WorldWideScience

Sample records for disposal wells

  1. Wastewater Disposal Wells, Fracking, and Environmental Injustice in Southern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jill E; Werder, Emily; Sebastian, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    To investigate race and poverty in areas where oil and gas wastewater disposal wells, which are used to permanently inject wastewater from hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operations, are permitted. With location data of oil and gas disposal wells permitted between 2007 and 2014 in the Eagle Ford area, a region of intensive fracking in southern Texas, we analyzed the racial composition of residents living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well and those farther away, adjusting for rurality and poverty, using a Poisson regression. The proportion of people of color living less than 5 kilometers from a disposal well was 1.3 times higher than was the proportion of non-Hispanic Whites. Adjusting for rurality, disposal wells were 2.04 times (95% confidence interval = 2.02, 2.06) as common in areas with 80% people of color or more than in majority White areas. Disposal wells are also disproportionately sited in high-poverty areas. Wastewater disposal wells in southern Texas are disproportionately permitted in areas with higher proportions of people of color and residents living in poverty, a pattern known as "environmental injustice."

  2. Disposal of liquid radioactive wastes through wells or shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes disposal of liquids and, in some cases, suitable solids and/or entrapped gases, through: (1) well injection into deep permeable strata, bounded by impermeable layers; (2) grout injection into an impermeable host rock, forming fractures in which the waste solidifies; and (3) slurrying into excavated subsurface cavities. Radioactive materials are presently being disposed of worldwide using all three techniques. However, it would appear that if the techniques were verified as posing minimum hazards to the environment and suitable site-specific host rock were identified, these disposal techniques could be more widely used

  3. Combination gas producing and waste-water disposal well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinchak, Raymond M.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  4. Design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for the management of hazardous waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an important technical requirement in managing hazardous waste disposal facilities. The purpose of monitoring is to assess whether and how a disposal facility is affecting the underlying groundwater system. This paper focuses on the regulatory and technical aspects of the design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for hazardous waste disposal facilities. Such facilities include surface impoundments, landfills, waste piles, and land treatment facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs

  5. Possibility of Radioactive and Toxic WasteDisposal in a Rock Ssalt Deposits in Slovakia Combining Wells and Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škvareková Erika

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of radioactive and toxic waste in rock salt can be performed in two ways – disposal in the salt mine repository or disposal in the deep wells connected with salt cavity. Presented article deals with the option of the disposal in a salt cavity at medium depths. The article also cover partially salt deposits in Slovakia and their potential suitability for waste disposal..

  6. Automated disposal of produced water from a coalbed methane well field, a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckianow, B.J.; Findley, M.L.; Paschal, W.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the automated disposal system for produced water designed and operated by Taurus Exploration, Inc. This presentation draws from Taurus' case study in the planning, design, construction, and operation of production water disposal facilities for the Mt. Olive well field, located in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. The common method for disposing of water produced from coalbed methane wells in the Warrior Basin is to discharge into a receiving stream. The limiting factor in the discharge method is the capability of the receiving stream to assimilate the chloride component of the water discharged. During the winter and spring, the major tributaries of the Black Warrior River are capable of assimilating far more production water than operations can generate. During the summer and fall months, however, these same tributaries can approach near zero flow, resulting in insufficient flow for dilution. During such periods pumping shut-down within the well field can be avoided by routing production waters into a storage facility. This paper discusses the automated production water disposal system on Big Sandy Creek designed and operated by Taurus. This system allows for continuous discharge to the receiving stream, thus taking full advantage of Big Sandy Creek's assimilative capacity, while allowing a provision for excess produced water storage and future stream discharge

  7. Subsurface waste disposal by means of wells - A selective annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rima, Donald Robert; Chase, Edith B.; Myers, Beverly M.

    1971-01-01

    Subsurface waste disposal by means of wells is the practice of using drilled wells to inject unwanted substances into underground rock formations. The use of wells for this purpose is not a new idea. As long ago as the end of the last century, it was common practice to drill wells for the express purpose of draining swamps and small lakes to reclaim the land for agricultural purposes. A few decades later in the 1920's and 1930's many oil companies began using injection wells to dispose of oil-field brines and to repressurize oil reservoirs. During World War II, the Atomic Energy Commission began using injection wells to dispose of certain types of radioactive wastes. More recently, injection wells have been drilled to dispose of a variety of byproducts of industrial processes. The number of such wells has increased rapidly since Congress passed the Clean Streams Act of 1966, which restricted the discharge of waste into surface waters.Many scientists and public officials question the propriety of using the term "disposal" when referring to the underground injection of wastes. Their reasons are that underground injection is not, as many advocates claim, "a complete and final answer" to the waste-disposal problem. Rather, it is merely a process wherein the injected wastes are committed to the subsurface with uncertainty as to their ultimate fate or limits of confinement. In effect, the wastes, undiminished and unchanged, are removed from the custody of man and placed in the custody of nature.Although the concept of waste-injection wells is relatively simple, the effects of waste injection can be very complex, particularly when dealing with the exotic and complex components of some industrial wastes. Besides the physical forces of injection, there are many varied interactions between the injected wastes and the materials within the injection zone. Because these changes occur out of sight in the subsurface, they are difficult to assess and not generally understood. In

  8. Combination gas-producing and waste-water disposal well. [DOE patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinchak, R.M.

    1981-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a waste-water disposal system for use in a gas recovery well penetrating a subterranean water-containing and methane gas-bearing coal formation. A cased bore hole penetrates the coal formation and extends downwardly therefrom into a further earth formation which has sufficient permeability to absorb the waste water entering the borehole from the coal formation. Pump means are disposed in the casing below the coal formation for pumping the water through a main conduit towards the water-absorbing earth formation. A barrier or water plug is disposed about the main conduit to prevent water flow through the casing except for through the main conduit. Bypass conduits disposed above the barrier communicate with the main conduit to provide an unpumped flow of water to the water-absorbing earth formation. One-way valves are in the main conduit and in the bypass conduits to provide flow of water therethrough only in the direction towards the water-absorbing earth formation.

  9. Water quality considerations resulting in the impaired injectivity of water injection and disposal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennion, D.B.; Thomas, F.B.; Imer, D.; Ma, T.

    2000-01-01

    An environmentally responsible way to improve hydrocarbon recovery is to maintain pressure by water injection. This is a desirable method because unwanted produced water from oil and gas wells can be re-injected into producing or disposal formations. The success of the operation, however, depends on injecting the necessary volume of water economically, below the fracture gradient pressure of the formation. Well placement, geometry and inherent formation quality and relative permeability characteristics are some of the many other factors which influence the success of any injection project. Poor injection or poor quality of disposal water can also compromise the injectivity for even high quality sandstone or carbonate formations. This would necessitate costly workovers and recompletions. This paper presented some leading edge diagnostic techniques and evaluation methods to determine the quality of injected water. The same techniques could be used to better understand the effect of potential contaminants such as suspended solids, corrosion products, skim/carryover oil and grease, scales, precipitates, emulsions, oil wet hydrocarbon agglomerates and many other conditions which cause injectivity degradation. 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  10. Control of environmental impact of low-level aqueous fuel reprocessing wastes by deep-well disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The following conclusions are made: (1) the technology and much experience for this disposal method are available; (2) large areas of the U.S. offer geological formations suitable for deep well disposal, but substantial effort may be required in the choice of a specific site; (3) although costs are substantial, they are small compared to associated environmental and energy benefits; (4) impacts on water consumers would be minimized through regulatory checks of siting, construction, and monitoring, and also through natural dilution and radioactive decay; (5) disposal wells must satisfy regulations, of recently-increased stringency, on siting, design, construction, operation, monitoring, and decommissioning

  11. Well-construction and hydrogeologic data for observation wells in the vicinity of a low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansue, Lawrence J.; Mills, Patrick C.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted hydrogeologic studies at the low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois, from 1976 through 1987. During that period, 108 observation wells were installed in the vicinity of the disposal site in glacial and post-glacial deposits of Quaternary age and bedrock of Pennsylvanian age. Data in this report include the location of each well, the date each well was drilled, the geologic units penetrated by each well, the physical measurements of each well, the elevations of the top (measuring point) of each well and geologic-unit contacts at each well, and the highest and lowest recorded water levels in each well.

  12. Work plan for monitor well/groundwater elevation data recorder installation at the Cheney Disposal site, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    In May 1990, during the excavation for the Grand Junction, Colorado, Cheney Reservoir disposal cell (Cheney), a water bearing paleochannel was encountered along the northern boundary of the excavation (designated the Northwest Paleochannel). To ensure the long-term integrity of the disposal embankment, remedial actions were taken including the excavation of the paleochannel and underlying material to bedrock, backfilling of the trapezoidal trench with granular material, and placement of a geotextile liner above the granular material. Compacted clay backfill was placed above the reconstructed paleochannel trench, and the northwest corner was restored to the designated grade. Investigation of other paleochannels determined that ground water flow terminated before it migrated as far west as the disposal cell. Therefore, flow in these paleochannels would have no impact on the disposal cell. Although characterization efforts did not indicate the presence of a ground water-bearing paleochannel south of the disposal cell, the potential could not be ruled out. As a best management practice for long-term monitoring at Cheney, two monitor wells will be installed within the paleochannels. One well will be installed within 50 feet (ft) west of the reconstructed Northwest Paleochannel. The second well will be installed near the southwestern (downgradient) corner of the disposal cell. The purposes of these wells are to characterize ground water flow (if any) within the paleochannels and to monitor the potential for water movement (seepage) into or out of the disposal cell. Initial monitoring of the paleochannels will consist of water level elevation measurement collection and trend analysis to evaluate fluctuations in storage. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of two ground water monitor wells and two ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at Cheney

  13. Analysis of Water Well Quality Drilling Around Waste Disposal Site in Makassar City Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, R.; Baharuddin, I. I.; Badwi, N.; Nyompa, S.; Sudarso

    2018-02-01

    Clean water is one of human need which is very important in carrying out its life. Therefore, this article analyzes the quality of the well water dug around the landfill. The method used is a well water well sample taken from 4 wells around a landfill taken by a purposive sampling at a different distance. The parameters measured are physical, chemical, and biological properties. The results of the analysis were then compared with the standard of drinking water quality criteria allowed under The Regulation of Health Minister of Indonesia No. 416 year 1990 on the Terms and Supervision of Water Quality of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. The result of the research shows that there are two wells whose water quality does not meet the physical requirement i.e Location of Points II and III, based on the construction of wells also does not meet the requirements of the wells in general. While at the well Locations Point I and IV the quality of water physically, chemically and biologically as well as well construction qualify. From the result of this research, the researcher give suggestion of the need to improve the physical condition of dug wells, it is necessary to do the extension to the well water user community for drinking water about the physical condition of the dug well, the need to monitor and supervise the quality of drinking water, and should involve the community to independently meet the needs absolute i.e clean water to drink.

  14. Considerations affecting deep-well disposal of tritium-bearing low-level aqueous waste from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Warner, D.L.; Steindler, M.J.

    1977-03-01

    Present concepts of disposal of low-level aqueous wastes (LLAW) that contain much of the fission-product tritium from light water reactors involve dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams at fuel reprocessing plants. These concepts have been challenged in recent years. Deep-well injection of low-level aqueous wastes, an alternative to biospheric dispersal, is the subject of this presentation. Many factors must be considered in assessing its feasibility, including technology, costs, environmental impact, legal and regulatory constraints, and siting. Examination of these factors indicates that the technology of deep-well injection, extensively developed for other industrial wastes, would require little innovation before application to low-level aqueous wastes. Costs would be low, of the order of magnitude of 10 -4 mill/kWh. The environmental impact of normal deep-well disposal would be small, compared with dispersal to the atmosphere or to surface streams; abnormal operation would not be expected to produce catastrophic results. Geologically suitable sites are abundant in the U.S., but a well would best be co-located with the fuel-reprocessing plant where the LLAW is produced. Legal and regulatory constraints now being developed will be the most important determinants of the feasibility of applying the method

  15. Desalination of brackish groundwater and concentrate disposal by deep well injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthek, N.; Raat, K.; Ruijter, J.A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Oosterhof, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the province of Friesland (in the Northern part of The Netherlands), problems have arisen with the abstraction of fresh groundwater due to salinization of wells by upcoming of brackish water. A solution to this problem is to intercept (abstract) the upcoming brackish water, desalinate it with a

  16. Non-radioactive disposal facility-bioremediation horizontal well installation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J.; Hasek, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Sanitary Landfill Corrective Action Plan proposes a two pronged approach to remediation. The first part of the total remediation strategy is the placement of a RCRA style closure cap to provide source control of contaminants into the groundwater. The second part of the proposed remediation package is a phased approach primarily using an in situ bioremediation system for groundwater clean up of the Constituents of Concern (COCs) that exceed their proposed Alternate Concentration Limits (ACL). The phased in approach of groundwater clean up will involve operation of the in situ bioremediation system, followed by evaluation of the Phase 1 system and, if necessary, additional phased remediation strategies. This document presents pertinent information on operations, well locations, anticipated capture zones, monitoring strategies, observation wells and other information which will allow a decision on the acceptability of the remedial strategy as an interim corrective action prior to permit application approval. The proposed interim phase of the remediation program will position two horizontal bioremediation wells such that the respective zones of influence will intersect the migration path for the highest concentrations of each plume

  17. Performance evaluation testing of wells in the gradient control system at a federally operated Confined Disposal Facility using single well aquifer tests, East Chicago, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David C.; Unthank, Michael D.

    2016-12-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed tests to evaluate the hydrologic connection between the open interval of the well and the surrounding Calumet aquifer in response to fouling of extraction well pumps onsite. Two rounds of air slug testing were performed on seven monitoring wells and step drawdown and subsequent recovery tests on three extraction wells on a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) in East Chicago, Indiana. The wells were tested in 2014 and again in 2015. The extraction and monitoring wells are part of the gradient control system that establishes an inward gradient around the perimeter of the facility. The testing established a set of protocols that site personnel can use to evaluate onsite well integrity and develop a maintenance procedure to evaluate future well performance.The results of the slug test analysis data indicate that the hydraulic connection of the well screen to the surrounding aquifer material in monitoring wells on the CDF and the reliability of hydraulic conductivity estimates of the surrounding geologic media could be increased by implementing well development maintenance. Repeated air slug tests showed increasing hydraulic conductivity until, in the case of the monitoring wells located outside of the groundwater cutoff wall (MW–4B, MW–11B, MW–14B), the difference in hydraulic conductivity from test to test decreased, indicating the results were approaching the optimal hydraulic connection between the aquifer and the well screen. Hydraulic conductivity values derived from successive tests in monitoring well D40, approximately 0.25 mile south of the CDF, were substantially higher than those derived from wells on the CDF property. Also, values did not vary from test to test like those measured in monitoring wells located on the CDF property, which indicated that a process may be affecting the connectivity of the wells on the CDF property to the Calumet aquifer. Derived hydraulic conductivity

  18. Records of wells and chemical analyses of water from wells for the period June 13, 1984 to December 4, 1986 at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Site, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyverse, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Lithologic data are presented for 113 wells drilled at the Maxey Flats Radioactive Waste Disposal Site for the period June 13, 1984 to December 4, 1986. Water levels, tritium concentrations, and specific conductance are also presented for wells yielding sufficient water for measuring and sampling. At least one sample was collected from most wells for the determination of gross alpha and beta activity. These activities and the results for gamma emitting radionuclides (Cobalt 60 and Cesium 137) are also presented. (USGS)

  19. Water-quality characteristics and trends for selected wells possibly influenced by wastewater disposal at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 1981-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Fisher, Jason C.; Maimer, Neil V.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, analyzed water-quality data collected from 64 aquifer wells and 35 perched groundwater wells at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) from 1981 through 2012. The wells selected for the study were wells that possibly were affected by wastewater disposal at the INL. The data analyzed included tritium, strontium-90, major cations, anions, nutrients, trace elements, total organic carbon, and volatile organic compounds. The analyses were performed to examine water-quality trends that might influence future management decisions about the number of wells to sample at the INL and the type of constituents to monitor.

  20. Simulation of the distribution of radionuclides in the reservoir bed for deep-well injection disposal of acid liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskov, M.D.; Istomin, A.D.; Kesler, A.G.; Zubkov, A.A.; Zakharova, E.V.; Egorov, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for describing the changes in the state of the reservoir bed for dee-well injection disposal of acid liquid radioactive waste. The model considers the multicomponent filtration of the solution in the heterogeneous bed, sorption-desorption of radionuclides, taking into account the dependence of the distribution coefficient on the temperature and pH, as well as radioactive decay, interaction of acids with minerals, radiation-chemical and thermochemical decomposition of the acids, and dynamics of the temperature field, taking into account the convective heat transfer, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat release. The results of the simulation of the migration of radionuclides were reported, as well as of the distribution of the acids and the dynamics of the temperature field in the vicinity of the injection well of the site for deep-well injection disposal of the waste from Siberian Chemical Combine. A man-caused barrier is formed in the vicinity of the injection well, hindering the spread of radionuclides in the reservoir bed [ru

  1. Experimental studies of relevance on zirconium nitrate raffinate sludge for its disposal as well as zirconium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahmananda Reddy, G.; Narasimha Murty, B.; Ravindra, H.R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the many routes of production of nuclear grade zirconium dioxide involve separation of zirconium and hafnium by solvent extraction of zirconium nitrate using tri-n-butyl phosphate followed by precipitation of zirconium with ammonia and finally calcination of the so obtained hydrated zirconia at elevated temperature. The zirconium feed solution as is generated from digestion of zirconium washed dried frit (produced by the caustic fusion of zircon sand which is one of the beach sand heavy minerals) in nitric acid contain considerable amount of sludge material and after solvent extraction this whole sludge material rests with raffinate. This sludge material has a scope to contain considerable amounts of zirconium along with other metal ions such as hafnium, aluminium, iron, etc. besides nitric acid and it constitutes one of the important solid wastes that needs to be disposed suitably. One of the disposal means of this sludge material is to use it as a land fill for which two important criteria are to be viz the pH of 10% solid waste solution should be near to neutral pH and the loss on ignition at 550℃ on dry basis of the sludge to be below 20%. In order to study the implications of presence of varying amounts of zirconium nitrate in the sludge on the pH of 10% solution of the sludge various synthetic zirconium nitrate solid waste were prepared using the sludge material generated at the laboratory during the analysis of zirconium washed dried frit. Presence of zirconium in the sludge is expected to decrease the overall pH of the 10% solution of the sludge because zirconium is prone to hydrolyze especially locally when zirconium ion comes into contact with water according to the chemical equation Zr 4+ H 2 O → ZrO 2+ + 2H + . From this equation, it is clear that for every one mole of zirconium ions two moles of hydrogen ions are produced. This is verified experimentally using the synthetically prepared sludge materials with varying amounts of zirconium

  2. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    discussion of the proposals made by NAGRA (in the annexes volume) requires an understanding of the functioning of the components of the repository, supported by relevant basic data. The general report, which is independent of the proposed siting regions, provides an overview of the facilities and their functioning for both the L/ILW and the HLW repositories, the operating procedures and the impacts associated with construction and operation. The general report (i) summarises the legal framework and the waste management programme and recaps the result of Stage 1 of the siting process; the waste management programme sets out the individual work steps leading to geological disposal of radioactive waste, (ii) provides a generic description of the function of the geological repositories and the components of the entire facility, to allow a general understanding of the surface facility and its access infrastructure, (iii) describes the surface infrastructure, particularly the different components of the surface facility for both the L/ILW and HLW repositories, as well as for a combined repository for co-disposal of L/ILW and HLW (in which the spatially separated underground installations for HLW and L/ILW are accessed from a common surface facility), (iv) outlines the general possibilities for configuring the surface facility and its access using the existing transport network (road, rail), (v) provides background information as a basis for discussing the possible effects of a repository at the surface during construction and operation at the siting location, (vi) presents the criteria and indicators used by NAGRA for making the proposals for the selection of the locations for the surface facility within the planning perimeters and (vii) presents the input data provided by NAGRA for the generic section of the socio-economic-ecological impact studies (economy). In the case where the input data differ for the individual siting regions, the information is presented in the present

  3. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    of the proposals made by NAGRA (see the annexes volume) requires an understanding of the functioning of the components of the repository, supported by relevant basic data. This general report, which is independent of the proposed siting regions, provides an overview of the facilities and their functioning for both the L/ILW and the HLW repositories, the operating procedures and the impacts associated with construction and operation. The report (i) summarises the legal framework and the waste management programme and recaps the result of Stage 1 of the siting process; the waste management programme sets out the individual work steps leading to geological disposal of radioactive waste, (ii) provides a generic description of the function of the geological repositories and the components of the entire facility, to allow a general understanding of the surface facility and its access infrastructure, (iii) describes the surface infrastructure, particularly the different components of the surface facility for both the L/ILW and HLW repositories, as well as for a combined repository for co-disposal of L/ILW and HLW (in which the spatially separated underground installations for HLW and L/ILW are accessed from a common surface facility), (iv) outlines the general possibilities for configuring the surface facility and its access using the existing transport network (road, rail), (v) provides background information as a basis for discussing the possible effects of a repository at the surface during construction and operation at the siting location, (vi) presents the criteria and indicators used by NAGRA for making the proposals for the selection of the locations for the surface facility within the planning perimeters and (vii) presents the input data provided by NAGRA for the generic section of the socio-economic-ecological impact studies (economy). In the case where the input data differ for the individual siting regions, the information is presented in the annexes volume

  4. A comparative radiological assessment of five European biosphere systems in the context of potential contamination of well water from the hypothetical disposal of radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyslaegers, G; Zeevaert, T; Pinedo, P; Simon, I; Pröhl, G; Kowe, R; Chen, Q; Mobbs, S; Bergström, U; Hallberg, B; Katona, T; Eged, K; Kanyar, B

    2005-12-01

    In the framework of the BioMoSA project for the development of biosphere assessment models for radioactive waste disposal the Reference Biosphere Methodology developed in the IAEA programme BIOMASS was applied to five locations, situated in different European countries. Specific biosphere models were applied to assess the hypothetical contamination of a range of agricultural and environmental pathways and the dose to individuals, following contamination of well water. The results of these site-specific models developed by the different BioMoSA partners, and the individual normalised dose to the exposure groups were compared against each other. Ingestion of drinking water, fruit and vegetables were found to be among the most important pathways for almost all radionuclides. Stochastic calculations revealed that consumption habits, transfer factors, irrigation rates and distribution coefficients (Kd(s)) were the most important parameters that influence the end results. Variations in the confidence intervals were found to be higher for sorbing elements (e.g. (36)Cl, (237)Np, (99)Tc, (238)U, (129)I) than for mobile elements (e.g. (226)Ra, (79)Se, (135)Cs, (231)Pa, (239)Pu). The influence of daughter products, for which the distribution into the biosphere was calculated individually, was also shown to be important. This paper gives a brief overview of the deterministic and stochastic modelling results and the parameter sensitivity. A screening methodology was introduced to identify the most important pathways, simplify a generic biosphere tool and refine the existing models.

  5. Disposal safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    International consensus does not seem to be necessary or appropriate for many of the issues concerned with the safety of nuclear waste disposal. International interaction on the technical aspects of disposal has been extensive, and this interaction has contributed greatly to development of a consensus technical infrastructure for disposal. This infrastructure provides a common and firm base for regulatory, political, and social actions in each nation

  6. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  7. Mathematical simulation of the behaviour of the spent organic extractive solution near the injection well area in the case of underground disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istomin, A.D.; Noskov, M.D.; Balakhonov, V.G.; Zubkov, A.A.; Egorov, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented of the processes in the collector seam under combined disposal of organic and radioactive wastes in porous geological strata of deep bedding. The model describes filtration, mass transfer, sorption and desorption of radionuclides, radioactive decay, decomposition of organic components and heat transfer. The computer software is developed. The results of simulating the thermal field dynamics, behaviour of the components of the spent organic extractive solution and water radioactive wastes in the collector seam of deep bedding are presented [ru

  8. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  9. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  10. Salt disposal: Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the findings of a study conducted for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program. Permanent disposal options are examined for salt resulting from the excavation of a waste repository in the bedded salt deposits of the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. The study is based on a repository salt backfill compaction of 60% of the original density which leaves a total of 8 million tons of 95% pure salt to be disposed of over a 30-year period. The feasibility, impacts, and mitigation methods are examined for five options: commercial disposal, permanent onsite surface disposal, permanent offsite disposal, deepwell injection, and ocean and Great Salt Lake disposal. The study concludes the following: Commercial marketing of all repository salt would require a subsidy for transportation to major salt markets. Permanent onsite surface storage is both economically and technically feasible. Permanent offsite disposal is technically feasible but would incur additional transportation costs. Selection of an offsite location would provide a means of mitigating impacts associated with surface storage at the repository site. Deepwell injection is an attractive disposal method; however, the large water requirement, high cost of development, and poor performance of similar operating brine disposal wells eliminates this option from consideration as the primary means of disposal for the Paradox Basin. Ocean disposal is expensive because of high transportation cost. Also, regulatory approval is unlikely. Ocean disposal should be eliminated from further consideration in the Paradox Basin. Great Salt Lake disposal appears to be technically feasible. Great Salt Lake disposal would require state approval and would incur substantial costs for salt transportation. Permanent onsite disposal is the least expensive method for disposal of all repository salt

  11. Scientific investigation in deep wells for nuclear waste disposal studies at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, Northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jacques; Rebours, Hervé; Vinsot, Agnès; Robin, Pierre

    Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is constructing an underground test facility to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Jurassic-age Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. This paper describes the processes, the methods and results of a scientific characterization program carried out from the surface via deep boreholes with the aim to build a research facility for radioactive waste disposal. In particular this paper shows the evolution of the drilling programs and the borehole set up due to the refinement of the scientific objectives from 1994 to 2004. The pre-investigation phase on the Meuse/Haute-Marne site started in 1994. It consisted in drilling seven scientific boreholes. This phase, completed in 1996, led to the first regional geological cross-section showing the main geometrical characteristics of the host rock. Investigations on the laboratory site prior to the sinking of two shafts started in November 1999. The sinking of the shafts started in September 2000 with the auxiliary shaft completed in October 2004. The experimental gallery, at a depth of 445 m in the main shaft, was in operation by end 2004. During the construction of the laboratory, two major scientific programs were initiated to improve the existing knowledge of the regional hydrogeological characteristics and to accelerate the process of data acquisition on the shales. The aim of the 2003 hydrogeological drilling program was to determine, at regional scale, the properties of groundwater transport and to sample the water in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestones. The 2003-2004 programs consisted in drilling nine deep boreholes, four of which were slanted, to achieve an accurate definition of the structural features.

  12. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste, as a unavoidable remnant from the use of radioactive substances and nuclear technology. It is potentially hazardous to health and must therefore be managed to protect humans and the environment. The main bulk of radioactive waste must be permanently disposed in engineered repositories. Appropriate safety standards for repository design and construction are required along with the development and implementation of appropriate technologies for the design, construction, operation and closure of the waste disposal systems. As backend of the fuel cycle, resolving the issue of waste disposal is often considered as a prerequisite to the (further) development of nuclear energy programmes. Waste disposal is therefore an essential part of the waste management strategy that contributes largely to build confidence and helps decision-making when appropriately managed. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to enable safe and secure disposal of RW related to the development of national RWM strategies, including planning and long-term project management, the organisation of international peer-reviews for research and demonstration programmes, the improvement of the long-term safety of existing Near Surface Disposal facilities including capacity extension, the selection of potential candidate sites for different waste types and disposal options, the characterisation of potential host formations for waste facilities and the conduct of preliminary safety assessment, the establishment and transfer of suitable technologies for the management of RW, the development of technological solutions for some specific waste, the building of confidence through training courses, scientific visits and fellowships, the provision of training, expertise, software or hardware, and laboratory equipment, and the assessment of waste management costs and the provision of advice on cost minimisation aspects

  13. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  14. Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; B-Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    This contribution describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 1997 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near-and far field studies

  15. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  16. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  17. The Influence of Drainage Wells Barrier on Reducing the Amount of Major Contaminants Migrating from a Very Large Mine Tailings Disposal Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Robert

    2014-12-01

    its foreground. The efficiency of groundwater protection was determined on the basis of a new approach. In applied method the loads of characteristic and commonly recognizable compounds, i.e. salt (NaCl and gypsum (CaSO4 were calculated, instead their chemical components. The temporal and spatial variability of captured main contaminants loads as well as its causes are discussed. The paper ends with the results of efficiency analyses of the barrier and with respect to the predicted increase in contaminant concentrations in the pulp poured out to the tailings site.

  18. Report on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes constitutes an essential part of the IAEA programme. A large number of reports and conference proceedings covering various aspects of the subject have been issued. The Technical Review Committee on Underground Disposal (February 1988) recommended that the Secretariat issue a report on the state of the art of underground disposal of radioactive wastes. The Committee recommended the need for a report that provided an overview of the present knowledge in the field. This report covers the basic principles associated with the state of the art of near surface and deep geological radioactive waste disposal, including examples of prudent practice, and basic information on performance assessment methods. It does not include a comprehensive description of the waste management programmes in different countries nor provide a textbook on waste disposal. Such books are available elsewhere. Reviewing all the concepts and practices of safe radioactive waste disposal in a document of reasonable size is not possible; therefore, the scope of this report has been limited to cover essential parts of the subject. Exotic disposal techniques and techniques for disposing of uranium mill tailings are not covered, and only brief coverage is provided for disposal at sea and in the sea-bed. The present report provides a list of references to more specialized reports on disposal published by the IAEA as well as by other bodies, which may be consulted if additional information is sought. 108 refs, 22 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Disposal options for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)

  20. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  1. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  2. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Disposal of high level radioactive wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L.A.M.; Carvalho Bastos, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of high-activity radioactive wastes is the most serious problem for the nuclear industry. Among the solutions, the disposal of wastes in approriated geological formations is the most realistic and feasible. In this work the methods used for geological disposal, as well as, the criteria, programs and analysis for selecting a bite for waste disposal are presented [pt

  4. HLW disposal dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.

    2003-01-01

    ' strategy is now considered. There is a broad agreement that national organizations are responsible for finding their own solutions for disposal of their wastes. However, this does not mean that they have to find solutions within their own countries. This is the concept of international or multinational sheared repositories, well sited and safe facilities operated for the benefit of a number of users, with effective use of shared resources. This may be the only realistic option for some national programmes. On 22nd February 2002 a small group of organisations from 5 countries inaugurated a new association to support the concept of sharing facilities for storage and disposal of all types of long-lived radioactive wastes. The founding members are from Belgium (ONDRAF Waste Agency), Bulgaria (Kozloduy Power Plant), Hungary (PURAM Waste Agency), Japan (Obayashi Corporation) and Switzerland (Colenco Power Engineering, backed by two of the Swiss nuclear power utilities). The Association is open to all organisations sharing its goals; discussions with a range of further potential members are already underway. Romania might consider the regional disposal option. (authors)

  5. Waste and Disposal: Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2002-01-01

    Within the Belgian R and D programme on geological disposal, demonstration experiments have become increasingly important. In this contribution to the scientific report 2001, an overview is given of SCK-CEN's activities and achievements in the field of large-scale demonstration experiments. In 2001, main emphasis was on the PRACLAY project, which is a large-scale experiment to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In the context of PRACLAY, a surface experiment (OPHELIE) has been developed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2001, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up. SCK-CEN also contributed to the SELFRAC roject which studies the self-healing of fractures in a clay formation

  6. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  7. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  8. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  10. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  11. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  12. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations

  13. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.; Bruecher, H.

    1981-06-01

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m 3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Final disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroebel, R [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Projekt Wiederaufarbeitung und Abfallbehandlung; Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. zur Behandlung Radioaktiver Abfaelle

    1978-08-01

    This paper discusses the final disposal possibilities for radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany and the related questions of waste conditioning, storage methods and safety. The programs in progress in neighbouring CEC countries and in the USA are also mentioned briefly. The autors conclude that the existing final disposal possibilities are sufficiently well known and safe, but that they could be improved still further by future development work. The residual hazard potential of radioactive wastes from fuel reprocessing after about 1000 years of storage is lower that of known inorganic core deposits.

  15. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. Land disposal alternatives for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.; Lindeman, R.; Saulnier, G.; Adam, J.; Sutherland, A.; Gruhlke, J.; Hung, C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop data regarding the effectiveness and costs of the following options for disposing of specific low-level nuclear waste streams; sanitary landfill; improved shallow land burial; intermediate depth disposal; deep well injection; conventional shallow land burial; engineered surface storage; deep geological disposal; and hydrofracturing. This will be accomplished through the following steps: (1) characterize the properties of the commercial low-level wastes requiring disposal; (2) evaluate the various options for disposing of this waste, characterize selected representative waste disposal sites and design storage facilities suitable for use at those sites; (3) calculate the effects of various waste disposal options on population health risks; (4) estimate the costs of various waste disposal options for specific sites; and (5) perform trade-off analyses of the benefits of various waste disposal options against the costs of implementing these options. These steps are described. 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  18. Disposal options for disused radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a review of relevant information on the various technical factors and issues, as well as approaches and relevant technologies, leading to the identification of potential disposal options for disused radioactive sources. The report attempts to provide a logical 'road map' for the disposal of disused radioactive sources, taking into consideration the high degree of variability in the radiological properties of such types of radioactive waste. The use of borehole or shaft type repositories is highlighted as a potential disposal option, particularly for those countries that have limited resources and are looking for a simple, safe and cost effective solution for the disposal of their radioactive source inventories. It offers information about usage and characteristics of radioactive sources, disposal considerations, identification and screening of disposal options as well as waste packaging and acceptance criteria for disposal. The information provided in the report could be adapted or adopted to identify and develop specific disposal options suitable for the type and inventory of radioactive sources kept in storage in a given Member State

  19. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  20. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  1. Expertise on the provision of evidence with respect to Nagra's disposal concept for spent fuel assemblies, vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as for long-living intermediate-level wastes (Opalinus clay project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Mankind has been living in a field of natural radiation; in Switzerland, the natural dose is around 3 mSv per year. It can be assumed that an artificial dose smaller than the natural one is harmless and can therefore be tolerated. However, nuclear power plants, medicine, industry and research produce radioactive wastes whose radioactivity is mostly higher than the natural level. These wastes must therefore be concentrated and enclosed until the decay reduces the dose rate to a harmless level. For this, it is foreseen that the radioactive wastes will be disposed of in deep-lying geological strata. The enclosure must be guarantied in such a way that, at any time, the radiation suffered by mankind and environment due to the radioactive wastes stays under the statutory limit of 1 mSv/a. The judgement of the quality of the deep underground repository is divided into 3 chapters: a) based on the geological and hydro-geological properties of the host rock, the proof of safety shows that the chosen repository site is safe for the long term; b) the proof of site guaranties that the repository needed can be built in the chosen host rock; c) the proof of implementation demonstrates that the repository can be built with the actual technical means proposed. The forecast for the development of the safety of the repository in the long term is fairly inaccurate, the most difficult factor being the developments in mankind's way of life. Therefore, conservative assumptions must be taken into account to cover even the most unlikely cases. The former project 'Gewaehr' presented by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes (NAGRA) in 1978 was based on crystalline rock; it was rejected because it was not possible to find a sufficiently large area without geologic faults for the repository. In new investigations, NAGRA found a suitable layer of Opalinus clay in Zurich's Weinland. In the neighbourhood of the layer discovered, there are neither noticeable beds of other

  2. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  3. Subseabed disposal safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplick, C.M.; Kabele, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of work performed by Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) in FY'81 on subseabed disposal safety analysis. Safety analysis for subseabed disposal is divided into two phases: pre-emplacement which includes all transportation, handling, and emplacement activities; and long-term (post-emplacement), which is concerned with the potential hazard after waste is safely emplaced. Details of TASC work in these two areas are provided in two technical reports. The work to date, while preliminary, supports the technical and environmental feasibility of subseabed disposal of HLW

  4. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, A.T.

