters. Conversely, we found that the success of the drab-coloured immaculata morph, which specializes in a sneak copulation strategy, relies in its ability to circumvent both male aggression and female choice when facing all but yellow males. Conclusions Strong directional selection is expected to deplete genetic variation, yet many species show striking genetically-based polymorphisms. Most studies evoke frequency dependent selection to explain the persistence of such variation. Consistent with a growing body of evidence, our findings suggest that a complex form of balancing selection may alternatively explain the evolution and maintenance of AMSs in a colour polymorphic fish. In particular, this study demonstrates that intrasexual competition results in phenotypically distinct

  1. Genetic evidence for patrilocal mating behavior among Neandertal groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Rosas, Antonio; Estalrrich, Almudena

    2011-01-01

    The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part of a contem......The remains of 12 Neandertal individuals have been found at the El Sidrón site (Asturias, Spain), consisting of six adults, three adolescents, two juveniles, and one infant. Archaeological, paleontological, and geological evidence indicates that these individuals represent all or part...

  2. Testosterone biases automatic memory processes in women towards potential mates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Female mate choice involves the comparative evaluation of potential mates. Females use a pooled comparison of sampled males to maximize the perceived reproductive fitness of their partner, implying the memorization of sampled males. However, hormonal and reproductive states influence female

  3. Husband's Esteem Predicts his Mate Retention Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Holden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available delity or prevent their defection from the relationship. These tactics include low-risk acts that render the current relationship more attractive by bestowing benefits on the woman, as well as cost-inflicting acts that render defection from the relationship risky or dangerous for her. Previous research has linked men's mate retention behavior with men's mate value (value as a current or potential partner using women's reports. The current research addresses limitations of that research using self-reports and cross-spousal reports from 107 married couples concerning their self-esteem and their esteem for their partner. The results indicate that the level of esteem that wives have for their husbands is positively associated with their perception of their husband's use of positive inducements and negatively associated with their husband's self-reported use of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors (i.e., Direct Guarding, Intersexual Negative Inducements, and Intrasexual Negative Inducements. The level of self-esteem reported by men was negatively associated with their self-reported direct guarding behavior. Discussion explores the possibility that esteem—both self-esteem and esteem from one's partner—functions as an internal gauge of relative mate value.

  4. Mating of Phytophthora ramorum: functionality and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier Boutet; Annelies Vercauteren; Chandelier Heungens; Anne Kurt

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum (Werres, De Cock, Man in’t Veld), which causes “sudden oak death” in the United States and dieback and leaf necrosis in ornamental plants (mainly Rhododendron and Viburnum) in Europe, is a heterothallic species with two mating types, A1 and A2 (Werres and others 2001, Rizzo and...

  5. AA, mating of BST magnet halves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The AA had 2 types of bending magnets: BLG (window-frame,long and narrow) and BST (H-type, short and wide). The BST had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the mating of two BST halves.

  6. The Medusa Algorithm for Polynomial Matings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Suzanne Hruska; Henriksen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Medusa algorithm takes as input two postcritically finite quadratic polynomials and outputs the quadratic rational map which is the mating of the two polynomials (if it exists). Specifically, the output is a sequence of approximations for the parameters of the rational map, as well as an image...

  7. Social amoebae mating types do not invest unequally in sexual offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, T E; Queller, D C; Strassmann, J E

    2017-05-01

    Unequal investment by different sexes in their progeny is common and includes differential investment in the zygote and differential care of the young. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a sexual stage in which isogamous cells of any two of the three mating types fuse to form a zygote which then attracts hundreds of other cells to the macrocyst. The latter cells are cannibalized and so make no genetic contribution to reproduction. Previous literature suggests that this sacrifice may be induced in cells of one mating type by cells of another, resulting in a higher than expected production of macrocysts when the inducing type is rare and giving a reproductive advantage to this social cheat. We tested this hypothesis in eight trios of field-collected clones of each of the three D. discoideum mating types by measuring macrocyst production at different pairwise frequencies. We found evidence that supported differential contribution in only two of the 24 clone pairs, so this pattern is rare and clone-specific. In general, we did not reject the hypothesis that the mating types contribute cells relative to their proportion in the population. We also found a significant quadratic relationship between partner frequency and macrocyst production, suggesting that when one clone is rare, macrocyst production is limited by partner availability. We were also unable to replicate previous findings that macrocyst production could be induced in the absence of a compatible mating partner. Overall, mating type-specific differential investment during sex is unlikely in microbial eukaryotes like D. discoideum. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Assessment of Long-Term Mate Preferences in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-01-01

    Previous research suggests that assessment of mate preferences has received relatively little psychometric attention from researchers, particularly in non-Western cultures. The current research was designed to (1) extend previous findings on long-term mate preferences by using a qualitative strategy, (2) develop a psychometrically sound scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences in men, and (3) develop a sex-neutral scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences. Six dimensions of...

  9. Avaliação genética em erva-mate pelo procedimento BLUP individual multivariado sob interação genótipo x ambiente Genetic evaluation in Ilex paraguariensis by the multivariate individual BLUP procedure with genotype-environment interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Maria Simeão

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos e realizar a predição de valores genéticos de matrizes e procedências de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis. Foram avaliadas 164 progênies de oito procedências, em três locais (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR e Rio Azul, PR, em relação ao caráter produção de massa foliar (PMF. Os componentes de variância, parâmetros genéticos e valores genéticos foram estimados pelo procedimento REML/BLUP individual (máxima verossimilhança restrita/melhor predição linear não viciada, realizando a análise multivariada para os três locais. Os coeficientes de herdabilidade individual, no sentido restrito, para o caráter PMF foram 0,15 em Ivaí, 0,62 em Guarapuava e 0,23 em Rio Azul. A baixa magnitude desses coeficientes em Ivaí e Rio Azul demanda a utilização de métodos de seleção que utilizem todos os efeitos aleatórios do modelo estatístico. O efeito de procedências foi significativo em Ivaí e Rio Azul, com correlação fenotípica intraclasse de 0,13 em Ivaí e de 0,09 em Rio Azul. As procedências apresentaram correlação genética de 0,95 entre os locais Ivaí e Rio Azul. Nesses locais, as procedências foram mais estáveis nos diferentes ambientes do que as progênies. Foram preditos os valores genéticos em relação a todas as procedências e matrizes em todos os locais quanto ao caráter avaliado. As melhores procedências são Barão de Cotegipe, Quedas do Iguaçu, Cascavel e Ivaí.The objectives of this paper were to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters and to predict breeding values for parents and provenances of Ilex paraguariensis. Eight provenances with 164 progenies were evaluated on three sites (Ivaí, PR, Guarapuava, PR and Rio Azul, PR for the trait leaf weight (LW. All the variance components, parameters and breeding values were obtained by REML/BLUP (restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction procedure at the

  10. Age Variation in Mating Strategies and Mate Preferences: Beliefs versus Reality

    OpenAIRE

    April Bleske-Rechek; Bailey VandenHeuvel; Maria Vander Wyst

    2009-01-01

    We conducted three studies to (1) investigate individuals' beliefs about change in mating desires over the course of emerging adulthood and (2) determine whether those beliefs reflect actual variation in mating desires among emerging adults of varied ages (late teens through twenties). In Study 1, 103 men and women gave their thoughts on how college students change, if at all, in what they most desire in a relationship and relationship partner as they move from being incoming freshmen to grad...

  11. The cryptochrome (cry) Gene and a Mating Isolation Mechanism in Tephritid Fruit Flies

    OpenAIRE

    An, Xin; Tebo, Molly; Song, Sunmi; Frommer, Marianne; Raphael, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    Two sibling species of tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis, are differentiated by their time of mating, which is genetically determined and requires interactions between the endogenous circadian clock and light intensity. The cryptochrome (cry) gene, a light-sensitive component of the circadian clock, was isolated in the two Bactrocera species. The putative amino acid sequence is identical in the two species. In the brain, in situ hybridization showed that cry i...

  12. Evidence for mate guarding behavior in the Taylor's checkerspot butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria J. Bennett; Winston P. Smith; Matthew G. Betts

    2011-01-01

    Discerning the intricacies of mating systems in butterflies can be difficult, particularly when multiple mating strategies are employed and are cryptic and not exclusive. We observed the behavior and habitat use of 113 male Taylor's checkerspot butterflies (Euphydryas editha taylori). We confirmed that two distinct mating strategies were...

  13. Cultural Variation in Parental Influence on Mate Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Duncan, Lesley A.

    Contrary to assumptions underlying current psychological theories of human mating, throughout much of human history parents often controlled the mating behavior of their children. In the present research, the authors tested the hypothesis that the level of parental influence on mating is associated

  14. Assortive mating for personaltiy traits, educational level, religious affiliation, height, weight, adn body mass index in parents of Korean twin sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yoon-Mi

    2003-12-01

    The degree of assortative mating for psychological and physical traits in Asian societies in relatively unknown. The present study examined assortative mating for educational level, personality traits, religious affiliation, height, weight, and body mass index in a korean sample. Age-adjusted spouse correlations were high for educational level (r = .63) and religious affiliation (r = .67), modest for most personality traits (rs = -.01 to .26), and trivial for height (r = .04), weight (r = .05)m and body mass index (r = .11). These results were remarkably similar to those found from the western samples. Implications of the present findings in behavior genetic studies and human mating patterns were briefly discussed.

  15. Patterns of MHC-dependent mate selection in humans and non-human primates: a meta-analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Winternitz, Jamie Caroline; Abbate, J. L.; Huchard, E.; Havlíček, J.; Garamszegi, L. Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2017), s. 668-688 ISSN 0962-1083 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : major histocompatibility complex * sexual selection * inbreeding avoidance * mating preference * good genes * HLA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  16. Molecular Characterization of a Heterothallic Mating System in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome of Bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palmer, J.M.; Kubátová, Alena; Nováková, Alena; Minnis, A.M.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Lindner, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 9 (2014), s. 1755-1763 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : geomyces * sexual reproduction * mating type Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2014

  17. Is telomere length associated with mate choice in a songbird with a high rate of extra-pair paternity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild Johnsen

    Full Text Available Telomere length is related to aging in many eukaryotes and the rate of telomere attrition has been suggested to reflect individual genetic quality. Telomere length could thus have implications for mate choice. We investigated telomere length variation in bluethroat Luscinia svecica families with mixed paternity, including social parents, extra-pair fathers and nestlings, testing whether telomere length is associated with social and/or extra-pair mate choice through assortative mating or selection of mates with relatively long telomeres. In adults, relative telomere length (rTL did not differ between the sexes, nor between two age categories. In chicks, however, rTL decreased with body mass at sampling (an index of nestling age. We found a positive correlation between the rTL of social mates, suggesting assortative mating with respect to telomere length or a correlative thereof. However, extra-pair males did not differ from social mates in rTL, and accordingly there was also no difference between within- and extra-pair young (i.e. half-siblings when controlling for the effect of mass. We found no relationships between telomere length, age and fitness-related traits in adults, but an intriguing year-difference in telomere length in both sexes. In conclusion, we found no support for the idea that females choose extra-pair males based on their telomere length, but social mate choice seems to be influenced by rTL, possibly through its co-variation with aspects reflecting individual quality, like early arrival at the breeding grounds.

  18. Direct benefits of choosing a high-fitness mate can offset the indirect costs associated with intralocus sexual conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Chippindale, Adam K

    2017-06-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict generates a cost to mate choice: high-fitness partners transmit genetic variation that confers lower fitness to offspring of the opposite sex. Our earlier work in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, revealed that these indirect genetic costs were sufficient to reverse potential "good genes" benefits of sexual selection. However, mate choice can also confer direct fitness benefits by inducing larger numbers of progeny. Here, we consider whether direct benefits through enhanced fertility could offset the costs associated with intralocus sexual conflict in D. melanogaster. Using hemiclonal analysis, we found that females mated to high-fitness males produced 11% more offspring compared to those mated to low-fitness males, and high-fitness females produced 34% more offspring than low-fitness females. These direct benefits more than offset the reduction in offspring fitness caused by intralocus sexual conflict, creating a net fitness benefit for each sex to pairing with a high-fitness partner. Our findings highlight the need to consider both direct and indirect effects when investigating the fitness impacts of mate choice. Direct fitness benefits may shelter sexually antagonistic alleles from selection, suggesting a novel mechanism for the maintenance of fitness variation. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-07-01

    Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus , and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis.

  20. Mother-offspring data in a study of the mating system in a natural population of Bulinus globosus (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukaratira, S.; Chandiwana, S.K.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    1996-01-01

    The mating system of a natural population of Bulinus globosus from the Chiweshe area, Zimbabwe, was studied with mother-offspring data using isozyme genetic markers. The study was done in response to work on the genetic structure of this population which suggested a limited extent of cross...

  1. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  2. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rulon W Clark

    Full Text Available Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

  3. Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rulon W.; Schuett, Gordon W.; Repp, Roger A.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F.; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  4. Mating patterns and gene flow in the neotropical epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapnell, D W; Hamrick, J L

    2005-01-01

    Understanding mating patterns and gene movement in plant populations occupying highly disturbed landscapes is essential for insights into their long-term survival. We used allozyme genetic markers to examine mating patterns and to directly measure pollen flow in the Central American epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens. Study populations were located in disturbed, seasonally dry tropical forest in Costa Rica. Every flowering individual within 15 populations and 12-18 seedlings from each maternal individual were genotyped over two reproductive seasons. Strict correlated mating by orchids produces full-sib progeny arrays from which the multilocus diploid genotype of the pollen parent can be inferred. These paternity analyses produced detailed quantitative estimates of pollen movement within and among populations of this species. Although our data illustrate that mating patterns vary spatially and temporally among trees, among pastures, and between years, overall patterns were surprisingly consistent. Thirty-four per cent of the capsules produced in both years resulted from gene flow events. Where pollen parents were identified, pollen moved mean distances of 279 m and 519 m in 1999 and 2000 respectively and a maximum documented distance of 1034 m. A substantially larger floral display in 2000 corresponded to a marked increase in pollen dispersal distances. Smaller populations, which more closely resembled those in undisturbed forest, had higher rates of gene flow than the large populations that characterize disturbed sites. We predict the occurrence of greater gene flow between low-density populations occupying undisturbed habitats.

  5. Assortative mating by body height and BMI: Finnish twins and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lahelma, Eero; Viken, Richard J; Rose, Richard J

    2003-01-01

    Assortative mating by body height and weight is well established in various populations, but its causal mechanisms remain poorly understood. We analyzed the effect of phenotypic assortment and social homogamy on spousal correlations for body height and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)). Our data derived from a questionnaire administered to the adult Finnish Twin Cohort in 1990 (response rate 77%) yielding results from 922 monozygotic and 1697 dizygotic adult twin pairs who reported information about their body height and weight and that of their spouses. Assortative mating was evident for body height and BMI. For body height, the effects of social homogamy (0.24 in men and 0.29 in women) and phenotypic assortment (0.27 and 0.28, respectively) were about the same. For BMI, the effect of social homogamy was stronger (0.31 in men and 0.28 in women) than the effect of phenotypic assortment (0.13 in both men and women). When assortative mating was taken into account, shared environmental factors had no effect on phenotypic variation in body height or BMI. Our results show that assortative mating needs to be considered in population genetic studies of body height and weight. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The cryptochrome (cry) gene and a mating isolation mechanism in tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xin; Tebo, Molly; Song, Sunmi; Frommer, Marianne; Raphael, Kathryn A

    2004-12-01

    Two sibling species of tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis, are differentiated by their time of mating, which is genetically determined and requires interactions between the endogenous circadian clock and light intensity. The cryptochrome (cry) gene, a light-sensitive component of the circadian clock, was isolated in the two Bactrocera species. The putative amino acid sequence is identical in the two species. In the brain, in situ hybridization showed that cry is expressed in the lateral and dorsal regions of the central brain where PER immunostaining was also observed and in a peripheral cell cluster of the antennal lobes. Levels of cry mRNA were analyzed in whole head, brain, and antennae. In whole head, cry is abundantly and constantly expressed. However, in brain and antennae the transcript cycles in abundance, with higher levels during the day than at night, and cry transcripts are more abundant in the brain and antennae of B. neohumeralis than in that of B. tryoni. Strikingly, these results are duplicated in hybrid lines, generated by rare mating between B. tryoni and B. neohumeralis and then selected on the basis of mating time, suggesting a role for the cry gene in the mating isolation mechanism that differentiates the species.

  7. MHC diversity and mate choice in the magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafler, Gabrielle J; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee; Bouzat, Juan L

    2012-01-01

    We estimated levels of diversity at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DRß1 gene in 50 breeding pairs of the Magellanic penguin and compared those to estimates from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins. We tested for positive selection and 2 conditions required for the evolution of MHC-based disassortative mating: 1) greater MHC diversity between breeding pairs compared to random mating, and 2) associations between MHC genotype and fitness. Cloning and sequencing of the DRß1 gene showed that Magellanic penguins had higher levels of genetic variation than Galapagos and Humboldt penguins. Sequence analysis revealed 45 alleles with 3.6% average proportion of nucleotide differences, nucleotide diversity of 0.030, and observed heterozygosity of 0.770. A gene phylogeny showed 9 allelic lineages with interspersed DRß1 sequences from Humboldt and Galapagos penguins, indicating ancestral polymorphisms. d (N)/d (S) ratios revealed evidence for positive selection. Analysis of breeding pairs showed no disassortative mating preferences. Significant MHC genotype/fitness associations in females suggest, however, that selection for pathogen resistance plays a more important role than mate choice in maintaining diversity at the MHC in the Magellanic penguin. The differential effect of MHC heterozygosity on fitness between the sexes is likely associated with the relative role of hatching and fledging rates as reliable indicators of overall fitness in males and females.

  8. Divergence and evolution of assortative mating in a polygenic trait model of speciation with gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Himani; Barton, Nicholas H

    2017-06-01

    Assortative mating is an important driver of speciation in populations with gene flow and is predicted to evolve under certain conditions in few-locus models. However, the evolution of assortment is less understood for mating based on quantitative traits, which are often characterized by high genetic variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium between trait loci. We explore this scenario for a two-deme model with migration, by considering a single polygenic trait subject to divergent viability selection across demes, as well as assortative mating and sexual selection within demes, and investigate how trait divergence is shaped by various evolutionary forces. Our analysis reveals the existence of sharp thresholds of assortment strength, at which divergence increases dramatically. We also study the evolution of assortment via invasion of modifiers of mate discrimination and show that the ES assortment strength has an intermediate value under a range of migration-selection parameters, even in diverged populations, due to subtle effects which depend sensitively on the extent of phenotypic variation within these populations. The evolutionary dynamics of the polygenic trait is studied using the hypergeometric and infinitesimal models. We further investigate the sensitivity of our results to the assumptions of the hypergeometric model, using individual-based simulations. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. You can't always get what you want: size assortative mating by mutual mate choice as a resolution of sexual conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thünken Timo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assortative mating patterns for mate quality traits like body size are often observed in nature. However, the underlying mechanisms that cause assortative mating patterns are less well known. Sexual selection is one important explanation for assortment, suggesting that i one (usually the female or both sexes could show preferences for mates of similar size or ii mutual mate choice could resolve sexual conflict over quality traits into assortment. We tested these hypotheses experimentally in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus, in which mate choice is mutual. Results In mate choice experiments, both sexes preferred large mates irrespective of own body size suggesting mating preferences are not size-assortative. Especially males were highly selective for large females, probably because female body size signals direct fitness benefits. However, when potential mates were able to interact and assess each other mutually they showed size-assortative mating patterns, i.e. the likelihood to mate was higher in pairs with low size differences between mates. Conclusion Due to variation in body size, general preferences for large mating partners result in a sexual conflict: small, lower quality individuals who prefer themselves large partners are unacceptable for larger individuals. Relative size mismatches between mates translate into a lower likelihood to mate, suggesting that the threshold to accept mates depends on own body size. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of assortment in P. taeniatus is mutual mate choice resolving the sexual conflict over mates, rather than preference for mates of similar size.

  10. Negative-assortative mating for color in wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, Philip W; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R

    2016-04-01

    There is strong negative-assortative mating for gray and black pelage color in the iconic wolves in Yellowstone National Park. This is the first documented case of significant negative-assortative mating in mammals and one of only a very few cases in vertebrates. Of 261 matings documented from 1995 to 2015, 63.6% were between gray and black wolves and the correlation between mates for color was -0.266. There was a similar excess of matings of both gray males × black females and black males × gray females. Using the observed frequency of negative-assortative mating in a model with both random and negative-assortative mating, the estimated proportion of negative-assortative mating was 0.430. The estimated frequency of black wolves in the population from 1996 to 2014 was 0.452 and these frequencies appear stable over this 19-year period. Using the estimated level of negative-assortative mating, the predicted equilibrium frequency of the dominant allele was 0.278, very close to the mean value of 0.253 observed. In addition, the patterns of genotype frequencies, that is, the observed proportion of black homozygotes and the observed excess of black heterozygotes, are consistent with negative-assortative mating. Importantly these results demonstrate that negative-assortative mating could be entirely responsible for the maintenance of this well-known color polymorphism. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile van Lieshout

    Full Text Available Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings.

  12. Variation in male mate choice in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic A Edward

    Full Text Available Male mate choice has been reported in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, even though males of this species were previously thought to maximise their fitness by mating with all available females. To understand the evolution of male mate choice it is important to understand variation in male mating preferences. Two studies, using different stock populations and different methods, have reported contrasting patterns of variation in male mate choice in D. melanogaster. Two possible explanations are that there are evolved differences in each stock population or that the methods used to measure choice could have biased the results. We investigated these hypotheses here by repeating the methods used in one study in which variable male mate choice was found, using the stock population from the other study in which choice was not variable. The results showed a significant resource-independent male preference for less fecund, smaller females, which contrasts with previous observations of male mate choice. This indicates that different selection pressures between populations have resulted in evolved differences in the expression of male mate choice. It also reveals phenotypic plasticity in male mate choice in response to cues encountered in each choice environment. The results highlight the importance of variation in male mate choice, and of identifying mechanisms in order to understand the evolution of mate choice under varying ecological conditions.

  13. Genetic parameters for reproduction rate in the Tygerhoek Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GFW) and fibre diameter (FD). Reproduction traits were lambs born/ewe conceived (Lb!Ec), lambs born/ewe mated (Lb/Em), and lambs weaned/ewe mated (Lw/Em). The genetic correlations of 18 months wool traits with reproduction traits were ...

  14. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  15. Fine-scale genetic structure of natural Tuber aestivum sites in southern Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molinier, V.; Murat, C.; Baltensweiler, A.; Büntgen, Ulf; Martin, F.; Meier, B.; Moser, B.; Sproll, L.; Stobbe, U.; Tegel, W.; Egli, S.; Peter, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 8 (2016), s. 895-907 ISSN 0940-6360 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mating-type distribution * vegetative incompatibility * ectomycorrhizal communities * truffle cultivation * population-genetics * genus tuber * Burgundy truffle * Mating-type genes * Population genetics * Propagation strategy * SSR markers Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.047, year: 2016

  16. A genetic component to size in queens of the ant, Formica truncorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargum, Katja; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Sundström, L.

    2004-01-01

    . In this study, we present the first evidence of an additive genetic component to queen size in ants, using maternal half sib analysis. We also compared intra-colony size variation in colonies with high (queen doubly mated) versus low (queen singly mated) genetic variability. We found a high and significant...

  17. Parents Just Don't Understand: Parent-Offspring Conflict over Mate Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelli L. Dubbs

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research reveals that children and parents are not in complete agreement over which traits are most important for the mate of the child. Children tend to prefer traits that suggest genetic quality, whereas parents prefer characteristics that suggest high parental investment and cooperation with the ingroup. Using a sample of parents, mothers (n = 234 and fathers (n =240 the hypothesis was supported; parents perceived characteristics indicating a lack of genetic quality as being more unacceptable to the child, while characteristics indicating a lack of parental investment and cooperation with the ingroup were more unacceptable to themselves. Sex differences between mothers and fathers and sons and daughters were explored.

  18. Male mating tactics in spider monkeys: sneaking to compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, K Nicole

    2010-09-01

    I investigated the mating system and male mating tactics for a population of wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth chamek), to identify the behaviors males used to achieve and maintain access to sexually receptive females, and to examine if some males used more tactics than other males and/or had differential access to females. Results show that the mating system mostly involved scramble competition polygyny and that males used a range of mating tactics and behaviors, previously unreported for spider monkeys. The most unusual feature of spider monkey mating behavior was the secretive nature of copulations-nearly all copulations were clandestine, but a few were in the presence of other group members. Fifteen sexually mature males were observed to copulate 43 times. These data provide the first opportunity to evaluate how female availability influences male-male competition. First, the operational sex ratio was highly skewed toward males because usually only one female was receptive in each community per month. Second, females only mated with a few males in their community in any one mating period, but some females mated over the course of multiple consecutive mating periods, eventually mating with most or all of the males in their community. Across all communities, 9 (21%) of the 43 copulations involved a single male-female partner, 20 (47%) involved four males mating with the same female, and males mated with from one to four different females. Fourteen of the 16 total adult males and 1 subadult male (10 total) copulated. One or two males in each community were successful in monopolizing access to receptive females, and these males did not usually have the highest rates of copulation. In this system, clandestine copulations are one behavioral solution to the complex problem of gaining mating exclusivity and, probably, exercising mate choice. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Neural Circuits Underlying Mating Behavior in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Kallman, Benjamin Rory

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is essential for the survival of animal species. Males and females exhibit innate sex-specific reproductive behaviors, which are established developmentally and do not require previous experience. Because mating can be energetically costly, animals have evolved mechanisms to distinguish between reproductively viable and futile conspecifics that rely largely on sex-specific pheromones. How these complex, often antagonistic cues are transmitted from the periphery to the higher brai...

  20. Mating Type Protein Mat1-2 from Asexual Aspergillus fumigatus Drives Sexual Reproduction in Fertile Aspergillus nidulans▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pyrzak, Wioletta; Miller, Karen Y.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    The lack of an experimentally amenable sexual genetic system in Aspergillus fumigatus is a major limitation in the study of the organism's pathogenesis. A recent comparative genome analysis revealed evidence for potential sexuality in A. fumigatus. Homologs of mating type genes as well as other genes of the “sexual machinery” have been identified in anamorphic A. fumigatus. The mat1-2 gene encodes a homolog of MatA, an HMG box mating transcriptional factor (MatHMG) that regulates sexual devel...

  1. Sexual segregation and flexible mating patterns in temperate bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L Angell

    Full Text Available Social structure evolves from a trade-off between the costs and benefits of group-living, which are in turn dependent upon the distribution of key resources such as food and shelter. Males and females, or juveniles and adults, may have different priorities when selecting habitat due to differences in physiological or behavioural imperatives, leading to complex patterns in group composition. We studied social structure and mating behaviour in the insectivorous bat Myotis daubentonii along an altitudinal gradient, combining field studies with molecular genetics. With increasing altitude the proportion of males in summer roosts increased and only males were present in the highest roosts. With increasing altitude environmental temperature decreased, nightly variation in temperature increased, and bat foraging activity decreased, supporting the hypothesis that the harsher, high elevation sites cannot support breeding females. We found that offspring in female-dominated lowland roosts had a very high probability of being fathered by bats caught during autumn swarming at hibernation sites, in contrast to those in intermediate roosts, which had a high probability of being fathered by males sharing the nursery roost with the females. Whilst females normally appear to exclude males from nursery colonies, for those in marginal habitats, one explanation for the presence of males is that the thermoregulatory benefits to the females may outweigh disadvantages, such as competition for food, and give some males an opportunity to increase their breeding success. We suggest that the environment, and its effects on resource distribution, thus determine social structure, which in turn determines the mating pattern that has evolved.

  2. The mating behaviour and reproduction performance in a multi-sire mating system for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2008-01-01

    An important aim of organic animal production is to allow natural animal behaviour. Regarding reproduction techniques, artificial insemination is permitted but natural mating is preferred. The outdoor multi-sire system, where the sows are placed in large paddocks with a group of boars, is one...... system and the subsequent reproduction results. The time of start of courtship, behavior and the cause of disruption if the courtship was terminated, were recorded each time a boar courted a sow. All aggressive interactions between the boars were also recorded to estimate the boar ranking order....... The observations revealed numerous poor quality matings, a huge variation in the number of times sows are mated, and overworked boars. Only 35% of all copulations lasted 2 min or more and 63% of all copulations were disrupted, mainly by competitor boars. The higher social status of the boar, the more copulations...

