WorldWideScience

Sample records for disposal facility performance

  1. Disposal facility data for the interim performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and provide information on the waste package and disposal facility concepts to be used for the low-level waste tank interim performance assessment. Current concepts for the low-level waste form, canister, and the disposal facility will be used for the interim performance assessment. The concept for the waste form consists of vitrified glass cullet in a sulfur polymer cement matrix material. The waste form will be contained in a 2 x 2 x 8 meter carbon steel container. Two disposal facility concepts will be used for the interim performance assessment. These facility concepts are based on a preliminary disposal facility concept developed for estimating costs for a disposal options configuration study. These disposal concepts are based on vault type structures. None of the concepts given in this report have been approved by a Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) decision board. These concepts will only be used in th interim performance assessment. Future performance assessments will be based on approved designs

  2. Annual Summary of the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Austin, TX (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-27

    An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) is required each year (DOE O 435.1 Chg 1,1 DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1;2 and DOE/ORP-2000-013). The most recently approved PA is DOE/ORP-2000-24.4 The ILAW PA evaluated the adequacy of the ILAW disposal facility, now referred to as the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), for the safe disposal of vitrified Hanford Site tank waste.

  3. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect

  4. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  5. Performance assessment review for DOE LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, Elmer L.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) disposes of low-level radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities. Safety of the disposal operations is evaluated for operational safety as well as long-term safety. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation and may vary from a simple safety assessment to a safety analysis report. Long-term safety of all low-level waste disposal systems is evaluated through the conduct of a radiological performance assessment. The US DOE has established radiological performance objectives for disposal of low-level waste. They are to protect a member of the general public from receiving over 25 mrem/y, and an inadvertent intruder into the waste from receiving over 100 mrem/y continuous exposure or 500 mrem from a single exposure. For a disposal system to be acceptable, a performance assessment must be prepared which must be technically accurate and provide reasonable assurance that these performance objectives are met. Technical quality of the performance assessments is reviewed by a panel of experts. The panel of experts is used in two ways to assure the technical quality of performance assessment. A preliminary (generally 2 day) review by the panel is employed in the late stages of development to provide guidance on finalizing the performance assessment. The comments from this review are communicated to the personnel responsible for the performance assessment for consideration and incorporation. After finalizing the performance assessment, it is submitted for a formal review. The formal review is accomplished by a much more thorough analysis of the performance assessment over a multi-week time period. The panel then formally reports their recommendations to the US DOE waste management senior staff who make the final determination on acceptability of the performance assessment. A number of lessons have been learned from conducting several preliminary reviews of performance

  6. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study

  7. Performance assessment for a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.S.; Rohe, M.J.; Ritter, P.D. [and others

    1997-01-01

    Disposing of low-level waste (LLW) is a concern for many states throughout the United States. A common disposal method is below-grade concrete vaults. Performance assessment analyses make predictions of contaminant release, transport, ingestion, inhalation, or other routes of exposure, and the resulting doses for various disposal methods such as the below-grade concrete vaults. Numerous assumptions are required to simplify the processes associated with the disposal facility to make predictions feasible. In general, these assumptions are made conservatively so as to underestimate the performance of the facility. The objective of this report is to describe the methodology used in conducting a performance assessment for a hypothetical waste facility located in the northeastern United States using real data as much as possible. This report consists of the following: (a) a description of the disposal facility and site, (b) methods used to analyze performance of the facility, (c) the results of the analysis, and (d) the conclusions of this study.

  8. Performance assessment studies for the long-term safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Olteanu, M.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2008-01-01

    Especially during the last ten years, a part of Romanian research program 'Management of Radioactive Waste and Spent Fuel' was focused mainly on applicative research for the design of near-surface disposal facility, which intends to accommodate the low and intermediate radioactive waste generated from Cernavoda NPP. In this frame, our contribution was at the acquisition of technical data for the characterization of the future disposal facility. In the present, the project of the disposal facility, located on the Saligny site, near Cernavoda NPP, must be licensed. As regards to the safe disposal, the location of final disposal, the Saligny site, has been characterized through the five geological formations which contain potential routes for transport of radionuclide released from disposal facility, in the receiving zones(potential receiving zones), into liquid and gaseous phases. The technical characteristics of the disposal facility were adapted at the Romanian disposal concept using the reference data from IAEA technical report (IAEA,1999). Input parameters which characterized from physical and chemical point of view the disposal system, were partially taken from literature. The performance assessment studies, which follows the preliminary design development phases and the selection, describes how the source term is affected by the infiltration of water through the disposal facility, degradation process of engineering barriers (reflected in the distribution coefficient values) and solubility limit. The studies regard the evaluation of the source term, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provide the information on 'how' and 'why' were evaluated, following: (i) radiological safety assessment of near-surface disposal facility on Saligny site; (ii) complexity standard assessment of the Engineering Barriers Systems (EBS); (iii) identification of the elements which must be elaborated for the increase of the disposal safety and the necessity for new technical data for

  9. Branch technical position for performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.C.; Abramson, L.; Byrne, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a Draft Branch Technical Position on Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. The draft technical position addresses important issues in performance assessment modeling and provides a framework and technical basis for conducting and evaluating performance assessments in a disposal facility license application. The technical position also addresses specific technical policy issues and augments existing NRC guidance pertaining to LLW performance assessment

  10. Need to use probabilistic risk approach in performance assessment of waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Regulations governing the disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and/or mixed wastes will likely require, either directly or indirectly, that the performance of disposal facilities be assessed quantitatively. Such analyses, commonly called ''performance assessments,'' rely on the use of predictive models to arrive at a quantitative estimate of the potential impact of disposal on the environment and the safety and health of the public. It has been recognized that a suite of uncertainties affect the results of a performance assessment. These uncertainties are conventionally categorized as (1) uncertainty in the future state of the disposal system (facility and surrounding medium), (2) uncertainty in models (including conceptual models, mathematical models, and computer codes), and (3) uncertainty in data and parameters. Decisions regarding the suitability of a waste disposal facility must be made in light of these uncertainties. Hence, an approach is needed that would allow the explicit consideration of these uncertainties so that their impact on the estimated consequences of disposal can be evaluated. While most regulations for waste disposal do not prescribe the consideration of uncertainties, it is proposed that, even in such cases, a meaningful decision regarding the suitability of a waste disposal facility cannot be made without considering the impact of the attendant uncertainties. A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach provides the formalism for considering the uncertainties and the technical basis that the decision makers can use in discharging their duties. A PRA methodology developed and demonstrated for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste provides a general framework for assessing the disposal of all types of wastes (radioactive, hazardous, and mixed). 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  12. Integrated Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the center of the 586-square-mile Hanford Site is the Integrated Disposal Facility, also known as the IDF.This facility is a landfill similar in concept...

  13. Savannah River Site - Salt-stone Disposal Facility Performance Assessment Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Salt-stone Facility is currently in the midst of a Performance Assessment revision to estimate the effect on human health and the environment of adding new disposal units to the current Salt-stone Disposal Facility (SDF). These disposal units continue the ability to safely process the salt component of the radioactive liquid waste stored in the underground storage tanks at SRS, and is a crucial prerequisite for completion of the overall SRS waste disposition plan. Removal and disposal of low activity salt waste from the SRS liquid waste system is required in order to empty tanks for future tank waste processing and closure operations. The Salt-stone Production Facility (SPF) solidifies a low-activity salt stream into a grout matrix, known as salt-stone, suitable for disposal at the SDF. The ability to dispose of the low-activity salt stream in the SDF required a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of 2005 and was approved in January 2006. One of the requirements of Section 3116 of the NDAA is to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives set out in Subpart C of Part 61 of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations. The PA is the document that is used to ensure ongoing compliance. (authors)

  14. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report is the first revision to ''Radiological Performance Assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility, Revision 0'', which was issued in April 1994 and received conditional DOE approval in September 1994. The title of this report has been changed to conform to the current name of the facility. The revision incorporates improved groundwater modeling methodology, which includes a large data base of site specific geotechnical data, and special Analyses on disposal of cement-based wasteforms and naval wastes, issued after publication of Revision 0

  15. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-04-15

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type.

  16. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hunt, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    The E-Area Vaults (EAVs) located on a 200 acre site immediately north of the current LLW burial site at Savannah River Site will provide a new disposal and storage site for solid, low-level, non-hazardous radioactive waste. The EAV Disposal Facility will contain several large concrete vaults divided into cells. Three types of structures will house four designated waste types. The Intermediate Level Non-Tritium Vaults will receive waste radiating greater than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container. The Intermediate Level Tritium Vaults will receive waste with at least 10 Ci of tritium per package. These two vaults share a similar design, are adjacent, share waste handling equipment, and will be closed as one facility. The second type of structure is the Low Activity Waste Vaults which will receive waste radiating less than 200 mR/h at 5 cm from the outer disposal container and containing less than 10 Ci of tritium per package. The third facility, the Long Lived Waste Storage Building, provides covered, long term storage for waste containing long lived isotopes. Two additional types of disposal are proposed: (1) trench disposal of suspect soil, (2) naval reactor component disposal. To evaluate the long-term performance of the EAVs, site-specific conceptual models were developed to consider: (1) exposure pathways and scenarios of potential importance; (2) potential releases from the facility to the environment; (3) effects of degradation of engineered features; (4) transport in the environment; (5) potential doses received from radionuclides of interest in each vault type

  17. Annual Status Report (FY2016) Performance Assessment for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casbon, M. A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    DOE O 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE M 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual, require that a determination of continued adequacy of the performance assessment (PA), composite analysis (CA), and disposal authorization statement (DAS) be made on an annual basis, and it must consider the results of data collection and analysis from research, field studies, and monitoring. Annual summaries of low-level waste (LLW) disposal operations must be prepared with respect to the conclusions and recommendations of the PA and CA, and a determination of the need to revise the PA or CA must be made. The annual summary requirement provides a structured approach for demonstrating the continued adequacy of the PA and CA in demonstrating a reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met. This annual summary addresses only the status of the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) PA (CP-60089, Performance Assessment for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility, Hanford Site, Washington, formerly WCH-520 Rev. 1)1. The CA for ERDF is supported by DOE/RL-2016-62, Annual Status Report (FY 2016): Composite Analysis of Low Level Waste Disposal in the Central Plateau at the Hanford Site. The ERDF PA portion of the CA document is found in Section 3.1.4, and the ERDF operations portion is found in Section 3.3.3.2 of that document.

  18. Meeting performance objectives for Low-Level Radioactive Disposal Waste Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    A new Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) disposal facility at the Savannah River Site is presently being constructed. The facility was designed to meet specific performance objectives (derived from DOE Order 5820.2A and proposed EPA Regulation 40CFR 193) in the disposal of containerized Class A and B wastes. The disposal units have been designed as below-grade concrete vaults. These vaults will be constructed using uniquely designed blast furnace slag + fly as concrete mix, surrounded by a highly permeable drainage layer, and covered with an engineered clay cap to provide the necessary environmental isolation of the waste form to meet the stated performance objectives. The concrete mix used in this facility, is the first such application in the United States. These vaults become operational in September 1992 and will become the first active facility of its kind, several years ahead of those planned in the commercial theater. This paper will discuss the selection of the performance objectives and conceptual design

  19. Radiological performance assessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.; Fowler, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-12-18

    This radiological performance assessment (RPA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter III of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Order specifies that an RPA should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The performance objectives require that: (1) exposures of the general public to radioactivity in the waste or released from the waste will not result in an effective dose equivalent of 25 mrem per year; (2) releases to the atmosphere will meet the requirements of 40 CFR 61; (3) inadvertent intruders will not be committed to an excess of an effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem per year from chronic exposure, or 500 mrem from a single acute exposure; and (4) groundwater resources will be protected in accordance with Federal, State and local requirements.

  20. Radiological performance assessment for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fowler, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    This radiological performance assessment (RPA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was prepared in accordance with the requirements of Chapter III of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. The Order specifies that an RPA should provide reasonable assurance that a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility will comply with the performance objectives of the Order. The performance objectives require that: (1) exposures of the general public to radioactivity in the waste or released from the waste will not result in an effective dose equivalent of 25 mrem per year; (2) releases to the atmosphere will meet the requirements of 40 CFR 61; (3) inadvertent intruders will not be committed to an excess of an effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem per year from chronic exposure, or 500 mrem from a single acute exposure; and (4) groundwater resources will be protected in accordance with Federal, State and local requirements

  1. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  2. Overview of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This paper provides a summary and an overview of the modeling approaches selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology. This performance assessment methodology is designed to provide the NRC with a tool for performing confirmatory analyses in support of license reviews related to postclosure performance. The methodology allows analyses of dose to individuals from off-site releases under normal conditions as well as on-site doses to inadvertent intruders. 24 refs., 1 tab

  3. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N.; Price, L.L.; Olague, N.E.

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions

  4. Second performance assessment iteration of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, T.A.; Emery, J.N. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Price, L.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility was established in Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site for containment of waste inappropriate for shallow land burial. Some transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the GCD facility, and compliance of this disposal system with EPA regulation 40 CFR 191 must be evaluated. We have adopted an iterative approach in which performance assessment results guide site data collection, which in turn influences the parameters and models used in performance assessment. The first iteration was based upon readily available data, and indicated that the GCD facility would likely comply with 40 CFR 191 and that the downward flux of water through the vadose zone (recharge) had a major influence on the results. Very large recharge rates, such as might occur under a cooler, wetter climate, could result in noncompliance. A project was initiated to study recharge in Area 5 by use of three environmental tracers. The recharge rate is so small that the nearest groundwater aquifer will not be contaminated in less than 10,000 years. Thus upward liquid diffusion of radionuclides remained as the sole release pathway. This second assessment iteration refined the upward pathway models and updated the parameter distributions based upon new site information. A new plant uptake model was introduced to the upward diffusion pathway; adsorption and erosion were also incorporated into the model. Several modifications were also made to the gas phase radon transport model. Plutonium solubility and sorption coefficient distributions were changed based upon new information, and on-site measurements were used to update the moisture content distributions. The results of the assessment using these models indicate that the GCD facility is likely to comply with all sections of 40 CFR 191 under undisturbed conditions.

  5. Recharge Data Package for the 2005 Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayer, Michael J.; Szecsody, Jim E.

    2004-06-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assisted CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc., (CHG) by providing estimates of recharge rates for current conditions and long-term scenarios involving disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The IDF will be located in the 200 East Area at the Hanford Site and will receive several types of waste including immobilized low-activity waste. The recharge estimates for each scenario were derived from lysimeter and tracer data collected by the IDF PA Project and from modeling studies conducted for the project. Recharge estimates were provided for three specific site features (the surface barrier; possible barrier side slopes; and the surrounding soil) and four specific time periods (pre-Hanford; Hanford operations; surface barrier design life; post-barrier design life). CHG plans to conduct a performance assessment of the latest IDF design and call it the IDF 2005 PA; this recharge data package supports the upcoming IDF 2005 PA.

  6. Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Starmer, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes

  7. Facility arrangements and the environmental performance of disposable and reusable cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potting, José; Harst-Wintraecken, van der Eugenie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper integrates two complementary life cycle assessment (LCA) studies with the aim to advice facility managers on the sustainable use of cups, either disposable or reusable. Study 1 compares three disposable cups, i.e., made from fossil-based polystyrene (PS), biobased and

  8. Secondary Waste Cementitious Waste Form Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-16

    A review of the most up-to-date and relevant data currently available was conducted to develop a set of recommended values for use in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA) to model contaminant release from a cementitious waste form for aqueous wastes treated at the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This data package relies primarily upon recent data collected on Cast Stone formulations fabricated with simulants of low-activity waste (LAW) and liquid secondary wastes expected to be produced at Hanford. These data were supplemented, when necessary, with data developed for saltstone (a similar grout waste form used at the Savannah River Site). Work is currently underway to collect data on cementitious waste forms that are similar to Cast Stone and saltstone but are tailored to the characteristics of ETF-treated liquid secondary wastes. Recommended values for key parameters to conduct PA modeling of contaminant release from ETF-treated liquid waste are provided.

  9. New safety performance indicators for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R.G.; Olivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    The paper shows the Cuban experience on implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste and the necessity for identifying new safety performance indicators for the safety assessment (SA) of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The selected indicator was the concentration of natural radioactive elements (U, Ra, Th, K) in the Cuban geologic environment. We have carried out a group of investigations, which have allowed characterising the concentration for the whole Country, creating a wide database where this indicator is associated with the lithology. The main lithologies in Cuba are: the sedimentary rocks (70 percent of national occurrence), which are present in the three regions (limestone and lutite), and finally the igneous and metamorphic rocks. The results show the concentrations ranges of the natural radionuclides associated fundamentally to the variation in the lithology and geographical area of the Country. In Cuba, the higher concentration (ppm) of Uranium and Radium are referenced to the Central region associated to Skarn, while for Thorium (ppm) and Potassium (%), in the East region the concentration peaks in Tuffs have been found. The concentrations ranges obtained are preliminary, they characterise the behaviour of this parameter for the Cuban geology, but they do not represent limits for safety assessment purposes yet. Also other factors should be taken into account as the assessment context, time scales and others assumptions before establishing the final concentration limits for the natural radionuclides as a radiological and nuclear safety performance indicator complementary to dose and risk for safety assessment for radiological and nuclear facilities. (author)

  10. Longterm performance of structural component of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, J. H.; Kim, S. S.; Chun, T. H.; Lee, J. M.; Yum, M. O.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. S.

    1997-03-01

    Underground repository for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste is to be sealed and closed after operation. Structural components, which are generally made of cement concrete, are designed and accommodated in the repository for the purpose of operational convenience and stability after closure. To forecast the change of long-term integrity of the structural components, experimental verification, using in-situ or near in-situ conditions, is necessary. Domestic and foreign requirements with regard to the selection criteria and the performance criteria for structural components in disposal facility were surveyed. Characteristics of various types of cement were studied. Materials and construction methods of structural components similar to those of disposal facility was investigated and test items and methods for integrity of cement concrete were included. Literature survey for domestic groundwater characteristics was performed together with Ca-type bentonite ore which is a potential backfill material. Causes or factors affecting the durability of the cement structures were summarized. Experiments to figure out the ions leaching out from and migrating into cement soaked in distilled water and synthetic groundwater, respectively, were carried out. And finally, diffusion of chloride ion through cement was experimentally measured

  11. Geochemical Data Package for the 2005 Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Serne, R JEFFREY.; Kaplan, D I.

    2004-09-30

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) is designing and assessing the performance of an integrated disposal facility (IDF) to receive low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and failed or decommissioned melters. The CH2M HILL project to assess the performance of this disposal facility is the Hanford IDF Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of the Hanford IDF PA activity is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the vadose zone to groundwater where contaminants may be re-introduced to receptors via drinking water wells or mixing in the Columbia River. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assists CH2M HILL in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the IDF, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (Kd) and the thermodynamic solubility product (Ksp), respectively. In this data package, we approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct, called the solution concentration limit, a constant value. The Kd values and

  12. On barrier performance of high compaction bentonite in facilities of disposing high level radioactive wastes in formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hidefumi; Komada, Hiroya

    1989-01-01

    As for the method of disposing high level radioactive wastes generated in the reprocessing of spent fuel, at present formation disposal is regarded as most promising. The most important point in this formation disposal is to prevent the leak of radioactive nuclides within the disposal facilities into bedrocks and their move to the zone of human life. As the method of formation disposal, the canisters containing high level radioactive wastes are placed in the horizontal or vertical holes for disposal dug from horizontal tunnels which are several hundreds m underground, and the tunnels and disposal holes are filled again. For this filling material, the barrier performance to prevent and retard the leak of radioactive nuclides out of the disposal facilities is expected, and the characteristics of low water permeability, the adsorption of nuclides and long term stability are required. However, due to the decay heat of wastes just after the disposal, high temperature and drying condition arises, and this must be taken in consideration. The characteristics required for filling materials and the selection of the materials, the features and classification of bentonite, the properties of high compaction bentonite, and the move of water, heat and nuclides in high compaction bentonite are reported.(Kako, I.)

  13. 77 FR 48107 - Workshop on Performance Assessments of Near-Surface Disposal Facilities: FEPs Analysis, Scenario...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...) disposal facilities. The workshop has been developed to facilitate communication among Federal and State.... NRC Public Meeting The purpose of this public meeting is to facilitate communication and gather... Selection and Implementation, Model Abstraction, and Confidence Building Activities The public meeting will...

  14. Performance-assessment progress for the Rozan low-level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smietanski, L.; Mitrega, J.; Frankowski, Z. [Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents a condensed progress report on the performance assessment of Poland`s low-level waste disposal facility which is operating since 1961. The Rozan repository is of near-surface type with facilities which are the concrete fortifications built about 1910. Site characterization activities supplied information on regional geology, geohydrology, climatic and hydrologic conditions and terrain surface evolution due to geodynamic processes. Field surveys enabled to decode lithological, hydrogeological and geochemical site specific conditions. From the laboratory tests the data on groundwater chemistry and soil geochemical and hydraulic characteristics were obtained. The site geohydrologic main vulnerable element is the upmost directly endangered unconfined aquifer which is perched in relation to the region-wide hydraulic system. Heterogeneity of this system reflects in a wide range of hydraulic conductivity and thickness variations. It strongly affects velocity and flow directions. The chemistry of groundwater is unstable due to large sensitivity to external impacts. Modeling of the migration of the critical long-lived radionuclides Tc-99, U-238 and Pu-239 showed that the nearly 20 m thick unsaturated zone plays crucial role as an effective protective barrier. These radionuclides constitute minor part of the total inventory. Modeling of the development of the H-3 plume pointed out the role the macrodispersion plays in the unsaturated zone beneath the repository.

  15. Performance assessment review guide for DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodge, R.L.; Hansen, W.R.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Layton, D.W.; Lee, D.W.; Maheras, S.T.; Neuder, S.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Curl, R.U.; Grahn, K.F.; Heath, B.A.; Turner, K.H.

    1991-10-01

    This report was prepared under the direction of the Performance Assessment Peer Review Panel. The intent is to help Department of Energy sites prepare performance assessments that meet the Panel's expectations in terms of detail, quality, content, and consistency. Information on the Panel review process and philosophy are provided, as well as important technical issues that will be focused on during a review. This guidance is not intended to provide a detailed review plan as in NUREG-1200, Standard Review Plan for Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (January 1988). The focus and intent of the Panel's reviews differ significantly from a regulatory review. The review of a performance assessment by the Panel uses the collective professional judgment of the members to ascertain that the approach taken the methodology used, the assumptions made, etc., are technically sound and adequately justified. The results of the Panel's review will be used by Department of Energy Headquarters in determining compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5820.2A, ''Radioactive Waste Management.''

  16. Performance assessment for future low-level waste disposal facilities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy for waste management on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and the approach to preparing future performance assessments that has evolved from previous performance assessment studies of low-level radioactive waste disposal on the ORR. The strategy for waste management is based on the concept that waste classification should be determined by performance assessment other than the sources of waste. This dose-based strategy for waste classification and management places special importance on the preparation and interpretation of waste disposal performance assessments for selecting appropriate disposal technologies and developing waste acceptance criteria. Additionally, the challenges to be overcome in the preparation of performance assessments are discussed. 7 refs

  17. Performance of engineered barriers materials in near surface disposal facilities in Spain. Appendix 11: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    2001-01-01

    In October 1992 the Ministry of Industry and Energy issued the Operating License of El Cabril Near Surface Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba, some 100 km away from Cordoba city. Waste packages, mainly 0.22 m 3 steel drums, containing solidified waste in a cement based waste form or pellets coming from the super-compaction process, are placed inside concrete disposal containers. These containers are made of reinforced concrete and in their construction fabrication joints have been avoided. Once these containers are filled with 18 drums (0.22 m 3 ) or 30 to 60 compaction pellets, they are backfilled and sealed with a mortar grout, resulting into a solid block. These blocks are then disposed of inside concrete vaults, called disposal cells, each one with a capacity for 320 containers. The full vaults are backfilled with gravel in the existing central gap left to absorb fabrication and handling tolerances. Then a plastic film is placed on the containers to prevent a true union between the last layer of disposal containers and the massed concrete layer cast to protect the workers during the construction of the closing slab. This 0.5 m thick closing slab is made of reinforced concrete and is protected by acrylic/fibreglass unperceived film. Galleries are made of a 300 kg/cm 2 characteristic strength concrete

  18. Performance assessment and licensing issues for United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S.M.

    1997-10-01

    The final objective of performance assessment for a near-surface LLW disposal facility is to demonstrate that potential radiological impacts for each of the human exposure pathways will not violate applicable standards. This involves determining potential pathways and specific receptor locations for human exposure to radionuclides; developing appropriate scenarios for each of the institutional phases of a disposal facility; and maintaining quality assurance and control of all data, computer codes, and documentation. The results of a performance assessment should be used to demonstrate that the expected impacts are expected to be less than the applicable standards. The results should not be used to try to predict the actual impact. This is an important distinction that results from the uncertainties inherent in performance assessment calculations. The paper discusses performance objectives; performance assessment phases; scenario selection; mathematical modeling and computer programs; final results of performance assessments submitted for license application; institutional control period; licensing issues; and related research and development activities

  19. Solid secondary waste testing for maintenance of the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment - FY 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Ralph L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, Kenneth L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being constructed to treat 56 million gallons of radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at the Hanford site. Operation of the WTP will generate several solid secondary waste (SSW) streams including used process equipment, contaminated tools and instruments, decontamination wastes, high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), carbon adsorption beds, silver mordenite iodine sorbent beds, and spent ion exchange resins (IXr) all of which are to be disposed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). An applied research and development program was developed using a phased approach to incrementally develop the information necessary to support the IDF PA with each phase of the testing building on results from the previous set of tests and considering new information from the IDF PA calculations. This report contains the results from the exploratory phase, Phase 1 and preliminary results from Phase 2. Phase 3 is expected to begin in the fourth quarter of FY17.

  20. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. Appendices A through M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-04-15

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file. (GHH)

  1. Radiological performance assessment for the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    These document contains appendices A-M for the performance assessment. They are A: details of models and assumptions, B: computer codes, C: data tabulation, D: geochemical interactions, E: hydrogeology of the Savannah River Site, F: software QA plans, G: completeness review guide, H: performance assessment peer review panel recommendations, I: suspect soil performance analysis, J: sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, K: vault degradation study, L: description of naval reactor waste disposal, M: porflow input file

  2. Performance assessment methodology (PAM) for low level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selander, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is given for Performance Assessment Methodology (PAM) for Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal technologies, as required for licensing and safety studies. This is a multi-disciplinary activity, emphasizing applied mathematics, mass transfer, geohydrology and radiotoxicity effects on humans. (author). 2 refs

  3. Long-Term Performance of Silo Concrete in Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste (LILW) Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hae Ryong; Kwon, Ki Jung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sung Bok; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Yoon, Eui Sik; Kim, Do Gyeum

    2012-01-01

    Concrete has been considered one of the engineered barriers in the geological disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level wastes (LILW). The concrete plays major role as structural support, groundwater infiltration barrier, and transport barrier of radionuclides dissolved from radioactive wastes. It also works as a chemical barrier due to its high pH condition. However, the performance of the concrete structure decrease over a period of time because of several physical and chemical processes. After a long period of time in the future, the concrete would lose its effectiveness as a barrier against groundwater inflow and the release of radionuclides. An subsurface environment below the frost depth should be favorable for concrete longevity as temperature and moisture variation should be minimal, significantly reducing the potential of cracking due to drying shrinkage and thermal expansion and contraction. Therefore, the concrete structures of LILW disposal facilities below groundwater table are expected to have relatively longer service life than those of near-surface or surface concrete structures. LILW in Korea is considered to be disposed of in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center which is under construction in geological formation. 100,000 waste packages are expected to be disposed in the 6 concrete silos below EL -80m in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center as first stage. The concrete silo has been considered the main engineered barrier which plays a role to inhibit water inflow and the release of radionuclides to the environments. Although a number of processes are responsible for the degradation of the silo concrete, it is concluded that a reinforcing steel corrosion cause the failure of the silo concrete. Therefore, a concrete silo failure time is calculated based on a corrosion initiation time which takes for chloride ions to penetrate through the concrete cover, and a corrosion propagation time. This paper aims to analyze the concrete failure time in the

  4. Long-Term Performance of Silo Concrete in Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste (LILW) Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Ryong; Kwon, Ki Jung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Sung Bok; Jeong, Yi Yeong [Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Eui Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Gyeum [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Concrete has been considered one of the engineered barriers in the geological disposal facility for low- and intermediate-level wastes (LILW). The concrete plays major role as structural support, groundwater infiltration barrier, and transport barrier of radionuclides dissolved from radioactive wastes. It also works as a chemical barrier due to its high pH condition. However, the performance of the concrete structure decrease over a period of time because of several physical and chemical processes. After a long period of time in the future, the concrete would lose its effectiveness as a barrier against groundwater inflow and the release of radionuclides. An subsurface environment below the frost depth should be favorable for concrete longevity as temperature and moisture variation should be minimal, significantly reducing the potential of cracking due to drying shrinkage and thermal expansion and contraction. Therefore, the concrete structures of LILW disposal facilities below groundwater table are expected to have relatively longer service life than those of near-surface or surface concrete structures. LILW in Korea is considered to be disposed of in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center which is under construction in geological formation. 100,000 waste packages are expected to be disposed in the 6 concrete silos below EL -80m in the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center as first stage. The concrete silo has been considered the main engineered barrier which plays a role to inhibit water inflow and the release of radionuclides to the environments. Although a number of processes are responsible for the degradation of the silo concrete, it is concluded that a reinforcing steel corrosion cause the failure of the silo concrete. Therefore, a concrete silo failure time is calculated based on a corrosion initiation time which takes for chloride ions to penetrate through the concrete cover, and a corrosion propagation time. This paper aims to analyze the concrete failure time in the

  5. Performance of backfill materials in near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radwaste. Appendix 4: China (a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunli, G.; Yawen, H.; Zhiwen, F.; Anxi, C.; Xiuzhen, L.; Jinsheng, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Backfill material is an important component of a multi-barriered disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. This appendix describes the work concerning 'performance study on engineering materials of shallow land disposal of low and intermediate level radwaste'. At the time of the CRP, China had planned to establish five regional disposal sites for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste. According to the potential distribution of these sites, forty-three sampling points were selected through information survey and table discussion. After field survey and screening, eight of them were selected for further studies in laboratory. Basic physical and chemical properties of each sample were measured in laboratory. The results indicate that no one of the samples can individually function as the backfill material in a multi-barriered near surface facility. Then nine additives for adsorption modification were tested using a static method. Further adsorption tests were conducted: three additives screened out in previous experiment were evaluated using the static method. Results obtained show that the Kd values of mixtures of 90% NW-3 and 10% BC for Co-60, Cs-134 and Sr-85, compared with those of 100% NW-3, are 4.8, 4.6 and 4.7 times higher, respectively. Effects of contact time, pH of tracer solutions and radionuclide concentrations of tracer solutions on Kd values of three samples, NW-3, BC and 90% NW-3 with 10% BC, were also be evaluated using the static method. Column tests were performed to evaluate migration of Co-60, Cs-134 and Sr-85 in NW-3 columns with different densities. The column tests were carried out for 210 days. However, no breakthrough was obtained. Long term performance of backfill materials was assessed through natural analogue. We compared Chinese ancient tombs with near-surface low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facilities. Both were designed based upon multi-barrier principle. Then three

  6. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  7. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility

  8. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  9. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C.

    2005-01-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  10. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanaletchumy Karuppiah; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzuki Nik Ibrahim; Nurul Wahida Ahmad Khairuddin

    2008-08-01

    Safety assessments are used to evaluate the performance of a radioactive waste disposal facility and its impact on human health and the environment. This paper presents the overall information and methodology to carry out the safety assessment for a long term performance of a disposal system. A case study was also conducted to gain hands-on experience in the development and justification of scenarios, the formulation and implementation of models and the analysis of results. AMBER code using compartmental modeling approach was used to represent the migration and fate of contaminants in this training. This safety assessment is purely illustrative and it serves as a starting point for each development stage of a disposal facility. This assessment ultimately becomes more detail and specific as the facility evolves. (Author)

  12. Long-term performance of structural component of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Joo Ho; Kim, Seong Soo; Lee, Jae Min; Kang, Dong Koo; Yu, Jeong Beom; Lim, Goon Taek

    1998-03-01

    Domestic and foreign requirements with regard to the selection criteria and the performance criteria for structural components of disposal facility were surveyed. Characteristics of presently available cements were studied. Types and characteristics of high performance concrete and construction methods similar to disposal facility are also included in the study. Definitions of the term durability and the limit of the term were surveyed. Literature survey for the important factors affecting the durability and modeling methods to assess durability was performed. Deterioration and crack forming mechanisms were studied. Characteristics of domestic ground water were collected from KAERI data. Experiments were carried out with synthetic ground water to study the reactions between cement and constituents in the ground water. Experiments lasted up to 130 days and penetration of cations and anions was investigated. Ions of importance were Ca 2- . Mg 2- , SO 4 2+ , Cl - . Changes of ionic concentrations and compressive strength after 110 to 130 days of soaking in synthetic ground water with accelerated conditions were measured. Based upon ASTM's standard for accelerated testing, procedures to assess the durability of cement concrete were suggested

  13. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success

  14. Evaluation of a performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: Validation needs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    In this report, concepts on how validation fits into the scheme of developing confidence in performance assessments are introduced. A general framework for validation and confidence building in regulatory decision making is provided. It is found that traditional validation studies have a very limited role in developing site-specific confidence in performance assessments. Indeed, validation studies are shown to have a role only in the context that their results can narrow the scope of initial investigations that should be considered in a performance assessment. In addition, validation needs for performance assessment of low-level waste disposal facilities are discussed, and potential approaches to address those needs are suggested. These areas of topical research are ranked in order of importance based on relevance to a performance assessment and likelihood of success.

  15. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G. [Waste Control Specialists LLC, Andrews, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from

  16. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  17. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public

  18. Radwaste characteristics and Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Suk Hyun; Jeong, Yi Yeong; Kim, Ki Hong

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of Radioactive Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) is to verify a radioactive waste compliance with radioactive disposal facility requirements in order to maintain a disposal facility's performance objectives and to ensure its safety. To develop WAC which is conformable with domestic disposal site conditions, we furthermore analysed the WAC of foreign disposal sites similar to the Kyung-Ju disposal site and the characteristics of various wastes which are being generated from Korea nuclear facilities. Radioactive WAC was developed in the technical cooperation with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in consideration of characteristics of the wastes which are being generated from various facilities, waste generators' opinions and other conditions. The established criteria was also discussed and verified at an advisory committee which was comprised of some experts from universities, institutes and the industry. So radioactive WAC was developed to accept all wastes which are being generated from various nuclear facilities as much as possible, ensuring the safety of a disposal facility. But this developed waste acceptance criteria is not a criteria to accept all the present wastes generated from various nuclear facilities, so waste generators must seek an alternative treatment method for wastes which were not worth disposing of, and then they must treat the wastes more to be acceptable at a disposal site. The radioactive disposal facility WAC will continuously complement certain criteria related to a disposal concentration limit for individual radionuclide in order to ensure a long-term safety.

  19. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  20. Performance of engineered barrier materials in near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste. Results of a co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    The primary objectives of the CRP were to: promote the sharing of experiences of the Member States in their application of engineered barrier materials for near surface disposal facilities; help enhance their use of engineered barriers by improving techniques and methods for selecting, planning and testing performance of various types of barrier materials for near surface disposal facilities. The objective of this publication is to provide and overview of technical issues related to the engineered barrier systems and a summary of the major findings of each individual research project that was carried out within the framework of the CRP. This publication deals with a general overview of engineered barriers in near surface disposal facilities, key technical information obtained within the CRP and overall conclusions and recommendations for future research and development activities. Appendices presenting individual research accomplishments are also provided. Each of the 13 appendices was indexed separately

  1. High-performance cement-based grouts for use in a nuclear waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.N.

    1992-12-01

    National and international agencies have identified cement-based materials as prime candidates for sealing vaults that would isolate nuclear fuel wastes from the biosphere. Insufficient information is currently available to allow a reasonable analysis of the long-term performance of these sealing materials in a vault. A combined laboratory and modelling research program was undertaken to provide the necessary information for a specially developed high-performance cement grout. The results indicate that acceptable performance is likely for at least thousands of years and probably for much longer periods. The materials, which have been proven to be effective in field applications, are shown to be virtually impermeable and highly leach resistant under vault conditions. Special plasticizing additives used in the material formulation enhance the physical characteristics of the grout without detriment to its chemical durability. Neither modelling nor laboratory testing have yet provided a definitive assessment of the grout's longevity. However, none of the results of these studies has contraindicated the use of high-performance cement-based grouts in vault sealing applications. (Author) (24 figs., 6 tabs., 21 refs.)