    1978-03-01

    Solutions to waste management problems are available. After radium is removed, tailings from uranium ores can be disposed of safely in well-designed retention areas. Work is being done on the processing of non-fuel reactor wastes through incineration, reverse osmosis, and evaporation. Spent fuels have been stored safely for years in pools; dry storage in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  5. Review of very low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Guo Minli; Tian Hao; Teng Yanguo

    2005-01-01

    Very low level waste (VLLW) is a new type of radioactive wastes proposed recently. No widely acceptable definition and disposal rules have been established for it. This paper reviews the definition of VLLW in some countries where VLLW was researched early, as well as the disposal policies and methods of VLLW that the IAEA and these countries followed. In addition, the safety assessment programs for VLLW disposal are introduced. It is proved the research of VLLW is urgent and essential in china through the comparison of VLLW disposal between china and these counties. At last, this paper points out the future development of VLLW disposal research in China. (authors)

  6. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  7. Shallow disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-02-01

    A review and evaluation of computer codes capable of simulating the various processes that are instrumental in determining the dose rate to individuals resulting from the shallow disposal of radioactive waste was conducted. Possible pathways of contamination, as well as the mechanisms controlling radionuclide movement along these pathways have been identified. Potential transport pathways include the unsaturated and saturated ground water systems, surface water bodies, atmospheric transport and movement (and accumulation) in the food chain. Contributions to dose may occur as a result of ingestion of contaminated water and food, inhalation of contaminated air and immersion in contaminated air/water. Specific recommendations were developed regarding the selection and modification of a model to meet the needs associated with the prediction of dose rates to individuals as a consequence of shallow radioactive waste disposal. Specific technical requirements with regards to risk, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have been addressed

  8. Geological disposal system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected

  9. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  10. Geological disposal system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chul Hyung; Kuh, J. E.; Kim, S. K. and others

    2000-04-01

    Spent fuel inventories to be disposed of finally and design base spent fuel were determined. Technical and safety criteria for a geological repository system in Korea were established. Based on the properties of spent PWR and CANDU fuels, seven repository alternatives were developed and the most promising repository option was selected by the pair-wise comparison method from the technology point of view. With this option preliminary conceptual design studies were carried out. Several module, e.g., gap module, congruent release module were developed for the overall assessment code MASCOT-K. The prominent overseas databases such as OECD/NEA FEP list were are fully reviewed and then screened to identify the feasible ones to reflect the Korean geo-hydrological conditions. In addition to this the well known scenario development methods such as PID, RES were reviewed. To confirm the radiological safety of the proposed KAERI repository concept the preliminary PA was pursued. Thermo-hydro-mechanical analysis for the near field of repository were performed to verify thermal and mechanical stability for KAERI repository system. The requirements of buffer material were analyzed, and based on the results, the quantitative functional criteria for buffer material were established. The hydraulic and swelling property, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity, the organic carbon content, and the evolution of pore water chemistry were investigated. Based on the results, the candidate buffer material was selected.

  11. No nuclear power. No disposal facility?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinhals, J. [DMT GmbH und Co.KG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Countries with a nuclear power programme are making strong efforts to guarantee the safe disposal of radioactive waste. The solutions in those countries are large disposal facilities near surface or in deep geological layers depending on the activity and half-life of the nuclides in the waste. But what will happen with the radioactive waste in countries that do not have NPPs but have only low amounts of radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities as well as from research reactors? Countries producing only low amounts of radioactive waste need convincing solutions for the safe and affordable disposal of their radioactive waste. As they do not have a fund by an operator of nuclear power plants, those countries need an appropriate and commensurate solution for the disposal of their waste. In a first overview five solutions seem to be appropriate: (i) the development of multinational disposal facilities by using the existing international knowhow; (ii) common disposal with hazardous waste; (iii) permanent storage; (iv) use of an existing mine or tunnel; (v) extension of the borehole disposal concept for all the categories of radioactive wastes.

  12. The Dutch geologic radioactive waste disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, J.; Verkerk, B.

    1981-01-01

    The Final Report reviews the work on geologic disposal of radioactive waste performed in the Netherlands over the period 1 January 1978 to 31 December 1979. The attached four topical reports cover detailed subjects of this work. The radionuclide release consequences of an accidental flooding of the underground excavations during the operational period was studied by the institute for Atomic Sciences in Agriculture (Italy). The results of the quantitative examples made for different effective cross-sections of the permeable layer connecting the mine excavations with the boundary of the salt dome, are that under all circumstances the concentration of the waste nuclides in drinking water will remain well within the ICRP maximum permissible concentrations. Further analysis work was done on what minima can be achieved for both the maximum local rock salt temperatures at the disposal borehole walls and the maximum global rock salt temperatures halfway between a square of disposal boreholes. Different multi-layer disposal configurations were analysed and compared. A more detailed description is given of specific design and construction details of a waste repository such as the shaft sinking and construction, the disposal mine development, the mine ventilation and the different plugging and sealing procedures for both the disposal boreholes and the shafts. Thanks to the hospitality of the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlenforschung, an underground working area in the Asse mine became available for performing a dry drilling experiment, which resulted successfully in the drilling of a 300 m deep disposal borehole from a mine room at the -750 m level

  13. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  14. Disposal leachates treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulomb, I.; Renaud, P. (SITA, 75 - Paris (France)); Courant, P. (FD Conseil, 78 - Gargenville (France)); Manem, J.; Mandra, V.; Trouve, E. (Lyonnaise des Eaux-Dumez, 78 - Le Pecq (France))

    1993-12-01

    Disposal leachates are complex and variable effluents. The use of a bioreactor with membranes, coupled with a reverse osmosis unit, gives a new solution to the technical burying centers. Two examples are explained here.

  15. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science ... or www.earth911.com . Think before disposing of extra pesticides and containers: Never reuse empty pesticide containers. ...

  16. Disposal of Iodine-129

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.T.; Moore, J.G.; Devaney, H.E.; Rogers, G.C.; Williams, C.; Newman, E.

    1978-01-01

    One of the problems to be solved in the nuclear waste management field is the disposal of radioactive iodine-129, which is one of the more volatile and long-lived fission products. Studies have shown that fission products can be fixed in concrete for permanent disposal. Current studies have demonstrated that practical cementitious grouts may contain up to 18% iodine as barium iodate. The waste disposal criterion is based on the fact that harmful effects to present or future generations can be avoided by isolation and/or dilution. Long-term isolation is effective in deep, dry repositories; however, since penetration by water is possible, although unlikely, release was calculated based on leach rates into water. Further considerations have indicated that sea disposal on or in the ocean floor may be a more acceptable alternative

  17. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  18. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  19. Shallow land disposal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillette-Cousin, L. [Nuclear Environment Technology Insitute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of Korea )

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L`Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Shallow land disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillette-Cousin, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the radioactive waste management policy and regulatory framework, the characteristics of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the characteristics of waste package, the waste acceptance criteria, the waste acceptance and related activities, the design of the disposal system, the organization of waste transportation, the operation feature, the safety assessment of the Centre de L'Aube, the post closure measures, the closure of the Centre de la Mache disposal facility, the licensing issues. 3 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  2. 40 CFR 144.6 - Classification of wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... radioactive waste disposal sites to dispose of hazardous waste or radioactive waste into a formation which... waste management facilities, or by owners or operators of radioactive waste disposal sites to dispose of... one quarter mile of the well bore, an underground source of drinking water. (3) Radioactive waste...

  3. Timing of High-level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies key factors influencing the timing of high-level waste (HLW) disposal and examines how social acceptability, technical soundness, environmental responsibility and economic feasibility impact on national strategies for HLW management and disposal. Based on case study analyses, it also presents the strategic approaches adopted in a number of national policies to address public concerns and civil society requirements regarding long-term stewardship of high-level radioactive waste. The findings and conclusions of the study confirm the importance of informing all stakeholders and involving them in the decision-making process in order to implement HLW disposal strategies successfully. This study will be of considerable interest to nuclear energy policy makers and analysts as well as to experts in the area of radioactive waste management and disposal. (author)

  4. Disposable bioprocessing: the future has arrived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Govind; Moreira, Antonio; Brorson, Kurt

    2009-02-01

    Increasing cost pressures are driving the rapid adoption of disposables in bioprocessing. While well ensconced in lab-scale operations, the lower operating/ validation costs at larger scale and relative ease of use are leading to these systems entering all stages and operations of a typical biopharmaceutical manufacturing process. Here, we focus on progress made in the incorporation of disposable equipment with sensor technology in bioprocessing throughout the development cycle. We note that sensor patch technology is mostly being adapted to disposable cell culture devices, but future adaptation to downstream steps is conceivable. Lastly, regulatory requirements are also briefly assessed in the context of disposables and the Process Analytical Technologies (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives.

  5. Landfill disposal risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mininni, G.; Passino, R.; Spinosa, L.

    1993-01-01

    Landfill disposal is the most used waste disposal system in Italy, due to its low costs and also to the great opposition of populations towards new incineration plants and the adjustment of the existing ones. Nevertheless, landfills may present many environmental problems as far as leachate and biogas are concerned directly influencing water, air and soil. This paper shows the most important aspects to be considered for a correct evaluation of environmental impacts caused by a landfill of urban wastes. Moreover, detection systems for on site control of pollution phenomena are presented and some measures for an optimal operation of a landfill are suggested

  6. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  7. Reversible deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  8. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  9. High-level waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.; Krause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    1984-01-01

    The national high-level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high-level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high-level waste disposal will probably add about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. The third conclusion is less optimistic. Political problems remain formidable in highly conservative regulations, in qualifying a final disposal site, and in securing acceptable transport routes

  10. High-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    The meeting was timely because many countries had begun their site selection processes and their engineering designs were becoming well-defined. The technology of nuclear waste disposal was maturing, and the institutional issues arising from the implementation of that technology were being confronted. Accordingly, the program was structured to consider both the technical and institutional aspects of the subject. The meeting started with a review of the status of the disposal programs in eight countries and three international nuclear waste management organizations. These invited presentations allowed listeners to understand the similarities and differences among the various national approaches to solving this very international problem. Then seven invited presentations describing nuclear waste disposal from different perspectives were made. These included: legal and judicial, electric utility, state governor, ethical, and technical perspectives. These invited presentations uncovered several issues that may need to be resolved before high-level nuclear wastes can be emplaced in a geologic repository in the United States. Finally, there were sixty-six contributed technical presentations organized in ten sessions around six general topics: site characterization and selection, repository design and in-situ testing, package design and testing, disposal system performance, disposal and storage system cost, and disposal in the overall waste management system context. These contributed presentations provided listeners with the results of recent applied RandD in each of the subject areas

  11. Radioactive waste disposal: an international law perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1989-01-01

    The question of radioactive waste disposal is the most intractable technical and political problem facing nuclear industry. Environmentalists world-wide demand a nuclear waste policy that must be ecologically acceptable internationally. Radioactive wastes and oil pollution were the first two types of marine pollution to receive international attention and various marine pollution controls were established. Ocean disposal was co-ordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency and the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development in 1967. The first treaty was the 1958 Convention on the High Seas (High Seas Convention). In response to its call for national co-operation the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established its Brynielson panel. The IAEA first issued guidelines on sea dumping in 1961. The London Dumping Convention, written in 1972, is the only global agreement concerned solely with the disposal of wastes in the marine environment by dumping. None of the global agreements make specific reference to sea-bed disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Negotiations began at the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III) for the codification of a comprehensive treaty concerned with the protection, conservation, sustainable use and development of the marine environment. Burial in deep geological formations is a method of HLW disposal which decreases the chances of accidental intrusion by mankind and has little likelihood of malicious intrusion. National waste management programmes of different countries differ but there is agreement on the acceptable technical solutions to issues of waste management. The final disposition of HLW - storage or disposal - has not been decisively determined, but there is growing consensus that geological land-based disposal is the most viable alternative. Expanded international technical co-operation could well reduce the time needed to develop effective waste disposal mechanisms

  12. Design of the disposal facility 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Ikonen, A.; Keto, P.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Kukkola, T.; Nieminen, J.; Raiko, H.

    2013-11-01

    The spent nuclear fuel accumulated from the nuclear power plants in Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and in Haestholmen in Loviisa will be disposed of in Olkiluoto. A facility complex will be constructed at Olkiluoto, and it will include two nuclear waste facilities according to Government Degree 736/2008. The nuclear waste facilities are an encapsulation plant, constructed to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel and a disposal facility consisting of an underground repository and other underground rooms and above ground service spaces. The repository is planned to be excavated to a depth of 400 - 450 meters. Access routes to the disposal facility are an inclined access tunnel and vertical shafts. The encapsulated fuel is transferred to the disposal facility in the canister lift. The canisters are transferred from the technical rooms to the disposal area via central tunnel and deposited in the deposition holes which are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels and are lined beforehand with compacted bentonite blocks. Two parallel central tunnels connect all the deposition tunnels and these central tunnels are inter-connected at regular intervals. The solution improves the fire safety of the underground rooms and allows flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages during the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level. ONKALO is designed and constructed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. The goal is that the first part of the disposal facility will be constructed under the building permit phase in the 2010's and operations will start in the 2020's. The fuel from 4 operating reactors as well the fuel from the fifth nuclear power plant under construction, has been taken into account in designing the disposal facility. According to the information from TVO and Fortum, the amount of the spent nuclear fuel is 5,440 tU. The disposal facility is being excavated

  13. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  14. Manufacture of disposal canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolvi, L.

    2009-12-01

    The report summarizes the development work carried out in the manufacturing of disposal canister components, and present status, in readiness for manufacturing, of the components for use in assembly of spent nuclear fuel disposal canister. The disposal canister consist of two major components: the nodular graphite cast iron insert and overpack of oxygen-free copper. The manufacturing process for copper components begins with a cylindrical cast copper billet. Three different manufacturing processes i.e. pierce and draw, extrusion and forging are being developed, which produce a seamless copper tube or a tube with an integrated bottom. The pierce and draw process, Posiva's reference method, makes an integrated bottom possible and only the lid requires welding. Inserts for BWR-element are cast with 12 square channels and inserts for VVER 440-element with 12 round channels. Inserts for EPR-elements have four square channels. Casting of BWR insert type has been studied so far. Experience of casting inserts for PWR, which is similar to the EPR-type, has been got in co-operation with SKB. The report describes the processes being developed for manufacture of disposal canister components and some results of the manufacturing experiments are presented. Quality assurance and quality control in manufacture of canister component is described. (orig.)

  15. Oil ''rig'' disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of the environmental impacts of disposing of the Brent Spar oil platform on land and at sea is presented, with a view to establishing the best decommissioning option in the light of recent controversy. The document is presented as an aid to comprehension of the scientific and engineering issues involved for Members of Parliament. (UK)

  16. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.; Gnirk, P.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the form and final disposal of nuclear wastes; the natural rock and groundwater; the disturbed rock and the groundwater; long-term behavior of the rock and the groundwater; nuclear waste leakage into the groundwater; what does it all mean. (U.K.)

  17. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krummel, J.R.; Policastro, A.J.; Olshansky, S.J.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    As part of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program mandated by Public Law 99--145 (Department of Defense Authorization Act), an independent review is presented of the US Army Phase I environmental report for the disposal program at the Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) in Hermiston, Oregon. The Phase I report addressed new and additional concerns not incorporated in the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS). Those concerns were addressed by examining site-specific data for the Umatilla Depot Activity and by recommending the scope and content of a more detailed site-specific study. This independent review evaluates whether the new site-specific data presented in the Phase I report would alter the decision in favor of on-site disposal that was reached in the FPEIS, and whether the recommendations for the scope and content of the site-specific study are adequate. Based on the methods and assumptions presented in the FPEIS, the inclusion of more detailed site-specific data in the Phase I report does not change the decision reached in the FPEIS (which favored on-site disposal at UMDA). It is recommended that alternative assumptions about meteorological conditions be considered and that site-specific data on water, ecological, socioeconomic, and cultural resources; seismicity; and emergency planning and preparedness be considered explicitly in the site-specific EIS decision-making process. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Nanomaterial disposal by incineration

    Science.gov (United States)

    As nanotechnology-based products enter into widespread use, nanomaterials will end up in disposal waste streams that are ultimately discharged to the environment. One possible end-of-life scenario is incineration. This review attempts to ascertain the potential pathways by which ...

  19. Geological disposal concept hearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The article outlines the progress to date on AECL spent-nuclear fuel geological disposal concept. Hearings for discussion, organised by the federal Environmental Assessment Review Panel, of issues related to this type of disposal method occur in three phases, phase I focuses on broad societal issues related to long term management of nuclear fuel waste; phase II will focus on the technical aspects of this method of disposal; and phase III will consist of community visits in New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. This article provides the events surrounding the first two weeks of phase I hearings (extracted from UNECAN NEWS). In the first week of hearings, where submissions on general societal issues was the focus, there were 50 presentations including those by Natural Resources Canada, Energy Probe, Ontario Hydro, AECL, Canadian Nuclear Society, Aboriginal groups, environmental activist organizations (Northwatch, Saskatchewan Environmental Society, the Inter-Church Uranium Committee, and the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear responsibility). In the second week of hearings there was 33 presentations in which issues related to siting and implementation of a disposal facility was the focus. Phase II hearings dates are June 10-14, 17-21 and 27-28 in Toronto

  20. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  1. Radwaste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehn, L.; Breza, M.; Pekar, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this lecture is given the basic information, that is concerning on the RAW treatment and long term disposal of the treated RAW in repository at Mochovce. Then here is given the basic technical and technological information, that is concerning bituminization, plant, the vitrification unit, center for the RAW-treatment (BSC) and repository at Mochovce. (authors)

  2. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  3. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    For disposing method of radioactive wastes, various feasibilities are investigated at every nations and international organizations using atomic energy, various methods such as disposal to cosmic space, disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole and so forth, disposal into ocean bed or its sediments, and disposal into ground have been examined. It is, however, impossible institutionally at present, to have large risk on accident in the disposal to cosmic space, to be prohibited by the South Pole Treaty on the disposal to ice sheet at the South Pole, and to be prohibited by the treaty on prevention of oceanic pollution due to the disposal of wastes and so forth on the disposal into oceanic bed or its sediments (London Treaty). Against them, the ground disposal is thought to be the most powerful method internationally from some reasons shown as follows: no burden to the next generation because of no need in long-term management by human beings; safety based on scientific forecasting; disposal in own nation; application of accumulated technologies on present mining industries, civil engineering, and so forth to construction of a disposal facility; and, possibility to take out wastes again, if required. For the ground disposal, wastes must be buried into the ground and evaluated their safety for long terms. It is a big subject to be taken initiative by engineers on geoscience who have quantified some phenomena in the ground and at ultra long term. (G.K.)

  4. Are Disposable and Standard Gonioscopy Lenses Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonny; Szirth, Bernard C; Fechtner, Robert D; Khouri, Albert S

    2017-04-01

    Gonioscopy is important in the evaluation and treatment of glaucoma. With increased scrutiny of acceptable sterilization processes for health care instruments, disposable gonioscopy lenses have recently been introduced. Single-time use lenses are theorized to decrease infection risk and eliminate the issue of wear and tear seen on standard, reusable lenses. However, patient care would be compromised if the quality of images produced by the disposable lens were inferior to those produced by the reusable lens. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of images produced by disposable versus standard gonioscopy lenses. A disposable single mirror lens (Sensor Medical Technology) and a standard Volk G-1 gonioscopy lens were used to image 21 volunteers who were prospectively recruited for the study. Images of the inferior and temporal angles of each subject's left eye were acquired using a slit-lamp camera through the disposable and standard gonioscopy lens. In total, 74 images were graded using the Spaeth gonioscopic system and for clarity and quality. Clarity was scored as 1 or 2 and defined as either (1) all structures perceived or (2) all structures not perceived. Quality was scored as 1, 2, or 3, and defined as (1) all angle landmarks clear and well focused, (2) some angle landmarks clear, others blurred, or (3) angle landmarks could not be ascertained. The 74 images were divided into images taken with the disposable single mirror lens and images taken with the standard Volk G-1 gonioscopy lens. The clarity and quality scores for each of these 2 image groups were averaged and P-values were calculated. Average quality of images produced with the standard lens was 1.46±0.56 compared with 1.54±0.61 for those produced with the disposable lens (P=0.55). Average clarity of images produced with the standard lens was 1.47±0.51 compared with 1.49±0.51 (P=0.90) with the disposable lens. We conclude that there is no significant difference in quality of images

  5. Shallow ground disposal of radioactive wastes. A guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This guidebook outlines the factors to be considered in site selection, design, operation, shut-down and surveillance as well as the regulatory requirements of repositories for safe disposal of radioactive waste in shallow ground. No attempt is made to summarize the existing voluminous literature on the many facets of radioactive waste disposal. In the context of this guidebook, shallow ground disposal refers to the emplacement of radioactive waste, with or without engineered barriers, above or below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick. Deep geological disposal and other underground disposal methods, management of mill tailings and disposal into the sea have been or will be considered in other IAEA publications. These guidelines have been made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of climatic, hydrogeological and biological conditions. They may need to be interpreted or modified to reflect local conditions and national regulations.

  6. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  7. Preliminary disposal limits, plume interaction factors, and final disposal limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-01-11

    In the 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA), each final disposal limit was constructed as the product of a preliminary disposal limit and a plume interaction factor. The following mathematical development demonstrates that performance objectives are generally expected to be satisfied with high confidence under practical PA scenarios using this method. However, radionuclides that experience significant decay between a disposal unit and the 100-meter boundary, such as H-3 and Sr-90, can challenge performance objectives, depending on the disposed-of waste composition, facility geometry, and the significance of the plume interaction factor. Pros and cons of analyzing single disposal units or multiple disposal units as a group in the preliminary disposal limits analysis are also identified.

  8. Disposal of fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Foley, C.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and pilot plant results have shown that the transport of fly-furnace ash from the power station to the disposal area as a high concentration slurry is technically viable and economically attractive. Further, lack of free water, when transported as a high concentration slurry, offers significant advantages in environmental management and rehabilitation of the disposal site. This paper gives a basis for the above observations and discusses the plans to exploit the above advantages at the Stanwell Power Station. (4 x 350 MWe). This will be operated by the Queensland Electricity Commission. The first unit is to come into operation in 1992 and other units are to follow progressively on a yearly basis

  9. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Save Our Earth series has been designed to appeal to the inquiring minds of ''planet-friendly'' young readers. There is now a greater awareness of environmental issues and an increasing concern for a world no longer able to tolerate the onslaught of pollution, the depletion of natural resources and the effects of toxic chemicals. Each book approaches a specific topic in a way that is exciting and thought-provoking, presenting the facts in a style that is concise and appropriate. The series aims to demonstrate how various environmental subjects relate to our lives, and encourages the reader to accept not only responsibility for the planet, but also for its rescue and restoration. This volume, on nuclear waste disposal, explains how nuclear energy is harnessed in a nuclear reactor, what radioactive waste is, what radioactivity is and its effects, and the problems and possible solutions of disposing of nuclear waste. An awareness of the dangers of nuclear waste is sought. (author)

  10. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  11. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, T A [JK Research Associates, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1990-07-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site.

  12. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  13. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  14. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  15. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  16. Talk about disposal for very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the current VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of four VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide, as well as disposal of VLLW in China are also briefly discussed and suggested. (authors)

  17. Disposal facilities for radioactive waste - legislative requirements for siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova-Mihaylova, Radosveta

    2015-01-01

    The specifics of radioactive waste, namely the content of radionuclides require the implementation of measures to protect human health and the environment against the hazards arising from ionizing radiation, including disposal of waste in appropriate facilities. The legislative requirements for siting of such facilities, and classification of radioactive waste, as well as the disposal methods, are presented in this publication

  18. Disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. Environmental impact assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The report presents the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the high level radioactive waste disposal in Finland. In EIA different alternatives concerning site selection, construction, operation and sealing of the disposal facility as well as waste transportation and encapsulation of the waste are considered

  19. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  20. Greater-confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Schubert, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Greater-confinement disposal (GCD) is a general term for low-level waste (LLW) disposal technologies that employ natural and/or engineered barriers and provide a degree of confinement greater than that of shallow-land burial (SLB) but possibly less than that of a geologic repository. Thus GCD is associated with lower risk/hazard ratios than SLB. Although any number of disposal technologies might satisfy the definition of GCD, eight have been selected for consideration in this discussion. These technologies include: (1) earth-covered tumuli, (2) concrete structures, both above and below grade, (3) deep trenches, (4) augered shafts, (5) rock cavities, (6) abandoned mines, (7) high-integrity containers, and (8) hydrofracture. Each of these technologies employ several operations that are mature,however, some are at more advanced stages of development and demonstration than others. Each is defined and further described by information on design, advantages and disadvantages, special equipment requirements, and characteristic operations such as construction, waste emplacement, and closure

  1. Inspection and verification of waste packages for near surface disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Extensive experience has been gained with various disposal options for low and intermediate level waste at or near surface disposal facilities. Near surface disposal is based on proven and well demonstrated technologies. To ensure the safety of near surface disposal facilities when available technologies are applied, it is necessary to control and assure the quality of the repository system's performance, which includes waste packages, engineered features and natural barriers, as well as siting, design, construction, operation, closure and institutional controls. Recognizing the importance of repository performance, the IAEA is producing a set of technical publications on quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) for waste disposal to provide Member States with technical guidance and current information. These publications cover issues on the application of QA/QC programmes to waste disposal, long term record management, and specific QA/QC aspects of waste packaging, repository design and R and D. Waste package QA/QC is especially important because the package is the primary barrier to radionuclide release from a disposal facility. Waste packaging also involves interface issues between the waste generator and the disposal facility operator. Waste should be packaged by generators to meet waste acceptance requirements set for a repository or disposal system. However, it is essential that the disposal facility operator ensure that waste packages conform with disposal facility acceptance requirements. Demonstration of conformance with disposal facility acceptance requirements can be achieved through the systematic inspection and verification of waste packages at both the waste generator's site and at the disposal facility, based on a waste package QA/QC programme established by the waste generator and approved by the disposal operator. However, strategies, approaches and the scope of inspection and verification will be somewhat different from country to country

  2. Environmental restoration waste materials co-disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Alexander, R.G.; England, J.L.; Kirdendall, J.R.; Raney, E.A.; Stewart, W.E.; Dagan, E.B.; Holt, R.G.

    1993-09-01

    Co-disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste is a highly efficient and cost-saving technology. The technology used for final treatment of soil-washing size fractionization operations is being demonstrated on simulated waste. Treated material (wasterock) is used to stabilize and isolate retired underground waste disposal structures or is used to construct landfills or equivalent surface or subsurface structures. Prototype equipment is under development as well as undergoing standardized testing protocols to prequalify treated waste materials. Polymer and hydraulic cement solidification agents are currently used for geotechnical demonstration activities

  3. The legal system of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauk, W.

    1983-01-01

    This doctoral thesis presents solutions to some of the legal problems encountered in the interpretation of the various laws and regulations governing nuclear waste disposal, and reveals the legal system supporting the variety of individual regulations. Proposals are made relating to modifications of problematic or not well defined provisions, in order to contribute to improved juridical security, or inambiguity in terms of law. The author also discusses the question of the constitutionality of the laws for nuclear waste disposal. Apart from the responsibility of private enterprise to contribute to safe treatment or recycling, within the framework of the integrated waste management concept, and apart from the Government's responsibility for interim or final storage of radioactive waste, there is a third possibility included in the legal system for waste management, namely voluntary measures taken by private enterprise for radioactive waste disposal. The licence to be applied for in accordance with section 3, sub-section (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance is interpreted to pertain to all measures of radioactive waste disposal, thus including final storage of radioactive waste by private companies. Although the terminology and systematic concept of nuclear waste disposal are difficult to understand, there is a functionable system of legal provisions contained therein. This system fits into the overall concept of laws governing technical safety and safety engineering. (orig./HSCH) [de

  4. Progress toward disposal of LLRW in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlesworth, D. H.

    1989-08-15

    Low-level radioactive wastes are managed in Canada currently by interim storage methods operated by the major generators of the wastes. The potential benefits of permanent disposal have led Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to undertake a development and demonstration program to make the transition from storage to disposal at its Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The first stages of the demonstration are based on an enhanced version of shallow land burial for the least hazardous wastes, and a unique design of a belowground concrete vault. The program includes the development and testing of the auxiliary equipment, processes and procedures necessary to support the disposal system, as well as the performance assessment methods and information needed to assure its safety.

  5. Progress toward disposal of LLRW in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.H.

    1989-08-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes are managed in Canada currently by interim storage methods operated by the major generators of the wastes. The potential benefits of permanent disposal have led Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to undertake a development and demonstration program to make the transition from storage to disposal at its Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The first stages of the demonstration are based on an enhanced version of shallow land burial for the least hazardous wastes, and a unique design of a belowground concrete vault. The program includes the development and testing of the auxiliary equipment, processes and procedures necessary to support the disposal system, as well as the performance assessment methods and information needed to assure its safety

  6. Cosmic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y; Morisawa, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-03-01

    The technical and economical possibility and safety of the disposal of highly radioactive waste into cosmos are reviewed. The disposal of highly radioactive waste is serious problem to be solved in the near future, because it is produced in large amounts by the reprocessing of spent fuel. The promising methods proposed are (i) underground disposal, (ii) ocean disposal, (iii) cosmic disposal and (iv) extinguishing disposal. The final disposal method is not yet decided internationally. The radioactive waste contains very long life nuclides, for example transuranic elements and actinide elements. The author thinks the most perfect and safe disposal method for these very long life nuclides is the disposal into cosmos. The space vehicle carrying radioactive waste will be launched safely into outer space with recent space technology. The selection of orbit for vehicles (earth satellite or orbit around planets) or escape from solar system, selection of launching rocket type pretreatment of waste, launching weight, and the cost of cosmic disposal were investigated roughly and quantitatively. Safety problem of cosmic disposal should be examined from the reliable safety study data in the future.

  7. DOE's planning process for mixed low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A disposal planning process was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) Disposal Workgroup. The process, jointly developed with the States, includes three steps: site-screening, site-evaluation, and configuration study. As a result of the screening process, 28 sites have been eliminated from further consideration for MLLW disposal and 4 sites have been assigned a lower priority for evaluation. Currently 16 sites are being evaluated by the DOE for their potential strengths and weaknesses as MLLW disposal sites. The results of the evaluation will provide a general idea of the technical capability of the 16 disposal sites; the results can also be used to identify which treated MLLW streams can be disposed on-site and which should be disposed of off-site. The information will then serve as the basis for a disposal configuration study, which includes analysis of both technical as well as non-technical issues, that will lead to the ultimate decision on MLLW disposal site locations

  8. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Innovative Disposal Practices at the Nevada Test Site to Meet Its Low-Level Waste Generators' Future Disposal Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sanza, E.F.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) streams which have a clear, defined pathway to disposal are becoming less common as U.S. Department of Energy accelerated cleanup sites enters their closure phase. These commonly disposed LLW waste streams are rapidly being disposed and the LLW inventory awaiting disposal is dwindling. However, more complex waste streams that have no path for disposal are now requiring attention. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NSO) Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility of carrying out the disposal of onsite and off-site defense-generated and research-related LLW at the Nevada. Test Site (NTS). The NSO and its generator community are constantly pursuing new LLW disposal techniques while meeting the core mission of safe and cost-effective disposal that protects the worker, the public and the environment. From trenches to present-day super-cells, the NTS disposal techniques must change to meet the LLW generator's disposal needs. One of the many ways the NTS is addressing complex waste streams is by designing waste specific pits and trenches. This ensures unusual waste streams with high-activity or large packaging have a disposal path. Another option the NTS offers is disposal of classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material. In order to perform this function, the NTS has a safety plan in place as well as a secure facility. By doing this, the NTS can accept DOE generated classified low-level radioactive-contaminated material that would be equivalent to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class B, C, and Greater than Class C waste. In fiscal year 2006, the NTS will be the only federal disposal facility that will be able to dispose mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW) streams. This is an activity that is highly anticipated by waste generators. In order for the NTS to accept MLLW, generators will have to meet the stringent requirements of the NTS

  10. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  11. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  12. Municipal sludge disposal economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, Jr, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-10-01

    Costs for disposal of sludges from a municipal wastewater treatment plant normally represents greater than or equal to 25% of the total plant operating cost. The following 5 sludge handling options are considered: chemical conditioning followed by vacuum filtration, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration or filter press prior to incineration; thermal conditioning, vacuum filtraton, and incineration; high-pressure wet-air oxidation and vacuum filtration, with ash to landfill; aerobic or anaerobic digestion, followed by chemical conditioning, vacuum filtration, and disposal on land; and chemical conditioning, followed by a filter press, flash dryer, and sale as fertilizer. The 1st 2 options result in the ultimate disposal of small amounts of ash in a landfill; the digestion options require a significant landfill; the fertilizer option requires a successful marketing and sales effort. To compare the economies of scale for the options, analyses were performed for 3 plant capacities - 10, 100, and 500 mgd; as plant size increases, the economies of scale for incineration system are quite favorable. The anaerobic digestion system has a poorer capital cost-scaling factor. The incinerator options which start with chemical conditioning consume much less electrical power at all treatment plant sizes; incinerator after thermal conditioning uses more electricity but less fuel. Digestion requires no direct external fossil fuel input. The relative use of fuel is constant at all plant sizes for other options. The incinerator options can produce a significant amount of steam which may be used. The anaerobic digestion process can be a significant net producer of fuel gas.

  13. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  14. Disposal - practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hycnar, J.; Pinko, L.

    1995-01-01

    Most Polish power plants have stockyards for storage of fly ash and slag. This paper describes the: methods of fly ash and slag storage used, methods of conveying the waste to the stockpiles (by railway cars, trucks, belt conveyors or hydraulically); construction of wet stockyards and dry stockyards and comparison of the ash dumped, development of methods of ash disposal in mine workings; composition and properties of fly ash and slag from hard coal; and the effects of ash storage yards on the environment (by leaching of trace elements, dust, effect on soils, and noise of machinery). 16 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Waste disposal experts meet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-01-15

    Problems connected with the disposal into the sea of radioactive wastes from peaceful uses of atomic energy are being examined by a panel of experts, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency. These experts from eight different countries held a first meeting at IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 4-9 December 1958, under the chairmanship of Dr. Harry Brynielsson, Director General of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company. The countries represented are: Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and United States. The group will meet again in 1959. (author)

  16. HLW Disposal System Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. W.; Choi, H. J.; Lee, J. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A KRS is suggested through design requirement analysis of the buffer and the canister which are the constituent of disposal system engineered barrier and HLW management plans are proposed. In the aspect of radionuclide retention capacity, the thickness of the buffer is determined 0.5m, the shape to be disc and ring and the dry density to be 1.6 g/cm{sup 3}. The maximum temperature of the buffer is below 100 .deg. which meets the design requirement. And bentonite blocks with 5 wt% of graphite showed more than 1.0 W/mK of thermal conductivity without the addition of sand. The result of the thermal analysis for proposed double-layered buffer shows that decrease of 7 .deg. C in maximum temperature of the buffer. For the disposal canister, the copper for the outer shell material and cast iron for the inner structure material is recommended considering the results analyzed in terms of performance of the canisters and manufacturability and the geochemical properties of deep groundwater sampled from the research area with granite, salt water intrusion, and the heavy weight of the canister. The results of safety analysis for the canister shows that the criticality for the normal case including uncertainty is the value of 0.816 which meets subcritical condition. Considering nation's 'Basic Plan for Electric Power Demand and Supply' and based on the scenario of disposing CANDU spent fuels in the first phase, the disposal system that the repository will be excavated in eight phases with the construction of the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) beginning in 2020 and commissioning in 2040 until the closure of the repository is proposed. Since there is close correlation between domestic HLW management plans and front-end/back-end fuel cycle plans causing such a great sensitivity of international environment factor, items related to assuring the non-proliferation and observing the international standard are showed to be the influential factor and acceptability

  17. Nuclear Waste Disposal Program 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the many important steps in the management of radioactive waste that have already been implemented in Switzerland. The handling and packaging of waste, its characterisation and inventorying, as well as its interim storage and transport are examined. The many important steps in Swiss management of radioactive waste already implemented and wide experience gained in carrying out the associated activities are discussed. The legal framework and organisational measures that will allow the selection of repository sites are looked at. The various aspects examined include the origin, type and volume of radioactive wastes, along with concepts and designs for deep geological repositories and the types of waste to be stored therein. Also, an implementation plan for the deep geological repositories, the required capacities and the financing of waste management activities are discussed as is NAGRA’s information concept. Several diagrams and tables illustrate the program

  18. Packages for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R. de.

    1983-01-01

    The development of multi-stage type package for sea disposal of compactable nuclear wastes, is presented. The basic requirements for the project followed the NEA and IAEA recommendations and observations of the solutions adopted by others countries. The packages of preliminary design was analysed, by computer, under several conditions arising out of its nature, as well as their conditions descent, dumping and durability in the deep of sea. The designed pressure equalization mechanic and the effect compacting on the package, by prototypes and specific tests, were studied. These prototypes were also submitted to the transport tests of the 'Regulament for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'. Based on results of the testes and the re-evaluation of the preliminary design, final indications and specifications for excuting the package design, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.52 Land disposal... wastes by placing in disposal units which are sufficiently separated from disposal units for the other... between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer zone...