  3. Heterosexual Rejection and Mate Choice: A Sociometer Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies about the effects of social rejection on individuals’ social behaviors have produced mixed results and tend to study mating behaviors from a static point of view. However, mate selection in essence is a dynamic process, and therefore sociometer theory opens up a new perspective for studying mating and its underlying practices. Based on this theory and using self-perceived mate value in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate choice as a mediating role, this current study examined the effects of heterosexual rejection on mate choice in two experiments. Results showed that heterosexual rejection significantly reduced self-perceived mate value, expectation, and behavioral tendencies, while heterosexual acceptance indistinctively increased these measures. Self-perceived mate value did not serve as a mediator in the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mate expectation, but it mediated the relationship between heterosexual rejection and mating behavior tendencies towards potential objects. Moreover, individuals evaded both rejection and irrelevant people when suffering from rejection.

  4. Floral display and mating patterns within populations of the neotropical epiphytic orchid,Laeliarubescens (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapnell, Dorset W; Hamrick, J L

    2006-07-01

    Pollinator behavior plays a central role in determining patterns of pollen-mediated gene movement in zoophilous angiosperms. A species' floral display can strongly influence the behavior of its pollinators and thereby affect its evolutionary pathway. We used paternity analysis to directly measure and describe mating patterns within 15 populations of the epiphytic orchid, Laelia rubescens, in Costa Rican dry forest. Strict correlated mating by orchids allows inference of the precise multilocus diploid genotype of the pollen parents. Our data show that mean effective population sizes were small (11.2 in 1999 and 11.8 in 2000) relative to the number of flowering genets (63 and 56, respectively). Fewer genets were reproductively successful as females than males. The relationship between reproductive success (RS) and floral display within three cluster size classes was consistent between years, with large (>30 inflorescences) and small (≤10 inflorescences) clusters often having significantly lower RS than expected, while the RS of medium-sized clusters (11-30 inflorescences) often significantly exceeded expectations. Paternity analysis allowed us to take advantage of the pollination biology of L. rubescens to provide unusually detailed insights into mating patterns, pollen-mediated gene movement and RS for populations of this epiphytic orchid, an herbaceous perennial, distributed in three-dimensional space.

  5. Sexual selection and interacting phenotypes in experimental evolution: a study of Drosophila pseudoobscura mating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupe, Leonardo D; Crudgington, Helen S; Slate, Jon; Moore, Allen J; Snook, Rhonda R

    2008-07-01

    Sexual selection requires social interactions, particularly between the sexes. When trait expression is influenced by social interactions, such traits are called interacting phenotypes and only recently have the evolutionary consequences of interacting phenotypes been considered. Here we investigated how variation in relative fitness, or the opportunity for sexual selection, affected the evolutionary trajectories of interacting phenotypes. We used experimentally evolved populations of the naturally promiscuous Drosophila pseudoobscura, in which the numbers of potential interactions between the sexes, and therefore relative fitness, were manipulated by altering natural levels of female promiscuity. We considered two different mating interactions between the sexes: mating speed and copulation duration. We investigated the evolutionary trajectories of means and (co)variances (P) and also the influence of genetic drift on the evolutionary response of these interactions. Our sexual selection treatments did not affect the means of either mating speed or copulation duration, but they did affect P. We found that the means of both traits differed among replicates within each selection treatment whereas the Ps did not. Changes as a consequence of genetic drift were excluded. Our results show that although variable potential strengths of sexual interactions influence the evolution of interacting phenotypes, the influence may be nonlinear.

  6. Weak polygyny in California sea lions and the potential for alternative mating tactics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Flatz

    Full Text Available Female aggregation and male territoriality are considered to be hallmarks of polygynous mating systems. The development of genetic parentage assignment has called into question the accuracy of behavioral traits in predicting true mating systems. In this study we use 14 microsatellite markers to explore the mating system of one of the most behaviorally polygynous species, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus. We sampled a total of 158 female-pup pairs and 99 territorial males across two breeding rookeries (San Jorge and Los Islotes in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Fathers could be identified for 30% of pups sampled at San Jorge across three breeding seasons and 15% of sampled pups at Los Islotes across two breeding seasons. Analysis of paternal relatedness between the pups for which no fathers were identified (sampled over four breeding seasons at San Jorge and two at Los Islotes revealed that few pups were likely to share a father. Thirty-one percent of the sampled males on San Jorge and 15% of the sampled males on Los Islotes were assigned at least one paternity. With one exception, no male was identified as the father of more than two pups. Furthermore, at Los Islotes rookery there were significantly fewer pups assigned paternity than expected given the pool of sampled males (p<0.0001. Overall, we found considerably lower variation in male reproductive success than expected in a species that exhibits behavior associated with strongly polygynous mating. Low variation in male reproductive success may result from heightened mobility among receptive females in the Gulf of California, which reduces the ability of males to monopolize groups of females. Our results raise important questions regarding the adaptive role of territoriality and the potential for alternative mating tactics in this species.

  7. Comparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals Widespread Synteny and Recent Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Peer, Arend F.; Park, Soon-Young; Shin, Pyung-Gyun; Jang, Kab-Yeul; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Young-Jin; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Sung, Gi-Ho; James, Timothy Y.; Kong, Won-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Background Mating-type loci of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei, maintenance of compatible nuclei as heterokaryons, and fruiting body development. Regions near mating-type loci in fungi often show adapted recombination, facilitating the generation of novel mating types and reducing the production of self-compatible mating types. Compared to other fungi, mushroom fungi have complex mating-type systems, showing both loci with redundant function (subloci) and subloci with many alleles. The genomic organization of mating-type loci has been solved in very few mushroom species, which complicates proper interpretation of mating-type evolution and use of those genes in breeding programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We report a complete genetic structure of the mating-type loci from the tetrapolar, edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes mating type A3B3. Two matB3 subloci, matB3a that contains a unique pheromone and matB3b, were mapped 177 Kb apart on scaffold 1. The matA locus of F. velutipes contains three homeodomain genes distributed over 73 Kb distant matA3a and matA3b subloci. The conserved matA region in Agaricales approaches 350 Kb and contains conserved recombination hotspots showing major rearrangements in F. velutipes and Schizophyllum commune. Important evolutionary differences were indicated; separation of the matA subloci in F. velutipes was diverged from the Coprinopsis cinerea arrangement via two large inversions whereas separation in S. commune emerged through transposition of gene clusters. Conclusions/Significance In our study we determined that the Agaricales have very large scale synteny at matA (∼350 Kb) and that this synteny is maintained even when parts of this region are separated through chromosomal rearrangements. Four conserved recombination hotspots allow reshuffling of large fragments of this region. Next to this, it was revealed that large distance subloci can exist in matB as

  8. The mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma represents a model for early evolution of sex chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Menkis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We combined gene divergence data, classical genetics, and phylogenetics to study the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma. In this species, a large non-recombining region of the mating-type chromosome is associated with a unique fungal life cycle where self-fertility is enforced by maintenance of a constant state of heterokaryosis. Sequence divergence between alleles of 35 genes from the two single mating-type component strains (i.e. the homokaryotic mat A or mat a-strains, derived from one N. tetrasperma heterokaryon (mat A+mat a, was analyzed. By this approach we were able to identify the boundaries and size of the non-recombining region, and reveal insight into the history of recombination cessation. The non-recombining region covers almost 7 Mbp, over 75% of the chromosome, and we hypothesize that the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in this lineage involved two successive events. The first event was contemporaneous with the split of N. tetrasperma from a common ancestor with its outcrossing relative N. crassa and suppressed recombination over at least 6.6 Mbp, and the second was confined to a smaller region in which recombination ceased more recently. In spite of the early origin of the first "evolutionary stratum", genealogies of five genes from strains belonging to an additional N. tetrasperma lineage indicate independent initiations of suppressed recombination in different phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the shared features between the sex chromosomes found in the animal and plant kingdoms and the fungal mating-type chromosome, despite fungi having no separate sexes. As is often found in sex chromosomes of plants and animals, recombination suppression of the mating-type chromosome of N. tetrasperma involved more than one evolutionary event, covers the majority of the mating-type chromosome and is flanked by distal regions with obligate crossovers.

  9. The combined effects of pre- and post-copulatory processes are masking sexual conflict over mating rate in Gerris buenoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devost, E; Turgeon, J

    2016-01-01

    In polygynandrous animals, post-copulatory processes likely interfere with precopulatory sexual selection. In water striders, sexual conflict over mating rate and post-copulatory processes are well documented, but their combined effect on reproductive success has seldom been investigated. We combine genetic parentage analyses and behavioural observations conducted in a competitive reproductive environment to investigate how pre- and post-copulatory processes influence reproductive success in Gerris buenoi Kirkaldy. Precopulatory struggles had antagonistic effects on male and female reproductive success: efficiently gaining copulations was beneficial for males, whereas efficiently avoiding copulations was profitable for females. Also, high mating rates and an intermediate optimal resistance level of females supported the hypothesis of convenience polyandry. Contrary to formal predictions, high mating rates (i.e. the number of copulations) did not increase reproductive success in males or decrease reproductive success in females. Instead, the reproductive success of both sexes was higher when offspring were produced with several partners and when there were few unnecessary matings. Thus, male and female G. buenoi displayed different interests in reproduction, but post-copulatory processes were masking the effects of copulatory mating success on reproductive success. Given the high mating rates observed, sperm competition could easily counter the effect of mating rates, perhaps in interaction with cryptic female choice and/or fecundity selection. Our study presents a complex but realistic overview of sexual selection forces at work in a model organism for the study of sexual conflict, confirming that insights are gained from investigating all episodes in the reproduction cycle of polygynandrous animals. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Studies on mating competition of irradiated melon flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limohpasmanee, W.

    1994-01-01

    Mating competition is the key factor for fruit flies control by using sterile insect technique project. Mass rearing and irradiation can reduce the mating competition of fruit flies. This experiment has purpose to evaluate the mating competition of the irradiated melon fly. The results show that mating competition values of irradiated melon flies were 0.36 and 0.24 when they mated with normal and irradiated females. Both normal male and female can mate more frequency than irradiated flies. (Z=1.322, P<0.05; Z=1.851, P<0.05). The results show that quality of mass rearing and irradiated melon fly was lower than the normal flies. So that quality of irradiated fly must be improved and the number of released flies as less must be higher than natural flies 6 time

  11. Mating duration and sperm precedence in the spider Linyphia triangularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Ditte L.; Toft, Søren; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2011-01-01

    , especially the males, are able to influence the outcome of mating for their own benefit. We studied the linyphiid spider Linyphia triangularis in which mating follows a strict sequence during which the male inducts two droplets of sperm and transfers them to the female. We performed sperm competition...... experiments (sterile-male technique) including four treatments, in which the copulation of the first male was interrupted at prescribed phases of the mating sequence, while the second male was allowed a complete mating. Second males spent a shorter time than first males on the behaviours prior to sperm...... transfer, but the amount of sperm (2 droplets) and the time spent in sperm transfer were independent of the females’ mating status. The proportion of females accepting the second male depended on the mating duration of the first male, i.e. whether the first male had transferred one or two sperm droplets...

  12. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  13. Killer Whale Genetic Data - Southern resident killer whale pedigree analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In this project, we are using genetic variation to infer mating patterns in the southern killer whale community. In Canada, this population was listed as threatened...

  14. Open-nucleus breeding strategies compared with population-wide positive assortative mating: I. Equal distribution of testing efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lstibůrek, M; Mullin, T J; Lindgren, D; Rosvall, O

    2004-10-01

    Positive assortative mating (PAM) can enhance the additive genetic variance in a breeding population(BP). This increases the potential for gains in the production population (PP, selected subset of the BP) for recurrent selection programs in forest trees. The assortment of mates can be either: (1) by individual tree rank across the whole BP (PAM), or (2) trees of similar rank can be merged into larger hierarchical groups and then mated randomly within group ("open"-nucleus breeding,NB). The objective of this study was to compare PAM and NB in quantitative terms. The NB simulation model assumed two tiers (nucleus, main) with unrestricted migration between the tiers. Clonal tests were used to predict breeding values and test resources per mate were kept constant for all mates. Both gain and diversity were combined into a single selection criterion, "group-merit selection." Alternatives were compared over five breeding cycles by considering genetic gain and diversity in a selected PP established in a seed orchard. The assortment of mates in both alternatives enhanced additive variance and increased the additive effect in the BP, leading to additional gain in the PP. Gains generated under PAM always exceeded gains under NB. Thus, the main message from this study is that PAM in both the short- and long-term results in more gain at any target level of diversity in the PP (the breeder's target) than is achieved by the NB alternative. The optimum size of the nucleus varies with the desired level of seed orchard diversity. At lower target diversity, smaller nucleus sizes are favorable, while larger sizes result in more gain when seed orchard diversity is considered more important.

  15. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the early 1930s, J. B. S. Haldane and C. H. Waddington collaborated on the consequences of genetic linkage and inbreeding. One elegant mathematical genetics problem solved by them concerns recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced via repeated self or brother–sister mating. In this classic contribution, Haldane ...

  16. Impact of mating behaviour on the success of malaria control through a single inundative release of transgenic mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boëte, C; Agusto, F B; Reeves, R G

    2014-04-21

    Transgenic mosquitoes are a potential tool for the control or eradication of insect-vectored diseases. For malaria, one possible strategy relies on the introduction of malaria-refractory transgenes into wild Anopheles mosquito populations that would limit their capacity to transmit the disease. The success of such an approach obviously depends on a variety of factors. By developing a model that integrates both population genetics and epidemiology, we explore how mosquito mating preferences and the cost and efficacy of refractoriness affects the long-term prevalence of malaria in humans subsequent to a single generation inundative release of male transgenic mosquitoes. As may be intuitively expected, mating discrimination by wild-type individuals against transgenic ones generally reduces the probability that transgenes become stably established at a high frequency in mosquito populations. We also show that in circumstances where transgenic individuals exhibit some degree of discrimination against wild-type individuals, this can favour the spread of refractory alleles and lead to a significant reduction in malaria prevalence in the human population (if the efficacy of a dominant refractory mechanism exceeds at least 75%). The existence of such a non-intuitive outcome highlights the practical value of increasing the understanding of Anopheles mating preferences in the wild as a means to harness them in the implementation of population replacement approaches. Potential strategies by which previously described mating preferences of Anopheles gambiae populations could be exploited to manipulate the mate choice of transgenic release stocks are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A molecular analysis of African lion (Panthera leo) mating structure and extra-group paternity in Etosha National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, M M; Dubach, J; Briggs, M B

    2013-05-01

    The recent incorporation of molecular methods into analyses of social and mating systems has provided evidence that mating patterns often differ from those predicted by group social organization. Based on field studies and paternity analyses at a limited number of sites, African lions are predicted to exhibit a strict within-pride mating system. Extra-group paternity has not been previously reported in African lions; however, observations of extra-group associations among lions inhabiting Etosha National Park in Namibia suggest deviation from the predicted within-pride mating pattern. We analysed variation in 14 microsatellite loci in a population of 164 African lions in Etosha National Park. Genetic analysis was coupled with demographic and observational data to examine pride structure, relatedness and extra-group paternity (EGP). EGP was found to occur in 57% of prides where paternity was analysed (n = 7), and the overall rate of EGP in this population was 41% (n = 34). Group sex ratio had a significant effect on the occurrence of EGP (P lion mating systems and provide evidence that social structure may not reflect breeding structure in some social mammals. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  19. Body Morphology, Energy Stores, and Muscle Enzyme Activity Explain Cricket Acoustic Mate Attraction Signaling Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian R.; Darveau, Charles-A.; Bertram, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    High mating success in animals is often dependent on males signalling attractively with high effort. Since males should be selected to maximize their reproductive success, female preferences for these traits should result in minimal signal variation persisting in the population. However, extensive signal variation persists. The genic capture hypothesis proposes genetic variation persists because fitness-conferring traits depend on an individual's basic processes, including underlying physiological, morphological, and biochemical traits, which are themselves genetically variable. To explore the traits underlying signal variation, we quantified among-male differences in signalling, morphology, energy stores, and the activities of key enzymes associated with signalling muscle metabolism in two species of crickets, Gryllus assimilis (chirper: 20 pulses/chirp). Chirping G. assimilis primarily fuelled signalling with carbohydrate metabolism: smaller individuals and individuals with increased thoracic glycogen stores signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with greater glycogen phosphorylase activity produced more attractive mating signals. Conversely, the more energetic trilling G. texensis fuelled signalling with both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism: individuals with increased β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and increased thoracic free carbohydrate content signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with higher thoracic and abdominal carbohydrate content and higher abdominal lipid stores produced more attractive signals. Our findings suggest variation in male reproductive success may be driven by hidden physiological trade-offs that affect the ability to uptake, retain, and use essential nutrients, although the results remain correlational in nature. Our findings indicate that a physiological perspective may help us to understand some of the causes of variation in behaviour. PMID:24608102

  20. Body morphology, energy stores, and muscle enzyme activity explain cricket acoustic mate attraction signaling variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R Thomson

    Full Text Available High mating success in animals is often dependent on males signalling attractively with high effort. Since males should be selected to maximize their reproductive success, female preferences for these traits should result in minimal signal variation persisting in the population. However, extensive signal variation persists. The genic capture hypothesis proposes genetic variation persists because fitness-conferring traits depend on an individual's basic processes, including underlying physiological, morphological, and biochemical traits, which are themselves genetically variable. To explore the traits underlying signal variation, we quantified among-male differences in signalling, morphology, energy stores, and the activities of key enzymes associated with signalling muscle metabolism in two species of crickets, Gryllus assimilis (chirper: 20 pulses/chirp. Chirping G. assimilis primarily fuelled signalling with carbohydrate metabolism: smaller individuals and individuals with increased thoracic glycogen stores signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with greater glycogen phosphorylase activity produced more attractive mating signals. Conversely, the more energetic trilling G. texensis fuelled signalling with both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism: individuals with increased β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity and increased thoracic free carbohydrate content signalled for mates with greater effort; individuals with higher thoracic and abdominal carbohydrate content and higher abdominal lipid stores produced more attractive signals. Our findings suggest variation in male reproductive success may be driven by hidden physiological trade-offs that affect the ability to uptake, retain, and use essential nutrients, although the results remain correlational in nature. Our findings indicate that a physiological perspective may help us to understand some of the causes of variation in behaviour.

  1. Sexually transmitted disease and the evolution of mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Ranta, Esa; Ruxton, Graeme; Lundberg, Per

    2002-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been shown to increase the costs of multiple mating and therefore favor relatively monogamous mating strategies. We examine another way in which STDs can influence mating systems in species in which female choice is important. Because more popular males are more likely to become infected, STDs can counteract any selective pressure that generates strong mating skews. We build two models to investigate female mate choice when the sexual behavior of females determines the prevalence of infection in the population. The first model has no explicit social structure. The second model considers the spatial distribution of matings under social monogamy, when females mated to unattractive males seek extrapair fertilizations from attractive males. In both cases, the STD has the potential to drastically reduce the mating skew. However, this reduction does not always happen. If the per contact transmission probability is low, the disease dies out and is of no consequence. In contrast, if the transmission probability is very high, males are likely to be infected regardless of their attractiveness, and mating with the most attractive males imposes again no extra cost for the female. We also show that optimal female responses to the risk of STDs can buffer the prevalence of infection to remain constant, or even decrease, with increasing per contact transmission probabilities. In all cases considered, the feedback between mate choice strategies and STD prevalence creates frequency-dependent fitness benefits for the two alternative female phenotypes considered (choosy vs. randomly mating females or faithful vs. unfaithful females). This maintains mixed evolutionarily stable strategies or polymorphisms in female behavior. In this way, a sexually transmitted disease can stabilize the populationwide proportion of females that mate with the most attractive males or that seek extrapair copulations.

  2. Assessment of Long-Term Mate Preferences in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Atari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that assessment of mate preferences has received relatively little psychometric attention from researchers, particularly in non-Western cultures. The current research was designed to (1 extend previous findings on long-term mate preferences by using a qualitative strategy, (2 develop a psychometrically sound scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences in men, and (3 develop a sex-neutral scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences. Six dimensions of mate preferences emerged for men: F = family/domesticity, A = attractiveness/sexuality, K = kindness/dependability, E = education/intelligence, R = religiosity/chastity, and S = status/resources. These male-specific dimensions of mate preferences showed satisfactory concurrent and convergent validity as well as high internal consistency coefficients. We mixed the female- and male-specific measures of mate preferences and arrived at 20 characteristics without culture- or sex-specific content. We further hypothesized that the 20-item scale of mate preferences would have a five-factor structure (i.e., kindness/dependability, attractiveness/sexuality, status/resources, education/intelligence, religiosity/chastity [KASER] in men and women and that this model would replicate sex differences cited in the evolutionary psychological literature. Measurement invariance was evidenced across sexes and sex differences accorded with those in the literature. Therefore, the five-factor model of long-term mate preferences (i.e., KASER model as measured by the Iranian Mate Preferences Scale-20 may be used to evaluate long-term mate preferences in men and women in Iran. Limitations are noted and future directions are discussed in the light of evolutionary perspective on human mating psychology.

  3. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Kevin B.

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating compet...

  4. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (Web, free access)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  5. Are high-quality mates always attractive? State-dependent mate preferences in birds and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riebel, Katharina; Holveck, Marie-Jeanne; Verhulst, Simon; Fawcett, Tim W.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual selection theory posits that females should choose mates in a way that maximizes their reproductive success. But what exactly is the optimal choice? Most empirical research is based on the assumption that females seek a male of the highest possible quality (in terms of the genes or resources

  6. Co-occurrence of mated workers and a mated queen in a colony of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arnoldi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Martin Villet *. Department of Zoology, University of the Witwatersrand, P.O.. Wits, 2050 Republic of South Africa. Received 23 March 1992; accepted 8 June 1992. A colony of Platythyrea arnold; was found to contain a functional queen and laying workers, both virgin and mated. This form ...

  7. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Sefc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay.

  8. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality ...... to improve the oxidative stability, nutritive value and sensory quality of beef.......Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality...

  9. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  10. Familiarity adds to attractiveness in matters of siskin mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, J C; Mateos-Gonzalez, F; Uribe, F; Arroyo, L

    2013-12-22

    There is currently considerable controversy in evolutionary ecology revolving around whether social familiarity brings attraction when a female chooses a mate. The topic of familiarity is significant because by avoiding or preferring familiar individuals as mates, the potential for local adaptation may be reduced or favoured. The topic becomes even more interesting if we simultaneously analyse preferences for familiarity and sexual ornaments, because when familiarity influences female mating preferences, this could very significantly affect the strength of sexual selection on male ornamentation. Here, we have used mate-choice experiments in siskins Carduelis spinus to analyse how familiarity and patterns of ornamentation (i.e. the size of wing patches) interact to influence mating success. Our results show that females clearly prefer familiar individuals when choosing between familiar and unfamiliar males with similar-sized wing patches. Furthermore, when females were given the choice between a highly ornamented unfamiliar male and a less ornamented familiar male, half of the females still preferred the socially familiar birds as mates. Our finding suggests that male familiarity may be as important as sexual ornaments in affecting female behaviour in mate choice. Given that the potential for local adaptation may be favoured by preferring familiar individuals as mates, social familiarity as a mate-choice criterion may become a potential area of fruitful research on sympatric speciation processes.

  11. Assortative mating and differential male mating success in an ash hybrid zone population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascaria-Lacoste Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure and evolution of hybrid zones depend mainly on the relative importance of dispersal and local adaptation, and on the strength of assortative mating. Here, we study the influence of dispersal, temporal isolation, variability in phenotypic traits and parasite attacks on the male mating success of two parental species and hybrids by real-time pollen flow analysis. We focus on a hybrid zone population between the two closely related ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. (common ash and F. angustifolia Vahl (narrow-leaved ash, which is composed of individuals of the two species and several hybrid types. This population is structured by flowering time: the F. excelsior individuals flower later than the F. angustifolia individuals, and the hybrid types flower in-between. Hybrids are scattered throughout the population, suggesting favorable conditions for their local adaptation. We estimate jointly the best-fitting dispersal kernel, the differences in male fecundity due to variation in phenotypic traits and level of parasite attack, and the strength of assortative mating due to differences in flowering phenology. In addition, we assess the effect of accounting for genotyping error on these estimations. Results We detected a very high pollen immigration rate and a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, counter-balanced by slight phenological assortative mating and short-distance pollen dispersal. Early intermediate flowering hybrids, which had the highest male mating success, showed optimal sex allocation and increased selfing rates. We detected asymmetry of gene flow, with early flowering trees participating more as pollen donors than late flowering trees. Conclusion This study provides striking evidence that long-distance gene flow alone is not sufficient to counter-act the effects of assortative mating and selfing. Phenological assortative mating and short-distance dispersal can create temporal and spatial structuring that appears

  12. An Essential Role of the Arginine Vasotocin System in Mate-Guarding Behaviors in Triadic Relationships of Medaka Fish (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Saori; Okuyama, Teruhiro; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Yoshihito; Ansai, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Masato; Young, Larry J.; Takemori, Nobuaki; Kubo, Takeo; Takeuchi, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    To increase individual male fitness, males of various species remain near a (potential) mating partner and repel their rivals (mate-guarding). Mate-guarding is assumed to be mediated by two different types of motivation: sexual motivation toward the opposite sex and competitive motivation toward the same sex. The genetic/molecular mechanisms underlying how mate presence affects male competitive motivation in a triadic relationship has remained largely unknown. Here we showed that male medaka fish prominently exhibit mate-guarding behavior. The presence of a female robustly triggers male-male competition for the female in a triadic relationship (2 males and 1 female). The male-male competition resulted in one male occupying a dominant position near the female while interfering with the other male's approach of the female. Paternity testing revealed that the dominant male had a significantly higher mating success rate than the other male in a triadic relationship. We next generated medaka mutants of arginine-vasotocin (avt) and its receptors (V1a1, V1a2) and revealed that two genes, avt and V1a2, are required for normal mate-guarding behavior. In addition, behavioral analysis of courtship behaviors in a dyadic relationship and aggressive behaviors within a male group revealed that avt mutant males displayed decreased sexual motivation but showed normal aggression. In contrast, heterozygote V1a2 mutant males displayed decreased aggression, but normal mate-guarding and courtship behavior. Thus, impaired mate-guarding in avt and V1a2 homozygote mutants may be due to the loss of sexual motivation toward the opposite sex, and not to the loss of competitive motivation toward rival males. The different behavioral phenotypes between avt, V1a2 heterozygote, and V1a2 homozygote mutants suggest that there are redundant systems to activate V1a2 and that endogenous ligands activating the receptor may differ according to the social context. PMID:25719383

  13. An essential role of the arginine vasotocin system in mate-guarding behaviors in triadic relationships of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Yokoi

    Full Text Available To increase individual male fitness, males of various species remain near a (potential mating partner and repel their rivals (mate-guarding. Mate-guarding is assumed to be mediated by two different types of motivation: sexual motivation toward the opposite sex and competitive motivation toward the same sex. The genetic/molecular mechanisms underlying how mate presence affects male competitive motivation in a triadic relationship has remained largely unknown. Here we showed that male medaka fish prominently exhibit mate-guarding behavior. The presence of a female robustly triggers male-male competition for the female in a triadic relationship (2 males and 1 female. The male-male competition resulted in one male occupying a dominant position near the female while interfering with the other male's approach of the female. Paternity testing revealed that the dominant male had a significantly higher mating success rate than the other male in a triadic relationship. We next generated medaka mutants of arginine-vasotocin (avt and its receptors (V1a1, V1a2 and revealed that two genes, avt and V1a2, are required for normal mate-guarding behavior. In addition, behavioral analysis of courtship behaviors in a dyadic relationship and aggressive behaviors within a male group revealed that avt mutant males displayed decreased sexual motivation but showed normal aggression. In contrast, heterozygote V1a2 mutant males displayed decreased aggression, but normal mate-guarding and courtship behavior. Thus, impaired mate-guarding in avt and V1a2 homozygote mutants may be due to the loss of sexual motivation toward the opposite sex, and not to the loss of competitive motivation toward rival males. The different behavioral phenotypes between avt, V1a2 heterozygote, and V1a2 homozygote mutants suggest that there are redundant systems to activate V1a2 and that endogenous ligands activating the receptor may differ according to the social context.