  2. Intended long term performances of cementitious engineered barriers for future storage and disposal facilities for radioactive wastes in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sociu F.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the EU statements, Romania is engaged to endorse in the near future the IAEA relevant publications on geological repository (CNCANa, to update the Medium and Long Term National Strategy for Safe Management of Radioactive Waste and to approve the Road Map for Geological Repository Development. Currently, for example, spent fuel is wet stored for 6 years and after this period it is transported to dry storage in MACSTOR-200 (a concrete monolithic module where it is intended to remain at least 50 years. The present situation for radioactive waste management in Romania is reviewed in the present paper. Focus will be done on existent disposal facilities but, also, on future facilities planned for storage / disposal of radioactive wastes. Considering specific data for Romanian radioactive waste inventory, authors are reviewing the advance in the radioactive waste management in Romania considering its particularities. The team tries to highlight the expected limitations and unknown data related with cementitious engineered barriers that has to be faced in the near future incase of interim storage or for the upcoming long periods of disposal.

  3. Design of the disposal facility 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saanio, T.; Ikonen, A.; Keto, P.; Kirkkomaeki, T.; Kukkola, T.; Nieminen, J.; Raiko, H.

    2013-11-01

    The spent nuclear fuel accumulated from the nuclear power plants in Olkiluoto in Eurajoki and in Haestholmen in Loviisa will be disposed of in Olkiluoto. A facility complex will be constructed at Olkiluoto, and it will include two nuclear waste facilities according to Government Degree 736/2008. The nuclear waste facilities are an encapsulation plant, constructed to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel and a disposal facility consisting of an underground repository and other underground rooms and above ground service spaces. The repository is planned to be excavated to a depth of 400 - 450 meters. Access routes to the disposal facility are an inclined access tunnel and vertical shafts. The encapsulated fuel is transferred to the disposal facility in the canister lift. The canisters are transferred from the technical rooms to the disposal area via central tunnel and deposited in the deposition holes which are bored in the floors of the deposition tunnels and are lined beforehand with compacted bentonite blocks. Two parallel central tunnels connect all the deposition tunnels and these central tunnels are inter-connected at regular intervals. The solution improves the fire safety of the underground rooms and allows flexible backfilling and closing of the deposition tunnels in stages during the operational phase of the repository. An underground rock characterization facility, ONKALO, is excavated at the disposal level. ONKALO is designed and constructed so that it can later serve as part of the repository. The goal is that the first part of the disposal facility will be constructed under the building permit phase in the 2010's and operations will start in the 2020's. The fuel from 4 operating reactors as well the fuel from the fifth nuclear power plant under construction, has been taken into account in designing the disposal facility. According to the information from TVO and Fortum, the amount of the spent nuclear fuel is 5,440 tU. The disposal facility is being excavated

  4. ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AT A RCRA HAZARDOUS WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stephen; Welling, Steven; Bell, Simon

    2003-01-01

    The use of hazardous waste disposal facilities permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (''RCRA'') to dispose of low concentration and exempt radioactive materials is a cost-effective option for government and industry waste generators. The hazardous and PCB waste disposal facility operated by US Ecology Idaho, Inc. near Grand View, Idaho provides environmentally sound disposal services to both government and private industry waste generators. The Idaho facility is a major recipient of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers FUSRAP program waste and received permit approval to receive an expanded range of radioactive materials in 2001. The site has disposed of more than 300,000 tons of radioactive materials from the federal government during the past five years. This paper presents the capabilities of the Grand View, Idaho hazardous waste facility to accept radioactive materials, site-specific acceptance criteria and performance assessment, radiological safety and environmental monitoring program information

  5. Summary of Conceptual Models and Data Needs to Support the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sondrup, A. Jeff; Schafter, Annette L.; Rood, Arthur S.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the technical approach and data required to support development of the performance assessment, and composite analysis are presented for the remote handled low-level waste disposal facility on-site alternative being considered at Idaho National Laboratory. Previous analyses and available data that meet requirements are identified and discussed. Outstanding data and analysis needs are also identified and summarized. The on-site disposal facility is being evaluated in anticipation of the closure of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INL. An assessment of facility performance and of the composite performance are required to meet the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste requirements (DOE Order 435.1, 2001) which stipulate that operation and closure of the disposal facility will be managed in a manner that is protective of worker and public health and safety, and the environment. The corresponding established procedures to ensure these protections are contained in DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual (DOE M 435.1-1 2001). Requirements include assessment of (1) all-exposure pathways, (2) air pathway, (3) radon, and (4) groundwater pathway doses. Doses are computed from radionuclide concentrations in the environment. The performance assessment and composite analysis are being prepared to assess compliance with performance objectives and to establish limits on concentrations and inventories of radionuclides at the facility and to support specification of design, construction, operation and closure requirements. Technical objectives of the PA and CA are primarily accomplished through the development of an establish inventory, and through the use of predictive environmental transport models implementing an overarching conceptual framework. This document reviews the conceptual model, inherent assumptions, and data required to implement the conceptual model in a numerical framework. Available site-specific data and data sources

  6. Recent ORNL experience in site performance prediction: the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.

    1985-01-01

    The suitability of the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Landfill and the Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Central Waste Disposal Facility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste was evaluated using pathways analyses. For these evaluations, a conservative approach was selected; that is, conservatism was built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events had to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics existed. Data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations were used in developing the conceptual and numerical models that served as the basis for the numerical simulations of the long-term transport of contamination to man. However, the analyses relied on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Maximum potential doses to man were calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. Even under this conservative framework, the sites were found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations and conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability were drawn. Our experience through these studies has shown that in reaching conclusions in such studies, some consideration must be given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and to quantitatively determine the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed

  7. The long-term safety and performance analyses of the surface disposal facility for the Belgian category a waste at Dessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, Wim; Vermarien, Elise; Wacquier, William [ONDRAF/NIRAS Avenue des Arts 14, BE-1210 Bruxelles (Belgium); Perko, Janez [SCK-CEN Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, and its partners have developed long-term safety and performance analyses in the framework of the license application for a surface disposal facility for low level radioactive waste (category A waste) at Dessel, Belgium. This paper focusses on the methodology of the safety assessments and on key results from the application of this methodology. An overview is given (1) of the performance analyses for the containment safety function of the disposal system and (2) of the radiological impact analyses confirming that radiological impacts are below applicable reference values and constraints and leading to radiological criteria for the waste and the facility. In this discussion, multiple indicators for performance and safety are used to illustrate the multi-faceted nature of long-term performance and safety of the surface disposal. This contributes to the multiple lines of reasoning for confidence building that a positive decision to proceed to the next stage of construction is justified. (authors)

  8. Estimation of natural ground water recharge for the performance assessment of a low-level waste disposal facility at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockhold, M.L.; Fayer, M.J.; Kincaid, C.T.; Gee, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    In 1994, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) initiated the Recharge Task, under the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project, to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Recharge Task was established to address the issue of ground water recharge in and around the LLW facility and throughout the Hanford Site as it affects the unconfined aquifer under the facility. The objectives of this report are to summarize the current knowledge of natural ground water recharge at the Hanford Site and to outline the work that must be completed in order to provide defensible estimates of recharge for use in the performance assessment of this LLW disposal facility. Recharge studies at the Hanford Site indicate that recharge rates are highly variable, ranging from nearly zero to greater than 100 mm/yr depending on precipitation, vegetative cover, and soil types. Coarse-textured soils without plants yielded the greatest recharge. Finer-textured soils, with or without plants, yielded the least. Lysimeters provided accurate, short-term measurements of recharge as well as water-balance data for the soil-atmosphere interface and root zone. Tracers provided estimates of longer-term average recharge rates in undisturbed settings. Numerical models demonstrated the sensitivity of recharge rates to different processes and forecast recharge rates for different conditions. All of these tools (lysimetry, tracers, and numerical models) are considered vital to the development of defensible estimates of natural ground water recharge rates for the performance assessment of a LLW disposal facility at the Hanford Site

  9. No nuclear power. No disposal facility?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinhals, J. [DMT GmbH und Co.KG, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Countries with a nuclear power programme are making strong efforts to guarantee the safe disposal of radioactive waste. The solutions in those countries are large disposal facilities near surface or in deep geological layers depending on the activity and half-life of the nuclides in the waste. But what will happen with the radioactive waste in countries that do not have NPPs but have only low amounts of radioactive waste from medical, industrial and research facilities as well as from research reactors? Countries producing only low amounts of radioactive waste need convincing solutions for the safe and affordable disposal of their radioactive waste. As they do not have a fund by an operator of nuclear power plants, those countries need an appropriate and commensurate solution for the disposal of their waste. In a first overview five solutions seem to be appropriate: (i) the development of multinational disposal facilities by using the existing international knowhow; (ii) common disposal with hazardous waste; (iii) permanent storage; (iv) use of an existing mine or tunnel; (v) extension of the borehole disposal concept for all the categories of radioactive wastes.

  10. 10 CFR 61.52 - Land disposal facility operation and disposal site closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.52 Land disposal... wastes by placing in disposal units which are sufficiently separated from disposal units for the other... between any buried waste and the disposal site boundary and beneath the disposed waste. The buffer zone...

  11. Technical concept for a greater-confinement-disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Greater confinement disposal (GCO) has been defined by the National Low-Level Waste Program as the disposal of low-level waste in such a manner as to provide greater containment of radiation, reduce potential for migration or dispersion or radionuclides, and provide greater protection from inadvertent human and biological intrusions in order to protect the public health and safety. This paper discusses: the need for GCD; definition of GCD; advantages and disadvantages of GCD; relative dose impacts of GCD versus shallow land disposal; types of waste compatible with GCD; objectives of GCD borehole demonstration test; engineering and technical issues; and factors affecting performance of the greater confinement disposal facility

  12. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  13. Present issues for centre de la Manche disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, M.; Vervialle, J.P.; Charton, P.

    2006-01-01

    Centre de la Manche disposal facility officially entered its institutional control period in January 2003. Andra performs monitoring of the environment and of the capping system in order to prepare further phases that should become more and more passive. A detailed 'long term memory' has been established in order to provide future generations with the relevant information about the facility. (author)

  14. Technical Approach for Determining Key Parameters Needed for Modeling the Performance of Cast Stone for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) and its contractors at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are conducting a development program to develop / refine the cementitious waste form for the wastes treated at the ETF and to provide the data needed to support the IDF PA. This technical approach document is intended to provide guidance to the cementitious waste form development program with respect to the waste form characterization and testing information needed to support the IDF PA. At the time of the preparation of this technical approach document, the IDF PA effort is just getting started and the approach to analyze the performance of the cementitious waste form has not been determined. Therefore, this document looks at a number of different approaches for evaluating the waste form performance and describes the testing needed to provide data for each approach. Though the approach addresses a cementitious secondary aqueous waste form, it is applicable to other waste forms such as Cast Stone for supplemental immobilization of Hanford LAW. The performance of Cast Stone as a physical and chemical barrier to the release of contaminants of concern (COCs) from solidification of Hanford liquid low activity waste (LAW) and secondary wastes processed through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) is of critical importance to the Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) total system performance assessment (TSPA). The effectiveness of cementitious waste forms as a barrier to COC release is expected to evolve with time. PA modeling must therefore anticipate and address processes, properties, and conditions that alter the physical and chemical controls on COC transport in the cementitious waste forms over time. Most organizations responsible for disposal facility operation and their regulators support an iterative hierarchical safety/performance assessment approach with a general philosophy that modeling provides

  15. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J.

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments

  16. Effects on radionuclide concentrations by cement/ground-water interactions in support of performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, K.M.; Serne, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is developing a technical position document that provides guidance regarding the performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This guidance considers the effects that the chemistry of the vault disposal system may have on radionuclide release. The geochemistry of pore waters buffered by cementitious materials in the disposal system will be different from the local ground water. Therefore, the cement-buffered environment needs to be considered within the source term calculations if credit is taken for solubility limits and/or sorption of dissolved radionuclides within disposal units. A literature review was conducted on methods to model pore-water compositions resulting from reactions with cement, experimental studies of cement/water systems, natural analogue studies of cement and concrete, and radionuclide solubilities experimentally determined in cement pore waters. Based on this review, geochemical modeling was used to calculate maximum concentrations for americium, neptunium, nickel, plutonium, radium, strontium, thorium, and uranium for pore-water compositions buffered by cement and local ground-water. Another literature review was completed on radionuclide sorption behavior onto fresh cement/concrete where the pore water pH will be greater than or equal 10. Based on this review, a database was developed of preferred minimum distribution coefficient values for these radionuclides in cement/concrete environments.

  17. Hanford's Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Radioactive Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, is located in the Hanford Site Low-Level Burial Grounds and is designated as Trench 31 in the 218-W-5 Burial Ground. Trench 31 is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act compliant landfill and will receive wastes generated from both remediation and waste management activities. On December 30, 1994, Westinghouse Hanford Company declared readiness to operate Trench 31, which is the Hanford Site's (and the Department of Energy complex's) first facility for disposal of low-level radioactive mixed wastes

  18. The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF) will provide permanent Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted storage, treatment, and disposal for hazardous and mixed waste generated at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) that cannot be disposed of in existing or planned SRS facilities. Final design is complete for Phase I of the project, the Disposal Vaults. The Vaults will provide RCRA permitted, above-grade disposal capacity for treated hazardous and mixed waste generated at the SRS. The RCRA Part B Permit application was submitted upon approval of the Permit application, the first Disposal Vault is scheduled to be operational in mid 1994. The technical baseline has been established for Phase II, the Treatment Building, and preliminary design work has been performed. The Treatment Building will provide RCRA permitted treatment processes to handle a variety of hazardous and mixed waste generated at SRS in preparation for disposal. The processes will treat wastes for disposal in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). A RCRA Part B Permit application has not yet been submitted to SCDHEC for this phase of the project. The Treatment Building is currently scheduled to be operational in late 1996

  19. Conceptual design report for Central Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The permanent facilities are defined, and cost estimates are provided for the disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) at the Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF). The waste designated for the Central Waste Disposal Facility will be generated by the Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The facility will be operated by ORNL for the Office of Defense Waste and By-Products Management of the Deparment of Energy. The CWDF will be located on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation, west of Highway 95 and south of Bear Creek Road. The body of this Conceptual Design Report (CDR) describes the permanent facilities required for the operation of the CWDF. Initial facilities, trenches, and minimal operating equipment will be provided in earlier projects. The disposal of LLW will be by shallow land burial in engineered trenches. DOE Order 5820 was used as the performance standard for the proper disposal of radioactive waste. The permanent facilities are intended for beneficial occupancy during the first quarter of fiscal year 1989. 3 references, 9 figures, 7 tables

  20. Technical concept for a Greater Confinement Disposal test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    For the past two years, Ford, Bacon and Davis has been performing technical services for the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site in specific development of defense low-level waste management concepts for greater confinement disposal concept with particular application to arid sites. The investigations have included the development of Criteria for Greater Confinement Disposal, NVO-234, which was published in May of 1981 and the draft of the technical concept for Greater Confinement Disposal, with the latest draft published in November 1981. The final draft of the technical concept and design specifications are expected to be published imminently. The document is prerequisite to the actual construction and implementation of the demonstration facility this fiscal year. The GCD Criteria Document, NVO-234 is considered to contain information complimentary and compatible with that being developed for the reserved section 10 CFR 61.51b of the NRCs proposed licensing rule for low level waste disposal facilities

  1. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m 3 . The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year)

  2. Facility Description 2012. Summary report of the encapsulation plant and disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomaeki, J.; Ristimaeki, L.

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the facility description is to be a specific summary report of the scope of Posiva's nuclear facilities (encapsulation plant and disposal facility) in Olkiluoto. This facility description is based on the 2012 designs and completing Posiva working reports. The facility description depicts the nuclear facilities and their operation as the disposal of spent nuclear fuel starts in Olkiluoto in about 2020. According to the decisions-in-principle of the government, the spent nuclear fuel from Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants in operation and in future cumulative spent nuclear fuel from Loviisa 1 and 2, Olkiluoto 1, 2, 3 and 4 nuclear power plants, is permitted to be disposed of in Olkiluoto bedrock. The design of the disposal facility is based on the KBS-3V concept (vertical disposal). Long-term safety concept is based on the multi-barrier principle i.e. several release barriers, which ensure one another so that insufficiency in the performance of one barrier doesn't jeopardize long-term safety of the disposal. The release barriers are the following: canister, bentonite buffer and deposition tunnel backfill, and the host rock around the repository. The canisters are installed into the deposition holes, which are bored to the floor of the deposition tunnels. The canisters are enveloped with compacted bentonite blocks, which swell after absorbing water. The surrounding bedrock and the central and access tunnel backfill provide additional retardation, retention, and dilution. The nuclear facilities consist of an encapsulation plant and of underground final disposal facility including other aboveground buildings and surface structures serving the facility. The access tunnel and ventilation shafts to the underground disposal facility and some auxiliary rooms are constructed as a part of ONKALO underground rock characterization facility during years 2004-2014. The construction works needed for the repository start after obtaining the construction

  3. Evaluation of Proposed New LLW Disposal Activity: Disposal of Aqueous PUREX Waste Stream in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Aqueous PUREX waste stream from Tanks 33 and 35, which have been blended in Tank 34, has been identified for possible processing through the Saltstone Processing Facility for disposal in the Saltstone Disposal Facility

  4. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10 5 m 3 of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10 14 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99 Tc (t 1/2 = 2.1 x 10 5 ), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  5. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2011 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of glass (Certa and Wells 2010). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 8.9 x 10{sup 14} Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally {sup 99}Tc (t{sub 1/2} = 2.1 x 10{sup 5}), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2011 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses.

  6. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators

  7. Study of physical resistance of the disposal facility for accidental artificial event in LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Suihei; Irie, Masaaki; Uchida, Masahiro

    2013-11-01

    This report refer to results of examine what follows for structural stability evaluation for the LLW disposal facility in depth over general human activity in underground. Study of physically resistance on the facility for accidental artificial event, namely tunneling an operation facing the disposal facility in future. Physically resistance to excavation of tunneling etc. in disposal facility is studied based on supposing of Tunnel Boring Machine as an excavator, paying attention to reinforcement bar in concrete and steel plate of waste package, as feature of strength in these material differs from rock strength. And it is examined not only resistibility on excavation but also about hard situations of excavation in tunneling works, and namely give thorough consideration to critical quantity of cutting to reinforcement bar and steel plate that could keep resistibility on excavation based on tunneling velocity and limits time furthermore. It requests necessity of evaluation in consider with metal corrosion that status alteration on disposal facility is considered with on timescale. Period of keep on the physically resistance is estimated by velocity of metal corrosion consequently. The physically resistance is kept until metal corrosion reach remaining its material, giving a limits of the physically resistance on inside of facility. Main point of physically resistance in the report will be made the good use of a practice to physically resistance evaluation of in safety assessment. (author)

  8. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Waste Acceptance Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dronen, V.R.

    1998-06-01

    The Hanford Site is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) with a primary mission of environmental cleanup and restoration. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is an integral part of the DOE environmental restoration effort at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this document is to establish the ERDF waste acceptance criteria for disposal of materials resulting from Hanford Site cleanup activities. Definition of and compliance with the requirements of this document will enable implementation of appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment, ensure the integrity of the ERDF liner system, facilitate efficient use of the available space in the ERDF, and comply with applicable environmental regulations and DOE orders. To serve this purpose, the document defines responsibilities, identifies the waste acceptance process, and provides the primary acceptance criteria and regulatory citations to guide ERDF users. The information contained in this document is not intended to repeat or summarize the contents of all applicable regulations

  9. Developing a LLW disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.; Hanrahan, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    US Ecology has been designated by the State of California to site and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The firm identified three sites for detailed characterization work in February, 1987. Ecological and archaeological studies and related environmental assessments were undertaken to obtain land use permits from the Bureau of Land Management, which holds title to the sites. Geophysics investigations, exploratory borings, well drilling and weather station installation followed. Local Committees were established for each site to assist US Ecology in evaluating socio-economic impacts, and Native Americans were consulted regarding cultural resources. The project's Citizens Advisory Committee assisted in evaluating the three candidate sites. US Ecology systematically integrated citizen involvement into the technical studies leading to selection of the two site finalists. This approach furthered two objectives. Community leaders and the public received accurate information on the nature of low-level radioactive waste and the environmental conditions appropriate for its disposal

  10. Performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal facility on the Nevada Test Site: Comparing the performance of two conceptual site models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, T.A.; Price, L.L.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    A small amount of transuranic (TRU) waste has been disposed of at the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) site located on the Nevada Test Site's (NTS) Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The waste has been buried in several deep (37 m) boreholes dug into the floor of an alluvial basin. For the waste to remain in its current configuration, the DOE must demonstrate compliance of the site with the TRU disposal requirements, 40 CFR 191. Sandia's approach to process modelling in performance assessment is to use demonstrably conservative models of the site. Choosing the most conservative model, however, can be uncertain. As an example, diffusion of contaminants upward from the buried waste in the vadose zone water is the primary mechanism of release. This process can be modelled as straight upward planar diffusion or as spherical diffusion in all directions. The former has high fluxes but low release areas, the latter has lower fluxes but is spread over a greater area. We have developed analytic solutions to a simple test problem for both models and compared the total integrated discharges. The spherical diffusion conceptual model results in at least five times greater release to the accessible environment than the planar model at all diffusivities. Modifying the planar model to allow for a larger release, however, compensated for the smaller original planar discharge and resulted in a new planar model that was more conservative that the spherical model except at low diffusivities

  11. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J R; Danneels, J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kenagy, W D [U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security, Washington, DC (United States); Phillips, C J; Chesser, R K [Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  12. Performance assessment of grouted double-shell tank waste disposal at Hanford. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shade, J.W., Kincaid, C.T.; Whyatt, G.A.; Rhoads, K.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Freshley, M.D.; Blanchard, K.A.; Shade, J.W.; Piepho, M.G.; Voogd, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    This document assesses the performance of the Grout Disposal Facility after closure. The facility and disposal environment are modeled to predict the long-term impacts of the disposal action. The document concludes that the disposal system provides reasonable assurance that doses to the public will remain within the performance objectives. This document is required for DOC Order 5820.2A

  13. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low-Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits and Approval Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement or record of decision shall result in shutdown of an operational

  14. Radiological Operational Safety Verification for LILW Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology, SNU, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seung Young; Kim, Byung Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    component (chemistry). They can be measured using proven equipment and methods such as wireless and non-intrusive monitoring techniques. Directly accessing the waste packages for the purpose of monitoring could negatively affect the long-term performance of engineered barriers. One way to solve this problem is to build a pilot facility (demonstration facility) at another site set apart from the actual disposal site and implement monitoring there. The pilot facility proposed by the 'Expert Group on Disposal Concepts for Radioactive Waste' of Switzerland is a small-scale facility which is different from test facility (in-situ rock laboratory) in terms of representative amount of real waste. The pilot facility provides information to confirm the performance of the repository system, and also allows the early detection of any deviations from the expected evolution. National low-level waste management program of the United States published a report containing 16 key radionuclides that are judged by the NRC to most likely contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a proposed commercial LLW disposal facility. They are {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm. They are almost consistent with concentration limits of radionuclides for disposal of No. of Notices of the MOST: 2009-37 except gross alpha radioactivity (TRU) and {sup 238}U. Four radionuclides, such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I, are identified as special considerations by the NRC in terms of ensuring that performance objectives for long-term environmental protection are met for disposal of commercial LLW. They are very mobile in groundwater, and their main route to enter the human body is by either ingestion or inhalation

  15. Addendum to the Composite Analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Revision 1 of the Composite Analysis (CA) Addendum has been prepared to respond to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities Federal Review Group review of the CA. This addendum to the composite analysis responds to the conditions of approval. The composite analysis was performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of the Savannah River Site and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, the chemical separation facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities, as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material

  16. Performance assessment and licensing issues for United States commercial near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the performance assessment and licensing issues, the performance the objectives, the performance assessment phases, the scenario selection, the mathematical modeling and computer programs, the final results of performance assessments submitted for license applications, the institutional control period, and the licensing issues. 38 refs

  17. Communication strategy for final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaelae, Timo; Kurki, Osmo

    2000-01-01

    In May 1999, Posiva filed an application for a policy decision to the Council of State on the construction of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel in Olkiluoto in the municipality of Eurajoki. The decision to be made by the Council of State must be ratified by the Parliament. The precondition for a positive decision is that the preliminary statement on safety to be provided by STLTK by the end of the year 1999 is in favour of Posiva. continuing with its repository development programme, and that the Eurajoki municipality approves the project in its statement by the 28th of January 2000. The policy decision by the Council of State is expected to be made in March followed by the ratification of the Parliament before the summer. In a poll-carried out among 350 decision-makers, less than 10 % of those who answered 134 persons) found Internet as the most important source of Posiva's information on final disposal. On the other hand, over 80 % of those who answered found the information folder as the most significant source of information. When considering all the information available on final disposal (TV, radio, newspapers, authorities, environmental organisations, etc.) Posiva was found to be the most significant source of information while newspapers and periodicals came second. In this case the environmental organisations seemed to have a minor role, as a result of not being too active in confrontation. As a conclusive remark it can be assumed that because it is not only Posiva's information that is relevant to decision-makers, but the media also plays a significant role, the impression that decision-makers have of final disposal is based on a mixture of messages coming from Posiva and from the media. That is why the communication related to decision-makers is also communication with media, in order to ensure that the messages produced by the media support the information produced by Posiva

  18. Grout Treatment Facility Land Disposal Restriction Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This document establishes management plans directed to result in the land disposal of grouted wastes at the Hanford Grout Facilities in compliance with Federal, State of Washington, and Department of Energy land disposal restrictions. 9 refs., 1 fig

  19. Integrated Disposal Facility FY 2012 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kerisit, Sebastien N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krogstad, Eirik J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burton, Sarah D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bjornstad, Bruce N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle MV [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-03-29

    PNNL is conducting work to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility for Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessment (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program, PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. Key activities in FY12 include upgrading the STOMP/eSTOMP codes to do near-field modeling, geochemical modeling of PCT tests to determine the reaction network to be used in the STOMP codes, conducting PUF tests on selected glasses to simulate and accelerate glass weathering, developing a Monte Carlo simulation tool to predict the characteristics of the weathered glass reaction layer as a function of glass composition, and characterizing glasses and soil samples exhumed from an 8-year lysimeter test. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2012 and the first quarter of FY 2013 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of LAW glasses.

  20. The industrial facility for Grouping, Storage and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Patrice

    2013-07-01

    The industrial facility for grouping, storage and disposal (called Cires in French), in the Aube district, is run by Andra. The facility is licensed to dispose of very-low-level waste, to collect non-nuclear-power radioactive waste and to provide storage for some of the waste for which a final management solution has not yet been found. The Cires facility is located a few kilometers from the Aube disposal facility (CSA), another of Andra's waste disposal facilities, currently dealing with low- and intermediate-level, short-lived waste. Contents: Andra in the Aube district, an exemplary industrial operator - The industrial facility for grouping, storage and disposal (Cires); Disposal of very-low-level waste (VLLW); The journey taken by VLL waste; Grouping of non-nuclear-power waste; Storage of non-nuclear-power waste; The journey taken by non-nuclear-power waste; Protecting present and future generations

  1. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  2. Pilot tests on radioactive waste disposal in underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haijtink, B.

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the pilot test carried out in the underground facilities in the Asse salt mine (Germany) and in the Boom clay beneath the nuclear site at Mol (Belgium). These tests include test disposal of simulated vitrified high-level waste (HAW project) and of intermediate level waste and spent HTR fuel elements in the Asse salt mine, as well as an active handling experiment with neutron sources, this last test with a view to direct disposal of spent fuel. Moreover, an in situ test on the performance of a long-term sealing system for galleries in rock salt is described. Regarding the tests in the Boom clay, a combined heating and radiation test, geomechanical and thermo-hydro mechanical tests are dealt with. Moreover, the design of a demonstration test for disposal of high-level waste in clay is presented. Finally the situation concerning site selection and characterization in France and the United Kingdom are described

  3. Siting of near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting, in a coherent and comprehensive manner, the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. The Safety Standards are supplemented by a number of Safety Guides and Safety Practices. This Safety Guide defines the site selection process and criteria for identifying suitable near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level solid wastes. Management of the siting process and data needed to apply the criteria are also specified. 4 refs

  4. The cost of engineered disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Razor, J.E.; Mills, D.

    1987-01-01

    An improved disposal trench was designed, constructed and placed into operation at the Maxey Flats Disposal Site during the period April 1985 through July 1986. With the improved trench design, the waste packages are placed in clusters and the surrounding space is filled with gravel and grouted with a sand/cement mixture to form walls and cells that surround the waste package. The walls provide structural support for a poly-ethylene reinforced soil beam which in turn supports a multi-layer protective cap. About 2,700 drums of waste (20,250 CF) were placed into the trench. The total cost of the improved trench was $193,500 and the unit cost was $9.56 per cubic foot not including the placement of the waste. The engineered features of the trench (i.e., sidewall infiltration barrier, grout backfill and the soil beam) cost $82,600 for a unit cost of $4.08 per cubic foot of waste. This is compared to the cost of concrete cannisters used for radioactive waste disposal. On a production basis the cannisters are estimated to cost about $1,260. Depending upon the type waste, the cost of the cannisters will range from $2 to $12 per cubic foot of waste. The slightly higher cost of the concrete cannisters is offset by certain performance advantages

  5. Evaluation of environmental change and its effects on the radiological performance of a hypothetical shallow engineered disposal facility at Elstow, Bedfordshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The results of a project designed to evaluate aspects of a hypothetical facility for disposal of radioactive wastes at Elstow, Bedfordshire, are described. The project included modelling of environmental change using the TIME2 code, groundwater flow modelling, biosphere modelling and risk analysis using the SYVAC A/C code. The aims of the work were to demonstrate use of TIME2, investigate the evolution of the facility's environment and to evaluate the influence of environmental change on estimates of radiological risk. Risk analysis of several time-independent environmental system states, using data obtained from the other tasks, indicated that environmental changes significantly influence estimates of radiological risk. (author)

  6. Decommissioning and disposal of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Yingjie; Xue Jianxin; Yuan Baixiang; Xu Lechang

    2012-01-01

    Disposal techniques in decommissioning of foreign uranium mine and mill facilities are systematically discussed, including covering of uranium tailing impoundment, drainaging and consolidation of uranium tailing, and treatment of mining waste water and polluted groundwater, and the costs associated with disposal are analyzed. The necessity of strengthening the decommissioning disposal technology research and international exchanges and cooperation is emphasized. (authors)

  7. Tumulus Disposal Demonstration Facility for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapp, R.B.; van Hoesen, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    This disposal concept is based on the Tumulus design developed by the French at the La Manche facility. Waste units are stacked above-grade on a concrete pad. The facility currently under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involves sealing waste in concrete vaults, placing the vaults on a grade level concrete pad, and covering the pad and vaults with a soil cover after vault emplacement is complete. Emplacement is expected to continue until the facility exhausts its approximate 800 m 3 (28,000 ft 3 ) capacity. The facility incorporates engineered barriers to radionuclide migration; a monitoring system to ensure barrier performance; and a newly developed set of Demonstration Waste Acceptance Criteria to reduce the likelihood of groundwater contamination

  8. Disposal facilities for radioactive waste - legislative requirements for siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova-Mihaylova, Radosveta

    2015-01-01

    The specifics of radioactive waste, namely the content of radionuclides require the implementation of measures to protect human health and the environment against the hazards arising from ionizing radiation, including disposal of waste in appropriate facilities. The legislative requirements for siting of such facilities, and classification of radioactive waste, as well as the disposal methods, are presented in this publication

  9. Project W-049H disposal facility test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckles, D.I.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report (ATR) for the Project W-049H, Treated Effluent Disposal Facility, is to verify that the equipment installed in the Disposal Facility has been installed in accordance with the design documents and function as required by the project criteria

  10. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Vedernikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on data collected during operation of near-surface disposal facilities for short-lived intermediate-, lowand very low-level waste in France, as well as nearsurface disposal facilities for long-lived waste in Russia. Further analysis of occupational and public doses calculated at the design stage was completed covering a near-surface disposal facility in Belgium and deep disposal facilities in the United Kingdom and the Nizhne-Kansk rock massive (Russia. The results show that engineering and technical solutions enable almost complete elimination of internal occupational exposure, whereas external exposure doses would fall within the range of values typical for a basic nuclear facility. Conclusion: radioactive waste disposal facilities being developed, constructed and operated meet the safety requirements effective in the Russian Federation and consistent with relevant international recommendations. It has been found that individual occupational exposure doses commensurate with those received by personnel of similar facilities abroad. Furthermore, according to the forecasts, mean individual doses for personnel during radioactive waste disposal would be an order of magnitude lower than the dose limit of 20 mSv/year. As for the public exposure, during normal operation, potential impact is virtually impossible by delaminating boundaries of a nuclear facility sanitary protection zone inside which the disposal facility is located and can be solely attributed to the use

  11. Geology of the Integrated Disposal Facility Trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, Steve P.; Fecht, Karl R.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the geology of the integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Trench. The stratigraphy consists of some of the youngest sediments of the Missoula floods (younger than 770 ka). The lithology is dominated sands with minor silts and gravels that are largely unconsolidated. The stratigraphy can be subdivided into five geologic units that can be mapped throughout the trench. Four of the units were deposited by the Missoula floods and the youngest consists of windblown sand and silt. The sediment has little moisture and is consistent with that observed in the characterization boreholes. The sedimentary layers are flat lying and there are no faults or folds present. Two clastic dikes were encountered, one along the west wall and one that can be traced from the north to the southwall. The north-south clastic dike nearly bifurcates the trench but the west wall clastic dike can not be traced very far east into the trench. The classic dikes consist mainly of sand with clay-lined walls. The sediment in the dikes is compacted to partly cemented and are more resistant than the layered sediments

  12. Update on the Federal Facilities Compliance Act disposal workgroup disposal site evaluation - what has worked and what has not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.T.; Waters, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been developing a planning process for mixed low-level waste (MLLW) disposal in conjunction with the affected states for over two years and has screened the potential disposal sites from 49 to 15. A radiological performance evaluation was conducted on these fifteen sites to further identify their strengths and weaknesses for disposal of MLLW. Technical analyses are on-going. The disposal evaluation process has sufficiently satisfied the affected states' concerns to the point that disposal has not been a major issue in the consent order process for site treatment plans. Additionally, a large amount of technical and institutional information on several DOE sites has been summarized. The relative technical capabilities of the remaining fifteen sites have been demonstrated, and the benefits of waste form and disposal facility performance have been quantified. However, the final disposal configuration has not yet been determined. Additionally, the MLLW disposal planning efforts will need to integrate more closely with the low-level waste disposal activities before a final MLLW disposal configuration can be determined. Recent Environmental Protection Agency efforts related to the definition of hazardous wastes may also affect the process

  13. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: engineering for a disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.; Baumgartner, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents some general considerations for engineering a nuclear fuel waste disposal facility, alternative disposal-vault concepts and arrangements, and a conceptual design of a used-fuel disposal centre that was used to assess the technical feasibility, costs and potential effects of disposal. The general considerations and alternative disposal-vault arrangements are presented to show that options are available to allow the design to be adapted to actual site conditions. The conceptual design for a used-fuel disposal centre includes descriptions of the two major components of the disposal facility, the Used-Fuel Packaging Plant and the disposal vault; the ancillary facilities and services needed to carry out the operations are also identified. The development of the disposal facility, its operation, its decommissioning, and the reclamation of the site are discussed. The costs, labour requirements and schedules used to assess socioeconomic effects and that may be used to assess the cost burden of waste disposal to the consumer of nuclear energy are estimated. The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is funded jointly by AECL and Ontario Hydro under the auspices of the CANDU Owners Group. (author)

  14. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  15. Site Characterization Of Borehole Disposal Facility (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Mohd Abd Wahab Yusof; Mohd Muzamil; Nazran Harun; Nurul Fairuz Diyana Bahrudin; Ismail, C. Mohamad; Kalam

    2014-01-01

    Site characterization study is one of the major components in assessing the potential site for borehole disposal facility. The main objectives of this study are to obtain the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology and geochemistry information in order to understand the regional geological setting, its past evolution and likely future natural evolution over the assessment time frame. This study was focused on the geological information, borehole log and hydrogeological information. Geological information involve general geology, lineament, topography, structure geology, geological terrain. Whereas Borehole log information consists of lithology, soil and rock formation, gamma logging data and physical properties of soil and rock. Hydrogeological information was emphasized on the groundwater flow, physical parameter as well as geochemical data. Geological mapping shows the study area is underlain by metamorphic rock of the Kenny Hill Formation. Lithologically, it composed of psammitic schist of sandstone origin and phyllite. Based on the borehole log profile, the study area is covered by thick layer of residual soil and estimated not less than 10 m. Those foliated rocks tend to break or split along the foliation planes. The foliation or schistosity may also serve as conduit for groundwater migration. Main structural geology features in the study area trend predominantly in North to Northeast directions. Major fault, the UKM Fault trends in NE-SW direction about 0.5 km located to the east of the proposed borehole site. The groundwater flow direction is influenced by the structure and bedding of the rock formation. Whereas the groundwater flow velocity in the borehole ranges 2.15 - 5.24 x 10 -4 m/ sec. All the data that are obtained in this study is used to support the Safety Assessment and Safety Case report. (author)

  16. Characterization of groundwater flow for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to provide a description of the site investigation techniques and modelling approaches that can be used to characterise the flow of subsurface water at near surface disposal facilities in relation to the various development stages of the repositories. As one of the main goals of defining groundwater flow is to establish the possible contaminant migration, certain aspects related to groundwater transport are also described. Secondary objectives are to discuss the implications of various groundwater conditions with regard to the performance of the isolation systems

  17. Generation and release of radioactive gases in LLW disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, M.S. [Harvard School Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Simonson, S.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The atmospheric release of radioactive gases from a generic engineered LLW disposal facility and its radiological impacts were examined. To quantify the generation of radioactive gases, detailed characterization of source inventory for carbon-14, tritium, iodine-129, krypton-85, and radon-222, was performed in terms of their activity concentrations; their distribution within different waste classes, waste forms and containers; and their subsequent availability for release in volatile or gaseous form. The generation of gases was investigated for the processes of microbial activity, radiolysis, and corrosion of waste containers and metallic components in wastes. The release of radionuclides within these gases to the atmosphere was analyzed under the influence of atmospheric pressure changes.