  20. Borehole disposal design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RANDRIAMAROLAHY, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    In Madagascar, the sealed radioactive sources are used in several socioeconomic sectors such as medicine, industry, research and agriculture. At the end of their useful lives, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste and can be still dangerous because they can cause harmful effects to the public and the environment. This work entitled 'Borehole disposal design concept' consists in putting in place a site of sure storage of the radioactive waste, in particular, sealed radioactive sources. Several technical aspects must be respected to carry out such a site like the geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, meteorological and demographic conditions. This type of storage is favorable for the developing countries because it is technologically simple and economic. The cost of construction depends on the volume of waste to store and the depth of the Borehole. The Borehole disposal concept provides a good level of safety to avoid the human intrusion. The future protection of the generations against the propagation of the radiations ionizing is then assured. [fr

  1. Geoenvironment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    Within the activities planned by UNESCO in its Water and Earth Science programme, an interdisciplinary meeting on geology and environment was scheduled by this organization to be held by the beginning of 1983. At this meeting it was intended to consider geological processes in the light of their interaction and influence on the environment with special emphasis on the impact of various means of waste disposal on geological environment and on man-induced changes in the geological environment by mining, human settlements, etc. Considering the increasing interest shown by the IAEA in the field, through environmental studies, site studies, and impact studies for nuclear facilities and particularly nuclear waste disposal, UNESCO expressed the wish to organize the meeting jointly so as to take into account the experience gained by the Agency, and in order to avoid any duplication in the activities of the two organizations. This request was agreed to by the IAEA Secretariat and as a result, the meeting was organized by both organizations and held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 21-23 March 1983. The report of this meeting is herewith presented

  2. Mine tailings disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, P.A.; Adams, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    The hydrologic evaluation of mine tailings disposal sites after they are abandoned is considered in relation to their potential environmental impact on a long term basis. There is a direct relation between the amounts and types of water leaving a disposal site and the severity of the potential damage to the environment. The evaluation of the relative distribution of the precipitation reaching the ground into evaporation, runoff and infiltration is obtained for a selected site and type of tailings material whose characteristics and physical properties were determined in the soils laboratory. A conceptual model of the hydrologic processes involved and the corresponding mathematical model were developed to simulate the physical system. A computer program was written to solve the set of equations forming the mathematical model, considering the physical properties of the tailings and the rainfall data selected. The results indicate that the relative distribution of the precipitation depends on the surface and upper layer of the tailings and that the position of the groundwater table is governed by the flow through the bottom of the profile considered. The slope of the surface of the mass of tailings was found to be one of the principal factors affecting the relative distribution of precipitation and, therefore, the potential pollution of the environment

  3. Disposal of radioactive waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, W.J.; Burton, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of disposal of radioactive waste consists in disposing the waste in trenches dredged in the sea bed beneath shallow coastal waters. Advantageously selection of the sites for the trenches is governed by the ability of the trenches naturally to fill with silt after disposal. Furthermore, this natural filling can be supplemented by physical filling of the trenches with a blend of absorber for radionuclides and natural boulders. (author)

  4. Single well techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1983-01-01

    The single well technique method includes measurement of parameters of groundwater flow in saturated rock. For determination of filtration velocity the dilution of radioactive tracer is measured, for direction logging the collimeter is rotated in the probe linked with the compass. The limiting factor for measurement of high filtration velocities is the occurrence of turbulent flow. The single well technique is used in civil engineering projects, water works and subsurface drainage of liquid waste from disposal sites. The radioactive tracer method for logging the vertical fluid movement in bore-holes is broadly used in groundwater survey and exploitation. (author)

  5. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  6. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  7. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  8. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  9. Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, C. H.; Lee, Y. M.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, J. T.; Choi, J. W.; Park, S. W.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jeong, M. S.

    2010-02-01

    For the purpose of evaluating annual individual doses from a potential repository disposing of radioactive wastes from the operation of the prospective advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Korea, the new safety assessment approaches are developed such as PID methods. The existing KAERI FEP list was reviewed. Based on these new reference and alternative scenarios are developed along with a new code based on the Goldsim. The code based on the compartment theory can be applied to assess both normal and what if scenarios. In addition detailed studies on THRC coupling is studied. The oriental biosphere study ends with great success over the completion of code V and V with JAEA. The further development of quality assurance, in the form of the CYPRUS+ enables handy use of it for information management

  10. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, H.; Gottlieb, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year

  11. Nuclear waste disposal: two social criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochlin, G.I.

    1977-01-01

    Two criteria--technical irreversibility and site multiplicity--have been suggested for use in establishing standards for the disposal of nuclear wastes. They have been constructed specifically to address the reduction of future risk in the face of inherent uncertainty concerning the social and political developments that might occur over the required periods of waste isolation, to provide for safe disposal without the requirement of a guaranteed future ability to recognize, detect, or repair errors and failures. Decisions as to how to apply or weigh these criteria in conjunction with other waste management goals must be made by societies and their governments. The purpose of this paper was not to preempt this process, but to construct a framework that facilitates consideration of the ethical and normative components of the problem of nuclear waste disposal. The minimum ethical obligation of a waste disposal plan is to examine most thoroughly the potential consequences of present actions, to acknowledge them openly, and to minimize the potential for irremediable harm. An ethically sound waste management policy must reflect not only our knowledge and skills, but our limitations as well

  12. Inventory of radioactive waste disposals at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    The IAEA was requested by the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) to develop and maintain an inventory of radioactive material entering the marine environment from all sources. The rationale for having such an inventory is related to its use as an information base with which the impact of radionuclides from different sources entering the marine environment can be assessed and compared. To respond to the request of the London Convention, the IAEA has undertaken the development of the inventory to include: disposal at sea of radioactive wastes, and accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive materials. This report addresses disposal at sea of radioactive waste, a practice which continued from 1946 to 1993. It is a revision of IAEA-TECDOC-588, Inventory of Radioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment: Sea Disposal of Radioactive Waste, published in 1991. In addition to the data already published in IAEA-TECDOC-588, the present publication includes detailed official information on sea disposal operations carried out by the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation provided in 1993 as well as additional information provided by Sweden in 1992 and the United Kingdom in 1997 and 1998

  13. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  14. Cost effective disposal of whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zall, R R

    1980-01-01

    Means of reducing the problem of whey disposal are dealt with, covering inter alia the pre-treatment of cheese milk e.g., by ultrafiltration to lower the whey output, utilization of whey constituents, use of liquid whey for feeding, fermenting whey to produce methane and alcohol, and disposal of whey by irrigation of land or by purification in sewage treatment plants.

  15. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  16. Korean Reference HLW Disposal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, S. S. (and others)

    2008-03-15

    This report outlines the results related to the development of Korean Reference Disposal System for High-level radioactive wastes. The research has been supported around for 10 years through a long-term research plan by MOST. The reference disposal method was selected via the first stage of the research during which the technical guidelines for the geological disposal of HLW were determined too. At the second stage of the research, the conceptual design of the reference disposal system was made. For this purpose the characteristics of the reference spent fuels from PWR and CANDU reactors were specified, and the material and specifications of the canisters were determined in term of structural analysis and manufacturing capability in Korea. Also, the mechanical and chemical characteristics of the domestic Ca-bentonite were analyzed in order to supply the basic design parameters of the buffer. Based on these parameters the thermal and mechanical analysis of the near-field was carried out. Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical behavior of the disposal system was analyzed. The reference disposal system was proposed through the second year research. At the final third stage of the research, the Korean Reference disposal System including the engineered barrier, surface facilities, and underground facilities was proposed through the performance analysis of the disposal system.

  17. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report is an overview document for the series of IAEA reports dealing with underground waste disposal to be prepared in the next few years. It provides an introduction to the general considerations involved in implementing underground disposal of radioactive wastes. It suggests factors to be taken into account for developing and assessing waste disposal concepts, including the conditioned waste form, the geological containment and possible additional engineered barriers. These guidelines are general so as to cover a broad range of conditions. They are generally applicable to all types of underground disposal, but the emphasis is on disposal in deep geological formations. Some information presented here may require slight modifications when applied to shallow ground disposal or other types of underground disposal. Modifications may also be needed to reflect local conditions. In some specific cases it may be that not all the considerations dealt with in this book are necessary; on the other hand, while most major considerations are believed to be included, they are not meant to be all-inclusive. The book primarily concerns only underground disposal of the wastes from nuclear fuel cycle operations and those which arise from the use of isotopes for medical and research activities

  18. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  19. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  20. Safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, T.; Holliday, D.

    1997-01-01

    A high degree of international cooperation has characterized the two studies reported here which aim to address whether radioactive waste can be disposed of safely. Using hydrogeochemical and mineralogical surveying techniques earth scientists from the British Geological Survey have sought to identify and characterise suitable disposal sites. Aspects of the studies are explored emphasising their cooperative nature. (UK)

  1. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes - the debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, I.

    1985-01-01

    The paper defends the case for marine disposal of radioactive wastes. The amount of packaged waste disposed; the site for marine disposal; the method of disposal; the radioactivity arising from the disposal; and safety factors; are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Radioactive Waste Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal

    CERN Document Server

    Streffer, Christian; Kamp, Georg; Kröger, Wolfgang; Rehbinder, Eckard; Renn, Ortwin; Röhlig, Klaus-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Waste caused by the use of radioactive material in research, medicine and technologies, above all high level waste from nuclear power plants, must be disposed of safely. However, the strategies discussed for the disposal of radioactive waste as well as proposals for choosing a proper site for final waste disposal are strongly debated. An appropriate disposal must satisfy complex technical requirements and must meet stringent conditions to appropriately protect man and nature from risks of radioactivity over very long periods. Ethical, legal and social conditions must be considered as well. An interdisciplinary team of experts from relevant fields compiled the current status and developed criteria as well as strategies which meet the requirements of safety and security for present and future generations. The study also provides specific recommendations that will improve and optimize the chances for the selection of a repository site implementing the participation of stakeholders including the general public an...

  4. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  5. Engineering geology of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    This volume covers a wide spectrum of activities in the field of waste disposal. These activities range from design of new landfills and containment properties of natural clays to investigation, hazard assessment and remediation of existing landfills. Consideration is given to design criteria for hard rock quarries when used for waste disposal. In addition, an entire section concerns the geotechnics of underground repositories. This covers such topics as deep drilling, in situ stress measurement, rock mass characterization, groundwater flows and barrier design. Engineering Geology of Waste Disposal examines, in detail, the active role of engineering geologists in the design of waste disposal facilities on UK and international projects. The book provides an authoritative mix of overviews and detailed case histories. The extensive spectrum of papers will be of practical value to those geologists, engineers and environmental scientists who are directly involved with waste disposal. (UK)

  6. Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation: Waste Disposal In Engineered Trench #3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. L.; Smith, F. G. III; Flach, G. P.; Hiergesell, R. A.; Butcher, B. T.

    2013-07-29

    Because Engineered Trench #3 (ET#3) will be placed in the location previously designated for Slit Trench #12 (ST#12), Solid Waste Management (SWM) requested that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) determine if the ST#12 limits could be employed as surrogate disposal limits for ET#3 operations. SRNL documented in this Unreviewed Disposal Question Evaluation (UDQE) that the use of ST#12 limits as surrogates for the new ET#3 disposal unit will provide reasonable assurance that Department of Energy (DOE) 435.1 performance objectives and measures (USDOE, 1999) will be protected. Therefore new ET#3 inventory limits as determined by a Special Analysis (SA) are not required.

  7. The psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, J.; Eraenen, L.

    1999-03-01

    In this report the potential psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal to inhabitants of a community are assessed on the basis of earlier research. In studying the situation, different interpretations and meanings given to nuclear power are considered. First, spent fuel disposal is studied as fear-arousing and consequently stressful situation. Psychosomatic effects of stress and coping strategies used by an individual are presented. Stress as a collective phenomenon and coping mechanisms available for a community are also assessed. Stress reactions caused by natural disasters and technological disasters are compared. Consequences of nuclear power plant accidents are reviewed, e.g. research done on the accident at Three Mile Island power plant. Reasons for the disorganising effect on a community caused by a technological disaster are compared to the altruistic community often seen after natural disasters. The potential reactions that a spent fuel disposal plant can arouse in inhabitants are evaluated. Both short-term and long-term reactions are evaluated as well as reactions under normal functioning, after an incident and as a consequence of an accident. Finally an evaluation of how the decision-making system and citizens' opportunity to influence the decision-making affect the experience of threat is expressed. As a conclusion we see that spent fuel disposal can arouse fear and stress in people. However, the level of the stress is probably low. The stress is at strongest at the time of the starting of the spent fuel disposal plant. With time people get used to the presence of the plant and the threat experienced gets smaller. (orig.)

  8. Radioactive waste disposal assessment - overview of biosphere processes and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report provides an overview of biosphere processes and models in the general context of the radiological assessment of radioactive waste disposal as a basis for HMIP's response to biosphere aspects of Nirex's submissions for disposal of radioactive wastes in a purpose-built repository at Sellafield, Cumbria. The overview takes into account published information from the UK as available from Nirex's safety and assessment research programme and HMIP's disposal assessment programme, as well as that available from studies in the UK and elsewhere. (Author)

  9. Research on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing acceptability of the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations submitted by the implementor, and to establish a basic policy to secure safety for safety review. In FY 2010, 13 geology/climate related events for development of acceptance criteria for reviewing the adequacy of the result of Preliminary and Detailed Investigations were extracted. And the accuracy of geophysical exploration methods necessary for the Preliminary Investigation was evaluated. Regarding the research for safety review, we developed an idea of safety concept of Japanese geological disposal, and analyzed basic safety functions to secure safety. In order to verify the groundwater flow evaluation methods developed in regulatory research, the hydrological and geochemical data at Horonobe, northern Hokkaido were obtained, and simulated result of regional groundwater flow were compared with measured data. And we developed the safety scenario of geology/climate related events categorized by geological and geomorphological properties. Also we created a system to check the quality of research results in Japan and other countries in order to utilize for safety regulation, and developed a database system to compile them. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.

    1975-10-01

    After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr

  11. Radwaste disposal drum centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, L.S.; Deltete, C.P.; Crook, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The drum or processing bowl of the DDC becomes the disposal container when the filling operation is completed. Rehandling of the processed resin is eliminated. By allowing the centrifugally compacted resin to remain in the processing container, extremely efficient waste packaging can be achieved. The dewatering results and volume reductions reported during 1986 were based upon laboratory scale testing sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy (DOE). Since the publication of these preliminary results, additional testing using a full-scale prototype DDC has been completed, again under the auspices of the DOE. Full-scale testing has substantiated the results of earlier testing and has formed the basis for preliminary discussions with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regarding DDC licensing for radioactive applications. A comprehensive Topical Report and Process Control Program is currently being prepared for submittal to the NRC for review under a utility licensing action. Detailed cost-benefit analyses for actual plant operations have been prepared to substantiate the attractiveness of the DDC. Several methods to physically integrate a DDC into a nuclear power plant have also been developed

  12. Underground disposal of radioactive waste regulations in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The only method of final disposal of radioactive waste currently envisaged in the Netherlands is disposal in rock-salt. This question is at present being studied by governmental authorities, and a public discussion is foreseen for the near future. Various Ministries, as well as local authorities at both provincial and municipal levels, are involved in the licensing and control of waste disposal. The principal stages are site selection (including that for test-drilling), construction of the mine, and supervision of the repository. These activities are governed by the legislation on mining as well as by nuclear regulations. One matter still to be decided is the nature of the body to be responsible for conducting the disposal operations. (NEA) [fr

  13. Recycling And Disposal Of Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ui So

    1987-01-15

    This book introduces sewage disposal sludge including properties of sludge and production amount, stabilization of sludge by anaerobic digestion stabilization of sludge by aerobic digestion, stabilization of sludge by chemical method, and dewatering, water process sludge, human waste and waste fluid of septic tank such as disposal of waste fluid and injection into the land, urban waste like definition of urban waste, collection of urban waste, recycling, properties and generation amount, and disposal method and possibility of injection of industrial waste into the ground.

  14. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, J. D.; Goetsch, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper.

  15. FFTF disposable solid waste cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.D.; Goetsch, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) will utilize a Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) for the transport and burial of irradiated stainless steel and inconel materials. Retrievability coupled with the desire for minimal facilities and labor costs at the disposal site identified the need for the DSWC. Design requirements for this system were patterned after Type B packages as outlined in 10 CFR 71 with a few exceptions based on site and payload requirements. A summary of the design basis, supporting analytical methods and fabrication practices developed to deploy the DSWC is provided in this paper

  16. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.

    2002-01-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  17. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2002-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2001 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments (PA), waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. SCK-CEN partcipated in several PA projects supported by the European Commission. In the BENIPA project, the role of bentonite barriers in performance assessments of HLW disposal systems is evaluated. The applicability of various output variables (concentrations, fluxes) as performance and safety indicators is investigated in the SPIN project. The BORIS project investigates the chemical behaviour and the migration of radionuclides at the Borehole injection site at Krasnoyarsk-26 and Tomsk-7. SCK-CEN contributed to an impact assessment of a radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium) and conducted PA for site-specific concepts regarding surface or deep disposal of low-level waste at the nuclear zones in the Mol-Dessel region. As regards R and D on waste forms and packages, SCK continued research on the compatbility of various waste forms (bituminised waste, vitrified waste, spent fuel) with geological disposal in clay. Main emphasis in 2001 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to

  18. Direct ultimate disposal - state of investigations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasterstaedt, N.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a decision adopted by the Prime Ministers on 25/10/90, the principles governing preventive waste management of nuclear power plants are reviewed. Increasing importance is attached to the direct ultimate disposal alternative. The legal and political framework, the technology involved, the state of developments, future activities under the R and D programme as well as a cost estimate of direct ultimate disposal are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. French surface disposal experience. The disposal of large waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, Michel; Lecoq, Pascal; Duret, Franck; Mandoki, Robert

    2006-01-01

    More than 90 percent of the volume of radioactive waste that are generated in France can be managed in surface disposal facilities. Two facilities are presently operated by ANDRA: the Centre de l'Aube disposal facility that is dedicated to low and intermediate short lived waste and the Morvilliers facility for very low level waste. The Centre de l'Aube facility was designed at the end of the years 1980 to replace the Centre de la Manche facility that ended operation in 1994. In order to achieve as low external exposure as possible for workers it was decided to use remote handling systems as much as possible. Therefore it was necessary to standardize the types of waste containers. But taking into account the fact that these waste were conditioned in existing facilities, it was not possible to change a major part of existing packages. As a consequence, 6 mobile roofs were constructed to handle 12 different types of waste packages in the disposal vaults. The scope of Centre de l'Aube was mainly to dispose operational waste. However some packages, as 5 or 10 m 3 metallic boxes, could be used for larger waste generated by decommissioning activities. The corresponding flow was supposed to be small. After the first years of operations, it appeared interesting to develop special procedures to dispose specific large waste in order to avoid external exposure costly cutting works in the generating facilities. A 40 m 3 box and a large remote handling device were disposed in vaults that were currently used for other types of packages. Such a technique could not be used for the disposal of vessel heads that were replaced in 55 pressurised water power reactors. The duration of disposal and conditioning operation was not compatible with the flow of standard packages that were delivered in the vaults. Therefore a specific type of vault was designed, including handling and conditioning equipment. The first pressure vessel head was delivered on the 29 of July 2004, 6 heads have been

  20. Some aspects of beryllium disposal in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestakov, V.; Chikhray, Y.; Shakhvorostov, Yr.

    2004-01-01

    Historically in Kazakhstan all disposals of used beryllium and beryllium wasted materials were stored and recycled at JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant''. Since Ulba Metallurgical Plant (beside beryllium and tantalum production) is one of the world largest complex producers of fuel for nuclear power plants as well it has possibilities, technologies and experience in processing toxic and radioactive wastes related with those productions. At present time only one operating Kazakhstan research reactors (EWG1M in Kurchatov) contains beryllium made core. The results of current examination of that core allow using it without replacement long time yet (at least for next five-ten years). Nevertheless the problem how to utilize such irradiated beryllium becomes actual issue for Kazakhstan even today. Since Kazakhstan is the member of ITER/DEMO Reactors Projects and is permanently considered as possible provider of huge amount of beryllium for those reactors so that is the reason for starting studies of possibilities of large scale processing/recycling of such disposed irradiated beryllium. It is clear that the Ulba Metallurgical Plant is considered as the best site for it in Kazakhstan. The draft plan how to organize experimental studies of irradiated beryllium disposals in Kazakhstan involving National Nuclear Center, National University (Almaty), JSC ''Ulba Metallurgical Plant'' (Ust-Kamenogorsk) would be presented in this paper as well as proposals to arrange international collaboration in that field through ISTC (International Science Technology Center, Moscow). (author)

  1. Site evaluation for disposal facilities in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.

    1982-01-01

    Although the various geoscientific investigations are not finished yet, the results so far show that the Konrad mine has some outstanding geological features as required for a safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The iron ore formation is extremely dry. Seepage water is no threat to the waste disposal operation and the repository itself. The construction of stable underground storage rooms which are sufficiently seized in volume is possible. Galleries containing wastes in drums or contaminated components can be refilled and sealed efficiently as well as the rest of the mine including the two shafts. Thereafter the geological containment with its favourable structure and ideal petrology will be an effective barrier against the contamination of the biosphere. As investigated this applies in particular to the low-active wastes with their specific nuclide inventory and the short decay time. (orig.)

  2. Waste and Disposal: Concept and Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Buyens, M.; De Bruyn, D.; Volckaert, G.

    2001-01-01

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation. Within this context, various aspects concerning design and operation are investigated.The PRACLAY experiment will contribute to enhance understanding of water flow and mass transport in dense clay-based materials as well as to improve the design of the reference disposal concept. In 2000, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up, which is a surface experiment designed to prepare and to complement PRACLAY-related experimental work in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory

  3. Nuclear fuel waste disposal. Canada's consultative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillier, J A.R.; Dixon, R S [AECL (Canada)

    1993-07-01

    Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)

  4. Nuclear fuel waste disposal. Canada's consultative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, J.A.R.; Dixon, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two decades, society has increasingly demanded more public participation and public input into decision-making by governments. Development of the Canadian concept for deep geological disposal of used nuclear fuel has proceeded in a manner that has taken account of the requirements for social acceptability as well as technical excellence. As the agency responsible for development of the disposal concept, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has devoted considerable effort to consultation with the various publics that have an interest in the concept. This evolutionary interactive and consultative process, which has been underway for some 14 years, has attempted to keep the public informed of the technical development of the concept and to invite feedback. This paper describes the major elements of this evolutionary process, which will continue throughout the concept assessment and review process currently in progress. (author)

  5. Packaging radioactive wastes for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    The M ampersand O contractor for the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is developing designs of waste packages that will contain the spent nuclear fuel assemblies from commercial and Navy reactor plants and various civilian and government research reactor plants, as well as high-level wastes vitrified in glass. The safe and cost effective disposal of the large and growing stockpile of nuclear waste is of national concern and has generated political and technical debate. This paper addresses the technical aspects of disposing of these wastes in large and robust waste packages. The paper discusses the evolution of waste package design and describes the current concepts. In addition, the engineering and regulatory issues that have governed the development are summarized and the expected performance in meeting the requirements are discussed

  6. Developing a LLW disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.; Hanrahan, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    US Ecology has been designated by the State of California to site and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The firm identified three sites for detailed characterization work in February, 1987. Ecological and archaeological studies and related environmental assessments were undertaken to obtain land use permits from the Bureau of Land Management, which holds title to the sites. Geophysics investigations, exploratory borings, well drilling and weather station installation followed. Local Committees were established for each site to assist US Ecology in evaluating socio-economic impacts, and Native Americans were consulted regarding cultural resources. The project's Citizens Advisory Committee assisted in evaluating the three candidate sites. US Ecology systematically integrated citizen involvement into the technical studies leading to selection of the two site finalists. This approach furthered two objectives. Community leaders and the public received accurate information on the nature of low-level radioactive waste and the environmental conditions appropriate for its disposal

  7. Application of Generic Disposal System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2015 (FY2015) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code (Hammond et al., 2011) and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code (Adams et al., 2013). Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through the engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to a well location in an overlying or underlying aquifer. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  8. Peristaltic pumps for waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Laboratory robots are capable of generating large volumes of hazardous liquid wastes when they are used to perform chemical analyses of metal finishing solutions. A robot at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division, generates 30 gallons of acid waste each month. This waste contains mineral acids, heavy metals, metal fluorides, and other materials. The waste must be contained in special drums that are closed to the atmosphere. The initial disposal method was to have the robot pour the waste into a collecting funnel, which contained a liquid-sensing valve to admit the waste into the drum. Spills were inevitable, splashing occurred, and the special valve often didn't work well. The device also occupied a large amount of premium bench space. Peristaltic pumps are made to handle hazardous liquids quickly and efficiently. A variable-speed pump, equipped with a quick-loading pump head, was mounted below the robot bench near the waste barrel. The pump inlet tube was mounted above the bench within easy reach of the robot, while the outlet tube was connected directly to the barrel. During operation, the robot brings the waste liquid up to the pump inlet tube and activates the pump. When the waste has been removed, the pump stops. The procedure is quick, simple, inexpensive, safe, and reliable

  9. Disposal Site Information Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.A.; Jouse, C.A.; Esparza, V.

    1986-01-01

    An information management system for low-level waste shipped for disposal has been developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The Disposal Site Information Management System (DSIMS) was developed to provide a user friendly computerized system, accessible through NRC on a nationwide network, for persons needing information to facilitate management decisions. This system has been developed on NOMAD VP/CSS, and the data obtained from the operators of commercial disposal sites are transferred to DSIMS semiannually. Capabilities are provided in DSIMS to allow the user to select and sort data for use in analysis and reporting low-level waste. The system also provides means for describing sources and quantities of low-level waste exceeding the limits of NRC 10 CFR Part 61 Class C. Information contained in DSIMS is intended to aid in future waste projections and economic analysis for new disposal sites

  10. Disposal of old printed journals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-02-21

    Feb 21, 2018 ... Notice inviting Tender for Disposal of Old Printed Journals & Old News Papers. Indian Academy of ... The competent authority also reserves the right to reject any or all the tenders without assigning any reason thereof. 19.

  11. Radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This compilation contains 4144 citations of foreign and domestic reports, journal articles, patents, conference proceedings, and books pertaining to radioactive waste processing and disposal. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  12. Disposal phase experimental program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility comprises surface and subsurface facilities, including a repository mined in a bedded salt formation at a depth of 2,150 feet. It has been developed to safely and permanently isolate transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes in a deep geological disposal site. On April 12, 1996, the DOE submitted a revised Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The DOE anticipates receiving an operating permit from the NMED; this permit is required prior to the start of disposal operations. On October 29, 1996, the DOE submitted a Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in accordance with the WIPP land Withdrawal Act (LWA) of 1992 (Public Law 102-579) as amended, and the requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) Parts 191 and 194. The DOE plans to begin disposal operations at the WIPP in November 1997 following receipt of certification by the EPA. The disposal phase is expected to last for 35 years, and will include recertification activities no less than once every five years. This Disposal Phase Experimental Program (DPEP) Plan outlines the experimental program to be conducted during the first 5-year recertification period. It also forms the basis for longer-term activities to be carried out throughout the 35-year disposal phase. Once the WIPP has been shown to be in compliance with regulatory requirements, the disposal phase gives an opportunity to affirm the compliance status of the WIPP, enhance the operations of the WIPP and the national TRU system, and contribute to the resolution of national and international nuclear waste management technical needs. The WIPP is the first facility of its kind in the world. As such, it provides a unique opportunity to advance the technical state of the art for permanent disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes

  13. Americium product solidification and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Campbell, D.O.; Bell, J.T.; Collins, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    The americium product from the TRUEX processing plant needs to be converted into a form suitable for ultimate disposal. An evaluation of the disposal based on safety, number of process steps, demonstrated operability of the processes, production of low-level alpha waste streams, and simplicity of maintenance with low radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance, has been made. The best process is to load the americium on a cation exchange resin followed by calcination or oxidation of the resin after loading

  14. Waste disposal into the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlers, P.; Kunig, P.

    1987-01-01

    The waste disposal at sea is regulated for the most part by national administrative law, which mainly is based on international law rules supplemented by EC-law. The dumping of low-level radioactive waste into the sea is more and more called into question. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the subsoil of the sea does not correspond to the London Convention. (WG) [de

  15. Near-surface land disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Handbook provides a comprehensive, systematic treatment of nuclear waste management. Near-Surface Land Disposal, the first volume, is a primary and secondary reference for the technical community. To those unfamiliar with the field, it provides a bridge to a wealth of technical information, presenting the technology associated with the near-surface disposal of low or intermediate level wastes. Coverage ranges from incipient planning to site closure and subsequent monitoring. The book discusses the importance of a systems approach during the design of new disposal facilities so that performance objectives can be achieved; gives an overview of the radioactive wastes cosigned to near-surface disposal; addresses procedures for screening and selecting sites; and emphasizes the importance of characterizing sites and obtaining reliable geologic and hydrologic data. The planning essential to the development of particular sites (land acquisition, access, layout, surface water management, capital costs, etc.) is considered, and site operations (waste receiving, inspection, emplacement, closure, stabilization, etc.) are reviewed. In addition, the book presents concepts for improved confinement of waste, important aspects of establishing a monitoring program at the disposal facility, and corrective actions available after closure to minimize release. Two analytical techniques for evaluating alternative technologies are presented. Nontechnical issues surrounding disposal, including the difficulties of public acceptance are discussed. A glossary of technical terms is included

  16. The disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The first part shows different ways of 'producing' radioactive wastes, defines the wastes of small, medium and high activity and gives estimation on the quantity of the necessary capacities of waste disposal facilities. The modern radioactive waste disposal that is the integrated processing of the form of waste, the package, the technical facility and the embedding geological environment that guarantee the isolation together. Another factor is the lifetime of radioactive waste which means that any waste containing long lifetime waste in higher concentration than 400-4000 kBq/kg should be disposed geologically. Today the centre of debate disposal of radioactive waste is more social than technical. For this reason not only geological conditions and technical preparations, but social discussions and accepting communities are needed in selecting place of facilities. Now, the focus is on long term temporary disposal of high activity wastes, like burnt out heating elements. The final part of the paper summarizes the current Hungarian situation of disposal of radioactive wastes. (T-R.A.)

  17. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGhan, V.L.; Myers, D.A.; Damschen, D.W.

    1976-03-01

    The Hanford Reservation contains about 2100 wells constructed from pre-Hanford Works to the present. As of Jan. 1976, about 1800 wells still exist, 850 of which were drilled to the groundwater table; 700 still contain water. This report provides the most complete documentation of these wells and supersedes all previous compilations, including BNWL-1739

  18. Regional disposal, a feasible solution for Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Almost every country that exploits or builds nuclear power plants is engaged in its own research or international cooperation programs aiming at identification of optimal solutions of closing the fuel cycle and finding feasible technologies for final disposal of spent fuel and high-level wastes resulting from reprocessing. The general trend that manifests in these countries is to manage on their own territories the final disposal while considering the possibility of regional arrangements for common disposal. But this latter alternative has not been definitively analyzed and decided upon. Hence, European Union and IAEA look for solutions of long term (of the order of hundreds years) for the final disposal, particularly within regional facilities. Multinational repositories where disposal of high-level wastes or spent fuel should appear as a paid specialized servicing, where the operation technical conditions would be well established, as secure from nuclear safety and physical point of view, under the provisions of safeguards agreements, are still under consideration. No matter of the option which will be chosen, closing the nuclear cycle and ensuring a final disposal facility for radioactive wastes are compulsory tasks and issues with many aspects in common (establishing a site hosted by stable deep geological formations, protection by engineered barriers to prevent dispersion of radioactive products into the environment, long term analyses, etc). In this circumstances, having in mind that no other variant appears to be achievable before 2020-2050, intermediate term storage appears as compulsory a solution in developing the fuel cycle both world wide and in Romania, As early as in the first half of 2003 at Cernavoda, the Intermediate Storage for Spent Fuel (DICA) was commissioned. This is a facility founded for the first time in Romania aiming at closing the fuel cycle. The paper presents the current issues and the results obtained so far within the frame of

  19. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Murano, Tohru; Hirusawa, Shigenobu; Komoto, Harumi

    2000-03-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  20. The development of international safety standards on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartin, T.

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA is developing a set of safety requirements for geologic disposal to be used by both developers and regulators for planning, designing, operating, and closing a geologic disposal facility. Safety requirements would include quantitative criteria for assessing safety of geologic disposal facilities as well as requirements for development of the facility and the safety strategy including the safety case. Geologic disposal facilities are anticipated to be developed over a period of at least a few decades. Key decisions, e.g., on the disposal concept, siting, design, operational management and closure, are expected to be made in a series of steps. Decisions will be made based on the information available at each step and the confidence that may be placed in that information. A safety strategy is important for ensuring that at each step during the development of the disposal facility, an adequate understanding of the safety implications of the available options is developed such that the ultimate goal of providing an acceptable level of operational and post closure safety will be met. A safety case for a geologic disposal facility would present all the safety relevant aspects of the site, the facility design and the managerial and regulatory controls. The safety case and its supporting assessments illustrates the level of protection provided and shall give reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. Overall, the safety case provides confidence in the feasibility of implementing the disposal system as designed, convincing estimates of the performance of the disposal system and a reasonable assurance that safety standards will be met. (author)

  1. Sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsaev, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of investigations of possibility of sub-seabed disposal of long-living intermediate-level radioactive wastes carried out by NIREX (UK) is described. Advantages and disadvantages of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes are considered; regions suitable for disposal, transport means for marine disposal are described. Three types of sub-seabed burials are characterized

  2. Galileo disposal strategy: stability, chaos and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Aaron J.; Daquin, Jérôme; Tsiganis, Kleomenis; Alessi, Elisa Maria; Deleflie, Florent; Rossi, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Giovanni B.

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the medium-Earth orbit (MEO) region of the global navigation satellite systems is permeated by a devious network of lunisolar secular resonances, which can interact to produce chaotic and diffusive motions. The precarious state of the four navigation constellations, perched on the threshold of instability, makes it understandable why all past efforts to define stable graveyard orbits, especially in the case of Galileo, were bound to fail; the region is far too complex to allow for an adoption of the simple geosynchronous disposal strategy. We retrace one such recent attempt, funded by ESA's General Studies Programme in the frame of the GreenOPS initiative, that uses a systematic parametric approach and the straightforward maximum-eccentricity method to identify long-term-stable regions, suitable for graveyards, as well as large-scale excursions in eccentricity, which can be used for post-mission deorbiting of constellation satellites. We then apply our new results on the stunningly rich dynamical structure of the MEO region towards the analysis of these disposal strategies for Galileo, and discuss the practical implications of resonances and chaos in this regime. We outline how the identification of the hyperbolic and elliptic fixed points of the resonances near Galileo can lead to explicit criteria for defining optimal disposal strategies.