  14. Is reduced female survival after mating a by-product of male-male competition in the dung fly Sepsis cynipsea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosken DJ

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of species males damage females during copulation, but the reasons for this remain unclear. It may be that males are trying to manipulate female mating behaviour or their life histories. Alternatively, damage may be a side-effect of male-male competition. In the black scavenger or dung fly Sepsis cynipsea (Diptera: Sepsidae mating reduces female survival, apparently because males wound females during copulation. However, this damage does not seem to relate to attempted manipulation of female reproduction by males. Here we tested the hypothesis that harming females during mating is an incidental by-product of characters favoured during pre-copulatory male-male competition. We assessed whether males and their sons vary genetically in their ability to obtain matings and harm females, and whether more successful males were also more damaging. We did this by ranking males' mating success in paired competitions across several females whose longevity under starvation was subsequently measured. Results As previously reported, our results show mating is costly for female S. cynipsea. However, variance in female longevity was not explained by male identity, family, body size, number of previous copulations, or copulation duration. Nevertheless, there was a positive correlation between the harm fathers inflicted on their mates (affecting female longevity and the harm sons inflicted on theirs. Additionally, family identity significantly influenced male copulation success. Conclusion Our results indicate a heritable component of some yet unspecified male trait(s that influence harm and mating success. However, there was no relationship between copulation success of fathers or sons and the mean longevity of their mates. We therefore found no support for harm being a side effect of traits favoured in pre-copulatory male-male competition.

  15. Genetics of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2012-01-01

    Aggression mediates competition for food, mating partners, and habitats and, among social animals, establishes stable dominance hierarchies. In humans, abnormal aggression is a hallmark of neuropsychiatric disorders and can be elicited by environmental factors acting on an underlying genetic susceptibility. Identifying the genetic architecture that predisposes to aggressive behavior in people is challenging because of difficulties in quantifying the phenotype, genetic heterogeneity, and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Studies on mice have identified single-gene mutations that result in hyperaggression, contingent on genetic background. These studies can be complemented by systems genetics approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, in which mutational analyses together with genome-wide transcript analyses, artificial selection studies, and genome-wide analysis of epistasis have revealed that a large segment of the genome contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior with widespread epistatic interactions. Comparative genomic analyses based on the principle of evolutionary conservation are needed to enable a complete dissection of the neurogenetic underpinnings of this universal fitness trait.

  16. Altruism predicts mating success in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnocky, Steven; Piché, Tina; Albert, Graham; Ouellette, Danielle; Barclay, Pat

    2017-05-01

    In order for non-kin altruism to evolve, altruists must receive fitness benefits for their actions that outweigh the costs. Several researchers have suggested that altruism is a costly signal of desirable qualities, such that it could have evolved by sexual selection. In two studies, we show that altruism is broadly linked with mating success. In Study 1, participants who scored higher on a self-report altruism measure reported they were more desirable to the opposite sex, as well as reported having more sex partners, more casual sex partners, and having sex more often within relationships. Sex moderated some of these relationships, such that altruism mattered more for men's number of lifetime and casual sex partners. In Study 2, participants who were willing to donate potential monetary winnings (in a modified dictator dilemma) reported having more lifetime sex partners, more casual sex partners, and more sex partners over the past year. Men who were willing to donate also reported having more lifetime dating partners. Furthermore, these patterns persisted, even when controlling for narcissism, Big Five personality traits, and socially desirable responding. These results suggest that altruists have higher mating success than non-altruists and support the hypothesis that altruism is a sexually selected costly signal of difficult-to-observe qualities. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volume 51 (1, 2008, pages 11-18Back Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians     D.V. PolitovLaboratory of Population Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences Y.V. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine N.N. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine E.A. MudrikDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine I.I. KorshikovDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine  contact authors by Editorial Office  SUMMARY  In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical, characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in the East Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation of outcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation or reforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations

  18. Female choice for genetic complementarity in birds: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mays Jr., H. L.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Liu, M.; Hill, G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 1 (2008), s. 147-158 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Female mate choice * Genetic compatibility * Genetic complementarity * Heterosis * Heterozygosity * Sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.980, year: 2008

  19. Exploring the genes of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. by NGS and de novo transcriptome assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto J Debat

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. is an important subtropical tree crop cultivated on 326,000 ha in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, with a total yield production of more than 1,000,000 t. Yerba mate presents a strong limitation regarding sequence information. The NCBI GenBank lacks an EST database of yerba mate and depicts only 80 DNA sequences, mostly uncharacterized. In this scenario, in order to elucidate the yerba mate gene landscape by means of NGS, we explored and discovered a vast collection of I. paraguariensis transcripts. Total RNA from I. paraguariensis was sequenced by Illumina HiSeq-2000 obtaining 72,031,388 pair-end 100 bp sequences. High quality reads were de novo assembled into 44,907 transcripts encompassing 40 million bases with an estimated coverage of 180X. Multiple sequence analysis allowed us to predict that yerba mate contains ∼ 32,355 genes and 12,551 gene variants or isoforms. We identified and categorized members of more than 100 metabolic pathways. Overall, we have identified ∼ 1,000 putative transcription factors, genes involved in heat and oxidative stress, pathogen response, as well as disease resistance and hormone response. We have also identified, based in sequence homology searches, novel transcripts related to osmotic, drought, salinity and cold stress, senescence and early flowering. We have also pinpointed several members of the gene silencing pathway, and characterized the silencing effector Argonaute1. We predicted a diverse supply of putative microRNA precursors involved in developmental processes. We present here the first draft of the transcribed genomes of the yerba mate chloroplast and mitochondrion. The putative sequence and predicted structure of the caffeine synthase of yerba mate is presented. Moreover, we provide a collection of over 10,800 SSR accessible to the scientific community interested in yerba mate genetic improvement. This contribution broadly expands the limited knowledge

  20. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A female's reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR, and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides, which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female's preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny.

  1. A novel case of canine disseminated aspergillosis following mating

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Jackson T.; Frazho, Jean K.; Randell, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    An intact bitch with a history of mating was presented with severe lameness and a vulvar discharge. A mixed lytic, proliferative tibial lesion and open pyometra were diagnosed. Bone biopsy and uterine culture revealed disseminated aspergillosis. This is the first report of Aspergillus pyometra with dissemination following mating in the dog.

  2. A novel case of canine disseminated aspergillosis following mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jackson T; Frazho, Jean K; Randell, Susan C

    2012-02-01

    An intact bitch with a history of mating was presented with severe lameness and a vulvar discharge. A mixed lytic, proliferative tibial lesion and open pyometra were diagnosed. Bone biopsy and uterine culture revealed disseminated aspergillosis. This is the first report of Aspergillus pyometra with dissemination following mating in the dog.

  3. Mating system of the filamentous ascomycete, Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, C R; TeBeest, D O

    1999-03-01

    Mating in heterothallic filamentous ascomycetes is typically controlled by a single mating-type locus with two alternate alleles or idiomorphs. In this study, five self-sterile strains of Glomerella cingulata from pecan were crossed in all possible combinations. Four of the five strains could be placed into two mating-type groups, but the fifth strain was sexually compatible with all of the other strains. Single ascospore progeny were isolated from each of the successful crosses, tested for self-fertility, and backcrossed with both parents. In addition, subsets of F1 isolates were crossed with all five of the original strains from pecan and in all possible combinations with each other. Results from the crosses showed that the ascospore progeny had stably inherited the mating pattern of one of the parental strains and that the mating type had segregated 1:1 among the F1 isolates. Furthermore, the five strains from pecan were sexually compatible with five additional heterothallic strains in all but one combination. Data from these experiments are consistent with a mating system composed of a single mating-type locus with multiple alternate alleles. We believe that this is the first report of this type of mating system for an ascomycete species.

  4. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over mate choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Pieter; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    In human societies, parents often have a strong influence on the mate choice of their offspring. Moreover, empirical studies show that conflict over mate choice between parents and offspring is widespread across human cultures. Here we provide the first theoretical investigation into this conflict,

  5. Narcissism and the Strategic Pursuit of Short-Term Mating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...

  6. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During mating male and female Breviceps become 'glued' together. The distribution of multicellular dermal glands varies between the sexes. The mate has a large number of holocrine glands on the ventrum, while the female has similar glands on the dorsum of the back. II thus appears that both sexes contribute to the ...

  7. Mate desertion in response to female promiscuity in the socially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here we report a case of such a mate desertion in the aardwolf Proteles cristatus. We suggest, however, that mate desertion should occur only rarely in response to female promiscuity. This is because a cuckolded male may still be raising some of his own offspring, and should desert only on the rare occasions when an ...

  8. Assortative mating for human height : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Grasman, Sara; Pollet, Thomas V.

    ObjectivesThe study of assortative mating for height has a rich history in human biology. Although the positive correlation between the stature of spouses has often been noted in western populations, recent papers suggest that mating patterns for stature are not universal. The objective of this

  9. Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One function of aggression in animals is to gain access to mates. Aggression may therefore be favoured by sexual selection, the strength of which can be assessed using repeatability of aggressive behaviour. Here, we tested the hypotheses that male swordtails, Xiphophorus sp., are consistent in the aggressive and mating ...

  10. Control of moth pests by mating disruption: Successes and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardé, R.T.; Minks, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Male moths generally find their mates by following the females' pheromone plume to its source. A formulated copy of this message is used to regulate mating of many important pests, including pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella, oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and tomato pinworm Keiferia

  11. Mating clusters in the mosquito parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Limin; Sanad, Manar; Wang, Yi; Xu, Yanli; Shamseldean, Muhammad S M; Gaugler, Randy

    2014-03-01

    Mating aggregations in the mosquito parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus, were investigated in the laboratory. Female postparasites, through their attraction of males and, remarkably, other females, drive the formation of mating clusters. Clusters may grow in size by merging with other individual or clusters. Female molting to the adult stage and reproductive success are enhanced in larger clusters. Male mating behavior is initiated when the female begins to molt to the adult stage by shedding dual juvenile cuticles posteriorly. Males coil their tail around the adult cuticle, migrating progressively along the female in intimate synchrony with the molting cuticle until the vulva is exposed and mating can occur. The first arriving male is assured of access to a virgin female, as his intermediate location between the vulva and subsequently arriving males blocks these competitors. Males deposit an adhesive gelatinous copulatory plug into and over the vulva before departing the female. Fecundity was greater in larger mating clusters, but this was a function of a greater rate of molting which is a prerequisite for mating. Males compete for virgin females by emerging and molting to the adult stage earlier than females. Mating aggregations have previously only been examined in snakes, but these studies have tended to be observational as snakes offer a challenging system for study. The relatively easy to culture and manipulate mermithid system may offer a model for experimental studies of male-male competition, protandry, copulatory plugs and female choice in mating clusters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee ( Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen’s visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  13. Educational and social class assortative mating in fertile British couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Positive assortative mating for education and social position has been widely reported in a number of countries, but very few studies have tested whether or not educational or social class homogamy is related to differential fertility. This study examined the relationship between educational and social class assortative mating and fertility in a British national cohort. The analyses were based on 7452 husband-wife pairs from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS). The mean fertility was 3.22 children per couple; the number of children significantly increased from higher to lower social classes and from the more educated to the less educated. The extent of assortative mating for social class and educational level was related to fertility; as educational assortative mating decreased so did the average number of children, whereas the opposite trend was observed for social class. When assortative mating for education and social class were considered together, educational assortative mating was the more significant predictor of the number of children and educationally homogamous couples had higher fertility independent of their social class assortative mating. The relationship between assortative mating and fertility for education and social class appeared to be acting in the opposite direction.

  14. Breeding synchronization facilitates extrapair mating for inbreeding avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Sjouke A.; Hall, Michelle L.; Peters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Extrapair (EP) mating can enable females to reduce the negative effects of inbreeding. However, opportunities for EP mating are often ecologically or demographically constrained, and it is unclear whether and how females can overcome these constraints. Here, we show that fitness costs from

  15. Mating flights select for symmetry in honeybee drones (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Moritz, Robin F A

    2010-03-01

    Males of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) fly to specific drone congregation areas (DCAs), which virgin queens visit in order to mate. From the thousands of drones that are reared in a single colony, only very few succeed in copulating with a queen, and therefore, a strong selection is expected to act on adult drones during their mating flights. In consequence, the gathering of drones at DCAs may serve as an indirect mate selection mechanism, assuring that queens only mate with those individuals having a better flight ability and a higher responsiveness to the queen's visual and chemical cues. Here, we tested this idea relying on wing fluctuating asymmetry (FA) as a measure of phenotypic quality. By recapturing marked drones at a natural DCA and comparing their size and FA with a control sample of drones collected at their maternal hives, we were able to detect any selection on wing size and wing FA occurring during the mating flights. Although we found no solid evidence for selection on wing size, wing FA was found to be significantly lower in the drones collected at the DCA than in those collected at the hives. Our results demonstrate the action of selection during drone mating flights for the first time, showing that developmental stability can influence the mating ability of honeybee drones. We therefore conclude that selection during honeybee drone mating flights may confer some fitness advantages to the queens.

  16. Mutual mate choice for olorful traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  17. Sex-specific conditional mating preferences in a cichlid fish : Implications for sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A.; Engqvist, Leif; Ottenheym, Tobias; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Thuenken, Timo

    Conditional mating strategies enable individuals to modulate their mating behaviour depending on 'individual status' to maximise fitness. Theory predicts that variation in individual quality can lead to differences in mating preferences. However, empirical evidence is scarce particular in terms of

  18. ModelMate - A graphical user interface for model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    ModelMate is a graphical user interface designed to facilitate use of model-analysis programs with models. This initial version of ModelMate supports one model-analysis program, UCODE_2005, and one model software program, MODFLOW-2005. ModelMate can be used to prepare input files for UCODE_2005, run UCODE_2005, and display analysis results. A link to the GW_Chart graphing program facilitates visual interpretation of results. ModelMate includes capabilities for organizing directories used with the parallel-processing capabilities of UCODE_2005 and for maintaining files in those directories to be identical to a set of files in a master directory. ModelMate can be used on its own or in conjunction with ModelMuse, a graphical user interface for MODFLOW-2005 and PHAST.

  19. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  20. Inbreeding depresses sperm competitiveness, but not fertilization or mating success in male Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk, Łukasz; Martin, Oliver Y.; Millard, Anna L.; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2010-01-01

    As populations decline to levels where reproduction among close genetic relatives becomes more probable, subsequent increases in homozygous recessive deleterious expression and/or loss of heterozygote advantage can lead to inbreeding depression. Here, we measure how inbreeding across replicate lines of the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum impacts on male reproductive fitness in the absence or presence of male–male competition. Effects on male evolution from mating pattern were removed by enforcing monogamous mating throughout. After inbreeding across eight generations, we found that male fertility in the absence of competition was unaffected. However, we found significant inbreeding depression of sperm competitiveness: non-inbred males won 57 per cent of fertilizations in competition, while inbred equivalents only sired 42 per cent. We also found that the P2 ‘offence’ role in sperm competition was significantly more depressed under inbreeding than sperm ‘defence’ (P1). Mating behaviour did not explain these differences, and there was no difference in the viability of offspring sired by inbred or non-inbred males. Sperm length variation was significantly greater in the ejaculates of inbred males. Our results show that male ability to achieve normal fertilization success was not depressed under strong inbreeding, but that inbreeding depression in these traits occurred when conditions of sperm competition were generated. PMID:20554548

  1. Mechanical feedback coordinates cell wall expansion and assembly in yeast mating morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The shaping of individual cells requires a tight coordination of cell mechanics and growth. However, it is unclear how information about the mechanical state of the wall is relayed to the molecular processes building it, thereby enabling the coordination of cell wall expansion and assembly during morphogenesis. Combining theoretical and experimental approaches, we show that a mechanical feedback coordinating cell wall assembly and expansion is essential to sustain mating projection growth in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Our theoretical results indicate that the mechanical feedback provided by the Cell Wall Integrity pathway, with cell wall stress sensors Wsc1 and Mid2 increasingly activating membrane-localized cell wall synthases Fks1/2 upon faster cell wall expansion, stabilizes mating projection growth without affecting cell shape. Experimental perturbation of the osmotic pressure and cell wall mechanics, as well as compromising the mechanical feedback through genetic deletion of the stress sensors, leads to cellular phenotypes that support the theoretical predictions. Our results indicate that while the existence of mechanical feedback is essential to stabilize mating projection growth, the shape and size of the cell are insensitive to the feedback. PMID:29346368

  2. Constraints imposed by pollinator behaviour on the ecology and evolution of plant mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, C; Lepers, C; Porcher, E

    2014-07-01

    Most flowering plants rely on pollinators for their reproduction. Plant-pollinator interactions, although mutualistic, involve an inherent conflict of interest between both partners and may constrain plant mating systems at multiple levels: the immediate ecological plant selfing rates, their distribution in and contribution to pollination networks, and their evolution. Here, we review experimental evidence that pollinator behaviour influences plant selfing rates in pairs of interacting species, and that plants can modify pollinator behaviour through plastic and evolutionary changes in floral traits. We also examine how theoretical studies include pollinators, implicitly or explicitly, to investigate the role of their foraging behaviour in plant mating system evolution. In doing so, we call for more evolutionary models combining ecological and genetic factors, and additional experimental data, particularly to describe pollinator foraging behaviour. Finally, we show that recent developments in ecological network theory help clarify the impact of community-level interactions on plant selfing rates and their evolution and suggest new research avenues to expand the study of mating systems of animal-pollinated plant species to the level of the plant-pollinator networks. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Female mate preference in goby Eviota prasina: do secondary sexual traits influence female choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Yuko; Karino, Kenji

    2004-08-01

    Males of the small gobiid fish Eviota prasina have longer dorsal fins than females and use their dorsal fins for courtship displays and male-male competition. We examined the influence of male dorsal fin length as well as the frequency of courtship displays on female mate preference using sequential choice experiments. Females responded more frequently to courting males with longer dorsal fins than males with shorter dorsal fins. This indicates female mate preference on the basis of male dorsal fin length in this goby. In addition, the logistic regression analysis showed that male courtship frequency positively influenced female mate preference. Since males incur costs to produce and maintain longer dorsal fins and to perform frequent courtship displays, these secondary sexual traits may indicate the quality of physical characteristics. In E. prasina, only males conducted parental care for eggs in their nests. Therefore, females may be able to ensure greater survival rates as well as higher genetic quality of their offspring by choosing males with better qualities based on these male traits.

  4. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  5. Transmission of attitudes toward abortion and gay rights: effects of genes, social learning and mate selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Lindon J; Hatemi, Peter K

    2008-05-01

    The biological and social transmission of attitudes toward abortion and gay rights are analyzed in a large sample of adult twins, siblings, and their parents. We present a linear model for family resemblance allowing for both genetic and cultural transmission of attitudes from parents to offspring, as well as phenotypic assortative mating (the tendency to marry like) and other environmental sources of twin and sibling resemblance that do not depend on the attitudes of their parents. The model gives a close fit to the patterns of similarity between relatives for the two items. Results are consistent with a substantial role of genetic liability in the transmission of both attitudes. Contrary to the dominant paradigm of the social and political sciences, the kinship data are consistent with a relatively minor non-genetic impact of parental attitudes on the development of adult attitudes in their children. By contrast, the choice of mate is a social action that has a marked impact on the polarization of social attitudes and on the long-term influence that parents exert upon the next generation.

  6. Site fidelity, mate fidelity, and breeding dispersal in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhof, K.; Peterson, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed mate fidelity, nest-box fidelity, and breeding dispersal distances of American Kestrels (falco sparverius) nesting in boxes in southwestern Idaho from 1990 through 2006. Seventy-seven percent of boxes had different males and 87% had different females where nest-box occupants were identified in consecutive years. High turnover rates were partly a result of box-switching. Forty-eight percent of males and 58% of females that nested within the study area in successive years used different boxes. The probability of changing boxes was unrelated to gender, nesting success in the prior year, or years of nesting experience. Breeding dispersal distances for birds that moved to different boxes averaged 2.2 km for males (max = 22 km) and 3.2 km for females (max = 32 km). Approximately 70% of birds that nested in consecutive years on the study area had a different mate in the second year. Mate fidelity was related to box fidelity but not to prior nesting success or years of nesting experience. Mate changes occurred 32% of the time when the previous mate was known to be alive and nesting in the area. Kestrels that switched mates and boxes did not improve or decrease their subsequent nesting success. Kestrels usually switched to mates with less experience and lower lifetime productivity than their previous mates. The costs of switching boxes and mates were low, and there were no obvious benefits to fidelity. The cost of "waiting" for a previous mate that might have died could be high in species with high annual mortality.

  7. The cost of mating: influences of life history traits and mating strategies on lifespan in two closely related Yponomeuta species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.C.; Campos Louçã, J.; Roessingh, P.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Theory predicts that in monandrous butterfly species males should not invest in a long lifespan because receptive females quickly disappear from the mating population. In polyandrous species, however, it pays for males to invest in longevity, which increases the number of mating opportunities and

  8. Choosing mates: complementary versus compatible genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piálek, Jaroslav; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2005), s. 63 ISSN 0169-5347 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6093201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : genetic compatibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 14.864, year: 2005

  9. Socio-sexuality and episodic memory function in women: further evidence of an adaptive "mating mode".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David S; Jones, Benedict C; Allan, Kevin

    2013-08-01

    The functionalist memory perspective predicts that information of adaptive value may trigger specific processing modes. It was recently demonstrated that women's memory is sensitive to cues of male sexual dimorphism (i.e., masculinity) that convey information of adaptive value for mate choice because they signal health and genetic quality, as well as personality traits important in relationship contexts. Here, we show that individual differences in women's mating strategies predict the effect of facial masculinity cues upon memory, strengthening the case for functional design within memory. Using the revised socio-sexual orientation inventory, Experiment 1 demonstrates that women pursuing a short-term, uncommitted mating strategy have enhanced source memory for men with exaggerated versus reduced masculine facial features, an effect that reverses in women who favor long-term committed relationships. The reversal in the direction of the effect indicates that it does not reflect the sex typicality of male faces per se. The same pattern occurred within women's source memory for women's faces, implying that the memory bias does not reflect the perceived attractiveness of faces per se. In Experiment 2, we reran the experiment using men's faces to establish the reliability of the core finding and replicated Experiment 1's results. Masculinity cues may therefore trigger a specific mode within women's episodic memory. We discuss why this mode may be triggered by female faces and its possible role in mate choice. In so doing, we draw upon the encoding specificity principle and the idea that episodic memory limits the scope of stereotypical inferences about male behavior.

  10. Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jered M Wendte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-encysting coccidia, including Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis neurona, are heterogamous parasites with sexual and asexual life stages in definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. During its sexual life stage, T. gondii reproduces either by genetic out-crossing or via clonal amplification of a single strain through self-mating. Out-crossing has been experimentally verified as a potent mechanism capable of producing offspring possessing a range of adaptive and virulence potentials. In contrast, selfing and other life history traits, such as asexual expansion of tissue-cysts by oral transmission among intermediate hosts, have been proposed to explain the genetic basis for the clonal population structure of T. gondii. In this study, we investigated the contributing roles self-mating and sexual recombination play in nature to maintain clonal population structures and produce or expand parasite clones capable of causing disease epidemics for two tissue encysting parasites. We applied high-resolution genotyping against strains isolated from a T. gondii waterborne outbreak that caused symptomatic disease in 155 immune-competent people in Brazil and a S. neurona outbreak that resulted in a mass mortality event in Southern sea otters. In both cases, a single, genetically distinct clone was found infecting outbreak-exposed individuals. Furthermore, the T. gondii outbreak clone was one of several apparently recombinant progeny recovered from the local environment. Since oocysts or sporocysts were the infectious form implicated in each outbreak, the expansion of the epidemic clone can be explained by self-mating. The results also show that out-crossing preceded selfing to produce the virulent T. gondii clone. For the tissue encysting coccidia, self-mating exists as a key adaptation potentiating the epidemic expansion and transmission of newly emerged parasite clones that can profoundly shape parasite population genetic structures or cause

  11. Genetic association between male attractiveness and female differential allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Megan L; Hunt, John; Brooks, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Differential allocation of reproductive effort towards offspring of attractive mates is a form of post-copulatory mate choice. Although differential allocation has been demonstrated in many taxa, its evolutionary implications have received little attention. Theory predicts that mate choice will lead to a positive genetic correlation between female preference and male attractiveness. This prediction has been upheld for pre-copulatory mate choice, but whether such a relationship between male attractiveness and female differential allocation exists has never been tested. Here, we show that both female pre-copulatory mate choice and post-copulatory differential allocation are genetically associated with male attractiveness in house crickets, Acheta domesticus. Daughters of attractive males mated sooner and laid more eggs when paired with larger males. These forms of mate choice are strongest in large females, suggesting that costs decrease with increasing female size. The genetic association between attractiveness and differential allocation suggests potential for differential allocation to become exaggerated by coevolutionary runaway processes in an analogous manner to pre-copulatory choice. Sexual selection is thus likely to be stronger than predicted by pre-copulatory choice alone. PMID:17148398

  12. Molecular characterization of a heterothallic mating system in .i.Pseudogymnoascus destructans./i., the fungus causing white-nose syndrome of bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palmer, J.M.; Kubátová, A.; Nováková, Alena; Minnis, A.M.; Kolařík, M.; Lindner, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 9 (2014), s. 1755-1763 ISSN 2160-1836 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Genetics of Sex * geomyces * mating type * sexual reproduction * white-nose syndrome Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2014

  13. Mate preference of female blue tits varies with experimental photoperiod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B Reparaz

    Full Text Available Organisms use environmental cues to time their life-cycles and among these cues, photoperiod is the main trigger of reproductive behaviours such as territory defence or song activity. Whether photoperiod is also important for another behaviour closely associated with reproduction, mate choice, is unknown. In many bird species, mate choice occurs at two different times during the annual cycle that strongly differ in daylength: in late winter when photoperiod is short and social mates are chosen, and again around egg-laying when photoperiod is longer and extra-pair mates are chosen. This duality makes the role that photoperiod plays on mate choice behaviours intriguing. We investigated the effect of photoperiod on mate choice using three experimental photoperiodic treatments (9 L:15 D, 14 L:10 D, 18 L:6 D, using blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus as a biological model. We show that female choice was stronger under long photoperiods. In addition, female blue tits spent significantly more time near males with long tarsi and long wings. This latter preference was only expressed under long photoperiods, suggesting that some indices of male quality only become significant to females when they are strongly photostimulated, and therefore that females could select their social and extra-pair mates based on different phenotypic traits. These results shed light on the roles that photoperiod may play in stimulating pair-bonding and in refining female selectivity for male traits.

  14. Mating with stressed males increases the fitness of ant queens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schrempf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to sexual conflict theory, males can increase their own fitness by transferring substances during copulation that increase the short-term fecundity of their mating partners at the cost of the future life expectancy and re-mating capability of the latter. In contrast, sexual cooperation is expected in social insects. Mating indeed positively affects life span and fecundity of young queens of the male-polymorphic ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, even though males neither provide nuptial gifts nor any other care but leave their mates immediately after copulation and die shortly thereafter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that mating with winged disperser males has a significantly stronger impact on life span and reproductive success of young queens of C. obscurior than mating with wingless fighter males. CONCLUSIONS: Winged males are reared mostly under stressful environmental conditions, which force young queens to disperse and found their own societies independently. In contrast, queens that mate with wingless males under favourable conditions usually start reproducing in the safety of the established maternal nest. Our study suggests that males of C. obscurior have evolved mechanisms to posthumously assist young queens during colony founding under adverse ecological conditions.