  18. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 A - 105 m 3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 A - 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 A - 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by (1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo

  19. Integrated Disposal Facility FY2010 Glass Testing Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Windisch, Charles F.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Serne, R Jeffrey; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2010-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the engineered portion of the disposal facility (e.g., source term). Vitrifying the low-activity waste at Hanford is expected to generate over 1.6 × 105 m3 of glass (Puigh 1999). The volume of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) at Hanford is the largest in the DOE complex and is one of the largest inventories (approximately 0.89 × 1018 Bq total activity) of long-lived radionuclides, principally 99Tc (t1/2 = 2.1 × 105), planned for disposal in a low-level waste (LLW) facility. Before the ILAW can be disposed, DOE must conduct a performance assessement (PA) for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) that describes the long-term impacts of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. As part of the ILAW glass testing program PNNL is implementing a strategy, consisting of experimentation and modeling, in order to provide the technical basis for estimating radionuclide release from the glass waste form in support of future IDF PAs. The purpose of this report is to summarize the progress made in fiscal year (FY) 2010 toward implementing the strategy with the goal of developing an understanding of the long-term corrosion behavior of low-activity waste glasses. The emphasis in FY2010 was the completing an evaluation of the most sensitive kinetic rate law parameters used to predict glass weathering, documented in Bacon and Pierce (2010), and transitioning from the use of the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multi-phases to Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases computer code for near-field calculations. The FY2010 activities also consisted of developing a Monte Carlo and Geochemical Modeling framework that links glass composition to alteration phase formation by 1) determining the structure of unreacted and reacted glasses for use as input information into Monte Carlo

  20. Mixed waste disposal facilities at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, M.N.; Bailey, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a key installation of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site is managed by DOE's Savannah River Field Office and operated under contract by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Site's waste management policies reflect a continuing commitment to the environment. Waste minimization, recycling, use of effective pre-disposal treatments, and repository monitoring are high priorities at the site. One primary objective is to safely treat and dispose of process wastes from operations at the site. To meet this objective, several new projects are currently being developed, including the M-Area Waste Disposal Project (Y-Area) which will treat and dispose of mixed liquid wastes, and the Hazardous Waste/Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (HW/MWDF), which will store, treat, and dispose of solid mixed and hazardous wastes. This document provides a description of this facility and its mission

  1. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  2. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  3. Atmospheric Pathway Screening Analysis for Saltstone Disposal Facility Vault 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOK, JAMES

    2004-01-01

    A sequential screening process using a methodology developed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, professional judgment and process knowledge has been used to produce a list of radionuclides requiring detailed analysis to derive disposal limits for the Saltstone Disposal Facility based on the atmospheric pathway

  4. Disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. Environmental impact assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The report presents the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the high level radioactive waste disposal in Finland. In EIA different alternatives concerning site selection, construction, operation and sealing of the disposal facility as well as waste transportation and encapsulation of the waste are considered

  5. Environmental monitoring of subsurface low-level waste disposal facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwood, T.L.; Hicks, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) generates low-level waste (LLW) as part of its research and isotope production activities. This waste is managed in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Solid LLW management includes disposal in above-ground, tumulus-type facilities as well as in various types of subsurface facilities. Since 1986, subsurface disposal has been conducted using various designs employing greater-confinement-disposal (GCD) techniques. The purpose of this paper is to present monitoring results that document the short-term performance of these GCD facilities

  6. 200 Area treated effluent disposal facility operational test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document reports the results of the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These completed operational testing activities demonstrated the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met

  7. The waste disposal facility in the Aube District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Patrice

    2013-06-01

    The waste disposal facility in the Aube district is the second surface waste disposal facility built in France. It is located in the Aube district, and has been operated by Andra since 1992. With a footprint of 95 hectares, it is licensed for the disposal of 1 million cubic meters of low- and intermediate-level, short-lived waste packages. The CSA is located a few kilometers away another Andra facility, currently in operation for very-low-level waste, and collection and storage of non-nuclear power waste (the Cires). Contents: Andra in the Aube district, an exemplary industrial operator - The waste disposal facility in the Aube district (CSA); Low- and intermediate-level, short-lived radioactive waste (LILW-SL); The LILW-SL circuit; Protecting present and future generations

  8. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of emergency planning activities for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The technical basis for project-specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  9. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.C.; Walter, P.L.; Baird, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation

  10. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement

  11. The Potential for Criticality Following Disposal of Uranium at Low-Level-Waste Facilities. Containerized Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colten-Bradley, V.A.; Hopper, C.M.; Parks, C.V.; Toran, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities can be concentrated by hydrogeochemical processes to permit nuclear criticality. A team of experts in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and criticality safety was formed to develop and test some reasonable scenarios for hydrogeochemical increases in concentration of special nuclear material (SNM) and to use these scenarios to aid in evaluating the potential for nuclear criticality. The team's approach was to perform simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies to (1) identify some possible scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration increase via precipitation of uranium, and (3) evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increase in uranium concentration over disposal limits. The analysis of SNM was restricted to 235 U in the present scope of work. The work documented in this report indicates that the potential for a criticality safety concern to arise in an LLW facility is extremely remote, but not impossible. Theoretically, conditions that lead to a potential criticality safety concern might arise. However, study of the hydrogeochemical mechanisms, the associated time frames, and the factors required for an actual criticality event indicate that proper emplacement of the SNM at the site can eliminate practical concerns relative to the occurrence and possible consequences of a criticality event

  12. Sodium cleaning and disposal methods in experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, K.K.; Gurumoorthy, K.; Rajan, M.; Kale, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    At Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, major sodium facilities are designed and operated at Engineering Development Group as a part of development programme towards experimental and Prototype Fast Reactor. After the test programme many equipment and components were removed from the sodium facilities and sodium removal and disposal was carried out. The experience gained in different cleaning methods and waste sodium disposal are discussed. (author)

  13. Derivation of activity limits for the disposal of radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    Radioactive waste must be managed safely, consistent with internationally agreed safety standards. The disposal method chosen for the waste should be commensurate with the hazard and longevity of the waste. Near surface disposal is an option used by many countries for the disposal of radioactive waste containing mainly short lived radionuclides and low concentrations of long lived radionuclides. The term 'near surface disposal' encompasses a wide range of design options, including disposal in engineered structures at or just below ground level, disposal in simple earthen trenches a few metres deep, disposal in engineered concrete vaults, and disposal in rock caverns several tens of metres below the surface. The use of a near surface disposal option requires design and operational measures to provide for the protection of human health and the environment, both during operation of the disposal facility and following its closure. To ensure the safety of both workers and the public (both in the short term and the long term), the operator is required to design a comprehensive waste management system for the safe operation and closure of a near surface disposal facility. Part of such a system is to establish criteria for accepting waste for disposal at the facility. The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures and in addition, to prevent or limit hazards, which could arise from non-radiological causes. Waste acceptance criteria include limits on radionuclide content concentration in waste materials, and radionuclide amounts in packages and in the repository as a whole. They also include limits on quantity of free liquids, requirements for exclusion of chelating agents and pyrophoric materials, and specifications of the characteristics of the waste containers. Largely as a result of problems encountered at some disposal facilities operated in the past, in 1985 the IAEA published guidance on generic acceptance

  14. Principles and guidelines for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Four basic principles relevant to radioactive waste disposal identified. These principles cover the justification of the activity giving rise to the waste, the consideration of risk to present and future generations, the minimization of the need for intervention in the future, and the financial obligations of the licensee. The use of risk limits as opposed to dose limits associated with disposal is discussed, as are the concepts of critical group, de minimis, and ALARA, in the context of a waste disposal facility. Guidance is given on the selection of the preferred waste disposal concept from among several alternatives, and for judging proposed design improvements to the chosen concept

  15. Occupational and Public Exposure During Normal Operation of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Vedernikova; I. A. Pron; M. N. Savkin; N. S. Cebakovskaya

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on occupational and public exposure during operation of disposal facilities receiving liquid and solid radioactive waste of various classes and provides a comparative analysis of the relevant doses: actual and calculated at the design stage. Occupational and public exposure study presented in this paper covers normal operations of a radioactive waste disposal facility receiving waste. Results: Analysis of individual and collective occupational doses was performed based on d...

  16. Proposed integrated hazardous waste disposal facility. Public environmental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This Public Environmental Report describes a proposal by the Health Department of Western Australia to establish a disposal facility for certain hazardous wastes and seeks comments from governments agencies and the public that will assist the EPA to make its recommendations to. The facility would only be used for wastes generated in Western Australia.The proposal specifically includes: a high temperature incinerator for the disposal of organo-chlorines (including agricultural chemicals and PCBs), and other intractable wastes for which this is the optimum disposal method; an area for the burial (after any appropriate conditioning) of low level radioactive intractable wastes arising from the processing of mineral sands (including monazite, ilmenite and zircon) and phosphate rock. Detailed information is presented on those wastes which are currently identified as requiring disposal at the facility.The proposed facility will also be suitable for the disposal of other intractable wastes including radioactive wastes (from industry, medicine and research) and other solid intractable wastes of a chemical nature including spent catalysts etc. Proposals to dispose of these other wastes at this facility in the future will be referred to the Environmental Protection Authority for separate assessment

  17. Deep underground disposal facility and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, V.

    1997-01-01

    Factors arousing public anxiety in relation to the deep burial of radioactive wastes are highlighted based on Czech and foreign analyses, and guidelines are presented to minimize public opposition when planning a geologic disposal site in the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  18. Mine subsidence control projects associated with solid waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Pennsylvania environmental regulations require applicant's for solid waste disposal permits to provide information regarding the extent of deep mining under the proposed site, evaluations of the maximum subsidence potential, and designs of measures to mitigate potential subsidence impact on the facility. This paper presents three case histories of deep mine subsidence control projects at solid waste disposal facilities. Each case history presents site specific mine grouting project data summaries which include evaluations of the subsurface conditions from drilling, mine void volume calculations, grout mix designs, grouting procedures and techniques, as well as grout coverage and extent of mine void filling evaluations. The case studies described utilized basic gravity grouting techniques to fill the mine voids and fractured strata over the collapsed portions of the deep mines. Grout mixtures were designed to achieve compressive strengths suitable for preventing future mine subsidence while maintaining high flow characteristics to penetrate fractured strata. Verification drilling and coring was performed in the grouted areas to determine the extent of grout coverage and obtain samples of the in-place grout for compression testing. The case histories presented in this report demonstrate an efficient and cost effective technique for mine subsidence control projects

  19. Source term analysis for a RCRA mixed waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, D.L.; Blandford, T.N.; MacKinnon, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A Monte Carlo transport scheme was used to estimate the source strength resulting from potential releases from a mixed waste disposal facility. Infiltration rates were estimated using the HELP code, and transport through the facility was modeled using the DUST code, linked to a Monte Carlo driver

  20. Confirmation tests of construction method and initial performance quality for low permeable engineered barrier in side part of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Atsuo; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Komine, Hideo; Iizuka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    As for the low permeable layer, important functions are expected as an engineered barrier of radioactive waste disposal for low-level waste with comparatively high radiation levels. On examining the construction methods of this low permeable layer, it is important to confirm the possibility of the construction in the conditions similar to the actual constructed conditions with a true scale size. Therefore, the construction examination for the side part of the low permeable layer by bentonite and the performance check test of the low permeable layer were carried out. The result of the construction examination showed that the possibility of the construction were confirmed, and the result of performance check test showed that it was possible to ensure the required performance of the low permeable layer, such as hydraulic conductivity. (author)

  1. Environmental information document: New hazardous and mixed waste storage/disposal facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Grant, M.W.; Towler, O.O.

    1987-04-01

    Site selection, alternative facilities and alternative operations are described for new hazardous and mixed waste storage/disposal facilities at the Savannah River Plant. Performance assessments and cost estimates for the alternatives are presented

  2. Site evaluation for disposal facilities in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, W.

    1982-01-01

    Although the various geoscientific investigations are not finished yet, the results so far show that the Konrad mine has some outstanding geological features as required for a safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The iron ore formation is extremely dry. Seepage water is no threat to the waste disposal operation and the repository itself. The construction of stable underground storage rooms which are sufficiently seized in volume is possible. Galleries containing wastes in drums or contaminated components can be refilled and sealed efficiently as well as the rest of the mine including the two shafts. Thereafter the geological containment with its favourable structure and ideal petrology will be an effective barrier against the contamination of the biosphere. As investigated this applies in particular to the low-active wastes with their specific nuclide inventory and the short decay time. (orig.)

  3. Performance evaluation testing of wells in the gradient control system at a federally operated Confined Disposal Facility using single well aquifer tests, East Chicago, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, David C.; Unthank, Michael D.

    2016-12-08

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed tests to evaluate the hydrologic connection between the open interval of the well and the surrounding Calumet aquifer in response to fouling of extraction well pumps onsite. Two rounds of air slug testing were performed on seven monitoring wells and step drawdown and subsequent recovery tests on three extraction wells on a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Confined Disposal Facility (CDF) in East Chicago, Indiana. The wells were tested in 2014 and again in 2015. The extraction and monitoring wells are part of the gradient control system that establishes an inward gradient around the perimeter of the facility. The testing established a set of protocols that site personnel can use to evaluate onsite well integrity and develop a maintenance procedure to evaluate future well performance.The results of the slug test analysis data indicate that the hydraulic connection of the well screen to the surrounding aquifer material in monitoring wells on the CDF and the reliability of hydraulic conductivity estimates of the surrounding geologic media could be increased by implementing well development maintenance. Repeated air slug tests showed increasing hydraulic conductivity until, in the case of the monitoring wells located outside of the groundwater cutoff wall (MW–4B, MW–11B, MW–14B), the difference in hydraulic conductivity from test to test decreased, indicating the results were approaching the optimal hydraulic connection between the aquifer and the well screen. Hydraulic conductivity values derived from successive tests in monitoring well D40, approximately 0.25 mile south of the CDF, were substantially higher than those derived from wells on the CDF property. Also, values did not vary from test to test like those measured in monitoring wells located on the CDF property, which indicated that a process may be affecting the connectivity of the wells on the CDF property to the Calumet aquifer. Derived hydraulic conductivity

  4. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  5. Primary Criteria for Near Surface Disposal Facility in Egypt Proposal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media to protect human health and environment from the harmful effect of the ionizing radiation. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods, of which near surface disposal represents an option commonly used and demonstrated in several countries. Near surface disposal has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. The primary goal of the sitting process is to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  6. Application of pathways analyses for site performance prediction for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Oblow, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The suitability of the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant and the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility for shallow-land burial of low-level radioactive waste is evaluated using pathways analyses. The analyses rely on conservative scenarios to describe the generation and migration of contamination and the potential human exposure to the waste. Conceptual and numerical models are developed using data from comprehensive laboratory and field investigations and are used to simulate the long-term transport of contamination to man. Conservatism is built into the analyses when assumptions concerning future events have to be made or when uncertainties concerning site or waste characteristics exist. Maximum potential doses to man are calculated and compared to the appropriate standards. The sites are found to provide adequate buffer to persons outside the DOE reservations. Conclusions concerning site capacity and site acceptability are drawn. In reaching these conclusions, some consideration is given to the uncertainties and conservatisms involved in the analyses. Analytical methods to quantitatively assess the probability of future events to occur and the sensitivity of the results to data uncertainty may prove useful in relaxing some of the conservatism built into the analyses. The applicability of such methods to pathways analyses is briefly discussed. 18 refs., 9 figs

  7. Low and intermediate level disposal in Spain (El Cabril Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    1997-01-01

    El Cabril disposal facility is located in Southern Spain and was commissioned in October 1992. The main objective of this facility is the disposal of all low- and intermediate-level waste produced in Spain in a disposal system (Figure 1) consisting of concrete overpacks placed in concrete vaults. A drain control system exists in inspection galleries constructed beneath the disposal vaults. The facility also includes : 1) A treatment and conditioning shop (with incineration, non-NPP wastes segregation and conditioning, drum transfer into overpacks, supercompaction, liquid waste collection, and grout preparation and injection) 2) A waste form characterisation laboratory with means for non-destructive radiological characterisation and for destructive tests on the waste forms (specimens extractions, unskinning of drums, mechanical strength, leaching tests on specimens and full size packages) 3) A fabrication shop for overpacks construction 4) Auxiliary systems and buildings in support of operation, maintenance and surveillance of the facility. The paper deals with the design, the operating experience of the facility, the waste packages characterisation and acceptance practice and the reception and transport of the wastes from the producers to facilities. (author). 11 figs

  8. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The ''300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations

  9. Analysis of Gas Vent System in Overseas LILW Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Yub; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Ryong; Ha, Jae Chul [Korea Radioactive Waste Management Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    A Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) disposal facility is currently under construction in Korea. It is located in the aquifer, 80{approx}130 m below the ground surface. Thus, it is expected that disposal facility will be saturated after closure and various gases will be generated from metal corrosion, microbial degradation of organic materials and radiolysis. Generated gases will move up to the upper part of the silo, and it will increase the pressure of the silo. Since the integrity of the engineered barrier could be damaged, development of effective gas vent system which can prevent the gas accumulation in the silo is essential. In order to obtain basic data needed to develop site-specific gas vent system, gas vent systems of Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, which have the disposal concept of underground facility, were analyzed

  10. Groundwater flow modeling for near-field of a hypothetical near-surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H. Y.; Park, J. W.; Jang, G. M.; Kim, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    For a hypothetical near-surface radioactive disposal facility, the behavior of groundwater flow around the near-field of disposal vault located at the unsaturated zone were analyzed. Three alternative conceptual models proposed as the hydraulic barrier layer design were simulated to assess the hydrologic performance of engineered barriers for the facility. In order to evaluate the seepage possibility of the infiltrated water passed through the final disposal cover after the facility closure, the flow path around and water flux through each disposal vault were compared. The hydrologic parameters variation that accounts for the long-term aging and degradation of the cover and engineered materials was considered in the simulations. The results showed that it is necessary to construct the hydraulic barrier at the upper and sides of the vault, and that, for this case, achieving design hydraulic properties of bentonite/sand mixture barrier in the as-built condition is crucial to limit the seepage into the waste

  11. Alternative disposal technologies for new low-level radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A Draft Environmental Impact Statement for Waste Management Activities for groundwater protection has been prepared for the Savannah River Plant. Support documentation for the DEIS included an Environmental Information Document on new radioactive waste disposal and storage facilities in which possible alternative disposal technologies were examined in depth. Six technologies that would meet the needs of the Savannah River Plant that selected for description and analysis include near surface disposal, near surface disposal with exceptions, engineered storage, engineered disposal, vault disposal of untreated waste, and a combination of near surface disposal, engineered disposal, and engineered storage. 2 refs

  12. Disposal facility in Olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in tunnel transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or a by vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  13. Disposal facility in olkiluoto, description of above ground facilities in lift transport alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.

    2006-11-01

    The above ground facilities of the disposal plant on the Olkiluoto site are described in this report as they will be when the operation of the disposal facility starts in the year 2020. The disposal plant is visualised on the Olkiluoto site. Parallel construction of the deposition tunnels and disposal of the spent fuel canisters constitute the principal design basis of the disposal plant. The annual production of disposal canisters for spent fuel amounts to about 40. Production of 100 disposal canisters has been used as the capacity basis. Fuel from the Olkiluoto plant and from the Loviisa plant will be encapsulated in the same production line. The disposal plant will require an area of about 15 to 20 hectares above ground level. The total building volume of the above ground facilities is about 75000 m 3 . The purpose of the report is to provide the base for detailed design of the encapsulation plant and the repository spaces, as well as for coordination between the disposal plant and ONKALO. The dimensioning bases for the disposal plant are shown in the Tables at the end of the report. The report can also be used as a basis for comparison in deciding whether the fuel canisters are transported to the repository by a lift or by a vehicle along the access tunnel. (orig.)

  14. Very Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Recently Commissioned as an Extension of El Cabril LILW Disposal Facility in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.; Navarro, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the Very Low Activity Radioactive Waste (VLLW) disposal facility, designed, built and operated by ENRESA as a part of El Cabril LILW disposal facility. El Cabril facility was commissioned in 1992 and has 28 concrete vaults with an internal volume of 100,000 m 3 , as well as waste treatment systems and waste characterization laboratories. The total needs identified in Spain for LILW disposal are of some 176,000 m 3 , of which around 120,000 m3 might be classified as VLLW This project was launched in 2003 and the major licensing steps have been town planning license (2003), construction authorization (after Environmental Impact Statement and report from Nuclear Safety Council-CSN, 2006), and Operations Authorization (after report from CSN, July 2008). The new VLLW disposal facility has a capacity for 130,000 meters cube in four disposal cells of approximately the same size. Only the first cell has been built. The design of the barriers is based on the European Directive for elimination of dangerous waste and consists of a clay layer 1 m, 3 cm geo-bentonite films, and 4 mm HDPE film. In order to minimize leachate volumes collected and help a good monitoring of the site, each cell is divided into different sections, which are protected during operation -before placing a provisional HDPE capping- by a light shelter and where leachate collection is segregated from other sections. (authors)

  15. Experience in the upgrading of radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.

    2000-01-01

    The national Belarus radioactive disposal facility 'Ekores' is designed for waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. Currently 12-20 tons of waste and over 6000 various types spent sources annually come to the 'Ekores'. Total activity in the vaults is evaluated as 352.8 TBq. Approximately 150 000 spent sources disposed of in the vaults and wells have total activity about 1327 TBq. In 1997 the Government initiated a project for the facility reconstruction in order to upgrade radiological safety of the site by creating adequate safety conditions for managing and storage of the waste. The reconstruction project developed by Belarus specialists has been reviewed by IAEA experts. This covers modernising technologies for new coming waste and also that the waste currently disposed in the pits is retrieved, sorted and treated in the same way as the new coming waste

  16. Generalized economic model for evaluating disposal costs at a low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, R.D.; Rogers, V.C.

    1985-01-01

    An economic model is developed which can be used to evaluate cash flows associated with the development, operations, closure, and long-term maintenance of a proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste disposal facility and to determine the unit disposal charges and unit surcharges which might result. The model includes the effects of nominal interest rate (rate of return on investment, or cost of capital), inflation rate, waste volume growth rate, site capacity, duration of various phases of the facility history, and the cash flows associated with each phase. The model uses standard discounted cash flow techniques on an after-tax basis to determine that unit disposal charge which is necessary to cover all costs and expenses and to generate an adequate rate of return on investment. It separately considers cash flows associated with post-operational activities to determine the required unit surcharge. The model is applied to three reference facilities to determine the respective unit disposal charges and unit surcharges, with various values of parameters. The sensitivity of the model results are evaluated for the unit disposal charge

  17. Acceptance test procedure: RMW Land Disposal Facility Project W-025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-01-01

    This ATP establishes field testing procedures to demonstrate that the electrical/instrumentation system functions as intended by design for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility. Procedures are outlined for the field testing of the following: electrical heat trace system; transducers and meter/controllers; pumps; leachate storage tank; and building power and lighting

  18. Low-level radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility -- Permanent disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, E.G.; Jasen, W.G.

    1993-03-01

    Radioactive mixed waste (RMW) disposal at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). Westinghouse Hanford Company, in Richland, Washington, has completed the design of a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility, which is based on the best available technology compliant with RCRA. When completed, this facility will provide permanent disposal of solid RMW, after treatment, in accordance with the Land Disposal Restrictions. The facility includes a double clay and geosynthetic liner with a leachate collection system to minimize potential leakage of radioactive or hazardous constituents from the landfill. The two clay liners will be capable of achieving a permeability of less than 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. The two clay liners, along with the two high density polyethylene (HDPE) liners and the leachate collection and removal system, provide a more than conservative, physical containment of any potential radioactive and/or hazardous contamination

  19. Cost estimate of Olkiluoto disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, T.; Saanio, T.

    2005-03-01

    The cost estimate covers the underground rock characterisation facility ONKALO, the investment and the operating costs of the above and underground facilities, the decommissioning of the encapsulation plant and the closure costs of the repository. The above ground facility is a once-investment; a re-investment takes place after 37 years operation. The repository is extended stepwise thus also the investment take place in stages. Annual operating costs are calculated with different operating efficiencies. The total investment costs of the disposal facility are estimated to be 503 M euro (Million Euros), the total operating costs are 1,923 M euro and the decommissioning and the closure costs are 116 M euro totaling 2,542 M euro. The investment costs of the above ground facility are 142 M euro, the operating costs are 1,678 M euro. The repository investment costs are 360 M euro and the operating costs are 245 M euro. The decommissioning costs are 7 M euro and the closure costs are 109 M euro. The costs are calculated by using the price level of December 2003. The cost estimate is based on a plan, where the spent fuel is encapsulated and the disposal canisters are disposed into the bedrock at a depth of about 420 meters in one storey. In the encapsulation process, the fuel assemblies are closed into composite canisters, in which the inner part of the canister is made of nodular cast iron and the outer wall of copper having a thickness of 50 mm. The inner canister is closed gas-tight by a bolted steel lid, and the electron beam welding method is used to close the outer copper lid. The encapsulation plant is independent and located above the deep repository spaces. The disposal canisters are transported to the repository by the lift. The disposal tunnels are constructed and closed in stages according the disposal canisters disposal. The operating time of the Loviisa nuclear power plant units is assumed to be 50 years and the operating time of the Olkiluoto nuclear power

  20. Practical evaluations of low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1989-01-01

    In general, there have been about four main tools that have been used to assist in selecting a disposal technology and in evaluating that technology: Legislative direction; Operator selection; Multiattribute utility estimation; and Risk assessment and cost benefit evaluation. The first technique, legislative direction, is an important factor in determining the range of disposal technologies that may be considered. Some host state entities have chosen not to participate in the disposal technology selection, but will let the facility operator propose and defend his preferred facility concept in the license application. Multiattribute utility estimation is a widely used tool for evaluating technologies, particularly in the preliminary stages of selecting a disposal technology when significant technical and institutional information is missing. Many factors, including a range of technical, safety, environmental, societal, political, and economic concerns must be considered in the selection process. Many of these are hard to quantify and not all are of equal importance. Multiattrubute utility estimation allows for these factors to be considered in selecting a technology with incomplete information. This chapter provides description of two analysis techniques: multiattribute utility estimation and cost benefit evaluation. Both can be used to help profile disposal alternatives in relation to specific factors or criteria

  1. License application approach for the California LLRW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaynor, R.K.; Romano, S.A.; Hanrahan, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    US Ecology, Inc. is the State of California's license designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility to serve member states of the Southwestern Compact. US Ecology identified a proposed site in the Ward Valley of southeastern California in March 1988. Following proposed site selection, US Ecology undertook studies required to prepare a license application. US Ecology's license application for this desert site was deemed complete for detailed regulatory review by the California Department of Health Services (DHS) in December 1989. By mutual agreement, disposal of mixed waste is not proposed pending the State of California's decision on appropriate management of this small LLRW subset

  2. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Young, M.H.

    1989-12-01

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance

  3. Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for disused sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seunghee; Kim, Juyoul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facility for DSRS was performed. • Engineered vault and rock-cavern type were considered for normal and well scenario. • 14 C, 226 Ra, 241 Am were primary nuclides contributing large portion of exposure dose. • Near surface disposal of DSRSs containing 14 C, 226 Ra and 241 Am should be restricted. - Abstract: Great attention has been recently paid to the post-closure safety assessment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) around the world. Although the amount of volume of DSRSs generated from industry, medicine and research and education organization was relatively small compared with radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants, some DSRSs can pose a significant hazard to human health due to their high activities and long half-lives, if not appropriately managed and disposed. In this study, post-closure safety assessment was carried out for DSRSs generated from 1991 to 2014 in Korea in order to ensure long-term safety of near surface disposal facilities. Two kinds of disposal options were considered, i.e., engineered vault type disposal facility and rock-cavern type disposal facility. Rock-cavern type disposal facility has been under operation in Gyeongju city, republic of Korea since August 2015 and engineered vault type disposal facility will be constructed until December 2020 in the vicinity of rock-cavern disposal facility. Assessment endpoint was individual dose to the member of critical group, which was modeled by GoldSim, which has been widely used as probabilistic risk analysis software based on Monte Carlo simulation in the area of safety assessment of radioactive waste facilities. In normal groundwater scenario, the maximum exposure dose was extremely low, approximately 1 × 10 −7 mSv/yr, for both disposal options and satisfied the regulatory limit of 0.1 mSv/yr. However, in the

  4. Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for disused sealed radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunghee; Kim, Juyoul, E-mail: gracemi@fnctech.com

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facility for DSRS was performed. • Engineered vault and rock-cavern type were considered for normal and well scenario. • {sup 14}C, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 241}Am were primary nuclides contributing large portion of exposure dose. • Near surface disposal of DSRSs containing {sup 14}C, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am should be restricted. - Abstract: Great attention has been recently paid to the post-closure safety assessment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) around the world. Although the amount of volume of DSRSs generated from industry, medicine and research and education organization was relatively small compared with radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants, some DSRSs can pose a significant hazard to human health due to their high activities and long half-lives, if not appropriately managed and disposed. In this study, post-closure safety assessment was carried out for DSRSs generated from 1991 to 2014 in Korea in order to ensure long-term safety of near surface disposal facilities. Two kinds of disposal options were considered, i.e., engineered vault type disposal facility and rock-cavern type disposal facility. Rock-cavern type disposal facility has been under operation in Gyeongju city, republic of Korea since August 2015 and engineered vault type disposal facility will be constructed until December 2020 in the vicinity of rock-cavern disposal facility. Assessment endpoint was individual dose to the member of critical group, which was modeled by GoldSim, which has been widely used as probabilistic risk analysis software based on Monte Carlo simulation in the area of safety assessment of radioactive waste facilities. In normal groundwater scenario, the maximum exposure dose was extremely low, approximately 1 × 10{sup −7} mSv/yr, for both disposal options and satisfied the regulatory limit

  5. Facilities projects performance measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The two DOE-owned facilities at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), are described. The performance measurement systems used at these two facilities are next described

  6. Lessons learned from international siting experiences of LLW Disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States can gain insight into successfully siting low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities by studying the process in other nations. Siting experiences in France and Sweden are compared to experiences in the United States. Three factors appear to making siting of LLW disposal facilities easier in France and Sweden than in the United States. First, the level of public trust in the government and the entities responsible for siting, developing, and operating a LLW disposal facility is much greater in France and Sweden than in the United States. Second, France and Sweden are much more dependent on nuclear power than is the United States. Third, French and Swedish citizens do not have the same access to the siting process (i.e., legal means to intervene) as do U.S. citizens. To compensate for these three factors, public officials responsible for siting a facility may need to better listen to the concerns of public interest groups and citizen advisory committees and amend their siting process accordingly and better share power and control with the public. If these two techniques are implemented earnestly by the states, siting efforts may be increasingly more successful in the United States

  7. Overview of low level waste disposal facility costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saverot, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Economics and uncertainty go hand-in-hand and it is too soon to have conclusive data on the life cycle costs of a disposal facility. While LLW volumes from are decreasing year after year, the effect of the projected LLW volumes from decommissioning may have a significant impact on the final unit costs. This overview recognizes that countries see LLW disposal costs differently depending on the scale of their programs and on the geographical, political and economic frameworks within which they operate. The reasons for the cost differences arise from a number of factors: differences in designs and in technologies (near surface engineered vault, enhanced shallow land burial, silo type caverns,...), disposal capacities, programmatic and regulatory requirements, organizational, managerial and institutional frameworks, contractual arrangements, etc. Comparison of actual project costs, if done incorrectly, can lead to invalid conclusions and little purpose would be served by so doing since cost variations reflect the reality faced by each country

  8. Treatment, Storage and Disposal (TSD) Corrective Action Facility Polygons, Region 9, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RCRA Treatment, Storage and Disposal facilities (TSDs) are facilities that have treated, stored or disposed of hazardous wastes. They are required to clean up...

  9. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  10. Design modification of the El Cabril disposal facility for the treatment of steelyard ASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Santos, M.; Ugarte Pallares, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper described in general terms the management performed at the El Cabril Disposal Facility for the radioactive wastes generated as a result of the incident involving the meltdown of a Cs-137 source at a steelyard in Los Barrios (Cadiz), in the Bay of Algeciras. The greater part of this waste stream, consisting of dust from fumes, dry sludges, inert wastes, slag, earths and refractory materials, will be conditioned by mixing them with the waste package blocking mortar in the containers. This conditioning will allow the wastes to be immobilized in a solid matrix, without them occupying any additional volume at the facility and without altering the configuration of the disposal unit of the El Cabril Disposal Facility. The rest of the wastes generated: plastics, rubber, cloths and dust filters, will be conditioned by pressing, this producing compacted slabs which will be immobilized in containers or incinerated, as the case may be. (Author)

  11. Conceptual designs of near surface disposal facility for radioactive waste arising from the facilities using radioisotopes and research facilities for nuclear energy development and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Yoshimori, Michiro; Okoshi, Minoru; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Abe, Masayoshi

    2001-03-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste is generating from the utilization of radioisotopes in the field of science, technology, etc. and the utilization and development of nuclear energy. In order to promote the utilization of radionuclides and the research activities, it is necessary to treat and dispose of radioactive waste safely and economically. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA) and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), which are the major waste generators in Japan in these fields, are promoting the technical investigations for treatment and disposal of the radioactive waste co-operately. Conceptual design of disposal facility is necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of waste disposal business and to determine the some conditions such as the area size of the disposal facility. Three institutes share the works to design disposal facility. Based on our research activities and experiences of waste disposal, JAERI implemented the designing of near surface disposal facilities, namely, simple earthen trench and concrete vaults. The designing was performed based on the following three assumed site conditions to cover the future site conditions: (1) Case 1 - Inland area with low groundwater level, (2) Case 2 - Inland area with high groundwater level, (3) Case 3 - Coastal area. The estimation of construction costs and the safety analysis were also performed based on the designing of facilities. The safety assessment results show that the safety for concrete vault type repository is ensured by adding low permeability soil layer, i.e. mixture of soil and bentonite, surrounding the vaults not depending on the site conditions. The safety assessment results for simple earthen trench also show that their safety is ensured not depending on the site conditions, if they are constructed above groundwater levels. The construction costs largely depend on the depth for excavation to build the repositories. (author)

  12. Estimation of contaminant transport in groundwater beneath radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.C.; Tauxe, J.D.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessments are required for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives contained in either 10 CFR 61, open-quotes Licensing Requirements for Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste,close quotes or U.S. Department of Energy Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Radioactive Waste Management.close quotes The purpose of a performance assessment is to provide detailed, site-specific analyses of all credible pathways by which radionuclides could escape from the disposal facility into the environment. Among these, the groundwater pathway analysis usually involves complex numerical simulations. This paper demonstrates that the use of simpler analytical models avoids the complexity and opacity of the numerical simulations while capturing the essential physical behavior of a site

  13. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Today principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot waste treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200 liter concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey, in 1990. The PRESTO - II (Prediction of Radiation Effects From Shallow Trench Operations) computer code was applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is non-site specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this codes takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  14. Studies involving proposed waste disposal facilities in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkish government is in the process of planning two nuclear reactors in Turkey. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority has been given the task of developing plans for improved control of low-level wastes (LLW) in Turkey. Principal sources of radioactive wastes are hospitals, research institutions, biological research centers, universities, industries, and two research reactors in Turkey. These wastes will be treated in a pilot water treatment facility located in Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul. In this temporary waste disposal facility, the wastes will be stored in 200-l concrete containers until the establishment of the permanent waste disposal sites in Turkey in 1990. The PRESTO-II (prediction of radiation effects from shallow trench operations) computer code has been applied for the general probable sites for LLW disposal in Turkey. The model is intended to serve as a non-site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuring exposure, and health impacts to a static local population for a chosen time period, following the end of the disposal operation. The methodology that this code takes into consideration is versatile and explicitly considers infiltration and percolation of surface water into the trench, leaching of radionuclides, vertical and horizontal transport of radionuclides, and use of this contaminated ground water for farming, irrigation, and ingestion

  15. Identification of Human Intrusion Types into Radwaste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budi Setiawan

    2007-01-01

    Human intrusion has long been recognized as a potentially important post-closure safety issue for rad waste disposal facility. It is due to the difficulties in predicting future human activities. For the preliminary study of human intrusion, identification of human intrusion types need to be recognized and investigated also the approaching of problem solving must be known to predict the prevention act and accepted risk. (author)

  16. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  17. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs

  18. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  19. 76 FR 55255 - Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction AGENCY: Internal..., on the definition of solid waste disposal facilities for purposes of the rules applicable to tax... governments that issue tax-exempt bonds to finance solid waste disposal facilities and to taxpayers that use...