  3. The politics of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1992-01-01

    Plans for radioactive waste disposal have been among the most controversial of all environmental policies, provoking vociferous public opposition in a number of countries. This book looks at the problem from an international perspective, and shows how proposed solutions have to be politically and environmentally, as well as technologically acceptable. In the book the technical and political agenda behind low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in the UK, Western Europe, Scandinavia and North America is examined. The technical issues and the industrial proposals and analyses and factors which have been crucial in affecting relative levels of public acceptability are set out. Why Britain has lagged behind countries such as Sweden and France in establishing Low Level Waste (LLW) and Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) sites, the strength of the 'not in my backyard' syndrome in Britain, and comparisons of Britain's decision-making process with the innovative and open pattern followed in the US and Canada are examined. An important insight into the problems facing Nirex, Britain's radioactive waste disposal company, which is seeking to establish an underground waste site at Sellafield in Cumbria is given. (author)

  4. The effect of liner hydraulic conductivity on disposal cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    Multilayered disposal cells are frequently used for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous wastes. These disposal cells consist of materials with different permeabilities that are placed in various thicknesses at the bottom as well as in the cover of the cell. Typically, a layer of permeable material is placed above a layer with low permeability; the permeable layer functions as a drainage/leachate collection system and the low-permeability layer functions as a migration barrier/liner. This paper analyzes the effects of infiltration through unsaturated soil liners on the long-term performance of the disposal cell. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the long-term performance of a disposal cell is dependent on a well-designed cell cover. The design should emphasize a cap with less permeable material to prevent water from infiltrating the disposal cell. An impermeable bottom liner is effective only in the short term; however, it can eventually result in saturation of the wastes and cause the bathtub effect over the long term

  5. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  6. The chemistry of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiles, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    About one-fifth of the world's supply of energy is derived from nuclear fission. While this important source of power avoids the environmental and resource problems of most other fuels, and although nuclear accident statistics are much less alarming, no other peacetime technology has evoked such public disquiet and impassioned feeling. Central to dealing with these fears is the management and disposal of radioactive waste. An expert Canadian panel in 1977 recommended permanent disposal of wastes in deep geological formations, providing a basis for subsequent policies and research. In 1988, the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO) appointed a panel to assess the proposed disposal concepts and to recommend government policy. The panel in turn appointed a Scientific Review Group to examine the underlying science. Behind all these issues lay one central question: How well is the chemistry understood? This became the principal concern of Professor Donald Wiles, the senior nuclear chemist of the Scientific Review Group. In this book, Dr. Wiles carefully describes the nature of radioactivity and of nuclear power and discusses in detail the management of radioactive waste by the multi-barrier system, but also takes an unusual approach to assessing the risks. Using knowledge of the chemical properties of the various radionuclides in spent fuel, this book follows each of the important radionuclides as it travels through the many barriers placed in its path. It turns out that only two radionuclides are able to reach the biosphere, and they arrive at the earth's surface only after many thousands of years. A careful analysis of the critical points of the disposal plan emphasizes site rejection criteria and other stages at which particular care must be taken, demonstrating how dangers can be anticipated and putting to rest the fear of nuclear fuel waste and its geological burial

  7. Thermal loading effects on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Venet, P.

    1984-01-01

    A joint study on the thermal loading effects on geological disposal was carried out within the European Community Programme on Management and Storage of Radioactive Waste by several laboratories in Belgium, France and the Federal Republic of Germany. The purpose of the work was to review the thermal effects induced by the geological disposal of high-level wastes and to assess their consequences on the 'admissible thermal loading' and on waste management in general. Three parallel studies dealt separately with the three geological media being considered for HLW disposal within the CEC programme: granite (leadership: Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA), France), salt (leadership: Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung (GSF), Federal Republic of Germany), and clay (leadership: Centre d'etude de l'energie nucleaire (CEN/SCK), Belgium). The studies were based on the following items: only vitrified high-level radioactive waste was considered; the multi-barrier confinement concept was assumed (waste glass, container (with or without overpack), buffer material, rock formation); the disposal was foreseen in a deep mined repository, in an 'in-land' geological formation; only normal situations and processes were covered, no 'accident' scenario being taken into account. Although reasonably representative of a wide variety of situations, the data collected and the results obtained are generic for granite, formation-specific for salt (i.e. related to the north German Zechstein salt formation), and site-specific for clay (i.e. concentrated on the Boom clay layer at the Mol site, Belgium). For each rock type, realistic temperature limits were set, taking into account heat propagation, thermo-mechanical effects inside the rock formations, induced or modified groundwater or brine movement, effects on the buffer material as well as effects on the waste glass and canister, and finally, nuclide transport

  8. Amazing wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.; Leschart, M.; Mahoney, J.; Smith, M.

    2002-02-01

    Six wells and a drilling rig, setting company, national and world records such as deepest well, longest horizontal well, and record setting completion technology are described. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is mainly responsible for these outstanding successes. Discovered more than 20 years ago by a then Imperial oil scientist (Dr. Roger Butler) SAGD promises recovery rates of about 70 per cent for the right reservoir; more than twice the 25 to 30 per cent recovery rate with cyclic stimulation at Cold Lake and an average recovery rate of about 28 per cent for all Alberta light, medium and heavy oil wells. The seven facilities discussed in this article are : (1) Alberta Energy Company's Forest Hill oil sands project near Cold Lake, the first commercial SAGD operation where well pairs are producing 1,200-1,500 bbls per day; (2) Talisman Energy's Lovett River wells, which hold the company's depth record for a horizontal well in the Alberta Foothills; (3) Also owned by Talisman Energy in the Buchan Field in the North Sea, this well is famous for the fact that it was drilled with coiled tubing from a floating production vessel; : (4) in the Peco Field, south of Edson Alberta and owned by EOG Resources Canada, this well holds the Canadian offshore record for a single run using rotary steerable technology; (5) Burlington Resources Canada 's Burlington HZ Hinton 2-34-52-26 W5M well is best known for its record setting extended reach open hole coiled tubing job; (6) another Burlington Resources well holds the record for the deepest one-trip whipstock system ever run in Canada and milled successfully in one trip; and (7) a drilling rig in the Wabasca-Brintnell area of northern Alberta, owned by Canadian Natural Resources Limited, holds the record for drilling the largest number of horizontal holes in one year with the same rig.

  9. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Live Well Mental Health Substance Use Smoking Healthy Diet Physical Activity Family Planning Living with HIV: Travel ... to his or her health and well-being. Smoking - Tobacco use is the ... year. Healthy Diet - No matter your HIV status, healthy eating is ...

  10. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book gives descriptions of waste water disposal, design and management, which includes design of waterworks and sewerage facility such as preparatory work and building plan, used waste water disposal facilities, waste water disposal plant and industrial waste water disposal facilities, water use of waste water disposal plant and design of pump and pump facilities such as type and characteristic, selection and plan, screening and grit.

  11. Hanford wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details

  12. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P. [Saanio and Riekkola Consulting Engineers, Helsinki (Finland); Raiko, H.; Vieno, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Salo, J.P. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.).

  13. Assessment of alternative disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.; Saanio, T.; Tolppanen, P.; Raiko, H.; Vieno, T.; Salo, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    Four alternative repository designs for the disposal of spent nuclear in the Finnish crystalline bedrock were assessed in the study. The alternatives were: (1) the basic KBS-3 design in which copper canisters are emplaced in vertical deposition holes bored in the floors of horizontal tunnels, (2) the KBS-3-2C design with two canisters in a deposition hole, (3) Short Horizontal Holes (SHH) in the side walls of the tunnels, and (4) the Medium Long Holes (MLH) concept in which approximately 25 canisters are emplaced in a horizontal deposition hole about 200 metres in length bored between central and side tunnels. In all the alternatives considered, the thickness of the layer of compacted bentonite between copper canister and bedrock is 35 cm. Two different copper canister designs were also assessed. Technical feasibility and flexibility, post-closure safety and repository cost were assessed for each of the alternative canister and repository designs. On the basis of this assessment it is recommended that further development and studies should focus on the vacuum- or inert gas-filled cast insert type copper canister and the basic KBS-3 type repository design with a single canister in a vertical deposition hole. The KBS-3 design is robust and flexible and provides excellent post-closure safety. The transfer, emplacement and sealing operations are technically uncomplicated. The alternative options assessed do not offer any significant benefits in safety or cost over the basic design, but they are technically more complex and also in some respects more vulnerable to malfunction during the emplacement of canisters and buffer, as well as common mode failures. (60 refs.)

  14. Depleted uranium disposal options evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.; Otis, M.D.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, has chartered a study to evaluate alternative management strategies for depleted uranium (DU) currently stored throughout the DOE complex. Historically, DU has been maintained as a strategic resource because of uses for DU metal and potential uses for further enrichment or for uranium oxide as breeder reactor blanket fuel. This study has focused on evaluating the disposal options for DU if it were considered a waste. This report is in no way declaring these DU reserves a ''waste,'' but is intended to provide baseline data for comparison with other management options for use of DU. To PICS considered in this report include: Retrievable disposal; permanent disposal; health hazards; radiation toxicity and chemical toxicity

  15. Waste disposal into the ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawson, C A

    1955-07-01

    The establishment of an atomic energy project is soon followed by the production of a variety of radioactive wastes which must be disposed of safely, quickly and cheaply. Experience has shown that much more thought has been devoted to the design of plant and laboratories than to the apparently dull problem of what to do with the wastes, but the nature of the wastes which will arise from nuclear power production calls for a change in this situation. We shall not be concerned here with power pile wastes, but disposal problems which have occurred in operation of experimental reactors have been serious enough to show that waste disposal should be considered during the early planning stages. (author)

  16. Deep borehole disposal of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, F. G. F.; Taylor, K. J.; Burakov, B. E.

    2008-01-01

    Excess plutonium not destined for burning as MOX or in Generation IV reactors is both a long-term waste management problem and a security threat. Immobilisation in mineral and ceramic-based waste forms for interim safe storage and eventual disposal is a widely proposed first step. The safest and most secure form of geological disposal for Pu yet suggested is in very deep boreholes and we propose here that the key to successful combination of these immobilisation and disposal concepts is the encapsulation of the waste form in small cylinders of recrystallized granite. The underlying science is discussed and the results of high pressure and temperature experiments on zircon, depleted UO 2 and Ce-doped cubic zirconia enclosed in granitic melts are presented. The outcomes of these experiments demonstrate the viability of the proposed solution and that Pu could be successfully isolated from its environment for many millions of years. (authors)

  17. Underground radioactive waste disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frgic, L.; Tor, K.; Hudec, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some solutions for radioactive waste disposal. An underground disposal of radioactive waste is proposed in deep boreholes of greater diameter, fitted with containers. In northern part of Croatia, the geological data are available on numerous boreholes. The boreholes were drilled during investigations and prospecting of petroleum and gas fields. The available data may prove useful in defining safe deep layers suitable for waste repositories. The paper describes a Russian disposal design, execution and verification procedure. The aim of the paper is to discuss some earlier proposed solutions, and present a solution that has not yet been considered - lowering of containers with high level radioactive waste (HLW) to at least 500 m under the ground surface.(author)

  18. Well drilling summary report for well 199-N-106A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, L.D.

    1996-02-01

    Past liquid waste disposal practices within the 100-N Area have resulted in the contamination of the underlying sediments and groundwater. The release of large volumes of liquid effluent to the 1301-N and 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facilities caused the transport of 90 Sr and other contaminants to the groundwater. Further discussion of 100-N Area hydrogeology is provided in Hartman and Lindsey (1993). A pump-and-treat system combined with a vertical barrier is the preferred alternative for the N Springs Expedited Response Action. This document is a compilation of the data collected during the drilling of well 199-N-106A, an extraction well for the 100-N Pump-and-Treat Project

  19. Waste disposal developments within BNFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc has broad involvement in topics of radioactive waste generation, treatment, storage and disposal. The Company's site at Drigg has been used since 1959 for the disposal of low level waste and its facilities are now being upgraded and extended for that purpose. Since September 1987, BNFL on behalf of UK Nirex Limited has been managing an investigation of the Sellafield area to assess its suitability for deep underground emplacement of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. An approach will be described to establish a partnership with the local community to work towards a concept of monitored, underground emplacement appropriate for each waste category. (author)

  20. Radioactive waste disposal and constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stober, R.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal has many dimensions with regard to the constitutional law. The central problem is the corret delimitation between adequate governmental precautions against risks and or the permitted risk which the state can impose on the citizen, and the illegal danger which nobody has to accept. The solution requires to consider all aspects which are relevant to the constitutional law. Therefore, the following analysis deals not only with the constitutional risks and the risks of the nuclear energy, but also with the liberal, overall-economic, social, legal, and democratic aspects of radioactive waste disposal. (HSCH) [de

  1. TMI abnormal wastes disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary storage casks; (2) underground storage in vaults; and (3) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  2. Sewage sludge disposal in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.

    1997-01-01

    Sewage systems serve about 70% of the Austrian population, producing 6 million m 3 of sewage sludge per year with a dry matter content of 4-5%. At present about 52% of this sludge is disposed of in land fills, 33% is incinerated, and only about 15 % is used in agriculture. Although agricultural utilization is becoming increasingly important, several problems, especially those related to public opinion, need to be resolved before increased use will be possible. In this paper, wastewater treatment and sewage-sludge production in Austria, and problems associated with sludge disposal are discussed. (author)

  3. Disposal of Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, R.A.; Burnham, J.B.; Nelson, I.C.

    1986-01-01

    An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the disposal of Hanford Defense Waste is scheduled to be released near the end of March, 1986. This EIS will evaluate the impacts of alternatives for disposal of high-level, tank, and transuranic wastes which are now stored at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site or will be produced there in the future. In addition to releasing the EIS, the Department of Energy is conducting an extensive public participation process aimed at providing information to the public and receiving comments on the EIS

  4. Salt formations offer disposal alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funderburk, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how three U.S. firms are spending millions to permit and build underground disposal sites in salt formations. These companies claim salt is the ideal geological medium for holding hazardous wastes. Two Texas locations and one in Michigan have been targeted as future sites for hazardous waste disposal. The Michigan site, outside Detroit, is a former salt mine 2,000 feet beneath the Ford Motor Co. (Detroit) assembly works in Dearborn. Both Texas sites are atop salt domes---one east and one west of Houston

  5. Radioactive wastes processing and disposing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Jiro; Kato, Hiroaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a processing and disposing container at low level radioactive wastes, excellent in corrosion and water resistance, as well as impact shock resistance for the retrieval storage over a long period of time. Constitution: The container is constituted with sands and pebbles as aggregates and glass fiber-added unsaturated polyester resins as binders. The container may entirely be formed with such material or only the entire inner surface may be formed with the material as liners. A container having excellent resistance to water, chemicals, freezing or melting, whether impact shock, etc. can be obtained, thereby enabling retrieval storage for radioactive wastes at the optimum low level. (Takahashi, M.)

  6. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadesse, Tewodros; Ruijs, Arjan; Hagos, Fitsum

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

  7. Financing of radioactive waste disposal. Finanzierung der nuklearen Entsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP).

  8. Patients’ Knowledge and Attitude toward the Disposal of Medications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeshah AlAzmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Safe disposal of medications is of high concern as malpractice may lead to harmful consequences such as undesirable effects, prescription drug abuse, overstocking, self-medication, accidental overdose, and even death. There is a lack of uniform and nationwide guidance on how patients should safely dispose their leftover medications. This study aims to assess patients’ knowledge and attitude regarding the disposal of medications. Method. This research is a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from various outpatient pharmaceutical services in King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC, Jeddah. Results. The study revealed that 73% of the respondents throw the medications in the trash, 14% return the medications to a pharmacy, 5% never dispose them, and 3% donate the medications to a friend or charity centers. More than 80% of the respondents never received any information or advice from healthcare providers about safe and proper disposal of medications. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that there is an immediate requirement for the establishment of collaborative and uniform guidelines for the safe disposal of leftover medications. A policy for drug donation needs to be included in routine patient education as well as educational and collective programs for the public.

  9. Environmental protection for subsea wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, R.J.; Osborne, R.S.; Elwood, J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for receiving and containing surplus fluid from a subsea well installation on the ocean floor including a subsea wellhead assembly disposed in an enclosed protective chamber. It comprises a fluid-carrying conduit connected to the exterior of the protective chamber in fluid communication with the interior of the protective chamber; an inflatable dracon disposed upon and against the ocean floor in protective relation thereto when deflated and releasably connected in fluid communication to an outlet of the conduit; and pressure-balanced relief valve means disposed in the conduit between the outlet and the protective chamber for communicating surplus fluid from the interior of such chamber to the dracon when the fluid pressure within such chamber exceeds a predetermined value. This patent describes a method of completing an underwater well. It comprises installing a hollow cylindrical silo body with attached conductor guide casing into the sea floor; drilling and casing a well through the silo body and conductor guide casing; installing a wellhead assembly on top of the drilled and cased well inside of the silo body; installing a pressure-containing lid on top of the silo body, forming an enclosed protective chamber and isolating the interior of the chamber from the surrounding hydrostatic head of the sea water

  10. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  11. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  12. Fire analyses in central and disposal tunnels by APROS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltokorpi, L.; Kukkola, T.; Nieminen, J.

    2012-12-01

    The central tunnels and the disposal tunnels on the north-east disposal area are the target areas of the fire studies. Target is to maintain under pressure in the fire zone in case of a fire. In the central tunnels a fire of a drilling jumbo with moderate fire propagation is used as heat release rate. In the disposal tunnel the heat release rate of a canister transfer and installation vehicle fire received as a result of the pyrolysis analyze as well as an average heat release rate of a van fire are used. Inlet air is to be conducted to the back end of the fire zone and the exhaust is to be lead out from the beginning of the fire zone. The worst location of the fire is in the beginning of the fire zone just below of the exhaust air clap valve. The size of the fire zone does not have big impact on pressure. In all analyzed cases the fire zone remains too long time over pressurized. Inlet air flow of a 30 m 3 /s is too much. The rotation controlled booster blowers will solve the pressure problems of the fire zone in fire cases. The rotation is controlled by the fire zone pressure. The fire of the canister transfer and installation vehicle in the central tunnel will not cause problems. The disposal tunnel fire door should be kept open, if the canister transfer and installation vehicle or the bentonite blocks transfer and installation vehicle is driven into the disposal tunnel. If a fire is caught in the disposal tunnel then the fire zone in the central tunnel is to be closed and the pressure is controlled by the rotation controlled booster blowers. If a personnel car or a van is driven into the disposal tunnel, then fire door of the disposal is to be kept closed against fires in the central tunnel. (orig.)

  13. Militantly Well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    futures that transcend conflict engagement and wartime suffering for young militiamen. It clarifies the positive prospects that are expected to lie beyond the known horrors of war. Though conflict and warfare may provide strange points of departure for talking about well-being, imaginaries of happiness...... stand out from a background of hardship and are talked about in both a quite concrete way, as a lack of insecurity, as well as in an abstract way, as realization of social being. However, for most of the people I talk to, happiness remains elusive and evades their desperate attempts to grasp it...

  14. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P

    2001-04-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued.

  15. Waste and Disposal: Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution to the annual report describes the main activities of the Waste and Disposal Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN. Achievements in 2000 in three topical areas are reported on: performance assessments, waste forms/packages and near- and far field studies. Performance assessment calculations were made for the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived waste in a clay formation. An impact assessment was completed for the radium storage facility at Olen (Belgium). Geological data, pumping rates and various hydraulic parameters were collected in support of the development of a new version of the regional hydrogeological model for the Mol site. Research and Development on waste forms and waste packages included both in situ and laboratory tests. Main emphasis in 2000 was on corrosion studies on vitrified high-level waste, the investigation of localised corrosion of candidate container and overpack materials and the study of the effect of the degradation of cellulose containing waste as well as of bituminized waste on the solubility and the sorption of Pu and Am in geological disposal conditions in clay. With regard to near- and far-field studies, percolation and diffusion experiments to determine migration parameters of key radionuclides were continued. The electromigration technique was used to study the migration of redox sensitive species like uranium. In addition to laboratory experiments, several large-scale migration experiments were performed in the HADES Underground Research Laboratory. In 2000, the TRANCOM Project to study the influence of dissolved organic matter on radionuclide migration as well as the RESEAL project to demonstrate shaft sealing were continued

  16. Subseabed disposal project experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valent, P.J.; Burns, J.T.; Walter, D.J.; Li, H.; Bennett, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Induced excess pore water pressures resulting from the insertion of piezometer probes of 8-mm (0.31-in.) diameter and a simulated waste canister of 102-mm (4.0-in.) diameter and the dissipation of these excess pressures were measured during deep-ocean component tests of the In Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE). The sediment at the Pacific test site 1100 km north of Oahu, Hawaii, is an illitic clay. Insertion-induced excess pore pressures were found to agree well with those predicted by models. Several aspects of the induced excess pressure dissipation were evaluated including the effects of probe and heater diameter, distal excess pore pressure response, and the synergistic excess pore pressure response from multiple insertions. The dissipation of induced excess pressures measured at each piezometer is predicted well by theory. The same analytical models predict the excess pore pressure history measured at the piezometers in response to the waste canister insertion. Present models were evaluated that predict insertion excess pressures and their dissipation rate at the probe surface and distal, far field, points

  17. Safe disposal of surplus plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W. L.; Naz, S.; Lutze, W.; Busch, R.; Prinja, A.; Stoll, W.

    2001-06-01

    About 150 tons of weapons grade and weapons usable plutonium (metal, oxide, and in residues) have been declared surplus in the USA and Russia. Both countries plan to convert the metal and oxide into mixed oxide fuel for nuclear power reactors. Russia has not yet decided what to do with the residues. The US will convert residues into a ceramic, which will then be over-poured with highly radioactive borosilicate glass. The radioactive glass is meant to provide a deterrent to recovery of plutonium, as required by a US standard. Here we show a waste form for plutonium residues, zirconia/boron carbide (ZrO 2/B 4C), with an unprecedented combination of properties: a single, radiation-resistant, and chemically durable phase contains the residues; billion-year-old natural analogs are available; and criticality safety is given under all conceivable disposal conditions. ZrO 2/B 4C can be disposed of directly, without further processing, making it attractive to all countries facing the task of plutonium disposal. The US standard for protection against recovery can be met by disposal of the waste form together with used reactor fuel.

  18. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  19. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  20. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  1. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  2. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity: Disposal of Aqueous PUREX Waste Stream in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Aqueous PUREX waste stream from Tanks 33 and 35, which have been blended in Tank 34, has been identified for possible processing through the Saltstone Processing Facility for disposal in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

  3. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  4. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-01-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  5. Wellness centrum

    OpenAIRE

    Krchňák, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práce „Wellness centrum'' je zpracována ve formě prováděcí dokumentace obsahující všechny náležitosti dle platných norem a předpisů. Navržený objekt je řešen jako třípodlažní budova. Objekt slouží veřejnosti k rekreaci a sportu. V 1S je umístěno technické zázemí, zázemí pro zaměstnance, šatny a posilovna. V 1 NP se nachází kavárna a wellness. Ve 2NP se nachází kanceláře pro administrativu budovy, masáže, solárium, šatny a fitness sál. Budova je založena na základových patkách a nosn...

  6. Disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Kuehn, K.

    1977-01-01

    Final storage of nuclear wastes in the salt mine at Asse is described. Until the end of 1976, all in all 73,000 containers with slightly radioactive wastes were deposited there within the framework of a test programme - the Asse pit is a pilot plant. Final storage of medium active waste was started in 1972. So far, about 1,150 barrels with medium active waste were deposited. Storage techniques applied, radiation exposure of the personnel and experience gained so far are reported on in this context. Final storage at Asse of highly active wastes developing decay heat is still in a preparatory stage, as here radiation as well as heat problems have to be mastered. Technical mining activities for the recoverable storage of highly-active, heat-developing wastes in the form of ceramic glasses are still in a planning phase, whereas advance work, e.g. cutting storage chambers out of seams 775 m thick have already begun. (HPH) [de

  7. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel from NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.

    2004-01-01

    In order to get a clear view of the future liabilities of Slovenia and Croatia regarding the long term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by the NPP Krsko, an estimation of disposal cost for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) as well as for spent nuclear fuel is needed. This cost estimation represents the basis for defining the target value for the financial resources to be accrued by the two national decommissioning and waste disposal funds, as determined in the agreement between Slovenia and Croatia on the ownership and exploitation of the NPP Krsko from March 2003, and for specifying their financial strategies. The one and only record of the NPP Krsko spent fuel disposal costs was made in the NPP Krsko Decommissioning Plan from 1996 [1]. As a result of incomplete input data, the above SF disposal cost estimate does not incorporate all cost elements. A new cost estimation was required in the process of preparation of the Joint Decommissioning and Waste Management Programme according to the provisions of the above mentioned agreement between Slovenia and Croatia. The basic presumptions and reference scenario for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel on which the cost estimation is based, as well as the applied methodology and results of cost estimation, are presented in this paper. Alternatives to the reference scenario and open questions which need to be resolved before the relevant final decision is taken, are also briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Disposal facility in Olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in tunnel transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or a by vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  9. Disposal facility in olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in lift transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or by a vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  10. Radioactive waste disposal and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, M.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties presented by the current atomic energy law for the nuclear waste disposal in Switzerland are shown. It is emphasised how important scientific information is in the political solutions for nuclear disposal

  11. 48 CFR 245.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 245.603 Section 245.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Contractor Inventory 245.603 Disposal methods. ...

  12. Disposable products in the hospital waste stream.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilden, D. J.; Scissors, K. N.; Reuler, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    Use of disposable products in hospitals continues to increase despite limited landfill space and dwindling natural resources. We analyzed the use and disposal patterns of disposable hospital products to identify means of reducing noninfectious, nonhazardous hospital waste. In a 385-bed private teaching hospital, the 20 disposable products of which the greatest amounts (by weight) were purchased, were identified, and total hospital waste was tabulated. Samples of trash from three areas were so...

  13. Self-disposal option for heat-generating waste - 59182

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, Michael I.; Poluektov, Pavel P.; Kascheev, Vladimir A.

    2012-01-01

    well as from intermediate-depth or deep boreholes. Self-disposal can also be used with a novel purpose - to penetrate into the very deep Earth's layers beneath the Moho's discontinuity and to explore Earth interior. (authors)

  14. Main approaches to solving the problems of radioactive waste processing and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.M.; Syrkus, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    papers devoted to the problems of processing and disposal of radioactive wastes, formed during nuclear facility operation and after decommissioning are reviewed. Techniques for gaseous and liquid waste solidification, as well as solid waste processing by mechanical fragmentation and combustion are considered. Possibilities of radioactive waste disposal in cosmic space, their burial at the bed of seas ansd oceans, in geological storages are discussed. Special attention disposal. The conclusion is made that today there are no any uniform way for radiactive waste disposal and standard technical means for its realization. Solution of the problems considered should be of a complex character and it is carried out within international research programs

  15. Disposal of infective waste: demonstrated information and actions taken by nursing and medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenícia Custodia Silva Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The inappropriate disposal of infectious waste generates occupational and environmental risks, representing the main cause of accidents with biological material. The aim of the present study was to verify the knowledge and the practice regarding the disposal of infectious waste among nursing and medical undergraduate students at a public university in the state of Goiás. Data were collected with the application of a questionnaire. The respondent students were observed in their practice and data were recorded in a checklist. Nursing students presented greater knowledge than medical students on the disposal of contaminated gloves (x²; p<0.001, as well as on the disposal of sharp cutting instruments (p=0.001. Contaminated gloves were disposed of into bags for common waste both by the nursing and the medical students. Results evidenced that the knowledge of students on the disposal of infectious waste was poor and insufficient to ensure its application to practice.

  16. Technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    Good design is an important step towards ensuring operational as well as long term safety of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal. The IAEA has produced this report with the objective of outlining the most important technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities and to provide some examples of the design process in different countries. This guidance has been developed in light of experience gained from the design of existing near surface disposal facilities in a range of Member States. In particular the report provide information on design objective, design requirements, and design phases. The report focuses on: near surface disposal facilities accepting solidified LILW; disposal facilities on or just below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick; and disposal facilities several tens of metres below the ground surface (including rock cavern type facilities)

  17. Waste disposal options report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the potential options for the processing and disposal of mixed waste generated by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. It compares the proposed waste-immobilization processes, quantifies and characterizes the resulting waste forms, identifies potential disposal sites and their primary acceptance criteria, and addresses disposal issues for hazardous waste

  18. Oil statistics 1976: supply and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Summary tables are included for the period 1960 to 1976. The detailed tables for 1976 cover production, supply and disposal; supply and disposal by product; imports by sources; imports from member countries; exports by destination; exports to member countries; consumption by end-use sectors; and supply and disposal of finished products by country (1975 and 1976). (DLC)

  19. Disposal of radioactive wastes. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skitt, J.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)

  20. 7 CFR 2902.21 - Disposable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposable containers. 2902.21 Section 2902.21... Items § 2902.21 Disposable containers. (a) Definition. Products designed to be used for temporary... paragraph (d): Disposable containers can include boxes and packaging made from paper. Under the Resource...

  1. Solid waste disposal into salt mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repke, W.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction to disposal of radioactive waste; handling of solid nuclear waste; technology of final disposal, with specific reference to salt domes; conditioning of radioactive waste; safety barriers for radioactive waste; practice of final disposal in other countries. (U.K.)

  2. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  3. Radioactive wastes storage and disposal. Chapter 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Chapter 8 is essentially dedicated to radioactive waste management - storage and disposal. The management safety is being provided due to packages and facilities of waste disposal and storage. It is noted that at selection of sites for waste disposal it is necessary account rock properties and ways of the wastes delivery pathways

  4. 48 CFR 2845.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Disposal methods. 2845.603 Section 2845.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Contract Management GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 2845.603 Disposal methods...

  5. 48 CFR 945.603 - Disposal methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal methods. 945.603 Section 945.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 945.603 Disposal methods. ...

  6. Nuclear waste management: storage and disposal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.; Dave, S.A.; O'Connell, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Long-term disposal of nuclear wastes must resolve difficulties arising chiefly from the potential for contamination of the environment and the risk of misuse. Alternatives available for storage and disposal of wastes are examined in this overview paper. Guidelines and criteria which may govern in the development of methods of disposal are discussed

  7. Wellness hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Bambas, Vratislav

    2013-01-01

    Novostavba Wellness hotelu. Objekt je částečně podsklepen. Hotel se skládá ze tří částí. Střední trakt je železobetonový skelet a má pět nadzemních podlaží. Tato část slouží jako vstupní hala a hlavní schodiště. Boční trakty mají čtyři nadzemní podlaží a jejich nosný systém je příčný stěnový, zděný, ze systému Porotherm. V suterénu se nachází zázemí hotelu a bazén. Do přízemí je umístěno restaurační zařízení. Ve druhém patře se nacházejí pokoje, posilovna a služby. V posledním patře jsou pouz...

  8. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  9. Novel Emplacement Device for a Very Deep Borehole Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui-joo; Lee, Jong Yul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    There is a worldwide attempt of HLW disposal into a very deep borehole of around 3-5 km depth with the advancement of an underground excavation technology recently. As it goes into deeper underground, the rock becomes more uniform and flawless. And then the underground water circulation system at 3-5 km depth is almost disconnected with near groundwater circulation system. The canister integrity is less important in this very deep borehole disposal system unlike a general geologic disposal system at 500 m. In the deep borehole disposal procedures, one SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) assembly is stored in one disposal canister (D30-40cm, H4.7-5.0m), and approximately 10-40 disposal canisters are connected axially, which parade length can leach to around 200m in maximum. The connected canister parade is lowered through a very deep borehole (D40-50cm) by emplacement devices. Therefore the connections between canisters and canister to lowering joint are very important for the safe operation of it. The well-known connection method between canisters is Threaded Coupled Connection method, in which releasing of the connection is almost impossible after thread fastening in the borehole. The novel joint device suggested in this paper can accommodate a canister emplacement and retrieval in the borehole disposal process. The joint can be lowered by bound to a drilling pipe, or high tension cable along 3-5 km distance. This novel device can cope with an accidental event easily without any joint head change. When canisters are damaged or stuck on the borehole wall during their descending, the canisters in trouble can be retrieved simply by the control of a lifting speed.

  10. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment

  12. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1994-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  13. Effluent treatment and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great increase in the attention given to environmental matters by the public, media and Government. This has been reflected in the increased stature of environmental pressure groups and the introduction of new regulatory bodies and procedures. However, the satisfactory treatment and disposal of waste depends ultimately upon the development and employment of efficient low cost processes, and the enforcement of effective legislation. This Conference organised by the Yorkshire Branch of IChemE in association with the Institution's Environmental Protection Subject Group, will address the areas of waste monitoring, developments in pollution control processes and process economics and will look forward to future trends in waste disposal. It will also consider the impact of recent legislation upon the process industries. (author)

  14. Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dody, A.; Klein, Ben; David, O.

    2014-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive waste imposes complicated constrains on the regulator to ensure the isolation of radioactive elements from the biosphere. The IAEA (1995) states that T he objective of radioactive waste management is to deal with radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment now and the future without imposing undue burdens on future generation . The meaning of this statement is that the operator of the waste disposal facilities must prove to the regulator that in routine time and in different scenarios the dose rate to the public will not exceed 0.3 mSv/y in the present and in the future up to 10,000 years

  15. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  16. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States

  17. Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.

    1979-05-01

    The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States.

  18. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Von Sperling, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    "Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: wastewater characteristics (flow and major constituents) impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes overview of wastewater treatment systems complementary items in planning studies. This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations f...

  19. Differing approaches to waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, G.

    1983-01-01

    The social, political, and economic problems of radioactive waste management, which are discussed at a scientific afternoon meeting held during the IAEA general conference on 12 October, with speakers from Argentina, West Germany, France, India, Japan, Sweden, Britain and the United States, are described. An OECD Nuclear Energy Agency report on the demonstration of long-term safety of deep underground disposal of high level radioactive waste is discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  1. Radiaoctive waste packaging for transport and final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Prior and after the conditioning of radioactive wastes is the packaging design of uppermost importance since it will be the first barrier against water and human intrusion. The choice of the proper package according waste category as well criteria utilized for final disposal are shown. (author) [pt

  2. Subseabed-disposal program: systems-analysis program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, R.D.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains an overview of the Subseabed Nuclear Waste Disposal Program systems analysis program plan, and includes sensitivity, safety, optimization, and cost/benefit analyses. Details of the primary barrier sensitivity analysis and the data acquisition and modeling cost/benefit studies are given, as well as the schedule through the technical, environmental, and engineering feasibility phases of the program

  3. Disposal of radioactive waste. An overview of the principles involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive waste management strategies and practices have been reviewed in many publications. By and large these documents are technical in nature and they do not normally discuss the motives that determine which course of action should be taken. The present document concentrates on these less well defined aspects and is intended to provide a review of the philosophy underlying the current technical approach to the disposal of radioactive waste. Disposal is the final step in waste management and may be simply defined as a method of dealing with wastes for which there is no intention of retrieval

  4. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  5. Waste management, final waste disposal, fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengeling, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    Out of the legal poblems that are currently at issue, individual questions from four areas are dealt with: privatization of ultimate waste disposal; distribution of responsibilities for tasks in the field of waste disposal; harmonization and systematization of regulations; waste disposal - principles for making provisions for waste disposal - proof of having made provisions for waste disposal; financing and fees. A distinction has to be made between that which is legally and in particular constitutionally imperative or, as the case may be, permissible, and issues where there is room for political decision-making. Ultimately, the deliberations on the amendment are completely confined to the sphere of politics. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Phytoextraction crop disposal--an unsolved problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sas-Nowosielska, A.; Kucharski, R.; Malkowski, E.; Pogrzeba, M.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Krynski, K.

    2004-01-01

    Several methods of contaminated crop disposal after phytoextraction process (composting, compaction, incineration, ashing, pyrolysis, direct disposal, liquid extraction) have been described. Advantages and disadvantages of methods are presented and discussed. Composting, compaction and pyrolysis are the pretreatment steps, since significant amount of contaminated biomass will still exist after each of the process. Four methods of final disposal were distinguished: incineration, direct disposal, ashing and liquid extraction. Among them, incineration (smelting) is proposed as the most feasible, economically acceptable and environmentally sound. - Methods of contaminated crop disposal are described and evaluated

  7. Social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste disposal is a two-faceted challenge: a scientific and technological endeavour, on the one hand, and confronted with social dimensions, on the other. In this paper I will sketch the respective social dimensions and will give a plea for interdisciplinary research approaches. Relevant social dimensions of nuclear waste disposal are concerning safety standards, the disposal 'philosophy', the process of determining the disposal site, and the operation of a waste disposal facility. Overall, cross-cutting issues of justice, responsibility, and fairness are of major importance in all of these fields.

  8. Institutional storage and disposal of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Germain, J.

    1986-01-01

    Storage and disposal of radioactive materials from nuclear medicine operations must be considered in the overall program design. The storage of materials from daily operation, materials in transit, and long-term storage represent sources of exposure. The design of storage facilities must include consideration of available space, choice of material, occupancy of surrounding areas, and amount of radioactivity anticipated. Neglect of any of these factors will lead to exposure problems. The ultimate product of any manipulation of radioactive material will be some form of radioactive waste. This waste may be discharged into the environment or placed within a storage area for packaging and transfer to a broker for ultimate disposal. Personnel must be keenly aware of packaging regulations of the burial site as well as applicable federal and local codes. Fire codes should be reviewed if there is to be storage of flammable materials in any area. Radiation protection personnel should be aware of community attitudes when considering the design of the waste program

  9. Disposal of radioactive and other hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boge, R.; Bergman, C.; Bergvall, S.; Gyllander, C.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop was discuss legal, scientific and practical aspects of disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste and other types of hazardous waste. During the workshop the non-radioactive wastes discussed were mainly wastes from energy production, but also industrial, chemical and household wastes. The workshop gave the participants the opportunity to exchange information on policies, national strategies and other important matters. A number of invited papers were presented and the participants brought background papers, describing the national situation, that were used in the working groups. One of the main aims of the workshop was to discuss if the same basic philosophy as that used in radiation protection could be used in the assessment of disposal of non-radioactive waste, as well as to come up with identifications of areas for future work and to propose fields for research and international cooperation. The main text of the report consists of a summary of the discussions and the conclusions reached by the workshop

  10. Separation, storage and disposal of krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Technical means available for the retention of 85 Kr and its immobilization, storage and disposal are reviewed. Cryogenic processes for the separation of krypton and xenon from diluting gases are discussed in more detail. Besides the cryogenic processes, a liquid adsorption process for reprocessing off-gases and charcoal adsorption and membrane processes for reactor off-gases are also dealt with. The retained krypton can be stored in pressurized containers with air or water cooling. The containers can be kept in engineered storage facilities for an intermediate period or until the 85 Kr has decayed. Alternatively, the krypton may be encapsulated in a solid. The injection of gases containing krypton into suitable geologic strata may also be possible. Much of the equipment required for the separation and storage of krypton, well known from ordinary technology, often needs some adaptation. Further R and D work is, however, needed to solve some problems which are specific to highly concentrated fission krypton. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: methods available for the separation of krypton from off-gases; separation of krypton from reactor off-gas; separation of krypton from reprocessing off-gas; conditioning methods; engineering storage; transportation; disposal

  11. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  12. [Analysis on relationship between regional economic development and sewage disposal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Zhu, Ji-Ye; Li, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Chao

    2008-03-01

    Based on the relationship between district GDP and sewage disposal, the water environment protection effect in 3 cities, Suzhou, Nanjing and Xuzhou, with different economic development degrees in Jiangsu Province was dynamically analyzed. The economy in Suzhou was well developed, where the foreign capital proportion was in a high level. Its GDP per capita was 53,800 yuan in 2005 and the sewage disposal grew linearly when its GDP increased in the study time period. Nanjing was less developed than Suzhou, and the state-owned enterprises in large and medium sizes were in a high percentage. Its GDP per capita was 37,100 yuan in 2005, while the sewage disposal reduced linearly when its GDP increased in the study time period. The economy in Xuzhou is under-developed, where coal-based heavy industry was the most important one. The GDP per capita in this city was 13,200 yuan in 2005 and the sewage disposal fluctuated when its GDP increased in the study time period. According to the relationship between economic development and sewage disposal in different cities, we suggested that the water environment protection in Suzhou should focus on the control of both water pollutant total emission and emission concentration, the major work in Nanjing should focus on adjusting the industrial structure and meanwhile controlling the total emission of water pollutants, while in Xuzhou the water pollutant emission concentration should be firstly controlled.