  15. Age-related mate choice in the wandering albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouventin; Lequette; Dobson

    1999-05-01

    We studied mate choice in the wandering albatross, Diomedea exulans, using data from 32 years of banding returns in the population of the Crozet Islands. We studied mating choices in a single year, when the Crozet Islands population was male biased (8:5, males:females). Thus, we expected that females might show great flexibility of choice of partners. Because age and experience might influence mate choice, we tested the expectation that females would choose the oldest and most experienced males for pair bonding. Pair bonds usually last until one member of the pair dies (0.3% of the birds 'divorce'), so mate choice should be especially important. We found that the ages of males and females in both displaying and bonded (breeding) pairs were significantly correlated. These age-associated pairings were not a passive phenomenon, but appeared to be due to an active process of selection of mates of similar age. First-time breeders sought mates of similar age, but preferred those with the most experience. Remating, experienced birds whose mates had died did not pair with individuals of significantly similar age, but predominantly paired with other widowed birds that, on average, were also relatively old. Mate fidelity in wandering albatrosses may be due to the cost of finding and bonding with a new mate. Pair bonds, and thus breeding, took an average of 3.2 and 2.3 years to establish, for males and females, respectively. Thus, remating exerts a potential average reproductive cost of about 15% of lifetime reproductive success. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  16. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P Evans

    Full Text Available In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated, most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness. Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  17. Lifetime number of mates interacts with female age to determine reproductive success in female guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies.

  18. Lifetime Number of Mates Interacts with Female Age to Determine Reproductive Success in Female Guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    In many species, mating with multiple males confers benefits to females, but these benefits may be offset by the direct and indirect costs associated with elevated mating frequency. Although mating frequency (number of mating events) is often positively associated with the degree of multiple mating (actual number of males mated), most studies have experimentally separated these effects when exploring their implications for female fitness. In this paper I describe an alternative approach using the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a livebearing freshwater fish in which females benefit directly and indirectly from mating with multiple males via consensual matings but incur direct and indirect costs of mating as a consequence of male sexual harassment. In the present study, females were experimentally assigned different numbers of mates throughout their lives in order to explore how elevated mating frequency and multiple mating combine to influence lifetime reproductive success (LRS) and survival (i.e. direct components of female fitness). Under this mating design, survival and LRS were not significantly affected by mating treatment, but there was a significant interaction between brood size and reproductive cycle (a correlate of female age) because females assigned to the high mating treatment produced significantly fewer offspring later in life compared to their low-mating counterparts. This negative effect of mating treatment later in life may be important in these relatively long-lived fishes, and this effect may be further exacerbated by the known cross-generational fitness costs of sexual harassment in guppies. PMID:23071816

  19. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs (Volumes 1-5) (Web, free access)   The NIST database of mated fingerprint card pairs (Special Database 9) consists of multiple volumes. Currently five volumes have been released. Each volume will be a 3-disk set with each CD-ROM containing 90 mated card pairs of segmented 8-bit gray scale fingerprint images (900 fingerprint image pairs per CD-ROM). A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  20. The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Kristin E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemically mediated prezygotic barriers to reproduction likely play an important role in speciation. In facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers from the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex, mate recognition of females by males is mediated by the Mate Recognition Protein (MRP, a globular glycoprotein on the surface of females, encoded by the mmr-b gene family. In this study, we sequenced mmr-b copies from 27 isolates representing 11 phylotypes of the B. plicatilis species complex, examined the mode of evolution and selection of mmr-b, and determined the relationship between mmr-b genetic distance and mate recognition among isolates. Results Isolates of the B. plicatilis species complex have 1–4 copies of mmr-b, each composed of 2–9 nearly identical tandem repeats. The repeats within a gene copy are generally more similar than are gene copies among phylotypes, suggesting concerted evolution. Compared to housekeeping genes from the same isolates, mmr-b has accumulated only half as many synonymous differences but twice as many non-synonymous differences. Most of the amino acid differences between repeats appear to occur on the outer face of the protein, and these often result in changes in predicted patterns of phosphorylation. However, we found no evidence of positive selection driving these differences. Isolates with the most divergent copies were unable to mate with other isolates and rarely self-crossed. Overall the degree of mate recognition was significantly correlated with the genetic distance of mmr-b. Conclusions Discrimination of compatible mates in the B. plicatilis species complex is determined by proteins encoded by closely related copies of a single gene, mmr-b. While concerted evolution of the tandem repeats in mmr-b may function to maintain identity, it can also lead to the rapid spread of a mutation through all copies in the genome and thus to reproductive isolation. The mmr-b gene is evolving

  1. Cognitive processes underlying human mate choice: The relationship between self-perception and mate preference in Western society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buston, Peter M; Emlen, Stephen T

    2003-07-22

    This study tested two hypotheses concerning the cognitive processes underlying human mate choice in Western society: (i) mate preference is conditional in that the selectivity of individuals' mate preference is based on their perception of themselves as long-term partners, and (ii) the decision rule governing such conditional mate preference is based on translating perception of oneself on a given attribute into a comparable selectivity of preference for the same attribute in a mate. Both hypotheses were supported. A two-part questionnaire was completed by 978 heterosexual residents of Ithaca, New York, aged 18-24; they first rated the importance they placed on 10 attributes in a long-term partner and then rated their perception of themselves on those same attributes. Both women and men who rated themselves highly were significantly more selective in their mate preference. When the 10 attributes were grouped into four evolutionarily relevant categories (indicative of wealth and status, family commitment, physical appearance, and sexual fidelity), the greatest amount of variation in the selectivity of mate preference in each category was explained by self-perception in the same category of attributes. We conclude that, in Western society, humans use neither an "opposites-attract" nor a "reproductive-potentials-attract" decision rule in their choice of long-term partners but rather a "likes-attract" rule based on a preference for partners who are similar to themselves across a number of characteristics.

  2. Regulation of mating-type information in yeast. Negative control requiring sequences both 5' and 3' to the regulated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Nasmyth, K A; Strathern, J N; Klar, A J; Hicks, J B

    1984-07-05

    The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains three complete copies of the genetic information governing cell mating type. Normally, only the information in one of the copies (the MAT locus) is expressed; the other two copies (HML and HMR) are repressed and serve as donors of mating-type sequences that can be transposed to MAT in cells capable of switching mating type. We have mutagenized the silent HMR locus and have found that the repression of this locus requires two sites, one lying on each side of the mating-type sequences at HMR. The regulatory sites are positioned outside of the sequences that are included in the pair of divergent transcripts coded for by HMR, and lie about 1000 base-pairs to either side of the central promoter region of the locus. Deletion of one of the regulatory sites results phenotypically in complete loss of repression, whereas deletion of the other site gives only partial loss of control. Both of the sites are associated with an autonomous replication activity, though the relationship between this activity and the process of repression is unclear.

  3. Beauty in the eyes of the beholders: colour vision is tuned to mate preference in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandkam, Benjamin; Young, C Megan; Breden, Felix

    2015-02-01

    A broad range of animals use visual signals to assess potential mates, and the theory of sensory exploitation suggests variation in visual systems drives mate preference variation due to sensory bias. Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), a classic system for studies of the evolution of female mate choice, provide a unique opportunity to test this theory by looking for covariation in visual tuning, light environment and mate preferences. Female preference co-evolves with male coloration, such that guppy females from 'low-predation' environments have stronger preferences for males with more orange/red coloration than do females from 'high-predation' environments. Here, we show that colour vision also varies across populations, with 'low'-predation guppies investing more of their colour vision to detect red/orange coloration. In independently colonized watersheds, guppies expressed higher levels of both LWS-1 and LWS-3 (the most abundant LWS opsins) in 'low-predation' populations than 'high-predation' populations at a time that corresponds to differences in cone cell abundance. We also observed that the frequency of a coding polymorphism differed between high- and low-predation populations. Together, this shows that the variation underlying preference could be explained by simple changes in expression and coding of opsins, providing important candidate genes to investigate the genetic basis of female preference variation in this model system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Flower-level developmental plasticity to nutrient availability in Datura stramonium: implications for the mating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Iván Darío; Nattero, Julieta; Careaga, Sonia A; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2017-10-17

    Studies of phenotypic plasticity in plants have mainly focused on (1) the effect of environmental variation on whole-plant traits related to the number of modules rather than on (2) the phenotypic consequences of environmental variation in traits of individual modules. Since environmental and developmental factors can produce changes in traits related to the mating system, this study used the second approach to investigate whether within-individual variation in herkogamy-related traits is affected by the environment during plant development in two populations of Datura stramonium , an annual herb with a hypothesized persistent mixed mating system, and to determine which morphological traits may promote self-fertilization. Full-sib families of two Mexican populations of D. stramonium , with contrasting ecological histories, were grown under low, mid and high nutrient availability to investigate the effects of genetic, environmental and within-plant flower position on flower size, corolla, stamen and pistil lengths, and herkogamy. Populations showed differences in familial variation, plasticity and familial differences in plasticity in most floral traits analysed. In one population (Ticumán), the effect of flower position on trait variation varied among families, whereas in the other (Pedregal) the effect of flower position interacted with the nutrient environment. Flower size varied with the position of flowers, but in the opposite direction between populations in low nutrients; a systematic within-plant trend of reduction in flower size, pistil length and herkogamy with flower position increased the probability of self-fertilization in the Pedregal population. Besides genetic variation in floral traits between and within populations, environmental variation affects phenotypic floral trait values at the whole-plant level, as well as among flower positions. The interaction between flower position and nutrient environment can affect the plant's mating system, and

  5. Genetic analysis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    In this introduction we discuss some basic genetic tools and techniques that are used with the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Genes commonly used for selection or as reporters are discussed, with an emphasis on genes that permit counterselection, intragenic complementation, or colony......-color assays. S. pombe is most stable as a haploid organism. We describe its mating-type system, how to perform genetic crosses and methods for selecting and propagating diploids. We discuss the relative merits of tetrad dissection and random spore preparation in strain construction and genetic analyses...

  6. Mate choice and the origin of menopause.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Morton

    Full Text Available Human menopause is an unsolved evolutionary puzzle, and relationships among the factors that produced it remain understood poorly. Classic theory, involving a one-sex (female model of human demography, suggests that genes imparting deleterious effects on post-reproductive survival will accumulate. Thus, a 'death barrier' should emerge beyond the maximum age for female reproduction. Under this scenario, few women would experience menopause (decreased fertility with continued survival because few would survive much longer than they reproduced. However, no death barrier is observed in human populations. Subsequent theoretical research has shown that two-sex models, including male fertility at older ages, avoid the death barrier. Here we use a stochastic, two-sex computational model implemented by computer simulation to show how male mating preference for younger females could lead to the accumulation of mutations deleterious to female fertility and thus produce a menopausal period. Our model requires neither the initial assumption of a decline in older female fertility nor the effects of inclusive fitness through which older, non-reproducing women assist in the reproductive efforts of younger women. Our model helps to explain why such effects, observed in many societies, may be insufficient factors in elucidating the origin of menopause.

  7. Mating system in a natural population of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng. Schum., by microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rafael M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the mating system of a natural population of Theobroma grandiflorum (cupuassu from Nova Ipixuna, Pará state, using microsatellite markers. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analyzed in eight families, each represented by 10 six-month old seedlings derived from open-pollinated pods. The estimation for the multilocus outcrossing rate (m = 1.0 and individual outcrossing rate ( = 1.0 for this population suggests that T. grandiflorum may be a perfect outbreeding (allogamous species. Likewise, for the studied population the estimate for single locus outcrossing rate (S was elevated (0.946, but lower than m, confirming the likely outcrossing character of the species and suggesting the occurrence of 5.4% biparental inbreeding rate (m - S. The estimation of genetic divergence (st between allelic frequencies in ovules and pollen revealed a deviation from random mating in 75% of the evaluated loci. Likewise, the estimate of correlation of paternity (P = 0.930 and the mean coefficient of co-ancestrality within families (XY = 0.501 indicated that the outcrossings were predominantly correlated, and the offspring were full-sibs. These results suggested that for this particular population of T. grandiflorum, the sampling strategy for genetic conservation and breeding should adopt specific models for families derived from correlated outcrossing (full-sibs and not the ones usually adopted in classic outcrossing species breeding programs (half-sibs.

  8. The mating competence of geographically diverse Leishmania major strains in their natural and unnatural sand fly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Ehud; Akopyants, Natalia S; Charmoy, Melanie; Romano, Audrey; Lawyer, Phillip; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A; Kauffmann, Florence; Barhoumi, Mourad; Grigg, Michael; Owens, Katherine; Fay, Michael; Dobson, Deborah E; Shaik, Jahangheer; Beverley, Stephen M; Sacks, David

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate stages of Leishmania are capable of genetic exchange during their extracellular growth and development in the sand fly vector. Here we explore two variables: the ability of diverse L. major strains from across its natural range to undergo mating in pairwise tests; and the timing of the appearance of hybrids and their developmental stage associations within both natural (Phlebotomus duboscqi) and unnatural (Lutzomyia longipalpis) sand fly vectors. Following co-infection of flies with parental lines bearing independent drug markers, doubly-drug resistant hybrid progeny were selected, from which 96 clonal lines were analyzed for DNA content and genotyped for parent alleles at 4-6 unlinked nuclear loci as well as the maxicircle DNA. As seen previously, the majority of hybrids showed '2n' DNA contents, but with a significant number of '3n' and one '4n' offspring. In the natural vector, 97% of the nuclear loci showed both parental alleles; however, 3% (4/150) showed only one parental allele. In the unnatural vector, the frequency of uniparental inheritance rose to 10% (27/275). We attribute this to loss of heterozygosity after mating, most likely arising from aneuploidy which is both common and temporally variable in Leishmania. As seen previously, only uniparental inheritance of maxicircle kDNA was observed. Hybrids were recovered at similar efficiencies in all pairwise crosses tested, suggesting that L. major lacks detectable 'mating types' that limit free genetic exchange. In the natural vector, comparisons of the timing of hybrid formation with the presence of developmental stages suggest nectomonads as the most likely sexually competent stage, with hybrids emerging well before the first appearance of metacyclic promastigotes. These studies provide an important perspective on the prevalence of genetic exchange in natural populations of L. major and a guide for experimental studies to understand the biology of mating.

  9. Ecological mechanisms for the coevolution of mating systems and defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of flowering plants is evident in two seemingly unrelated aspects of life history: sexual reproduction, exemplified by the stunning variation in flower form and function, and defence, often in the form of an impressive arsenal of secondary chemistry. Researchers are beginning to appreciate that plant defence and reproduction do not evolve independently, but, instead, may have reciprocal and interactive (coevolutionary) effects on each other. Understanding the mechanisms for mating-defence interactions promises to broaden our understanding of how ecological processes can generate these two rich sources of angiosperm diversity. Here, I review current research on the role of herbivory as a driver of mating system evolution, and the role of mating systems in the evolution of defence strategies. I outline different ecological mechanisms and processes that could generate these coevolutionary patterns, and summarize theoretical and empirical support for each. I provide a conceptual framework for linking plant defence with mating system theory to better integrate these two research fields.

  10. Sexual Dimorphism in Stature (SDS, Jealousy and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has investigated the manner in which absolute height impacts on jealousy and mate retention. Although relative height is also important, little information exists about the potential influence of sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS within established relationships. The current study investigated the relationship between SDS and the satisfaction, jealousy and mate retention behaviors reported by men and women. Heterosexual men (n = 98 and women (n = 102 completed a questionnaire. Men in high SDS relationships reported the lowest levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy, although the impact of SDS on relationship satisfaction was less clear. SDS was not associated with the overall use of mate retention strategies; SDS did however affect the use of three specific strategies (vigilance, monopolization of time, love and care. SDS did not affect women's relationship satisfaction, jealousy (cognitive, behavioral, or emotional or the use of mate retention strategies (with the exception of resource display.

  11. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  12. Social inclusion facilitates risky mating behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2011-07-01

    Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies. © 2011 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc

  13. Signal transduction during mating and meiosis in S. pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O; Nielsen, Olaf

    1993-01-01

    When starved, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe responds by producing mating factors or pheromones that signal to cells of the opposite sex to initiate mating. Like its distant relative Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cells of the two mating types of S. pombe each produce a distinct pheromone...... that binds to receptors on the opposite cell type to induce the morphological changes required for mating. While the pathways are basically very similar in the two yeasts, pheromone signalling in S. pombe differs in several important ways from that of the more familiar budding yeast. In this article, Olaf...... Nielsen describes the pheromones and their effects in S. pombe, and compares the signalling pathways of the two yeasts....

  14. Effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system of a cool-temperate heterodichogamous tree Acer mono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kikuchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollination is a key process for reproduction and gene flow in flowering plants. Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation, however, can disrupt plant–pollinator interactions, and may have a negative impact on the reproductive success and population viability of entomophilous plants. Heterodichogamous plants containing protandrous and protogynous individuals within a population may be susceptible to habitat fragmentation due to a lack of available mating partners. In this study, we investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on the mating system in the heterodichogamous plant Acer mono, a major constituent of cool-temperate deciduous forests in Japan. Microsatellite analysis was applied to 212 adult trees and 17 seed families from continuous and fragmented forests. Dispersal kernel modeling using the neighborhood model indicated that pollen dispersal of A. mono was highly fat-tailed. The estimated parameters of the model suggested that the siring success of a pollen donor increased approximately fivefold, with a 100 cm increase in its diameter at breast height (DBH, and that disassortative mating was five times more frequent than assortative mating. The mating system parameters of each mother tree, outcrossing rate (tm, biparental inbreeding (tm−ts, and paternity correlation (rpm varied among sites and conditions, depending on the local density of potential pollen donors. Whereas A. mono was effectively outcrossed (tm=0.901, tm−ts=0.052, and the number of effective sires was 1/rpm=14.93 in the continuous forest, clumped trees within the fragmented forest showed increased biparental inbreeding and reduced pollen pool genetic diversity (tm=0.959, tm−ts=0.245,1/rpm=1.742 as a result of localized mating combined with spatial genetic structures. In contrast, the isolated trees had a higher selfing rate, but the pollen pool diversity was maintained (tm=0.801, tm−ts=0.022, and 1/rpm=15.63 due to frequent long-distance pollination. These

  15. Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-01-22

    According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice.

  16. Are Human Mating Preferences with Respect to Height Reflected in Actual Pairings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, G.; Buunk, A.P.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.; Verhulst, S.

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the

  17. Are human mating preferences with respect to height reflected in actual pairings?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Nettle, Daniel; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Pair formation, acquiring a mate to form a reproductive unit, is a complex process. Mating preferences are a step in this process. However, due to constraining factors such as availability of mates, rival competition, and mutual mate choice, preferred characteristics may not be realised in the

  18. Thanatosis as an adaptive male mating strategy in the nuptial gift-giving spider Pisaura mirabilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line S.; Gonzalez, Sofía F.; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Males and females often experience different optima in mating rate, which may cause evolution of female resistance to matings and male counter adaptations to increase mating rate. Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis display a spectacular mating behavior involving a nuptial gift and thanatosis...

  19. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.

  20. Stress responsiveness predicts individual variation in mate selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Maren N; Romero, L Michael

    2013-06-15

    Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids, mediate a variety of behavioral and physiological processes. Circulating hormone concentrations vary substantially within populations, and although hormone titers predict reproductive success in several species, little is known about how individual variation in circulating hormone concentrations is linked with most reproductive behaviors in free-living organisms. Mate choice is an important and often costly component of reproduction that also varies substantially within populations. We examined whether energetically costly mate selection behavior in female Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus) was associated with individual variation in the concentrations of hormones previously shown to differ between reproductive and non-reproductive females during the breeding season (corticosterone and testosterone). Stress-induced corticosterone levels - which are suppressed in female marine iguanas during reproduction - were individually repeatable throughout the seven-week breeding period. Mate selectivity was strongly predicted by individual variation in stress-induced corticosterone: reproductive females that secreted less corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor assessed more displaying males. Neither baseline corticosterone nor testosterone predicted variation in mate selectivity. Scaled body mass was not significantly associated with mate selectivity, but females that began the breeding period in lower body condition showed a trend towards being less selective about potential mates. These results provide the first evidence that individual variation in the corticosterone stress response is associated with how selective females are in their choice of a mate, an important contributor to fitness in many species. Future research is needed to determine the functional basis of this association, and whether transient acute increases in circulating corticosterone directly mediate mate choice behaviors

  1. Social structure affects mating competition in a damselfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Sebastian; Ness, Miriam Horstad; Östlund-Nilsson, Sara; Amundsen, Trond

    2017-12-01

    The strength of mating competition and sexual selection varies over space and time in many animals. Such variation is typically driven by ecological and demographic factors, including adult sex ratio and consequent availability of mates. The spatial scale at which demographic factors affect mating competition and sexual selection may vary but is not often investigated. Here, we analyse variation in size and sex ratio of social groups, and how group structure affects mating competition, in the site-attached damselfish Chrysiptera cyanea. Site-attached reef fishes are known to show extensive intraspecific variation in social structure. Previous work has focused on species for which the size and dynamics of social groups are constrained by habitat, whereas species with group structure unconstrained by habitat have received little attention. Chrysiptera cyanea is such a species, with individuals occurring in spatial clusters that varied widely in size and sex ratio. Typically, only one male defended a nest in multi-male groups. Nest-holding males were frequently visited by mate-searching females, with more visits in groups with more females, suggesting that courtship and mating mostly occur within groups and that male mating success depends on the number of females in the group. Male-male aggression was frequent in multi-male groups but absent in single-male groups. These findings demonstrate that groups are distinct social units. In consequence, the dynamics of mating and reproduction are mainly a result of group structure, largely unaffected short term by overall population demography which would be important in open social systems. Future studies of the C. cyanea model system should analyse longer-term dynamics, including how groups are formed, how they vary in relation to density and time of season and how social structure affects sexual selection.

  2. Social biases determine spatiotemporal sparseness of ciliate mating heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    Ciliates become highly social, even displaying animal-like qualities, in the joint presence of aroused conspecifics and nonself mating pheromones. Pheromone detection putatively helps trigger instinctual and learned courtship and dominance displays from which social judgments are made about the availability, compatibility, and fitness representativeness or likelihood of prospective mates and rivals. In earlier studies, I demonstrated the heterotrich Spirostomum ambiguum improves mating competence by effecting preconjugal strategies and inferences in mock social trials via behavioral heuristics built from Hebbian-like associative learning. Heuristics embody serial patterns of socially relevant action that evolve into ordered, topologically invariant computational networks supporting intra- and intermate selection. S. ambiguum employs heuristics to acquire, store, plan, compare, modify, select, and execute sets of mating propaganda. One major adaptive constraint over formation and use of heuristics involves a ciliate's initial subjective bias, responsiveness, or preparedness, as defined by Stevens' Law of subjective stimulus intensity, for perceiving the meaningfulness of mechanical pressures accompanying cell-cell contacts and additional perimating events. This bias controls durations and valences of nonassociative learning, search rates for appropriate mating strategies, potential net reproductive payoffs, levels of social honesty and deception, successful error diagnosis and correction of mating signals, use of insight or analysis to solve mating dilemmas, bioenergetics expenditures, and governance of mating decisions by classical or quantum statistical mechanics. I now report this same social bias also differentially affects the spatiotemporal sparseness, as measured with metric entropy, of ciliate heuristics. Sparseness plays an important role in neural systems through optimizing the specificity, efficiency, and capacity of memory representations. The present

  3. Locus of control in mate choice: Etno-Psychometric validation

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla-Bautista, Joaquin Alberto; Díaz-Loving, Rolando; Reyes-Lagunes, Isabel; Cruz-Torres, Christian Enrique; Padilla-Gámez, Nélida

    2017-01-01

    Today it seems as if each individual is responsible for choosing his/her mate. Historically, this process has been mainly regulated by culture, family and society, which make the rules and norms, and defines suitable behaviors in the mate selection process. This research aimed at constructing a scale to analyze if people consider themselves responsible for the choice of their partner and to what extent. A qualitative study using ATLAS.ti content analysis resulted in different theoretical fact...

  4. REINFORCEMENT OF STICKLEBACK MATE PREFERENCES: SYMPATRY BREEDS CONTEMPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, Howard D; Schluter, Dolph

    1998-02-01

    Detailed studies of reproductive isolation and how it varies among populations can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms of speciation. Here we investigate how the strength of premating isolation varies between sympatric and allopatric populations of threespine sticklebacks to test a prediction of the hypothesis of reinforcement: that interspecific mate discrimination should be stronger in sympatry than in allopatry. In conducting such tests, it is important to control for ecological character displacement between sympatric species because ecological character divergence may strengthen prezygotic isolation as a by-product. We control for ecological character displacement by comparing mate preferences of females from a sympatric population (benthics) with mate preferences of females from two allopatric populations that most closely resemble the sympatric benthic females in ecology and morphology. No-choice mating trials indicate that sympatric benthic females mate less readily with heterospecific (limnetic) than conspecific (benthic) males, whereas two different populations of allopatric females resembling benthics show no such discrimination. These differences demonstrate reproductive character displacement of benthic female mate choice. Previous studies have established that hybridization between sympatric species occurred in the past in the wild and that hybrid offspring have lower fitness than either parental species, thus providing conditions under which natural selection would favor individuals that do not hybridize. Results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that female mate preferences have evolved as a response to reduced hybrid fitness (reinforcement), although direct effects of sympatry or a biased extinction process could also produce the pattern. Males of the other sympatric species (limnetics) showed a preference for smaller females, in contrast to the inferred ancestral preference for larger females, suggesting reproductive character

  5. Fungal genome and mating system transitions facilitated by chromosomal translocations involving intercentromeric recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Species within the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex are major threats to public health, causing approximately 1 million annual infections globally. Cryptococcus amylolentus is the most closely known related species of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex, and it is non-pathogenic. Additionally, while pathogenic Cryptococcus species have bipolar mating systems with a single large mating type (MAT locus that represents a derived state in Basidiomycetes, C. amylolentus has a tetrapolar mating system with 2 MAT loci (P/R and HD located on different chromosomes. Thus, studying C. amylolentus will shed light on the transition from tetrapolar to bipolar mating systems in the pathogenic Cryptococcus species, as well as its possible link with the origin and evolution of pathogenesis. In this study, we sequenced, assembled, and annotated the genomes of 2 C. amylolentus isolates, CBS6039 and CBS6273, which are sexual and interfertile. Genome comparison between the 2 C. amylolentus isolates identified the boundaries and the complete gene contents of the P/R and HD MAT loci. Bioinformatic and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq analyses revealed that, similar to those of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species, C. amylolentus has regional centromeres (CENs that are enriched with species-specific transposable and repetitive DNA elements. Additionally, we found that while neither the P/R nor the HD locus is physically closely linked to its centromere in C. amylolentus, and the regions between the MAT loci and their respective centromeres show overall synteny between the 2 genomes, both MAT loci exhibit genetic linkage to their respective centromere during meiosis, suggesting the presence of recombinational suppressors and/or epistatic gene interactions in the MAT-CEN intervening regions. Furthermore, genomic comparisons between C. amylolentus and related pathogenic Cryptococcus species provide evidence that multiple chromosomal

  6. Friendship as a Relationship Infiltration Tactic during Human Mate Poaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin K. Mogilski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has characterized human mate poaching as a prevalent alternative mating strategy that entails risks and costs typically not present during general romantic courtship and attraction. This study is the first to experimentally investigate friendship between a poacher and his/her target as a risk mitigation tactic. Participants (N = 382 read a vignette that differed by whether the poacher was male/female and whether the poacher and poached were friends/acquaintances. Participants assessed the likelihood of the poacher being successful and incurring costs. They also rated the poacher and poached on several personality and mate characteristics. Results revealed that friendship increased the perceived likelihood of success of a mate poaching attempt and decreased the perceived likelihood of several risks typically associated with mate poaching. However, friend-poachers were rated less favorably than acquaintance-poachers across measures of warmth, nurturance, and friendliness. These findings are interpreted using an evolutionary perspective. This study complements and builds upon previous findings and is the first experimental investigation of tactics poachers may use to mitigate risks inherent in mate poaching.