  20. 76 FR 55256 - Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Definition of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities for Tax-Exempt Bond Purposes; Correction AGENCY: Internal..., 2011, on the definition of solid waste disposal facilities for purposes of the rules applicable to tax... governments that issue tax-exempt bonds to finance solid waste disposal facilities and to taxpayers that use...

  1. Groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Jaeger, G.K.; McMahon, W.J.; Ford, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the groundwater protection plan for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) Project. This plan is prepared based on the assumption that the ERDF will receive waste containing hazardous/dangerous constituents, radioactive constituents, and combinations of both. The purpose of this plan is to establish a groundwater monitoring program that (1) meets the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements, (2) documents baseline groundwater conditions, (3) monitors those conditions for change, and (4) allows for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program. Groundwater samples indicate the occurrence of preexisting groundwater contamination in the uppermost unconfined aquifer below the ERDF Project site, as a result of past waste-water discharges in the 200 West Area. Therefore, it is necessary for the ERDF to establish baseline groundwater quality conditions and to monitor changes in the baseline over time. The groundwater monitoring program presented in this plan will provide the means to assess onsite and offsite impacts to the groundwater. In addition, a separate leachate management program will provide an indication of whether the liners are performing within design standards

  2. Mechanisms of long-term concrete degradation in LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Most low-level waste (LLW) disposal alternatives, except shallow land burial and improved shallow land burial, involve the use of concrete as an extra barrier for containment. Because concrete is a porous-type material, its moisture retention and transport properties can be characterized with parameters that are also used to characterize the geohydrologic properties of soils. Several processes can occur with the concrete to degrade it and to increase both the movement of water and contaminants through the disposal facility. The effect of these processes must be quantified in designing and estimating the long-term performance of disposal facilities. Modeling the long-term performance of LLW disposal technologies involves, first, estimating the degradation rate of the concrete in a particular facility configuration and environmental setting; second, calculating the water flow through the facility as a function of time; third, calculating the contaminant leaching usually by diffusion or dissolution mechanisms, and then coupling the facility water and contaminant outflow to a hydrogeological and environmental uptake model for environmental releases or doses

  3. Elevation of water table and various stratigraphic surfaces beneath e area low level waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, Laura [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, Patti [; Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-02

    This memorandum describes work that supports revision of the Radiological Performance Assessment (PA) for the E Area Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF). The work summarized here addresses portions of the PA Strategic Planning Team's recommendation #148b (Butcher and Phifer, 2016).

  4. Consideration of Criteria for a Conceptual Near Surface Radioactive Waste disposal Facility in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nderitu, Stanley Werugia; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of the criteria is to limit the consequences of events which could lead to radiation exposures. This study will present an approach for establishing radiological waste acceptance criteria using a safety assessment methodology and illustrate some of its application in establishing limits on the total activity and the activity concentrations of radioactive waste to be disposed in a conceptual near surface disposal facility in Kenya. The approach will make use of accepted methods and computational schemes currently used in assessing the safety of near surface disposal facilities. The study will mainly focus on post-closure periods. The study will employ some specific inadvertent human intrusion scenarios in the development of example concentration ranges for the disposal of near-surface wastes. The overall goal of the example calculations is to illustrate the application of the scenarios in a performance assessment to assure that people in the future cannot receive a dose greater than an established limit. The specific performance assessments will use modified scenarios and data to establish acceptable disposal concentrations for specific disposal sites and conditions. Safety and environmental impacts assessments is required in the post-closure phase to support particular decisions in development, operation, and closure of a near surface repository.

  5. Modeling of release of radionuclides from an engineered disposal facility for shallow-land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, H.; Suzuki, A.

    1989-01-01

    The computer code, ENBAR-1, for the simulation of radionuclide releases from an engineered disposal facility has been developed to evaluate the source term for subsequent migration of radionuclides in and through a natural barrier. The system considered here is that a waste package (waste form and container) is placed, together with backfill materials, into a concrete pit as a disposal unit for shallow-land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The code developed includes the following modules: water penetration into a concrete pit, corrosion of a drum as a container, leaching of radionuclides from a waste form, migration of radionuclides in backfill materials, release of radionuclides from the pit. The code has the advantage of its simplicity of operation and presentation while still allowing comprehensive evaluation of each element of an engineered disposal facility to be treated. The performance and source term of the facility might be readily estimated with a few key parameters to define the problem

  6. Analysis of local acceptance of a radioactive waste disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ji Bum; Kim, Hong-Kew; Rho, Sam Kew

    2008-08-01

    Like many other countries in the world, Korea has struggled to site a facility for radioactive waste for almost 30 years because of the strong opposition from local residents. Finally, in 2005, Gyeongju was established as the first Korean site for a radioactive waste facility. The objectives of this research are to verify Gyeongju citizens' average level of risk perception of a radioactive waste disposal facility as compared to other risks, and to explore the best model for predicting respondents' acceptance level using variables related to cost-benefit, risk perception, and political process. For this purpose, a survey is conducted among Gyeongju residents, the results of which are as follows. First, the local residents' risk perception of an accident in a radioactive waste disposal facility is ranked seventh among a total of 13 risks, which implies that nuclear-related risk is not perceived very highly by Gyeongju residents; however, its characteristics are still somewhat negative. Second, the comparative regression analyses show that the cost-benefit and political process models are more suitable for explaining the respondents' level of acceptance than the risk perception model. This may be the result of the current economic depression in Gyeongju, residents' familiarity with the nuclear industry, or cultural characteristics of risk tolerance.

  7. Republic of Korea. Closure concept development for LILW disposal facility in Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Environment Technology Institute (NETEC) of Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) is developing near surface disposal concepts for both a rock cavern type disposal facility, and a vault type facility; two types of facility are being considered to provide more options for LILW repository siting. The conceptual design for the vault type facility will be completed in 1999. As a part of conceptual design effort, a preliminary concept for the disposal facility closure has been identified

  8. Design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for the management of hazardous waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, S.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an important technical requirement in managing hazardous waste disposal facilities. The purpose of monitoring is to assess whether and how a disposal facility is affecting the underlying groundwater system. This paper focuses on the regulatory and technical aspects of the design, placement, and sampling of groundwater monitoring wells for hazardous waste disposal facilities. Such facilities include surface impoundments, landfills, waste piles, and land treatment facilities. 8 refs., 4 figs

  9. New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage/Disposal Facilities at the Savannah River Plant: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Grant, M.W.; Towler, O.O.

    1987-04-01

    Site selection, alternative facilities, and alternative operations are described for a new low-level solid radioactive waste storage/disposal operation at the Savannah River Plant. Performance assessments and cost estimates for the alternatives are presented. Appendix G contains an intensive archaeological survey of alternative waste disposal areas in the Savannah River Plant area. 117 refs., 99 figs., 128 tabs

  10. Application of an infiltration evaluation methodology to a hypothetical low-level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    This report provides an analysis of infiltration and percolation at a hypothetical low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility was carried out. The analysis was intended to illustrate general issues of concern in assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. Among the processes considered in the analysis were precipitation, runoff, information, evaporation, transpiration, and redistribution. The hypothetical facility was located in a humid environment characterized by frequent and often intense precipitation events. The facility consisted of a series of concrete vaults topped by a multilayer cover. Cover features included a sloping soil surface to promote runoff, plant growth to minimize erosion and promote transportation, a sloping clay layer, and a sloping capillary barrier. The analysis within the root zone was carried out using a one-dimensional, transient simulation of water flow. Below the root zone, the analysis was primarily two-dimensional and steady-state

  11. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Rope, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  12. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, I. G. [British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this `national` resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  13. Safety assessment and licensing issues of low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearnley, I. G.

    1997-01-01

    More than 90% of radioactive waste generated in the United Kingdom is classified as low level and is disposed of in near surface repositories. BNFL owns and operates the principal facility for the disposal of this material at Drigg in West Cumbria. In order to fully optimise the use of the site and effectively manage this 'national' resource a full understanding and assessment of the risks associated with the performance of the repository to safely contain the disposed waste must be achieved to support the application for the site authorization for disposal. This paper describes the approaches adopted by BNFL to reviewing these risks by the use of systematic Safety and Engineering Assessments supported in turn by experimental programmes and computations models. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. The final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prvakova, S.; Necas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Today the most serious problem in the area of nuclear power engineering is the management of spent nuclear fuel. Due to its very high radioactivity the nuclear waste must be isolated from the environment. The perspective solution of nuclear fuel cycle is the final disposal into geological formations. Today there is no disposal facility all over the world. There are only underground research laboratories in the well developed countries like the USA, France, Japan, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and Belgium. From the economical point of view the most suitable appears to build a few international repositories. According to the political and social aspect each of the country prepare his own project of the deep repository. The status of those programmes in different countries is described. The development of methods for the long-term management of radioactive waste is necessity in all countries that have had nuclear programmes. (authors)

  15. Oak Ridge low-level waste disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Jones, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The strategic planning process that culuminates in the identification, selection, construction, and ultimate operation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for all types of low-level waste (LLW) generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted under the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. This program considered management of various concentrations of short half-life radionuclides generated principally at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and long half-life radionuclides (principally uranium) generated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant. The LLWDDD Program is still ongoing and involves four phases: (1) alternative identification and evaluation, (2) technology demonstration, (3) limited operational implementation, and (4) full operational implementation. This document provides a discussion of these phases

  16. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G.

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures

  17. Developing operating procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, A.A.; Miner, G.L.; Grahn, K.F.; Pollard, C.G. [Rogers and Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This document is intended to assist persons who are developing operating and emergency procedures for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It provides 25 procedures that are considered to be relatively independent of the characteristics of a disposal facility site, the facility design, and operations at the facility. These generic procedures should form a good starting point for final procedures on their subjects for the disposal facility. In addition, this document provides 55 annotated outlines of other procedures that are common to disposal facilities. The annotated outlines are meant as checklists to assist the developer of new procedures.

  18. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment

  19. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  20. Heat generation and heating limits for the IRUS LLRW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donders, R.E.; Caron, F.

    1995-10-01

    Heat generation from radioactive decay and chemical degradation must be considered when implementing low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal. This is particularly important when considering the management of spent radioisotope sources. Heating considerations and temperature calculations for the proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface disposal facility are presented. Heat transfer calculations were performed using a finite element code with realistic but somewhat conservative heat transfer parameters and environmental boundary conditions. The softening-temperature of the bitumen waste-form (38 deg C) was found to be the factor that limits the heat generation rate in the facility. This limits the IRUS heat rate, assuming a uniform source term, to 0.34 W/m 3 . If a reduced general heat-limit is considered, then some higher-heat packages can be accepted with restrictions placed on their location within the facility. For most LLRW, heat generation from radioactive decay and degradation are a small fraction of the IRUS heating limits. However, heating restrictions will impact on the disposal of higher-activity radioactive sources. High activity 60 Co sources will require decay-storage periods of about 70 years, and some 137 Cs will need to bed disposed of in facilities designed for higher-heat waste. (author). 21 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austad, Stephanie Lee

    2015-01-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  2. Technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    Good design is an important step towards ensuring operational as well as long term safety of low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal. The IAEA has produced this report with the objective of outlining the most important technical considerations in the design of near surface disposal facilities and to provide some examples of the design process in different countries. This guidance has been developed in light of experience gained from the design of existing near surface disposal facilities in a range of Member States. In particular the report provide information on design objective, design requirements, and design phases. The report focuses on: near surface disposal facilities accepting solidified LILW; disposal facilities on or just below the ground surface, where the final protective covering is of the order of a few metres thick; and disposal facilities several tens of metres below the ground surface (including rock cavern type facilities)

  3. Construction and operational experiences of engineered barrier test facility for near surface disposal of LILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Se Moon; Kim, Chang Lak

    2003-01-01

    Engineered barrier test facility is specially designed to demonstrate the performance of engineered barrier system for the near-surface disposal facility under the domestic environmental conditions. Comprehensive measurement systems are installed within each test cell. Long-and short-term monitoring of the multi-layered cover system can be implemented according to different rainfall scenarios with artificial rainfall system. Monitoring data on the water content, temperature, matric potential, lateral drainage and percolation of cover-layer system can be systematically managed by automatic data acquisition system. The periodic measurement data are collected and will be analyzed by a dedicated database management system, and provide a basis for performance verification of the disposal cover design

  4. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: architecture and management of the geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the design of a geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in argilite formations. Content: 1 - approach of the study: goal, main steps of the design study, iterative approach, content; 2 - general description: high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes, purposes of a reversible disposal, geologic context of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site - the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, design principles of the disposal facility architecture, role of the different disposal components; 3 - high-level and long-lived wastes: production scenarios, description of primary containers, inventory model, hypotheses about receipt fluxes of primary containers; 4- disposal containers: B-type waste containers, C-type waste containers, spent fuel disposal containers; 5 - disposal modules: B-type waste disposal modules, C-type waste disposal modules, spent-fuel disposal modules; 6 - overall underground architecture: main safety questions, overall design, dimensioning factors, construction logic and overall exploitation of the facility, dimensioning of galleries, underground architecture adaptation to different scenarios; 7 - boreholes and galleries: general needs, design principles retained, boreholes description, galleries description, building up of boreholes and galleries, durability of facilities, backfilling and sealing up of boreholes and galleries; 8 - surface facilities: general organization, nuclear area, industrial and administrative area, tailings area; 9 - nuclear exploitation means of the facility: receipt of primary containers and preparation of disposal containers, transfer of disposal containers from the surface to the disposal alveoles, setting up of containers inside alveoles; 10 - reversible management of the disposal: step by step disposal process, mastery of disposal behaviour and action capacity, observation and

  5. Study on Safety Assessment for TINT- Pre disposal Radioactive Waste Management Facilities by the Application of SAFRAN Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-anant, Nanthavan

    2011-06-01

    Full text: The Radioactive Waste Management Center, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) provides a centralized radioactive waste management (RWM) service in the country. The pre disposal RWM facilities are composed of low and intermediate level waste treatment and storage facilities. The benefits of this study are (1) to improve the safety of pre disposal RWM facilities (2) to experience with the SAFRAN software tool for the safety assessment of pre disposal RWM facilities, which has been developed following to the methodology from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The work was performed on collecting all waste management data, the diagram of facilities, buildings, location, procedure, waste classification, waste form, radiological/chemical/physical properties including scenarios in normal and accidental conditions. The result of normal condition is that the effective dose per year of worker and public is less than 20 mSv and 1 mSv respectively. So the TINT-RWM operation is safe, as referred to the regulation

  6. The Blue Ribbon Commission and siting radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    2010-01-01

    On 21 September 2010, the NEA Secretariat was invited to address the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future. This paper is a summary of the remarks made. The successful siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities implies creating the conditions for continued ownership of the facility over time. Acceptance of the facility at a single point in time is not good enough. Continued ownership implies the creation of conscious, constructive and durable relationships between the (most affected) communities and the waste management facility. Being comfortable about the technical safety of the facility requires a degree of familiarity and control . Having peace of mind about the safety of the facility requires trust in the waste management system and its actors as well as some control over the decision making. Regulators are especially important players who need to be visible in the community. The ideal site selection process should be step- wise, combining procedures for excluding sites that do not meet pre-identified criteria with those for identifying sites where nearby and more distant residents are willing to discuss acceptance of the facility. The regional authorities are just as important as the local authorities. Before approaching a potential siting region or community, there should be clear results of national (and state) debates establishing the role of nuclear power in the energy mix, as well as information on the magnitude of the ensuing waste commitment and its management end-points, and the allocation of the financial and legal responsibilities until the closure of the project. Once the waste inventories and type of facilities have been decided upon, there should be agreement that all significant changes will require a new decision-making process. Any proposed project has a much better chance to move forward positively if the affected populations can participate in its definition, including, at the appropriate time, its technical details. A

  7. Licensing the California low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; Junkert, R.

    1992-01-01

    California has made significant progress toward the issuance of a license to construct and operate the Southwestern Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. However, obstacles to completing construction and preparing to receive waste still exist. This paper will describe the technical licensing issues, EIR/S process, political events, and public interactions that have impacted on California regulators' ability to complete the license application review and reach a decision on issuing a license. Issues associated with safely and liability evaluations, finalization of the environmental impact report, and land transfer processes involving multiple state, federal, and local agencies will be identified. Major issues upon which public and political opposition is focusing will also be described. (author)

  8. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility waste acceptance criteria. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corriveau, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is designed to be an isolation structure for low-level radioactive remediation waste, chemically contaminated remediation waste, and remediation waste that contains both chemical and radioactive constituents (i.e., mixed remediation waste) produced during environmental remediation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) past-practice units at the Hanford Site. Remedial action wastes, which will become a structural component of the ERDF, include bulk soil, demolition debris, and miscellaneous wastes from burial grounds. These wastes may originate from CERCLA past-practice sites (i.e., operable units) in the 100 Areas, the 200 Areas, and the 300 Area of the Hanford Site

  9. One consideration about rational design of the multi tunnels in geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Kazuhiko; Hiramoto, Masayuki; Morita, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    In the geological disposal facility of the high-level radioactive waste, a group of galleries is designed in parallel at the depth of more than 300 m below surface. This is an unprecedented structure in the field of conventional engineering, and it is necessary to take this characteristic into consideration in the design of the galleries. In the geological disposal facility, as well as ensuring the dynamic stability of the gallery during construction and operational periods, it is necessary to dynamic characteristic of rock mass for long-term stability after the closure. In this study, analysis of the 'multi tunnels model' which represents the whole gallery group was performed and the results about load to act on a pillar. (author)

  10. Quality assurance guidance for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.; Hedges, D.

    1991-04-01

    This document provides guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements of 10 CFR 61.12(j) for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility. The QC requirements, plus audits and managerial controls requirements, establish the need for developing a quality assurance (QA) program and the guidance provided herein. The criteria developed for this document are similar to the criteria developed for Appendix B to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) Part 50. Although Appendix B is not a regulatory requirement for an LLRW disposal facility, the criteria that were developed for 10 CFR Part 50 are basic to any QA program. This document establishes QA guidance for the design, construction, and operation of those structures, engineered or natural systems, and components whose function is required to meet the performance objectives of Subpart C of 10 CFR Part 61 and to limit exposure to or release of radioactivity. 7 refs

  11. Risk assessment associated to possible concrete degradation of a near surface disposal facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, B.; Billard, Y.; Wacquier, W.; Gens, R.

    2013-07-01

    This article outlines a risk analysis of possible concrete degradation performed in the framework of the preparation of the Safety Report of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, for the construction and operation of a near surface disposal facility of category A waste - short-lived low and intermediate level waste - in Dessel. The main degradation mechanism considered is the carbonation of different concrete components over different periods (from the building phase up to 2000 years), which induces corrosion of the rebars. A dedicated methodology mixing risk analysis and numerical modeling of concrete carbonation has been developed to assess the critical risks of the disposal facility at different periods. According to the results obtained, risk mapping was used to assess the impact of carbonation of concrete on the different components at the different stages. The most important risk is related to an extreme situation with complete removal of the earth cover and side embankment.

  12. The Management System for the Development of Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Currently, many Member States are safely operating near surface disposal facilities and some are in the initial or advanced stages of planning geological repositories. As for other nuclear facilities and their operational phase, all activities associated with the disposal of radioactive waste need to be carefully planned and systematic actions undertaken in order to maintain adequate confidence that disposal systems will meet performance as well as prescribed safety requirements and objectives. The effective development and application of a management system (integrating requirements for safety, protection of health and the environment, security, quality and economics into one coherent system) which addresses every stage of repository development is essential. It provides assurance that the objectives for repository performance and safety, as well as environmental and quality criteria, will be met. For near surface repositories, a management system also provides the opportunity to re-evaluate existing disposal systems with respect to new safety, environmental or societal requirements which could arise during the operational period of a facility. The topic of waste management and disposal continues to generate public interest and scrutiny. Implementation of a formal management system provides documentation, transparency and accountability for the various activities and processes associated with radioactive waste disposal. This information can contribute to building public confidence and acceptance of disposal facilities. The objective of this report is to provide Member States with practical guidance and relevant information on management system principles and expectations for management systems that can serve as a basis for developing and implementing a management system for three important stages; the design, construction/upgrading and operation of disposal facilities. To facilitate the understanding of management system implementation at the different stages of a

  13. Development of a methodology for the safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, I.; Cancio, D.; Alonso, L.F.; Agueero, A.; Lopez de la Higuera, J.; Gil, E.; Garcia, E.

    2000-01-01

    The Project on the Environmental Radiological Impact in CIEMAT is developing, for the Spanish regulatory body Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), a methodology for the Safety Assessment of near surface disposal facilities. This method has been developed incorporating some elements developed through the participation in the IAEA's ISAM Programme (Improving Long Term Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities). The first step of the approach is the consideration of the assessment context, including the purpose of the assessment, the end-Points, philosophy, disposal system, source term and temporal scales as well as the hypothesis about the critical group. Once the context has been established, and considering the peculiarities of the system, an specific list of features, events and processes (FEPs) is produced. These will be incorporated into the assessment scenarios. The set of scenarios will be represented in the conceptual and mathematical models. By the use of mathematical codes, calculations are performed to obtain results (i.e. in terms of doses) to be analysed and compared against the criteria. The methodology is being tested by the application to an hypothetical engineered disposal system based on an exercise within the ISAM Programme, and will finally be applied to the Spanish case. (author)

  14. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility permit reopener run plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is authorized to discharge treated effluent to the Columbia River by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit WA-002591-7. The letter accompanying the final permit noted the following: EPA recognizes that the TEDF is a new waste treatment facility for which full scale operation and effluent data has not been generated. The permit being issued by EPA contains discharge limits that are intended to force DOE's treatment technology to the limit of its capability.'' Because of the excessively tight limits the permit contains a reopener clause which may allow limits to be renegotiated after at least one year of operation. The restrictions for reopening the permit are as follows: (1) The permittee has properly operated and maintained the TEDF for a sufficient period to stabilize treatment plant operations, but has nevertheless been unable to achieve the limitation specified in the permit. (2) Effluent data submitted by the permittee supports the effluent limitation modifications(s). (3) The permittee has submitted a formal request for the effluent limitation modification(s) to the Director. The purpose of this document is to guide plant operations for approximately one year to ensure appropriate data is collected for reopener negotiations

  15. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process

  16. Mixed waste disposal facility at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, P.T.; Kendall, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a law suit brought against DOE resulted in the requirement that DOE be subject to regulation by the state and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for all hazardous wastes, including mixed wastes. Therefore, all DOE facilities generating, storing, treating, or disposing of mixed wastes will be regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCTA). In FY 1985, DOE Headquarters requested DOE low-level waste (LLW) sites to apply for a RCRA Part B Permit to operate radioactive mixed waste facilities. An application for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) was prepared and submitted to the EPA, Region IX in November 1985 for review and approval. At that time, the state of Nevada had not yet received authorization for hazardous wastes nor had they applied for regulatory authority for mixed wastes. In October 1986, DOE Nevada Operations Office was informed by the Rocky Flats Plant that some past waste shipments to NTS contained trace quantities of hazardous substances. Under Colorado law, these wastes are defined as mixed. A DOE Headquarters task force was convened by the Under Secretary to investigate the situation. The task force concluded that DOE has a high priority need to develop a permitted mixed waste site and that DOE Nevada Operations Office should develop a fast track project to obtain this site and all necessary permits. The status and issues to be resolved on the permit for a mixed waste site are discussed

  17. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, J.

    2007-11-06

    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, administration facility, weigh scale, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facility for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams.

  18. Lessons Learned from the On-Site Disposal Facility at Fernald Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumthekar, U.A.; Chiou, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The On-Site Disposal Facility (OSDF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fernald Closure Project near Cincinnati, Ohio is an engineered above-grade waste disposal facility being constructed to permanently store low level radioactive waste (LLRW) and treated mixed LLRW generated during Decommissioning and Demolition (D and D) and soil remediation performed in order to achieve the final land use goal at the site. The OSDF is engineered to store 2.93 million cubic yards of waste derived from the remediation activities. The OSDF is intended to isolate its LLRW from the environment for at least 200 years and for up to 1,000 years to the extent practicable and achievable. Construction of the OSDF started in 1997 and waste placement activities will complete by the middle of April 2006 with the final cover (cap) placement over the last open cell by the end of Spring 2006. An on-site disposal alternative is considered critical to the success of many large-scale DOE remediation projects throughout the United States. However, for various reasons this cost effective alternative is not readily available in many cases. Over the last ten years Fluor Fernald Inc. has cumulated many valuable lessons learned through the complex engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes of the OSDF. Also in the last several years representatives from other DOE sites, State agencies, as well as foreign government agencies have visited the Fernald site to look for proven experiences and practices, which may be adapted for their sites. This paper present a summary of the major issues and lessons leaned at the Fernald site related to engineering, construction, operation, and closure processes for the disposal of remediation waste. The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned and to benefit other projects considering or operating similar on-site disposal facilities from our successful experiences. (authors)

  19. Radiation dose evaluation based on exposure scenario during the operation of radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Kim Chang Lak; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Joo Wan

    1999-01-01

    Radiation dose to worker in disposal facility was calculated by using point kernel MICROSHIELD V5.02 computer code based on exposure scenarios. An conceptual design model for disposal vaults in disposal facility was used for object of shielding calculation model. Selected radionuclides and their activities among radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants were assumed as radiation sources for the exposure calculation. Annual radiation doses to crane workers and to people working on disposal vaults were calculated according to exposure time and distance from the sources with conservative operation scenarios. The scenarios used for this study were based on assumption for representing disposal activities in a future Korean near surface disposal facility. Calculated exposure rates to worker during normal disposal work were very low comparing with annual allowable limit for radiation worker

  20. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility: Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    This site characterization report provides the results of the field data collection activities for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site. Information gathered on the geology, hydrology, ecology, chemistry, and cultural resources of the area is presented. The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility is located at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  1. Control and prevention of seepage from uranium mill waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    This paper constitutes an analysis of the technologies which are available for the prevention of movement of waste waters out of uranium mill waste disposal facilities via sub-surface routes. Hydrogeologic criteria for potential uranium mill waste disposal sites and mathematical modeling of contaminant migration in ground water are presented. Methods for prevention of seepage from uranium mill waste disposal facilities are investigated: liners, clay seals, synthetic polymeric membranes (PVC, polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene, hypalon, butyl rubber, neoprene, elasticized polyolefin)

  2. Site selection experience for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.; Helton, B.D.

    1985-10-01

    Preliminary performance criteria and site selection guides specific to the Savannah River Plant, were developed for a new low-level radioactive waste storage/disposal facility. These site selection guides were applied to seventeen potential sites identified at SRP. The potential site were ranked based on how well they met a set of characteristics considered important in site selection for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The characteristics were given a weighting factor representing its relative importance in meeting site performance criteria. A candidate site was selected and will be the subject of a site characterization program

  3. Radiocarbon signal of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in nearby trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovics, R; Kelemen, D I; Kern, Z; Kapitány, S; Veres, M; Jull, A J T; Molnár, M

    2016-03-01

    Tree ring series were collected from the vicinity of a Hungarian radioactive waste treatment and disposal facility and from a distant control background site, which is not influenced by the radiocarbon discharge of the disposal facility but it represents the natural regional (14)C level. The (14)C concentration of the cellulose content of tree rings was measured by AMS. Data of the tree ring series from the disposal facility was compared to the control site for each year. The results were also compared to the (14)C data of the atmospheric (14)C monitoring stations at the disposal facility and to international background measurements. On the basis of the results, the excess radiocarbon of the disposal facility can unambiguously be detected in the tree from the repository site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An updated overview of low and intermediate level waste disposal facilities around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Uemura, George; Ferreira, Vinicius Verna M.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de; Malta, Ricardo Scott V.

    2011-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste should be disposed off in proper disposal facilities. Some countries already have these facilities and others are planning theirs. Information about disposal facilities around the world is useful and necessary; however, data on this matter are usually scattered in official reports per country. In order to allow an easier access to this information, this paper aims to provide an overview of disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste around the world, as updated as possible. Also, characteristics of the facilities are provided, when possible. Considering that the main source of radioactive waste are the activities of nuclear reactors in research or power generation, the paper will also provide a summarized overview of these reactors around the world, updated until April, 2011. This data collection may be an important tool for researchers, and other professionals in this field. Also, it might provide an overview about the final disposal of radioactive waste. (author)

  5. Conceptual Design Report for Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisa Harvego; David Duncan; Joan Connolly; Margaret Hinman; Charles Marcinkiewicz; Gary Mecham

    2010-10-01

    This conceptual design report addresses development of replacement remote-handled low-level waste disposal capability for the Idaho National Laboratory. Current disposal capability at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex is planned until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual design report includes key project assumptions; design options considered in development of the proposed onsite disposal facility (the highest ranked alternative for providing continued uninterrupted remote-handled low level waste disposal capability); process and facility descriptions; safety and environmental requirements that would apply to the proposed facility; and the proposed cost and schedule for funding, design, construction, and operation of the proposed onsite disposal facility.

  6. Improvement of safety approach for accident during operation of LILW disposal facility: Application for operational safety assessment of the near-surface LILW disposal facility in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Min Seong; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate radiological impact from the operation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility, a logical presentation and explanation of expected accidental scenarios is essential to the stakeholders of the disposal facility. The logical assessment platform and procedure, including analysis of the safety function of disposal components, operational hazard analysis, operational risk analysis, and preparedness of remedial measures for operational safety, are improved in this study. In the operational risk analysis, both design measures and management measures are suggested to make it possible to connect among design, operation, and safety assessment within the same assessment platform. For the preparedness of logical assessment procedure, classifcation logic of an operational accident is suggested based on the probability of occurrence and consequences of assessment results. The improved assessment platform and procedure are applied to an operational accident analysis of the Korean low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility and partly presented in this paper.

  7. Improvement of safety approach for accident during operation of LILW disposal facility: Application for operational safety assessment of the near-surface LILW disposal facility in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Min Seong; Park, Jin Beak

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate radiological impact from the operation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility, a logical presentation and explanation of expected accidental scenarios is essential to the stakeholders of the disposal facility. The logical assessment platform and procedure, including analysis of the safety function of disposal components, operational hazard analysis, operational risk analysis, and preparedness of remedial measures for operational safety, are improved in this study. In the operational risk analysis, both design measures and management measures are suggested to make it possible to connect among design, operation, and safety assessment within the same assessment platform. For the preparedness of logical assessment procedure, classifcation logic of an operational accident is suggested based on the probability of occurrence and consequences of assessment results. The improved assessment platform and procedure are applied to an operational accident analysis of the Korean low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility and partly presented in this paper

  8. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment has many applications in the field of radioactive waste management, none more important than demonstrating the suitability of a particular repository system for waste disposal. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal is discussed with reference to assessments performed in civilian waste management programmes. The process is, however, relevant, and may be applied directly to the disposal of defence-related wastes. When used in an open and transparent manner, performance assessment is a powerful methodology not only for convincing the authorities of the safety of a disposal concept, but also for gaining the wider acceptance of the general public for repository siting. 26 refs

  9. Verification of best available technology for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (310 Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    This compilation of Project L-045H reference materials documents that the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF, also designated the 310 Facility) was designed, built, and will be operated in accordance with the best available technology (BAT) identified in the Engineering Summary Report. The facility is intended for treatment of 300 Area process sewer wastewater. The following unit operations for 300 Area process sewer water treatment are specified as: influent receipt; iron co-precipitation and sludge handling for removal of heavy metals and initial suspended solids; ion exchanged for removal of mercury and other heavy metals; ultraviolet (UV)/peroxide treatment for destruction of organic compounds, cyanide, coliforms, sulfide, and nitrite; and effluent discharge to the Columbia River with pH monitoring/control capability

  10. Modelling the long-term evolution of geological radwaste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dames and Moore International Twickenham

    1990-01-01

    The report aims to answer questions such as How much do we know about environmental change, How does it apply to the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal sites and What methods are available for incorporating considerations of environmental change into performance assessment. The document comprises two parts: Part 1 presents a review of the status of research into the effects of long-term environmental changes on deep land disposal facilities for radioactive waste, and then outlines a general specification for modelling these efforts; Part 2 presents background research on permafrost evolution and its potential effects on groundwater systems. Although much work exists on the growth of ice in soils, at shallow levels, relatively little is known about the growth of deep permafrost. A large appendix is devoted to the theoretical work on permafrost growth and its conclusions

  11. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  12. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of

  13. International low level waste disposal practices and facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nutt, W.M. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2011-12-19

    The safe management of nuclear waste arising from nuclear activities is an issue of great importance for the protection of human health and the environment now and in the future. The primary goal of this report is to identify the current situation and practices being utilized across the globe to manage and store low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The countries included in this report were selected based on their nuclear power capabilities and involvement in the nuclear fuel cycle. This report highlights the nuclear waste management laws and regulations, current disposal practices, and future plans for facilities of the selected international nuclear countries. For each country presented, background information and the history of nuclear facilities are also summarized to frame the country's nuclear activities and set stage for the management practices employed. The production of nuclear energy, including all the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle, results in the generation of radioactive waste. However, radioactive waste may also be generated by other activities such as medical, laboratory, research institution, or industrial use of radioisotopes and sealed radiation sources, defense and weapons programs, and processing (mostly large scale) of mineral ores or other materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. Radioactive waste also arises from intervention activities, which are necessary after accidents or to remediate areas affected by past practices. The radioactive waste generated arises in a wide range of physical, chemical, and radiological forms. It may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. Levels of activity concentration can vary from extremely high, such as levels associated with spent fuel and residues from fuel reprocessing, to very low, for instance those associated with radioisotope applications. Equally broad is the spectrum of half-lives of the radionuclides contained in the waste. These differences result in an equally wide variety of

  14. Safety Assessment for LILW Near-Surface Disposal Facility Using the IAEA Reference Model and MASCOT Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Joo Wan; Kim, Chang Lak

    2002-01-01

    A reference scenario of vault safety case prepared by the IAEA for the near-surface disposal facility of low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes is assessed with the MASCOT program. The appropriate conceptual models for the MASCOT implementation is developed. An assessment of groundwater pathway through a drinking well as a geosphere-biosphere interface is performed first, then biosphere pathway is analysed to estimate the radiological consequences of the disposed radionuclides based on compartment modeling approach. The validity of conceptual modeling for the reference scenario is investigated where possible comparing to the results generated by the other assessment. The result of this study shows that the typical conceptual model for groundwater pathway represented by the compartment model can be satisfactorily used for safety assessment of the entire disposal system in a consistent way. It is also shown that safety assessment of a disposal facility considering complex and various pathways would be possible by the MASCOT program

  15. A first approximation for modeling the liquid diffusion pathway at the greater confinement disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olague, N.E.; Price, L.L.

    1991-01-01

    The greater confinement disposal (GCD) project is an ongoing project examining the disposal of orphan wastes in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. One of the major tasks for the project is performance assessment. With regard to performance assessment, a preliminary conceptual model for ground-water flow and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment at the GCD facilities has been developed. One of the transport pathways that has been postulated is diffusion of radionuclides in the liquid phase upward to the land surface. This pathway is not usually considered in a performance assessment, but is included in the GCD conceptual model because of relatively low recharge estimates at the GCD site and the proximity of the waste to the land surface. These low recharge estimates indicate that convective flow downward to the water table may be negligible; thus, diffusion upward to the land surface may then become important. As part of a preliminary performance assessment which considered a basecase scenario and a climate-change scenario, a first approximation for modeling the liquid-diffusion pathway was formulated. The model includes an analytical solution that incorporates both diffusion and radioactivity decay. Overall, these results indicate that, despite the configuration of the GCD facilities that establishes the need for considering the liquid-diffusion pathway, the GCD disposal concept appears to be a technically feasible method for disposing of orphan wastes. Future analyses will consist of investigating the underlying assumptions of the liquid-diffusion model, refining the model is necessary, and reducing uncertainty in the input parameters. 11 refs., 6 figs

  16. Safety Assessment Methodologies and Their Application in Development of Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities--ASAM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.; Metcalf, P.