  13. Disposal of mixed waste: Technical, institutional, and policy factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Letourneau, M.J.; Case, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    In conjunction with the affected States as part of their interactions required by the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, the Department of Energy has been developing a process for a disposal configuration for its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). This effort, spanning more than two years, has reduced the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. The remaining 15 sites have been subjected to a performance evaluation to determine their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. The process has included institutional and policy factors as well as strictly technical analyses, and technical analyses must be supported by technical analyses, and technical analyses must be performed within a framework which includes some institutional considerations, with the institutional considerations selected for inclusion largely a matter of policy. While the disposal configuration process is yet to be completed, the experience to date offers a viable approach for solving some of these issues. Additionally, several factors remain to be addressed before an MLLW disposal configuration can be developed

  14. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10 5 m 3 of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10 14 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99 Tc (t 1/2 = 2.1 x 10 5 ), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  15. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10{sup 14} Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally {sup 99}Tc (t{sub 1/2} = 2.1 x 10{sup 5}), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  16. DOE SNF technology development necessary for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, D.L.; Fillmore, D.L.; Windes, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Existing technology is inadequate to allow safe disposal of the entire inventory of US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Needs for SNF technology development were identified for each individual fuel type in the diverse inventory of SNF generated by past, current, and future DOE materials production, as well as SNF returned from domestic and foreign research reactors. This inventory consists of 259 fuel types with different matrices, cladding materials, meat composition, actinide content, and burnup. Management options for disposal of SNF include direct repository disposal, possible including some physical or chemical preparation, or processing to produce a qualified waste form by using existing aqueous processes or new treatment processes. Technology development needed for direct disposal includes drying, mitigating radionuclide release, canning, stabilization, and characterization technologies. While existing aqueous processing technology is fairly mature, technology development may be needed to apply one of these processes to SNF different than for which the process was originally developed. New processes to treat SNF not suitable for disposal in its current form were identified. These processes have several advantages over existing aqueous processes

  17. Development of technical information database for high level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Koji; Takada, Susumu; Kawanishi, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    A concept design of the high level waste disposal information database and the disposal technologies information database are explained. The high level waste disposal information database contains information on technologies, waste, management and rules, R and D, each step of disposal site selection, characteristics of sites, demonstration of disposal technology, design of disposal site, application for disposal permit, construction of disposal site, operation and closing. Construction of the disposal technologies information system and the geological disposal technologies information system is described. The screen image of the geological disposal technologies information system is shown. User is able to search the full text retrieval and attribute retrieval in the image. (S.Y. )

  18. Radiological Impact Assessment in Disposal of Treated Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairuddin Mohamad Kontol; Ismail Sulaiman; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim

    2015-01-01

    Sludge and scales produced during oil and gas production contain enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Sludge and scales are under the jurisdiction of Department of Environment (DOE) and also Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). AELB has issued a guideline regarding the disposal of sludge and scales as in its guideline (LEM/TEK/30 SEM.2, 1996). In this guideline, Radiological Impact Assessment (RIA) should be carried out on all proposed disposals and has to demonstrate that no member of public will be exposed to more than 1 mSv/y. This paper presented RIA analysis using RESRAD computer code for the disposal of treated sludge. RESRAD (RESidual RADioactive) developed by Argonne National Laboratory is to estimate radiation doses and risks from residual radioactive materials. The dose received by the member of public is found to be well below the stipulated limit. (author)

  19. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD's International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  20. Experience in the upgrading of radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.

    2000-01-01

    The national Belarus radioactive disposal facility 'Ekores' is designed for waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. Currently 12-20 tons of waste and over 6000 various types spent sources annually come to the 'Ekores'. Total activity in the vaults is evaluated as 352.8 TBq. Approximately 150 000 spent sources disposed of in the vaults and wells have total activity about 1327 TBq. In 1997 the Government initiated a project for the facility reconstruction in order to upgrade radiological safety of the site by creating adequate safety conditions for managing and storage of the waste. The reconstruction project developed by Belarus specialists has been reviewed by IAEA experts. This covers modernising technologies for new coming waste and also that the waste currently disposed in the pits is retrieved, sorted and treated in the same way as the new coming waste

  1. Pilot tests on radioactive waste disposal in underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the pilot test carried out in the underground facilities in the Asse salt mine (Germany) and in the Boom clay beneath the nuclear site at Mol (Belgium). These tests include test disposal of simulated vitrified high-level waste (HAW project) and of intermediate level waste and spent HTR fuel elements in the Asse salt mine, as well as an active handling experiment with neutron sources, this last test with a view to direct disposal of spent fuel. Moreover, an in situ test on the performance of a long-term sealing system for galleries in rock salt is described. Regarding the tests in the Boom clay, a combined heating and radiation test, geomechanical and thermo-hydro mechanical tests are dealt with. Moreover, the design of a demonstration test for disposal of high-level waste in clay is presented. Finally the situation concerning site selection and characterization in France and the United Kingdom are described

  2. Decision nearing on final disposal of spent fuel in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vira, J.

    2000-01-01

    The programme for final disposal of spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power plants is entering into important phase: in the year 2000 the Finnish Government is expected to decide whether the proposal made by Posiva Oy on the spent fuel disposal is in line with the overall good of society. Associated with the decision is also Posiva's proposal on siting the disposal facility at Olkiluoto in Eurajoki municipality on the western coast of Finland. An important document underlying Posiva's application for this principle decision is the report of the environmental impact assessment, which was completed in 1999. Safety considerations play an important role in the application. New assessments have, therefore, been made on both the operational and long-term safety as well as on safety of spent fuel transportation. (author)

  3. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD’s International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  4. On the disposal of solid radioactive wastes at hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, B.; Lewe, P.

    1987-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive materials in hospitals represents a considerable problem from the point of view of economics and organisation as well as from the point of view of radiological safety. On the one-hand, groups of people (nursing personal and clean-up crews) are involved in the handling of contaminated materials who can be instructed in special handling procedures only to a limited degree with the result that simple and clear procedures must be developed; on the other hand, such simply structured routes of disposal result in enormous volumes of radioactive waste, which represent a considerable cost factor. At the Offenbach City Hospital a concept has been created which takes these problems into account. It consists of nuclide-specific collection in groups, reduction of volume by breaking up of materials, interim storage, and government approved disposal as special hospital waste materials. (orig.) [de

  5. Geological aspects of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverov, N.P.; Omelianenko, B.L.; Velichkin, V.I.

    1994-06-01

    For the successful solution of the high-level waste (HLW) problem in Russia one must take into account such factors as the existence of the great volume of accumulated HLW, the large size and variety of geological conditions in the country, and the difficult economic conditions. The most efficient method of HLW disposal consists in the maximum use of protective capacities of the geological environment and in using inexpensive natural minerals for engineered barrier construction. In this paper, the principal trends of geological investigation directed toward the solution of HLW disposal are considered. One urgent practical aim is the selection of sites in deep wells in regions where the HLW is now held in temporary storage. The aim of long-term investigations into HLW disposal is to evaluate geological prerequisites for regional HLW repositories

  6. Overview of nuclear waste disposal in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Priest, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    One option receiving consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the space disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is assessing the space disposal option in support of DOE studies on alternatives for nuclear waste management. The space disposal option is viewed as a complement, since total disposal of fuel rods from commercial power plants is not considered to be economically practical with Space Shuttle technology. The space disposal of certain high-level wastes may, however, provide reduced calculated and perceived risks. The space disposal option in conjunction with terrestrial disposal may offer a more flexible and lower risk overall waste management system. For the space disposal option to be viable, it must be demonstrated that the overall long-term risks associated with this activity, as a complement to the mined geologic repository, would be significantly less than the long-term risk associated with disposing of all the high-level waste. The long-term risk benefit must be achieved within an acceptable short-term and overall program cost. This paper briefly describes space disposal alternatives, the space disposal destination, possible waste mixes and forms, systems and typical operations, and the energy and cost analysis

  7. 40 CFR 144.80 - What is a Class V injection well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of radioactive waste disposal sites to dispose of hazardous waste or radioactive waste into a... hazardous waste management facilities, or by owners or operators of radioactive waste disposal sites to... one quarter mile of the well bore, an underground source of drinking water; (3) Radioactive waste...

  8. Very Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Recently Commissioned as an Extension of El Cabril LILW Disposal Facility in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.; Navarro, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the Very Low Activity Radioactive Waste (VLLW) disposal facility, designed, built and operated by ENRESA as a part of El Cabril LILW disposal facility. El Cabril facility was commissioned in 1992 and has 28 concrete vaults with an internal volume of 100,000 m 3 , as well as waste treatment systems and waste characterization laboratories. The total needs identified in Spain for LILW disposal are of some 176,000 m 3 , of which around 120,000 m3 might be classified as VLLW This project was launched in 2003 and the major licensing steps have been town planning license (2003), construction authorization (after Environmental Impact Statement and report from Nuclear Safety Council-CSN, 2006), and Operations Authorization (after report from CSN, July 2008). The new VLLW disposal facility has a capacity for 130,000 meters cube in four disposal cells of approximately the same size. Only the first cell has been built. The design of the barriers is based on the European Directive for elimination of dangerous waste and consists of a clay layer 1 m, 3 cm geo-bentonite films, and 4 mm HDPE film. In order to minimize leachate volumes collected and help a good monitoring of the site, each cell is divided into different sections, which are protected during operation -before placing a provisional HDPE capping- by a light shelter and where leachate collection is segregated from other sections. (authors)

  9. Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste. Final Report of the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildi, Walter; Dermange, Francois [Univ. of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Appel, Detlef [PanGeo, Hannover (Germany); Buser, Marcos [Buser and Finger, Zurich (Switzerland); Eckhardt, Anne [Basler and Hofmann, Zurich (Switzerland); Hufschmied, Peter [Emch and Berger, Bern (Switzerland); Keusen, Hans-Rudolf [Geotest, Zollikofen (Switzerland); Aebersold, Michael [Swiss Federal Office of Energy (BFE), CH-3003 Bern (Switzerland)

    2000-01-15

    At the beginning of 1999, talks between the Swiss Federal Government, the siting Cantons (Cantons in which nuclear power plants are located and Canton Nidwalden), environmental organisations and the nuclear power plant operators on the lifetime of the existing power plants and solution of the waste management problem failed to reach a satisfactory outcome. In view of this, the Head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (UVEK) decided to set up the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA) in June 1999. EKRA then worked on providing the background for a comparison of different waste management concepts. The group developed the concept of monitored long-term geological disposal and compared this with geological disposal, interim storage and indefinite storage. The aspects of active and passive safety, monitoring and control, as well as retrievability of waste were at the fore-front of these deliberations. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of EKRA.

  10. Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste. Final Report of the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildi, Walter; Dermange, Francois; Appel, Detlef; Buser, Marcos; Eckhardt, Anne; Hufschmied, Peter; Keusen, Hans-Rudolf; Aebersold, Michael

    2000-01-01

    At the beginning of 1999, talks between the Swiss Federal Government, the siting Cantons (Cantons in which nuclear power plants are located and Canton Nidwalden), environmental organisations and the nuclear power plant operators on the lifetime of the existing power plants and solution of the waste management problem failed to reach a satisfactory outcome. In view of this, the Head of the Federal Department for the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (UVEK) decided to set up the Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste (EKRA) in June 1999. EKRA then worked on providing the background for a comparison of different waste management concepts. The group developed the concept of monitored long-term geological disposal and compared this with geological disposal, interim storage and indefinite storage. The aspects of active and passive safety, monitoring and control, as well as retrievability of waste were at the fore-front of these deliberations. This report presents the conclusions and recommendations of EKRA

  11. Proposal for basic safety requirements regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A working group commissioned to prepare proposals for basic safety requirements for the storage and transport of radioactive waste prepared its report to the Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. The proposals include: radiation protection requirements, requirements concerning the properties of high-level waste units, the geological conditions of the waste disposal location, the supervision of waste disposal areas. The proposed primary requirements for safety evaluation of the disposal of high-level waste in deep geological formations are of a general nature, not being tied to specific assumptions regarding the waste itself, the geological and other conditions at the place of disposal, and the technical methods of disposal. It was impossible to test the proposals for requirements on a working repository. As no country has, to the knowledge of the working group, actually disposed of hifg-level radioactive waste or approved of plans for such disposal. Methods for evaluating the suitability of geological formations for waste disposal, and background material concerning the preparation of these proposals for basic safety requirements relating to radiation, waste handling and geological conditions are reviewed. Appended to the report is a description of the phases of the fuel cycle that are related to the storage of spent fuel and the disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt formation. It should be noted that the proposals of the working group are not limited to the disposal of reprocessed fuel, but also include the direct disposal of spent fuel as well as disposal in geological formations other than salt. (EG)

  12. Generic Crystalline Disposal Reference Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Scott Leroy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-20

    A generic reference case for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in crystalline rock is outlined. The generic cases are intended to support development of disposal system modeling capability by establishing relevant baseline conditions and parameters. Establishment of a generic reference case requires that the emplacement concept, waste inventory, waste form, waste package, backfill/buffer properties, EBS failure scenarios, host rock properties, and biosphere be specified. The focus in this report is on those elements that are unique to crystalline disposal, especially the geosphere representation. Three emplacement concepts are suggested for further analyses: a waste packages containing 4 PWR assemblies emplaced in boreholes in the floors of tunnels (KBS-3 concept), a 12-assembly waste package emplaced in tunnels, and a 32-assembly dual purpose canister emplaced in tunnels. In addition, three failure scenarios were suggested for future use: a nominal scenario involving corrosion of the waste package in the tunnel emplacement concepts, a manufacturing defect scenario applicable to the KBS-3 concept, and a disruptive glaciation scenario applicable to both emplacement concepts. The computational approaches required to analyze EBS failure and transport processes in a crystalline rock repository are similar to those of argillite/shale, with the most significant difference being that the EBS in a crystalline rock repository will likely experience highly heterogeneous flow rates, which should be represented in the model. The computational approaches required to analyze radionuclide transport in the natural system are very different because of the highly channelized nature of fracture flow. Computational workflows tailored to crystalline rock based on discrete transport pathways extracted from discrete fracture network models are recommended.

  13. Waste-Mixes Study for space disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, R.F.; Blair, H.T.; McKee, R.W.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Wastes Mixes Study is a component of Cy-1981 and 1982 research activities to determine if space disposal could be a feasible complement to geologic disposal for certain high-level (HLW) and transuranic wastes (TRU). The objectives of the study are: to determine if removal of radionuclides from HLW and TRU significantly reduces the long-term radiological risks of geologic disposal; to determine if chemical partitioning of the waste for space disposal is technically feasible; to identify acceptable waste forms for space disposal; and to compare improvements in geologic disposal system performance to impacts of additional treatment, storage, and transportation necessary for space disposal. To compare radiological effects, five system alternatives are defined: Reference case - All HLW and TRU to a repository. Alternative A - Iodine to space, the balance to a repository. Alternative B - Technetium to space, the balance to a repository. Alternative C - 95% of cesium and strontium to a repository; the balance of HLW aged first, then to space; plutonium separated from TRU for recycle; the balance of the TRU to a repository. Alternative D - HLW aged first, then to space, plutonium separated from TRU for recycle; the balance of the TRU to a repository. The conclusions of this study are: the incentive for space disposal is that it offers a perception of reduced risks rather than significant reduction. Suitable waste forms for space disposal are cermet for HLW, metallic technetium, and lead iodide. Space disposal of HLW appears to offer insignificant safety enhancements when compared to geologic disposal; the disposal of iodine and technetium wastes in space does not offer risk advantages. Increases in short-term doses for the alternatives are minimal; however, incremental costs of treating, storing and transporting wastes for space disposal are substantial

  14. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, D

    2000-07-01

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation.

  15. Waste Disposal: The PRACLAY Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, D.

    2000-01-01

    Principal achievements in 2000 with regard to the PRACLAY programme are presented. The PRACLAY project has been conceived: (1) to demonstrate the construction and the operation of a gallery for the disposal of HLW in a clay formation; (2) to improve knowledge on deep excavations in clay through modelling and monitoring; (3) to design, install and operate a complementary mock-up test (OPHELIE) on the surface. In 1999, efforts were focussed on the operation of the OPHELIE mock-up and the CLIPEX project to monitor the evolution of hydro-mechanical parameters of the Boom Clay Formation near the face of a gallery during excavation

  16. Disposal/storage container development experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W. Jr.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Fowler, E.; Barreira, D.G.; Emmett, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Developmental work is currently underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design and manufacture a radioactive waste container suitable for both storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. The container is designed to fulfill the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements for on-site storage, as well as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's requirements for high integrity containers. The project also involves meeting the strict design and manufacturing ANSI/ASME NQA-1 guidelines. Special provisions of the container include a double containment system, with the inner barrier being corrosion resistant, the capability to monitor the internal cavity of the container, and off-gas venting capability. Further, yet related developmental work includes evaluating the cask for other varied uses, such as a processing cask, an ALARA shield, and even the possibility of Department of Transportation approval for an over-the-road transport cask

  17. Potential storage and/or disposal strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lioure, A.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term management of substances produced by nuclear power plants has become a major challenge for society. One of the options is to dispose of ultimate waste, or even whole spent fuel, in geological structures with reversibility potential. Another option, which may precede this, is storage, which is already the interim solution adopted by the industry. CEA has started to demonstrate that standardized storage is feasible over centuries for all types of objects (spent fuel, packages of vitrified waste, forthcoming packages resulting from advanced separation) in heavy-duty, passive near-surface or subsurface facilities. The finer details of some technical arrangements as well as the cost of these stores remain to be worked out. (author)

  18. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  19. Concepts and Technologies for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Rock Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernt Brewitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, rock salt was selected to host a repository for radioactive waste because of its excellent mechanical properties. During 12 years of practical disposal operation in the Asse mine and 25 years of disposal in the disused former salt mine Morsleben, it was demonstrated that low-level wastes (LLW and intermediate-level wastes (ILW can be safely handled and economically disposed of in salt repositories without a great technical effort. LLW drums were stacked in old mining chambers by loading vehicles or emplaced by means of the dumping technique. Generally, the remaining voids were backfilled by crushed salt or brown coal filter ash. ILW were lowered into inaccessible chambers through a borehole from a loading station above using a remote control.Additionally, an in-situ solidification of liquid LLW was applied in the Morsleben mine. Concepts and techniques for the disposal of heat generating high-level waste (HLW are advanced as well. The feasibility of both borehole and drift disposal concepts have been proved by about 30 years of testing in the Asse mine. Since 1980s, several full-scale in-situ tests were conducted for simulating the borehole emplacement of vitrified HLW canisters and the drift emplacement of spent fuel in Pollux casks. Since 1979, the Gorleben salt dome has been investigated to prove its suitability to host the national final repository for all types of radioactive waste. The “Concept Repository Gorleben” disposal concepts and techniques for LLW and ILW are widely based on the successful test operations performed at Asse. Full-scale experiments including the development and testing of adequate transport and emplacement systems for HLW, however, are still pending. General discussions on the retrievability and the reversibility are going on.

  20. Acceptability criteria for final underground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Specialists now generally agree that the underground disposal of suitably immobilized radioactive waste offers a means of attaining the basic objective of ensuring the immediate and long-term protection of man and the environment throughout the requisite period of time and in all foreseeable circumstances. Criteria of a more general as well as a more specific nature are practical means through which this basic protection objective can be reached. These criteria, which need not necessarily be quantified, enable the authorities to gauge the acceptability of a given project and provide those responsible for waste management with a basis for making decisions. In short, these principles constitute the framework of a suitably safety-oriented waste management policy. The more general criteria correspond to the protection objectives established by the national authorities on the basis of principles and recommendations formulated by international organizations, in particular the ICRP and the IAEA. They apply to any underground disposal system considered as a whole. The more specific criteria provide a means of evaluating the degree to which the various components of the disposal system meet the general criteria. They must also take account of the interaction between these components. As the ultimate aim is the overall safety of the disposal system, individual components can be adjusted to compensate for the performance of others with respect to the criteria. This is the approach adopted by the international bodies and national authorities in developing acceptability criteria for the final underground radioactive disposal systems to be used during the operational and post-operational phases respectively. The main criteria are reviewed and an attempt is made to assess the importance of the specific criteria according to the different types of disposal systems. (author)

  1. Classification and disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical development in the U.S. of definitions and requirements for permanent disposal of different classes of radioactive waste. We first consider the descriptions of different waste classes that were developed prior to definitions in laws and regulations. These descriptions usually were not based on requirements for permanent disposal but, rather, on the source of the waste and requirements for safe handling and storage. We then discuss existing laws and regulations for disposal of different waste classes. Current definitions of waste classes are largely qualitative, and thus somewhat ambiguous, and are based primarily on the source of the waste rather than the properties of its radioactive constituents. Furthermore, even though permanent disposal is clearly recognized as the ultimate goal of radioactive water management, current laws and regulations do not associated the definitions of different waste classes with requirement for particular disposal systems. Thus, requirements for waste disposal essentially are unaffected by ambiguities in the present waste classification system

  2. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  3. Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Specific Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication establishes requirements applicable to all types of radioactive waste disposal facility. It is linked to the fundamental safety principles for each disposal option and establishes a set of strategic requirements that must be in place before facilities are developed. Consideration is also given to the safety of existing facilities developed prior to the establishment of present day standards. The requirements will be complemented by Safety Guides that will provide guidance on good practice for meeting the requirements for different types of waste disposal facility. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Safety requirements for planning for the disposal of radioactive waste; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of a disposal facility; 5. Assurance of safety; 6. Existing disposal facilities; Appendices.

  4. Geochemistry of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    Safe, permanent disposal of radioactive wastes requires isolation of a number of elements including Se, Tc, I, Sr, Cs, Pd, u, Np, Pu and Cm from the environment for a long period of time. The aquatic chemistry of these elements ranges from simple anionic (I - ,IO 3 - ) and cationic (Cs + ,Sr ++ ) forms to multivalent hydrolyzed complexes which can be anionic or cationic (Pu(OH) 2 + ,Pu(OH) 3 + , PuO 2 (CO 3 )(OH) - ,PuO 2 Cl - ,etc.) depending on the chemical environment. The parameters which can affect repository safety are rate of access and composition of grounwater, stability of the waste container, stability of the waste form, rock-water-waste interactons, and dilution and dispersion as the waste moves away from the repository site. Our overall research program on radioactive waste disposal includes corrosion studies of containment systems hydrothermal stability of various waste forms, and geochemical behaviour of various nuclides including solubilities, redox equilibria, hydrolysis, colloid fomation and transport ion exchange equilibria and adsorption on mineral surfaces and irreversible precipitation reactions. This paper discusses the geochemistry of I, Se, Tc, Cs, Sr and the actinide elements and potential mechanisms by which the mobility could be retarded if necessary

  5. Expertise on the provision of evidence with respect to Nagra's disposal concept for spent fuel assemblies, vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as for long-living intermediate-level wastes (Opalinus clay project); Gutachten zum Entsorgungsnachweis der Nagra fuer abgebrannte Brennelemente, verglaste hochaktive sowie langlebige mittelaktive Abfaelle (Projekt Opalinuston)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-15

    Mankind has been living in a field of natural radiation; in Switzerland, the natural dose is around 3 mSv per year. It can be assumed that an artificial dose smaller than the natural one is harmless and can therefore be tolerated. However, nuclear power plants, medicine, industry and research produce radioactive wastes whose radioactivity is mostly higher than the natural level. These wastes must therefore be concentrated and enclosed until the decay reduces the dose rate to a harmless level. For this, it is foreseen that the radioactive wastes will be disposed of in deep-lying geological strata. The enclosure must be guarantied in such a way that, at any time, the radiation suffered by mankind and environment due to the radioactive wastes stays under the statutory limit of 1 mSv/a. The judgement of the quality of the deep underground repository is divided into 3 chapters: a) based on the geological and hydro-geological properties of the host rock, the proof of safety shows that the chosen repository site is safe for the long term; b) the proof of site guaranties that the repository needed can be built in the chosen host rock; c) the proof of implementation demonstrates that the repository can be built with the actual technical means proposed. The forecast for the development of the safety of the repository in the long term is fairly inaccurate, the most difficult factor being the developments in mankind's way of life. Therefore, conservative assumptions must be taken into account to cover even the most unlikely cases. The former project 'Gewaehr' presented by the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Nuclear Wastes (NAGRA) in 1978 was based on crystalline rock; it was rejected because it was not possible to find a sufficiently large area without geologic faults for the repository. In new investigations, NAGRA found a suitable layer of Opalinus clay in Zurich's Weinland. In the neighbourhood of the layer discovered, there are neither

  6. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of drainage wells in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimrey, J.O.; Fayard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Drainage wells are used to inject surface waters directly into an aquifer, or shallow ground waters directly into a deeper aquifer, primarily by gravity. Such wells in Florida may be grouped into two broad types: (1) surface-water injection wells, and (2) interaquifer connector wells. Drainage wells of the first type are further categorized as either Floridan aquifer drainage wells or Biscayne aquifer drainage wells. Floridan aquifer drainage wells are commonly used to supplement drainage for urban areas in karst terranes of central and north Florida. Data are available for 25 wells in the Ocala, Live Oak, and Orlando areas that allow comparison of the quality of water samples from these Floridan aquifer drainage wells with allowable contaminant levels. Comparison indicates that maximum contaminant levels for turbidity, color, and iron, manganese, and lead concentrations are equaled or exceeded in some drainage-well samples, and relatively high counts for coliform bacteria are present in most wells. Biscayne aquifer drainage wells are used locally to dispose of stormwater runoff and other surplus water in southeast Florida, where large numbers of these wells have been permitted in Dade and Broward Counties. The majority of these wells are used to dispose of water from swimming pools or to dispose of heated water from air-conditioning units. The use of Biscayne aquifer drainage wells may have minimal effect on aquifer potability so long as injection of runoff and industrial wates is restricted to zones where chloride concentrations exceed 1,500 milligrams per liter. Interaquifer connector wells are used in the phosphate mining areas of Polk and Hillsborough Counties, to drain mines and recharge the Floridan aquifer. Water-quality data available from 13 connector wells indicate that samples from most of these wells exceed standards values for iron concentration and turbidity. One well yielded a highly mineralized water, and samples from 6 of the other 12 wells exceed

  7. Landfill disposal of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivities of very low level wastes are very low. VLLW can be disposed by simple and economic burial process. This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide. The disposal of VLLW in China is also briefly discussed and suggested here. (author)

  8. A Comparison of Distillery Stillage Disposal Methods

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sajbrt; M. Rosol; P. Ditl

    2010-01-01

    This paper compares the main stillage disposal methods from the point of view of technology, economics and energetics. Attention is paid to the disposal of both solid and liquid phase. Specifically, the following methods are considered: a) livestock feeding, b) combustion of granulated stillages, c) fertilizer production, d) anaerobic digestion with biogas production and e) chemical pretreatment and subsequent secondary treatment. Other disposal techniques mentioned in the literature (electro...

  9. Shallow land disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The application of basic radiation protection concepts and objectives to the disposal of radioactive wastes requires the development of specific reference levels or criteria for the radiological acceptance of each type of waste in each disposal option. This report suggests a methodology for the establishment of acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste containing long-lived radionuclides in shallow land burial facilities

  10. General criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.; Musgrave, B.C.; Watkins, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques are being developed for conversion of radioactive wastes to solids and their placement into repositories. Criteria for such disposal are needed to assure protection of the biosphere. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle should be applicable at all times during the disposal period. Radioactive wastes can be categorized into three classes, depending on the activity. Three approaches were developed for judging the adequacy of disposal concepts: acceptable risk, ore body comparison, and three-stage ore body comparison

  11. Verification and validation for waste disposal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    A set of evaluation criteria has been developed to assess the suitability of current verification and validation techniques for waste disposal methods. A survey of current practices and techniques was undertaken and evaluated using these criteria with the items most relevant to waste disposal models being identified. Recommendations regarding the most suitable verification and validation practices for nuclear waste disposal modelling software have been made

  12. Commercial mixed waste treatment and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    At the South Clive, Utah, site, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., (Envirocare), currently operates a commercial low-activity, low-level radioactive waste facility, a mixed waste RCRA Part B storage and disposal facility, and an 11e.(2) disposal facility. Envirocare is also in the process of constructing a Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. As the nation's first and only commercial treatment and disposal facility for such waste, the information presented in this segment will provide insight into their current and prospective operations

  13. Specified radioactive waste final disposal act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Masaya

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive wastes must be finally and safely disposed far from human activities. Disposal act is a long-range task and needs to be understood and accepted by public for site selection. This paper explains basic policy of Japanese Government for final disposal act of specified radioactive wastes, examination for site selection guidelines to promote residential understanding, general concept of multi-barrier system for isolating the specific radioactive wastes, and research and technical development for radioactive waste management. (S. Ohno)

  14. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Description of the disposal system 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Description of the Disposal System sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective presenting the initial state of the disposal system for the safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Finland. Disposal system is an entity composed of a repository system and surface environment. The repository system includes the spent nuclear fuel, canister, buffer, backfill, and closure components as well as the host rock. The repository system components have assigned safety functions (except for the spent nuclear fuel) and are subject to requirements. The initial state is presented for each component, and references to the main supporting reports are given to guide the reader for more details. Conditions for each component vary in time and space, due to the time of emplacement and due to the tolerances set for the compositions, geometries and other properties depending on the component. The disposal operation is foreseen to commence ∼ 2020. At the beginning of the postclosure period, around 2120, all the engineered components have been installed and the operation is finalised. The system evolution during the operational phase is discussed in detail in Performance Assessment. The initial state for the host rock is defined to be essentially equal to the baseline conditions prior to starting the construction of the underground characterisation facility ONKALO. For the surface environment, the initial state is the present conditions prevailing. For any other component of the disposal system, the initial state is defined as the state it has when the direct control over that specific part of the system ceases and only limited information can be made available on the subsequent development of conditions in that part of the system or its near field. (orig.)

  15. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Description of the disposal system 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Description of the Disposal System sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' report portfolio and has the objective presenting the initial state of the disposal system for the safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Finland. Disposal system is an entity composed of a repository system and surface environment. The repository system includes the spent nuclear fuel, canister, buffer, backfill, and closure components as well as the host rock. The repository system components have assigned safety functions (except for the spent nuclear fuel) and are subject to requirements. The initial state is presented for each component, and references to the main supporting reports are given to guide the reader for more details. Conditions for each component vary in time and space, due to the time of emplacement and due to the tolerances set for the compositions, geometries and other properties depending on the component. The disposal operation is foreseen to commence {approx} 2020. At the beginning of the postclosure period, around 2120, all the engineered components have been installed and the operation is finalised. The system evolution during the operational phase is discussed in detail in Performance Assessment. The initial state for the host rock is defined to be essentially equal to the baseline conditions prior to starting the construction of the underground characterisation facility ONKALO. For the surface environment, the initial state is the present conditions prevailing. For any other component of the disposal system, the initial state is defined as the state it has when the direct control over that specific part of the system ceases and only limited information can be made available on the subsequent development of conditions in that part of the system or its near field. (orig.)

  16. Interim report on reference biospheres for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorp, F. van [NAGRA (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    Primary criteria for repository safety are commonly expressed in terms of risk or dose, and a biosphere model is required to evaluate the corresponding assessment endpoints. Even when other indicators are used to express the safety goals, a biosphere model is still needed in order to justify those indicators. In safety or performance assessments of a repository, the uncertainties in space and time for the different components of the repository system have to be considered. For the biosphere component, prediction of future human habits, in particular, is extremely uncertain. This is especially important in the assessment of deep geological disposal, which involves very long timescales, particularly for wastes containing very long lived radionuclides. Thus, the results of biosphere modelling should not be seen as predictions, but as illustrations of the consequences that may occur, should the postulated release occur today or under other conditions implied by the underlying biosphere model assumptions. Differences in biosphere modelling approaches arise because of differences in regulations, the nature of the wastes to be disposed of, disposal site characteristics, disposal concepts and purposes of the assessment. Differences in treatment of uncertainties can also arise. For example, if doses or risks are anticipated to be far below regulatory limits, assessments may be based upon simplified and, necessarily, conservative biosphere models. At present biosphere models used to assess radioactive waste disposal show significant differences in the features, events and processes (FEPs) included or excluded. In general, the reasons for these differences have not been well documented or explained. Developments in radioecology have implications for biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal. In particular, after the Chernobyl accident, radioecological research has been significantly increased. Results of this research are already having and will continue to have a

  17. Interim report on reference biospheres for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorp, F van [NAGRA (Switzerland); and others

    1994-10-01

    Primary criteria for repository safety are commonly expressed in terms of risk or dose, and a biosphere model is required to evaluate the corresponding assessment endpoints. Even when other indicators are used to express the safety goals, a biosphere model is still needed in order to justify those indicators. In safety or performance assessments of a repository, the uncertainties in space and time for the different components of the repository system have to be considered. For the biosphere component, prediction of future human habits, in particular, is extremely uncertain. This is especially important in the assessment of deep geological disposal, which involves very long timescales, particularly for wastes containing very long lived radionuclides. Thus, the results of biosphere modelling should not be seen as predictions, but as illustrations of the consequences that may occur, should the postulated release occur today or under other conditions implied by the underlying biosphere model assumptions. Differences in biosphere modelling approaches arise because of differences in regulations, the nature of the wastes to be disposed of, disposal site characteristics, disposal concepts and purposes of the assessment. Differences in treatment of uncertainties can also arise. For example, if doses or risks are anticipated to be far below regulatory limits, assessments may be based upon simplified and, necessarily, conservative biosphere models. At present biosphere models used to assess radioactive waste disposal show significant differences in the features, events and processes (FEPs) included or excluded. In general, the reasons for these differences have not been well documented or explained. Developments in radioecology have implications for biosphere modelling for radioactive waste disposal. In particular, after the Chernobyl accident, radioecological research has been significantly increased. Results of this research are already having and will continue to have a

  18. Geohydrology of industrial waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An existing desert site for hazardous chemical and low-level radioactive waste disposal is evaluated for suitability. This site is characterized using geologic, geohydrologic, geochemical, and other considerations. Design and operation of the disposal facility is considered. Site characteristics are also evaluated with respect to new and proposed regulatory requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) regulations, 40 CFR Part 264, and the ''Licensing Requirements for Landfill Disposal of Radioactive Waste,'' 10 CRF Part 61. The advantages and disadvantages of siting new disposal facilities in similar desert areas are reviewed and contrasted to siting in humid locations

  19. Post-disposal safety assessment of toxic and radioactive waste: waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria, assessment methods and post-disposal impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, C.; Simon, I.; Little, R.H.; Charles, D.; Grogan, H.A.; Smith, G.M.; Sumerling, T.J.; Watkins, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The need for safety assessments of waste disposal stems not only from the implementation of regulations requiring the assessment of environmental effects, but also from the more general need to justify decisions on protection requirements. As waste-disposal methods have become more technologically based, through the application of more highly engineered design concepts and through more rigorous and specific limitations on the types and quantities of the waste disposed, it follows that assessment procedures also must become more sophisticated. It is the overall aim of this study to improve the predictive modelling capacity for post-disposal safety assessments of land-based disposal facilities through the development and testing of a comprehensive, yet practicable, assessment framework. This report records all the work which has been undertaken during Phase 1 of the study. Waste types, disposal practices, disposal criteria and assessment methods for both toxic and radioactive waste are reviewed with the purpose of identifying those features relevant to assessment methodology development. Difference and similarities in waste types, disposal practices, criteria and assessment methods between countries, and between toxic and radioactive wastes are highlighted and discussed. Finally, an approach to identify post-disposal impacts, how they arise and their effects on humans and the environment is described

  20. ICRP guidance on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) issued recommendations for a system of radiological protection in 1991 as the 1990 Recommendations. Guidance on the application of these recommendations in the general area of waste disposal was issued in 1997 as Publication 77 and guidance specific to disposal of solid long-lived radioactive waste was issued as Publication 81. This paper summarises ICRP guidance in radiological protection requirements for waste disposal concentrating on the ones of relevance to the geological disposal of solid radioactive waste. Suggestions are made for areas where further work is required to apply the ICRP guidance. (author)

  1. Topic D. Retrievability: a spectrum of views radioactive waste disposal: taking societal views into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rip, A.; Smit, W.A.; Van der Meulen, B.J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the radioactive waste disposal. It takes into account the societal views. The main results as well as the methodological approach of argumentation patterns and argumentation scenarios are presented. (O.L.). 7 refs

  2. Alternative Concept to Enhance the Disposal Efficiency for CANDU Spent Fuel Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Cho, Dong Geun; Kook, Dong Hak; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Heui Joo

    2011-01-01

    There are two types of nuclear reactors in Korea and they are PWR type and CANDU type. The safe management of the spent fuels from these reactors is very important factor to maintain the sustainable energy supply with nuclear power plant. In Korea, a reference disposal system for the spent fuels has been developed through a study on the direct disposal of the PWR and CANDU spent fuel. Recently, the research on the demonstration and the efficiency analyses of the disposal system has been performed to make the disposal system safer and more economic. PWR spent fuels which include a lot of reusable material can be considered being recycled and a study on the disposal of HLW from this recycling process is being performed. CANDU spent fuels are considered being disposed of directly in deep geological formation, since they have little reusable material. In this study, based on the Korean Reference spent fuel disposal System (KRS) which was to dispose of both PWR type and CANDU type, the more effective CANDU spent fuel disposal systems were developed. To do this, the disposal canister for CANDU spent fuels was modified to hold the storage basket for 60 bundles which is used in nuclear power plant. With these modified disposal canister concepts, the disposal concepts to meet the thermal requirement that the temperature of the buffer materials should not be over 100 .deg. C were developed. These disposal concepts were reviewed and analyzed in terms of disposal effective factors which were thermal effectiveness, U-density, disposal area, excavation volume, material volume etc. and the most effective concept was proposed. The results of this study will be used in the development of various wastes disposal system together with the HLW wastes from the PWR spent fuel recycling process.