  7. Sexual selection and mating chronology of Lesser Prairie-Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C.; Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.; Whitlaw, Heather A.; Haukos, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate selection and lek dynamics of Lesser Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). We collected data on male territory size and location on leks, behavior, and morphological characteristics and assessed the importance of these variables on male Lesser Prairie-Chicken mating success during spring 2008 and 2009 in the Texas Southern High Plains. We used discrete choice models and found that males that were less idle were chosen more often for mating. Our results also suggest that males with smaller territories obtained more copulations. Morphological characteristics were weaker predictors of male mating success. Peak female attendance at leks occurred during the 1-week interval starting 13 April during both years of study. Male prairie-chickens appear to make exploratory movements to, and from, leks early in the lekking season; 13 of 19 males banded early (23 Feb–13 Mar) in the lekking season departed the lek of capture and were not reobserved (11 yearlings, 2 adults). Thirty-three percent (range  =  26–51%) of males on a lek mated (yearlings  =  44%, adults  =  20%) and males that were more active experienced greater mating success.

  8. Recent advances in the bioactive properties of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Helena Ferreira Cuelho

    Full Text Available Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. is a perennial shrub of Aquifoliaceae family that grows naturally in South America and is cultivated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. The aim of this review is to summarize concisely recent advances published in the last 4 years on the antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and antimutagenic activities of yerba mate. For this, a search was made in some of the databases on the web as PubMed, Google Scholar and Medline. There are several studies in the literature reporting the effects of yerba mate in the metabolic profile related to diabetes and obesity. Among the findings of the researches are the reduction of body weight, liver triglycerides and white adipose tissue. It also increases the levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin, reduces blood glucose and insulin resistance and contributes to a lower rate of growth of adipose tissue. Regarding the antioxidant properties, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin are the compounds that contribute to the antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract also protects the red cells of hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide. In mutagenesis, researches suggest that dicaffeoylquinic acids in yerba mate could be potential anti-cancer agents. Saponins in leaves of yerba mate prevent the in?ammation and colon cancer in vitro. Already in skin cancer, oral and topic treatment of rats exposed at ultraviolet radiation with mate tea prevented the lipid peroxidation and DNA damage.

  9. Why have parasites promoting mating success been observed so rarely?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berec, L; Maxin, D

    2014-02-07

    Host manipulation by sexually transmitted parasites which increases host mating rate and thus parasite transmission rate has long been viewed as a plausible parasite adaptation. However, empirical evidence for it is rare. Here, using an adaptive dynamics approach to evolution, we explore conditions under which such disease-induced mating enhancement is (or is not) likely to occur. We find that increased mating success is less likely to evolve if the host reproduction rate, or the baseline disease transmission rate, is reduced, and the parasite affects just one sex, compared to when it affects both. We also find that it is less likely to evolve if the virulence-transmission trade-off curve is stronger, since we assume that enhanced disease transmission can only be achieved at the cost of increased virulence and as this trade-off is concave. In addition, we demonstrate that if disease-induced mating enhancement is equally acting in both sexes the mating system has no effect on evolutionary outcomes. On the contrary, if disease-induced mating enhancement is acting in just one sex, the potential for its evolution increases with the degree of polygyny in the host population. To study the examined phenomenon in greater detail we encourage further empirical research on this apparently less explored impact of sexually transmitted parasites on host fitness. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Both geography and ecology contribute to mating isolation in guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy K; Weese, Dylan J; Bentzen, Paul; Kinnison, Michael T; Hendry, Andrew P

    2010-12-15

    Local adaptation to different environments can promote mating isolation--either as an incidental by-product of trait divergence, or as a result of selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Numerous recent empirical examples point to the common influence of divergent natural selection on speciation based largely on evidence of strong pre-mating isolation between populations from different habitat types. Accumulating evidence for natural selection's influence on speciation is therefore no longer a challenge. The difficulty, rather, is in determining the mechanisms involved in the progress of adaptive divergence to speciation once barriers to gene flow are already present. Here, we present results of both laboratory and field experiments with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from different environments, who do not show complete reproductive isolation despite adaptive divergence. We investigate patterns of mating isolation between populations that do and do not exchange migrants and show evidence for both by-product and reinforcement mechanisms depending on female ecology. Specifically, low-predation females discriminate against all high-predation males thus implying a by-product mechanism, whereas high-predation females only discriminate against low-predation males from further upstream in the same river, implying selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Our study thus confirms that mechanisms of adaptive speciation are not necessarily mutually exclusive and uncovers the complex ecology-geography interactions that underlie the evolution of mating isolation in nature.

  11. Smelling the difference: Transcriptome, proteome and volatilome changes after mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freihorst, Daniela; Brunsch, Melanie; Wirth, Sophia; Krause, Katrin; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Linde, Jörg; Kunert, Maritta; Boland, Wilhelm; Kothe, Erika

    2018-03-01

    Mushrooms, such as Schizophyllum commune, have a specific odor. Whether this is linked to mating, prerequisite for mushroom formation, or also found in monokaryotic, unmated strains, was investigated with a comprehensive study on the transcriptome and proteome of this model organism. Mating interactions were investigated using a complete, cytosolic proteome map for unmated, monokaryotic, as well as for mated, dikaryotic mycelia. The regulations of the proteome were compared to transcriptional changes upon mating and to changes in smell by volatilome studies. We could show a good overlap between proteome and transcriptome data, but extensive posttranslational regulation was identified for more than 80% of transcripts. This suggests down-stream regulation upon interaction of mating partners and formation of the dikaryon that is competent to form fruiting bodies. The volatilome was shown to respond to mating by a broader spectrum of volatiles and increased emission of the mushroom smell molecules 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, as well as ethanol and β-bisabolol in the dikaryon. Putatively involved biosynthetic proteins like alcohol dehydrogenases, Ppo-like oxygenases, or sesquiterpene synthases showed correlating transcriptional regulation depending on either mono- or dikaryotic stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Both geography and ecology contribute to mating isolation in guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy K Schwartz

    Full Text Available Local adaptation to different environments can promote mating isolation--either as an incidental by-product of trait divergence, or as a result of selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Numerous recent empirical examples point to the common influence of divergent natural selection on speciation based largely on evidence of strong pre-mating isolation between populations from different habitat types. Accumulating evidence for natural selection's influence on speciation is therefore no longer a challenge. The difficulty, rather, is in determining the mechanisms involved in the progress of adaptive divergence to speciation once barriers to gene flow are already present. Here, we present results of both laboratory and field experiments with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata from different environments, who do not show complete reproductive isolation despite adaptive divergence. We investigate patterns of mating isolation between populations that do and do not exchange migrants and show evidence for both by-product and reinforcement mechanisms depending on female ecology. Specifically, low-predation females discriminate against all high-predation males thus implying a by-product mechanism, whereas high-predation females only discriminate against low-predation males from further upstream in the same river, implying selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Our study thus confirms that mechanisms of adaptive speciation are not necessarily mutually exclusive and uncovers the complex ecology-geography interactions that underlie the evolution of mating isolation in nature.

  13. Mating Success of Female Dungeness Crabs (Cancer magister) in Oregon Coastal Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Paul; Shanks, Alan

    2012-01-01

    females are finding large enough mates. Females were collected from three Oregon fishing ports, dissected, and checked for evidence of mating. Captured male and female crabs were also measured to estimate population size distributions. The majority of female crabs examined (69%) mated in the collection...... (carapace width, 160-169 mm) showed high mating success (84% Mated in the collection year, 95% could have produced viable eggs). These numbers compare favorably with a similar survey conducted in northern California, in which 69% of molting females had mated. We conclude from the data that molting females...... in these Oregon fishing ports are finding mates successfully, regardless of size....

  14. Mate-choice copying, social information processing, and the roles of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, Martin; Matta, Richard; Choleris, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Social and sexual behaviors, including that of mate choice, are dependent on social information. Mate choice can be modified by prior and ongoing social factors and experience. The mate choice decisions of one individual can be influenced by either the actual or potential mate choice of another female or male. Such non-independent mate choice, where individuals gain social information and socially learn about and recognizes potential mates by observing the choices of another female or male, has been termed "mate-choice copying". Here we first briefly review how, why, and under what circumstances individuals engage in mate-choice copying. Secondly, we review the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mate-choice copying. In particular, we consider the roles of the nonapeptide, oxytocin, in the processing of social information and the expression of mate-choice copying. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Forfert

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness. As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens.

  16. Neonicotinoid pesticides can reduce honeybee colony genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Gauthier, Laurent; Straub, Lars; Moritz, Robin F. A.; Neumann, Peter; Williams, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides can cause a variety of adverse sub-lethal effects in bees. In social species such as the honeybee, Apis mellifera, queens are essential for reproduction and colony functioning. Therefore, any negative effect of these agricultural chemicals on the mating success of queens may have serious consequences for the fitness of the entire colony. Queens were exposed to the common neonicotinoid pesticides thiamethoxam and clothianidin during their developmental stage. After mating, their spermathecae were dissected to count the number of stored spermatozoa. Furthermore, their worker offspring were genotyped with DNA microsatellites to determine the number of matings and the genotypic composition of the colony. Colonies providing the male mating partners were also inferred. Both neonicotinoid and control queens mated with drones originating from the same drone source colonies, and stored similar number of spermatozoa. However, queens reared in colonies exposed to both neonicotinoids experienced fewer matings. This resulted in a reduction of the genetic diversity in their colonies (i.e. higher intracolonial relatedness). As decreased genetic diversity among worker bees is known to negatively affect colony vitality, neonicotinoids may have a cryptic effect on colony health by reducing the mating frequency of queens. PMID:29059234

  17. No evolutionary shift in the mating system of north American Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae following its introduction to China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Meng Li

    Full Text Available The mating system plays a key role during the process of plant invasion. Contemporary evolution of uniparental reproduction (selfing or asexuality can relieve the challenges of mate limitation in colonizing populations by providing reproductive assurance. Here we examined aspects of the genetics of colonization in Ambrosia artemisiifolia, a North American native that is invasive in China. This species has been found to possess a strong self-incompatibility system and have high outcrossing rates in North America and we examined whether there has been an evolutionary shift towards the dependence on selfing in the introduced range. Specifically, we estimated outcrossing rates in one native and five invasive populations and compared levels of genetic diversity between North America and China. Based on six microsatellite loci we found that, like the native North American population, all five Chinese populations possessed a completely outcrossing mating system. The estimates of paternity correlations were low, ranging from 0.028-0.122, which suggests that populations possessed ~8-36 pollen donor parents contributing to each maternal plant in the invasive populations. High levels of genetic diversity for both native and invasive populations were found with the unbiased estimate of gene diversity ranging from 0.262-0.289 for both geographic ranges based on AFLP markers. Our results demonstrate that there has been no evolutionary shift from outcrossing to selfing during A. artemisiifolia's invasion of China. Furthermore, high levels of genetic variation in North America and China indicate that there has been no erosion of genetic variance due to a bottleneck during the introduction process. We suggest that the successful invasion of A. artemisiifolia into Asia was facilitated by repeated introductions from multiple source populations in the native range creating a diverse gene pool within Chinese populations.

  18. Commensal bacteria play a role in mating preference of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel; Ringo, John M.; Hefetz, Abraham; Zilber-Rosenberg, Ilana; Rosenberg, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Development of mating preference is considered to be an early event in speciation. In this study, mating preference was achieved by dividing a population of Drosophila melanogaster and rearing one part on a molasses medium and the other on a starch medium. When the isolated populations were mixed, “molasses flies” preferred to mate with other molasses flies and “starch flies” preferred to mate with other starch flies. The mating preference appeared after only one generation and was maintained...

  19. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inbreeding in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic consequences of host spatial structure, aggregated transmission dynamics and life history ... processes utilizing a backward–forward branching Markov process embedded within a flexible statistical framework, the logarithmic-poisson mixture model. My results ...

  20. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 92, Issue 1. April 2013, pages 1-173. pp 1-1. General editorial on publication ethics · Amitabh Joshi R. Ramaswamy N. Mukunda · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 3-10 Research Article. Estimation of in situ mating systems in wild ...

  1. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Distribution of genes associated with yield potential and water-saving in Chinese Zone II wheat detected by developed functional markers ... in stochastic subdivided mating systems: the genetic consequences of host spatial structure, aggregated transmission dynamics and life history characteristics in parasite populations.

  2. Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. Z Brand, S Cloete, I Malecki, C Brown. Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 ...

  3. Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits at different ages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Precise and accurate genetic parameter estimates are crucial for making sound decisions in many stages of animal improvement programme. Genetic parameter estimates for eight growth traits were determined in 308 turkeys generated from mating pure indigenous parents. PROC MIXED of SAS was used to estimate ...

  4. Genetic variability for tuber yield, quality, and virus disease complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some cultivars e.g. Munyeera, New Kawogo, Silk and Sowola which showed high flowering ability failed to fertilise and set seed when crossed to specific cultivars. Preliminary genetic analysis for yield and quality following crossing elite 7 female and 6 male cultivars in a North Carolina 2 mating design showed wide genetic ...

  5. Genetic analysis of seed proteins contents in cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to select cowpea genotypes with high food value, 10 varieties were genetically screened in Ngaoundéré (Cameroon) for seed crude protein and its soluble fractions contents. Five divergent lines were studied through a 5 x 5 half diallel cross mating. The genotypes presented a significant genetic variability for these ...

  6. Gestural Communication and Mating Tactics in Wild Chimpanzees.

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    Anna Ilona Roberts

    Full Text Available The extent to which primates can flexibly adjust the production of gestural communication according to the presence and visual attention of the audience provides key insights into the social cognition underpinning gestural communication, such as an understanding of third party relationships. Gestures given in a mating context provide an ideal area for examining this flexibility, as frequently the interests of a male signaller, a female recipient and a rival male bystander conflict. Dominant chimpanzee males seek to monopolize matings, but subordinate males may use gestural communication flexibly to achieve matings despite their low rank. Here we show that the production of mating gestures in wild male East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweunfurthii was influenced by a conflict of interest with females, which in turn was influenced by the presence and visual attention of rival males. When the conflict of interest was low (the rival male was present and looking away, chimpanzees used visual/ tactile gestures over auditory gestures. However, when the conflict of interest was high (the rival male was absent, or was present and looking at the signaller chimpanzees used auditory gestures over visual/ tactile gestures. Further, the production of mating gestures was more common when the number of oestrous and non-oestrus females in the party increased, when the female was visually perceptive and when there was no wind. Females played an active role in mating behaviour, approaching for copulations more often when the number of oestrus females in the party increased and when the rival male was absent, or was present and looking away. Examining how social and ecological factors affect mating tactics in primates may thus contribute to understanding the previously unexplained reproductive success of subordinate male chimpanzees.

  7. Sexual conflict arising from extrapair matings in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, Alexis S; Montgomerie, Robert; Lyon, Bruce E

    2015-01-20

    The discovery that extrapair copulation (EPC) and extrapair paternity (EPP) are common in birds led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the evolution of mating systems. The prevalence of extrapair matings in pair-bonded species sets the stage for sexual conflict, and a recent focus has been to consider how this conflict can shape variation in extrapair mating rates. Here, we invert the causal arrow and consider the consequences of extrapair matings for sexual conflict. Extrapair matings shift sexual conflict from a simple two-player (male vs. female) game to a game with three or more players, the nature of which we illustrate with simple diagrams that highlight the net costs and benefits of extrapair matings to each player. This approach helps identify the sorts of traits that might be under selection because of sexual conflict. Whether EPP is driven primarily by the extrapair male or the within-pair female profoundly influences which players are in conflict, but the overall pattern of conflict varies little among different mating systems. Different aspects of conflict are manifest at different stages of the breeding cycle and can be profitably considered as distinct episodes of selection caused by conflict. This perspective is illuminating both because conflict between specific players can change across episodes and because the traits that evolve to mediate conflict likely differ between episodes. Although EPP clearly leads to sexual conflict, we suggest that the link between sexual conflict and multiple paternity might be usefully understood by examining how deviations from lifetime sexual monogamy influence sexual conflict. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Radical loss of an extreme extra-pair mating system

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    Segelbacher Gernot

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mating outside the pair-bond is surprisingly common in socially monogamous birds, but rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP vary widely between species. Although differences in life-history and contemporary ecological factors may explain some interspecific variation, evolutionary forces driving extra-pair (EP mating remain largely obscure. Also, since there is a large phylogenetic component to the frequency of EPP, evolutionary inertia may contribute substantially to observed EP mating patterns. However, the relative importance of plasticity and phylogenetic constraints on the incidence of EP mating remains largely unknown. Results We here demonstrate very low levels of EPP (4.4% of offspring in the purple-crowned fairy-wren Malurus coronatus, a member of the genus with the highest known levels of EPP in birds. In addition, we show absence of the suite of distinctive behavioral and morphological adaptations associated with EP mating that characterize other fairy-wrens. Phylogenetic parsimony implies that these characteristics were lost in one speciation event. Nonetheless, many life-history and breeding parameters that are hypothesized to drive interspecific variation in EPP are not different in the purple-crowned fairy-wren compared to its promiscuous congeners. Conclusion Such radical loss of an extreme EP mating system with all associated adaptations from a lineage of biologically very similar species indicates that evolutionary inertia does not necessarily constrain interspecific variation in EPP. Moreover, if apparently minor interspecific differences regularly cause large differences in EPP, this may be one reason why the evolution of EP mating is still poorly understood.

  9. Life history changes in Trogoderma variabile and T. inclusum due to mating delay with implications for mating disruption as a management tactic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling postharvest pest species is a costly process with insecticide resistance and species specific control requiring multiple tactics. Mating disruption can be used to both decrease a female’s access to males and delay timing of mating and decreases overall mating success in a population and ...

  10. Resistance to Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) when mite-resistant queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were free-mated with unselected drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbo, J R; Harris, J W

    2001-12-01

    This study demonstrated (1) that honey bees, Apis mellifera L, can express a high level of resistance to Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman when bees were selected for only one resistant trait (suppression of mite reproduction); and (2) that a significant level of mite-resistance was retained when these queens were free-mated with unselected drones. The test compared the growth of mite populations in colonies of bees that each received one of the following queens: (1) resistant--queens selected for suppression of mite reproduction and artificially inseminated in Baton Rouge with drones from similarly selected stocks; (2) resistant x control--resistant queens, as above, produced and free-mated to unselected drones by one of four commercial queen producers; and (3) control--commercial queens chosen by the same four queen producers and free-mated as above. All colonies started the test with approximately 0.9 kg of bees that were naturally infested with approximately 650 mites. Colonies with resistant x control queens ended the 115-d test period with significantly fewer mites than did colonies with control queens. This suggests that beekeepers can derive immediate benefit from mite-resistant queens that have been free-mated to unselected drones. Moreover, the production and distribution of these free-mated queens from many commercial sources may be an effective way to insert beneficial genes into our commercial population of honey bees without losing the genetic diversity and the useful beekeeping characteristics of this population.

  11. Pollination by sexual deception promotes outcrossing and mate diversity in self-compatible clonal orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, M R; Linde, C C; Peakall, R

    2015-08-01

    The majority of flowering plants rely on animals as pollen vectors. Thus, plant mating systems and pollen dispersal are strongly influenced by pollinator behaviour. In Australian sexually deceptive orchids pollinated by male thynnine wasps, outcrossing and extensive pollen flow is predicted due to floral deception, which minimizes multiple flower visitations within patches, and the movement of pollinators under mate-search rather than foraging behaviours. This hypothesis was tested using microsatellite markers to reconstruct and infer paternity in two clonal, self-compatible orchids. Offspring from naturally pollinated Chiloglottis valida and C. aff. jeanesii were acquired through symbiotic culture of seeds collected over three seasons. In both species, outcrossing was extensive (tm  = 0.924-1.00) despite clone sizes up to 11 m wide. The median pollen flow distance based on paternity for both taxa combined was 14.5 m (n = 18, range 0-69 m), being larger than typically found by paternity analyses in other herbaceous plants. Unexpectedly for orchids, some capsules were sired by more than one father, with an average of 1.35 pollen donors per fruit. This is the first genetic confirmation of polyandry in orchid capsules. Further, we report a possible link between multiple paternity and increased seed fitness. Together, these results demonstrate that deceptive pollination by mate-searching wasps enhances offspring fitness by promoting both outcrossing and within-fruit paternal diversity. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  12. Identified Serotonin-Releasing Neurons Induce Behavioral Quiescence and Suppress Mating in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooryasin, Atefeh; Fiala, André

    2015-09-16

    Animals show different levels of activity that are reflected in sensory responsiveness and endogenously generated behaviors. Biogenic amines have been determined to be causal factors for these states of arousal. It is well established that, in Drosophila, dopamine and octopamine promote increased arousal. However, little is known about factors that regulate arousal negatively and induce states of quiescence. Moreover, it remains unclear whether global, diffuse modulatory systems comprehensively affecting brain activity determine general states of arousal. Alternatively, individual aminergic neurons might selectively modulate the animals' activity in a distinct behavioral context. Here, we show that artificially activating large populations of serotonin-releasing neurons induces behavioral quiescence and inhibits feeding and mating. We systematically narrowed down a role of serotonin in inhibiting endogenously generated locomotor activity to neurons located in the posterior medial protocerebrum. We identified neurons of this cell cluster that suppress mating, but not feeding behavior. These results suggest that serotonin does not uniformly act as global, negative modulator of general arousal. Rather, distinct serotoninergic neurons can act as inhibitory modulators of specific behaviors. An animal's responsiveness to external stimuli and its various types of endogenously generated, motivated behavior are highly dynamic and change between states of high activity and states of low activity. It remains unclear whether these states are mediated by unitary modulatory systems globally affecting brain activity, or whether distinct neurons modulate specific neuronal circuits underlying particular types of behavior. Using the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, we find that activating large proportions of serotonin-releasing neurons induces behavioral quiescence. Moreover, distinct serotonin-releasing neurons that we genetically isolated and identified negatively affect

  13. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical,characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine(Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in theEast Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation ofoutcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation orreforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations showed no heterozygote deficiency at these allozyme loci, and instead showed increased proportions of heterozygotes (inbreeding coefficient FIS = -0.200 in 'Gorgany' and -0.142 in 'Yayko'. Balancing selection may explain heterozygosity levels up to and above equilibrium proportions.

  14. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of a...

  15. Population genetics of fungal diseases of plants

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, Tatiana; Enjalbert, Jerome; Fournier, Elisabeth; Delmotte, François; Dutech, Christian Cyril

    2008-01-01

    Although parasitism is one of the most common lifestyles among eukaryotes, population genetics on parasites lag far behind those on free-living organisms. Yet, the advent of molecular markers offers great tools for studying important processes, such as dispersal, mating systems, adaptation to host and speciation. Here we highlight some studies that used molecular markers to address questions about the population genetics of fungal (including oomycetes) plant pathogens. We conclude that popula...

  16. Sex and age differences in mate-selection preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sascha; Hassebrauck, Manfred

    2012-12-01

    For nearly 70 years, studies have shown large sex differences in human mate selection preferences. However, most of the studies were restricted to a limited set of mate selection criteria and to college students, and neglecting relationship status. In this study, 21,245 heterosexual participants between 18 and 65 years of age (mean age 41) who at the time were not involved in a close relationship rated the importance of 82 mate selection criteria adapted from previous studies, reported age ranges for the oldest and youngest partner that they would find acceptable, and responded to 10 yes/no questions about a potential marriage partner. For nearly all mate selection criteria, women were found to be the more demanding sex, although men placed consistently more value on the physical attractiveness of a potential partner than women. Also, the effects of the participants' age and level of education were nearly negligible. These results demonstrate the robustness of sex differences in mate selection criteria across a substantial age range.

  17. Personality may confound common measures of mate-choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan David

    Full Text Available The measurement of female mating preferences is central to the study of the evolution of male ornaments. Although several different methods have been developed to assess sexual preference in some standardized way, the most commonly used procedure consists of recording female spatial association with different males presented simultaneously. Sexual preference is then inferred from time spent in front of each male. However, the extent to which the measurement of female mate-choice is related to exploration tendencies has not been addressed so far. In the present study we assessed the influence of variation in exploration tendencies, a trait closely associated to global personality, on the measurement of female mating preference in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata using the widely used four-chamber choice-apparatus. The number of movements performed within both exploration and mate-choice apparatus was consistent within and across the two contexts. In addition, personality explained variation in selectivity, preference strength and consistency. High-exploratory females showed lower selectivity, lower preference scores and displayed more consistent preference scores. Our results suggest that variation in personality may affect the measurement of female mating preference and may contribute to explain existing inconsistencies across studies.

  18. Mineral content of young leaves of yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Camotti Bastos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is largely used to produce drinks to human consume. In Spring the plants develop tender young leaves that could represent a new market niche in the yerba-mate industry; this period is called as ”pressafrinha” in this study. This study aimed to analyze the total and hydro soluble nutritional values of young leaves collected in the Spring season and its nutritional potential for human consumption. To represent the ”pressafrinha” young leaves, the collected vegetal material was limited to the third terminal bud. The total and hydro soluble chemical analysis of leaves in the provenances Cascavel (progeny 174, Ivaí (progeny 6, Barão de Cotegipe (progenies 68 and 69 included the following elements: P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. The content of elements in the beverage obtained from the infusion of young leaves of yerba mate in the recommended daily intake ranges from 0.5% to 11.5% and was in the following order: Cu > Mn > K > P > Mg > Fe > Zn > Ca > Na. Progenies and morphotypes of yerba mate showed little variation in the total nutrient content and did not differ in the content of soluble nutrients evaluated in young leaves. The extract obtained from young leaves of yerba mate presents potential to be used for human consumption.

  19. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons revisited: mating status alters cuticular profiles.

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    Claude Everaerts

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs, or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA, affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila.

  20. Human Nonindependent Mate Choice: Is Model Female Attractiveness Everything?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Vakirtzis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Following two decades of research on non-human animals, there has recently been increased interest in human nonindependent mate choice, namely the ways in which choosing women incorporate information about a man's past or present romantic partners (‘model females’ into their own assessment of the male. Experimental studies using static facial images have generally found that men receive higher desirability ratings from female raters when presented with attractive (compared to unattractive model females. This phenomenon has a straightforward evolutionary explanation: the fact that female mate value is more dependent on physical attractiveness compared to male mate value. Furthermore, due to assortative mating for attractiveness, men who are paired with attractive women are more likely to be of high mate value themselves. Here, we also examine the possible relevance of model female cues other than attractiveness (personality and behavioral traits by presenting video recordings of model females to a set of female raters. The results confirm that the model female's attractiveness is the primary cue. Contrary to some earlier findings in the human and nonhuman literature, we found no evidence that female raters prefer partners of slightly older model females. We conclude by suggesting some promising variations on the present experimental design.

  1. Sexual selection and the opportunity cost of free mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Menelaos

    2016-06-01

    The model of sexual selection under parental choice has been proposed to account for the control that parents exercise over their children's mating decisions. The present paper attempts to formalize and advance this model with the purpose of providing a better understanding of how parental choice mandates the course of sexual selection. In particular, in the proposed formulation, free mate choice involves an opportunity cost which motivates parents to place their children's mate choices under their control. When they succeed in doing so, they become a significant sexual selection force, as traits that appeal to parents in an in-law are selected and increase in frequency in the population. The degree of parental control over mating, and thus the strength of sexual selection under parental choice, is positively predicted by the size of the opportunity cost of free mate choice. The primary factors that affect the level of opportunity cost vary between society types, affecting the strength of parental choice as a sexual selection force.

  2. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  3. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

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    Sarsha Yap

    Full Text Available Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  4. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G; Taylor, Phillip W

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: 'sugar', 'essential', or 'yeast-sugar'. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging.

  5. Hydrocarbon contamination decreases mating success in a marine planktonic copepod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Seuront

    Full Text Available The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1% impacts (i the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics.