    2003-01-01

    Safety of near surface disposal facilities is a primary focus and objective of stakeholders involved in radioactive waste management of low and intermediate level waste and safety assessment is an important tool contributing to the evaluation and demonstration of the overall safety of these facilities. It plays significant role in different stages of development of these facilities (site characterization, design, operation, closure) and especially for those facilities for which safety assessment has not been performed or safety has not been demonstrated yet and the future has not been decided. Safety assessments also create the basis for the safety arguments presented to nuclear regulators, public and other interested parties in respect of the safety of existing facilities, the measures to upgrade existing facilities and development of new facilities. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a number of research coordinated projects in the field of development and improvement of approaches to safety assessment and methodologies for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities, such as NSARS (Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) and ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) projects. These projects were very successful and showed that there is a need to promote the consistent application of the safety assessment methodologies and to explore approaches to regulatory review of safety assessments and safety cases in order to make safety related decisions. These objectives have been the basis of the IAEA follow up coordinated research project--ASAM (Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities), which will commence in November 2002 and continue for a period of three years

  17. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  18. Derivation of Waste Acceptance Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Surface Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagner, L.; Voinis, S.

    2000-01-01

    In France, low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are disposed in a near-surface facility, at Centre de l'Aube disposal facility. This facility, which was commissioned in 1992, has a disposal capacity of one million cubic meters, and will be operated up to about 2050. It took over the job from Centre de la Manche, which was commissioned in 1969 and shut down in 1994, after having received about 520,000 cubic meters of wastes. The Centre de l'Aube disposal facility is designed to receive a many types of waste produced by nuclear power plants, reprocessing, decommissioning, as well as by the industry, hospitals and armed forces. The limitation of radioactive transfer to man and the limitation of personnel exposure in all situations considered plausible require limiting the total activity of the waste disposed in the facility as well as the activity of each package. The paper presents how ANDRA has derived the activity-related acceptance criteria, based on the safety analysis. In the French methodology, activity is considered as end-point for deriving the concentration limits per package, whereas it is the starting point for deriving the total activity limits. For the concentration limits (called here LMA) the approach consists of five steps: the determination of radionuclides important for safety with regards to operational and long-term safety, the use of relevant safety scenarios as a tool to derive quantitative limits, the setting of dose constraint per situation associated with scenarios, the setting of contribution factor per radionuclide, and the calculation of concentration activity limits. An exhaustive survey has been performed and has shown that the totality of waste packages which should be delivered by waste generators are acceptable in terms of activity limits in the Centre de l'Aube. Examples of concentration activity limits derived from this methodology are presented. Furthermore those limits have been accepted by the French regulatory body and

  19. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.P.; Jaffe, M.

    1984-09-01

    In discussing the use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, chapters are devoted to: compensation and incentives in disposal facility siting (definitions and effects of compensation and incentives and siting decisions involving the use of compensation and incentives); the impacts of regional and state low-level radioactive waste facilities; the legal framework of compensation; and recommendations regarding the use of compensation

  20. Considerations for closure of low-level radioactive waste engineered disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Proper stabilization and closure of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities require detailed planning during the early stages of facility development. This report provides considerations for host States, compact regions, and unaffiliated States on stabilization and closure of engineered low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste disposal facilities. A time line for planning closure activities, which identifies closure considerations to be addressed during various stages of a facility's development, is presented. Current Federal regulatory requirements and guidance for closure and post-closure are outlined. Significant differences between host State and Federal closure requirements are identified. Design features used as stabilization measures that support closure, such as waste forms and containers, backfill materials, engineered barrier systems, and site drainage systems, are described. These design features are identified and evaluated in terms of how they promote long-term site stability by minimizing water infiltration, controlling subsidence and surface erosion, and deterring intrusion. Design and construction features critical to successful closure are presented for covers and site drainage. General considerations for stabilization and closure operations are introduced. The role of performance and environmental monitoring during closure is described

  1. Hungary. Closure issues for centralized waste treatment and disposal facility in Puspokszilagy, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The facility was commissioned in 1976. At the time that its mission was formulated, the facility was designed to collect, transport, treat as necessary and dispose all radioactive waste originating from institutional use of radioactivity. The facility is government owned and presently operated by the Budapest branch of the State Public Health and Medical Officer Services. The disposal site is located on the ridge of a hill near Puspokszilagy village approximately 40 km Northeast of Budapest. The disposal units are located in Quaternary layers of silt and clay sequences. Annual average precipitation is approximately 650-700 mm. The facility is a typical shallow land, near surface engineered type disposal unit. There are concrete trenches and shallow wells for waste disposal purposes

  2. Application of quality assurance to radioactive waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear power generation and the use of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry produce radioactive wastes. In order to assure that wastes are managed safely, the implementation of appropriate management control is necessary. This IAEA publication deals with quality assurance principles for safe disposal. This report may assist managers responsible for safe disposal of radioactive waste in achieving quality in their work; and to regulatory bodies to provide guidance for their licensee waste disposal programmes. 17 refs.

  3. Application of quality assurance to radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear power generation and the use of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry produce radioactive wastes. In order to assure that wastes are managed safely, the implementation of appropriate management control is necessary. This IAEA publication deals with quality assurance principles for safe disposal. This report may assist managers responsible for safe disposal of radioactive waste in achieving quality in their work; and to regulatory bodies to provide guidance for their licensee waste disposal programmes. 17 refs

  4. Reference biospheres for the long term safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Torres, C.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory guidance on the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposals usually requires the consequences of any radionuclide releases to be considered in terms of their potential impact on human health. This requires consideration of the prevailing biosphere and the habits of the potentially exposed humans within it. However, it could take many thousands of years for migrating radionuclides to reach the surface environment. In these circumstances, an assessment model that was based on the present-day biosphere could be inappropriate while future biospheres would be unpredictable. These and other considerations suggest that a standardised, or reference biosphere, approach may be useful. Theme 1 of the IAEA BIOMASS project was established to develop the concept of reference biospheres into a practical system that can be applied to the assessment of the long term safety of geological disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The technical phase of the project lasted for four years until November 2000 and brought together disparate interests from many countries including waste disposal agencies, regulators and technical experts. Building on the experience from earlier BIOMOVS projects, a methodology was constructed for the logical and defensible construction of mathematical biosphere models that can be used in the total system performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal. The methodology was then further developed through the creation of a series of BIOMASS Example Reference Biospheres ('Examples'). These are stylised biosphere models that, in addition to illustrating the methodology, are intended to be useful assessment tools in their own right. (author)

  5. Interpretation of optimisation in the context of a disposal facility for long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Guidance on the Requirements for Authorisation (the GRA) issued by the Environment Agency for England and Wales requires that all disposals of radioactive waste are undertaken in a manner consistent with four principles for the protection of the public. Among these is a principle of Optimisation, that: 'The radiological detriment to members of the public that may result from the disposal of radioactive waste shall be as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. The principle of optimisation is widely accepted and has been discussed in both UK national policy and guidance and in documents from international organisations. The practical interpretation of optimisation in the context of post-closure safety of radioactive waste repositories is, however, still open to question. In particular, the strategies and procedures that a developer might employ to implement optimisation in the siting and development of a repository, and demonstrate optimisation in a safety case, are not defined. In preparation for its role of regulatory review, the Agency has undertaken a pilot study to explore the possible interpretations of optimisation stemming from the GRA, and to identify possible strategies and procedures that a developer might follow. A review has been undertaken of UK regulatory guidance and related documents, and also international guidance, referring to optimisation in relation to radioactive waste disposal facilities. In addition, diverse examples of the application of optimisation have been identified in the international and UK performance assessment literature. A one-day meeting was organised bringing together Agency staff and technical experts with different experiences and perspectives on the subject of optimisation in the context of disposal facilities for radioactive waste. This meeting identified and discussed key issues and possible approaches to optimisation, and specifically: (1) The meaning of

  6. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-01-01

    steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the various technologies available. It is hoped that the resulting research can build a bridge between technology transfer research and waste disposal research in order to enhance the exchange of more sustainable solutions in future.

  7. Waste disposal technology transfer matching requirement clusters for waste disposal facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Flamme, Sabine; Jinming, Cai

    2012-11-01

    Even though technology transfer has been part of development aid programmes for many decades, it has more often than not failed to come to fruition. One reason is the absence of simple guidelines or decision making tools that help operators or plant owners to decide on the most suitable technology to adopt. Practical suggestions for choosing the most suitable technology to combat a specific problem are hard to get and technology drawbacks are not sufficiently highlighted. Western counterparts in technology transfer or development projects often underestimate or don't sufficiently account for the high investment costs for the imported incineration plant; the differing nature of Chinese MSW; the need for trained manpower; and the need to treat flue gas, bunker leakage water, and ash, all of which contain highly toxic elements. This article sets out requirements for municipal solid waste disposal plant owner/operators in China as well as giving an attribute assessment for the prevalent waste disposal plant types in order to assist individual decision makers in their evaluation process for what plant type might be most suitable in a given situation. There is no 'best' plant for all needs and purposes, and requirement constellations rely on generalisations meaning they cannot be blindly applied, but an alignment of a type of plant to a type of owner or operator can realistically be achieved. To this end, a four-step approach is suggested and a technology matrix is set out to ease the choice of technology to transfer and avoid past errors. The four steps are (1) Identification of plant owner/operator requirement clusters; (2) Determination of different municipal solid waste (MSW) treatment plant attributes; (3) Development of a matrix matching requirement clusters to plant attributes; (4) Application of Quality Function Deployment Method to aid in technology localisation. The technology transfer matrices thus derived show significant performance differences between the

  8. Characterization Of Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-01

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm 3 and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  9. 49 CFR 599.401 - Requirements and limitations for disposal facilities that receive trade-in vehicles under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities that receive trade-in vehicles under the CARS program. 599.401 Section 599.401 Transportation... SAVE ACT PROGRAM Disposal of Trade-in Vehicle § 599.401 Requirements and limitations for disposal facilities that receive trade-in vehicles under the CARS program. (a) The disposal facility must: (1) Not...

  10. Quality assurance guidance for low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This document provides guidance to an applicant on meeting the quality control (QC) requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility. The QC requirements are the basis for developing of a quality assurance (QA) program and for the guidance provided herein. The criteria are basic to any QA program. The document specifically establishes QA guidance for the design, construction, and operation of those structures, systems, components, as well as, for site characterization activities necessary to meet the performance objectives and to limit exposure to our release of radioactivity. 7 refs

  11. ONR Licensing and Regulation of a Geological Disposal Facility in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boydon, Frans; Glazbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text follows: The UK has substantial quantities of waste which has arisen from operation and decommissioning of legacy nuclear plant. While a disposal route for Low Level Waste (LLW) has been in operation in the UK for many years, there is as yet no such route for Higher Activity Waste. The government invited local communities to express an interest in hosting a Geological Disposal Facility (GDF). However, the Scottish government is opposed to deep disposal and proposes long-term interim storage in Scotland. This paper describes the work underway and current progress in developing a GDF for the UK. In particular it describes the current legal system in the UK that enables nuclear facilities to be licensed and the background underpinning licensing of existing disposal facilities. It identifies changes which will be necessary to legislation to enable a GDF to be licensed and work which it is performing in close co-operation with the Environment Agency which operate a permitting regime for environmental aspects. The Office of Nuclear Regulation (ONR) regulates safety, security and transport associated with nuclear sites. This paper focuses on the regulation of safety and radioactive waste. The UK licensing regime is non-prescriptive and proportionate, allowing for a flexible approach to licensing. The licence is not time-limited but is designed to be used from construction, through commissioning for the lifetime of the facility. Under the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 (as amended) ONR may attach licence conditions: - In the interests of safety; or - with respect to the handling, treatment and disposal of nuclear matter. ONR has developed a suite of 36 Licence conditions, which typically require the operator to made 'adequate arrangements' to ensure safety. These arrangements would involve the use of 'hold points' beyond which the operator must not proceed without ONR's agreement. In determining

  12. Conceptual Design Report: Nevada Test Site Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Environmental cleanup of contaminated nuclear weapons manufacturing and test sites generates radioactive waste that must be disposed. Site cleanup activities throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex are projected to continue through 2050. Some of this waste is mixed waste (MW), containing both hazardous and radioactive components. In addition, there is a need for MW disposal from other mission activities. The Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision designates the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a regional MW disposal site. The NTS has a facility that is permitted to dispose of onsite- and offsite-generated MW until November 30, 2010. There is not a DOE waste management facility that is currently permitted to dispose of offsite-generated MW after 2010, jeopardizing the DOE environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. A mission needs document (CD-0) has been prepared for a newly permitted MW disposal facility at the NTS that would provide the needed capability to support DOE's environmental cleanup mission and other MW-generating mission-related activities. This report presents a conceptual engineering design for a MW facility that is fully compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and DOE O 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management'. The facility, which will be located within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the NTS, will provide an approximately 20,000-cubic yard waste disposal capacity. The facility will be licensed by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)

  13. Comparative assessment of disposal of TRU waste in a greater-confinement disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminesi, F.J.; Dickman, P.T.; O'Neal, D.A.

    1982-11-01

    This study reviewed previous work that established generic limits for shallow land burial of TRU contaminated wastes and extended previous methodology to estimate approximate appropriate burial limits for TRU wastes in an arid zone greater confinement disposal facility (GCDF). An erosion scenario provided the limiting pathway in the previous determination of generic shallow land burial limits. Erosion removed the cover soil, exposing the waste mass to habitation and agriculture. For the deep burial concept (that is, burial at a depth greater than 10 m [33 ft]), the aquifer transport scenario was controlling. In both cases, the assumed site conditions were characteristic of a humid zone in which groundwater flows immediately below the waste deposit. In deriving limits for an arid site GCDF, either the erosion/reclaimer or the aquifer transport scenario could provide the controlling pathway, depending on the nuclide and the assumed burial depth. The derived limits were higher for the arid sited GCDF than those of the generic humid study. The physical processes that increase limits relative to the generic study include increased time during which radioactive decay occurs prior to release and increased dilution. Some nuclides were effectively unlimited in an arid zone GCDF, while others (notably Pu-239) were affected on a much smaller scale, primarily due to very long half-lives. As a final comment, the limit values derived in this report represent adjustments to the calculations of the Healy and Rodgers report (LA-UR-79-100). Those original calculations were very conservative, utilizing a worst case approach, but nevertheless involving significant levels of uncertainty in key assumptions. Consequently, the results are assumption dependent. Other approaches to such an analysis could, and should be used to develop site specific concentration limits for TRU wastes

  14. The IAEA research project on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Vidal, C.; Graham, D.; Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Research Coordinated Project on Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities (ISAM) was launched in November 1997 and it has been underway for three years. The ISAM project was developed to provide a critical evaluation of the approaches and tools used in long-term safety assessment of near surface repositories. It resulted in the development of a harmonised approach and illustrated its application by way of three test cases - vault, borehole and Radon (a particular range of repository designs developed within the former Soviet Union) type repositories. As a consequence, the ISAM project had over 70 active participants and attracted considerable interest involving around 700 experts from 72 Member States. The methodology developed, the test cases, the main lessons learnt and the conclusions have been documented and will be published in the form of an IAEA TECDOC. This paper presents the work of the IAEA on improvement of safety assessment methodologies for near surface waste disposal facilities and the application of these methodologies for different purposes in the individual stages of the repository development. The paper introduces the main objectives, activities and outcome of the ISAM project and summarizes the work performed by the six working groups within the ISAM programme, i.e. Scenario Generation and Justification, Modelling, Confidence Building, Vault, Radon Type Facility and Borehole test cases. (author)

  15. TSD-DOSE : a radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfingston, M.

    1998-01-01

    In May 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Operations, issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping slightly radioactive mixed waste from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. Studies were subsequently conducted to evaluate the radiological impacts associated with DOE's prior shipments through DOE's authorized release process under DOE Order 5400.5. To support this endeavor, a radiological assessment computer code--TSD-DOSE (Version 1.1)--was developed and issued by DOE in 1997. The code was developed on the basis of detailed radiological assessments performed for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. It was designed to utilize waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste handling operations at a TSD facility. The code has since been released for use by DOE field offices and was recently used by DOE to evaluate the release of septic waste containing residual radioactive material to a TSD facility licensed under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Revisions to the code were initiated in 1997 to incorporate comments received from users and to increase TSD-DOSE's capability, accuracy, and flexibility. These updates included incorporation of the method used to estimate external radiation doses from DOE's RESRAD model and expansion of the source term to include 85 radionuclides. In addition, a detailed verification and benchmarking analysis was performed

  16. Issues related to the licensing of final disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, M.A.; Alvarez, D.E.; Lee Gonzales, H.; Piumetti, E.H.; Palacios, E.

    2010-01-01

    The licensing process of a final disposal facility for radioactive waste involves the design, construction, pre-operation, operation, closure and post closure stages. While design and pre-operational stages are, to a reasonable extent, similar to other kind of nuclear or radioactive facilities, construction, operation, closure and post-closure of a radioactive waste disposal facility have unique meanings. As consequence of that, the licensing process should incorporate these particularities. Considering the long timeframes involved at each stage of a waste disposal facility, it is convenient that the development of the project being implemented in and step by step process, be flexible enough as to adapt to new requirements that would arise as a consequence of technology improvements or due to variations in the socio-economical and political conditions. In Argentina, the regulatory Standard AR 0.1.1 establishes the general guideline for the 'Licensing of Class I facilities (relevant facilities)'. Nevertheless, for radioactive waste final disposal facilities a new specific guidance should be developed in addition to the Basic Standard mentioned. This paper describes the particularities of final disposal facilities indicating that a specific licensing system for this type of facilities should be foreseen. (authors) [es

  17. Safety assessments for centralized waste treatment and disposal facility in Puspokszilagy Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berci, K.; Hauszmann, Z.; Ormai, P.

    2002-01-01

    The centralized waste treatment and disposal facility Puspokszilagy is a shallow land, near surface engineered type disposal unit. The site, together with its geographic, geological and hydrogeological characteristics, is described. Data are given on the radioactive inventory. The operational safety assessment and the post-closure safety assessment is outlined. (author)

  18. Use of compensation and incentives in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    This report assumes that local opposition is a critical issue in siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Although it recognizes the importance of local health and safety concerns, this report only addresses the economic issues facing local officials in the siting process. Finding ways to overcome local opposition through economic compensation and incentives is a basic step in the waste facility siting process. The report argues that the use of these compensation and incentive mechanisms can help achieve greater local acceptance of waste facilities and also help ease the economic burdens that many communities bear when they agree to host a low-level waste disposal facility. The growing national need for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities requires that state and local planning agencies develop creative new procedures for siting facilities, procedures that are sensitive to local perceptions and effects

  19. Liquid emulsion scintillators which solidify for facile disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, R.E.; Krieger, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    A liquid organic scintillation cocktail is described which counts solutions of radiolabelled compounds containing up to ten % by volume of water with high efficiency and is readily polymerizable to a solid for easy disposal. The cocktail comprises a polymerizable organic solvent, a solubilizing agent, an intermediate solvent, and an organic scintillator. A method of disposing of liquid organic scintillation cocktail waste and a kit useful for practising the method are also described. (U.K.)

  20. Erosion of surface and near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    A literature search was undertaken to identify existing data and analytical procedures regarding the processes of gully erosion. The applicability of the available information to the problems of gully erosion potential at surface and near surface disposal sites is evaluated. It is concluded that the existing knowledge regarding gully erosion is insufficient to develop procedures to ensure the long-term stability of disposal sites. Recommendations for further research are presented. 46 refs

  1. Ground Water Monitoring Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The groundwater monitoring requirements for hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are just one aspect of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste management strategy for protecting human health and the

  2. Site selection and design basis of the National Disposal Facility for LILW. Geological and engineering barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, S.

    2010-01-01

    Content of the presentation: Site selection; Characteristics of the “Radiana” site (location, geological structure, physical and mechanical properties, hydro-geological conditions); Design basis of the Disposal Facility; Migration analysis; Safety assessment approach

  3. Evaluation of Island and Nearshore Confined Disposal Facility Alternatives, Pascagoula River Harbor Dredged Material Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunch, Barry

    2003-01-01

    ...) for the Federal navigation project at Pascagoula, MS. The studies focused on evaluating an option under consideration for the placement of dredged material in an island confined disposal facility (CDF...

  4. Progress in developing new commercial LLRW disposal facilities and DOE assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, T.D.; Hinschberger, S.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports state and regional progress in developing new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Specifically the paper addresses DOE determination of state and regional compliance with the 1988 milestone requirements of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 (LLRWPAA). In addition, the paper summarizes the assistance provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) to the states and regions in their efforts to develop new disposal facilities as mandated in the LLRWPAA

  5. Managing commercial low-level radioactive waste beyond 1992: Transportation planning for a LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This technical bulletin presents information on the many activities and issues related to transportation of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) to allow interested States to investigate further those subjects for which proactive preparation will facilitate the development and operation of a LLW disposal facility. The activities related to transportation for a LLW disposal facility are discussed under the following headings: safety; legislation, regulations, and implementation guidance; operations-related transport (LLW and non-LLW traffic); construction traffic; economics; and public involvement

  6. 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility Supplemental Information to the Hanford Facility Contingency Plan (DOE/RL-93-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, V.G.

    1998-03-01

    The 1325-N Liquid Waste Disposal Facility located at the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site started receiving part of the N Reactor liquid radioactive effluent flow in 1983. In September 1985, the 1325-N Facility became the primary liquid waste disposal system for the N Reactor. The facility is located approximately 60 feet above and 2000 feet east of the shore of the Columbia River. Waste stream discharges were ceased in April 1991.Specific information on types of waste discharged to 1325-N are contained within the Part A, Form 3, Permit application of this unit

  7. Engineering for a disposal facility using the in-room emplacement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, P; Bilinsky, D M; Ates, Y; Read, R S; Crosthwaite, J L; Dixon, D A

    1996-06-01

    This report describes three nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults using the in-room emplacement method. First, a generic disposal vault design is provided which is suitable for a depth range of 500 m to 1000 m in highly stressed, sparsely fractured rock. The design process is described for all components of the system. The generic design is then applied to two different disposal vaults, one at a depth of 750 m in a low hydraulically conductive, sparsely fractured rock mass and another at a depth of 500 m in a higher conductivity, moderately fractured rock mass. In the in-room emplacement method, the disposal containers with used-fuel bundles are emplaced within the confines of the excavated rooms of a disposal vault. The discussion of the disposal-facility design process begins with a detailed description of a copper-shell, packed-particulate disposal container and the factors that influenced its design. The disposal-room generic design is presented including the detailed specifications, the scoping and numerical thermal and thermal mechanical analyses, the backfilling and sealing materials, and the operational processes. One room design is provided that meets all the requirements for a vault depth range of 500 to 1000 m. A disposal-vault layout and the factors that influenced its design are also presented, including materials handling, general logistics, and separation of radiological and nonradiological operations. Modifications to the used-fuel packaging plant for the filling and sealing of the copper-shell, packed-particulate disposal containers and a brief description of the common surface facilities needed by the disposal vault and the packaging plant are provided. The implementation of the disposal facility is outlined, describing the project stages and activities and itemizing a specific plan for each of the project stages: siting, construction, operation; decommissioning; and closure. (author). 72 refs., 15 tabs., 63 figs.

  8. Engineering for a disposal facility using the in-room emplacement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, P.; Bilinsky, D.M.; Ates, Y.; Read, R.S.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Dixon, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    This report describes three nuclear fuel waste disposal vaults using the in-room emplacement method. First, a generic disposal vault design is provided which is suitable for a depth range of 500 m to 1000 m in highly stressed, sparsely fractured rock. The design process is described for all components of the system. The generic design is then applied to two different disposal vaults, one at a depth of 750 m in a low hydraulically conductive, sparsely fractured rock mass and another at a depth of 500 m in a higher conductivity, moderately fractured rock mass. In the in-room emplacement method, the disposal containers with used-fuel bundles are emplaced within the confines of the excavated rooms of a disposal vault. The discussion of the disposal-facility design process begins with a detailed description of a copper-shell, packed-particulate disposal container and the factors that influenced its design. The disposal-room generic design is presented including the detailed specifications, the scoping and numerical thermal and thermal mechanical analyses, the backfilling and sealing materials, and the operational processes. One room design is provided that meets all the requirements for a vault depth range of 500 to 1000 m. A disposal-vault layout and the factors that influenced its design are also presented, including materials handling, general logistics, and separation of radiological and nonradiological operations. Modifications to the used-fuel packaging plant for the filling and sealing of the copper-shell, packed-particulate disposal containers and a brief description of the common surface facilities needed by the disposal vault and the packaging plant are provided. The implementation of the disposal facility is outlined, describing the project stages and activities and itemizing a specific plan for each of the project stages: siting, construction, operation; decommissioning; and closure. (author)

  9. Assessment of Radionuclides Release from Inshas LILW Disposal Facility Under Normal and Unusual Operational Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Disposing of low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW) is a big concern for Egypt due to the accumulated waste as a result of past fifty years of peaceful nuclear applications. Assessment of radionuclides release from Inshas LILW disposal facility under normal and unusual operational conditions is very important in order to apply for operation license of the facility. Aqueous release of radionuclides from this disposal facility is controlled by water flow, access of the water to the wasteform, release of the radionuclides from the wasteform, and transport to the disposal facility boundary. In this work, the release of 137 Cs , 6C o, and 90 Sr radionuclides from the Inshas disposal facility was studied under the change of operational conditions. The release of these radio contaminants from the source term to the unsaturated and saturated zones , to groundwater were studied. It was found that the concentration of radionuclides in a groundwater well located 150 m away from the Inshas disposal facility is less than the maximum permissible concentration in groundwater in both cases

  10. Performance assessment for proposed disposal of NORM at an existing landfill in New South Wales, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, S., E-mail: sfountain@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., Kennesaw, Georgia (United States); Jones, J., E-mail: john.jones@sita.com.au [SITA Australia, Chullora, New South Wales (Australia); Christopherson, J.; Drummond, C., E-mail: jchristopherson@geosyntec.com, E-mail: cdrummond@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States); Bruce, R.; Duffy, D., E-mail: rbruce@geosyntec.com, E-mail: dduffy@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Beech, J., E-mail: jbeech@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, Inc., Kennesaw, Georgia (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 5,000 tonnes of soil containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), primarily consisting of the uranium and thorium series, were proposed to be removed from properties undergoing remedial action in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. These 'NORM soils' were proposed to be excavated and transported for disposal at an existing landfill facility in NSW. Once at the landfill facility and confirmed to meet appropriate acceptance criteria, the NORM soils were proposed to be disposed of in an encapsulated waste cell (EWC) within a previously permitted and constructed restricted solid waste (RSW) cell at the landfill. The characteristics of the NORM soils require that they be disposed of and managed in an appropriate manner, both near-term as well as beyond the time when the EWC liner system can be assumed to have degraded. A Performance Assessment (PA) was conducted to help assess the potential long-term incremental dose received by a target receptor group related to the disposal of the NORM soils at the landfill facility. The PA consisted of computing the doses to a designated receptor group associated with the planned disposal of the soils within the licensed RSW cell at the landfill facility. Primary tasks performed for this PA included conceptual site model (CSM) development, infiltration (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance [HELP]) modeling, and radionuclide fate and transport and dose (RESidual RADioactivity-OFFSITE [RESRAD-OFFSITE]) modeling. The results of the PA indicated that the computed doses to the receptors associated with the disposal of NORM soils in the EWC within the RSW at the landfill facility was in compliance with both the current NSW Radiation Control Regulation 2013 and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dose limits for the designated potential receptor group. (author)

  11. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility – Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Birdsell, Kay H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2015 annual review for Area G.

  12. Application of Bayesian network methodology to the probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju

    2006-02-01

    The scenario in a risk analysis can be defined as the propagating feature of specific initiating event which can go to a wide range of undesirable consequences. If one takes various scenarios into consideration, the risk analysis becomes more complex than do without them. A lot of risk analyses have been performed to actually estimate a risk profile under both uncertain future states of hazard sources and undesirable scenarios. Unfortunately, in case of considering some stochastic passive systems such as a radioactive waste disposal facility, since the behaviour of future scenarios is hardly predicted without special reasoning process, we cannot estimate their risk only with a traditional risk analysis methodology. Moreover, it is believed that the sources of uncertainty at future states can be reduced pertinently by setting up dependency relationships interrelating geological, hydrological, and ecological aspects of the site with all the scenarios. It is then required current methodology of uncertainty analysis of the waste disposal facility be revisited under this belief. In order to consider the effects predicting from an evolution of environmental conditions of waste disposal facilities, this study proposes a quantitative assessment framework integrating the inference process of Bayesian network to the traditional probabilistic risk analysis. In this study an approximate probabilistic inference program for the specific Bayesian network developed and verified using a bounded-variance likelihood weighting algorithm. Ultimately, specific models, including a Monte-Carlo model for uncertainty propagation of relevant parameters, were developed with a comparison of variable-specific effects due to the occurrence of diverse altered evolution scenarios (AESs). After providing supporting information to get a variety of quantitative expectations about the dependency relationship between domain variables and AESs, this study could connect the results of probabilistic

  13. Long-term storage of radioactive solid waste within disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakerley, M.W.; Edmunds, J.

    1986-05-01

    A study of the feasibility and implications of operating potential disposal facilities for low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste in a retrievable storage mode for extended periods of up to 200 years has been carried out. The arisings of conditioned UK radioactive waste up to the year 2030 have been examined. Assignments of these wastes to different types of underground disposal facilities have been made on the basis of their present activity and that which they will have in 200 years time. Five illustrative disposal concepts proposed both in the UK and overseas have been examined with a view to their suitability for adaption for storage/disposal duty. Two concepts have been judged unsuitable because either the waste form or the repository structure were considered unlikely to last the storage phase. Three of the concepts would be feasible from a construction and operational viewpoint. This suggests that with appropriate allowance for geological aspects and good repository and waste form design that storage/disposal within the same facility is achievable. The overall cost of the storage/disposal concepts is in general less than that for separate surface storage followed by land disposal, but more than that for direct disposal. (author)

  14. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was established by the 67th Legislature to assure safe and effective disposal of the state's low-level radioactive waste. The Authority operates under provisions of the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority Act, VACS 4590f-1. In Texas, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics, and may include radioactive material not excluded by this definition with a half-life or more than 35 years if special disposal criteria are established. Prior to beginning the siting study, the Authority developed both exclusionary and inclusionary criteria. Major requirements of the siting guidelines are that the site shall be located such that it will not interfere with: (1) existing or near-future industrial use, (2) sensitive environmental and ecological areas, and (3) existing and projected population growth. Therefore, the site should be located away from currently known recoverable mineral, energy and water resources, population centers, and areas of projected growth. This would reduce the potential for inadvertent intruders, increasing the likelihood for stability of the disposal site after closure. The identification of potential sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste involves a phased progression from statewide screening to site-specific exploration, using a set of exclusionary and preferential criteria to guide the process. This methodology applied the criteria in a sequential manner to focus the analysis on progressively smaller and more favorable areas. The study was divided into three phases: (1) statewide screening; (2) site identification; and (3) preliminary site characterization

  15. Development of Risk Insights for Regulatory Review of a Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esh, D.W.; Ridge, A.C.; Thaggard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) about non-High Level Waste (HLW) determinations. In its consultative role, NRC performs technical reviews of DOE's waste determinations but does not have regulatory authority over DOE's waste disposal activities. The safety of disposal is evaluated by comparing predicted disposal facility performance to the performance objectives specified in NRC regulations for the disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61 Subpart C). The performance objectives contain criteria for protection of the public, protection of inadvertent intruders, protection of workers, and stability of the disposal site after closure. The potential radiological dose to receptors typically is evaluated with a performance assessment (PA) model that simulates the release of radionuclides from the disposal site, transport of radionuclides through the environment, and exposure of potential receptors to residual contamination for thousands of years. This paper describes NRC's development and use of independent performance assessment modeling to facilitate review of DOE's non-HLW determination for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at the Savannah River Site. NRC's review of the safety of near-surface disposal of radioactive waste at the SDF was facilitated and focused by risk insights developed with an independent PA model. The main components of NRC's performance assessment model are presented. The development of risk insights that allow the staff to focus review efforts on those areas that are most important to satisfying the performance objectives is discussed. Uncertainty analysis was performed of the full stochastic model using genetic variable selection algorithms. The results of the uncertainty analysis were then used to guide the development of simulations of other scenarios to understand the key risk

  16. Model Regulations for Borehole Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-10-01

    This publication is designed to assist in the development of an appropriate set of regulations for the predisposal management and disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources and small volumes of associated radioactive waste using the IAEA borehole disposal concept. It allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and can be used as a reference by those States developing regulations for the first time. The model regulations set out in this publication will need to be adapted to take account of the existing national legal and regulatory framework and other local conditions in the State.

  17. Demonstration test of underground cavern-type disposal facilities, fiscal 2010 status - 59180

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    A test to demonstrate practical construction technology for underground cavern-type disposal facilities is currently underway. Cavern-type disposal facilities are a radioactive waste repository excavated to a depth of 50 to 100 m below ground and constructed with an engineered barrier system (EBS) that is a combination of low-permeable bentonite material and low-diffusive cementitious material. The disposed materials are low-level radioactive waste with relatively high radioactivity, mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning, and certain transuranic wastes that are mainly generated from spent fuel reprocessing. The project started in fiscal 2005*, and since fiscal 2007 a full-scale mock-up of a disposal facility has been constructed in an actual sub-surface environment. The main objective of the demonstration test is to establish construction procedures and methods which ensure the required quality of an EBS on-site. Certain component parts of the facility had been constructed in an underground cavern by fiscal 2010, and tests so far have demonstrated both the practicability of the construction and the achievement of the required quality. This paper covers the project outline and the test results obtained by the construction of certain EBS components. The following results were obtained from the construction test of EBS in the test cavern: 1) The dry density of bentonite buffer at the lower layer constructed by vibratory compaction shows that 95% of core samples have densities within the target range. 2) The specified mix for the low-diffusion layer has uniform density and crack-control properties, and meets the requirements for diffusion performance. 3) The specified mix of the concrete pit has sufficient passing ability through congested reinforcement and meets the requirements of strength performance. 4) The dry density of the bentonite buffer at the lateral layer constructed by the spraying method shows that 65% of the core samples are within the

  18. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  19. Contributions to safety assessment of the radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Ionescu, Alice; Deaconu, Viorel

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the progress in the frame of the safety assessments related to the potential near-surface Romanian National Repository, as well as to the geological repository in salt rock for CANDU spent fuel. The safety assessment of the near-surface repository follows the ISAM methodology. The repository design consists of a vault, in which the wastes resulted from the operation and decommissioning of the CANDU reactor from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) are disposed off. The repository is located nearby the CNPP. A layered unsaturated zone overlying a variable thickness confined aquifer, which consists of barremian limestones, characterizes the site. The interface with biosphere is considered to be the Danube-Black Sea Channel. The paper summarizes the results of the post-closure safety assessment for the design scenario and the prediction of the radionuclide release in the liquid phase. As to the final disposal of the CANDU spent fuel from the CNPP, we assumed that the repository is built in a salt dome. Romania has important salt formations, some of them being potentially suitable for hosting a repository. Up to now there are no detailed characterization studies of such formations in Romania, from the point of view of the suitability as a repository site. Therefore, generic data for hydrogeological characterization of the site have been used, coming from the Gorleben site in Germany. The spent fuel containers are disposed off in galleries, somewhere 500 m bellow the cap rock of the salt dome. The temporal loading scheme of the repository is based on a sequential filing of the disposal fields, with a delay of 10 years between filling of two neighbouring disposal areas. The disposal fields are accessed via a shaft. After filling of a disposal gallery, the remaining space is backfilled with salt powder and the gallery is sealed with compacted salt bricks. The access galleries are also backfilled and sealed. Only the reference scenario is considered, in

  20. Risk assessment associated to possible concrete degradation of a near surface disposal facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacquier W.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines a risk analysis of possible concrete degradation performed in the framework of the preparation of the Safety Report of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, for the construction and operation of a near surface disposal facility of category A waste – short-lived low and intermediate level waste – in Dessel. The main degradation mechanism considered is the carbonation of different concrete components over different periods (from the building phase up to 2000 years, which induces corrosion of the rebars. A dedicated methodology mixing risk analysis and numerical modeling of concrete carbonation has been developed to assess the critical risks of the disposal facility at different periods. According to the results obtained, risk mapping was used to assess the impact of carbonation of concrete on the different components at the different stages. The most important risk is related to an extreme situation with complete removal of the earth cover and side embankment.