  3. Hungary. Closure issues for centralized waste treatment and disposal facility in Puspokszilagy, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The facility was commissioned in 1976. At the time that its mission was formulated, the facility was designed to collect, transport, treat as necessary and dispose all radioactive waste originating from institutional use of radioactivity. The facility is government owned and presently operated by the Budapest branch of the State Public Health and Medical Officer Services. The disposal site is located on the ridge of a hill near Puspokszilagy village approximately 40 km Northeast of Budapest. The disposal units are located in Quaternary layers of silt and clay sequences. Annual average precipitation is approximately 650-700 mm. The facility is a typical shallow land, near surface engineered type disposal unit. There are concrete trenches and shallow wells for waste disposal purposes

  4. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: public involvement and social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greber, M.A.; Frech, E.R.; Hillier, J.A.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities undertaken to provide information to the public about the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program as well as the opportunities for public involvement in the direction and development of the disposal concept through government inquiries and commissions and specific initiatives undertaken by AECL. Public viewpoints and the major issues identified by the public to be of particular concern and importance in evaluating the acceptability of the concept are described. In addition, how the issues have been addressed during the development of the disposal concept or how they could be addressed during implementation of the disposal concept are presented. There is also discussion of public perspectives of risk, the ethical aspects of nuclear fuel waste disposal, and public involvement in siting a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  5. Addendum to the Composite Analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Revision 1 of the Composite Analysis (CA) Addendum has been prepared to respond to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Federal Review Group review of the CA. This addendum to the composite analysis responds to the conditions of approval. The composite analysis was performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of the Savannah River Site and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, the chemical separation facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities, as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material

  6. Gamma sterilization of disposable medical products (DMP's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinston, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Ten million cubic meters (361 million cubic feet) of disposable medical products (DMP) and related health care items are estimated to be sterilized in the world. In this paper, current conditions and perspectives of gamma sterilization is discussed in comparison with ethylene oxide gas and electron beams. Of the total sterilization estimates for DMP, 2.8 million cubic meters (99 million cubic feet) are sterilized with gamma radiation, with a market share of 27%. Gamma radiation is becoming increased from both general market growth and the introduction of new products, as well as the conversion of product from ethylene oxide gas to cobalt-60. Regulatory pressures, legal considerations, and increasing publicity surrounding ethylene oxide usage are encouraging manufactures to switch to gamma radiation. Gamma's performance features include: no temperature change during the sterilization, high penetration, even through hermetically sealed packages, no residues, and no post-sterilization treatment or quarantine period. Gamma sterilization is economically beneficial in large volumes of product. Cost saving to the end user of gamma sterilization has meant lower minimum dose levels than 25 KGy. Despite of an increasingly accepted gamma radiation, there are still four factors to be considered, including cobalt-60 availability, price, transportation, and disposal. The price of cobalt-60 is based on neutron cost. In the future, cobalt-60 price is expected to be flat and enables gamma processing to become even more competitive with other sterilization methods. Gamma radiation using cobalt-60 has been proven as a safe, effective, and cost-competitive sterilization method for treating DMP and related health care items. It's wide use and many processing advantages will continue to make it a preferred sterilization method. (N.K.)

  7. Ice ages and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Luukkonen, A.; Pitkaenen, P.; Rasilainen, K.

    2002-01-01

    This report is an overview of Quaternary Ice Age and its potential consequences for nuclear waste disposal. Geological information on past climatic changes is shortly reviewed, based on the following records: geomorphological information, loessic deposits, deep-sea carbonate sediments, ice-core records, and continental calcite precipitates. Even though the present 'Great Ice Age' has lasted more that two million years, the present variation in cycles of about 100 000 years seems to have commenced only about 600 - 700 thousands years ago. According to the present understanding, southern Finland was during a major span of Weichsel free of continental ice sheet. However, the conditions may have been very cold, periglacial, when the continental ice sheet covered the Caledonian mountains and large areas of central Fennoscandia. The last glacial maximum of Weichsel glaciation was shorter than estimated earlier. Periglacial conditions are characterized by deep permafrost, reaching even the depth of nuclear waste disposal. Calculations of the advancement of permafrost indicate that the permafrost-front may reach the depth of about 500 meters in less than 10 000 years. The crust beneath the continental ice cover depresses, and rebounds when the ice sheet retreats. During the most intensive vertical movement of the crust, some crush zones may be activated and bedrock movements may take place along them. Due to the growth of ice sheets, ocean water table also depresses during glacial maximum, thus changing hydrogeological conditions in non-glaciated terrains. Increase in global ice volume is manifested in the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios. Based on isotope signals, as well other hydrogeochemical interpretation methods, indications of the earlier glaciations have been recognized in present groundwaters. (orig.)

  8. Toxic and hazardous waste disposal. Volume 4. New and promising ultimate disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pojasek, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstrats were prepared for four of the eighteen chapters of this book which reviews several disposal options available to the generators of hazardous wastes. The chapters not abstracted deal with land disposal of hazardous wastes, the solidification/fixation processes, waste disposal by incineration and molten salt combustion and the use of stabilized industrial waste for land reclamation and land farming

  9. Program for responsible and safe disposal of spent fuel elements and radioactive wastes (National disposal program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The contribution covers the following topics: fundamentals of the disposal policy; amount of radioactive wastes and prognosis; disposal of radioactive wastes - spent fuel elements and wastes from waste processing, radioactive wastes with low heat production; legal framework of the nuclear waste disposal in Germany; public participation, cost and financing.

  10. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  11. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  12. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Vargas, Gerlin

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps [es

  13. Chemistry of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    In extractive purification of the low-enriched uranium fuel element (UO 2 -particle fuel element with SiC coating) no problems arise in the PUREX-process which have not already been solved when reprocessing LWR-type reactor and breeder fuel elements. Concerning the HTR-type reactor fuel elements containing thorium, there are two process cycles behind the head end; the pure U-235 is reprocessed in the same manner as the low-enriched uranium fuel, and the thorium, which is the bigger fraction, is reprocessed together with U-233 in the same manner as the mixed oxides. Only the CO 2 -off gas system, which contains krypton and carbon 14, leads to difficulties in nuclear waste disposal. (DG) [de

  14. Radioactive wastes and their disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    1984-01-01

    The classification of radioactive wastes is given and the achievements evaluated in the disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. An experimental pilot unit was installed at the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant for the bituminization of liquid radioactive wastes. UJV has developed a mobile automated high-output unit for cementation. In 1985 the unit will be tested at the Jaslovske Bohunice and the Dukovany nuclear power plants. A prototype press for processing solid wastes was manufactured which is in operation at the Jaslovske Bohunice plant. A solidification process for atypical wastes from long-term storage of spent fuel elements has been developed to be used for the period of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (E.S.)

  15. National guideline of TENORM disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrah Mohd Ali

    1999-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material is a substance contain radioactive elements from uranium ( 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) series which have been present in the earth's crust since its formation. Meanwhile TENORM is produced from the NORM enhancement activities which has contributed radiation hazards to members of public, workers and the environment. In this situation the existing of Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) is to protect public, workers and the environment from TENORM waste created from related industries. What ever methods of disposal, a proper waste management systems should be in placed to ensure the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future, without imposing undue burden on future generations should be taken into account. In comply with that philosophy, it is important for industries to comply with the Atomic Energy Licensing Act which has been enforced since 1985. (Author)

  16. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Geoffrey A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tillman, Jack Bruce [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  17. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.; Herzog, H.; Auerbach, D.

    1995-01-01

    One option to reduce atmospheric CO 2 levels is to capture and sequester power plant CO 2 Commercial CO 2 capture technology, though expensive, exists today. However, the ability to dispose of large quantities of CO 2 is highly uncertain. The deep ocean is one of only a few possible CO 2 disposal options (others are depleted oil and gas wells or deep, confined aquifers) and is a prime candidate because the deep ocean is vast and highly unsaturated in CO 2 . The term disposal is really a misnomer because the atmosphere and ocean eventually equilibrate on a timescale of 1000 years regardless of where the CO 2 is originally discharged. However, peak atmospheric CO 2 concentrations expected to occur in the next few centuries could be significantly reduced by ocean disposal. The magnitude of this reduction will depend upon the quantity of CO 2 injected in the ocean, as well as the depth and location of injection. Ocean disposal of CO 2 will only make sense if the environmental impacts to the ocean are significantly less than the avoided impacts of atmospheric release. Our project has been examining these ocean impacts through a multi-disciplinary effort designed to summarize the current state of knowledge. The end-product will be a report issued during the summer of 1996 consisting of two volumes an executive summary (Vol I) and a series of six, individually authored topical reports (Vol II). A workshop with invited participants from the U.S. and abroad will review the draft findings in January, 1996

  19. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, E.; Herzog, H.; Auerbach, D. [and others

    1995-11-01

    One option to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels is to capture and sequester power plant CO{sub 2} Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive, exists today. However, the ability to dispose of large quantities of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain. The deep ocean is one of only a few possible CO{sub 2} disposal options (others are depleted oil and gas wells or deep, confined aquifers) and is a prime candidate because the deep ocean is vast and highly unsaturated in CO{sub 2}. The term disposal is really a misnomer because the atmosphere and ocean eventually equilibrate on a timescale of 1000 years regardless of where the CO{sub 2} is originally discharged. However, peak atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations expected to occur in the next few centuries could be significantly reduced by ocean disposal. The magnitude of this reduction will depend upon the quantity of CO{sub 2} injected in the ocean, as well as the depth and location of injection. Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} will only make sense if the environmental impacts to the ocean are significantly less than the avoided impacts of atmospheric release. Our project has been examining these ocean impacts through a multi-disciplinary effort designed to summarize the current state of knowledge. The end-product will be a report issued during the summer of 1996 consisting of two volumes an executive summary (Vol I) and a series of six, individually authored topical reports (Vol II). A workshop with invited participants from the U.S. and abroad will review the draft findings in January, 1996.

  20. Disposal of olive oil mill wastes in evaporation ponds: effects on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvadias, V; Doula, M K; Komnitsas, K; Liakopoulou, N

    2010-10-15

    The most common practice followed in the Med countries for the management of olive oil mill wastes (OMW) involves disposal in evaporation ponds or direct disposal on soil. So far there is lack of reliable information regarding the long-term effects of OMW application on soils. This study assesses the effects of OMW disposal in evaporation ponds on underlying soil properties in the wider disposal site as well as the impacts of untreated OMW application on agricultural soils. In case of active disposal sites, the carbonate content in most soils was decreased, whereas soil EC, as well as Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), NH(4)(+) and particularly K(+) concentrations were substantially increased. Soil pH was only marginally affected. Phenol, total N, available P and PO(4)(3-) concentrations were considerably higher in the upper soil layers in areas adjacent to the ponds. Available B as well as DTPA extractable Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe increased substantially. Most surface soil parameters exhibited increased values at the inactive site 6 years after mill closure and cease of OMW disposal activities but differences were diminished in deeper layers. It is therefore concluded that long-term uncontrolled disposal of raw OMW on soils may affect soil properties and subsequently enhance the risk for groundwater contamination. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TECHNO – ECONOMIC ACCEPTABILITY ANALISYS OF WASTE DISPOSAL BY INJECTION INTO APPROPRIATE FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Brkić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploration and production of oil and natural gas, various types of waste must be disposed in a permanent and safe way. There is a range of methods for processing and disposal of waste, such as disposal into landfills, solidification, namely chemical stabilization, thermal processing, appropriate formation injections uncovered by a deep well, disposal into salt domes and bioremediation. The method of waste disposal into appropriate formations is a method where strict geological and technical criteria must be satisfied when applied. A fundamental scientific hypothesis has been formulated whereby economic acceptability of the waste injection method, as a main method for waste disposal, is to be shown by an economic evaluation. The results of this research are relevant since there has been an intention in Croatia and worldwide to abandon wells permanently due to oil and gas reservoirs depletion and therefore it is essential to estimate economic impacts of the waste injection method application. In that way, profitability of using existing wells for waste disposal in oil industry has been increased, leading to the improvement of petroleum company’s business activities (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. New safety concept for geological disposal in Japan - -16339

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitayama, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new safety concept for the Japanese geological disposal program, which is a development of the conventional multi-barrier system concept. The Japanese government established the 'Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan' (NUMO) as an implementation body in 2000 based on the 'Final disposal act' following the publication of the 'H-12 Report', which confirmed the scientific and engineering feasibility of HLW geological disposal in Japan. Since then, NUMO has undertaken further technical developments aimed at achieving safe and efficient implementation of final disposal. The safety concept developed in the 'H-12 Report' provides sufficient safety on the basis of site-generic considerations. However, it is considered to be over-conservative and therefore does not represent the most probable performance of the engineered or natural barriers. Recently, concrete measures have been proposed requiring the safety case to be presented in terms of a realistic assessment of the most probable performance. This approach takes into account the safety functions of both engineered and natural barriers as well as the long-term static geochemical equilibrium. In particular, the evolution of the safety performance of engineered and natural barriers can be efficiently augmented by the realistic long-term geochemical equilibrium. (author)

  3. New York's response to the national LLRW disposal legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orazio, A.F.; Schwarz, W.F.; Feeney, A.X.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (LLRWPA) and its amendments brought about a shift from commercial responsibility to state responsibility for low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal. This shift required New York to evaluate various policy options for handling its new LLRW disposal responsibility. After passage of the 1980 Federal Act, New York participated in efforts which resulted in a proposed interstate compact in the Northeast. Following a review of the proposed compact, as well as other options, New York decided to assume by itself full responsibility for disposing of its LLRW. In July 1986, New York enacted the New York State LLRW Management Act. This act provides New York with a detailed plan for establishing a LLWR disposal facility by the 1993 federal deadline. This paper consists of two segments. The first describes the major provisions of the State Act assigning responsibilities to the various agencies involved and reports on their progress. The second segment discusses the current activities of those involved in implementing the State Act with an emphasis on the recent and future activities of the Siting Commission

  4. The politics of nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarricone, P.

    1994-01-01

    After 72 days of public hearings and testimony from more than 100 witnesses, the first commission of its kind in the US found that politics--not science and engineering--led to the selection of Martinsville, Ill. as the host site for a nuclear-waste-disposal facility. This article examines how the plan to dispose of nuclear waste in Martinsville ultimately unraveled

  5. Safety assessment for radiactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewi, J.; Izabel, C.

    1989-11-01

    Whatever their type may be, radioactive waste disposals obey to the following principle: to isolate radioactive substances as long as their potential nocivity is significant. The isolation is obtained by confining barriers. The present paper recalls the role and the limits of the different barriers, for each type of disposal. It presents and comments site selection criteria and waste packages requirements [fr

  6. Probabilistic safety assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.C.

    1987-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment codes are now widely used in radioactive waste disposal assessments. This report gives an overview of the current state of the field. The relationship between the codes and the regulations covering radioactive waste disposal is discussed and the characteristics of current codes is described. The problems of verification and validation are considered. (author)

  7. Crystalline and Crystalline International Disposal Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Hari S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makedonska, Nataliia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffrey De' Haven [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Karra, Satish [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dittrich, Timothy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report presents the results of work conducted between September 2014 and July 2015 at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the crystalline disposal and crystalline international disposal work packages of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for DOE-NE’s Fuel Cycle Research and Development program.

  8. Evaluation of waste disposal by shale fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeren, H.O.

    1976-02-01

    The shale fracturing process is evaluated as a means for permanent disposal of radioactive intermediate level liquid waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The estimated capital operating and development costs of a proposed disposal facility are compared with equivalent estimated costs for alternative methods of waste fixation

  9. Retrievable disposal - opposing views on ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    In the previous decades many research programmes on the disposal of radioactive waste have been completed in the Netherlands. The experts involved have reconfirmed their view that deep underground disposal in suitable geological formations would ensure a safe and prolonged isolation of the waste from the biosphere. Both rock salt and clay formations are considered to qualify as a suitable host rock. In 1993 the government in a position paper stated that such a repository should be designed in a way that the waste can be retrieved from it, should the need arise. In an attempt to involve stakeholders in the decision-making process, a research contract was awarded to an environmental group to study the ethical aspects related to retrievable disposal of radioactive waste. In their report which was published in its final form in January 2000 the authors concluded that retrievable disposal is acceptable from an ethical point of view. However, this conclusion was reached in the understanding that this situation of retrievability would be permanent. From the concept of equity between generations, each successive generation should be offered equal opportunities to decide for itself how to dispose of the radioactive waste. Consequently, the preferred disposal option is retrievable disposal (or long term storage) in a surface facility. Although this view is not in conformity with the ''official'' position on radioactive waste disposal, there is a benefit of having established a dialogue between interested parties in a broad sense. (author)

  10. 23 CFR 710.409 - Disposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposals. 710.409 Section 710.409 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Real Property Management § 710.409 Disposals. (a) Real property interests determined to be excess...

  11. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  12. 50 CFR 12.33 - Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other equipment), except wildlife or plants, in accordance with current Federal Property Management..., TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Disposal of Forfeited or Abandoned Property § 12.33 Disposal. (a) The Director shall...

  13. Disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the deep sea ocean disposal for high-activity nuclear wastes. The following topics are covered: effect of ionizing radiation on marine ecosystems; pathways by which radionuclides are transferred to man from the marine environment; information about releases of radioactivity to the sea; radiological protection; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes and information needs. (U.K.)

  14. Radioactive waste products - suitability for final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.; Odoj, R.; Warnecke, E.

    1985-06-01

    48 papers were read at the conference. Separate records are available for all of them. The main problem in radioactive waste disposal was the long-term sealing to prevent pollution of the biosphere. Problems of conditioning, acceptance, and safety measures were discussed. Final disposal models and repositories were presented. (PW) [de

  15. Tritium waste disposal technology in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albenesius, E.L.; Towler, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium waste disposal methods in the US range from disposal of low specific activity waste along with other low-level waste in shallow land burial facilities, to disposal of kilocurie amounts in specially designed triple containers in 65' deep augered holes located in an aird region of the US. Total estimated curies disposed of are 500,000 in commercial burial sites and 10 million curies in defense related sites. At three disposal sites in humid areas, tritium has migrated into the ground water, and at one arid site tritium vapor has been detected emerging from the soil above the disposal area. Leaching tests on tritium containing waste show that tritium in the form of HTO leaches readily from most waste forms, but that leaching rates of tritiated water into polymer impregnated concrete are reduced by as much as a factor of ten. Tests on improved tritium containment are ongoing. Disposal costs for tritium waste are 7 to 10 dollars per cubic foot for shallow land burial of low specific activity tritium waste, and 10 to 20 dollars per cubic foot for disposal of high specific activity waste. The cost of packaging the high specific activity waste is 150 to 300 dollars per cubic foot. 18 references

  16. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea

  17. Deep Borehole Disposal as an Alternative Concept to Deep Geological Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongyoul; Lee, Minsoo; Choi, Heuijoo; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the general concept and key technologies for deep borehole disposal of spent fuels or HLW, as an alternative method to the mined geological disposal method, were reviewed. After then an analysis on the distance between boreholes for the disposal of HLW was carried out. Based on the results, a disposal area were calculated approximately and compared with that of mined geological disposal. These results will be used as an input for the analyses of applicability for DBD in Korea. The disposal safety of this system has been demonstrated with underground research laboratory and some advanced countries such as Finland and Sweden are implementing their disposal project on commercial stage. However, if the spent fuels or the high-level radioactive wastes can be disposed of in the depth of 3-5 km and more stable rock formation, it has several advantages. Therefore, as an alternative disposal concept to the mined deep geological disposal concept (DGD), very deep borehole disposal (DBD) technology is under consideration in number of countries in terms of its outstanding safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the general concept of deep borehole disposal for spent fuels or high level radioactive wastes was reviewed. And the key technologies, such as drilling technology of large diameter borehole, packaging and emplacement technology, sealing technology and performance/safety analyses technologies, and their challenges in development of deep borehole disposal system were analyzed. Also, very preliminary deep borehole disposal concept including disposal canister concept was developed according to the nuclear environment in Korea.

  18. User's guide to the 'DISPOSALS' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groom, M.S.; James, A.R.; Laundy, R.S.

    1984-03-01

    This report provides a User's Guide to the 'DISPOSALS' computer model and includes instructions on how to set up and run a specific problem together with details of the scope, theoretical basis, data requirements and capabilities of the model. The function of the 'DISPOSALS' model is to make assignments of nuclear waste material in an optimum manner to a number of disposal sites each subject to a number of constraints such as limits on the volume and activity. The user is able to vary the number of disposal sites, the range and limits of the constraints to be applied to each disposal site and the objective function for optimisation. The model is based on the Linear Programming technique and uses CAP Scientific's LAMPS and MAGIC packages. Currently the model has been implemented on CAP Scientific's VAX 11/750 minicomputer. (author)

  19. Recent activity on disposal of uranium waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Noboru

    1999-01-01

    The concept on the disposal of uranium waste has not been discussed in the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, but the research and development of it are carried out in the company and agency which are related to uranium waste. In this paper, the present condition and problems on disposal of uranium waste were shown in aspect of the nuclear fuel manufacturing companies' activity. As main contents, the past circumstances on the disposal of uranium waste, the past activity of nuclear fuel manufacturing companies, outline and properties of uranium waste were shown, and ideas of nuclear fuel manufacturing companies on the disposal of uranium waste were reported with disposal idea in the long-term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy. (author)

  20. Revised user's guide to the 'DISPOSALS' model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundy, R.S.; James, A.R.; Groom, M.S.; LeJeune, S.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides a User's Guide to the 'DISPOSALS' computer model and includes instructions on how to set up and run a specific problem together with details of the scope, theoretical basis, data requirements and capabilities of the model. The function of the 'DISPOSALS' model is to make assignments of nuclear waste material in an optimum manner to a number of disposal sites each subject to a number of constraints such as limits on the volume and activity. The user is able to vary the number of disposal sites, the range and limits of the constraints to be applied to each disposal site and the objective function for optimisation. The model is based on the Linear Programming technique and uses CAP Scientific's LAMPS and MAGIC packages. Currently the model has been implemented on CAP Scientific's VAX 11/750 minicomputer. (author)

  1. Radioactive waste disposal in W.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste in Western Australia arises primarily from medical diagnosis and treatment and from scientific research mainly with a medical orientation. Waste is classified before disposal depending on its level and type of radioactivity and then disposed of either to municipal land fill sites, to the sewerage system or by incineration. The amounts of radioactive materials which may be disposed of to the sewers and air are set by the Radiation Safety Act (1975) Regulations, and the land fill operations are controlled to ensure isolation of the material. Other waste such as unwanted sources used in industrial applications are stored for future disposal. Discussions are being held between officers of the State and Australian Governments aimed at providing suitable disposal methods for sources of this kind

  2. Confinement and migration of radionuclides in deep geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2007-07-01

    Disposing high level nuclear waste in deep disposal repository requires to understand and to model the evolution of the different repository components as well as radionuclides migration on time-frame which are well beyond the time accessible to experiments. In particular, robust and predictive models are a key element to assess the long term safety and their reliability must rely on a accurate description of the actual processes. Within this framework, this report synthesizes the work performed by Ch. Poinssot and has been prepared for the defense of his HDR (French university degree to Manage Research). These works are focused on two main areas which are (i) the long term evolution of spent nuclear fuel and the development of radionuclide source terms models, and (ii) the migration of radionuclides in natural environment. (author)

  3. 1994 Characterization report for the state approved land disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterization activities at the proposed state-approved land disposal site (SALDS); it updates the original characterization report with studies completed since the first characterization report. The initial characterization report discusses studies from two characterization boreholes, 699-48-77A and 699-48-77B. This revision includes data from implementation of the Groundwater Monitoring Plan and the Aquifer Test Plan. The primary sources of data are two down-gradient groundwater monitoring wells, 699-48-77C and 699-48-77D, and aquifer testing of three zones in well 699-48-77C. The SALDS is located on the Hanford Site, approximately 183 m north of the 200 West Area on the north side of the 200 Areas Plateau. The SALDS is an infiltration basin proposed for disposal of treated effluents from the 200 Areas of Hanford

  4. The Future: Innovative Technologies for Radioactive Waste Processing and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Safe, proliferation resistant and economically efficient nuclear fuel cycles that minimize waste generation and environmental impacts are key to sustainable nuclear energy. Innovative approaches and technologies could significantly reduce the radiotoxicity, or the hazard posed by radioactive substances to humans, as well as the waste generated. Decreasing the waste volume, the heat load and the duration that the waste needs to be isolated from the biosphere will greatly simplify waste disposal concepts

  5. New technique for landfill leachate well installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornsby, R.G.; Miller, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The installation method fulfilled our expectations. The entire well installation took eight writing days to complete, for an average of two wells per day. It met our Health and Safety, waste volume, environmental risk and uniform sandpack expectations. Health and Safety concerns were minimal. We found that virtually all work could be completed using Level D protection. The volume of waste produced by the well installation was extremely low. The core samples and casing scrapings were the only well installation wastes directly produced. The waste containers which required sampling prior to disposal were: Decontaminated water (330 gallons), Personnel protective equipment and water (715 gallons), Soil cores (25 gallons), Land leachate (440 gallons). Each waste type was sampled and submitted to a laboratory for analyses of full Appendix 3 plus U.S. EPA toxicity parameters. The results verified that all of the wastes could be disposed of on-site. Since the only drilling wastes were the clay core samples and the very small amount of material adhering to the casing, contamination of the new clay cap did not occur. A uniform sandpack was guaranteed through the use of a presanded well screen. The loose sand added when the casing was removed served to fill any voids. All the leachate wells have water in them, and it appears that they will function adequately. We are in the process of constructing a treatment and storage facility to manage the liquids to be extracted for off-site disposal. The long-term effectiveness of the wells will be quantified. This well installation method should be considered in situations requiring the following: expedited installation; reduced Health and Safety concerns; reduced disposal costs; reduced potential for adverse environmental impact; and comparable installation costs. The choice of this method must include considerations of the subsurface geology and the nature of any manmade materials

  6. Confidence improvement of disosal safety bydevelopement of a safety case for high-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Ko, Nak Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Kyung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Many countries have developed a safety case suitable to their own countries in order to improve the confidence of disposal safety in deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste as well as to develop a disposal program and obtain its license. This study introduces and summarizes the meaning, necessity, and development process of the safety case for radioactive waste disposal. The disposal safety is also discussed in various aspects of the safety case. In addition, the status of safety case development in the foreign countries is briefly introduced for Switzerland, Japan, the United States of America, Sweden, and Finland. The strategy for the safety case development that is being developed by KAERI is also briefly introduced. Based on the safety case, we analyze the efforts necessary to improve confidence in disposal safety for high-level radioactive waste. Considering domestic situations, we propose and discuss some implementing methods for the improvement of disposal safety, such as construction of a reliable information database, understanding of processes related to safety, reduction of uncertainties in safety assessment, communication with stakeholders, and ensuring justice and transparency. This study will contribute to the understanding of the safety case for deep geological disposal and to improving confidence in disposal safety through the development of the safety case in Korea for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

  7. Dismantling and disposal of the Chisobox experimental irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriz, R.

    2005-01-01

    The Chisobox experimental irradiator was installed at the Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Kralove, Radioisotope Laboratories and Vivarium, for the purposes of the scientific research of ionizing radiation effects on the living organisms. The irradiator was put into operation in 1977. After 1989, its use has been - significantly reduced and it was only employed for the sterilization of medical materials and aids as well as for the radiation treatment of antique and museum things having wood-worm. In January 2001, its next operation was determined by the SUJB decision (i.e. The State Office for Nuclear Safety) in which the constancy tests for all individual ionizing radiation sources being part of the system were required. As the f constancy tests were not performed at that time, the Faculty Management decided for the -- decommissioning of the irradiator in June 2001. In 2003, the Faculty of Medicine announced a tender for the category III workplace disposal. Primarily, the VF, a.s. in cooperation with the SURAO Prague (i.e. the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority) were to have disposed this workplace, and a hot cell designed to be built in Litomerice by the SURAO was to have been used for this project. However, the Faculty of Medicine got a grant for the irradiator disposal in 2004 providing that the disposal had to be finished in the same year. For this reason, the complete project has been assigned to the VF, a.s. Company, which put its hot cell into operation in 2004. The VF, a.s. Company finished the disposal of the irradiator in October/November 2004. After the agreement with the SURAO in April 2005, the sealed sources placed in the storage baskets were put into a newly manufactured container -a non-standard storage unit -and transported to be stored in the URAO Richard in Litomerice. (authors)

  8. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE's Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS

  9. Transport and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1999-01-01

    The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for

  10. Contributions to safety assessment of the radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Ionescu, Alice; Deaconu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the progress in the frame of the safety assessments related to the potential near-surface Romanian National Repository, as well as to the geological repository in salt rock for CANDU spent fuel. The safety assessment of the near-surface repository follows the ISAM methodology. The repository design consists of a vault, in which the wastes resulted from the operation and decommissioning of the CANDU reactor from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) are disposed off. The repository is located nearby the CNPP. A layered unsaturated zone overlying a variable thickness confined aquifer, which consists of barremian limestones, characterizes the site. The interface with biosphere is considered to be the Danube-Black Sea Channel. The paper summarizes the results of the post-closure safety assessment for the design scenario and the prediction of the radionuclide release in the liquid phase. As to the final disposal of the CANDU spent fuel from the CNPP, we assumed that the repository is built in a salt dome. Romania has important salt formations, some of them being potentially suitable for hosting a repository. Up to now there are no detailed characterization studies of such formations in Romania, from the point of view of the suitability as a repository site. Therefore, generic data for hydrogeological characterization of the site have been used, coming from the Gorleben site in Germany. The spent fuel containers are disposed off in galleries, somewhere 500 m bellow the cap rock of the salt dome. The temporal loading scheme of the repository is based on a sequential filing of the disposal fields, with a delay of 10 years between filling of two neighbouring disposal areas. The disposal fields are accessed via a shaft. After filling of a disposal gallery, the remaining space is backfilled with salt powder and the gallery is sealed with compacted salt bricks. The access galleries are also backfilled and sealed. Only the reference scenario is considered, in

  11. Performance assessment review for DOE LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, Elmer L.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) disposes of low-level radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities. Safety of the disposal operations is evaluated for operational safety as well as long-term safety. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation and may vary from a simple safety assessment to a safety analysis report. Long-term safety of all low-level waste disposal systems is evaluated through the conduct of a radiological performance assessment. The US DOE has established radiological performance objectives for disposal of low-level waste. They are to protect a member of the general public from receiving over 25 mrem/y, and an inadvertent intruder into the waste from receiving over 100 mrem/y continuous exposure or 500 mrem from a single exposure. For a disposal system to be acceptable, a performance assessment must be prepared which must be technically accurate and provide reasonable assurance that these performance objectives are met. Technical quality of the performance assessments is reviewed by a panel of experts. The panel of experts is used in two ways to assure the technical quality of performance assessment. A preliminary (generally 2 day) review by the panel is employed in the late stages of development to provide guidance on finalizing the performance assessment. The comments from this review are communicated to the personnel responsible for the performance assessment for consideration and incorporation. After finalizing the performance assessment, it is submitted for a formal review. The formal review is accomplished by a much more thorough analysis of the performance assessment over a multi-week time period. The panel then formally reports their recommendations to the US DOE waste management senior staff who make the final determination on acceptability of the performance assessment. A number of lessons have been learned from conducting several preliminary reviews of performance

  12. Greater-Than-Class C Low Level Radioactive Waste Characteristics and Disposal Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Hans D.; Brimfield, Terrence; Grossman, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions • Due to the way LLRW is defined in the US, there is a category of LLRW (i.e., GTCC waste) that was categorized in the 1980’s and is similar to ILW and not generally acceptable for near-surface disposal. • Three decades later, it cannot be excluded that future NRC analyses may find some GTCC waste type suitable for near-surface disposal, and a proposed rule may be developed for licensing the disposal of such waste. • Current regulations only allow individual proposals for GTCC LLRW disposal to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine the acceptability of land disposal other than in a geologic repository • Based on current regulations, the variability and diversity of FEPs associated with such safety cases is theoretically large: - The range of activity concentrations, half-lives, and volumes of GTCC waste types is large; - The range of physical forms is large: metal pieces to soils and sludges; - The range of potential disposal methods is large: trench, vault, landfill, shaft, borehole; - The range of potential disposal environments is large: arid vs. humid, unsaturated vs. saturated, sediment vs. rock, nearsurface to intermediate; - The stability and past natural history of a specific disposal site must also be adequately known. • Examples of potential site-specific cases designed to demonstrate the acceptability of GTCC LLRW land disposal other than deep geologic: - Proposals for disposal could entail concepts that have been relatively well assessed by NRC staff in the past; e.g., trench disposal of a moderate volume of GTCC Other Waste in an arid, unsaturated, near-surface environment; - Proposals for disposal could also entail concepts that have been less frequently assessed; e.g., borehole disposal of higher activity sealed sources in a humid, saturated, intermediate depth environment. • However, if one potential site and design was under consideration, the variability and diversity of FEPs associated with that site

  13. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vedernikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on data collected during operation of near-surface disposal facilities for short-lived intermediate-, lowand very low-level waste in France, as well as nearsurface disposal facilities for long-lived waste in Russia. Further analysis of occupational and public doses calculated at the design stage was completed covering a near-surface disposal facility in Belgium and deep disposal facilities in the United Kingdom and the Nizhne-Kansk rock massive (Russia. The results show that engineering and technical solutions enable almost complete elimination of internal occupational exposure, whereas external exposure doses would fall within the range of values typical for a basic nuclear facility. Conclusion: radioactive waste disposal facilities being developed, constructed and operated meet the safety requirements effective in the Russian Federation and consistent with relevant international recommendations. It has been found that individual occupational exposure doses commensurate with those received by personnel of similar facilities abroad. Furthermore, according to the forecasts, mean individual doses for personnel during radioactive waste disposal would be an order of magnitude lower than the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. As for the public exposure, during normal operation, potential impact is virtually impossible by delaminating boundaries of a nuclear facility sanitary protection zone inside which the disposal facility is located and can be solely attributed to the use

  14. Environmental monitoring of subsurface low-level waste disposal facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) generates low-level waste (LLW) as part of its research and isotope production activities. This waste is managed in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Solid LLW management includes disposal in above-ground, tumulus-type facilities as well as in various types of subsurface facilities. Since 1986, subsurface disposal has been conducted using various designs employing greater-confinement-disposal (GCD) techniques. The purpose of this paper is to present monitoring results that document the short-term performance of these GCD facilities

  15. Mine waste disposal and managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young Wook; Min, Jeong Sik; Kwon, Kwang Soo; Kim, Ok Hwan; Kim, In Kee; Song, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyun Joo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Acid Rock Drainage (ARD) is the product formed by the atmospheric oxidation of the relatively common pyrite and pyrrhotite. Waste rock dumps and tailings containing sulfide mineral have been reported at toxic materials producing ARD. Mining in sulphide bearing rock is one of activity which may lead to generation and release of ARD. ARD has had some major detrimental affects on mining areas. The purpose of this study was carried out to develop disposal method for preventing contamination of water and soil environment by waste rocks dump and tailings, which could discharge the acid drainage with high level of metals. Scope of this study was as following: environmental impacts by mine wastes, geochemical characteristics such as metal speciation, acid potential and paste pH of mine wastes, interpretation of occurrence of ARD underneath tailings impoundment, analysis of slope stability of tailings dam etc. The following procedures were used as part of ARD evaluation and prediction to determine the nature and quantities of soluble constituents that may be washed from mine wastes under natural precipitation: analysis of water and mine wastes, Acid-Base accounting, sequential extraction technique and measurement of lime requirement etc. In addition, computer modelling was applied for interpretation of slope stability od tailings dam. (author). 44 refs., 33 tabs., 86 figs.