  6. The evolution of sex roles in mate searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Jennions, Michael; Kokko, Hanna

    2016-03-01

    Searching for mates is a critical stage in the life cycle of most internally, and many externally, fertilizing species. Males usually invest more in this costly activity than females, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. Previous models have shown that female-biased parental investment, including anisogamy, does not by itself select for male-biased mate searching, so it requires additional explanations. Here, we correct and expand upon earlier models, and present two novel hypotheses that might explain the evolution of male-biased mate searching. The "carry-over hypothesis" states that females benefit less from searching if the associated costs affect other stages of the life cycle, rather than arising only while searching. It is relevant to the evolution of morphological traits that improve searching efficiency but are also expressed in other contexts. The "mating window hypothesis" states that females benefit less from searching if their life cycle includes intervals during which the exact timing of mating does not matter for the appropriate timing of reproduction (e.g., due to sperm storage or delayed embryo implantation). Such intervals are more likely to exist for females given the general pattern of greater female parental investment. Our models shed new light on classic arguments about sex role evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  8. Chemical characterization of candy made of Erva-Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil.) residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Manoela A; Rovaris, Angela A; Maraschin, Marcelo; De Simas, Karina N; Pagliosa, Cristiane M; Podestá, Rossana; Amboni, Renata D M C; Barreto, Pedro L M; Amante, Edna R

    2008-06-25

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical properties of the residues from erva-mate processing and also to determine the candy-making performance with addition of residues from erva-mate on consumers' acceptance and purchase intent of this new product. The candies containing different amounts of mate powder were evaluated through overall acceptability test and purchase intent. Mate powder showed high contents of dietary fiber, total ash, and total polyphenols. The total dietary fiber content of the mate candies ranged from 5.7 to 6.29% on a dry matter basis. Supplementation with mate powder caused significant increases in polyphenol and mineral contents of mate candies. The incorporation of mate powder increased the hardness of the candies and produced desirable results in their nutritional characteristics. The sensory tests indicated that mate candies were acceptable and approved in relation to purchase intent.

  9. Identification and expression analysis of MATE genes involved in flavonoid transport in blueberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Liu, Yushan; Liu, Hongdi; Kang, Limin; Geng, Jinman; Gai, Yuzhuo; Ding, Yunlong; Sun, Haiyue; Li, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are the most recently identified family of multidrug transporters. In plants, this family is remarkably large compared to the human and bacteria counterpart, highlighting the importance of MATE proteins in this kingdom. Here 33 Unigenes annotated as MATE transporters were found in the blueberry fruit transcriptome, of which eight full-length cDNA sequences were identified and cloned. These proteins are composed of 477-517 residues, with molecular masses ~54 kDa, and theoretical isoelectric points from 5.35 to 8.41. Bioinformatics analysis predicted 10-12 putative transmembrane segments for VcMATEs, and localization to the plasma membrane without an N-terminal signal peptide. All blueberry MATE proteins shared 32.1-84.4% identity, among which VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8, and VcMATE9 were more similar to the MATE-type flavonoid transporters. Phylogenetic analysis showed VcMATE2, VcMATE3, VcMATE5, VcMATE7, VcMATE8 and VcMATE9 clustered with MATE-type flavonoid transporters, indicating that they might be involved in flavonoid transport. VcMATE1 and VcMATE4 may be involved in the transport of secondary metabolites, the detoxification of xenobiotics, or the export of toxic cations. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the expression profile of the eight VcMATE genes varied spatially and temporally. Analysis of expression and anthocyanin accumulation indicated that there were some correlation between the expression profile and the accumulation of anthocyanins. These results showed VcMATEs might be involved in diverse physiological functions, and anthocyanins across the membranes might be mutually maintained by MATE-type flavonoid transporters and other mechanisms. This study will enrich the MATE-based transport mechanisms of secondary metabolite, and provide a new biotechonology strategy to develop better nutritional blueberry cultivars.

  10. What Do Women's Advertised Mate Preferences Reveal? An Analysis of Video Dating Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari D. Goetz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined women's video dating profiles to determine what their advertised mate preferences revealed about their mate value and relationship interests. Women created a one-minute long video dating profile for a hypothetical dating website. The videos were content analyzed into four categories of stated mate preferences: 1 “good genes” indicators 2 good resource investment potential indicators 3 good parenting indicators and 4 good partner indicators. Long-term mating interest was positively correlated with describing good partner indicators and self-perceived mate value was positively correlated with describing good genes indicators. Short-term mating interest was negatively correlated with describing any mate preferences while attractiveness was positively correlated with doing so. Results suggest that women's advertised mate preferences provide clues to their underlying relationship interests and mate value.

  11. Extreme costs of mating for male two-spot ladybird beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Perry

    Full Text Available Male costs of mating are now thought to be widespread. The two-spot ladybird beetle (Adalia bipunctata has been the focus of many studies of mating and sexual selection, yet the costs of mating for males are unknown. The mating system of A. bipunctata involves a spermatophore nuptial gift ingested by females after copulation. In this study, we investigate the cost to males of mating and of transferring spermatophores in terms of lifespan, ejaculate production and depletion of nutritional reserves. We found that males faced a strong trade-off between mating and survival, with males that were randomly assigned to mate a single time experiencing a 53% reduction in post-mating lifespan compared to non-mating males. This is among the most severe survival costs of a single mating yet reported. However, spermatophore transfer did not impact male survival. Instead, the costs associated with spermatophores appeared as a reduced ability to transfer spermatophores in successive matings. Furthermore, males ingested more food following spermatophore transfer than after matings without spermatophores, suggesting that spermatophore transfer depletes male nutritional reserves. This is to our knowledge the first report of an effect of variation in copulatory behaviour on male foraging behaviour. Overall, our study highlights the advantages of assessing mating costs using multiple currencies, and suggests that male A. bipunctata should exhibit mate choice.

  12. Mitigation of inbreeding while preserving genetic gain in genomic breeding programs for outbred plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zibei; Shi, Fan; Hayes, Ben J; Daetwyler, Hans D

    2017-05-01

    Heuristic genomic inbreeding controls reduce inbreeding in genomic breeding schemes without reducing genetic gain. Genomic selection is increasingly being implemented in plant breeding programs to accelerate genetic gain of economically important traits. However, it may cause significant loss of genetic diversity when compared with traditional schemes using phenotypic selection. We propose heuristic strategies to control the rate of inbreeding in outbred plants, which can be categorised into three types: controls during mate allocation, during selection, and simultaneous selection and mate allocation. The proposed mate allocation measure GminF allocates two or more parents for mating in mating groups that minimise coancestry using a genomic relationship matrix. Two types of relationship-adjusted genomic breeding values for parent selection candidates ([Formula: see text]) and potential offspring ([Formula: see text]) are devised to control inbreeding during selection and even enabling simultaneous selection and mate allocation. These strategies were tested in a case study using a simulated perennial ryegrass breeding scheme. As compared to the genomic selection scheme without controls, all proposed strategies could significantly decrease inbreeding while achieving comparable genetic gain. In particular, the scenario using [Formula: see text] in simultaneous selection and mate allocation reduced inbreeding to one-third of the original genomic selection scheme. The proposed strategies are readily applicable in any outbred plant breeding program.

  13. Plant-Mediated Female Transcriptomic Changes Post-Mating in a Tephritid Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Chloé A; Qin, Yujia; Cameron, Stephen L; Clarke, Anthony R; Prentis, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Female post-mating behaviors are regulated by complex factors involving males, females, and the environment. In insects, plant secondary compounds that males actively forage for, may indirectly modify female behaviors by altering male behavior and physiology. In the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, females mated with males previously fed on plant-derived phenylpropanoids (=“lures” based on usage in tephritid literature), have longer mating refractoriness, greater fecundity, and reduced longevity than females mated with non-lure fed males. This system thus provides a model for studying transcriptional changes associated with those post-mating behaviors, as the genes regulating the phenotypic changes are likely to be expressed at a greater magnitude than in control females. We performed comparative transcriptome analyses using virgin B. tryoni females, females mated with control males (control-mated), and females mated with lure-fed males (lure-mated). We found 331 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in control-mated females and 80 additional DEGs in lure-mated females. Although DEGs in control-mated females are mostly immune response genes and chorion proteins, as reported in Drosophila species, DEGs in lure-mated females are titin-like muscle proteins, histones, sperm, and testis expressed proteins which have not been previously reported. While transcripts regulating mating (e.g., lingerer) did not show differential expression in either of the mated female classes, the odorant binding protein Obp56a was down-regulated. The exclusively enriched or suppressed genes in lure-mated females, novel transcripts such as titin and histones, and several taxa-specific transcripts reported here can shed more light on post-mating transcriptional changes, and this can help understand factors possibly regulating female post-mating behaviors. PMID:29220418

  14. Plant-Mediated Female Transcriptomic Changes Post-Mating in a Tephritid Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; van der Burg, Chloé A; Qin, Yujia; Cameron, Stephen L; Clarke, Anthony R; Prentis, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Female post-mating behaviors are regulated by complex factors involving males, females, and the environment. In insects, plant secondary compounds that males actively forage for, may indirectly modify female behaviors by altering male behavior and physiology. In the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, females mated with males previously fed on plant-derived phenylpropanoids (="lures" based on usage in tephritid literature), have longer mating refractoriness, greater fecundity, and reduced longevity than females mated with non-lure fed males. This system thus provides a model for studying transcriptional changes associated with those post-mating behaviors, as the genes regulating the phenotypic changes are likely to be expressed at a greater magnitude than in control females. We performed comparative transcriptome analyses using virgin B. tryoni females, females mated with control males (control-mated), and females mated with lure-fed males (lure-mated). We found 331 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in control-mated females and 80 additional DEGs in lure-mated females. Although DEGs in control-mated females are mostly immune response genes and chorion proteins, as reported in Drosophila species, DEGs in lure-mated females are titin-like muscle proteins, histones, sperm, and testis expressed proteins which have not been previously reported. While transcripts regulating mating (e.g., lingerer) did not show differential expression in either of the mated female classes, the odorant binding protein Obp56a was down-regulated. The exclusively enriched or suppressed genes in lure-mated females, novel transcripts such as titin and histones, and several taxa-specific transcripts reported here can shed more light on post-mating transcriptional changes, and this can help understand factors possibly regulating female post-mating behaviors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. Improving meat quality through cattle feed enriched with mate extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa

    The use of plant extracts in animal feeding trials has been considered as a potential alternative to improve the redox stability of meat. Bioactive compounds from plant extracts can provide the antioxidative mechanisms required to improve animal health and welfare and, to protect meat against...... oxidation. Pharmacological properties and antioxidant effects have been associated to the extract of hops and to the extracts of yerba mate. However, the effects of hops and yerba mate as dietary supplement for animal feeding on the metabolic profile and the redox stability of meat have not been reported...... yet. Addition of extract of mate to a standard maize/soy feed at a level of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5% to the diet of feedlot for cattle resulted in an increased level of inosine monophosphate, creatine, carnosine and of conjugated linoleic acid in the fresh meat. The tendency to radical formation in meat...

  16. CheckMATE 2: From the model to the limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercks, Daniel; Desai, Nishita; Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Weber, Torsten

    2017-12-01

    We present the latest developments to the CheckMATE program that allows models of new physics to be easily tested against the recent LHC data. To achieve this goal, the core of CheckMATE now contains over 60 LHC analyses of which 12 are from the 13 TeV run. The main new feature is that CheckMATE 2 now integrates the Monte Carlo event generation via MadGraph5_aMC@NLO and Pythia 8. This allows users to go directly from a SLHA file or UFO model to the result of whether a model is allowed or not. In addition, the integration of the event generation leads to a significant increase in the speed of the program. Many other improvements have also been made, including the possibility to now combine signal regions to give a total likelihood for a model.

  17. Mate replacement and alloparental care in Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shubham; Inselman, Will M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.; Swanson, Christopher C.; Klaver, Robert W.; Sasmal, Indrani; Grovenburg, Troy W.

    2015-01-01

    Alloparental care (i.e., care for unrelated offspring) has been documented in various avian species (Maxson 1978, Smith et al. 1996, Tella et al. 1997, Lislevand et al. 2001, Literak and Mraz 2011). A male replacement mate that encounters existing broods has options, which include alloparental care or infanticide. Infanticide may be beneficial in some species (Rohwer 1986, Kermott et al. 1990), but in long-lived avian species, like the ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis) that do not renest within a season, infanticide might be detrimental. Adoption and rearing success likely provide direct evidence of competence of replacement mates as potential parents for future seasons, a benefit that might outweigh the investment of time and effort associated with adoption and rearing (after Rohwer 1986). Anticipated mating opportunity at the cost of adoption (Gori et al. 1996, Rohwer et al. 1999) may explain step-parental benevolence and therefore, in such a scenario would enhance individual fitness through subsequent recruitment of related young.

  18. Sperm length, sperm storage and mating system characteristics in bumblebees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2003-01-01

    Multiple insemination induces sperm competition and may select for longer, faster moving sperm in species where sperm is short-lived and egg fertilization takes place almost immediately after ejaculation. Here we report the first detailed analysis of sperm length in social insects with long......-term storage of sperm, using three bumblebee species with different mating systems as models. We show that individual males produce only one size-class of sperm, but that sperm length is highly variable among brothers, among unrelated conspecific males, and among males of different species. Males of Bombus...... hypnorum, a species with multiple-mating queens, have longer sperm than males of B. terrestris and B. lucorum whose queens are single mated. Although the sample size on the species level was too small to perform a phylogenetic analysis, this finding supports the hypothesis that, all other things being...

  19. Irradiation detection of coffee mate by electron spin resonance (ESR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozsayin, Fulya; Polat, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Un-irradiated coffee mate samples do not exhibit any ESR signal. However, the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiation exhibit an ESR singlet and a large unresolved ESR signal, respectively. The dose-response curves of the samples exposed to UV and gamma radiations were found to be described well by an exponential and linear functions, respectively. Variable temperature and fading studies at room temperature showed that the radiation-induced radicals in coffee mate sample are very sensitive to temperature. The discrimination between un-irradiated and irradiated coffee mate samples can be done just comparing their ESR spectra. However, determination of the radiation dose received by the sample cannot be possible because of the fast decay of signal intensity at room temperature.

  20. Surface profiling in mating parts by combined nonabrasive finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentsev, EV; Fedonin, ON; Smolentsev, VP

    2017-02-01

    Nonabrasive finishing of precision mating surfaces in locking devices with the use of a combined erosion-chemical process at the first stage of the processing and with the use of anodic dissolution by alternating low-voltage current at the final stage of a refinement operation till gapless joints obtaining is considered. It is shown that the application of electro-erosion, electrochemical and combined nonabrasive finishing in mating parts opens up a possibility to ensure stable impermeability in locking devices on a macro- and micro-level through the method of a substantiated purpose of technological modes. A procedure is created for the development of such modes, and on their basis technological processes for the obtaining of gapless mating surfaces meeting the performance requirements for locking devices are developed. For this purpose, qualitative devices resistant to hostile environment are manufactured that is urgent for the mechanical engineering including repetition work for the equipment of petrochemical industry, transport and household machinery.

  1. [Experiencing familiar violence: men who commit violence against their mates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira; Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Freire, Normélia Maria

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand which elements are present on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. This qualitative study took as theoretical reference the Social Representations. It was carried out on Calafate community, San Martin, Salvador, BA. Its population was composed by 7 men who committed violence against their mates. Semi-structured interview provided data, which was organized through Bardin's Content Analysis, specifically thematic analysis, in the axis Familiar Relation. The study enabled us to identify elements that interfere on the construction of the identity of men who commit violence against their mates. Its origin is in the familiar relationship, marked by factors as lack of dialogue and physical aggressions.

  2. Tempo and mode of mating system evolution between incipient Clarkia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, James B; Moeller, David A

    2012-04-01

    Mating systems are among the most labile characteristics of flowering plants, with transitions frequently occurring among populations or in association with speciation. The frequency of mating system shifts has made it difficult to reconstruct historical evolutionary dynamics unless transitions have been very recent. Here, we examine molecular and phenotypic variation to determine the polarity, timescale, and causes of a transition between outcrossing and self-fertilization in sister subspecies of Clarkia xantiana. Phylogenetic analyses and coalescent-based estimates of the time to most recent common ancestor indicated that outcrossing is ancestral to selfing and that there has been a single origin of selfing. Estimates of divergence time between outcrossing and selfing subspecies were 10,000 (95% CI [credible interval]: 3169-66,889) and 65,000 years ago (95% CI: 33,035-151,448) based on two different methods, suggesting a recent and rapid evolutionary transition. Population genetic data indicated that the transition to selfing was associated with a 80% reduction in molecular diversity, which is much greater than the 50% reduction expected under a shift from obligate outcrossing to obligate self-fertilization alone. Our data also suggest that this severe loss of diversity was caused by colonization bottlenecks. Together with previous studies, evidence for reproductive assurance in C. xantiana now connects variation in plant-pollinator interactions in the field to phenotypic and molecular evolution. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Identification of sites required for repression of a silent mating type locus in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, J B; Hicks, J B; Broach, J R

    1984-10-05

    There are three loci in the yeast Saccharomyces, each containing one of two possible genetic elements that can determine cell type. At one of these loci, MAT, this information is expressed to establish the mating type of the cell. At the other two loci, HML and HMR, this same information is phenotypically and transcriptionally silent, even though a large amount of identical sequence flanks MAT, HML and HMR coding regions. Transcriptional repression of HML and HMR requires the trans active gene products of four loci, designated variously as MAR or SIR, that are unlinked to each other or to MAT, HML or HMR. We have examined the phenotypic expression of a cloned, plasmid-borne copy of HML and of various deletion and insertion derivatives of this plasmid following their reintroduction into Mar+/Sir+ yeast strains. From these data, we have identified two sites flanking the locus, both of which are required for MAR/SIR repression of the locus. In addition, we demonstrate that each of these sites promotes autonomous replication in yeast. Abraham et al. (1984) have presented evidence demonstrating that a similar regulatory structure exists at the other silent locus, HMR. From an analysis of the sequences of these four regulatory sites, we have identified several specific sequences that may be involved in mediating repression of these loci and in promoting replication in yeast. These results are discussed in the context of potential models for the mechanism of regulation of the silent mating type loci.

  4. Intraspecific sperm competition genes enforce post-mating species barriers in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Dean M; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-22

    Sexual selection and sexual conflict are considered important drivers of speciation, based on both theoretical models and empirical correlations between sexually selected traits and diversification. However, whether reproductive isolation between species evolves directly as a consequence of intrapopulation sexual dynamics remains empirically unresolved, in part because knowledge of the genetic mechanisms (if any) connecting these processes is limited. Here, we provide evidence of a direct mechanistic link between intraspecies sexual selection and reproductive isolation. We examined genes with known roles in intraspecific sperm competition (ISC) in D. melanogaster and assayed their impact on conspecific sperm precedence (CSP). We found that two such genes (Acp36DE and CG9997) contribute to both offensive sperm competition and CSP; null/knockdown lines both had lower competitive ability against D. melanogaster conspecifics and were no longer able to displace heterospecific D. simulans sperm in competitive matings. In comparison, Sex Peptide (Acp70A)-another locus essential for ISC-does not contribute to CSP. These data indicate that two loci important for sperm competitive interactions have an additional role in similar interactions that enforce post-mating reproductive isolation between species, and show that sexual selection and sexual isolation can act on the same molecular targets in a gene-specific manner. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Mating system parameters in a high density population of andirobas in the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Campos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the mating system parameters of a andiroba (Carapa guianensis population using microsatellite markers and the mixed and correlated mating models. Twelve open‑pollinated progeny arrays of 15 individuals were sampled in an area with C. guianensis estimated density of 25.7 trees per hectare. Overall, the species has a mixed reproductive system, with a predominance of outcrossing. The multilocus outcrossing rate (t m = 0.862 was significantly lower than the unity, indicating that self‑pollination occurred. The rate of biparental inbreeding was substantial (t m ‑ t s = 0.134 and significantly different from zero. The correlation of selfing within progenies was high (r s = 0.635, indicating variation in the individual outcrossing rate. Consistent with this result, the estimate of the individual outcrossing rate ranged from 0.598 to 0.978. The multilocus correlation of paternity was low (r p(m = 0.081, but significantly different from zero, suggesting that the progenies contain full‑sibs. The coancestry within progenies (Θ = 0.185 was higher and the variance effective size (Ne(v = 2.7 was lower than expected for true half‑sib progenies (Θ = 0.125; Ne(v = 4. These results suggest that, in order to maintain a minimum effective size of 150 individuals for breeding, genetic conservation, and environmental reforestation programs, seeds from at least 56 trees must be collected.

  6. Emergence of polymorphic mating strategies in robot colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Elfwing

    Full Text Available Polymorphism has fascinated evolutionary biologists since the time of Darwin. Biologists have observed discrete alternative mating strategies in many different species. In this study, we demonstrate that polymorphic mating strategies can emerge in a colony of hermaphrodite robots. We used a survival and reproduction task where the robots maintained their energy levels by capturing energy sources and physically exchanged genotypes for the reproduction of offspring. The reproductive success was dependent on the individuals' energy levels, which created a natural trade-off between the time invested in maintaining a high energy level and the time invested in attracting mating partners. We performed experiments in environments with different density of energy sources and observed a variety in the mating behavior when a robot could see both an energy source and a potential mating partner. The individuals could be classified into two phenotypes: 1 forager, who always chooses to capture energy sources, and 2 tracker, who keeps track of potential mating partners if its energy level is above a threshold. In four out of the seven highest fitness populations in different environments, we found subpopulations with distinct differences in genotype and in behavioral phenotype. We analyzed the fitnesses of the foragers and the trackers by sampling them from each subpopulation and mixing with different ratios in a population. The fitness curves for the two subpopulations crossed at about 25% of foragers in the population, showing the evolutionary stability of the polymorphism. In one of those polymorphic populations, the trackers were further split into two subpopulations: (strong trackers and (weak trackers. Our analyses show that the population consisting of three phenotypes also constituted several stable polymorphic evolutionarily stable states. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate the emergence of polymorphic evolutionarily stable

  7. Colour bands, mate choice and paternity in the bluethroat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen; Fiske; Amundsen; Lifjeld; Rohde

    2000-01-01

    Studies of several bird species have shown that coloured leg bands may affect a male's success in mate attraction and/or mating competition. From a colour band experiment in the field, we have previously reported that male bluethroats, Luscinia s. svecica, with blue and orange bands (BO males) guarded their mates less intensely at the peak of female fertility, and spent more time advertising for additional mates, than males banded with non-BO colours. These responses indicated that BO males experienced less threat to their paternity than did non-BO males, possibly mediated through an increased attractiveness. Here we present paternity analyses of the broods from the field study and test whether there were differences between the two male groups in within-pair or extrapair paternity. There were no significant differences between the two groups of males in paternity, suggesting effective male protection of paternity. However, extrapair paternity was infrequent in the 2 years of the field experiment; hence, the power in detecting effects on paternity does not allow a definitive conclusion on this issue. We also conducted an aviary experiment in which females were given the choice between a BO male and a non-BO male, to test whether females had preferences for particular colour bands. Females did not associate more with BO males, as would have been expected if these males were more attractive in social mate choice. Our results suggest that the effects of colour bands on social mate choice and paternity are, at best, weak. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  8. Regulation of glycoprotein synthesis in yeast by mating pheromones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, W.

    1984-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycosylated proteins amount to less than 2% of the cell protein. Two intensively studied examples of yeast glycoproteins are the external cell wall - associated invertase and the vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y. Recently, it was shown that the mating pheromone, alpha factor, specifically and strongly inhibits the synthesis of N-glycosylated proteins in haploid a cells, whereas O-glycosylated proteins are not affected. In this paper, the pathways of glycoprotein biosynthesis are summarized briefly, and evidence is presented that mating pheomones have a regulatory function in glycoprotein synthesis

  9. Y Chromosomal Variation Tracks the Evolution of Mating Systems in Chimpanzee and Bonobo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodler, Christine; Münch, Claudia; Pasantes, Juan J.; Rietschel, Wolfram; Schempp, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The male-specific regions of the Y chromosome (MSY) of the human and the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) are fully sequenced. The most striking difference is the dramatic rearrangement of large parts of their respective MSYs. These non-recombining regions include ampliconic gene families that are known to be important for male reproduction,and are consequently under significant selective pressure. However, whether the published Y-chromosomal pattern of ampliconic fertility genes is invariable within P. troglodytes is an open but fundamental question pertinent to discussions of the evolutionary fate of the Y chromosome in different primate mating systems. To solve this question we applied fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) of testis-specific expressed ampliconic fertility genes to metaphase Y chromosomes of 17 chimpanzees derived from 11 wild-born males and 16 bonobos representing seven wild-born males. We show that of eleven P. troglodytes Y-chromosomal lines, ten Y-chromosomal variants were detected based on the number and arrangement of the ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) and CDY (chromodomain protein Y)—a so-far never-described variation of a species' Y chromosome. In marked contrast, no variation was evident among seven Y-chromosomal lines of the bonobo, P. paniscus, the chimpanzee's closest living relative. Although, loss of variation of the Y chromosome in the bonobo by a founder effect or genetic drift cannot be excluded, these contrasting patterns might be explained in the context of the species' markedly different social and mating behaviour. In chimpanzees, multiple males copulate with a receptive female during a short period of visible anogenital swelling, and this may place significant selection on fertility genes. In bonobos, however, female mate choice may make sperm competition redundant (leading to monomorphism of fertility genes), since ovulation in this species is concealed by the prolonged anogenital swelling, and

  10. Y chromosomal variation tracks the evolution of mating systems in chimpanzee and bonobo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Schaller

    Full Text Available The male-specific regions of the Y chromosome (MSY of the human and the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes are fully sequenced. The most striking difference is the dramatic rearrangement of large parts of their respective MSYs. These non-recombining regions include ampliconic gene families that are known to be important for male reproduction,and are consequently under significant selective pressure. However, whether the published Y-chromosomal pattern of ampliconic fertility genes is invariable within P. troglodytes is an open but fundamental question pertinent to discussions of the evolutionary fate of the Y chromosome in different primate mating systems. To solve this question we applied fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH of testis-specific expressed ampliconic fertility genes to metaphase Y chromosomes of 17 chimpanzees derived from 11 wild-born males and 16 bonobos representing seven wild-born males. We show that of eleven P. troglodytes Y-chromosomal lines, ten Y-chromosomal variants were detected based on the number and arrangement of the ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia and CDY (chromodomain protein Y-a so-far never-described variation of a species' Y chromosome. In marked contrast, no variation was evident among seven Y-chromosomal lines of the bonobo, P. paniscus, the chimpanzee's closest living relative. Although, loss of variation of the Y chromosome in the bonobo by a founder effect or genetic drift cannot be excluded, these contrasting patterns might be explained in the context of the species' markedly different social and mating behaviour. In chimpanzees, multiple males copulate with a receptive female during a short period of visible anogenital swelling, and this may place significant selection on fertility genes. In bonobos, however, female mate choice may make sperm competition redundant (leading to monomorphism of fertility genes, since ovulation in this species is concealed by the prolonged anogenital

  11. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting body weight in Tellicherry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VCRI_AN_GENETICS

    necessary to plan the kidding season rationally by controlling the oestrus and mating time. The kids born as twin had lower birth weight and slower early growth rate than those born as ... Growth potential of kids is one of the most important traits in genetic improvement schemes for ... percentages and higher milk yields.

  12. Lonely hearts or sex in the city? Density-dependent effects in mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Hanna; Rankin, Daniel J

    2006-02-28

    Two very basic ideas in sexual selection are heavily influenced by numbers of potential mates: the evolution of anisogamy, leading to sex role differentiation, and the frequency dependence of reproductive success that tends to equalize primary sex ratios. However, being explicit about the numbers of potential mates is not typical to most evolutionary theory of sexual selection. Here, we argue that this may prevent us from finding the appropriate ecological equilibria that determine the evolutionary endpoints of selection. We review both theoretical and empirical advances on how population density may influence aspects of mating systems such as intrasexual competition, female choice or resistance, and parental care. Density can have strong effects on selective pressures, whether or not there is phenotypic plasticity in individual strategies with respect to density. Mating skew may either increase or decrease with density, which may be aided or counteracted by changes in female behaviour. Switchpoints between alternative mating strategies can be density dependent, and mate encounter rates may influence mate choice (including mutual mate choice), multiple mating, female resistance to male mating attempts, mate searching, mate guarding, parental care, and the probability of divorce. Considering density-dependent selection may be essential for understanding how populations can persist at all despite sexual conflict, but simple models seem to fail to predict the diversity of observed responses in nature. This highlights the importance of considering the interaction between mating systems and population dynamics, and we strongly encourage further work in this area.