  1. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  2. Guidelines for radiological performance assessment of DOE low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Otis, M.D.

    1988-07-01

    This document provides guidance for conducting radiological performance assessments of Department of Energy (DOE) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The guidance is specifically intended to provide the fundamental approach necessary to meet the performance assessment requirements. The document is written for LLW facility operators or other personnel who will manage the performance assessment task. The document is meant to provide guidance for conducting performance assessments in a generally consistent manner at all DOE LLW disposal facilities. The guidance includes a summary of performance objectives to be met by LLW disposal facilities (these objectives are derived from current DOE and other applicable federal regulatory guidelines); specific criteria for an adequate performance assessment and from which a minimum set of required calculations may be determined; recommendations of methods for screening critical components of the analysis system so that these components can be addressed in detail; recommendations for the selection of existing models and the development of site-specific models; recommendations of techniques for comparison of assessment results with performance objectives; and a summary of reporting requirements

  3. Disposal of disused sealed sources and approach for safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities (national practice of Ukraine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, Z.; Letuchy, A.; Tkachenko, N.V.

    2003-01-01

    The main sources of wastes are 13 units of nuclear power plants under operation at 4 NPP sites (operational wastes and spent sealed sources), uranium-mining industry, area of Chernobyl exclusion zone contaminated as a result of ChNPP accident, and over 8000 small users of sources of ionising radiation in different fields of scientific, medical and industrial applications. The management of spent sources is carried out basing on the technology from the early sixties. In accordance with this scheme accepted sources are disposed of either in the near surface concrete vaults or in borehole facilities of typical design. Radioisotope devices and gamma units are placed into near surface vaults and sealed sources in capsules into borehole repositories respectively. Isotope content of radwaste in the repositories is multifarious including Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Ir-192, Tl-204, Po-210, Ra-226, Pu-239, Am-241, H-3, Cf-252. A new programme for waste management has been adopted. It envisions the modifying of the 'Radon' facilities for long-term storage safety assessment and relocation of respective types of waste in 'Vector' repositories.Vector Complex will be built in the site which is located within the exclusion zone 10Km SW of the Chernobyl NPP. In Vector Complex two types of disposal facilities are designed to be in operation: 1) Near surface repositories for short lived LLRW and ILRW disposal in reinforced concrete containers. Repositories will be provided with multi layer waterproofing barriers - concrete slab on layer composed of mixture of sand and clay. Every layer of radwaste is supposed to be filled with 1cm clay layer following disposal; 2) Repositories for disposal of bulky radioactive waste without cans into concrete vaults. Approaches to safety assessment are discussed. Safety criteria for waste disposal in near surface repositories are established in Radiation Protection Standards (NRBU-97) and Addendum 'Radiation protection against sources of potential exposure

  4. New low-level radioactive waste disposal/storage facilities for the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Within the next few years the Savannah River Plant will require new facilities for the disposal and/or storage of solid low-level radioactive waste. Six options have been developed which would meet the regulatory and site-specific requirements for such facilities

  5. Low-level waste disposal site performance assessment with the RQ/PQ methodology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Grant, M.W.; Sutherland, A.A.

    1982-12-01

    A methodology called RQ/PQ (retention quotient/performance quotient) has been developed for relating the potential hazard of radioactive waste to the natural and man-made barriers provided by a disposal facility. The methodology utilizes a systems approach to quantify the safety of low-level waste disposed in a near-surface facility. The main advantages of the RQ/PQ methodology are its simplicity of analysis and clarity of presentation while still allowing a comprehensive set of nuclides and pathways to be treated. Site performance and facility designs for low-level waste disposal can be easily investigated with relatively few parameters needed to define the problem. Application of the methodology has revealed that the key factor affecting the safety of low-level waste disposal in near surface facilities is the potential for intrusion events. Food, inhalation and well water pathways dominate in the analysis of such events. While the food and inhalation pathways are not strongly site-dependent, the well water pathway is. Finally, burial at depths of 5 m or more was shown to reduce the impacts from intrusion events

  6. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsell, Kay Hanson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Atchley, Adam Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Elizabeth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-24

    As a condition to the disposal authorization statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis (PA/CA) maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the PA/CA are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year (FY) 2016 annual review for Area G.

  7. Characteristics of the ancient tombs and application to cover design of a near-surface disposal facility : literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Beak; Lee, Ji Hoon; Park, Joo Wan; Kim, Chang Lak [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Si Eun; Lee, Sun Bok [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To support the design concept and performance evaluation of the cover system for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste(LILW) disposal facility, the pioneering study is conducted with the tomb of historical age. Research status of the art are followed and the characteristics of tomb cover are summarized based on the preservation of historical remains. Visiting the excavation site of historical tomb and communication with Korean archaeological society is required for the further understanding and for the extension of radioactive waste disposal research.

  8. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binning, P.; Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry's Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model

  9. The development and status of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.; Papp, T.; Coplan, S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of formal performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal has been in progress for around 10-15 years now. The time is particularly opportune for a review of the state-of-the-art because of current changes in the status of repository planning and implementation worldwide. Several major feasibility-type studies have been completed, the first full site-specific safety analyses are being performed for engineered underground disposal facilities for L/ILW, and - for HLW - the die are now being cast by implementers and regulatory determining how the safety analyses for licensing are to be performed and assessed. The article reviews the development of performance assessment and attempts to identify some key issues occupying safety analysts and regulatory reviewers involved in waste disposal today. (author) 7 figs

  10. Performance objectives of the tank waste remediation system low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Before low-level waste may be disposed of, a performance assessment must be written and then approved by the U.S. Department of Energy. The performance assessment is to determine whether open-quotes reasonable assuranceclose quotes exists that the performance objectives of the disposal facility will be met. The DOE requirements for waste disposal require: the protection of public health and safety; and the protection of the environment. Although quantitative limits are sometimes stated (for example, the all exposure pathways exposure limit is 25 mrem/year), usually the requirements are stated in a general nature. Quantitative limits were established by: investigating all potentially applicable regulations as well as interpretations of the Peer Review Panel which DOE has established to review performance assessments, interacting with program management to establish their needs, and interacting with the public (i.e., the Hanford Advisory Board members; as well as affected Indian tribes) to understand the values of residents in the Pacific Northwest

  11. Discriminating performance of disposal alternatives - can it be done

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Baird, R.D.; Murphy, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    A basic principle of radioactive waste disposal is that the degree of isolation of the waste from human exposure should increase with the increase in the hazard of the waste. Most disposal concepts, including low-level waste disposal concepts, rely on isolation, limits on release rates, environmental retention, or environmental dilution to provide the necessary margin of safety. The answer to the question posed by the title of this paper is a qualified yes, depending on the measure of performance. Three methodologies for discriminating performance of low-level waste disposal alternatives are described. The disposal technology classification system distinguishes technologies on the basis of three qualitative performance functional features. These are relationship to natural grade, extent of cover, and presence and type of structure. Multi-attribute utility estimation is a semiquantitative decision analysis methodology used to rank disposal alternatives by taking into account both the technical merit of a particular alternative and the relative importance of issues and factors used to make the technical judgment. Use of this decision methodology by several states and compacts to rank proposed near surface disposal alternatives is described. Multipathway performance assessment is a quantitative methodology that uses models to evaluate the abilities of different disposal technologies to limit the release of radioactivity to man and the environment. Unfortunately, the degree of sophistication of present models is such that discrimination between technologies is, generally, determined by differences in input parameters that are usually difficult to justify. Several examples of the use of pathway modeling are presented. 11 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  12. North Carolina Geological Survey's role in siting a low-level radioactive (LLRW) waste disposal facility in North Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.C.; Wooten, R.M.; Farrell, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Southeast Compact Commission in 1986 selected North Carolina to host the Southeast's LLRW disposal facility for the next twenty years. The North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) for six years has played a major role in the State's efforts by contributing to legislation and administrative code, policy, technical oversight and surveillance and regulation as a member of the State's regulatory team. Future activities include recommendation of the adequacy of characterization and site performance pursuant to federal code, state general statutes and administrative code, and review of a license application. Staff must be prepared to present testimony and professional conclusions in court. The NCGS provides technical advice to the Division of Radiation Protection (DRP), the regulatory agency which will grant or deny a LLRW license. The NCGS has not participated in screening the state for potential sites to minimize bias. The LLRW Management Authority, a separate state agency siting the LLRW facility, hired a contractor to characterize potential sites and to write a license application. Organizational relationships enable the NCGS to assist the DRP in its regulatory role without conflict of interest. Disposal facilities must be sited to ensure safe disposal of LLRW. By law, the siting of a LLRW disposal facility is primarily a geological, rather than an engineering, effort. Federal and State statutes indicate a site must be licensable on its own merits. Engineered barriers cannot make a site licensable. The project is 3 years behind schedule and millions of dollars over budget. This indicates the uncertainty and complexity inherent in siting such as facility, the outcome of which cannot be predicted until site characterization is complete, the license application reviewed and the performance assessment evaluated. State geological surveys are uniquely qualified to overview siting of LLRW facilities because of technical expertise and experience in the state's geology

  13. Operation of a low-level waste disposal facility and how to prevent problems in future facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    Operation of a low-level waste facility is an ever increasing problem nationally, and specifically one that could grow to crisis proportion in Pennsylvania. There have been, nevertheless, a variety of changes over the years in the management of low level radioactive waste, particularly with regard to disposal facilities that can avert a crisis condition. A number of companies have been organized thru possible a broad range of services to the nuclear industry, including those that emphasize solidification of waste materials, engineering services, waste management, and transportation to disposal sites across the United States. This paper addresses one particular site and the problems which evolved at that site from an environmental perspective. It is important that it is clearly understood that, although these problems are resolvable, the lessons learned here are critical for the prevention of problems at future facilities. The focus of this paper is on the Maxey Flats, Kentucky disposal facility which was closed in 1977. It must be understood that the regulations for siting, management, burial techniques, waste classification, and the overall management of disposal sites were limited when this facility was in operation

  14. United Kingdom. Development plan for the eventual closure of the UK Drigg nuclear surface low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Drigg site, owned and operated by BNFL, is the UK's principal site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste. The site has operated since 1959 and receives wastes from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. The standardised wasteform consists of high force compacted (or non-compactable) waste immobilised within 20 m 3 steel overpack containers by the addition of cementitious grout. Larger items of wastes are grouted directly, in situ in the vault. The disposal trenches have been completed with an interim cap, as will the vaults when filled. It is currently estimated that sufficient capacity remains at Drigg for disposals to continue until at least 2050. Post-operations it is planned that the site will enter a phase including shut down of operational facilities, emplacement of long term site closure features including a final closure cap and then to an institutional management phase. Planning has therefore been carried out as to the strategy for eventual closure of the site. This closure strategy is also underpinned by an engineering evaluation studies programme to develop and evaluate appropriate closure measures including assessment of the long term performance of such measures. This appendix summarizes some of this work

  15. Systematic handling of requirements and conditions (in compliance with waste acceptance requirements for a radioactive waste disposal facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, Peter; Helander, Anita

    2012-01-01

    This Abstract and presentation will demonstrate the need for a structured requirement management and draw upon experiences and development from SKB requirements data base and methodology, in addition to international guidelines and software tools. The presentation will include a discussion on how requirement management can be applied for the decommissioning area. The key issue in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities is the progressive removal of hazards, by stepwise decontamination and dismantling activities that have to be carried out safely and within the boundaries of an approved safety case. For decommissioning there exists at least two safety cases, one for the pre-disposal activities and one for the disposal facility, and a need for a systematic handling of requirements and conditions to safely manage the radioactive waste in the long term. The decommissioning safety case is a collection of arguments and evidence to demonstrate the safety of a decommissioning project. It also includes analyzing and updating the decommissioning safety case in accordance with the waste acceptance criteria's and the expected output, i.e. waste packages. It is a continuous process to confirm that all requirements have been met. On the other hand there is the safety case for a radioactive waste disposal facility, which may include the following processes and requirements: i) Integrating relevant scientific (and other) information in a structured, traceable and transparent way and, thereby, developing and demonstrating an understanding of the potential behavior and performance of the disposal system; ii) Identifying uncertainties in the behavior and performance of the disposal system, describing the possible significance of the uncertainties, and identifying approaches for the management of significant uncertainties; iii) Demonstrating long-term safety and providing reasonable assurance that the disposal facility will perform in a manner that protects human health and the

  16. Investigation on proper materials of a liner system for trench type disposal facilities of radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Arikawa, Masanobu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki

    2011-08-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency will settle on near surface disposal facilities with and without engineered barriers for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. Both of them are so called 'concrete pit type' and 'trench type', respectively. The technical standard of constructing and operating a disposal facility based on 'Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors' have been regulated partly by referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. This means that the concrete pit type and the trench type disposal facility resemble an isolated type for specified industrial wastes and a non leachate controlled type final disposal site for stable industrial wastes, respectively. On the other, We plan to design a disposal facility with a liner system corresponding to a leachate controlled type final disposal site on a crucial assumption that radioactive wastes other than stable industrial wastes to be disposed into the trench type disposal facility is generated. By current nuclear related regulations in Japan, There are no technical standard of constructing the disposal facility with the liner system referring to that of 'Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law'. We investigate the function of the liner system in order to design a proper liner system for the trench type disposal facility. In this report, We investigated liner materials currently in use by actual leachate controlled type final disposal sites in Japan. Thereby important items such as tensile strength, durability from a view point of selecting proper liner materials were studied. The items were classified into three categories according to importance. We ranked proper liner materials for the trench type disposal facility by evaluating the important items per material. As a result, high density polyethylene(HDPE) of high elasticity type polymetric sheet was selected

  17. Socioeconomic issues and analyses for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.

    1988-01-01

    Radioactive Waste facility siting and development can raise major social and economic issues in the host area. Initial site screening and analyses have been conducted for both potential high-level and low-level radioactive waste facilities; more detailed characterization and analyses are being planned. Results of these assessments are key to developing community plans that identify and implement measures to mitigate adverse socioeconomic impacts. Preliminary impact analyses conducted at high-level sites in Texas and Nevada, and site screening activities for low-level facilities in Illinois and California have identified a number of common socioeconomic issues and characteristics as well as issues and characteristics that differ between the sites and the type of facilities. Based on these comparisons, implications for selection of an appropriate methodology for impact assessment and elements of impact mitigation are identified

  18. Unit cell modeling in support of interim performance assessment for low level tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1996-01-01

    A unit cell model is used to simulate the base analysis case and related sensitivity cases for the interim performance assessment of low level tank waste disposal. Simulation case results are summarized in terms of fractional contaminant release rates to the vadose zone and to the water table at the unconfined aquifer. Results suggest that the crushed glass water conditioning layer at the top of the facility and the chemical retardation pad at the bottom of the facility can be important components of the facility. Results also suggest that the release rates to the water table are dominated by the release rate from the waste form

  19. The effect of liner hydraulic conductivity on disposal cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Chia, Y.P.

    1988-01-01

    Multilayered disposal cells are frequently used for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous wastes. These disposal cells consist of materials with different permeabilities that are placed in various thicknesses at the bottom as well as in the cover of the cell. Typically, a layer of permeable material is placed above a layer with low permeability; the permeable layer functions as a drainage/leachate collection system and the low-permeability layer functions as a migration barrier/liner. This paper analyzes the effects of infiltration through unsaturated soil liners on the long-term performance of the disposal cell. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that the long-term performance of a disposal cell is dependent on a well-designed cell cover. The design should emphasize a cap with less permeable material to prevent water from infiltrating the disposal cell. An impermeable bottom liner is effective only in the short term; however, it can eventually result in saturation of the wastes and cause the bathtub effect over the long term

  20. Annual Report for Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Area 54, Area G Disposal Facility - Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Sean B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shuman, Rob [WPS: WASTE PROJECTS AND SERVICES

    2012-05-22

    As a condition to the Disposal Authorization Statement issued to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) on March 17, 2010, a comprehensive performance assessment and composite analysis maintenance program must be implemented for the Technical Area 54, Area G disposal facility. Annual determinations of the adequacy of the performance assessment and composite analysis are to be conducted under the maintenance program to ensure that the conclusions reached by those analyses continue to be valid. This report summarizes the results of the fiscal year 2011 annual review for Area G. Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis was issued in 2008 and formally approved in 2009. These analyses are expected to provide reasonable estimates of the long-term performance of Area G and, hence, the disposal facility's ability to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) performance objectives. Annual disposal receipt reviews indicate that smaller volumes of waste will require disposal in the pits and shafts at Area G relative to what was projected for the performance assessment and composite analysis. The future inventories are projected to decrease modestly for the pits but increase substantially for the shafts due to an increase in the amount of tritium that is projected to require disposal. Overall, however, changes in the projected future inventories of waste are not expected to compromise the ability of Area G to satisfy DOE performance objectives. The Area G composite analysis addresses potential impacts from all waste disposed of at the facility, as well as other sources of radioactive material that may interact with releases from Area G. The level of knowledge about the other sources included in the composite analysis has not changed sufficiently to call into question the validity of that analysis. Ongoing environmental surveillance activities are conducted at, and in the vicinity of, Area G. However, the information generated by

  1. A design concept of underground facilities for the deep geologic disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Youl; Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo

    2005-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants can be disposed in the underground repository. In this paper, a concept of Korean Reference HLW disposal System (KRS-1) design is presented. Though no site for the underground repository has been specified in Korea, but a generic site with granitic rock is considered for reference spent fuel repository design. To implement the concept, design requirements such as spent fuel characteristics and capacity of the repository and design principles were established. Then, based on these requirements and principles, a concept of the disposal process, the facilities and the layout of the repository was developed

  2. Nuclear waste and a deep geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, A.; Laciok, A.; Vasa, I.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic analysis of the individual areas of research into nuclear waste and deep geological disposal with emphasis on the contribution of Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc to such efforts within international projects, specifically the EURATOM 6th Framework Programme. Research in the area of new advanced fuel cycles with focus on waste minimisation is based on EU's REDIMPACT project. The individual fuel cycles, which are currently studied within the EU, are briefly described. Special attention is paid to fast breeders and accelerator-driven reactor concepts associated with new spent fuel reprocessing technologies. Results obtained so far show that none even of the most advanced fuel cycles, currently under consideration, would eliminate the necessity to have a deep geological repository for a safe storage of residual radioactive waste. As regards deep geological repository barriers, the fact is highlighted that the safety of a repository is assured by complementary engineered and natural barriers. In order to demonstrate the safety of a repository, a deep insight must be gained into any and all of the individual processes that occur inside the repository and thus may affect radioactivity releases beyond the repository boundaries. The final section of the paper describes methods of radioactive waste conditioning for its disposal in a repository. Research into waste matrices used for radionuclide immobilisation is also highlighted. (author)

  3. Groundwater flow analysis using mixed hybrid finite element method for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Hiroomi; Shimomura, Masanori; Kawakami, Hiroto; Suzuki, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    In safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities, ground water flow analysis are used for calculating the radionuclide transport pathway and the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities. For this type of calculations, the mixed hybrid finite element method has been used and discussed about the accuracy of ones in Europe. This paper puts great emphasis on the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities, and describes the accuracy of results obtained from mixed hybrid finite element method by comparing of local water mass conservation and the reliability of the element breakdown numbers among the mixed hybrid finite element method, finite volume method and nondegenerated finite element method. (author)

  4. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Christina, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This paper features another expanded Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Report (FPI). The purpose of APPA's Facilities Performance Indicators is to provide a representative set of statistics about facilities in educational institutions. The 2008-09 iteration of the Web-based Facilities Performance Indicators Survey was posted and…

  5. Evaluation of engineered barrier materials for surface disposal facilities. Appendix 2: Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In practice, those nuclear installations that generate most wastes in Brazil often have interim storage facilities at the same site. They can also accommodate wastes from small users that have no suitable place to manage their wastes. The forecast at the time of the CRP for Brazilian waste generation due to all nuclear and radioactive activities by the year 2010 is to be about 5000 m 3 , not including the waste of 3500 m 3 from Goiania accident. With the impact of the accident on the public opinion, the quest for a safe disposal facility became more urgent, especially the siting and licensing a disposal facility which could receive the Goiania waste. Although the construction of a national repository was a matter of future decision at the time of the CRP, research programmes were being developed and carried out by the research institutes of the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy. The R and D programmes were primarily intended to establish required technical capability in dealing with the subject especially in terms of issues related to the evaluation of disposal facility performance and lifetime. Some activities of the programmes were within the scope of the CRP, namely: study of diffusion through cementitious materials; degradation of concrete due to chemical corrosion and microbiological attack; evaluation of additives for the improvement of structural concrete and cemented wasteform quality. In the work relating to the improvement of wasteforms and concrete, silica-fume was being evaluated as an admixture in the cementation process. Ion-exchange resins, a typical power reactor waste, and simulated liquid waste from fission production were used as reference wastes. The performance of the produced wasteforms was evaluated by measuring four properties of interest: setting time; heat developed during hydration process, compressive strength, and leachability. Results showed that the addition of silica-fume increased the compressive strength

  6. Properties of concrete for use in near surface low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.; Shuman, R.; Nielson, K.; Conner, J.

    1989-01-01

    The majority of alternative low-level waste disposal technologies strive to isolate the radioactive waste from the environment through the implementation of engineered man-made barriers. Of the materials used in the construction of these barriers, concrete is, by far, the most prevalent. As alternative facility designs are developed, it will be necessary to assess the features and long-term performance of the technologies. Reliable assessments will depend, in part, on an accurate understanding of the engineered barriers used in construction. Towards these ends an investigation into the properties and behavior of two types of concrete was conducted. Results are presented. Two concrete mix designs were used in the investigation. The first of these employs a Type II cement with a microsilica (silica fume) admixture. The second concrete mix uses a Type V cement with a pozzolan admixture and has approximately four percent entrained air

  7. {sup 137}Cs sorption into bentonite from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya as buffer material for disposal demonstration plant facility at Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiawan, B., E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id; Sriwahyuni, H., E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id; Ekaningrum, NE., E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id; Sumantry, T., E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id [Radwaste Technology Center-National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Serpong-Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    According to co-location principle, near surface disposal type the disposal demonstration plant facility will be build at Serpong nuclear area. The facility also for anticipation of future needs to provide national facility for the servicing of radwaste management of non-nuclear power plant activity in Serpong Nuclear Area. It is needs to study the material of buffer and backfill for the safety of demonstration plant facility. A local bentonite rock from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya was used as the buffer materials. Objective of experiment is to find out the specific data of sorption characteristic of Cidadap bentonite as buffer material in a radwaste disposal system. Experiments were performed in batch method, where bentonite samples were contacted with CsCl solution labeled with Cs-137 in 100 ml/g liquid:solid ratio. Initial Cs concentration was 10{sup −8} M and to study the effects of ionic strength and Cs concentration in solution, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaCl also CsCl concentration ranging 10{sup −8} - 10{sup −4} M were added in solution. As the indicator of Cs saturated in bentonite samples, Kd value was applied. Affected parameters in the experiment were contact time, effects of ionic strength and concentration of CsCl. Results showed that sorption of Cs by bentonite reached constantly after 16 days contacted, and Kd value was 10.600 ml/g. Effect of CsCl concentration on Kd value may decreased in increased in CsCl concentration. Effect of ionic strength increased according to increased in concentration of background and would effect to Kd value due to competition of Na ions and Cs in solution interacts with bentonite. By obtaining the bentonite character data as buffer material, the results could be used as the basis for making of design and the basic of performance assessment the near surface disposal facility in terms of isolation capacity of radwaste later.

  8. Corrosion behaviour of steel rebars embedded in a concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz F.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on an instrumented reinforced concrete prototype specifically designed for this purpose, to study the behaviour of an intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from the rebar corrosion point of view. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  9. Radionuclide migration pathways analysis for the Oak Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Lee, D.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Ketelle, R.H.

    1984-10-01

    A dose-to-man pathways analysis is performed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the Central Waste Disposal Facility on the West Chestnut Ridge Site. Both shallow land burial (trench) and aboveground (tumulus) disposal methods are considered. The waste volumes, characteristics, and radionuclide concentrations are those of waste streams anticipated from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The site capacity for the waste streams is determined on the basis of the pathways analysis. The exposure pathways examined include (1) migration and transport of leachate from the waste disposal units to the Clinch River (via the groundwater medium for trench disposal and Ish Creek for tumulus disposal) and (2) those potentially associated with inadvertent intrusion following a 100-year period of institutional control: an individual resides on the site, inhales suspended particles of contaminated dust, ingests vegetables grown on the plot, consumes contaminated water from either an on-site well or from a nearby surface stream, and receives direct exposure from the contaminated soil. It is found that either disposal method would provide effective containment and isolation for the anticipated waste inventory. However, the proposed trench disposal method would provide more effective containment than tumuli because of sorption of some radionuclides in the soil. Persons outside the site boundary would receive radiation doses well below regulatory limits if they were to ingest water from the Clinch River. An inadvertent intruder could receive doses that approach regulatory limits; however, the likelihood of such intrusions and subsequent exposures is remote. 33 references, 31 figures, 28 tables

  10. Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

    2003-01-01

    Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

  11. Decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1978-01-01

    A survey and characteristics are given of the main sources of wastes from the operation of nuclear installations. The amounts are compared of liquid and gaseous wastes from PWR and BWR reactors. The main trends of radioactive waste processing in the world are described. In Czechoslovakia, two methods of waste fixation have been developed: vacuum cementation and bituminization. The demands are summed up on radioactive waste storage sites and it is stated that there are a number of suitable localities, namely abolished granite quarries with a very deep ground water level and a low-permeable overburden and exhausted quarries of kaolinitic clays, which meet all criteria and secure the safe disposal of wastes from Czechoslovak nuclear power plants up to the year 2020. (Z.M.)

  12. Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This standard guide defines the process for developing a strategy for dispositioning concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. It outlines a 10-step method to evaluate disposal options for radioactively contaminated concrete. One of the steps is to complete a detailed analysis of the cost and dose to nonradiation workers (the public); the methodology and supporting data to perform this analysis are detailed in the appendices. The resulting data can be used to balance dose and cost and select the best disposal option. These data, which establish a technical basis to apply to release the concrete, can be used in several ways: (1) to show that the release meets existing release criteria, (2) to establish a basis to request release of the concrete on a case-by-case basis, (3) to develop a basis for establishing release criteria where none exists. 1.2 This standard guide is based on the “Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Sites,” (1) from ...

  13. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  14. Discussion on sealing performance required in disposal system. Hydraulic analysis of tunnel intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Uragami, Manabu; Kitayama, Kazumi; Fujita, Tomoo; Kawakami, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yoichi

    2005-09-01

    The sealing performance of a repository must be considered in the safety assessment of the geological disposal system of the high-level radioactive waste. NUMO and JNC established 'Technical Commission on Sealing Technology of Repository' based on the cooperation agreement. The objectives of this commission are to present the concept on the sealing performance required in the disposal system and to develop the direction for future R and D programme for design requirements of closure components (backfilling material, clay plug, etc.) in the presented concept. In the first phase of this commission, the current status of domestic and international sealing technologies were reviewed; and repository components and repository environments were summarized subsequently, the hydraulic analysis of tunnel intersections, where a main tunnel and a disposal tunnel in a disposal panel meet, were performed, considering components in and around the engineered barrier system (EBS). Since all tunnels are connected in the underground facility, understanding the hydraulic behaviour of tunnel intersections is an important issue to estimate migration of radionuclides from the EBS and to evaluate the required sealing performance in the disposal system. In the analytical results, it was found that the direction of hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivities of concrete and backfilling materials and the position of clay plug had impact on flow condition around the EBS. (author)

  15. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in medicine, industry and research for a wide range of purposes. They can contain different radionuclides in greatly varying amounts. At the end of their useful lives, they are termed 'disused sources' but their activity levels can still be quite high. They are, for all practical purposes, another type of radioactive waste that needs to be disposed of safely. Disused sealed radioactive sources can represent a significant hazard to people if not managed properly. Many countries have no special facilities for the management or disposal of radioactive waste, as they have no nuclear power programmes requiring such facilities. Even in countries with developed nuclear programmes, disused sealed sources present problems as they often fall outside the common categories of radioactive waste for which disposal options have been identified. As a result, many disused sealed sources are kept in storage. Depending on the nature of the storage arrangements, this situation may represent a high potential risk to workers and to the public. The IAEA has received numerous requests for assistance from Member States faced with the problem of safely managing disused sealed sources. The requests have related to both technical and safety aspects. Particularly urgent requests have involved emergency situations arising from unsafe storage conditions and lost sources. There is therefore an important requirement for the development of safe and cost-effective final disposal solutions. Consequently, a number of activities have been initiated by the IAEA to assist Member States in the management of disused sealed sources. The objective of this report is to address safety issues relevant to the disposal of disused sealed sources, and other limited amounts of radioactive waste, in borehole facilities. It is the first in a series of reports aiming to provide an indication of the present issues related to the use of borehole disposal facilities to safely disposal

  16. Deployment of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility with the Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrack, Antoony; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear power program will inevitably generate radioactive wastes including low-and intermediate radioactive waste and spent fuel. These wastes are hazardous to human health and the environment and therefore, a reliable radioactive waste disposal facility becomes a necessity. This paper describes Kenya's basic plans for the disposal of radioactive wastes expected from the nuclear program. This plan is important as an initial implementation of a national Low to intermediate level wastes storage facility in Kenya. In Kenya, radioactive waste is generated from the use of radioactive materials in medicine, industry, education and research and development. Future radioactive waste is expected to arise from nuclear reactors, oil exploration, radioisotope and fuel production, and research reactors as shown in table 1. The best strategy is to store the LILW and spent fuel temporarily within reactor sites pending construction of a centralized interim storage facility or final disposal facility. The best philosophy is to introduce both repository and nuclear power programs concurrently. Research and development on volume reduction technology and conceptual design of disposal facility of LILW should be pursued. Safe management of radioactive waste is a national responsibility for sustainable generation of nuclear power. The republic of Kenya is set to become the second African nuclear power generation country after South Africa.

  17. Comparative analysis of risk characteristics of nuclear waste repositories and other disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Earle, T.C.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    Three fundamental questions concerning public perception of the measurement of radioactive wastes were addressed in this report. The first question centered on the perceived importance of nuclear waste management as a public issue: how important is nuclear waste management relative to other technological and scientific issues; do different segments of the public disagree on its importance; the second question concerned public attitudes toward a nuclear waste disposal facility: how great a risk to health and safety is a nuclear waste disposal facility relative to other industrial facilities; is there disagreement on its riskiness among various public groups; the third question pertained to the aspects of risks that affect overall risk perception: what are the qualitative aspects of a nuclear waste disposal facility that contribute to overall perceptions of risk; do different segments of the population associate different risk characteristics with hazardous facilities. The questions follow from one another: is the issue important; given the importance of the issue, is the facility designed to deal with it considered risky; given the riskiness of the facility, why is it considered risky. Also addressed in this report, and a main focus of its findings, were the patterns of differences among respondent groups on each of these questions

  18. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Simonds

    2006-09-01

    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, admin facility, weigh scale, decon building, treatment systems, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and are being constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the central Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facilityyy for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams. This compliance demonstration document discusses the conceptual site model for the ICDF Complex area. Within this conceptual site model, the selection of the area for the ICDF Complex is discussed. Also, the subsurface stratigraphy in the ICDF Complex area is discussed along with the existing contamination beneath the ICDF Complex area. The designs for the various ICDF Complex facilities are also included in this compliance demonstration document. These design discussions are a summary of the design as presented in the Remedial Design/Construction Work Plans for the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond and the Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility. Each of the major facilities or systems is described including the design criteria.

  19. Vitrification Facility integrated system performance testing report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a summary of component and system performance testing associated with the Vitrification Facility (VF) following construction turnover. The VF at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass form for eventual disposal in a federal repository. Following an initial Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) Program and subsequent conversion of test stand equipment into the final VF, a testing program was executed to demonstrate successful performance of the components, subsystems, and systems that make up the vitrification process. Systems were started up and brought on line as construction was completed, until integrated system operation could be demonstrated to produce borosilicate glass using nonradioactive waste simulant. Integrated system testing and operation culminated with a successful Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and Department of Energy (DOE) approval to initiate vitrification of high-level waste (HLW) on June 19, 1996. Performance and integrated operational test runs conducted during the test program provided a means for critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the vitrification system. Test data taken for each Test Instruction Procedure (TIP) was used to evaluate component performance against system design and acceptance criteria, while test observations were used to correct, modify, or improve system operation. This process was critical in establishing operating conditions for the entire vitrification process

  20. Waste Disposal: Long-term Performance Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marivoet, J

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on long-term performance studies are: (1) to develop a methodology and associated tools for assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal of all types of radioactive waste in clay formations and of the shallow-land burial of low-level waste; (2) to assess the performance and to identify the most influential elements of integrated repository systems for the disposal of radioactive waste; (3) to collect geological, piezometric and hydraulic data required for studying the hydrogeological system in north-eastern Belgium; (4) to develop a regional aquifer model for north-easter Belgium and to apply it in the performance assessments for the Mol site; (5) to test, verify and improve computer codes used in the performance assessment calculations of waste disposal concepts and contaminated sites (the computer codes simulate water flow and transport of radionuclides in engineered barriers, aquifers and contaminated sites). The scientific programme and achievements in 1999 are described.

  1. NOMINATION FOR THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE (PMI) PROJECT OF THE YEAR AWARD. INTEGRATED DISPOSAL FACILITY (IDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCLELLAN, G.W.

    2007-01-01

    , ORP, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and independent certified quality assurance and engineering inspectors. A QA manager and safety manager were on-site during all project activities. Completion of the project provided a safe and reliable facility that will help DOE ORP meet the growing need for environmentally compliant, on-site disposal of solid waste generated in the cleanup project. Furthermore, the project helped DOE save money and meet TPA milestones ahead of schedule. In the following pages, we detail the tools and techniques used to manage the IDF project. We had a highly competent project management team. Their skillful management of the construction and the stakeholder and regulatory issues resulted in successful project outcomes and lessons learned. We believe their performance merits special recognition

  2. NOMINATION FOR THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE (PMI) PROJECT OF THE YEAR AWARD INTEGRATED DISPOSAL FACILITY (IDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCLELLAN, G.W.

    2007-02-07

    inspections, including the construction contractor, CH2M HILL, ORP, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and independent certified quality assurance and engineering inspectors. A QA manager and safety manager were on-site during all project activities. Completion of the project provided a safe and reliable facility that will help DOE ORP meet the growing need for environmentally compliant, on-site disposal of solid waste generated in the cleanup project. Furthermore, the project helped DOE save money and meet TPA milestones ahead of schedule. In the following pages, we detail the tools and techniques used to manage the IDF project. We had a highly competent project management team. Their skillful management of the construction and the stakeholder and regulatory issues resulted in successful project outcomes and lessons learned. We believe their performance merits special recognition.

  3. Surface disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste. How safe is the disposal facility in Dessel in the long term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    A disposal facility for the disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste is planned to be built on a site located in the community of Dessel (Belgium). The facility will consist of 34 modules, corresponding to a storage volume capacity of approximately 70,000 m3. The disposal concept includes waste containers that are encapsulated in a concrete box which is filled with mortar. Approximately 900 of these blocks, or monoliths, fit inside each module. The article discusses the Research and Development programme that has been conducted at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN in conjunction with the development of this facility. Main emphasis is on the models that have been developed for predicting the long-term containment of the disposal facility.

  4. The potential for criticality following disposal of uranium at low-level waste facilities: Uranium blended with soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toran, L.E.; Hopper, C.M.; Naney, M.T.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities can be concentrated by hydrogeochemical processes to permit nuclear criticality. A team of experts in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and criticality safety was formed to develop achievable scenarios for hydrogeochemical increases in concentration of special nuclear material (SNM), and to use these scenarios to aid in evaluating the potential for nuclear criticality. The team's approach was to perform simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies to (1) identify some achievable scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration increase via sorption or precipitation of uranium, and (3) evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits. The analysis of SNM was restricted to 235 U in the present scope of work. The outcome of the work indicates that criticality is possible given established regulatory limits on SNM disposal. However, a review based on actual disposal records of an existing site operation indicates that the potential for criticality is not a concern under current burial practices

  5. The potential for criticality following disposal of uranium at low-level waste facilities: Uranium blended with soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toran, L.E.; Hopper, C.M.; Naney, M.T. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities can be concentrated by hydrogeochemical processes to permit nuclear criticality. A team of experts in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and criticality safety was formed to develop achievable scenarios for hydrogeochemical increases in concentration of special nuclear material (SNM), and to use these scenarios to aid in evaluating the potential for nuclear criticality. The team`s approach was to perform simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies to (1) identify some achievable scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration increase via sorption or precipitation of uranium, and (3) evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits. The analysis of SNM was restricted to {sup 235}U in the present scope of work. The outcome of the work indicates that criticality is possible given established regulatory limits on SNM disposal. However, a review based on actual disposal records of an existing site operation indicates that the potential for criticality is not a concern under current burial practices.