  16. Method of disposing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isozaki, Kei.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose : To enable safety ocean disposal of radioactive wastes by decreasing the leaching rate of radioactive nucleides, improving the quick-curing nature and increasing the durability. Method : A mixture comprising 2 - 20 parts by weight of alkali metal hydroxide and 100 parts by weight of finely powdered aqueous slags from a blast furnace is added to radioactive wastes to solidify them. In the case of medium or low level radioactive wastes, the solidification agent is added by 200 parts by weight to 100 parts by weight of the wastes and, in the case of high level wastes, the solidification agent is added in such an amount that the wastes occupy about 20% by weight in the total of the wastes and the solidification agent. Sodium hydroxide used as the alkali metal hydroxide is partially replaced with sodium carbonate, a water-reducing agent such as lignin sulfonate is added to improve the fluidity and suppress the leaching rate and the wastes are solidified in a drum can. In this way, corrosions of the vessel can be suppressed by the alkaline nature and the compression strength, heat stability and the like of the product also become excellent. (Sekiya, K.)

  17. Inspection of disposal canisters components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, J.

    2013-12-01

    This report presents the inspection techniques of disposal canister components. Manufacturing methods and a description of the defects related to different manufacturing methods are described briefly. The defect types form a basis for the design of non-destructive testing because the defect types, which occur in the inspected components, affect to choice of inspection methods. The canister components are to nodular cast iron insert, steel lid, lid screw, metal gasket, copper tube with integrated or separate bottom, and copper lid. The inspection of copper material is challenging due to the anisotropic properties of the material and local changes in the grain size of the copper material. The cast iron insert has some acoustical material property variation (attenuation, velocity changes, scattering properties), which make the ultrasonic inspection demanding from calibration point of view. Mainly three different methods are used for inspection. Ultrasonic testing technique is used for inspection of volume, eddy current technique, for copper components only, and visual testing technique are used for inspection of the surface and near surface area

  18. From fundamentals to waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbalat, O.

    1991-01-01

    Today the particle accelerator is widely used in nearly every field of physics and is also essential to study structures in chemistry and biology or to perform sensitive trace element analysis. Its application range is being extended considerably by the capability to generate synchrotron radiation. Progress in nuclear and particle physics that originated from studies with accelerators is now playing a determining role in astrophysics and cosmology. Important industrial applications include ion implantation in the semiconductor industry and the modification of surface properties of materials. Microlithography using synchrotron radiation is used to produce high-density integrated electronic circuits. Radiation is being used in a variety of processes to preserve food, sterilise toxic waste or polymerise plastics. Activation methods using neutrons from compact accelerators can be applied in geophysics and are also being developed to detect explosives. It is probably in medicine that accelerators have found their widest field of application: isotope production for diagnostic/treatment purposes or for radiation therapy. Accelerators may also play a key role in power engineering. Studies of inertial confinement fusion by heavy ions are actively under way in several countries. Accelerators are essential for providing the additional heating needed for plasma ignition in a tokamak. Research is also being carried out on the use of accelerators to incinerate long-life nuclear waste which could perhaps lead to an acceptable long-term disposal solution. (author)

  19. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  20. Review of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poch, L.A.; Wolsko, T.D.

    1979-10-01

    Regardless of future nuclear policy, a nuclear waste disposal problem does exist and must be dealt with. Even a moratorium on new nuclear plants leaves us with the wastes already in existence and wastes yet to be generated by reactors in operation. Thus, technologies to effectively dispose of our current waste problem must be researched and identified and, then, disposal facilities built. The magnitude of the waste disposal problem is a function of future nuclear policy. There are some waste disposal technologies that are suitable for both forms of HLW (spent fuel and reprocessing wastes), whereas others can be used with only reprocessed wastes. Therefore, the sooner a decision on the future of nuclear power is made the more accurately the magnitude of the waste problem will be known, thereby identifying those technologies that deserve more attention and funding. It is shown that there are risks associated with every disposal technology. One technology may afford a higher isolation potential at the expense of increased transportation risks in comparison to a second technology. Establishing the types of risks we are willing to live with must be resolved before any waste disposal technology can be instituted for widespread commercial use

  1. Geological aspects of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobera, P.

    1985-01-01

    Geological formations suitable for burying various types of radioactive wastes are characterized applying criteria for the evaluation and selection of geological formations for building disposal sites for radioactive wastes issued in IAEA technical recommendations. They are surface disposal sites, disposal sites in medium depths and deep disposal sites. Attention is focused on geological formations usable for injecting self-hardening mixtures into cracks prepared by hydraulic decomposition and for injecting liquid radioactive wastes into permeable rocks. Briefly outlined are current trends of the disposal of radioactive wastes in Czechoslovakia and the possibilities are assessed from the geological point of view of building disposal sites for radioactive wastes on the sites of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants at Jaslovske Bohunice, Mochovce, Dukovany, Temelin, Holice (eastern Bohemia), Blahoutovice (northern Moravia) and Zehna (eastern Slovakia). It is stated that in order to design an optimal method of the burial of radioactive waste it will be necessary to improve knowledge of geological conditions in the potential disposal sites at the said nuclear plants. There is usually no detailed knowledge of geological and hydrological conditions at greater depths than 100 m. (Z.M.)

  2. Geological disposal of radioactive waste. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication is concerned with providing protection to people and the environment from the hazards associated with waste management activities related to disposal, i.e. hazards that could arise during the operating period and following closure. It sets out the protection objectives and criteria for geological disposal and establishes the requirements that must be met to ensure the safety of this disposal option, consistent with the established principles of safety for radioactive waste management. It is intended for use by those involved in radioactive waste management and in making decisions in relation to the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities, especially those concerned with the related regulatory aspects. This publication contains 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. The safety requirements for geological disposal; 4. Requirements for the development, operation and closure of geological disposal facilities; Appendix: Assurance of compliance with the safety objective and criteria; Annex I: Geological disposal and the principles of radioactive waste management; Annex II: Principles of radioactive waste management

  3. Basic reasons and the practice of using deep water-bearing levels for liquid radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Pimenov, M.K.; Balukova, V.D.; Leontichuk, A.S.; Kokorin, I.N.; Yudin, F.P.; Rakov, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    Speculations are presented on the development and organization of liquid radioactive waste underground disposal in deep water-bearing levels completely isolated from other levels and the surface. Major requirements are formulated that are laid down to low-, moderate-and high-radioactive wastes subject to the disposal. Geological and hydrological conditions as well as the scheme and design features of pilot field facilities are described, where works on high-active waste disposal were started in 1972. In 1972 and 1973 450 and 1050 m 3 of the wastes (7.5 and 53 MCi) respecrespectively were disposed. The first results of the pilot disposal and the 3-year surveillance over the plate-collector condition and the performance of the facilities have reaffirmed the feasibility, medical and radiation safety and economic attractiveness of the disposal of wastes with up to 10-25 Ci/l specific activity

  4. The disposal of radioactive waste on land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1957-09-01

    A committee of geologists and geophysicists was established by the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council at the request of the Atomic Energy Commission to consider the possibilities of disposing of high level radioactive wastes in quantity within the continental limits of the United States. The group was charged with assembling the existing geologic information pertinent to disposal, delineating the unanswered problems associated with the disposal schemes proposed, and point out areas of research and development meriting first attention; the committee is to serve as continuing adviser on the geological and geophysical aspects of disposal and the research and development program. The Committee with the cooperation of the Johns Hopkins University organized a conference at Princeton in September 1955. After the Princeton Conference members of the committee inspected disposal installations and made individual studies. Two years consideration of the disposal problems leads to-certain general conclusions. Wastes may be disposed of safely at many sites in the United States but, conversely, there are many large areas in which it is unlikely that disposal sites can be found, for example, the Atlantic Seaboard. Disposal in cavities mined in salt beds and salt domes is suggested as the possibility promising the most practical immediate solution of the problem. In the future the injection of large volumes of dilute liquid waste into porous rock strata at depths in excess of 5,000 feet may become feasible but means of rendering, the waste solutions compatible with the mineral and fluid components of the rock must first be developed. The main difficulties, to the injection method recognized at present are to prevent clogging of pore space as the solutions are pumped into the rock and the prediction or control of the rate and direction of movement.

  5. Radiological Operational Safety Verification for LILW Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology, SNU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung Young; Kim, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The successful implementation of radioactive waste repository program depends on scientific and technical aspects of excellent safety strategy as well as on societal aspects such as stakeholder acceptance and confidence. Monitoring is considered as key element in serving both ends. It covers all stages of the disposal process from site selection to institutional monitoring after the repository is closed. Basically, the purpose of the monitoring of radioactive waste disposal facility is not to reveal any increase of radioactivity due to the repository, but to provide reassurance and confirmation that the repository is fulfilling its passive safety purpose as an initial disposal concept and that long-term safety driven by regulatory requirements is ensured throughout the entire lifetime of disposal facility including post-closure phase. Five principal objectives of monitoring of geological disposal are summarized by IAEA-TECDOC-1208 as follows 1) Supporting management decisions in a staged programme of repository development: 2) Strengthening understanding of system behavior: 3) Societal decision making: 4) Accumulating an environmental database: 5) Nuclear safeguards (if repository contains fissile material, i.e., spent fuel or plutonium-rich waste) Based on the results of detailed studies of the above objectives and related phenomena, 6 categories of potential monitoring parameters are determined as follows: (1) degradation of repository structures, (2) behavior of the waste package and its associated buffer material, (3) near field chemical interactions between introduced materials, groundwater and host rock, (4) chemical and physical changes to the surrounding geosphere, (5) provision of an environmental database, and (6) nuclear safeguards. Typical monitoring parameters include temperature (heat), water level, pore-water and moisture content (groundwater), rock pressure, fractures, displacement and deformation (stress), water quality chemistry and dissolved

  6. Analysis of nuclear waste disposal in space, phase 3. Volume 2: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, N. E.; Yates, K. R.; Martin, W. E.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The options, reference definitions and/or requirements currently envisioned for the total nuclear waste disposal in space mission are summarized. The waste form evaluation and selection process is documented along with the physical characteristics of the iron nickel-base cermet matrix chosen for disposal of commercial and defense wastes. Safety aspects of radioisotope thermal generators, the general purpose heat source, and the Lewis Research Center concept for space disposal are assessed as well as the on-pad catastrophic accident environments for the uprated space shuttle and the heavy lift launch vehicle. The radionuclides that contribute most to long-term risk of terrestrial disposal were determined and the effects of resuspension of fallout particles from an accidental release of waste material were studied. Health effects are considered. Payload breakup and rescue technology are discussed as well as expected requirements for licensing, supporting research and technology, and safety testing.

  7. Where to dispose of the sewage sludge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurer, P.; Geering, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'proper' course for the disposal of sewage sludge is a topic that has continually sparked intense discussion for years. New legal regulations have developed which have significantly changed the disposal structure. Nevertheless, the consumer market of agriculture products has an increasing influence on sewage sludge recycling possibilities. In this report, the changes in sewage sludge disposal within the last ten years and the expected development is pointed out. On account of legal guidelines and of political market influences, the thermal recycling of sewage sludge is considered as the future solution, which should, however, be adapted according to marginal situations. (author)

  8. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  9. Nuclear fuel waste disposal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1990-05-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed a concept for disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste and is submitting it for review under the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process. During this review, AECL intends to show that careful, controlled burial 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield is a safe and feasible way to dispose of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The concept has been assessed without identifying or evaluating any particular site for disposal. AECL is now preparing a comprehensive report based on more than 10 years of research and development

  10. Shallow land disposal, the french system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.; Marque, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1969, low and medium activity waste are disposed of in France at the Centre Manche. The management system set up covers the whole of the operations, from the sorting of the wastes and their conditioning to the final disposal. Safety standards and technical issues were found satisfactory by the National Safety Authority and they are the basis of the program for the realization of two new disposal sites which should take over from the Centre Manche loaded towards 1990. ANDRA, a National Agency, is responsible for the long term management of radioactive waste, in France [fr

  11. Confidence building in implementation of geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeki, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Long-term safety of the disposal system should be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the stakeholders. Convincing arguments are therefore required that instil in the stakeholders confidence in the safety of a particular concept for the siting and design of a geological disposal, given the uncertainties that inevitably exist in its a priori description and in its evolution. The step-wise approach associated with making safety case at each stage is a key to building confidence in the repository development programme. This paper discusses aspects and issues on confidence building in the implementation of HLW disposal in Japan. (author)

  12. Cost considerations in remediation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.T.; Huddleston, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Opportunities for assessing the costs associated with the reclamation and remediation of sites contaminated by oilfield wastes are discussed. The savings can be maximized by paying close attention to five different aspects of the overall site remediation and disposal process. These are: (1) highly focused site assessment, (2) cost control of treatment and disposal options, (3) value added cost benefits, (4) opportunities to control outside influences during the remedial process, and (5) opportunities for managing long-term liabilities and residual risk remaining after the remedial program is completed. It is claimed that addressing these aspects of the process will ultimately lower the overall cost of site remediation and waste disposal

  13. Evaluations for draft reports on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Keisuke; Igarashi, Hiroshi

    2002-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of the technical evaluations on two reports which are named as 'Overview of the Geological Disposal Facility' and Considerable Factors on Selection of Potential Sites for Geological Disposal' drafted by NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan). The review of each draft report has been referred to committee (held on 9th September, 2002) and working group (held on 1st October, 2002) which were organized in order to confirm a progress of implementation of geological disposal by government. (author)

  14. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineering for a disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.; Baumgartner, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents some general considerations for engineering a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, alternative disposal-vault concepts and arrangements, and a conceptual design of a used-fuel disposal centre that was used to assess the technical feasibility, costs and potential effects of disposal. The general considerations and alternative disposal-vault arrangements are presented to show that options are available to allow the design to be adapted to actual site conditions. The conceptual design for a used-fuel disposal centre includes descriptions of the two major components of the disposal facility, the Used-Fuel Packaging Plant and the disposal vault; the ancillary facilities and services needed to carry out the operations are also identified. The development of the disposal facility, its operation, its decommissioning, and the reclamation of the site are discussed. The costs, labour requirements and schedules used to assess socioeconomic effects and that may be used to assess the cost burden of waste disposal to the consumer of nuclear energy are estimated. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  15. Cost effects of Cu powder and bentonite on the disposal costs of an HLW repository in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Ki; Lee, Min Soo; Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides the cost effect results of Cu powder and bentonite on the disposal cost for an HLW repository in Korea. In the cost analysis for both of these cost drivers, the price of Cu powder and the bentonite can affect the canister cost and the bentonite cost of the disposal holes as well as backfilling cost of the tunnels, respectively. Finally, we found that the unit cost of Cu and bentonite was the dominant cost drivers for the surface and underground facilities of an HLW repository. Therefore, an optimization of a canister and the layout of a disposal hole and disposal tunnels are essential to decrease the direct disposal cost of spent fuels. The disposal costs can be largely divided into two parts such as a surface facilities' cost and an underground facilities' cost. According to the KRS' cost analysis, the encapsulation material as well as the buffering and backfilling cost were the significant costs. Especially, a canister's cost was approximately estimated to be more than one fourth of the overall disposal costs. So it can be estimated that the unit cost of Cu powder is an important cost diver. Because the outer shell of the canister was made of Cu powder by a cold spray coating method. In addition, the unit cost of bentonite can also affect the buffering and the backfilling costs of the disposal holes and the disposal tunnels. But, these material costs will be highly expensive and unstable due to the modernization of the developing countries. So the studies for a material cost should be continued to identify the actual cost of an HLW repository

  16. Third invitational well-testing symposium: well testing in low permeability environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doe, T.W.; Schwarz, W.J. (eds.)

    1981-03-01

    The testing of low permeability rocks is common to waste disposal, fossil energy resource development, underground excavation, and geothermal energy development. This document includes twenty-six papers and abstracts, divided into the following sessions: opening session, case histories and related phenomena, well test design in low permeability formations, analysis and interpretation of well test data, and instrumentation for well tests. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 of the 16 papers; the remaining paper has been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  17. Third invitational well-testing symposium: well testing in low permeability environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.W.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1981-03-01

    The testing of low permeability rocks is common to waste disposal, fossil energy resource development, underground excavation, and geothermal energy development. This document includes twenty-six papers and abstracts, divided into the following sessions: opening session, case histories and related phenomena, well test design in low permeability formations, analysis and interpretation of well test data, and instrumentation for well tests. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 of the 16 papers; the remaining paper has been previously abstracted

  18. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Dick; Tsosie, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location 16(SG).

  19. Data Validation Package May 2016 Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dick [Navarro Nevada Environmental Services (NNES), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Tsosie, Bernadette [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location 16(SG).

  20. Cost and ways of financing of the geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venet, P.; Baetsle, L.H.; Barthoux, A.; Engelmann, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    In the paper, the costs of geological disposal of radioactive waste are initially evaluated for a certain number of representative cases of present tendencies in the European Community. These expenses comprise research, development and site validation costs, transport and interim storage costs and finally expenditure relating to various investment and exploitation phases of the disposal site as well as its closure. The possible ways of financing are subsequently reviewed and the financial charges which resulted are calculated for each considered scenario. (author)

  1. The final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prvakova, S.; Necas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Today the most serious problem in the area of nuclear power engineering is the management of spent nuclear fuel. Due to its very high radioactivity the nuclear waste must be isolated from the environment. The perspective solution of nuclear fuel cycle is the final disposal into geological formations. Today there is no disposal facility all over the world. There are only underground research laboratories in the well developed countries like the USA, France, Japan, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Belgium. From the economical point of view the most suitable appears to build a few international repositories. According to the political and social aspect each of the country prepare his own project of the deep repository. The status of those programmes in different countries is described. The development of methods for the long-term management of radioactive waste is necessity in all countries that have had nuclear programmes. (authors)

  2. Radioactive waste management and disposal strategies in the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the various radioactive waste management strategies, as they are defined, or even envisaged, in the EC Member States committed to nuclear power. The two main components of these strategies are looked at: content and basic supporting choices; and schedule of implementation. Most EC Countries currently have in common a nuclear history of several decades. Early approaches and local practices are progressively replaced by centralised management systems and by strategies making the best use of many years of research and technological development. All these strategies are aiming at a safe management of all waste types up to, and including, their final disposal. The various management steps are well in hand and very similar in the EC Countries. However, the final step ''disposal'', has been implemented only for low-level waste, and remains to be demonstrated for long lived and high level waste (or spent fuel)

  3. Container for processing and disposing radioactive wastes and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kunio; Kasahara, Yuko; Kasai, Noboru; Sudo, Giichi; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the performance of containers for radioactive wastes for ocean disposal and on-land disposal such as impact strength, chemical resistance, fire resistance, corrosion resistance, water impermeability and the like. Constitution: Steel fiber-reinforced concrete previously molded in a shape of a container is impregnated with polymerizable impregnating agent selected from the group consisting of a polymerizable monomer, liquid mixture of a polymerizable monomer and an oligomer, a polymer solution, a copolymer solution and the liquid mixture thereof. Then, the polymerizable impregnating agent is polymerized to solidify in the concrete by way of heat-polymerization or radiation-induced polymerization to form a waste container. The container thus obtained can be improved with the impact resistance and wear resistance and further improved with salt water resistance, acid resistance, corrosion resistance and solidity by the impregnation of the polymer, as well as can effectively be prevented from leaching out of radioactive substances. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. Geology of high-level nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxburgh, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of geological disposal is set out by describing the major rock types in terms of their ability to isolate high-level nuclear waste. The advantages and problems posed by particular rock formations are explored and the design and construction of geological repositories is considered, along with the methods used to estimate their safety. It gives special consideration to the use of sea-covered rock and sediment as well as the on-land situation. Throughout the book the various principles and problems inherent in geological disposal are explained and illustrated by reference to a multitude of European and North American case studies, backed up by a large number of tables, figures and an extensive bibliography

  5. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste backfilling requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This report describes the backfilling requirements arising from the disposal of HGW in deep ocean sediments. The two disposal options considered are the drilled emplacement method and the free fall penetrator method. The materials best suited for filling the voids in the two options are reviewed. Candidate materials are selected following a study of the property requirements of each backfill. Placement methods for the candidate materials, as well as the means available for verifying the quality of the filling, are presented. Finally, an assessment of the overall feasibility of each placement method is given. The main conclusion is that, although the proposed methods are feasible, further work is necessary to test in inactive trials each of the proposed filling methods. Moreover, it is difficult to envisage how two of the backfilling operations in drilled emplacement option can be verified by non destructive methods. (author)

  6. Principles for disposal of radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The double hazard of mixed wastes is characterized by several criteria: radioactivity on the one hand, and chemical toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness as well as chemical reactivity on the other hand. Chemotoxic waste normally has a much more complex composition than radioactive waste and appears in much larger quantities. However, the two types of waste have some properties in common when it comes to their long-term impact on health and the environment. In order to minimize the risk associated with mixed waste management, the material assigned for ultimate disposal should be thoroughly detoxified, inertized, or mineralized prior to conditioning and packaging. Good control over the environmental consequence of waste disposal requires that detailed criteria for tolerable contamination should be established, and that compliance with these criteria can be demonstrated. For radioactive waste, there has been an extensive international development of criteria to protect human health. For non-radioactive waste, derived criteria exist only for a limited number of substances

  7. DISPOSABLE CANISTER WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. Garrett

    2001-07-30

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide the bases for defining the preclosure limits on radioactive material releases from radioactive waste forms to be received in disposable canisters at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain. Specifically, this calculation will provide the basis for criteria to be included in a forthcoming revision of the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD) that limits releases in terms of non-isotope-specific canister release dose-equivalent source terms. These criteria will be developed for the Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canister, the Multicanister Overpack (MCO), the naval spent fuel canister, the High-Level Waste (HLW) canister, the plutonium can-in-canister, and the large Multipurpose Canister (MPC). The shippers of such canisters will be required to demonstrate that they meet these criteria before the canisters are accepted at the MGR. The Quality Assurance program is applicable to this calculation. The work reported in this document is part of the analysis of DSNF and is performed using procedure AP-3.124, Calculations. The work done for this analysis was evaluated according to procedure QAP-2-0, Control of Activities, which has been superseded by AP-2.21Q, Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities. This evaluation determined that such activities are subject to the requirements of DOE/RW/0333P, Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (DOE 2000). This work is also prepared in accordance with the development plan titled Design Basis Event Analyses on DOE SNF and Plutonium Can-In-Canister Waste Forms (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Technical Work Plan For: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Work Packages (CRWMS M&O 2000d). This calculation contains no electronic data applicable to any electronic data management system.

  8. Marine disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de

  9. Alternative disposal technologies for new low-level radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Waste Management Activities for groundwater protection has been prepared for the Savannah River Plant. Support documentation for the DEIS included an Environmental Information Document on new radioactive waste disposal and storage facilities in which possible alternative disposal technologies were examined in depth. Six technologies that would meet the needs of the Savannah River Plant that selected for description and analysis include near surface disposal, near surface disposal with exceptions, engineered storage, engineered disposal, vault disposal of untreated waste, and a combination of near surface disposal, engineered disposal, and engineered storage. 2 refs

  10. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    A study of container designs for heat generating radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments is presented. The purpose of the container would be to isolate the waste from the environment for a period of 500 to 1000 years. The container designs proposed are based on the use of either corrosion allowance or corrosion resistant metals. Appropriate overpack wall thicknesses are suggested for each design using the results of corrosion studies and experiments but these are necessarily preliminary and data relevant to corrosion in deep ocean sediments remain sparse. It is concluded that the most promising design concept involves a thin titanium alloy overpack in which all internal void spaces are filled with lead or cement grout. In situ temperatures for the sediment adjacent to the emplaced 50 year cooled waste containers are calculated to reach about 260 deg C. The behaviour of the sediments at such a high temperature is not well understood and the possibility of 100 years interim storage is recommended for consideration to allow further cooling. Further corrosion data and sediment thermal studies would be required to fully confirm the engineering feasibility of these designs. (author)

  11. Geologic factors in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1978-07-01

    The study of geosciences and their relation to nuclear waste disposal and management entails analyzing the hydrology, chemistry, and geometry of the nuclear waste migration process. Hydrologic effects are determined by analyzing the porosity and permeability (natural and induced) of rock as well as pressures and gradients, dispersion, and aquifer length of the system. Chemistry parameters include radionuclide retardation factors and waste dissolution rate. Geometric parameters (i.e., parameters with dimension) evaluated include repository layer thickness, fracture zone area, tunnel length, and aquifer length. The above parameters act as natural barriers or controls to nuclear waste migration, and are evaluated in three potential geologic media: salt, shale, and crystalline rock deposits. Parametric values are assigned that correspond to many existing situations. These values, in addition to other important inputs, are lumped as a hydrology input into a computer simulation program used to model and calculate nuclear waste migration from the repository to the biosphere, and potential individual and population dose and radiation effects. These results are preliminary and show trends only; they do not represent an actual risk analysis

  12. Ocean disposal of heat generating radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report is based on an emplacement techniques review prepared for the Department of the Environment in February 1983, which appeared as Chapter III of the Nuclear Energy Agency, Seabed Working Group's Status Report. The original document (DOE/RW/83.032) has been amended to take account of the results of field trials carried out in March 1983 and to better reflect current UK Government policy on ocean disposal of HGW. In particular Figure 7 has been redrawn using more realistic drag factors for the calculation of the terminal velocity in water. This report reviews the work conducted by the SWG member countries into the different techniques of emplacing heat generating radioactive waste into the deep ocean sediments. It covers the waste handling from the port facilities to final emplacement in the seabed and verification of the integrity of the canister isolation system. The two techniques which are currently being considered in detail are drilled emplacement and the free fall penetrator. The feasibility study work in progress for both techniques as well as the mathematical and physical modelling work for embedment depth and hole closure behind the penetrator are reviewed. (author)

  13. California's disposal plan goes nowhere fast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.

    1994-01-01

    California desperately needs a place to store as much as 5.5 million cubic feet of low-level radioactive waste over the next 30 years. Ward Valley, a barren stretch of the Mojave Desert located some 250 miles east of Los Angeles, was supposed to be that place. Last year, trenches dug in the arid, seismically stable valley were supposed to be that place. Last year, trenches dug in the arid, seismically stable valley were supposed to begin holding wastes like the gadolinium-153 used to detect osteoporosis and the selenium-75 used to study proteins, as well as wastes from nuclear power plants. But construction crews haven't even begun to dig, because Ward Valley has become ground zero in the fierce national debate over radioactive waste disposal. Lawsuits filed by opponents, who fear the waste will contaminate the environment, and the intervention of influential politicians such as Sen. Barbara Boxer (D-CA) have blocked the Interior Department from selling the federally owned Ward Valley land to California to begin construction. As a result, universities, biotechnology companies, and hospitals may be stuck with wastes piling up at their institutions, which could have repercussions

  14. Bure CLIS: role, operation, disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquet, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Local Information and Oversight Committee (CLIS) is an independent body tasked by law to monitor studies carried out by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) at the Bure laboratory and in the area surrounding Bure, within the framework of research on radioactive waste management and, in particular, on final disposal of such waste in deep geological formations. The role of the CLIS, whose members include representatives of the State, Parliament, local authorities, unions, associations and the medical profession, is to provide all population groups, beginning with the inhabitants of La Meuse and La Haute-Marne departments, with information regarding these studies and their results, as well as the underground repository project and the stakes involved: it is thus the chief contact for the inhabitants of the area. It also encourages discussion of a project that is subject to a long decision-making process, during which the CLIS is called upon to give its opinion at different stages. The objectives of the CLIS' actions are to provide information to as wide a public as possible (through public meetings, a regular newsletter and a web site) using its own data (appraisals and independent assessments), so that the public can effectively contribute to the debates held throughout the process, and also to be an independent player in the process, whenever its involvement is required and even when this is not specifically planned. (author)

  15. Researching radioactive waste disposal. [Underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feates, F; Keen, N [UKAEA Research Group, Harwell. Atomic Energy Research Establishment

    1976-02-16

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared.

  16. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  17. Concept development for HLW disposal research tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queon, S. K.; Kim, K. S.; Park, J. H.; Jeo, W. J.; Han, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to dispose high-level radioactive waste in a geological formation, it is necessary to assess the safety of a disposal concept by excavating a research tunnel in the same geological formation as the host rock mass. The design concept of a research tunnel depends on the actual disposal concept, repository geometry, experiments to be carried at the tunnel, and geological conditions. In this study, analysis of the characteristics of the disposal research tunnel, which is planned to be constructed at KAERI site, calculation of the influence of basting impact on neighbor facilities, and computer simuation for mechanical stability analysis using a three-dimensional code, FLAC3D, had been carried out to develop the design concept of the research tunnel

  18. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k eff for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes

  19. Economic analysis of alternative LLW disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutes, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has evaluated the costs and benefits of alternative disposal technologies as part of its program to develop generally applicable environmental standards for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). Costs, population health effects and Critical Population Group (CPG) exposures resulting from alternative waste treatment and disposal methods were developed and input into the analysis. The cost-effectiveness analysis took into account a number of waste streams, hydrogeologic and climatic region settings, and waste treatment and disposal methods. Total costs of each level of a standard included costs for packaging, processing, transportation, and burial of waste. Benefits are defined in terms of reductions in the general population health risk (expected fatal cancers and genetic effects) evaluated over 10,000 years. A cost-effectiveness ratio, was calculated for each alternative standard. This paper describes the alternatives considered and preliminary results of the cost-effectiveness analysis

  20. VT Data - Onsite Sewage Disposal Soil Ratings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ONSITE is a pre-selected subset of SSURGO certified soil data depicting onsite sewage disposal ratings of Vermont soils. The NRCS Top20 table was...

  1. Ethical aspects of final disposal. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltes, B.; Leder, W.; Achenbach, G.B.; Spaemann, R.; Gerhardt, V.

    2003-01-01

    In fulfilment of this task the Federal Environmental Ministry has commissioned GRS to summarise the current national and international status of ethical aspects of the final disposal of radioactive wastes as part of the project titled ''Final disposal of radioactive wastes as seen from the viewpoint of ethical objectives''. The questions arising from the opinions, positions and publications presented in the report by GRS were to serve as a basis for an expert discussion or an interdisciplinary discussion forum for all concerned with the ethical aspects of an answerable approach to the final disposal of radioactive wastes. In April 2001 GRS held a one-day seminar at which leading ethicists and philosophers offered statements on the questions referred to above and joined in a discussion with experts on issues of final disposal. This report documents the questions that arose ahead of the workshop, the specialist lectures held there and a summary of the discussion results [de

  2. 45 CFR 671.12 - Waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., laboratory culture of micro-organisms and plant pathogens, and introduced avian products must be removed from... dispose of waste by open burning prior to March 1, 1994, allowance shall be made for the wind direction...

  3. Geotechnical engineering of ocean waste disposal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demars, K. R; Chaney, Ronald C; Demars, Kenneth R

    1990-01-01

    Contents: 15 peer-reviewed papers on geotechnical test methods and procedures used for site evaluation, design, construction, and monitoring of both contaminated areas and waste disposal facilities in the marine environment...

  4. Electromagnetic problems in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eloranta, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper reviews the electromagnetic characterization of fractured rock during various phases of radioactive waste disposal investigations and construction, and also discusses the methods of the electromagnetic safeguards monitoring

  5. Optimization of uranium mill tailings disposal practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Allan C.B.; Rowe, William D.

    1984-01-01

    So far as we have been to discern, no uranium mill tailings pile has yet been properly stabilized for long-term disposal. And although considerable effort is now being directed at developing practical solutions and at establishing standards for permanent disposal, the difficulties in application are diverse. They arise from the variety of environments in which milling is conducted, the significant costs associated with disposing of the large volumes of materials involved, the diverse nature of the hazards to be protected against, and uncertainties in both performance of controls and in how to determine societal responsibilities for management of the long term hazards to human populations from uranium tailings. There are 24 uranium tailings piles in the United States which no longer have responsible owners, and must now be disposed of by the U.S. Government in order to protect public health

  6. Aujeszky's disease virus production in disposable bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    1Laboratory for Cell Culture Technology and Biotransformations, 2Laboratory for ... A novel, disposable-bag bioreactor system that uses wave action for mixing and transferring ... consisted of 95% of air + 5% of CO2 using gas mixing module.

  7. Waste disposal options report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; McDonald, T.G.; Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Fish, L.W.; Losinski, S.J.; Peterson, H.K.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Wenzel, D.R.

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: estimates of feed and waste volumes, compositions, and properties; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Zr calcine; evaluation of radionuclide inventory for Al calcine; determination of k{sub eff} for high level waste canisters in various configurations; review of ceramic silicone foam for radioactive waste disposal; epoxides for low-level radioactive waste disposal; evaluation of several neutralization cases in processing calcine and sodium-bearing waste; background information for EFEs, dose rates, watts/canister, and PE-curies; waste disposal options assumptions; update of radiation field definition and thermal generation rates for calcine process packages of various geometries-HKP-26-97; and standard criteria of candidate repositories and environmental regulations for the treatment and disposal of ICPP radioactive mixed wastes.

  8. Process for the disposal of alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    The invention describes a method of disposing of alkali metals by forming a solid waste for storage. The method comprises preparing an aqueous disposal solution of at least 55 weight percent alkali metal hydroxide, heating the alkali metal to melting temperature to form a feed solution, and spraying the molten feed solution into the disposal solution. The alkali metal reacts with the water in the disposal solution in a controlled reaction which produces alkali metal hydroxide, hydrogen and heat and thereby forms a solution of alkali metal hydroxides. Water is added to the solution in amounts sufficient to maintain the concentration of alkali metal hydroxides in the solution at 70 to 90 weight percent, and to maintain the temperature of the solution at about the boiling point. Removing and cooling the alkali metal hydroxide solution thereby forms a solid waste for storage. The method is particularly applicable to radioactive alkali metal reactor coolant. (auth)

  9. Hybrid disposal systems and nitrogen removal in individual sewage disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, A.L.

    1993-06-01

    The use of individual disposal systems in ground-water basins that have adverse salt balance conditions and/or geologically unsuitable locations, has become a major problem in many areas of the world. There has been much research in design of systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of domestic sewage. This research includes both hybrid systems for disposal of the treated waste in areas with adverse geologic conditions and systems for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus prior to percolation to the ground water. This paper outlines the history of development and rationale for design and construction of individual sewage disposal systems and describes the designs and limitations of the hybrid and denitrification units. The disposal systems described include Mounds, Evapotranspiration and Evapotranspiration/Infiltration systems. The denitrification units include those using methanol, sulfur and limestone, gray water and secondary treated wastewater for energy sources.

  10. Disposal of radioactive waste in the Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An operation to dispose of low-level radioactive waste in the North Atlantic deeps is undertaken each year. This leaflet seeks to answer questions which are sometimes asked about the operation. It deals with origin, composition, quantity, reason for sea- rather than land-disposal, packaging, transport (rail, road), route of transport, safety precautions, radiation protection, personnel, contamination, site of dump, international regulations, neutral observers, safety standards of containers and control of level of radioactivity of wastes. (U.K.)

  11. Nuclear waste disposal: technology and environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, F.K.; Aikin, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; the nature and origin of wastes (fuel cycles; character of wastes; mining and milling operations; middle stages; irradiated fuel; reprocessing (waste generation); reactor wastes); disposal techniques and disposal of reprocessing wastes; siting of repositories; potential environmental impacts (impacts after emplacement in a rock repository; catastrophic effects; dispersion processes (by migrating ground water); thermal effects; future security; environmental survey, monitoring and modelling); conclusion. (U.K.)

  12. DSEM, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site Economic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Disposal Site Economic Model calculates the average generator price, or average price per cubic foot charged by a disposal facility to a waste generator, one measure of comparing the economic attractiveness of different waste disposal site and disposal technology combinations. The generator price is calculated to recover all costs necessary to develop, construct, operate, close, and care for a site through the end of the institutional care period and to provide the necessary financial returns to the site developer and lender (when used). Six alternative disposal technologies, based on either private or public financing, can be considered - shallow land disposal, intermediate depth disposal, above or below ground vaults, modular concrete canister disposal, and earth mounded concrete bunkers - based on either private or public development. 2 - Method of solution: The economic models incorporate default cost data from the Conceptual Design Report (DOE/LLW-60T, June 1987), a study by Rodgers Associates Engineering Corporation. Because all costs are in constant 1986 dollars, the figures must be modified to account for inflation. Interest during construction is either capitalized for the private developer or rolled into the loan for the public developer. All capital costs during construction are depreciated over the operation life of the site using straight-line depreciation for the private sector. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 100 years post-operating period, 30 years operating period, 15 years pre-operating period. The model should be used with caution outside the range of 1.8 to 10.5 million cubic feet of total volume. Depreciation is not recognized with public development

  13. Waste Water Disposal Design And Management II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Jung Su

    2004-04-01

    This book is written about design and management of waste water disposal like settling, floating, aeration and filtration. It explains in detail solo settling, flocculant settling, zone settling, multi-level settling, floating like PPI oil separator, structure of skimming tank and design of skimming tank, water treatment and aeration, aeration device, deaeration like deaeration device for disposal processing of sewage, filtration such as structure and design of Micro-floc filtration, In-line filtration and design of slow sand filter bed.