  13. Ovarian development in red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis: relationship to mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittier, J M; Crews, D

    1986-01-01

    Female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) exhibit a complex array of behavioral patterns. Females may mate once, more than once, or not at all in the spring of the year, and a high percentage of females may mate in late summer before returning to winter hibernacula. The role of mating in the induction of ovarian growth in this species is complicated by this pattern of spring and late summer mating. Females hibernated in the laboratory that mate on emergence in the spring exhibit higher frequencies of ovarian recrudescence than females that do not mate when exposed to males. Yet neither male courtship nor mating in the spring is required for ovarian development. However, mated and unmated females collected in the field in the spring of the year do not differ in frequencies of ovarian recrudescence. Ovarian growth in unmated females collected in the spring parallels the incidence of mating in the previous late summer. Thus, mating may influence the initiation of ovarian growth, but the effect can occur immediately (from spring mating) or be stored over winter (from late summer mating). Large year-to-year variation in reproductive rates of female red-sided garter snakes suggests that other factors such as nutrition and stored energy reserves may modify the effects of mating on ovarian growth.

  14. Factors Influencing Mating Behavior and Success in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Azim, M M; Aldosari, S A; Shukla, P

    2018-02-10

    The effects of body size, age, feeding and mating status, conspecific volatiles from live adults, synthetic aggregation pheromone, and a pheromone synergist, ethyl acetate, on the mating behavior of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, were investigated. To evaluate these factors, variables such as mating latency, frequency and duration, and refractory period were assessed. While both, body size and age, influenced the mating behavior, the latter showed a stronger effect. The large males recorded frequent and longer matings, whereas the young males outperformed the old weevils in all the studied variables. The difference in body size or age of females showed a limited effect. After 72 h without food, the males showed a significant decline in mating frequency and duration, and refractory period. Mating status showed comparatively stronger effects on mating variables. In the case of females, mating status emerged as the most important factor affecting four out of five variables. The volatiles from the males, grouped males and females, and synthetic aggregation pheromone both alone and in combination with ethyl acetate triggered mating initiation, propelled mating frequency, prolonged total mating duration, and reduced the refractory period. However, the presence of females or ethyl acetate alone was a weak mating stimulator.

  15. Mating behaviour of the orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea: The effect of sex ratio and stocking density on mating success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khor Waiho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mud crabs from the genus Scylla have high commercial value and are considered as one of the highly sought luxury seafood items. Thorough understanding about their biology and mating behaviour is vital in providing important information for a sustainable exploitation and future incorporation into the aquaculture industry. The mating process of S. olivacea lasted 82.0 ± 10.8 h was divided into four phases: precopulation, molting, copulation, and postcopulation. Courtship displays and fighting were shown by mature males while they were courting females. Precopulatory position lasted for 55.2 ± 10.8 h before the pairs disengaged for the female to molt. The molting process was 4.6 ± 0.3 h. Copulation (mean duration was 6.6 ± 0.5 h occurred while the female’s exoskeleton was still soft. Postcopulatory guarding lasted for 13.6 ± 0.6 h. Separation of the mating pairs indicates the end of postcopulation phase. Mating success percentage was unaffected by sex ratio, but inversely affected by stocking density. Cumulative mortality increased with increasing stocking density and unequal sex ratios. Postcopulatory guarding duration was significantly shorter in treatment with 1 male:2 females ratio and treatment with the lowest stocking density (2 crabs m−2. We proposed rearing of mud crab broodstocks for mating purpose using sex ratio of 1 male:2 females and stocking density of 6 crabs m−2 to maximize output (successful mating pairs while maintaining low mortality percentage and shorter postcopulatory guarding duration.

  16. Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittert Gary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED, prostate disease (PD, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS. Methods A representative sample (n = 5990 of men aged 40+ years, stratified by age and State, was contacted by random selection of households, with an individual response rate of 78%. All men participated in a 20-minute computer-assisted telephone interview exploring general and reproductive health. Associations between male reproductive health disorders and lifestyle and biomedical factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]. Variables studied included age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, co-morbid disease and medication use for hypertension, high cholesterol and symptoms of depression. Results Controlling for age and a range of lifestyle and co-morbid exposures, sedentary lifestyle and being underweight was associated with an increased likelihood of ED (1.4 [1.1-1.8]; 2.9 [1.5-5.8], respectively and pAD (1.3 [1.1-1.7]; 2.7 [1.4-5.0], respectively. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease were both associated with ED, with hypertension strongly associated with LUTS and pAD. Current smoking (inverse association and depressive symptomatology were the only variables independently associated with PD. All reproductive disorders showed consistent associations with depression (measured either by depressive symptomatology or medication use in both age-adjusted and multivariate analyses. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors, more often associated with chronic disease, were

  17. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deere, Kerry A; Grether, Gregory F; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2012-05-07

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation most directly affected by the pigment ratio. To test this hypothesis, we crossed two populations differing in drosopterin production and produced an F(2) generation with variable drosopterin levels. When the carotenoid content of the orange spots was held constant, female guppies preferred males with intermediate drosopterin levels. This shows that females do not simply prefer males with greater orange spot pigment content; instead, the ratio of the pigments also affects male attractiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for a hypothesized agent of countergradient sexual selection.

  18. Does catch and release affect the mating system and individual reproductive success of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Antoine; Dionne, Mélanie; Wang, Jinliang; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we documented the breeding system of a wild population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) by genetically sampling every returning adult and assessed the determinants of individual fitness. We then quantified the impacts of catch and release (C&R) on mating and reproductive success. Both sexes showed high variance in individual reproductive success, and the estimated standardized variance was higher for males (2.86) than for females (0.73). We found a weak positive relationship between body size and fitness and observed that fitness was positively correlated with the number of mates, especially in males. Mature male parr sired 44% of the analysed offspring. The impact of C&R on the number of offspring was size dependent, as the reproductive success of larger fish was more impaired than smaller ones. Also, there was an interactive negative effect of water temperature and air exposure time on reproductive success of C&R salmon. This study improves our understanding of the complex reproductive biology of the Atlantic salmon and is the first to investigate the impact of C&R on reproductive success. Our study expands the management toolbox of appropriate C&R practices that promote conservation of salmon populations and limit negative impacts on mating and reproductive success. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Behavioural determinants of gene flow in malaria vector populations: Anopheles gambiae males select large females as mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan G

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes are being rapidly developed for malaria control but will only succeed if they can successfully compete for mates when released into the wild. Pre-copulatory behavioural traits maintain genetic population structure in wild mosquito populations and mating barriers have foiled previous attempts to control malaria vectors through sterile male release. Methods Varying numbers of virgin male and female Anopheles gambiae Giles, from two strains of different innate sizes, were allowed to mate under standardized conditions in laboratory cages, following which, the insemination status, oviposition success and egg batch size of each female was assessed. The influence of male and female numbers, strain combination and female size were determined using logistic regression, correlation analysis and a simple mechanistic model of male competition for females. Results Male An. gambiae select females on the basis of size because of much greater fecundity among large females. Even under conditions where large numbers of males must compete for a smaller number of females, the largest females are more likely to become inseminated, to successfully oviposit and to produce large egg batches. Conclusions Sexual selection, on the basis of size, could either promote or limit the spread of malaria-refractory genes into wild populations and needs to be considered in the continued development and eventual release of transgenic vectors. Fundamental studies of behavioural ecology in malaria vectors such as An. gambiae can have important implications for malaria control and should be prioritised for more extensive investigation in the future.

  20. Mating competitiveness and life-table comparisons between transgenic and Indian wild-type Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prabhakargouda B; Reddy, B P Niranjan; Gorman, Kevin; Reddy, K V Seshu; Barwale, Shirish R; Zehr, Usha B; Nimmo, Derric; Naish, Neil; Alphey, Luke

    2015-07-01

    OX513A is a genetically engineered strain of Aedes aegypti carrying a repressible, dominantly inherited transgene that confers lethality in immature heterozygous progeny. Released male OX513A adults have proven to be effective for the localised suppression of wild Ae. aegypti, highlighting its potential in vector control. Mating and life-table assessments were used to compare OX513A with reared Ae. aegypti strains collected from New Delhi and Aurangabad regions in India. Mating proportions of New Delhi females versus males of OX513A or New Delhi strains were 0.52 and 0.48 respectively, indicating no discrimination by females against either strain, and males of both strains were equally competitive. Developmental time from first instar to adult emergence was significantly longer for OX513A (10.7 ± 0.04 days) than for New Delhi (9.4 ± 0.04 days) and Aurangabad strains (9.1 ± 0.04 days). Differences in mean longevities, female reproductive parameters and population growth parameters between the strains were non-significant. The laboratory study demonstrates that only minor life-table variations of limited biological relevance exist between OX513A and Indian Ae. aegypti populations, and males had equal potential for mating competitiveness. Thus, results support the OX513A strain as a suitable candidate for continued evaluation towards sustainable management of Ae. aegypti populations in India. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Female mate choice can drive the evolution of high frequency echolocation in bats: a case study with Rhinolophus mehelyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Borissov, Ivailo M; Zsebok, Sándor; Allegrini, Benjamin; Hizem, Mohammed; Kuenzel, Sven; Schuchmann, Maike; Teeling, Emma C; Siemers, Björn M

    2014-01-01

    Animals employ an array of signals (i.e. visual, acoustic, olfactory) for communication. Natural selection favours signals, receptors, and signalling behaviour that optimise the received signal relative to background noise. When the signal is used for more than one function, antagonisms amongst the different signalling functions may constrain the optimisation of the signal for any one function. Sexual selection through mate choice can strongly modify the effects of natural selection on signalling systems ultimately causing maladaptive signals to evolve. Echolocating bats represent a fascinating group in which to study the evolution of signalling systems as unlike bird songs or frog calls, echolocation has a dual role in foraging and communication. The function of bat echolocation is to generate echoes that the calling bat uses for orientation and food detection with call characteristics being directly related to the exploitation of particular ecological niches. Therefore, it is commonly assumed that echolocation has been shaped by ecology via natural selection. Here we demonstrate for the first time using a novel combined behavioural, ecological and genetic approach that in a bat species, Rhinolophus mehelyi: (1) echolocation peak frequency is an honest signal of body size; (2) females preferentially select males with high frequency calls during the mating season; (3) high frequency males sire more off-spring, providing evidence that echolocation calls may play a role in female mate choice. Our data refute the sole role of ecology in the evolution of echolocation and highlight the antagonistic interplay between natural and sexual selection in shaping acoustic signals.

  2. Drosophila male sex peptide inhibits siesta sleep and promotes locomotor activity in the post-mated female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, R Elwyn; Li, Chenxi; Leedale, Amy E; Shirras, Alan D

    2010-01-07

    Quiescence, or a sleep-like state, is a common and important feature of the daily lives of animals from both invertebrate and vertebrate taxa, suggesting that sleep appeared early in animal evolution. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster has been shown to be a relevant and powerful model for the genetic analysis of sleep behaviour. The sleep architecture of D. melanogaster is sexually dimorphic, with females sleeping much less than males during day-time, presumably because reproductive success requires greater foraging activity by the female as well as the search for egg-laying sites. However, this loss of sleep and increase in locomotor activity will heighten the risk for the female from environmental and predator hazards. In this study, we show that virgin females can minimize this risk by behaving like males, with an extended afternoon 'siesta'. Copulation results in the female losing 70 per cent of day-time sleep and becoming more active. This behaviour lasts for at least 8 days after copulation and is abolished if the mating males lack sex peptide (SP), normally present in the seminal fluid. Our results suggest that SP is the molecular switch that promotes wakefulness in the post-mated female, a change of behaviour compatible with increased foraging and egg-laying activity. The stress resulting from SP-dependent sleep deprivation might be an important contribution to the toxic side-effects of male accessory gland products that are known to reduce lifespan in post-mated females.

  3. Differences in Attack Avoidance and Mating Success between Strains Artificially Selected for Dispersal Distance in Tribolium castaneum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentarou Matsumura

    Full Text Available Individuals of both dispersal and non-dispersal types (disperser and non-disperser are found in a population, suggesting that each type has both costs and benefits for fitness. However, few studies have examined the trade-off between the costs and benefits for the types. Here, we artificially selected for walking distance, i.e., an indicator of dispersal ability, in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and established strains with longer (L-strains or shorter (S-strains walking distances. We then compared the frequency of predation by the assassin bug Amphibolus venator and the mating frequency of the selected strains. L-strain beetles suffered higher predation risk, than did S-strain beetles. L-strain males had significantly increased mating success compared to S-strain males, but females did not show a significant difference between the strains. The current results showed the existence of a trade-off between predation avoidance and mating success associated with dispersal types at a genetic level only in males. This finding can help to explain the maintenance of variation in dispersal ability within a population.

  4. The use of yellow fluorescent hybrids to indicate mating in Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Vanessa

    2008-02-01

    to indicate mating in trypanosomes provides a robust and unequivocal system for analysis of genetic exchange. Mating occurred with high frequency in these experimental crosses, limited only by the ability of both parental trypanosomes to invade the salivary glands. Yellow hybrids appeared as soon as trypanosomes invaded the salivary glands, implicating the short, unattached epimastigote as the sexual stage. The recovery of diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids in these crosses was surprising as genetic markers appeared to have been inherited according to Mendelian rules. As the polyploid hybrids could have been produced from fusion of unreduced gametes, there is no fundamental conflict with a model of genetic exchange involving meiosis.

  5. Genome-wide analysis of MATE transporters and expression patterns of a subgroup of MATE genes in response to aluminum toxicity in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juge; Li, Yang; Wang, Wei; Gai, Junyi; Li, Yan

    2016-03-11

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family is an important group of the multidrug efflux transporters that extrude organic compounds, transporting a broad range of substrates such as organic acids, plant hormones and secondary metabolites. However, genome-wide analysis of MATE family in plant species is limited and no such studies have been reported in soybean. A total of 117 genes encoding MATE transporters were identified from the whole genome sequence of soybean (Glycine max), which were denominated as GmMATE1 - GmMATE117. These 117 GmMATE genes were unevenly localized on soybean chromosomes 1 to 20, with both tandem and segmental duplication events detected, and most genes showed tissue-specific expression patterns. Soybean MATE family could be classified into four subfamilies comprising ten smaller subgroups, with diverse potential functions such as transport and accumulation of flavonoids or alkaloids, extrusion of plant-derived or xenobiotic compounds, regulation of disease resistance, and response to abiotic stresses. Eight soybean MATE transporters clustered together with the previously reported MATE proteins related to aluminum (Al) detoxification and iron translocation were further analyzed. Seven stress-responsive cis-elements such as ABRE, ARE, HSE, LTR, MBS, as well as a cis-element of ART1 (Al resistance transcription factor 1), GGNVS, were identified in the upstream region of these eight GmMATE genes. Differential gene expression analysis of these eight GmMATE genes in response to Al stress helps us identify GmMATE75 as the candidate gene for Al tolerance in soybean, whose relative transcript abundance increased at 6, 12 and 24 h after Al treatment, with more fold changes in Al-tolerant than Al-sensitive cultivar, which is consistent with previously reported Al-tolerance related MATE genes. A total of 117 MATE transporters were identified in soybean and their potential functions were proposed by phylogenetic analysis with known plant MATE

  6. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons throughout the processing stages of erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Manoela Alano; Maraschin, Marcelo; Rovaris, Angela Angeloni; Amboni, Renata Dias de Mello Castanho; Pagliosa, Cristiane Manfé; Xavier, José Júnior Mendonca; Amante, Edna Regina

    2010-06-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is believed to be due to the degradation of mate compounds and the burning of wood during the "sapeco" (rapid drying process) and the final drying steps, which are the most important processing stages in mate production. Due to the high toxicity of these compounds, studies on their presence in mate are extremely important. The aim of this study was to evaluate PAH levels in mate throughout the processing stages of its production. The PAHs were measured in samples collected at different stages of mate processing. Total PAHs content ranged widely (443-9001 microg/kg) in the samples, with the highest PAHs levels recorded during the mate drying step. The results indicate that the processing method currently used in mate production may lead to an increase in PAHs levels in the final product.

  7. The role of female dominance hierarchies in the mating behaviour of mosquitofish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Therese; Beekman, Madeleine; Ward, Ashley J W

    2011-06-23

    While studies of sexual selection focus primarily on female choice and male-male competition, males should also exert mate choice in order to maximize their reproductive success. We examined male mate choice in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, with respect to female size and female dominance. We found that the number of mating attempts made by a male was predicted by the dominance rank of females in a group, with dominant females attracting more mating attempts than subordinates. The number of mating attempts made by males was independent of the female size. The observed bias in the number of mating attempts towards dominant females may be driven either by straightforward male mate choice, since dominance and female fecundity are often closely related, or via the dominant females mediating male mating behaviour by restricting their access to subordinate females.

  8. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus mating during late June on the pack ice of northern Svalbard, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar bears are seasonal breeders and typically mate from late March to early May. Implantation is, however, delayed until autumn, which can allow plasticity in the date of mating. As for other seasonal breeders, a rapid return to estrus after the loss of dependent offspring can be expected, even into the summer. A few earlier observations and dissections of dead animals suggest that polar bears are able to mate in summer. We report on a mating incident on 29 June 2014, the first documented mating this late in the season among wild polar bears. The female had lost her dependent cub during the period prior to the mating event. We speculate that she lost this cub late in the mating season, entered estrus and successfully mated in late June.

  9. Light wavelength dependency of mating activity in the drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Tomaru, Masatoshi; Oguma, Yuzuru; Isono, Kunio; Fukatami, Akishi

    2002-01-01

    The action spectra of mating activity among the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup were compared to understand how light wavelength affects mating activity. The species fell into three groups with respect to the action spectrum of mating activity. We chose one representative species from each of the three types for detailed study: D. melanogaster, D. sechellia and D. yakuba. The mating activities were investigated under three different light intensities of three monochromatic lights stimulus. Each species showed a unique spectral and intensity response. To know the evolutionary meaning of the light wavelength dependency of mating activity, we superimposed the type of action spectrum of mating activity in these six species on a cladogram. Mating inhibition under UV was conserved in evolution among these species. Furthermore we clarified that D. melanogaster showed low mating activity under UV because males courted less under UV. (author)

  10. The Possible Role of the Uropygial Gland on Mate Choice in Domestic Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Hirao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In avian mating systems, male domestic fowls are polygamous and mate with a number of selected members of the opposite sex. The factors that influence mating preference are considered to be visual cues. However, several studies have indicated that chemosensory cues also affect socio-sexual behavior, including mate choice and individual recognition. The female uropygial gland appears to provide odor for mate choice, as uropygial gland secretions are specific to individual body odor. Chicken olfactory bulbs possess efferent projections to the nucleus taeniae that are involved in copulatory behavior. From various reports, it appears that the uropygial gland has the potential to act as the source of social odor cues that dictate mate choice. In this review, evidence for the possible role of the uropygial gland on mate choice in domestic chickens is presented. However, it remains unclear whether a relationship exists between the uropygial gland and major histocompatibility complex-dependent mate choice.

  11. Determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Schunck, Jacob; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2018-01-19

    Mate beer and Mate soft drinks are beverages produced from the dried leaves of Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate). In Yerba Mate, the xanthine derivatives caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, also known as methylxanthines, are important active components. The presented method for the determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-UV) offers a fully automated and sensitive determination of the three methylxanthines. Filtration of the samples was followed by degassing, dilution with acetonitrile in the case of Mate beers for protein precipitation, and centrifugation before the extracts were analyzed by HPTLC-UV on LiChrospher silica gel plates with fluorescence indicator and acetone/toluene/chloroform (4:3:3, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the absorbance was scanned at 274nm. Limits of detection and quantitation were 1 and 4ng/zone, respectively, for caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. With recoveries close to 100% and low standard deviations reliable results were guaranteed. Experimental Mate beers as well as Mate beers and Mate soft drinks from the market were analyzed for their concentrations of methylxanthines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mating system and pollen dispersal in Eugenia dysenterica (Myrtaceae) germplasm collection: tools for conservation and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Eduardo B; Collevatti, Rosane G; Chaves, Lázaro J; Moreira, Lucas R; Telles, Mariana P C

    2016-04-01

    Eugenia dysenterica DC. (Myrtaceae) is a perennial tree producing edible fruits and ornamental flowers of potential value widely distributed in Brazilian "Cerrados" (savannas), but available genetic resources and potential for future breeding programs must be evaluated. Here we evaluated the reproductive system and pollen-mediated gene flow in one generation of Eugenia dysenterica germplasm collection of Agronomy School, Federal University of Goiás (in Goiânia city, Central Brazil). We collected leaves from all adults from the germplasm collection (682 plants) and seeds (542) from 23 mother-trees. Genotypes were obtained for seven microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was high and did not significantly differ between adults (H e = 0.777) and progeny arrays (H e = 0.617). Our results showed that E. dysenterica has an allogamous mating system in the germplasm collection (t m = 0.957), but with high and significant biparental inbreeding (t m - t s = 0.109). Because sibs are very close to each other, mating between closely related individuals is likely. Paternity correlation was also relatively high, indicating a 11.9 % probability that a randomly chosen pair of outcrossed progeny from the same array are full sibs. The maximum pollen dispersal distance (224 m), estimated using assignment test, corresponded to the boundaries of the orchard. We were able to assign the paternity to only 64 % of the 349 seeds analyzed, indicating potential pollen immigration to the germplasm collection. The variance effective population size estimated for one maternal family in the germplasm collection (N ev = 3.42) is very close to the theoretical maximum value for half-sibs (Nev = 4.0). Because E. dysenterica has a long life cycle and generation time, the maintenance of an effective population size of at least 100 in the germplasm collection is suggested, which can be achieved by maintaining a seed-trees number around 30 individuals.

  13. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jose Naud

    Full Text Available Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1 unique sire; 2 dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3 randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires; and 4 a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection.

  14. Kinetic-energy absorber employs frictional force between mating cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, E. W.

    1964-01-01

    A kinetic energy absorbing device uses a series of coaxial, mating cylindrical surfaces. These surfaces have high frictional resistance to relative motion when axial impact forces are applied. The device is designed for safe deceleration of vehicles impacting on landing surfaces.

  15. Space Shuttle Discovery Docked to the Pressurized Mating Adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery, docked to the Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA-2) on the International Space Station (ISS), is featured in this image photographed by a space walker during the second session of extravehicular activity (EVA) for the STS-120 mission on October 28, 2007.

  16. Do Women Pretend Orgasm to Retain a Mate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Weekes-Shackelford, Viviana A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study tested the hypothesis that women pretend orgasm as part of a broader strategy of mate retention. We obtained self-report data from 453 heterosexual women (M age, 21.8 years) in a long-term relationship (M length, 32.8 months) drawn from universities and surrounding communities in the southeastern United States. The results indicated that (1) women who perceived higher risk of partner infidelity were more likely to report pretending orgasm, (2) women who reported greater likelihood of pretending orgasm also reported performing more mate retention behaviors, and (3) women’s perceptions of partner infidelity risk mediated the relationship between pretending orgasm and the performance of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors, such as Intersexual Negative Inducements (“Flirted with some one infront of my partner”) and Intrasexual Negative Inducements (“Yelled at a woman who looked at my partner”). Thus, pretending orgasm may be part of a broader strategy of mate retention performed by women who perceive higher risk of partner infidelity. PMID:22089325

  17. Pattern of mating preference of interspecific hybrid females and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7-day-aged flies, in food vials. Virgin hybrid daughters of reciprocal crosses were collected and aged for 7 days. Meanwhile parental males were also collected and aged for. 7 days. Mating preference of hybrid daughters was tested with parental males by following the male choice technique, in which a male of one of the ...

  18. Atypical mating in a scorpionfly without a notal organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, W.; Qi, Z.-Y.; Hua, B.-Z.

    2015-01-01

    Firm coupling of genitalia is critical for copulation in most groups of insects. To counter female resistance that usually breaks off genital connection, male scorpionflies (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) usually provide nuptial gifts for the female and seize their mates with grasping devices. The notal

  19. Book Review: Evolutionary Ecology of Birds: Life Histories, Mating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Evolutionary Ecology of Birds: Life Histories, Mating Systems and Extinction. Book Authors: P.M. Bennett & I.P.F. Owens. Oxford University. Press. 2002. Pp. 272. Price £24.95 (paperback). ISBN 0 19 851089 6.

  20. The histology of dermal glands of mating Breviceps with comments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ins:.i!u!o Histologia & Embriologia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza,. Argentine. "To whom correspondence should be addressed. Received )8 MllI'ch 1980; &CUpled ]A August 1981. During mating the male and female Breviceps become. 'glued' together before, during and for an unknown period after oviposition.

  1. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  2. Mating-type locus characterization and variation in Pyrenophora semeniperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie Leanna Henry

    2015-01-01

    Pyrenophora semeniperda is a generalist fungal pathogen that occurs primarily on monocot seed hosts. It is in the phylum Ascomycota, which includes both self-compatible (homothallic) and self-incompatible (heterothallic) species. Homothallic fungal species contain complementary mating-type (MAT) idiomorphs in a single unikaryotic strain, while heterothallic strains...

  3. Small zooplankton sensing their environment: feeding, mating, and predator avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihongi, Ai

    2004-03-01

    Since zooplankton play a significant role at the base of the food web in aquatic environments, it is important to understand their feeding behaviors, mating behaviors, and predator avoidance. First, I will present the water flow regime of Daphnia. Using a high-speed video, I filmed how water with algae particles enters and leaves Daphnia, how the water flows within Daphnia and how the appendages of Daphnia work to produce the water flow. Second, I will discuss mate-searching behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods and Daphnia. Male and female zooplankters have to encounter each other for successful mating in 3D environment. I have observed the behaviors of freshwater calanoid copepods from Lake Michigan. As a result, they showed different behaviors from other species studied. Likewise, I have observed differences in mate-searching behaviors of D. pulex and D. magna. Last, I will show the results of predator-prey interactions in D. pulex with kairomone, a chemical cue, from predatory fish using 3-D near infrared optical system. As experimental conditions, we used the following treatments: (a) no light/ no kairomone, (b) no light/ kairomone, (c) light/ no kairomone, and (d) light/ kairomone. While it appears that light and kairomone have an interactive effect on the swimming behaviors of Daphnia, light seems to be the most influential factor. The observed frequent spinning movements of D. pulex in a darkened tank with a predatory fish, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), were successful predator avoidance maneuvers.

  4. Service commitments and capabilities across ArchiMate architectural layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardi, Julio Cesar; Andrade Almeida, João; Pereira, Maiara Candido; de Almeida Falco, Ricardo; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    ArchiMate is a widely adopted enterprise architecture modeling language that includes the “service‿ construct as a key structuring element across its enterprise layers. A previous analysis of the use of this construct within ArchiMate’s business layer concluded that it fails to represent some

  5. Asymmetric reproductive isolation during simultaneous reciprocal mating in pulmonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwegweaw, Amporn; Seki, Keiichi; Mori, Hiroshi; Asami, Takahiro

    2009-04-23

    The generality of asymmetric reproductive isolation between reciprocal crosses suggests that the evolution of isolation mechanisms often proceeds in reciprocal asymmetry. In hermaphroditic snails that copulate simultaneously and reciprocally, asymmetry in premating isolation may not be readily detectable because the failure of the symmetric performance of courtship would prevent copulation from occurring. On the other hand, through their prolonged copulation, snails discriminate among mates when exchanging spermatophores for their benefit and thus may exhibit asymmetric reproductive isolation during interspecific mating. However, no clear case of reciprocal asymmetry has been found in reproductive isolation between snail species. Here we show a discrete difference in hybridization success between simultaneous reciprocal copulations between two species of pulmonate snails. Premating isolation of Bradybaena pellucida (BP) and Bradybaena similaris (BS) is incomplete in captivity. In interspecific copulation, BP removes its penis without transferring a spermatophore, while BS sires hybrids by inseminating BP. Thus, 'male' BP or 'female' BS rejects the other individual, while female BP and male BS accept each other, so that the two sexes of either BP or BS oppose each other in mate discrimination. Our results are a clear example of asymmetry in reproductive isolation during simultaneous reciprocal mating between hermaphroditic animals.