  6. Siting a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, S.A.; Gaynor, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    US Ecology is the State of California's designee to site, develop and operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In March 1988, a site in the Ward Valley of California's Mojave Desert was chosen for development. Strong local community support has been expressed for the site. US Ecology anticipates licensing and constructing a facility to receive waste by early 1991. This schedule places California well ahead of the siting milestones identified in Federal law. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs

  7. Role of disposal in developing Federal Facility Compliance Act mixed waste treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.T.; Rhoderick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) was enacted on October 6, 1992. This act amends the Solid Waste Disposal Act, which was previously amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The FFCA set in place a process for managing the Department of Energy's (DOE) mixed low-level radioactive wastes (MLLW), wastes that contain both hazardous and low-level radioactive constituents, with full participation of the affected states. The FFCA provides the framework for the development of treatment capacity for DOE's mixed waste. Disposal of the treatment residues is not addressed by the FFCA. DOE has initiated efforts in concert with the states in the development of a disposal strategy for the treated mixed wastes. This paper outlines DOE efforts in development of a mixed waste disposal strategy which is integrated with the FFCA Site Treatment Planning process

  8. Development of performance assessment methodology for establishment of quantitative acceptance criteria of near-surface radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C. R.; Lee, E. Y.; Park, J. W.; Chang, G. M.; Park, H. Y.; Yeom, Y. S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    The contents and the scope of this study are as follows : review of state-of-the-art on the establishment of waste acceptance criteria in foreign near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities, investigation of radiological assessment methodologies and scenarios, investigation of existing models and computer codes used in performance/safety assessment, development of a performance assessment methodology(draft) to derive quantitatively radionuclide acceptance criteria of domestic near-surface disposal facility, preliminary performance/safety assessment in accordance with the developed methodology.

  9. Disposal of radioactive waste in land burial facilities at Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, G.; Haegg, C.; Bergman, C.

    1987-01-01

    The report presents the formal background for the handling of the Studsvik application for permission to build a plant for deposition of radioactive waste in land burial facilities. The SSI (National Swedish Institute of Radiation Protection) basis for assessment is reported and relevant factors are presented. The radiation doses calculated by the SSI do not exceed a few microsievert per annum in spite of very pessimistic assumptions. The report constitutes assessment material for the standpoint to be taken by the board of SSI. (L.F.)

  10. Development of high integrity, maximum durability concrete structures for LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    A number of disposal facilities for Low-Level Radioactive Wastes have been planned for the Savannah River Site. Design has been completed for disposal vaults for several waste classifications and construction is nearly complete or well underway on some facilities. Specific design criteria varies somewhat for each waste classification. All disposal units have been designed as below-grade concrete vaults, although the majority will be above ground for many years before being encapsulated with earth at final closure. Some classes of vaults have a minimum required service life of 100 years. All vaults utilize a unique blend of cement, blast furnace slag and pozzolan. The design synthesizes the properties of the concrete mix with carefully planned design details and construction methodologies to (1) eliminate uncontrolled cracking; (2) minimize leakage potential; and (3) maximize durability. The first of these vaults will become operational in 1992. 9 refs

  11. Institutional aspects of siting nuclear waste disposal facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; Prichard, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper has dealt with the institutional issues associated with disposal of nuclear waste in the US. The authors believe that these institutional problems must be resolved, no matter how technologically well suited a site may be for disposal, before site selection may take place. The authors have also pointed out that the geography of the US, with its large arid regions of very low population density, contributes to the institutional acceptability of nuclear waste disposal. Economic factors, especially in sparsely populated areas where the uranium mining and milling industry has caused operation, also weigh on the acceptability of nuclear waste to local communities. This acceptability will be highest where there are existing nuclear facilities and/or facilities which are closed - thus creating unemployment especially where alternative economic opportunities are few

  12. Information on commercial disposal facilities that may have received offshore drilling wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasper, J. R.; Veil, J. A.; Ayers, R. C., Jr.

    2000-08-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing regulations that would establish requirements for discharging synthetic-based drill cuttings from offshore wells into the ocean. Justification for allowing discharges of these cuttings is that the environmental impacts from discharging drilling wastes into the ocean may be less harmful than the impacts from hauling them to shore for disposal. In the past, some onshore commercial facilities that disposed of these cuttings were improperly managed and operated and left behind environmental problems. This report provides background information on commercial waste disposal facilities in Texas, Louisiana, California, and Alaska that received or may have received offshore drilling wastes in the past and are now undergoing cleanup.

  13. Safety considerations in the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources in borehole facilities

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energ Agency. Vienna

    2003-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are used in medicine, industry and research for a wide range of purposes. They can contain different radionuclides in greatly varying amounts. At the end of their useful lives, they are termed 'disused sources' but their activity levels can still be quite high. They are, for all practical purposes, another type of radioactive waste that needs to be disposed of safely. Disused sealed radioactive sources can represent a significant hazard to people if not managed properly. Many countries have no special facilities for the management or disposal of radioactive waste, as they have no nuclear power programmes requiring such facilities. Even in countries with developed nuclear programmes, disused sealed sources present problems as they often fall outside the common categories of radioactive waste for which disposal options have been identified. As a result, many disused sealed sources are kept in storage. Depending on the nature of the storage arrangements, this situation may represent a ...

  14. A successful case site selection for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bongwoo

    2007-01-01

    Korea decided on Gyeongju-si as the site of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility by referendum in November, 2005. Five success factors are considered; 1) the mayor and municipal assembly leaded the public opinion of inhabitants, 2) an invitation group was formed by citizen, social and religious group, 3) Gyeongju-si has operated the nuclear power plant since 20 years ago, and this radioactive waste disposal facility brings large financial support, 4) many kinds of public information means were used for invitation agreement and 5) the preconception, a nuclear facility is danger, was removed by visiting citizen, social group and local inhabitants at the nuclear power plant facility. Promotion process of the project, invitation process of Gyeongju-si and success factors, construction of an invitation promotion group and development of public information activities, publicity of financial effects and safety of radioactive waste disposal facility, increase of general acceptance among inhabitants by many kinds of public information means, and P.R. of safety of nuclear power plant facility by visiting leadership layers are reported. (S.Y.)

  15. Norwegian work on establishing a combined storage and disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Atomic Energy Agency WATRP Review Team.

    1995-12-01

    The IAEA has, through its Waste Management Assessment and Technical Review Programme (WATRP), evaluated policies and facilities related to management of radioactive waste in Norway. It is concluded that the Himdalen site, in combination with the chosen engineering concept, can be suitable for the storage and disposal of the relatively small amounts of Norwegian low and intermediate level waste

  16. Outline of the radioactive waste management strategy at the national radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyalovskaya, L.F.; Tukhto, A.A.; Ivanov, V.B.

    2000-01-01

    The national Belarus radioactive waste disposal facility 'Ekores' was started in 1964 and was designed for radioactive waste coming from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. It is located in the neighbourhood of Minsk (2 Mil. people) and it is the only one in this country. In 1997 the Government initiated the project for the facility reconstruction. The main reconstruction goal is to upgrade radiological safety of the site by creating adequate safety conditions for managing radioactive waste at the Ekores disposal facility. This covers modernising technologies for new coming wastes and also that the wastes currently disposed in the pits are retrieved, sorted and treated in the same way as new coming wastes. The reconstruction project developed by Belarus specialists was reviewed by the IAEA experts. The main provisions of the revised project strategy are given in this paper. The paper's intention is to outline the technical measures which may be taken at standard 'old type Soviet Radon' disposal facility so as to ensure the radiological safety of the site. (author)

  17. Effect of the waste exclusion distance on the postclosure performance of a reference disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Hajas, W.C.; Melnyk, T.W.; Kitson, C.I.

    1995-07-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves the isolation of the waste in corrosion-resistant containers placed in a sealed vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 metres in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The technical feasibility of this concept, and its impact on the environment and human health, are summarized in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The EIS is supported by nine primary references, one of which describes the postclosure assessment of the concept. The postclosure assessment is concerned with the long-term performance and behaviour of the disposal system, starting from the time the disposal facility is closed and extending far into the future. The discussions presented in the EIS and the postclosure assessment are based on a case study of a hypothetical disposal system with specific design features and host rock characteristics. The design features are founded on a conceptual engineering study and the rock characteristics are derived from geological studies of a field research area. In the case study, the long-term performance of the hypothetical disposal system was strongly dependent on a design parameter called the waste exclusion distance. This distance is defined as the minimum length of low-permeability sparsely fractured rock between the waste-emplacement part of the hypothetical vault and a nearby conductive fracture zone in the host rock. In this report, we examine trends in estimates of radiological impact as a function of the waste exclusion distance. (author). 18 refs., 14 figs

  18. 32 CFR 644.486 - Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar contracts. 644.486 Section 644.486 National... Disposal of buildings and improvements constructed under emergency plant facilities (EPF) or similar...

  19. From waste packages acceptance criteria to waste packages acceptance process at the Centre de l'Aube disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutzer, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Centre de l'Aube disposal facility has now been operated for 10 years. At the end of 2001, about 124,000 m3 of low and intermediate level short lived waste packages, representing 180,000 packages, have been disposed, for a total capacity of 1,000,000 m3. The flow of waste packages is now between 12 and 15,000 m3 per year, that is one third of the flow that was taken into account for the design of the repository. It confirms the efforts by waste generators to minimise waste production. This flow represents 25 to 30,000 packages, 50% are conditioned into the compaction facility of the repository, so that 17,000 packages are disposed per year. 54 disposal vaults have been closed. In 1996-1999, the safety assessment of the repository have been reviewed, taking into account the experience of operation. This assessment was investigated by the regulatory body and, subsequently, a so-called 'definitive license' to operate was granted to ANDRA on September 2, 1999 with updated licensing requirements. Another review will be performed in 2004. To ensure a better consistency with the safety assessment of the facility, Andra issued new technical requirements for waste packages at the end of 2000. Discussions with waste generators also showed that the waste package acceptance process should be improved to provide a more precise definition of operational criteria to comply with in waste conditioning facilities. Consequently, a new approach has been implemented since 2000. (orig.)

  20. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.A Kouts

    2006-01-01

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others

  1. Isotopic dilution requirements for 233U criticality safety in processing and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.; Forsberg, C.W.; Hopper, C.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    The disposal of excess 233 U as waste is being considered. Because 233 U is a fissile material, one of the key requirements for processing 233 U to a final waste form and disposing of it is to avoid nuclear criticality. For many processing and disposal options, isotopic dilution is the most feasible and preferred option to avoid nuclear criticality. Isotopic dilution is dilution of fissile 233 U with nonfissile 238 U. The use of isotopic dilution removes any need to control nuclear criticality in process or disposal facilities through geometry or chemical composition. Isotopic dilution allows the use of existing waste management facilities, that are not designed for significant quantities of fissile materials, to be used for processing and disposing of 233 U. The amount of isotopic dilution required to reduce criticality concerns to reasonable levels was determined in this study to be ∼ 0.66 wt% 233 U. The numerical calculations used to define this limit consisted of a homogeneous system of silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), water (H 2 O), 233 U, and depleted uranium (DU) in which the ratio of each component was varied to determine the conditions of maximum nuclear reactivity. About 188 parts of DU (0.2 wt% 235 U) are required to dilute 1 part of 233 U to this limit in a water-moderated system with no SiO 2 present. Thus, for the US inventory of 233 U, several hundred metric tons of DU would be required for isotopic dilution

  2. Economics of a small-volume low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This report was prepared by the US Department of Energy National Low-Level Waste Management Program to present the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility, including all support facilities, beginning in the preoperational phase and continuing through post-closure care. The disposal technology selected for this report is earth-covered concrete vaults, which use reinforced concrete vaults constructed above grade and an earth cover constructed at the end of the operational period for permanent closure. The report develops a design, cost estimate, and schedule for the base case and eight alternative scenarios involving changes in total disposal capacity, operating life, annual disposal rate, source of financing and long-term interest rates. The purpose of this analysis of alternatives is to determine the sensitivity of cost to changes in key analytical or technical parameters, thereby evaluating the influence of a broad range of conditions. The total estimated cost of each alternative is estimated and a unit disposal charge is developed

  3. Safeguards and security aspects of a potential Canadian used-fuel disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Wuschke, D.; Baumgartner, P.

    1994-09-01

    Large quantities of highly radioactive used fuel have been produced by Canadian nuclear generating stations. Conceptual design and development is under way to assess a means of disposing of this used fuel within a vault located 500 to 1000 m deep in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. In parallel with this work, the safeguards and physical security measures that will be required for this used fuel during transportation, packaging, and containment in a disposal vault are being studied in Canada, in several other countries that have similar requirements and by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Canadian commitments and regulations applicable to used-fuel transportation and disposal are described. The experience gained from applying safeguards and physical security measures at similar facilities is considered together with the availability of equipment that might be used in applying these measures. Possible safeguards and physical security measures are outlined and considered. These measures are based on the conceptual design studies for a reference Used-Fuel Disposal Centre and associated transportation systems undertaken by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. These studies show that effective and practical safeguards, which meet present IAEA objectives, can be applied to the used fuel in transportation and at a disposal facility. They also show that physical security measures can be employed that have a high probability of preventing theft or sabotage. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs., glossary, 2 appendices

  4. Safeguards and security aspects of a potential Canadian used-fuel disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R M; Wuschke, D; Baumgartner, P

    1994-09-01

    Large quantities of highly radioactive used fuel have been produced by Canadian nuclear generating stations. Conceptual design and development is under way to assess a means of disposing of this used fuel within a vault located 500 to 1000 m deep in plutonic rock in the Canadian Shield. In parallel with this work, the safeguards and physical security measures that will be required for this used fuel during transportation, packaging, and containment in a disposal vault are being studied in Canada, in several other countries that have similar requirements and by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Canadian commitments and regulations applicable to used-fuel transportation and disposal are described. The experience gained from applying safeguards and physical security measures at similar facilities is considered together with the availability of equipment that might be used in applying these measures. Possible safeguards and physical security measures are outlined and considered. These measures are based on the conceptual design studies for a reference Used-Fuel Disposal Centre and associated transportation systems undertaken by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited and Ontario Hydro. These studies show that effective and practical safeguards, which meet present IAEA objectives, can be applied to the used fuel in transportation and at a disposal facility. They also show that physical security measures can be employed that have a high probability of preventing theft or sabotage. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs., glossary, 2 appendices.

  5. Cost estimates and economic evaluations for conceptual LLRW disposal facility designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, R.D.; Chau, N. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Breeds, C.D. [SubTerra, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Total life-cycle costs were estimated in support of the New York LLRW Siting Commission`s project to select a disposal method from four near-surface LLRW disposal methods (namely, uncovered above-grade vaults, covered above-grade vaults, below-grade vaults, and augered holes) and two mined methods (namely, vertical shaft mines and drift mines). Conceptual designs for the disposal methods were prepared and used as the basis for the cost estimates. Typical economic performance of each disposal method was assessed. Life-cycle costs expressed in 1994 dollars ranged from $ 1,100 million (for below-grade vaults and both mined disposal methods) to $2,000 million (for augered holes). Present values ranged from $620 million (for below-grade vaults) to $ 1,100 million (for augered holes).

  6. Radiohygienic aspects of the safety analysis of the Puespoekszilagy radioactive waste disposal and treatment facility, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerekes, A.; Juhasz, L.; Berci, K.; Ormai, P.

    2001-01-01

    A temporary disposal was established for low level radioactive waste (LLW) at Solymar close to Budapest in 1960. Approx. 900 m 3 LLW was disposed in concrete ring bells on the site until 1975. A new disposal (Radwaste Treatment and Disposal Facility, RWTDF) for low and intermediate radioactive waste (L/ILW) was put into operation at Puespoekszilagy, about 40 km to Budapest in 1976. The site was operated by the Metropolitan Institute of National Public Health and Medical Officer Service until 1997, when according to the new Hungarian Act on Atomic Energy the Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management was established to perform the tasks connected to radwaste management and decommissioning of nuclear installations. The Solymar facility was dismantled and the radioactive waste transported to Puespoekszilagy. The RWTDF is situated on the ridge of a hill in a clay formation with conductivity from 10 -8 to 10 -6 cm.s -1 ; the groundwater depth is 17-20 m from the bottom of the disposal units. The waste is deposited in near surface disposal units (trenches, cells, and wells) with engineered barriers. Up to now about 4900 m 3 of solid and solidified waste has been emplaced and 2 trenches of about 3000 m 3 has been temporary sealed. More than 80% of the disposed waste is of low level. Approx. 700 TBq is the total activity of the radwaste including long-lived and alpha emitting radionuclides with the activity of the order of magnitude of 10 TBq. As the safety analysis was performed in a simple way in 1970's during the commissioning of the facility a comprehensive safety analysis was prescribed to get the license for the operation of the storage units extended at the end of 1980's. ETV-EROETERV Ltd. has won the tender for the safety analysis and the NRIRR was involved in the biosphere characterisation of the region and in the dose estimations for different accidental scenarios as well. The biosphere characterisation included the following categories: meteorology

  7. Materials and degradation modes in an alternative LLW [low-level waste] disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, M.G.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The materials used in the construction of alternative low-level waste disposal facilities will be subject to interaction with both the internal and the external environments associated with the facilities and unless precautions are taken, may degrade, leading to structural failure. This paper reviews the characteristics of both environments with respect to three alternative disposal concepts, then assesses how reaction with them might affect the properties of the materials, which include concrete, steel-reinforced concrete, structural steel, and various protective coatings and membranes. It identifies and evaluates the probability of reactions occurring which might lead to degradation of the materials and so compromise the structure. The probability of failure (interpreted relative to the ability of the structure to restrict ingress and egress of water) is assessed for each material and precautionary measures, intended to maximize the durability of the facility, are reviewed. 19 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Directions in locational conflict research: Voting on the location of nuclear waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, F.M.; Murauskas, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    It is clear from empirical evidence that currently significant locational conflicts concerning the siting of nuclear waste disposal facilities cannot be modeled under the standard noxious facility location paradigm that views locational conflict as conflict between regions. Rather, local populations are characterized by sharp disagreements as to whether the proposed facility is in fact salutary or noxious. Thus, conflict concerning nuclear waste disposal must be understood as a conflict among preferences and values, rather than among competing, areally defined interest groups. This has significant implications for the outcomes of political processes leading to siting decisions, as indicated in this paper. Whether intransivity occurs depends on the location and proportion of persons with different preference orderings concerning possible outcomes. Further research on this issue can and should be directed to further mathematical specification of these conditions along with empirical analysis where appropriate

  9. Mastery of risks: we build the memory of radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacourcelle, C.

    2011-01-01

    The ANDRA, the French national agency of radioactive wastes, is organizing today the information needs of tomorrow. The aim is to allow the future generations to have access to the knowledge of the existence of subsurface radioactive waste facilities and to understand the context and technologies of such facilities. The storage of this information is made on 'permanent paper', a high resistant paper with a lifetime of 600 to 1000 years. An updating of these data is made every 5 years for each waste disposal center. Another project, still in progress, concerns the memory management of deep geologic waste disposal facilities for which the time scale to be considered is of the order of millennia. (J.S.)

  10. Development of a unit cell model for interim performance assessment of vitrified low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, N.W.

    1995-09-01

    The unit cell modeling approach has been developed and used in analysis of some design options for a vitrified low level waste disposal facility. The unit cell modeling approach is likely to be useful in interim performance assessment for the facility. The present unit cell model will probably need to be refitted in terms of some model parameters for the latter purpose. Two present disposal facility concepts differ in the length of a capillary barrier proposed to limit effective recharge through the top of the facility. Results of the study summarized herein suggest design of a capillary barrier which can reduce a recharge rate of 0.1 cm/yr by one or two orders of magnitude seems feasible for both concepts. A benchmark comparison of the unit cell model against a full facility model shows comparable predictive accuracy in less than one percent of the computer time. Results suggest that model parameters include capillary barrier performance, inter-canister spacing, rate of moisture withdrawal due to glass corrosion, contaminant inventory, and the well interceptor factor. It is also important that variations of waste form hydraulic parameters suggest that transport through the waste form is dominated by diffusion

  11. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken; Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10 -8 centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  12. Long-Term Performance of Uranium Tailings Disposal Cells - 13340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Pill, Ken [Professional Project Services, Inc., 1100 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio; Noosai, Nantaporn; Villamizar, Viviana [Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100, Miami FL, 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been interest in the performance and evolution of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell covers because some sites are not compliant with groundwater standards. Field observations of UMTRA disposal cells indicate that rock covers tend to become vegetated and that saturated conductivities in the upper portion of radon barriers may increase due to freeze/thaw cycles and biointrusion. This paper describes the results of modeling that addresses whether these potential changes and transient drainage of moisture in the tailings affect overall performance of the disposal cells. A numerical unsaturated/saturated 3-dimensional flow model was used to simulate whether increases in saturated conductivities in radon barriers with rock covers affect the overall performance of the disposal cells using field data from the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site. A unique modeling approach allowed simulation with daily climatic conditions to determine changes in moisture and moisture flux from the disposal cell. Modeling results indicated that increases in the saturated conductivity at the top of radon barrier do not influence flux from the tailings with time because the tailings behave similar hydraulically to the radon barrier. The presence of a thin layer of low conductivity material anywhere in the cover or tailings restricts flux in the worst case to the saturated conductivity of that material. Where materials are unsaturated at depth within the radon barrier of tailings slimes, conductivities are typically less than 10{sup -8} centimeters per second. If the low conductivity layer is deep within the disposal cell, its saturated properties are less likely to change with time. The significance of this modeling is that operation and maintenance of the disposal cells can be minimized if they are allowed to progress to a natural condition with some vegetation and soil genesis. Because the covers and underlying tailings have a very low saturated

  13. Environmental monitoring for low-level radioactive waste-disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, E.Y.; Starmer, R.J.; Westbrook, K.; Young, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission prepared a Branch Technical Position (BTP) paper on environmental monitoring of a low-level radioactive waste-disposal facility. The BTP provides guidance on what is required in Section 61.53 of 10 CFR Part 61 for those submitting a license application. Guidance is also provided on choosing constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance. The environmental monitoring program generally consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase should be designed to fulfill specific objectives defined in the BTP. During the preoperational phase, program objectives are to provide site characterization information, demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, and obtain background or baseline information. Emphasis during the operational phase is on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to demonstrate compliance with regulations, with dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or with applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational phase emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with site closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective for release. Data are used to support evaluation of long-term impacts to the general public and for public information

  14. The project for national disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Boyanov, S.; Christoskova, M.; Ivanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The State Enterprise Radioactive Waste is the responsible organisation in Bulgaria for the radioactive waste management and, in particular, for the establishment of the national disposal facility (NDF) for low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste (LIL RAW SL). According to the national strategy for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste the NDF should be commissioned in 2015. NDF will accept two main waste streams - for disposal and for storage if the waste is not disposable. The major part of disposable waste is generated by Kozloduy NPP. The disposal facility will be a near surface module type engineered facility. Consecutive erection of new modules will be available in order to increase the capacity of the facility. The corrective measures are previewed to be applied if needed - upgrading of engineered barriers and/or retrieval of the waste. The active control after the facility is closed should be not more than 300 years. The safety of the facility is supposed to be based on the passive measures based on defense in deep consisting of physical barriers and administrative measures. A multi barrier approach will be applied. Presently the NDF project is at the first stage of the facility life cycle - the site selection. The siting process itself consists of four stages - elaboration of a concept for waste disposal and site selection planning, data collection and region analyses, characterization of the preferred sites-candidates and site confirmation. Up till now the work on the first two stages of the siting process had been done by the SE RAW. Geological site investigations have been carried out for more than two decades all over the territory of the country. The results of the investigations have been summarized and analysed thoroughly. More than 40 potential sites have been considered, after the preselection 12 sites have been selected as favourable and among them 5 are pointed out as acceptable. The ultimate decision for a site

  15. Selection of a Site for a Near-Surface Disposal Facility: A Joint Report on Characterization of Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejunas, S.; Cernakauskas, P.

    2005-01-01

    Report describes general and safety-relevant environmental conditions of investigated sites and provides an overview of information concerning wastes to be disposed of. Safety relevant design aspects are given in the Project Report on Reference Design for a Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Low-and Intermediate-Level Short-Lived Radioactive Waste in Lithuania. This Report summarizes results of investigations performed during 2003-2005 by a number of researchers and evaluated by RATA. The work was performed by the Institute of Geology and Geography, the Lithuanian Energy Institute, Vilnius University, the Institute of Chemistry, UAB Grota, the Lithuanian Geological Survey, Swedish consultants from Geodevelopment, SKB and SKI-ICP, and generalized by RATA

  16. EXPERIENCES FROM THE SOURCE-TERM ANALYSIS OF A LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL RADWASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Joo-Wan; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Chang-Lak

    2003-01-01

    Enhancement of a computer code SAGE for evaluation of the Korean concept for a LILW waste disposal facility is discussed. Several features of source term analysis are embedded into SAGE to analyze: (1) effects of degradation mode of an engineered barrier, (2) effects of dispersion phenomena in the unsaturated zone and (3) effects of time dependent sorption coefficient in the unsaturated zone. IAEA's Vault Safety Case (VSC) approach is used to demonstrate the ability of this assessment code. Results of MASCOT are used for comparison purposes. These enhancements of the safety assessment code, SAGE, can contribute to realistic evaluation of the Korean concept of the LILW disposal project in the near future

  17. Compaction of solid wastes in countries without disposal facility: A prelude of future troubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez-Navarro, J.C.; Salgado-Mojena, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is intended to launch a technical debate, which will lead up to simple recommendations on what to do with compactable solid wastes in countries without disposal facilities. The paper discusses the problems caused by some practical uncertainties in the long-term management of the radioactive solid wastes produced outside the nuclear fuel cycle, in countries belonging to Groups A, B and C. Compaction is the preferred volume reduction method. But the compacted solid wastes are very probably not in a suitable form for future disposal and would need to be processed again in the near future. (author)

  18. Safety assessment of a borehole type disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blerk, J.J. van; Yucel, V.; Kozak, M.W.; Moore, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to test the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Borehole Test Case (BTC), related to a proposed future disposal option for disused sealed radioactive sources. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the BTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  19. ASAM - The international programme on application of safety assessment methodologies for near surface radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batandjieva, B.

    2002-01-01

    The IAEA has launched a new Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Application of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM). The CRP will focus on the practical application of the safety assessment methodology, developed under the ISAM programme, for different purposes, such as developing design concepts, licensing, upgrading existing repositories, reassessment of operating disposal facilities. The overall aim of the programme is to assist safety assessors, regulators and other specialists involved in the development and review of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities in order to achieve transparent, traceable and defendable evaluation of safety of these facilities. (author)

  20. Durability test of geomembrane liners presumed to avail near surface disposal facilities for low-level waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Kanno, Naohiro; Kashima, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center will construct near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. The disposal facilities consist of “concrete pit type” for low-level radioactive wastes and “trench type” for very low level radioactive wastes. As for the trench type disposal facility, two kinds of facility designs are on projects – one for a normal trench type disposal facility without any of engineered barriers and the other for a trench type disposal facility with geomembrane liners that could prevent from causing environmental effects of non radioactive toxic materials contained in the waste packages. The disposal facility should be designed taking basic properties of durability on geomembrane liners into account, for it is exposed to natural environment on a long-term basis. This study examined mechanical strength and permeability properties to assess the durability on the basis of an indoor accelerated exposure experiment targeting the liner materials presumed to avail the conceptual design so far. Its results will be used for the basic and detailed design henceforth by confirming the empirical degradation characteristic with the progress of the exposure time. (author)

  1. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau

  2. Geological site characterization for the proposed Mixed Waste Disposal Facility, Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneau, S.L.; Raymond, R. Jr. [eds.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of geological site characterization studies conducted from 1992 to 1994 on Pajarito Mesa for a proposed Los Alamos National Laboratory Mixed Waste Disposal Facility (MWDF). The MWDF is being designed to receive mixed waste (waste containing both hazardous and radioactive components) generated during Environmental Restoration Project cleanup activities at Los Alamos. As of 1995, there is no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitted disposal site for mixed waste at the Laboratory, and construction of the MWDF would provide an alternative to transport of this material to an off-site location. A 2.5 km long part of Pajarito Mesa was originally considered for the MWDF, extending from an elevation of about 2150 to 2225 m (7060 to 7300 ft) in Technical Areas (TAs) 15, 36, and 67 in the central part of the Laboratory, and planning was later concentrated on the western area in TA-67. The mesa top lies about 60 to 75 m (200 to 250 ft) above the floor of Pajarito Canyon on the north, and about 30 m (100 ft) above the floor of Threemile Canyon on the south. The main aquifer used as a water supply for the Laboratory and for Los Alamos County lies at an estimated depth of about 335 m (1100 ft) below the mesa. The chapters of this report focus on surface and near-surface geological studies that provide a basic framework for siting of the MWDF and for conducting future performance assessments, including fulfillment of specific regulatory requirements. This work includes detailed studies of the stratigraphy, mineralogy, and chemistry of the bedrock at Pajarito Mesa by Broxton and others, studies of the geological structure and of mesa-top soils and surficial deposits by Reneau and others, geologic mapping and studies of fracture characteristics by Vaniman and Chipera, and studies of potential landsliding and rockfall along the mesa-edge by Reneau.

  3. A study on closure performance in geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (H14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Kawakami, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu; Makino, Hitoshi; Sawada, Atsushi; Kurihara, Yuji; Mihara, Morihiro

    2003-04-01

    Regarding closure technology of underground facilities in geological disposal of the HLW in H12 report, the fundamental concept that closure technology has no impact against the engineered barrier system (EBS) was described. Performance Assessment (PA) has been performed without considering of the barrier function of closure elements. Following H12 report, the various in-situ data of the closure elements (ex. plug, backfill) have been obtained. Therefore, we considered that the PA of the EBS considering the expecting performance of the closure elements from the view points of both the engineering technology and the PA should be examined. First, the characteristics of rock mass and the function of the closure elements were summarized. Then, the closure scenario was developed preliminarily based on hydrological analysis between a hydraulic fracture and a disposal panel, the fault tree analysis, and so on. (author)

  4. The progress and results of a demonstration test of a cavern-type disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    The cavern-type disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW) with relatively high radioactivity levels mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning and for part of transuranic (TRU) waste mainly from spent fuel reprocessing are designed to be constructed in a cavern 50 to 100 meters below ground, and to employ an engineered barrier system (EBS) of a combination of bentonite and cement materials in Japan. In order to advance the feasibility study for these disposal, a government-commissioned research project named Demonstration Test of Cavern-Type Disposal Facility started in fiscal 2005, and since fiscal 2007 a full-scale mock-up test facility has been constructed under actual subsurface environment. The main objective of the test is to establish construction methodology and procedures which ensure the required quality of the EBS on-site. By fiscal 2009 some parts of the facility have been constructed, and the test has demonstrated both practicability of the construction and achievement of the quality. They are respectively taken as low-permeability of less than 5x10 13 m/s and low-diffusivity of less than 1x10 -12 m 2 /s at the time of completion of construction. This paper covers the project outline and the test results obtained by the construction of some parts of a bentonite and cement materials. (author)

  5. Current status of the Demonstration Test of Underground Cavern-Type Disposal Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Terada, Kenji; Oda, Nobuaki; Yada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    In Japan, the underground cavern-type disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW) with relatively high radioactivity, mainly generated from power reactor decommissioning, and for certain transuranic (TRU) waste, mainly from spent fuel reprocessing, are designed to be constructed in a cavern 50-100 m underground and to employ an engineered barrier system (EBS) made of bentonite and cement materials. To advance a disposal feasibility study, the Japanese government commissioned the Demonstration Test of Underground Cavern-Type Disposal Facilities in fiscal year (FY) 2005. Construction of a full-scale mock-up test facility in an actual subsurface environment started in FY 2007. The main test objective is to establish the construction methodology and procedures that ensure the required quality of the EBS on-site. A portion of the facility was constructed by 2010, and the test has demonstrated both the practicability of the construction and the achievement of quality standards: low permeability of less than 5x10 -13 m/s and low-diffusion of less than 1x10 -12 m 2 /s at the completion of construction. This paper covers the test results from the construction of certain parts using bentonite and cement materials. (author)

  6. From NIMBY to YIMBY: How generators can support siting LLRW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The most frequently head complaint about siting low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities is the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome. The producers or generators of this waste can help move public opinion form NIMBY to YIMBY (YES exclamation point In MY Back Yard exclamation point). Generators of low-level radioactive waste often believe it is the responsibility of other organizations to site disposal facilities for the waste, and that their role is to assure the technical aspects of the facility, such as acceptability criteria for the various waste forms, are clearly defined. In reality, generators, using a properly designed and effectively implemented communications plan, can be the most effective advocates for siting a facility. The communications plan must include the following elements: an objective focusing on the importance of generators becoming vocal and active; clearly defined and crafted key messages; specifically defined and targeted audiences for those messages; and speaker training which includes how to communicate with hostile or concerned audiences about a subject they perceive as very risky. Generators must develop coalitions with other groups and form a grassroots support organization. Finally, opportunities must be developed to deliver these messages using a variety of means. Written materials should be distributed often to keep the need for disposal capability in the public's mind. Can we get from NIMBY to YIMBY? It is difficult, but doable--especially with support from the people who make the waste in the first place

  7. France. The Centre de la Manche disposal facility: Entering into the institutional control period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Centre de la Manche disposal facility, created by decree in 1969, is the first French near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility. It lies at the northwest end of the Cotentin peninsula, next to the COGEMA-La Hague fuel reprocessing plant. The Centre de la Manche facility occupies an area of about 150,000 m 2 . Its operation was terminated in late June 1994 with about 500,000 m 3 of packages disposed of. Operating feedback from the Centre de la Manche was used to design the second French disposal facility, located in the Aube, which has been receiving LILW since 1992. Since the end of the operating period, ANDRA has been preparing the statutory files to prepare the Centre de la Manche for its entry into the institutional control period. A new government decree will set the framework in which the Centre will evolve in this period. The regulatory process includes the filing of an application with the ministries concerned, containing a file with the requisite statutory documents, including an impact study of the facility on its environment as well as a hazard study. The file will then be submitted to a public inquiry, an essential informative period of the project designed to make a compilation of criticisms and suggestions from the public. In support of the application, a safety report has been sent to the Nuclear Installation Safety Directorate (DSIN) for a decision on the admissibility of the application. Recently, the Group of experts appointed by the DSIN which examined it has come out in favor of the creation of a new basic nuclear installation (i.e., a new government agency) for the institutional control period. A draft decree will then be submitted to the approval of the Interministerial Commission for Basic Nuclear Installations. This process, initiated in 1994, is nearing completion

  8. Disposable Electronic Cigarettes and Electronic Hookahs: Evaluation of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monique; Ghai, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to characterize the performance of disposable button-activated and disposable airflow-activated electronic cigarettes (EC) and electronic hookahs (EH). Methods: The airflow rate required to produce aerosol, pressure drop, and the aerosol absorbance at 420nm were measured during smoke-outs of 9 disposable products. Three units of each product were tested in these experiments. Results: The airflow rates required to produce aerosol and the aerosol absorbances were lower for button-activated models (3mL/s; 0.41–0.55 absorbance) than for airflow-activated models (7–17mL/s; 0.48–0.84 absorbance). Pressure drop was also lower across button-activated products (range = 6–12mm H2O) than airflow-activated products (range = 15–67mm H20). For 25 of 27 units tested, airflow did not have to be increased during smoke-out to maintain aerosol production, unlike earlier generation models. Two brands had uniform performance characteristics for all parameters, while 3 had at least 1 product that did not function normally. While button-activated models lasted 200 puffs or less and EH airflow-activated models often lasted 400 puffs, none of the models produced as many puffs as advertised. Puff number was limited by battery life, which was shorter in button-activated models. Conclusion: The performance of disposable products was differentiated mainly by the way the aerosol was produced (button vs airflow-activated) rather than by product type (EC vs EH). Users needed to take harder drags on airflow-activated models. Performance varied within models, and battery life limited the number of puffs. Data suggest quality control in manufacturing varies among brands. PMID:25104117

  9. 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility operational test specification. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document identifies the test specification and test requirements for the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (200 Area TEDF) operational testing activities. These operational testing activities, when completed, demonstrate the functional, operational and design requirements of the 200 Area TEDF have been met. The technical requirements for operational testing of the 200 Area TEDF are defined by the test requirements presented in Appendix A. These test requirements demonstrate the following: pump station No.1 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; pump station No. 2 and associated support equipment operate both automatically and manually; water is transported through the collection and transfer lines to the disposal ponds with no detectable leakage; the disposal ponds accept flow from the transfer lines with all support equipment operating as designed; and the control systems operate and status the 200 Area TEDF including monitoring of appropriate generator discharge parameters

  10. Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a set of performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in a new facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal performance objectives include (1) a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) for any member of the general public beyond the boundary of the disposal facility, and (2) a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 1 mSv (100 mrem) and a limit on committed effective dose equivalent in any year of 5 mSv (500 mrem) for any individual who inadvertently intrudes onto the disposal site after loss of active institutional controls. The use of annual committed effective dose equivalents averaged over a lifetime departs from customary practice in environmental radiation standards in the U.S. of specifying limits on actual dose received in any year to whole body or the critical organ, but provides a set of performance objectives that are more closely related to the fundamental goal of limiting risk from chronic lifetime exposures. (Auth.)