  14. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  15. Alternatives for definse waste-salt disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.W.; McDonell, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Alternatives for disposal of decontaminated high-level waste salt at Savannah River were reviewed to estimate costs and potential environmental impact for several processes. In this review, the reference process utilizing intermediate-depth burial of salt-concrete (saltcrete) monoliths was compared with alternatives including land application of the decontaminated salt as fertilizer for SRP pine stands, ocean disposal with and without containment, and terminal storage as saltcake in existing SRP waste tanks. Discounted total costs for the reference process and its modifications were in the same range as those for most of the alternative processes; uncontained ocean disposal with truck transport to Savannah River barges and storage as saltcake in SRP tanks had lower costs, but presented other difficulties. Environmental impacts could generally be maintained within acceptable limits for all processes except retention of saltcake in waste tanks, which could result in chemical contamination of surrounding areas on tank collapse. Land application would require additional salt decontamination to meet radioactive waste disposal standards, and ocean disposal without containment is not permitted in existing US practice. The reference process was judged to be the only salt disposal option studied which would meet all current requirements at an acceptable cost

  16. Waste disposal technologies: designs and evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Many states and compacts are presently in the throes of considering what technology to select for their low level waste disposal site. Both the technical and economic aspects of disposal technology are important considerations in these decisions. It is also important that they be considered in the context of the entire system. In the case of a nuclear power plant, that system encompasses the various individual waste streams that contain radioactivity, the processing equipment which reduces the volume and/or alters the form in which the radioisotopes are contained, the packaging of the processed wastes in shipment, and finally its disposal. One further part of this is the monitoring that takes place in all stages of this operation. This paper discusses the results of some research that has been sponsored by EPRI with the principal contractor being Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation. Included is a description of the distinguishing features found in disposal technologies developed in a generic framework, designs for a selected set of these disposal technologies and the costs which have been derived from these designs. In addition, a description of the early efforts towards defining the performance of these various disposal technologies is described. 5 figures, 1 table

  17. Stability of disposal rooms during waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandshaug, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the results of a numerical analysis to determine the stability of waste disposal rooms for vertical and horizontal emplacement during the period of waste retrieval. It is assumed that waste retrieval starts 50 years after the initial emplacement of the waste, and that access to and retrieval of the waste containers take place through the disposal rooms. It is further assumed that the disposal rooms are not back-filled. Convective cooling of the disposal rooms in preparation for waste retrieval is included in the analysis. Conditions and parameters used were taken from the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). Thermal results are presented which illustrate the heat transfer response of the rock adjacent to the disposal rooms. Mechanical results are presented which illustrate the predicted distribution of stress, joint slip, and room deformations for the period of time investigated. Under the assumption that the host rock can be classified as ''fair to good'' using the Geomechanics Classification System (Bieniawski, 1974), only light ground support would appear to be necessary for the disposal rooms to remain stable. 23 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs

  18. 40 CFR 146.5 - Classification of injection wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... establishment septic tank. The UIC requirements do not apply to single family residential septic system wells, nor to non-residential septic system wells which are used solely for the disposal of sanitary waste... whether what is injected is a radioactive waste or not. (9) Septic system wells used to inject the waste...

  19. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We outline the differences of Chinese MSW characteristics from Western MSW. ► We model the requirements of four clusters of plant owner/operators in China. ► We examine the best technology fit for these requirements via a matrix. ► Variance in waste input affects result more than training and costs. ► For China technology adaptation and localisation could become push, not pull factors. - Abstract: Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don’t sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no ‘best’ plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four

  20. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  1. An eco friendly solution to the food waste disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. Reddy; Kumar, G. Madhav

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, waste disposal at workmen camp is one of the major problems being faced by many nations across the world. In the workmen colony at Chittapur, a series of kitchens were built for cooking purpose and a number of small canteens are also functioning. Considerable quantity of food waste is collected daily from these eateries and disposed at a faraway place. Food waste is highly degradable in nature, if not disposed properly it causes problems related to environmental pollution. Hence, it is very important to identify an environment friendly process rather than opt for land filling or any disposal method. We worked together to find a suitable eco-friendly solution for the food waste disposal at Chittapur site and suggested that biogas production through anaerobic digestion is a solution for the disposal and utilization of food waste for better purpose. This resulted in setting up a 500 kg per day food waste treatment biogas plant at Chittapur. This establishment is the first time in the construction industry at workmen camp in India. Anaerobic Digestion has been recognized as one of the best options that is available for treating food waste, as it generates two valuable end products, biogas and compost. Biogas is a mixture of CH4 and CO2 about (55:45). Biogas generated can be used for thermal applications such as cooking or for generating electricity. The digested slurry is a well stabilized organic manure and can be used as soil fertilizer. Plant design is to handle 500 kg of food waste /day. 27 kg LPG is obtained from 500kg of kitchen waste. The Value of 27 kg of LPG is Rs.2700/day. Daily 1000 litres of digested effluent was obtained. It is good organic manure with plant micro nutrients and macro nutrients. This can be used for growing plants and in agriculture. The value of manure per day is Rs.250/-. The annual revenue is Rs.10.62 lakhs and the annual expenditure is 1.8 lakhs. The net benefit is 8.82 lakhs. Payback period is 2.1 years. This process

  2. Principal prerequisites and practice for using deep aquifers for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Pimenov, M.K.; Balukova, V.D.; Leontichuk, A.S.; Kokorin, I.N.; Yudin, F.P.; Rakov, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    One of the most promising methods of safe disposal of liquid radioactive wastes in the USSR is the creation of storage places in deep aquifers in zones of stagnant regime or the slow exchange of underground water. The results of investigations and disposal practices testify to the safety and efficiency of such a method of final waste disposal which fulfils the main requirements for protecting the environment. Geological formations and stratum-collectors may be studied and selected to secure localization of liquid radioactive wastes injected into them for many tens and even hundreds of thousand years. The main requirements and criteria which must be met by geological structures and stratum-collectors to ensure safe disposal of wastes are formulated. Waste disposal is realized only after a thorough scientific appreciation of health and safety of present and future generations with regard to the regime of disposal and physico-chemical processes depending on the compatibility of the wastes with rocks and stratal waters as well as on the period of time of waste exposure up to the maximum permissible concentrations. Positive and negative factors of the method are analysed. Methods of preparing waste for disposal and chemical methods of restoring the response of the holes, ways of effective remote control of disposal and environment, etc., are briefly discussed. The results of 10-12 years experimental and industrial exploitation of storage places for liquid radioactive wastes of low- and medium-level activity are presented. The results of enlarged field tests on disposal of high-level activity liquid wastes are described. Preliminary prediction calculations are shown to be confirmed with sufficient accuracy by the data on exploitation. (author)

  3. Geologic disposal as optimal solution of managing the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Ionescu, A.; Deaconu, V.

    2002-01-01

    To date there exist three alternatives for the concept of geological disposal: 1. storing the high-level waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on ground repositories; 2. solutions implying advanced separation processes including partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and eventual disposal in outer space; 3. geological disposal in repositories excavated in rocks. Ground storing seems to be advantageous as it ensures a secure sustainable storing system over many centuries (about 300 years). On the other hand ground storing would be only a postponement in decision making and will be eventually followed by geological disposal. Research in the P and T field is expected to entail a significant reduction of the amount of long-lived radioactive waste although the long term geological disposal will be not eliminated. Having in view the high cost, as well as the diversity of conditions in the countries owning power reactors it appears as a reasonable regional solution of HLW disposal that of sharing a common geological disposal. In Romania legislation concerning of radioactive waste is based on the Law concerning Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste Management in View of Final Disposal. One admits at present that for Romania geological disposal is not yet a stressing issue and hence intermediate ground storing of SNF will allow time for finding a better final solution

  4. Disposal alternatives and recommendations for waste salt management for repository excavation in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation of five alternatives for the disposal of waste salt that would be generated by the construction of a repository for radioactive waste in underground salt deposits at either of two sites in the Palo Duro Basin, Texas. The alternatives include commercial disposal, offsite deep-well injection, disposal in abandoned mines, ocean disposal, and land surface disposal on or off the site. For each alternative a reference case was rated - positive, neutral, or negative - in terms of environmental and dependability factors developed specifically for Texas sites. The factors constituting the environmental checklist relate to water quality impact, water- and land-use conflicts, ecological compatibility, conformity with air quality standards, and aesthetic impact. Factors on the dependability check-list relate to public acceptance, the adequacy of site characterization, permit and licensing requirements, technological requirements, and operational availability. A comparison of the ratings yielded the following viable alternatives, in order of preference: (1) land surface disposal, specifically disposal on tailings piles associated with abandoned potash mines; (2) disposal in abandoned mines, specifically potash mines; and (3) commercial disposal. Approaches to the further study of these three salt management techniques are recommended

  5. 36 CFR 228.57 - Types of disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of disposal. 228.57... Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.57 Types of disposal. Except as provided... qualified bidder after formal advertising and other appropriate public notice; (b) Sale by negotiated...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1118 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1118... Provisions § 13.1118 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1008 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1008... § 13.1008 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1912 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1912....1912 Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1604 - Solid waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Solid waste disposal. 13.1604... Solid waste disposal. (a) A solid waste disposal site may accept non-National Park Service solid waste generated within the boundaries of the park area. (b) A solid waste disposal site may be located within one...

  10. Bibliography on ocean waste disposal. second edition. Final report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, H.G.; Kaplanek, D.W.

    1976-09-01

    This research bibliography is restricted to documents relevant to the field of ocean waste disposal. It is primarily limited to recent publications in the categories of: ocean waste disposal; criteria; coastal zone management; monitoring; pollution control; dredge spoil; dredge spoin disposal; industrial waste disposal; radioactive waste; oil spills; bioassay; fisheries resources; ocean incineration; water chemistry; and, Water pollution

  11. Public acceptability of risk of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millerd, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    A ''public interest'' viewpoint is presented on the disposal of radioactive wastes. Criteria for the development of disposal methods are needed. The current program to develop disposal sites and methods has become an experiment. The advantages and disadvantages of radwaste disposal as an ongoing experiment are discussed briefly

  12. Building technical and social confidence in the safety of geological disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochiyama, Osamu; Masuda, Sumio

    2013-01-01

    Geological disposal has been adopted as the most feasible option for the method of long-term management of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in every country in the world, regardless of the pros and cons of the nuclear power generation. Building stakeholders’ confidence in safety of geological disposal is indispensable to reach the point where the implementation of geological disposal is accepted by the current generation. The safety case is a key input to build confidence in geological disposal stepwise as the program progresses and regarded to play an important role as a common platform in the communication among stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to review arguments relevant to building technical and social confidence in the progress of Japanese research and development activities as well as international discussions. (author)

  13. Status and advice of the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Keyan; Lu Caixia

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of nuclear power industry in China, as well as the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities, and the process of radioactive waste management, a mount of the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes will increase rapidly. How to dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes, that not only related to Chinese nuclear energy and nuclear technology with sustainable development, but also related to the public health, environment safety. According to Chinese « long-term development plan of nuclear power (2005- 2020) », when construct the nuclear power, should simultaneous consider the sites that dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive waste, In order to adapt to the needs that dispose the increasing low and intermediate level radioactive waste with development of nuclear power. In the future, all countries are facing the enormous challenge of nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  14. Safety assessments for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of safety assessment for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes is to evaluate how well the engineered barriers and geological setting inhibit radionuclide migration and prevent radiation dose to man. Safety assessment is influenced through interaction with the regulatory agencies, research groups, the public and the various levels of government. Under the auspices of the IAEA, a generic disposal system description has been developed to facilitate international exchange and comparison of data and results, and to enable development and comparison of performance for all components of the disposal system. It is generally accepted that a systems modelling approach is required and that safety assessment can be considered on two levels. At the systems level, all components of the system are taken into account to evaluate the risk to man. At the systems level, critical review and quality assurance on software provide the major validation techniques. Risk is a combination of dose estimate and probability of that dose. For analysis of the total system to be practical, the components are usually represented by simplified models. Recently, assessments have been taking uncertainties in the input data into account. At the detailed level, large-scale, complex computer programs model components of the system in sufficient detail that validation by comparison with field and laboratory measurements is possible. For example, three-dimensional fluid-flow, heat-transport and solute-transport computer programs have been used. Approaches to safety assessment are described, with illustrations from safety assessments performed in a number of countries. (author)

  15. Estimating the cost of disposal for Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, Y.

    1996-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) prepared an Environmental Impact Statement and nine supporting Primary Reference Documents on the concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste. This report summarizes the basis of the cost estimate which is provided in the primary reference document on engineering for a disposal facility. The scope of the cost estimate is explained by describing the key features of the disposal facility design, by noting the major assumptions made in preparing the estimates, and by listing the included and excluded cost components. An activity-based project planning and control method is explained whereby the project schedule, costs, and personnel requirements are interlinked; forming an integrated perspective on the total project life cycle. The summary and distribution of costs in each project stage by major facility or activity are presented. The results of studies which reviewed the overall cost estimate are also described. These studies indicate that, within the scope, the estimate is reasonable and compares well with similar international studies. (author)

  16. Land disposal restriction (LDR) waste management strategy at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, R.W.; Anderson, S.A.; Rising, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility which is a part of the nationwide DOE nuclear weapons production complex. Rocky Flats has accumulated (and will continue to generate) a substantial quantity of mixed waste subject to regulation under the land disposal restrictions (LDR) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). These waste streams include low level mixed waste and transuranic mixed waste which are LDR primarily due to solvent and heavy metal contamination. DOE and EPA have entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) which requires actions to be taken to ensure the accurate identification, safe storage and minimization of LDR mixed wastes prior to their ultimate treatment and/or disposal. As required by the FFCA, DOE has prepared a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plant (CTMP) which describes the strategy and commitments for bringing LDR wastes at RFP into compliance with applicable regulations. This strategy includes waste characterization and reclassification, utilization of existing commercial and DOE treatment capacity, as well as, the development and implementation of treatment systems (and other management systems) for the purpose of achieving LDR regulatory compliance and ultimate waste disposal. This paper will give an overview of this strategy including a description of the major waste streams being addressed, the regulatory drivers, and plans and status of ongoing treatment systems technology development and implementation efforts

  17. Cover and liner system designs for mixed-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, A.

    1994-01-01

    Land disposal of mixed waste is subject to a variety of regulations and requirements. Landfills will continue to be a part of waste management plans at virtually all facilities. New landfills are planned to serve the ongoing needs of the national laboratories and US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and environmental restoration wastes will ultimately need to be disposed in these landfills. This paper reviews the basic objectives of mixed-waste disposal and summarizes key constraints facing planners and designers of these facilities. Possible objectives of cover systems include infiltration reduction; maximization of evapotranspiration; use of capillary barriers or low-permeability layers (or combinations of all these); lateral drainage transmission; plant, animal, and/or human intrusion control; vapor/gas control; and wind and water erosion control. Liner system objectives will be presented, and will be compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency-US Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance for mixed-waste landfills. The measures to accomplish each objective will be reviewed. Then, the design of several existing or planned mixed-waste facilities (DOE and commercial) will be reviewed to illustrate the application of the various functional objectives. Key issues will include design life and performance period as compared/contrasted to postclosure care periods, the use (or avoidance) of geosynthetics or clays, intermediate or interim cover systems, and soil erosion protection in contrast to vegetative enhancement. Possible monitoring approaches to cover systems and landfill installations will be summarized as well

  18. Power plant waste disposals in open-cast mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herstus, J.; Stastny, J. [AGE s.r.o. - Aplikovana Geotechnika a Ekologie, Thamova (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    High population density in Czech Republic has led, as well as in other countries, to strong NIMBY syndrome influencing the waste disposal location. The largest thermal power plants are situated in neighborhood of extensive open-cast brown coal mines with huge area covered by tipped clayey spoil. Such spoil areas, technically almost useless, are potential space for power giant waste disposal position. There are several limitations, based on specific structural features of tipped clayey spoil, influencing decision to use such area as site for waste disposal. Low shear strength and extremely high compressibility belong to the geotechnical limitations. High permeability of upper ten or more meters of tipped spoil and its changes with applied stress level belongs to transitional features between geotechnical and environmental limitations. The problems of ash and FGD products stabilized interaction with such subgrade represent environmental limitation. The paper reports about the testing procedure developed for thickness and permeability estimation of upper soil layer and gives brief review of laboratory and site investigation results on potential sites from point of view of above mentioned limitations. Also gives an outline how to eliminate the influence of unfavorable conditions.

  19. Optimal Earth's reentry disposal of the Galileo constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellin, Roberto; San-Juan, Juan F.

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays there is international consensus that space activities must be managed to minimize debris generation and risk. The paper presents a method for the end-of-life (EoL) disposal of spacecraft in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). The problem is formulated as a multiobjective optimisation one, which is solved with an evolutionary algorithm. An impulsive manoeuvre is optimised to reenter the spacecraft in Earth's atmosphere within 100 years. Pareto optimal solutions are obtained using the manoeuvre Δv and the time-to-reentry as objective functions to be minimised. To explore at the best the search space a semi-analytical orbit propagator, which can propagate an orbit for 100 years in few seconds, is adopted. An in-depth analysis of the results is carried out to understand the conditions leading to a fast reentry with minimum propellant. For this aim a new way of representing the disposal solutions is introduced. With a single 2D plot we are able to fully describe the time evolution of all the relevant orbital parameters as well as identify the conditions that enables the eccentricity build-up. The EoL disposal of the Galileo constellation is used as test case.

  20. Criteria for long-term hazard assessment of chemotoxic and radiotoxic waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    Present-day human activities generate chemotoxic as well as radiotoxic wastes. They must likewise be considered as extremely hazardous. If wastes are composed simultaneously of both kinds, as may occur in nuclear facility operations or nuclear medical applications, the material is called mixed waste. Whereas radioactive waste management and disposal have received considerable attention in the past, less care has been devoted to chemotoxic wastes. Also, mixed wastes may pose problems diverging from singly composed materials. The disposal of mixed wastes is not sufficiently well regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany. Currently, non-radioactive hazardous wastes are mostly disposed of by shallow land burial. Much more rigorous safety precautions are applied with regard to radioactive wastes. According to the orders of the German Federal Government, their disposal is only permitted in continental underground repositories. These repository requirements for radioactive waste disposal should be superior to the near-surface disposal facilities. At present, federal and state legislation do not permit hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes to be deposited simultaneously. It is doubtful whether this instruction is always suitable and also justified. This paper presents a modified strategy

  1. Determining the future for irradiated graphite disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neighbour, G.B.; Wickham, A.J.; Hacker, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, proposals have been made for the long-term treatment of radioactive graphite waste which have ranged from sea dumping through incineration to land-based disposal, sometimes preceded by a variable period of 'safe storage' within the original reactor containment. Nuclear regulators are challenging the proposed length of 'safe storage' on the basis that essential knowledge may be lost. More recently, political constraints have further complicated the issue by eliminating disposal at sea and imposing a 'near-zero release' philosophy, while public opinion is opposed to land-based disposal and has induced a continual drive towards minimizing radioactivity release to the environment from disposal. This paper proposes that, despite various international agreements, it is time to review technically all options for disposal of irradiated graphite waste as a framework for the eventual decision-making process. It is recognized that the socio-economic and political pressures are high and therefore, given that all currently identified options satisfy the present safety limits, the need to minimize the objective risk is shown to be a minor need in comparison to the public's want of demonstrable control, responsiveness and ability to reverse/change the disposal options in the future. Further, it is shown that the eventual decision-making process for a post-dismantling option for graphite waste must optimize the beneficial attributes of subjective risk experienced by the general public. In addition, in advocating and preferred option to the general public, it is recommended that the industry should communicate at a level commensurate with the public understanding and initiate a process of facilitation which enables the public to arrive at their own solution and constituting a social exchange. Otherwise it is concluded that if the indecision over disposal options is allowed to continue then, by default, graphite will remain in long-term supervised storage. (author)

  2. Subseabed Disposal Program Plan. Volume I. Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The primary objective of the Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) is to assess the scientific, environmental, and engineering feasibility of disposing of processed and packaged high-level nuclear waste in geologic formations beneath the world's oceans. High-level waste (HLW) is considered the most difficult of radioactive wastes to dispose of in oceanic geologic formations because of its heat and radiation output. From a scientific standpoint, the understanding developed for the disposal of such HLW can be used for other nuclear wastes (e.g., transuranic - TRU - or low-level) and materials from decommissioned facilities, since any set of barriers competent to contain the heat and radiation outputs of high-level waste will also contain such outputs from low-level waste. If subseabed disposal is found to be feasible for HLW, then other factors such as cost will become more important in considering subseabed emplacement for other nuclear wastes. A secondary objective of the SDP is to develop and maintain a capability to assess and cooperate with the seabed nuclear waste disposal programs of other nations. There are, of course, a number of nations with nuclear programs, and not all of these nations have convenient access to land-based repositories for nuclear waste. Many are attempting to develop legislative and scientific programs that will avoid potential hazards to man, threats to other ocean uses, and marine pollution, and they work together to such purpose in meetings of the international NEA/Seabed Working Group. The US SDP, as the first and most highly developed R and D program in the area, strongly influences the development of subseabed-disposal-related policy in such nations

  3. In vitro power profiles of daily disposable contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda-Salmerón, Lurdes; Madrid-Costa, David; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the distribution of refractive power within the optic zone of different soft contact lenses and to investigate the effect of lens decentration on the power profiles. The Nimo TR1504 instrument was used to measure the optical power across different aperture diameters (from 1.5mm to 5.5mm in steps of 0.5mm) of four daily disposable contact lenses: DAILIES TOTAL1, Proclear 1-Day, SofLens daily disposable and 1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST. Measurements were performed using a wet cell. Power data were evaluated when contact lenses were in its centered position and after inducing different amounts of lens decentration (from 0.2mm to 1.0mm in steps of 0.2mm). All contact lenses showed an increase - more negative - in lens power with distance from the lens center. The amount of change varied depending on the lens. It was about 10% of lens power for DAILIES TOTAL1 (-0.29diopters (D)), SofLens daily disposable (-0.36D), and Proclear 1-Day (-0.32D) whereas 1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST showed a percentage variation of 3.3% (-0.10D). After inducing a lens decentration up to 1mm, the power curves were shifted in the negative direction. However, the change obtained in lens power compared with well-centered position was always lower than a quarter of diopter both for all the lenses and aperture diameters. Our results showed a variation of the refractive power from the lens center, becoming more negative toward the periphery, with a negligible effect of the decentration for all disposable contact lenses studied. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioactive waste disposal : policies and practices in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste and its ultimate dispoal have been a significant problem for the nuclear industry. A lot of resources have been devoted to developing management and dispoal systems. As well as being one of the major technical problems, it has been a very significant public relations issue. Public concern about risks associated with disposal of radioactive waste has been on a global scle. It has focused on local issues in some countries, but generl attitudes have been common worldwide. Great differences exist between countries in the scale and aspects of nuclear technoloy in use. In particular the presence or absence of a nuclear power programme, and to a lesser extent of any nuclear reactors, greatly influence the magnitude of the waste disposal problem. Nevertheless, public perceptions of the problem are to some degree independent of these differences. What radioactive wastes are there in New Zealand? Is there a hazard to the New Zealand public or the New Zealand environment from current radioactive waste disposal practices? What policies are in place to control these practices? This report seeks to provide some information on these questions. It also brings together in one document the waste disposal policies followed by the National Radiation Laboratory for different uses of radioactive mateials. Except for some small quantities which are exempt from most controls, radioactive material can be used in New Zealand only under the control of a person holding a licence under the Radiation Protection Act 1965. All requirements of the Radiation Protection Regulations 1982 must also be observed. More detailed safety advice and further mandatory requirements are contained in codes of safe practice. Compliance with one of these is a condition on most licencees. These provisions are administered by the National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) of the Ministry of Health. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Methods of characterization of salt formations in view of spent fuel final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Daniela; Balan, Valeriu; Mirion, Ilie

    2002-01-01

    Deep disposal in geological formations of salt, granite and clay seems to be at present the most proper and commonly adopted solution for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel. Disposing such wastes represents the top-priority issue of the European research community in the field of nuclear power. Although seemingly premature for Romanian power system, the interest for final disposal of spent fuel is justified by the long duration implied by the studies targeting this objective. At the same time these studies represent the Romanian nuclear research contribution in the frame of the efforts of integration within the European research field. Although Romania has not made so far a decision favoring a given geological formation for the final disposal of spent fuel resulting from Cernavoda NPP, the most generally taken into consideration appears the salt formation. The final decision will be made following the evaluation of its performances to spent fuel disposal based on the values of the specific parameters of the geological formation. In order to supply the data required as input parameters in the codes of evaluation of the geological formation performances, the INR Pitesti initiated a package of modern and complex methodologies for such determinations. The studies developed so far followed up the special phenomenon of salt convergence, a phenomenon characteristic for only this kind of rock, as well as the radionuclide migration. These studies allow a better understanding of these processes of upmost importance for disposal's safety. The methods and the experimental installation designed and realized at INR Pitesti aimed at determination of thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat, which are all parameters of high specific interest for high level radioactive waste or spent fuel disposal. The paper presents the results of these studies as well as the methodologies, the experimental installations and the findings

  6. 41 CFR 102-75.415 - What happens after the disposal agency receives the FAA's recommendation for disposal of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disposal agency receives the FAA's recommendation for disposal of the property for a public airport? 102-75... receives the FAA's recommendation for disposal of the property for a public airport? The head of the disposal agency, or his or her designee, may convey property approved by the FAA for use as a public...

  7. A new procedure for deep sea mining tailings disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, W.; Schott, D.L.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Deep sea mining tailings disposal is a new environmental challenge related to water pollution, mineral crust waste handling, and ocean biology. The objective of this paper is to propose a new tailings disposal procedure for the deep sea mining industry. Through comparisons of the tailings disposal methods which exist in on-land mining and the coastal mining fields, a new tailings disposal procedure, i.e., the submarine–backfill–dam–reuse (SBDR) tailings disposal procedure, is proposed. It com...

  8. History of geological disposal concept (3). Implementation phase of geological disposal (2000 upward)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Sumio; Sakuma, Hideki; Umeki, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Important standards and concept about geological disposal have been arranged as an international common base and are being generalized. The authors overview the concept of geological disposal, and would like this paper to help arouse broad discussions for promoting the implementation plan of geological disposal projects in the future. In recent years, the scientific and technological rationality of geological disposal has been recognized internationally. With the addition of discussions from social viewpoints such as ethics, economy, etc., geological disposal projects are in the stage of starting after establishment of social consensus. As an international common base, the following consolidated and systematized items have been presented as indispensable elements in promoting business projects: (1) step-by-step approach, (2) safety case, (3) reversibility and recovery potential, and (4) trust building and communications. This paper outlines the contents of the following cases, where international common base was reflected on the geological disposal projects in Japan: (1) final disposal method and safety regulations, and (2) impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident on geological disposal plan. (A.O.)

  9. Does Dual Ownership of Waste Imply a Regional Disposal Approach?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.

    2006-01-01

    The construction of the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, being located in Slovenia near the Slovenian-Croatian border, was a joint investment by Slovenia and Croatia, two republics of the former Yugoslavia. The plant was completed in 1981 and the commercial operation started early in 1983. The obligations and rights of both investors during the construction and operation were specified in two bilateral contracts signed in 1974 and 1982. These contracts were fairly detailed on construction, operation and exploitation of the nuclear power plant (NPP), but they said very little about future nuclear liabilities. The electricity production was equally shared between the two countries and both parties participated in management of the NPP. In 1991, after Slovenia and Croatia became two independent countries, the agreement on the ownership and exploitation of the NPP Krsko was re-negotiated and a new contract signed in 2003. By the new contract the decommissioning and the disposal of spent fuel (SF) as well as low and intermediate level waste (LILW) is the responsibility of both parties, and the financial resources for covering these liabilities should be equally provided. Regardless of shared ownership of waste, the agreement opts for a single disposal solution for LILW as well as for SF, but the details are left open. More clear elaboration of these responsibilities is given in the programme of the decommissioning and disposal of radioactive waste from the NPP which was jointly prepared by the Slovenian and Croatian waste management organisations in 2004. The programme is clearly opting for only one repository for LILW and one repository for spent fuel, which can be located either in Slovenia or Croatia. Irrespective of the country where such a repository will be sited, dual ownership of waste opens up another dimension of such a solution: will such a repository be regarded as a national facility or as a regional or multinational facility? Both options-national and regional

  10. Method of ground disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashina, Heihachi.

    1991-01-01

    Rock bases are drilled to form a disposal hole, an overhanging hole and a burying hole each as a shaft. An appropriate number of canisters prepared by vitrification of high level radioactive wastes are charged in the disposal hole with a gap to the inner wall of the hole. Shock absorbers each made of bentonite are filled between each of the canisters and between the canister and the inner wall of the disposal hole, and the canisters are entirely covered with the layer of the shock absorbers. Further, plucking materials having water sealing property such as cement mortar are filled thereover. With such a constitution, in a case if water should intrude into the overhung portion, since the disposal hole is covered with the large flange portion in addition to the water sealing performance of the plucking, the shock absorbers and the canisters undergo no undesirable effects. Further, in a case if water should intrude to the disposal hole, the shock absorber layers are swollen by water absorption, to suppress the intrusion of water. (T.M.)

  11. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Minimizing generator liability while disposing hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canter, L.W.; Lahlou, M.; Pendurthi, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Potential liabilities associated with hazardous waste disposal are related to waste properties, disposal practices and the potential threat to people and the environment in case of a pollutant release. Based on various regulations, these liabilities are enforceable and longstanding. A methodology which can help hazardous waste generators select a commercial disposal facility with a relatively low risk of potential liability is described in this paper. The methodology has two parts. The first part has 8 categories encompassing 30 factors common to all facilities, and the second part includes one category dealing with 5 factors on specific wastes and treatment/disposal technologies. This two-part evaluation feature enables the user to adapt the methodology to any type of waste disposal. In determining the scores for the factors used in the evaluation. an unranked paired comparison technique with slight modifications was used to weight the relative importance of the individual factors. In the methodology it is possible for the user to redefine the factors and change the scoring system. To make the methodology more efficient, a user-friendly computer program has been developed; the computer program is written so that desired changes in the methodology can be readily implemented

  13. Criteria for high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes is storage without the intention of retrieval. But in such storage, it may be useful and in some cases necessary to have the possibility of retrieval at least for a certain period of time. In order to propose some criteria for HLW disposal, one has to examine how this basic concept is to be applied. HLW is waste separated as a raffinate in the first cycle of solvent extraction in reprocessing. Such waste contains the bulk of fission products which have long half lives, therefore the safety of a disposal site, at least after a certain period of time, must be intrinsic, i.e. not based on human intervention. There is a consensus that such a disposal is feasible in a suitable geological formation in which the integrity of the container will be reinforced by several additional barriers. Criteria for disposal can be proposed for all aspects of the question. The author discusses the aims of the safety analysis, particularly the length of time for this analysis, and the acceptable dose commitments resulting from the release of radionuclides, the number and role of each barrier, and a holistic analysis of safety external factors. (Auth.)

  14. Operational technology for greater confinement disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Vollmer, A.T.; Hunter, P.H.

    1984-12-01

    Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing: facility planning process; facility construction; waste loading and handling; radiological safety planning; operations procedures; and engineering cost studies. While primarily written for low-level waste management site operators and managers, a detailed economic assessment section is included that should assist planners in performing cost analyses. Economic assessments for both commercial and US government greater confinement disposal facilities are included. The estimated disposal costs range from $27 to $104 per cubic foot for a commercial facility and from $17 to $60 per cubic foot for a government facility. These costs are based on average site preparation, construction, and waste loading costs for both contact- and remote-handled wastes. 14 figures, 22 tables

  15. Research on geological disposal: R and D concept on geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The objective on geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are to ensure the long term radiological protection of the human and his environment in accordance with current internationally agreed radiation protection principles. The principle of geological disposal is to settle the high-level wastes in deep underground so as to isolate them from the human and his environment considering the existence of groundwater. Japan is currently in the stage of assessing technical feasibility of geological disposal to the extent practicable. In accordance with the AEC (Atomic Energy Commission) policy in 1989, PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has conducted the research and development on geological disposal in three areas: 1) studies of geological environment, 2) research and development of disposal technology, and 3) performance assessment study. (author)

  16. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information

  17. Proposal of a SiC disposal canister for very deep borehole disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Lee, Minsoo; Lee, Jong-Youl; Kim, Kyungsu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper authors proposed a silicon carbide, SiC, disposal canister for the DBD concept in Korea. A. Kerber et al. first proposed the SiC canister for a geological disposal of HLW, CANDU or HTR spent nuclear fuels. SiC has some drawbacks in welding or manufacturing a large canister. Thus, we designed a double layered disposal canister consisting of a stainless steel outer layer and a SiC inner layer. KAERI has been interested in developing a very deep borehole disposal (DBD) of HLW generated from pyroprocessing of PWR spent nuclear fuel and supported the relevant R and D with very limited its own budget. KAERI team reviewed the DBD concept proposed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and developed its own concept. The SNL concept was based on the steel disposal canister. The authors developed a new technology called cold spray coating method to manufacture a copper-cast iron disposal canister for a geological disposal of high level waste in Korea. With this method, 8 mm thin copper canister with 400 mm in diameter and 1200 mm in height was made. In general, they do not give any credit on the lifetime of a disposal canister in DBD concept unlike the geological disposal. In such case, the expensive copper canister should be replaced with another one. We designed a disposal canister using SiC for DBD. According to an experience in manufacturing a small size canister, the fabrication of a large-size one is a challenge. Also, welding of SiC canister is not easy. Several pathways are being paved to overcome it.

  18. Site Characterization Of Borehole Disposal Facility (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Mohd Muzamil; Nazran Harun; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin; Ismail, C. Mohamad; Kalam

    2014-01-01

    Site characterization study is one of the major components in assessing the potential site for borehole disposal facility. The main objectives of this study are to obtain the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology and geochemistry information in order to understand the regional geological setting, its past evolution and likely future natural evolution over the assessment time frame. This study was focused on the geological information, borehole log and hydrogeological information. Geological information involve general geology, lineament, topography, structure geology, geological terrain. Whereas Borehole log information consists of lithology, soil and rock formation, gamma logging data and physical properties of soil and rock. Hydrogeological information was emphasized on the groundwater flow, physical parameter as well as geochemical data. Geological mapping shows the study area is underlain by metamorphic rock of the Kenny Hill Formation. Lithologically, it composed of psammitic schist of sandstone origin and phyllite. Based on the borehole log profile, the study area is covered by thick layer of residual soil and estimated not less than 10 m. Those foliated rocks tend to break or split along the foliation planes. The foliation or schistosity may also serve as conduit for groundwater migration. Main structural geology features in the study area trend predominantly in North to Northeast directions. Major fault, the UKM Fault trends in NE-SW direction about 0.5 km located to the east of the proposed borehole site. The groundwater flow direction is influenced by the structure and bedding of the rock formation. Whereas the groundwater flow velocity in the borehole ranges 2.15 - 5.24 x 10 -4 m/ sec. All the data that are obtained in this study is used to support the Safety Assessment and Safety Case report. (author)

  19. The management and disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.; Blair, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    After an introduction on how radioactivity and radiation can cause damage, the three main types of radioactive wastes (high level (HLW), intermediate level (ILW) and low level (LLW)) are defined and the quantities of each produced, and current disposal method mentioned. The Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) was set up in 1982 to make proposals for the packaging, transportation and disposal of ILW and, if approved, to manage their implementation. NIREX has also taken over some aspects of the LLW disposal programme, and keeps an inventory of the radioactive waste in the country. The NIREX proposals are considered. For ILW this is that ILW should be immersed in a matrix of concrete, then stored in a repository, the design of which is discussed. The transportation of the concrete blocks is also mentioned. Possible sites for a suitable repository are discussed. Efforts are being made to gain public acceptance of these sites. (U.K.)

  20. Roles of bentonite in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keizo

    1995-01-01

    Bentonite is used in radioactive waste disposal from the following points; (1) properties (2) now utilization fields (3) how to use in radioactive waste disposal (4) how much consumption and deposits as source at the present time. Bentonite is produced as alteration products from pyroclastic rocks such as volcanic ash and ryolite, and is clay composed mainly smectite (montmorillonite in general). Therefore, special properties of bentonite such as swelling potential, rheological property, bonding ability, cation exchange capacity and absorption come mainly from properties of montmorillonite. Bentonite has numerous uses such as iron ore pelleizing, civil engineering, green sand molding, cat litter, agricultural chemicals and drilling mud. Consumption of bentonite is about 600-700 x 10 3 tons in Japan and about 10 x 10 6 tons in the world. Roles of bentonite to be expected in radioactive waste disposal are hydraulic conductivity, swelling potential, absorption, mechanical strength, ion diffusion capacity and long-term durability. These properties come from montmorillonite. (author)