  6. Mating System of Free-Ranging Dogs (Canis familiaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen females belonging to five groups were selected for the study of mating system in free-ranging domestic dogs (Canis familiaris All the matings occurred between August and December with a peak in late monsoon months (September to November. Both males and females differed in their degree of attractiveness to the opposite sex. The duration of courting association increased with the number of courting males in an association. The females exhibited selectivity by readily permitting some males to mate and avoiding, or even attacking others, if they attempted to mount. Frequency of mounting in courting association increased with the number of males present. There was a positive correlation between the duration of courting association and the frequency of mounting. The young adult males were more likely to copulate successfully than the old adult males. There was a negative correlation between the number of males present in an association and the number of successful copulations. In this study, six types of mating (monogamy, polygyny, promiscuity, polyandry, opportunity and rape were recorded. Mean (±S.E. duration of copulatory ties was 25.65 (±1.43 min. Several natural factors influencing the duration of copulatory ties were identified.

  7. The messenger matters: Pollinator functional group influences mating system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jennifer J

    2017-08-01

    The incredible diversity of plant mating systems has fuelled research in evolutionary biology for over a century. Currently, there is broad concern about the impact of rapidly changing pollinator communities on plant populations. Very few studies, however, examine patterns and mechanisms associated with multiple paternity from cross-pollen loads. Often, foraging pollinators collect a mixed pollen load that may result in the deposition of pollen from different sires to receptive stigmas. Coincident deposition of self- and cross-pollen leads to interesting mating system dynamics and has been investigated in numerous species. But, mixed pollen loads often consist of a diversity of cross-pollen and result in multiple sires of seeds within a fruit. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Rhodes, Fant, and Skogen () examine how pollinator identity and spatial isolation influence multiple paternity within fruits of a self-incompatible evening primrose. The authors demonstrate that pollen pool diversity varies between two pollinator types, hawkmoths and diurnal solitary bees. Further, progeny from more isolated plants were less likely to have multiple sires regardless of the pollinator type. Moving forward, studies of mating system dynamics should consider the implications of multiple paternity and move beyond the self- and cross-pollination paradigm. Rhodes et al. () demonstrate the importance of understanding the roles that functionally diverse pollinators play in mating system dynamics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Experimental evidence for chemical mate guarding in a moth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; van Wijk, M.; Ke, G.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Schal, C.; Groot, A.T.

    2016-01-01

    In polyandrous species, males seek to maximize their reproductive output by monopolizing their mate. Often the male transfers substances to the female that suppress her sexual receptivity or antagonize the behavior of competing males; both are usually transferred in seminal fluids and represent

  9. Authors: T Cohen and L Matee PUBLIC SERVANTS' RIGHT TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    1996-02-18

    Feb 18, 1996 ... PUBLIC SERVANTS' RIGHT TO STRIKE IN LESOTHO, BOTSWANA AND. SOUTH AFRICA – A COMPARATIVE STUDY. T COHEN*. L MATEE**. 1. Introduction. Freedom of association and its cornerstone, the right to strike, are integral to effective labour relations and a free and democratic society.

  10. Sexually transmitted infections and mate-finding Allee effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berec, Luděk; Janoušková, E.; Theuer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, APR 01 (2017), s. 59-69 ISSN 0040-5809 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Allee effect * mating * sexually transmitted disease Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040580916301186

  11. Sexual overperception: power, mating motives, and biases in social judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstman, Jonathan W; Maner, Jon K

    2011-02-01

    Results from 4 experiments suggest that power motivates heightened perceptions and expectations of sexual interest from subordinates. Having power over a member of the opposite sex activated sexual concepts that persisted across a temporal delay, indicating the activation of a mating goal (Study 1). Having power increased participants' expectations of sexual interest from a subordinate (Study 2) but only when a mating goal was attainable (i.e., when the subordinate was romantically available; Study 3). In a face-to-face interaction between 2 participants, power heightened perceptions of sexual interest and sexualized behavior among participants with chronically active mating goals (i.e., sexually unrestricted individuals; Study 4). Tests of mediation demonstrated that sexual overperception mediated power's effect on sexually tinged behavior. Through its capacity to induce goal pursuit, power can activate mating goals that sexualize interactions between men and women. This research demonstrates one route through which power might lead to sexual harassment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Gender insensitivity and male bias in local advertising | Mate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender insensitivity and male bias in local advertising. Rekopantswe Mate. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23952 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  13. Mating frequency and fecundity in Agrilus anxius (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire E. Rutledge; Melody A. Keena

    2012-01-01

    Bronze birch borers (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a key pest of birches in North America, have the potential to be a major threat to Eurasian birch forests. Therefore, the consequences of single versus multiple mating on the longevity, fecundity and fertility of female A. anxius were examined. There were three...

  14. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and among populations of the same species have produced conflicting results regarding the importance of the size of the male in mating success (for instance. Partridge et al. 1987a and Markow and Ricker 1992 for. D. pseudoobscura; Partridge et al. 1987a, Markow 1988 and Joshi et al. 1999 for D. melanogaster). As more.

  15. Sexual display and mate choice in an energetically costly environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Head

    Full Text Available Sexual displays and mate choice often take place under the same set of environmental conditions and, as a consequence, may be exposed to the same set of environmental constraints. Surprisingly, however, very few studies consider the effects of environmental costs on sexual displays and mate choice simultaneously. We conducted an experiment, manipulating water flow in large flume tanks, to examine how an energetically costly environment might affect the sexual display and mate choice behavior of male and female guppies, Poecilia reticulata. We found that male guppies performed fewer sexual displays and became less choosy, with respect to female size, in the presence of a water current compared to those tested in still water. In contrast to males, female responsive to male displays did not differ between the water current treatments and females exhibited no mate preferences with respect to male size or coloration in either treatment. The results of our study underscore the importance of considering the simultaneous effects of environmental costs on the sexual behaviors of both sexes.

  16. Biological aspects and mating behavior of Leucothyreus albopilosus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Kleyton Rezende; Gomes, Elias Soares; Rodrigues, Sérgio Roberto

    2016-06-01

    The genus Leucothyreus has been linked to some commercial plant crop pests. Eventhough several species have been described for this genus, information about this group is still scarce. This study investigated some biological aspects and mating behavior in Leucothyreus albopilosus. Studies were conducted at the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the municipalities of Aquidauana and Cassilândia, MS, Brazil. For biological studies, adults were collected with light traps from February 2011 to February 2012, and for behavior analyses from September to December 2014. Biological studies were undertaken every three days and included the eggs inspection, and the separation of the newly hatched larvae to observe and describe their developmental stages; to monitor larval growth and differentiate larval instars, we measured the larvae cephalic capsule. Life cycle was determined starting from the newly laid eggs until adult death. For mating behavior studies, adults obtained with light traps were taken to the laboratory. As soon as they started flying in the evening, couples were formed and copulation steps were recorded. In the field, we observed that adults were mostly collected during warmer and wetter periods (from August to March). Our results showed that the embryonic period of L. albopilosus lasted 20.5 days, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars lasted 31.0, 33.1 and 85.6 days, respectively. The pupal stage lasted 20 days, and the egg to adult period was completed in 185.5 days; these results suggest that L. albopilosus can be characterized as a univoltine species. Observations of mating behavior in the laboratory showed that, after the sunset, adults projected a small portion of clypeus near the soil surface and flew off seeking a female to mate. The female could accept or reject the male for mating. When the female accepted the male, copulation occurred from 19:00 to 23:00 hours, and lasted 19.45 minutes on average. Sometimes females refused to mate, probably because

  17. The role of female dominance hierarchies in the mating behaviour of mosquitofish

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Therese; Beekman, Madeleine; Ward, Ashley J. W.

    2010-01-01

    While studies of sexual selection focus primarily on female choice and male–male competition, males should also exert mate choice in order to maximize their reproductive success. We examined male mate choice in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, with respect to female size and female dominance. We found that the number of mating attempts made by a male was predicted by the dominance rank of females in a group, with dominant females attracting more mating attempts than subordinates. The number ...

  18. Big Five Traits Related to Short-Term Mating: From Personality to Promiscuity across 46 Nations

    OpenAIRE

    David P. Schmitt; Todd K. Shackelford

    2008-01-01

    As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agr...

  19. The effect of pre- and post-mating dietary restriction on embryonic survival in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condous, P C; Kirkwood, R N; van Wettere, W H E J

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if pre- and post-mating feeding levels interact to affect embryonic survival, and to determine whether feeding to the maintenance requirement would impair embryo survival. Gilts were allocated to a pre-mating treatment of 1 or 0.8× energy maintenance from day 1 to 14 of their oestrous cycle prior to mating. From day 15 to mating all gilts were group housed and fed ad lib. Gilts were artificially inseminated at their third oestrus. The day after mating, gilts were group housed and allocated to post-mating treatments of 1.5 or 1× maintenance. Gilts were slaughtered day 25.5±0.2 post-insemination and reproductive tracts collected. Gilts fed the restricted pre-mating diet lost significantly more weight than gilts fed the increased pre-mating diet (6.7±0.8 versus 3.7±0.7kg). From mating to slaughter, gilts fed the restricted post-mating diet lost 0.5±1.02kg liveweight, while gilts fed the increased post-mating diet gained 5.7±0.90kg liveweight (Pgilts fed the high post-mating diet compared with gilts fed the low post-mating diet (88.4±2.5 versus 77.8±4.0%), resulting in more (P<0.05) conceptuses present (14.0±0.6 versus 11.7±0.7). There was no interaction between pre-mating and post-mating feed intake on any reproductive measure. These data demonstrated that reducing post-mating feed intakes to maintenance levels impaired embryo survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of the mating system in colonizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, John R

    2015-05-01

    Colonization is likely to be more successful for species with an ability to self-fertilize and thus to establish new populations as single individuals. As a result, self-compatibility should be common among colonizing species. This idea, labelled 'Baker's law', has been influential in discussions of sexual-system and mating-system evolution. However, its generality has been questioned, because models of the evolution of dispersal and the mating system predict an association between high dispersal rates and outcrossing rather than selfing, and because of many apparent counter examples to the law. The contrasting predictions made by models invoking Baker's law versus those for the evolution of the mating system and dispersal urges a reassessment of how we should view both these traits. Here, I review the literature on the evolution of mating and dispersal in colonizing species, with a focus on conceptual issues. I argue for the importance of distinguishing between the selfing or outcrossing rate and a simple ability to self-fertilize, as well as for the need for a more nuanced consideration of dispersal. Colonizing species will be characterized by different phases in their life pattern: dispersal to new habitat, implying an ecological sieve on dispersal traits; establishment and a phase of growth following colonization, implying a sieve on reproductive traits; and a phase of demographic stasis at high density, during which new trait associations can evolve through local adaptation. This dynamic means that the sorting of mating-system and dispersal traits should change over time, making simple predictions difficult. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen E; Aron, Arthur; Brown, Lucy L

    2006-12-29

    Mammals and birds regularly express mate preferences and make mate choices. Data on mate choice among mammals suggest that this behavioural 'attraction system' is associated with dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. It has been proposed that intense romantic love, a human cross-cultural universal, is a developed form of this attraction system. To begin to determine the neural mechanisms associated with romantic attraction in humans, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study 17 people who were intensely 'in love'. Activation specific to the beloved occurred in the brainstem right ventral tegmental area and right postero-dorsal body of the caudate nucleus. These and other results suggest that dopaminergic reward and motivation pathways contribute to aspects of romantic love. We also used fMRI to study 15 men and women who had just been rejected in love. Preliminary analysis showed activity specific to the beloved in related regions of the reward system associated with monetary gambling for uncertain large gains and losses, and in regions of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex associated with theory of mind, obsessive/compulsive behaviours and controlling anger. These data contribute to our view that romantic love is one of the three primary brain systems that evolved in avian and mammalian species to direct reproduction. The sex drive evolved to motivate individuals to seek a range of mating partners; attraction evolved to motivate individuals to prefer and pursue specific partners; and attachment evolved to motivate individuals to remain together long enough to complete species-specific parenting duties. These three behavioural repertoires appear to be based on brain systems that are largely distinct yet interrelated, and they interact in specific ways to orchestrate reproduction, using both hormones and monoamines. Romantic attraction in humans and its antecedent in other mammalian species play a primary role: this neural mechanism motivates

  2. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, Y.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.; Faraji, F.

    2013-01-01

    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male

  3. My parents know best : No mating with members from other ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the opposition against out-group mating and the attitude towards parental influence on mate choice among 107 Dutch, 69 Moroccan, and 69 Turkish participants aged between 15 and 25. The level of preferred parental influence on mate choice was considerably higher among the Turks

  4. Dopaminergic Regulation of Mate Competition Aggression and Aromatase-Fos Colocalization in Vasotocin Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kabelik, David; Kelly, Aubrey M.; Goodson, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments demonstrate that aggressive competition for potential mates involves different neural mechanisms than does territorial, resident-intruder aggression. However, despite the obvious importance of mate competition aggression, we know little about its regulation. Immediate early gene experiments show that in contrast to territorial aggression, mate competition in finches is accompanied by the activation of neural populations associated with affiliation and motivation, including ...

  5. Multi-year evaluation of mating disruption treatments against gypsy moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kevin W. Thorpe; Laura M. Blackburn

    2007-01-01

    Mating disruption is the use of synthetic pheromone flakes that are aerially applied to foliage with the goal of interfering with male gypsy moths? ability to locate females and mate. Mating disruption is the primary tactic against gypsy moth used in the Gypsy Moth Slow-the-Spread Project (STS) [Tobin et al. 2004. Amer. Entomol. 50:200].

  6. Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites in a community of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to taxonomy, morphology, .... mating are likely to be harassed by males using host plant mate location cues. ...... Bonnet E and van der Peer Y 2002 ZT: a software tool for simple and partial Mantel tests; ...

  7. Mating behaviour in a slave-making ant, Rossomyrmex minuchae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Francisca; Tinaut, Alberto

    2005-07-01

    The mating behaviour of the ant Rossomyrmex minuchae, a rare, protected slave-making species in Spain, seems to be significantly affected by its particular life history and patchy habitat. The mating behaviour of the entire genus Rossomyrmex is virtually unknown. We present here the results of a 3-year study of mating behaviour in R. minuchae.

  8. Sperm transfer is affected by mating history in the simultaneously hermaphroditic snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loose, M.J.; Koene, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Males are predicted to strategically allocate sperm across mating partners in order to maximize their chances of paternity. This requires that males have the ability to detect aspects of their partner's mating history or the number of potential mates. We investigated whether simultaneous

  9. Investigating a novel pathway by which pheromone-based mating disruption may protect crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone-based mating disruption has been a successful, relatively new technology that growers use to reduce key insect populations. Mating disruption systems function by sending out false plumes of the insect sex pheromones – this interferes with the insect’s ability to find a mate, preempting egg...

  10. Multiple mating in natural populations of a simultaneous hermaphrodite, Lymnaea stagnalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakadera, Yumi; Mariën, Janine; Van Straalen, Nico M.; Koene, Joris M.

    2017-01-01

    In field populations, it is largely unknown how many mating partners simultaneous hermaphrodites have, although their promiscuous mating is often observed in captivity. Documenting the number of mates in natural populations can expand the understanding of postcopulatory sexual selection and the

  11. Big two personality and big three mate preferences: similarity attracts, but country-level mate preferences crucially matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Leary, Mark R; Neberich, Wiebke

    2012-12-01

    People differ regarding their "Big Three" mate preferences of attractiveness, status, and interpersonal warmth. We explain these differences by linking them to the "Big Two" personality dimensions of agency/competence and communion/warmth. The similarity-attracts hypothesis predicts that people high in agency prefer attractiveness and status in mates, whereas those high in communion prefer warmth. However, these effects may be moderated by agentics' tendency to contrast from ambient culture, and communals' tendency to assimilate to ambient culture. Attending to such agentic-cultural-contrast and communal-cultural-assimilation crucially qualifies the similarity-attracts hypothesis. Data from 187,957 online-daters across 11 countries supported this model for each of the Big Three. For example, agentics-more so than communals-preferred attractiveness, but this similarity-attracts effect virtually vanished in attractiveness-valuing countries. This research may reconcile inconsistencies in the literature while utilizing nonhypothetical and consequential mate preference reports that, for the first time, were directly linked to mate choice.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Field Cricket Calling Behaviour: Implications for Female Mate Search and Mate Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Diptarup; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Amount of calling activity (calling effort) is a strong determinant of male mating success in species such as orthopterans and anurans that use acoustic communication in the context of mating behaviour. While many studies in crickets have investigated the determinants of calling effort, patterns of variability in male calling effort in natural choruses remain largely unexplored. Within-individual variability in calling activity across multiple nights of calling can influence female mate search and mate choice strategies. Moreover, calling site fidelity across multiple nights of calling can also affect the female mate sampling strategy. We therefore investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of acoustic signaling behaviour in a wild population of the field cricket species Plebeiogryllus guttiventris. We first studied the consistency of calling activity by quantifying variation in male calling effort across multiple nights of calling using repeatability analysis. Callers were inconsistent in their calling effort across nights and did not optimize nightly calling effort to increase their total number of nights spent calling. We also estimated calling site fidelity of males across multiple nights by quantifying movement of callers. Callers frequently changed their calling sites across calling nights with substantial displacement but without any significant directionality. Finally, we investigated trade-offs between within-night calling effort and energetically expensive calling song features such as call intensity and chirp rate. Calling effort was not correlated with any of the calling song features, suggesting that energetically expensive song features do not constrain male calling effort. The two key features of signaling behaviour, calling effort and call intensity, which determine the duration and spatial coverage of the sexual signal, are therefore uncorrelated and function independently.

  13. The mating system of the true fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni and its sister species, Bactrocera neohumeralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Wasala M T D; Jayasundara, Mudalige S H; Peek, Thelma; Clarke, Anthony R; Schutze, Mark K

    2017-06-01

    The frugivorous "true" fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly), is presumed to have a nonresourced-based lek mating system. This is largely untested, and contrary data exists to suggest Bactrocera tryoni may have a resource-based mating system focused on fruiting host plants. We tested the mating system of Bactrocera tryoni, and its close sibling Bactrocera neohumeralis, in large field cages using laboratory reared flies. We used observational experiments that allowed us to determine if: (i) mating pairs were aggregated or nonaggregated; (ii) mating system was resource or nonresource based; (iii) flies utilized possible landmarks (tall trees over short) as mate-rendezvous sites; and (iv) males called females from male-dominated leks. We recorded nearly 250 Bactrocera tryoni mating pairs across all experiments, revealing that: (i) mating pairs were aggregated; (ii) mating nearly always occurred in tall trees over short; (iii) mating was nonresource based; and (iv) that males and females arrived at the mate-rendezvous site together with no evidence that males preceded females. Bactrocera neohumeralis copulations were much more infrequent (only 30 mating pairs in total), but for those pairs there was a similar preference for tall trees and no evidence of a resource-based mating system. Some aspects of Bactrocera tryoni mating behavior align with theoretical expectations of a lekking system, but others do not. Until evidence for unequivocal female choice can be provided (as predicted under a true lek), the mating system of Bactrocera tryoni is best described as a nonresource based, aggregation system for which we also have evidence that land-marking may be involved. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Life at the margin: the mating system of Mediterranean conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Restoux

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixed mating, where a single tree progeny results from a mixture of selfing and outcrossing, is widespread in conifers and could be an evolutionary advantage at ecological margins when mating partners become scarce. This study analyzes how the mating system responds to bioclimate and density variations. We surveyed published data on the mating system of Abies, Picea and Pinus species when information on bioclimate and stand density was available. Our survey revealed that Mediterranean species demonstrate a lower selfing rate than other species and that the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny is not fixed within species. The highest variability in mating types within populations was found when stand density was the most variable.

    To show how density affects the proportion of selfed versus outcrossed progeny, we used isozymes to genotype single tree seeds from a marginal Abies alba forest in Mediterranean France (Mont Ventoux where low-to high-density stands are found. We then tested the adaptive potential of the different high and low density progenies by sowing them under controlled nursery conditions and measuring germination rate and seedling survival after 4 yr under 3 different water regimes. Although the mean value of outcrossing rate was typical for mixed mating conifers (tm = 0.85, individual outcrossing rates varied from 0.05 to 0.99 and were strongly correlated with stand type and density (tm from 0.87 in high-density to 0.43 in low-density marginal stands. Significantly fewer seeds from the low density marginal stand germinated (32% vs. 53% in the high density mature stand, although seedlings from the marginal stand had a better 4-yr survival (81% than seedlings from the high-density mature stand (63% when the three water regimes (from least to most stressful were averaged.

    Trees from low density stands may be at a selective disadvantage because they produce

  15. Setting up Schizosaccharomyces pombe crosses/matings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we provide methods for setting up standard crosses with Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains. All strain genotypes and pedigrees should be recorded in a laboratory strain book. Matings between two haploid strains of interest are induced on solid medium poor in nitrogen. Usually, sporulation aga...... (SPA) plates are preferred, but for difficult matings it is advisable to try several mating media in parallel because one medium might allow for more efficient mating. Protoplast fusion can be used to produce zygotes from sterile mutants that fail to mate....

  16. Mating System and Effective Population Size of the Overexploited Neotropical Tree (Myroxylon peruiferum L.f.) and Their Impact on Seedling Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Ellida de Aguiar; Schwarcz, Kaiser Dias; Grando, Carolina; de Campos, Jaqueline Bueno; Sujii, Patricia Sanae; Tambarussi, Evandro Vagner; Macrini, Camila Menezes Trindade; Pinheiro, José Baldin; Brancalion, Pedro Henrique Santin; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada

    2018-03-16

    The reproductive system of a tree species has substantial impact on genetic diversity and structure within and among natural populations. Such information, should be considered when planning tree planting for forest restoration. Here, we describe the mating system and genetic diversity of an overexploited Neotropical tree, Myroxylon peruiferum L.f. (Fabaceae) sampled from a forest remnant (10 seed trees and 200 seeds) and assess whether the effective population size of nursery-grown seedlings (148 seedlings) is sufficient to prevent inbreeding depression in reintroduced populations. Genetic analyses were performed based on 8 microsatellite loci. M. peruiferum presented a mixed mating system with evidence of biparental inbreeding (t^m-t^s = 0.118). We found low levels of genetic diversity for M. peruiferum species (allelic richness: 1.40 to 4.82; expected heterozygosity: 0.29 to 0.52). Based on Ne(v) within progeny, we suggest a sample size of 47 seed trees to achieve an effective population size of 100. The effective population sizes for the nursery-grown seedlings were much smaller Ne = 27.54-34.86) than that recommended for short term Ne ≥ 100) population conservation. Therefore, to obtain a reasonable genetic representation of native tree species and prevent problems associated with inbreeding depression, seedling production for restoration purposes may require a much larger sampling effort than is currently used, a problem that is further complicated by species with a mixed mating system. This study emphasizes the need to integrate species reproductive biology into seedling production programs and connect conservation genetics with ecological restoration.

  17. Massive nest-box supplementation boosts fecundity, survival and even immigration without altering mating and reproductive behaviour in a rapidly recovered bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthier

    Full Text Available Habitat restoration measures may result in artificially high breeding density, for instance when nest-boxes saturate the environment, which can negatively impact species' demography. Potential risks include changes in mating and reproductive behaviour such as increased extra-pair paternity, conspecific brood parasitism, and polygyny. Under particular cicumstances, these mechanisms may disrupt reproduction, with populations dragged into an extinction vortex. With the use of nuclear microsatellite markers, we investigated the occurrence of these potentially negative effects in a recovered population of a rare secondary cavity-nesting farmland bird of Central Europe, the hoopoe (Upupa epops. High intensity farming in the study area has resulted in a total eradication of cavity trees, depriving hoopoes from breeding sites. An intensive nest-box campaign rectified this problem, resulting in a spectacular population recovery within a few years only. There was some concern, however, that the new, high artificially-induced breeding density might alter hoopoe mating and reproductive behaviour. As the species underwent a serious demographic bottleneck in the 1970-1990s, we also used the microsatellite markers to reconstitute the demo-genetic history of the population, looking in particular for signs of genetic erosion. We found i a low occurrence of extra-pair paternity, polygyny and conspecific brood parasitism, ii a high level of neutral genetic diversity (mean number of alleles and expected heterozygosity per locus: 13.8 and 83%, respectively and, iii evidence for genetic connectivity through recent immigration of individuals from well differentiated populations. The recent increase in breeding density did thus not induce so far any noticeable detrimental changes in mating and reproductive behaviour. The demographic bottleneck undergone by the population in the 1970s-1990s was furthermore not accompanied by any significant drop in neutral genetic

  18. Evolutionary restoration of fertility in an interspecies hybrid yeast, by whole-genome duplication after a failed mating-type switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A Ortiz-Merino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many interspecies hybrids have been discovered in yeasts, but most of these hybrids are asexual and can replicate only mitotically. Whole-genome duplication has been proposed as a mechanism by which interspecies hybrids can regain fertility, restoring their ability to perform meiosis and sporulate. Here, we show that this process occurred naturally during the evolution of Zygosaccharomyces parabailii, an interspecies hybrid that was formed by mating between 2 parents that differed by 7% in genome sequence and by many interchromosomal rearrangements. Surprisingly, Z. parabailii has a full sexual cycle and is genetically haploid. It goes through mating-type switching and autodiploidization, followed by immediate sporulation. We identified the key evolutionary event that enabled Z. parabailii to regain fertility, which was breakage of 1 of the 2 homeologous copies of the mating-type (MAT locus in the hybrid, resulting in a chromosomal rearrangement and irreparable damage to 1 MAT locus. This rearrangement was caused by HO endonuclease, which normally functions in mating-type switching. With 1 copy of MAT inactivated, the interspecies hybrid now behaves as a haploid. Our results provide the first demonstration that MAT locus damage is a naturally occurring evolutionary mechanism for whole-genome duplication and restoration of fertility to interspecies hybrids. The events that occurred in Z. parabailii strongly resemble those postulated to have caused ancient whole-genome duplication in an ancestor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  19. Mate retention behavior of men and women in heterosexual and homosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2008-08-01

    Comparing the behavior of heterosexual and homosexual persons can provide insight into the origins of heterosexual sex differences in psychology. Evidence indicates that, aside from sexual partner preference, the mating psychology of homosexual men is sex-typical whereas that of homosexual women tends to be more sex-atypical. The current study examined one aspect of mating psychology, mate retention behavior, and tested whether homosexual men and women were sex-typical or sex-atypical for those mate retention tactics where heterosexual men and women differed. Men and women in heterosexual and homosexual relationships were asked to provide information regarding their partners' mate retention behavior by using the Mate Retention Inventory Questionnaire. Heterosexual men and women differed significantly for six of the 19 mate retention tactics considered. With respect to the six mate retention tactics where heterosexual sex differences existed, homosexual men behaved in a sex-typical manner for five of the tactics, whereas homosexual women behaved in a sex-atypical manner for all six tactics. We discuss the significance of these findings for explaining the origins of the mate retention behavior of heterosexual men and women. In addition, we consider what the pattern of sex-typical and sex-atypical mating psychology among homosexual men and women, respectively, suggests in regard to sex differences in the development of mating psychology and the development of homosexual persons.

  20. Effects of multiple mating on female reproductive output in the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M H; Wu, W J

    2000-11-01

    Multiple mating behavior of female cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), was confirmed in this study, and its effects on fecundity and fertility were investigated as well. The number of fertile eggs produced by mated females was close to nil within 7 d after removal of males, but it was resumed when females were exposed to males again on day 7. Multiple-mated females displayed significantly higher fecundity (400.3 eggs per female) and fertility (182.8 viable eggs per female) than single-mated females (61.7 and 19.0, respectively) in the 24-d period, suggesting that multiple mating by females is an advantageous strategy for cat fleas. The duration of first mating averaged 63.1 min. The high ratio (55.56%) and short duration (34.0 min) of impotent mating suggested that cryptic female choice may be involved during copulation.