  11. Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents a set of performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in a new facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal performance objectives include a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) for any member of the public beyond the boundary of the disposal facility, and a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) and a limit on committed effective dose equivalent in any year of 5 mSv (0.5 rem) for any individual who inadvertently intrudes onto the disposal site after loss of active institutional controls. In addition, releases of radioactivity beyond the site boundary shall not result in annual dose equivalents to any number of the public from all sources of exposure that exceed limits established by Federal regulatory authorities and shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This report reviews generally applicable radiation protection standards for the public and environmental radiation standards for specific practices that have been developed by national and international authorities and discusses the use of limits on risk rather than dose as performance objectives and consideration of chemical toxicity rather than radiation dose in establishing limits on intakes of uranium. 63 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents a set of performance objectives for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in a new facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The principal performance objectives include a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) for any member of the public beyond the boundary of the disposal facility, and a limit on annual committed effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime of 1 mSv (0.1 rem) and a limit on committed effective dose equivalent in any year of 5 mSv (0.5 rem) for any individual who inadvertently intrudes onto the disposal site after loss of active institutional controls. In addition, releases of radioactivity beyond the site boundary shall not result in annual dose equivalents to any number of the public from all sources of exposure that exceed limits established by Federal regulatory authorities and shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable. This report reviews generally applicable radiation protection standards for the public and environmental radiation standards for specific practices that have been developed by national and international authorities and discusses the use of limits on risk rather than dose as performance objectives and consideration of chemical toxicity rather than radiation dose in establishing limits on intakes of uranium. 63 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  14. The Dose Assessment in the Vault Test Case of Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Drinking Water Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Woo [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    It is generally accepted that the radionuclides contained in the radioactive wastes will be eventually released and these will be transported to the accessible environment (near-field, far-field, biosphere). Therefore, the long-term safety assessment of near-surface radioactive waste disposal should be required by modeling the expected release of radionuclides from the repository, far-field area, and biosphere. Finally, the effective dose rate should be estimated through the released radionuclides. In this study, the radiological dose was evaluated for the reference near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Vaalputs, South Africa, which has been selected as a part of IAEA coordinated research program on improvement of safety assessment methodologies(ISAM). The assessment of radiological dose was performed for drinking water scenario from a well. The release and transport of radionuclides in disposal system were simulated by GoldSim. This approach suggested the time variation of effective dose over long-term period. And the results from this approach were compared with another approach method for the same facility and scenario

  15. The Dose Assessment in the Vault Test Case of Near-Surface Disposal Facility for Drinking Water Scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyoung; Choi, Byung Seon; Moon, Jei Kwon; Park, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the radionuclides contained in the radioactive wastes will be eventually released and these will be transported to the accessible environment (near-field, far-field, biosphere). Therefore, the long-term safety assessment of near-surface radioactive waste disposal should be required by modeling the expected release of radionuclides from the repository, far-field area, and biosphere. Finally, the effective dose rate should be estimated through the released radionuclides. In this study, the radiological dose was evaluated for the reference near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility in Vaalputs, South Africa, which has been selected as a part of IAEA coordinated research program on improvement of safety assessment methodologies(ISAM). The assessment of radiological dose was performed for drinking water scenario from a well. The release and transport of radionuclides in disposal system were simulated by GoldSim. This approach suggested the time variation of effective dose over long-term period. And the results from this approach were compared with another approach method for the same facility and scenario

  16. Special Analysis: Revised 14C Disposal Limits for the Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Saltstone Special Analysis calculated a limit for 14C based on the atmospheric pathway of 52 pCi/mL using some very conservative assumptions. This was compared to the estimated Low Curie Salt concentration of 0.45 pCi/mL and since the limit was two orders of magnitude greater than the estimated concentration, the decision was made that no further analysis was needed. The 14C concentration in Tank 41 has been found to be much greater than the estimated concentration and to exceed the limit derived in the Special Analysis. A rigorous analysis of the release of 14C via the air pathway that considers the chemical effects of the Saltstone system has shown that the flux of 14C is significantly less than that assumed in the Special Analysis. The net result is an inventory limit for 14C that is significantly higher than that derived in the Special Analysis that will also meet the performance objectives of DOE Order 435.1

  17. Conceptual model to determine maximum activity of radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iarmosh, I.; Olkhovyk, Yu.

    2016-01-01

    For development of the management strategy for radioactive waste to be placed in near - surface disposal facilities (NSDF), it is necessary to justify long - term safety of such facilities. Use of mathematical modelling methods for long - term forecasts of radwaste radiation impact and assessment of radiation risks from radionuclides migration can help to resolve this issue. The purpose of the research was to develop the conceptual model for determining the maximum activity of radwaste to be safely disposed in the NSDF and to test it in the case of Lot 3 Vector NSDF (Chornobyl exclusion zone). This paper describes an approach to the development of such a model. The conceptual model of "9"0 Sr migration from Lot 3 through aeration zone and aquifer soils was developed. The results of modelling are shown. The proposals on further steps for the model improvement were developed

  18. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 2, Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Lindsey, K.A.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-12-01

    This document is Volume 2 in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report, the Preoperational Baseline and Site Characterization Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the main text. This document presents original data in support of Volume 1 of the report. The following types of data are presented: well construction reports; borehole logs; borehole geophysical data; well development and pump installation; survey reports; preoperational baseline chemical data and aquifer test data. Five groundwater monitoring wells, six deep characterization boreholes, and two shallow characterization boreholes were drilled at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) site to directly investigate site-specific hydrogeologic conditions

  19. Safety assessment of a vault-based disposal facility using the ISAM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.; Kim, C.-L.; Lietava, P.; Little, R.; Simon, I.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Improving Long-term of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Waste Disposal Facilities (ISAM), three example cases were developed. The aim was to testing the ISAM safety assessment methodology using as realistic as possible data. One of the Test Cases, the Vault Test Case (VTC), related to the disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW) to a hypothetical facility comprising a set of above surface vaults. This paper uses the various steps of the ISAM safety assessment methodology to describe the work undertaken by ISAM participants in developing the VTC and provides some general conclusions that can be drawn from the findings of their work. (author)

  20. Application of GIS in site selection for nuclear waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Luginaah, I.N.; Sorrell, J.

    1996-01-01

    Whether designing a new facility or investigating, potential contaminant migration at an existing site, proper characterization of the subsurface conditions and their interaction with surface features is critical to the process. The Atomic Energy Control Board, states in its regulatory document R-104 that, open-quotes For the long-term management of radioactive wastes, the preferred approach is disposal, a permanent method of management in which there is no intention of retrieval and which, ideally uses techniques and designs that do not rely for their success on long-term institutional control beyond a reasonable period of timeclose quotes. Thus although storage is safe, eventually disposal is necessary to avoid long-term reliance on continuing care and attention, such as monitoring and maintenance. In Canada, the concept being proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) involves disposal in deep underground repositories in intrusive igneous rock. The aim of this concept as a disposal method is to build multiple barriers that would protect humans and the natural environment from contaminants in the radioactive waste. The multiple barriers include the geosphere, which consists of the rock, any sediments overlying the rock, and the groundwater. Nevertheless, immediate, as well as long-term, consequences, including, risk involved with technological systems and the inherent uncertainty of any forecast, make the prediction and analysis tasks of increasing importance. This uncertainty in the area of nuclear waste disposal is leading to growing concerns about nuclear waste site selection

  1. Study of applicable methods on safety verification of disposal facilities and waste packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Three subjects about safety verification on the disposal of low level radioactive waste were investigated in FY. 2012. For radioactive waste disposal facilities, specs and construction techniques of covering with soil to prevent possible destruction caused by natural events (e.g. earthquake) were studied to consider verification methods for those specs. For waste packages subject to near surface pit disposal, settings of scaling factor and average radioactivity concentration (hereafter referred to as ''SF'') on container-filled and solidified waste packages generated from Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit 1-5, setting of cesium residual ratio of molten solidified waste generated from Tokai and Tokai No.2 Power Stations, etc. were studied. Those results were finalized in consideration of the opinion from advisory panel, and publicly opened as JNES-EV reports. In FY 2012, five JNES reports were published and these have been used as standards of safety verification on waste packages. The verification method of radioactive wastes subject to near-surface trench disposal and intermediate depth disposal were also studied. For radioactive wastes which will be returned from overseas, determination methods of radioactive concentration, heat rate and hydrogen generation rate of CSD-C were established. Determination methods of radioactive concentration and heat rate of CSD-B were also established. These results will be referred to verification manuals. (author)

  2. Siting history and current construction status of disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Saburo; Maruyama, Masakatsu

    2008-01-01

    Korean government decided disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), which is located at coastal area near the Wolsong nuclear power plants in Gyeong-Ju city in December. 2005, based on the result of votes of residents in four candidate sites. Since then, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), which is the management company of the LILW disposal facility, has carried out the preparation for construction of disposal facility and its licensing process. At the first phase, 100 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the rock cavern type disposal facility located at the depth from 80m to 130m below the sea level, and finally 800 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the site. This report shows the history of siting for the LILW disposal, the outline of design of disposal facility and current status of its construction, based on the information which was obtained mainly during our visit to the disposal site in Korea. (author)

  3. Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, J.L. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Samples from the ZBG wells at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility are analyzed for constituents required by South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Industrial Solid Waste Permit number-sign 025500-1603 (formerly IWP-217). No constituents were reported above SCDHEC-proposed groundwater monitoring standards or final Primary Drinking Water Standards during first or third quareters 1997. No constituents were detected above SRS flagging criteria during first or third quarters 1997

  4. Principles of geological substantiation for toxic waste disposal facilities sites selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrushchov, D. P.; Matorin, Eu. M.; Shekhunova, S. B.

    2002-01-01

    Industrial, domestic and military activities result in accumulation of toxic and hazardous waste. Disposal of these waste comprises two main approaches: technological processing (utilization and destruction) and landfill. According to concepts and programs of advanced countries technological solutions are preferable, but in fact over 70 % of waste are buried in storages, prevailingly of near surface type. The target of this paper is to present principles of geological substantiation of sites selection for toxic and hazardous waste isolation facilities location. (author)

  5. Description of work for routine groundwater sampling at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, B.H.

    1996-09-01

    This document provides a description of work and field implementation guidance for routine (post-baseline) groundwater monitoring sampling program at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The purpose of this program is to (1) meet the intent of the applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements; (2) document baseline groundwater conditions; (3) monitor those conditions for change; and (4) allow for modifications to groundwater sampling if required by the leachate management program

  6. Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility inventory at risk calculations and safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, A.R.

    1995-11-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is a wastewater treatment plant being constructed to treat the 300 Area Process Sewer and Retention Process Sewer. This document analyzes the TEDF for safety consequences. It includes radionuclide and hazardous chemical inventories, compares these inventories to appropriate regulatory limits, documents the compliance status with respect to these limits, and identifies administrative controls necessary to maintain this status

  7. Secrets of successful siting legislation for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    California's users of radioactive materials, working together through the California Radioactive Materials Management Forum (Cal Rad), have played a role in fostering development of our state's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. One of Cal Rad's contributions was to develop and sponsor California's siting legislation in 1983. In this paper, the elements of the state's LLRW siting law, California Senate Bill 342 (Chapter 1177, Statutes a 1983), and their relationship to a successful siting program are described

  8. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Chau, T. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  9. Special feature of the facilities for final disposal of radioactive waste and its potential impact on the licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Gonzales, Horacio M.; Medici, Marcela A.; Alvarez, Daniela E.; Biaggio, Alfredo L.

    2009-01-01

    During the lifetime of a radioactive waste disposal facility it is possible to identify five stages: design, construction, operation, closure and post-closure. While the design, and pre-operation stages are, to some extent, similar to other kind of nuclear or radioactive facilities; construction, operation, closure and post-closure have quite special meanings in the case of radioactive waste disposal systems. For instance, the 'closure' stage of a final disposal facility seems to be equivalent to the commissioning stage of a conventional nuclear or radioactive facility. This paper describes the unique characteristics of these stages of final disposal systems, that lead to concluded that their licensing procedure can not be assimilated to the standard licensing procedures in use for other nuclear or radioactive facilities, making it necessary to develop a tailored license system. (author)

  10. State waste discharge permit application for the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility and the State-Approved Land Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Application is being made for a permit pursuant to Chapter 173--216 of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC), to discharge treated waste water and cooling tower blowdown from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) to land at the State-Approved Land Disposal Site (SALDS). The ETF is located in the 200 East Area and the SALDS is located north of the 200 West Area. The ETF is an industrial waste water treatment plant that will initially receive waste water from the following two sources, both located in the 200 Area on the Hanford Site: (1) the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and (2) the 242-A Evaporator. The waste water discharged from these two facilities is process condensate (PC), a by-product of the concentration of waste from DSTs that is performed in the 242-A Evaporator. Because the ETF is designed as a flexible treatment system, other aqueous waste streams generated at the Hanford Site may be considered for treatment at the ETF. The origin of the waste currently contained in the DSTs is explained in Section 2.0. An overview of the concentration of these waste in the 242-A Evaporator is provided in Section 3.0. Section 4.0 describes the LERF, a storage facility for process condensate. Attachment A responds to Section B of the permit application and provides an overview of the processes that generated the wastes, storage of the wastes in double-shell tanks (DST), preliminary treatment in the 242-A Evaporator, and storage at the LERF. Attachment B addresses waste water treatment at the ETF (under construction) and the addition of cooling tower blowdown to the treated waste water prior to disposal at SALDS. Attachment C describes treated waste water disposal at the proposed SALDS

  11. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility's compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the open-quotes Core Requirementsclose quotes listed in DOE Order 5480.31, open-quotes Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilitiesclose quotes

  12. Dose and risk assessment of norm Contaminated waste released from trench disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Geleel, M.; Ramadan, A.B.; Tawfik, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations accumulate naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. The petroleum industry adopted methods for managing of NORM that are more restrictive than past practices and are likely to provide greater isolation of the radioactivity. Trench was used as a disposal facility for NORM contaminated wastes at one site of the petroleum industry in Egypt. The aim of this work is to calculate the risk and dose assessment received from trench disposal facility directly and after closure (1000 year). RESRAD computer code was used. The results indicated that the total effective dose (TED) received after direct closure of trench disposal facility was 7.7E-4 mSv/y while after 1000 years, it will he 3.4E-4. The health cancer risk after direct closure was 3.3E-8 while after 1000 years post closure it was 6E-8. Results of this assessment will help examine policy issues concerning different options and regulation of NORM contaminated waste generated by petroleum industry

  13. Radioactive waste storage facility and underground disposal method for radioactive wastes using the facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Yoshihiro.

    1997-01-01

    A sealed container storage chamber is formed in underground rocks. A container storage pool is formed on the inner bottom of the sealed vessel storage chamber. A heat exchanger for cooling water and a recycling pump are disposed on an operation floor of the sealed vessel storage chamber. Radioactive wastes sealed vessels in which radioactive wastes are sealed are transferred from the ground to the sealed vessel storage chamber through a sealed vessel transferring shaft, and immersed in cooling water stored in the vessel storage pool. When after heat of the radioactive wastes is removed by the cooling water, the cooling water in the vessel storage pool is sucked up to the ground surface. After dismantling equipments, bentonite-type fillers are filled in the inside of the sealed vessel storage chamber, sealed vessel transferring shaft, air supplying shaft and air exhaustion shaft, and the radioactive waste-sealed vessels can be subjected stably to into underground disposal. (I.N.)

  14. Readiness plan, Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is designed for the collection, treatment, and eventual disposal of liquid waste from the 300 Area Process Sewer (PS) system. The PS currently discharges water to the 300 Area Process Trenches. Facilities supported total 54 buildings, including site laboratories, inactive buildings, and support facilities. Effluent discharges to the process sewer from within these facilities include heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, heat exchangers, floor drains, sinks, and process equipment. The wastewaters go through treatment processes that include iron coprecipitation, ion exchange and ultraviolet oxidation. The iron coprecipitation process is designed to remove general heavy metals. A series of gravity filters then complete the clarification process by removing suspended solids. Following the iron coprecipitation process is the ion exchange process, where a specific resin is utilized for the removal of mercury. The final main unit operation is the ultraviolet destruction process, which uses high power ultraviolet light and hydrogen peroxide to destroy organic molecules. The objective of this readiness plan is to provide the method by which line management will prepare for a Readiness Assessment (RA) of the TEDF. The self-assessment and RA will assess safety, health, environmental compliance and management readiness of the TEDF. This assessment will provide assurances to both WHC and DOE that the facility is ready to start-up and begin operation

  15. Development of computer model for radionuclide released from shallow-land disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganda, D.; Sucipta; Sastrowardoyo, P.B.; Eriendi

    1998-01-01

    Development of 1-dimensional computer model for radionuclide release from shallow land disposal facility (SLDF) has been done. This computer model is used for the SLDF facility at PPTA Serpong. The SLDF facility is above 1.8 metres from groundwater and 150 metres from Cisalak river. Numerical method by implicit method of finite difference solution is chosen to predict the migration of radionuclide with any concentration.The migration starts vertically from the bottom of SLDF until the groundwater layer, then horizontally in the groundwater until the critical population group. Radionuclide Cs-137 is chosen as a sample to know its migration. The result of the assessment shows that the SLDF facility at PPTA Serpong has the high safety criteria. (author)

  16. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs.

  17. Model training curriculum for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, C.J.; Birk, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    This document is to assist in the development of the training programs required to be in place for the operating license for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It consists of an introductory document and four additional appendixes of individual training program curricula. This information will provide the starting point for the more detailed facility-specific training programs that will be developed as the facility hires and trains new personnel and begins operation. This document is comprehensive and is intended as a guide for the development of a company- or facility-specific program. The individual licensee does not need to use this model training curriculum as written. Instead, this document can be used as a menu for the development, modification, or verification of customized training programs

  18. Safety Analysis (SA) of the Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities (Buildings 514, 612, and 614) at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.; Toy, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    This safety analysis was performed for the Manager of Plant Operations at LLL and fulfills the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. The analysis was based on field inspections, document review, computer calculations, and extensive input from Waste Management personnel. It was concluded that the quantities of materials handled do not pose undue risks on- or off-site, even in postulated severe accidents. Risks from the various hazards at these facilities vary from low to moderate as specified in DOE Order 5481.1. Recommendations are made for additional management and technical support of waste disposal operations

  19. Safety Analysis (SA) of the Hazardous Waste Disposal Facilities (Buildings 514, 612, and 614) at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, B.N.; Toy, A.J.

    1979-12-13

    This safety analysis was performed for the Manager of Plant Operations at LLL and fulfills the requirements of DOE Order 5481.1. The analysis was based on field inspections, document review, computer calculations, and extensive input from Waste Management personnel. It was concluded that the quantities of materials handled do not pose undue risks on- or off-site, even in postulated severe accidents. Risks from the various hazards at these facilities vary from low to moderate as specified in DOE Order 5481.1. Recommendations are made for additional management and technical support of waste disposal operations.

  20. On the estimation of bias in post-closure performance assessment of underground radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.J.; Gralewski, Z.A.; Grindrod, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method for recording and evaluating bias in performance assessments for underground radioactive waste disposal facilities. The bias estimation approach comprises three principal components: (1) creation of a relational database containing historical assumptions and decisions made during the assessment, (2) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of internal bias through alternative assessment calculations, and (3) investigation of the impact of some identified sources of external bias by estimating degrees of belief probability. Bias corrections may help avoid unnecessary concerns by explaining and scoping the impacts of principal differences without the need to undertake additional site investigation, research, and performance analysis

  1. Interaction of Sr-90 with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility at Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiawan, Budi, E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id [Radwaste Technology Center-National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Serpong-Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia); Mila, Oktri; Safni [Dept. of Chemistry, Fac. of Math. and Nat. Sci., Andalas University, Kampus Limau Manis, Padang-West Sumatra 25163 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Interaction of radiostrontium (Sr-90) with site candidate soil for demonstration disposal facility to be constructed in the near future at Serpong has been done. This activity is to anticipate the interim storage facility at Serpong nuclear area becomes full off condition, and show to the public how radioactive waste can be well managed with the existing technology. To ensure that the location is save, a reliability study of site candidate soil becomes very importance to be conducted through some experiments consisted some affected parameters such as contact time, effect of ionic strength, and effect of Sr{sup +} ion in solution. Radiostrontium was used as a tracer on the experiments and has role as radionuclide reference in low-level radioactive waste due to its long half-live and it's easy to associate with organism in nature. So, interaction of radiostrontium and soil samples from site becomes important to be studied. Experiment was performed in batch method, and soil sample-solution containing radionuclide was mixed in a 20 ml of PE vial. Ratio of solid: liquid was 10{sup −2} g/ml. Objective of the experiment is to collect the specific characteristics data of radionuclide sorption onto soil from site candidate. Distribution coefficient value was used as indicator where the amount of initial and final activities of radiostrontium in solution was compared. Result showed that equilibrium condition was reached after contact time 10 days with Kd values ranged from 1600-2350 ml/g. Increased in ionic strength in solution made decreased of Kd value into soil sample due to competition of background salt and radiostrontium into soil samples, and increased in Sr ion in solution caused decreased of Kd value in soil sample due to limitation of sorption capacity in soil samples. Fast condition in saturated of metal ion into soil samples was reached due to a simple reaction was occurred.

  2. Disposal project for LLW and VLLW generated from research facilities in Japan: A feasibility study for the near surface disposal of VLLW that includes uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Hasegawa, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakatani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion and future work: • JAEA plans trench disposal of U-bearing waste with less than 100 Bq/g. • Two safety measures of trench disposal of U-bearing waste have been discussed taking into account increasing radioactivity over a long period of time. 1. First is to carry out dose assessment of site use scenario by using a conservatively stylized condition. 2. Second is to control the average concentration of U in the trench facilities based on the concept of the existing exposure situation. • We are continuously developing the method for safety measures of near surface disposal of VLLW including U-bearing waste.

  3. Waste management system functional requirements for Interim Waste Management Facilities (IWMFs) and technology demonstrations, LLWDDD [Low-Level Disposal Development and Demonstration] Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to build upon the preceding decisions and body of information to prepare draft system functional requirements for each classification of waste disposal currently proposed for Low-Level Waste Disposal Development Demonstration (LLWDDD) projects. Functional requirements identify specific information and data needs necessary to satisfy engineering design criteria/objectives for Interim Waste Management Facilities. This draft will suppor the alternatives evaluation process and will continue to evolve as strategy is implemented, regulatory limits are established, technical and economic uncertainties are resolved, and waste management plans are being implemented. This document will become the planning basis for the new generation of solid LLW management facilities on new sites on the Reservation. Eighteen (18) general system requirements are identified which are applicable to all four Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal classifications. Each classification of LLW disposal is individually addressed with respect ot waste characteristics, site considerations, facility operations, facility closure/post-closure, intruder barriers, institutional control, and performance monitoring requirements. Three initial LLW disposal sites have been proposed as locations on the ORR for the first demonstrations

  4. Performance assessment for an above grade disposal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blickwedehl, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The low-level waste generated in conjunction with solidification of high-level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project will be disposed of in an above grade earthen mound. This method of disposal was selected in consideration of the site geology and waste characteristics. The earth mound is designed to permanently isolate the waste from the environment by means of redundant clay caps over the waste cell. However, it is possible that engineered barriers might fail under contingency conditions. A pathway analysis was performed to analyze the dose to man which might result under these conditions. A finite element code was used to model seepage through the clay caps and the waste cell. The water flux and velocity in the waste cell were used to estimate the leaching by diffusion theory. Leachate from this source discharges to the environment and flow overland to surface waters which drain the disposal site. Some of the radionuclides in the leachate are sorbed onto the surface soils during the overland flow. The most significant exposure was to a hypothetical individual who illegally resided on the site and planted a vegetable garden. Most of this potential dose was from inhalation of contaminated surface soil which was resuspended when the soil was tilled. The maximum dose received by the on-site resident was estimated to be 3 mrem/year, a fraction of background. The predicted dose to an off-site resident was two orders of magnitude less. 12 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  5. The development and status of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.; Papp, T.; Coplan, S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of formal performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal has been in progress for around 10-15 years now. The time is particularly opportune for a review of the state-of-the-art because of current changes in the status of repository planning and implementation world-wide. Several major feasibility-type studies have been completed, the first full site-specific safety analyses are being performed for engineered underground disposal facilities for L/ILW, and - for HLW - the die are now being cast by implementers and regulators determining how the safety analyses for licensing are to be performed and assessed. This introductory paper reviews the development of performance assessment, including a reiteration of the aims and a recapitulation of the technical progress and achievements to date. The most important purpose, however, is to identify some key issues occupying safety analysts and regulatory reviewers involved in waste disposal today. The objective is to present the generally accepted consensus on the state of the art in performance assessment. 40 refs., 2 figs

  6. French experience in design and construction of near-surface disposal facilities for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jousselin, D.; Medal, G.; Augustin, X.; Wavrechin, B. de

    1993-01-01

    France disposes of all radioactive waste produced on its territory. Short-lived waste (with a half-life shorter than 30 years) are disposed of, since 1969 on the 'La Manche' disposal facility (CSM 'Centre de La Manche'). As this center will be saturated in 1994, ANDRA (French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management) has undertaken in 1984 the studies and works necessary to the realization of a new disposal facility. TECHNICATOME was associated, since the beginning of those studies and was chosen by ANDRA as Prime Contractor for the new Radwaste Disposal Center. French conception was chosen by Spanish Authorities in 1987, ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA) selected the Cabril Site in the South of Spain as disposal of low and medium activity radwaste. TECHNICATOME was associated with this project, through a joint French-Spanish engineering team. Authority of North Carolina State (USA) decided in 1989 to build a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and the contract has been awarded to CNSI (Chem Nuclear System Inc.) with a proposal based on the French experience. A french team ANDRA/TECHNICATOME/SGN is in charge of the design of the disposal facility

  7. Licensing and Operations of the Clive, Utah Low-Level Containerized Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- A Continuation of Excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, M. R.; Cade, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Envirocare's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) is the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to be licensed in the 21st century and the first new site to be opened and operated since the late 1970's. The licensing of this facility has been the culmination of over a decade's effort by Envirocare of Utah at their Clive, Utah site. With the authorization to receive and dispose of higher activity containerized Class A low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), this facility has provided critical access to disposal for the nuclear power industry, as well as the related research and medical communities. This paper chronicles the licensing history and operational efforts designed to address the disposal of containerized LLRW in accordance with state and federal regulations

  8. Licensing and Operations of the Clive, Utah Low-Level Containerized Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- A Continuation of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, M. R.; Cade, M. S.

    2002-02-25

    Envirocare's Containerized Waste Facility (CWF) is the first commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to be licensed in the 21st century and the first new site to be opened and operated since the late 1970's. The licensing of this facility has been the culmination of over a decade's effort by Envirocare of Utah at their Clive, Utah site. With the authorization to receive and dispose of higher activity containerized Class A low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), this facility has provided critical access to disposal for the nuclear power industry, as well as the related research and medical communities. This paper chronicles the licensing history and operational efforts designed to address the disposal of containerized LLRW in accordance with state and federal regulations.

  9. Computer software design description for the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), Project L-045H, Operator Training Station (OTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) Operator Training Station (OTS) is a computer-based training tool designed to aid plant operations and engineering staff in familiarizing themselves with the TEDF Central Control System (CCS)

  10. DOE's performance evaluation project for mixed low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Gruebel, M.M.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A performance evaluation (PE) is an analysis that estimates radionuclide concentration limits for 16 potential Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level waste (ULLW) disposal sites based on the analysis of two environmental exposure pathways (air and water) to an off-site individual and an inadvertent-intruder exposure pathway. Sites are analyzed for their ability to attenuate concentrations of specific radionuclides that could be released from wastes in a hypothetical ULLW disposal facility. Site-specific data and knowledge are used within a generic framework that is consistent across all sites being evaluated. After estimates of waste concentrations for the three pathways are calculated, the minimum of the waste concentration values is selected as the permissible waste concentration for each radionuclide. The PE results will be used as input to the process for DOE's ULLW disposal configuration. Preliminary comparisons of results from the PE and site-specific performance assessments indicate that the simple PE results generally agree with results of the performance assessments, even when site conditions are complex. This agreement with performance-assessment results increases confidence that similar results can be obtained at other sites that have good characterization data. In addition, the simple analyses contained in the PE illustrate a potential method to satisfy the needs of many regulators and the general public for a simple, conservative, defensible, and easily understandable analysis that provides results similar to those of more complex analyses

  11. TSD-DOSE: A radiological dose assessment model for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfingston, M.; Arnish, J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.

    1998-01-01

    Past practices at US Department of Energy (DOE) field facilities resulted in the presence of trace amounts of radioactive materials in some hazardous chemical wastes shipped from these facilities. In May 1991, the DOE Office of Waste Operations issued a nationwide moratorium on shipping all hazardous waste until procedures could be established to ensure that only nonradioactive hazardous waste would be shipped from DOE facilities to commercial treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities. To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological assessment computer model (or code) was developed on the basis of detailed assessments of potential radiological exposures and doses for eight commercial hazardous waste TSD facilities. The model, called TSD-DOSE, is designed to incorporate waste-specific and site-specific data to estimate potential radiological doses to on-site workers and the off-site public from waste-handling operations at a TSD facility. The code is intended to provide both DOE and commercial TSD facilities with a rapid and cost-effective method for assessing potential human radiation exposures from the processing of chemical wastes contaminated with trace amounts of radionuclides

  12. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal.

  13. A geohydrological appraisal of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal facility in Namaqualand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1988-10-01

    The Vaalputs National Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility is located on the Bushmanland Plateau. The disposal site is situated close to the junction of three river basins. All the parameters neccessary were obtained, and methodology developed, to monitor the moisture content of the clay layers underlying the disposal site. Environmental isotope studies established the percolation only reached 3,5m in depth during the past 50 years. The depth was confirmed by neutron meter measurements. The depth to the piezometric surface below the site is, on average, 55m. Ground water is confined to both vertical and horizontal fractures and weathered joints. The high transmissivity of water-bearing structures below the site and the flat piezometric surface are seen as advantageous. In the event of a serious leak and radionuclides reaching the ground water, sustained pumping may lower the piezometric surface creating a basin effect and preventing contamination from reaching private boreholes. Regional hydrogeochemical studies have confirmed that regional flow away from the disposal site toward the Koa drainage is slow and nearly stagnant. The geochemical environment is favourable for attenuating any radionuclide leakage. 1 map, 93 figs., 47 tabs., 158 refs

  14. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: UNH blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is examining options for the disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. Disposition is a process of use or disposal of material that results in the material being converted to a form that is substantially and inherently more proliferation-resistant than is the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. This report provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate blending option to produce oxide for disposal. This the Conversion and Blending Facility (CBF) alternative will have two missions (1) convert HEU materials into HEU uranyl nitrate (UNH) and (2) blend the HEU uranyl nitrate with depleted and natural assay uranyl nitrate to produce an oxide that can be stored until an acceptable disposal approach is available. The primary emphasis of this blending operation will be to destroy the weapons capability of large, surplus stockpiles of HEU. The blended LEU product can only be made weapons capable again by the uranium enrichment process. The blended LEU will be produced as a waste suitable for storage or disposal

  15. Ageing management program for the Spanish low and intermediate level waste disposal and spent fuel and high-level waste centralised storage facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, P.; Ordoñez, M.; Andrade, C.; Castellote, M.

    2011-04-01

    The generic design of the centralised spent fuel storage facility was approved by the Spanish Safety Authority in 2006. The planned operational life is 60 years, while the design service life is 100 years. Durability studies and surveillance of the behaviour have been considered from the initial design steps, taking into account the accessibility limitations and temperatures involved. The paper presents an overview of the ageing management program set in support of the Performance Assessment and Safety Review of El Cabril low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility. Based on the experience gained for LILW, ENRESA has developed a preliminary definition of the Ageing Management Plan for the Centralised Interim Storage Facility of spent Fuel and High Level Waste (HLW), which addresses the behaviour of spent fuel, its retrievability, the confinement system and the reinforced concrete structure. It includes tests plans and surveillance design considerations, based on the El Cabril LILW disposal facility.

  16. Ageing management program for the Spanish low and intermediate level waste disposal and spent fuel and high-level waste centralised storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The generic design of the centralised spent fuel storage facility was approved by the Spanish Safety Authority in 2006. The planned operational life is 60 years, while the design service life is 100 years. Durability studies and surveillance of the behaviour have been considered from the initial design steps, taking into account the accessibility limitations and temperatures involved. The paper presents an overview of the ageing management program set in support of the Performance Assessment and Safety Review of El Cabril low and intermediate level waste (LILW disposal facility. Based on the experience gained for LILW, ENRESA has developed a preliminary definition of the Ageing Management Plan for the Centralised Interim Storage Facility of spent Fuel and High Level Waste (HLW, which addresses the behaviour of spent fuel, its retrievability, the confinement system and the reinforced concrete structure. It includes tests plans and surveillance design considerations, based on the El Cabril LILW disposal facility.

  17. Buffer Construction Methodology in Demonstration Test For Cavern Type Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro, Akiyama; Takahiro, Nakajima; Katsuhide, Matsumura; Kenji, Terada; Takao, Tsuboya; Kazuhiro, Onuma; Tadafumi, Fujiwara

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies concerning a cavern type disposal facility have been carried out for disposal of low level radioactive waste mainly generated by power plant decommissioning in Japan. The disposal facility is composed of an engineered barrier system with concrete pit and bentonite buffer, and planed to be constructed in sub-surface 50 - 100 meters depth. Though the previous studies have mainly used laboratory and mock-up tests, we conducted a demonstration test in a full-size cavern. The main objectives of the test were to study the construction methodology and to confirm the quality of the engineered barrier system. The demonstration test was planned as the construction of full scale mock-up. It was focused on a buffer construction test to evaluate the construction methodology and quality control in this paper. Bentonite material was compacted to 1.6 Mg/m 3 in-site by large vibrating roller in this test. Through the construction of the buffer part, a 1.6 Mg/m 3 of the density was accomplished, and the data of workability and quality is collected. (authors)

  18. The defense waste processing facility: the final processing step for defense high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, S.P.; Sprecher, W.M.; Walton, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The policy of the U.S. Department of Energy is to pursue an aggressive and credible waste management program that advocates final disposal of government generated (defense) high-level nuclear wastes in a manner consistent with environmental, health, and safety responsibilities and requirements. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is an essential component of the Department's program. It is the first project undertaken in the United States to immobilize government generated high-level nuclear wastes for geologic disposal. The DWPF will be built at the Department's Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. When construction is complete in 1989, the DWPF will begin processing the high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant into a borosilicate glass form, a highly insoluble and non-dispersable product, in easily handled canisters. The immobilized waste will be stored on site followed by transportation to and disposal in a Federal repository. The focus of this paper is on the DWPF. The paper discusses issues which justify the project, summarizes its technical attributes, analyzes relevant environmental and insitutional factors, describes the management approach followed in transforming technical and other concepts into concrete and steel, and concludes with observations about the future role of the facility

  19. Design and construction of low level radioactive waste disposal facility at Rokkasho storage center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Itoh, H.; Iimura, H.; Shimoda, H.

    1992-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Industries Co., Inc. (JNFI) which has been established to dispose through burial the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) produced by nuclear power stations over the country is now constructing Rokkasho LLW Storage Center at Rokkasho Village,Aomori Prefecture. At this storage center JNFI plans to bury about 200,000m 3 , of LLW (equivalent to about one million drums each with a 200 liter capacity), and ultimately plans to bury about 600,000m 3 about 3 million drums of LLW. About the construction of the burial facilities for the first-stage LLW equivalent to 200,000 drums (each with a 200-liter capacity) we obtained the government's permit in November, 1990 and set out the construction work from the same month, which has since been promoted favorably. The facilities are scheduled to start operation from December, 1992. This paper gives an overview of at these facilities

  20. KAERI Underground Research Facility (KURF) for the Demonstration of HLW Disposal Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, P. S.; Cho, W. J.; Kwon, S.

    2006-01-01

    In order to dispose of high-level radioactive waste(HLW) safely in geological formations, it is necessary to assess the feasibility, safety, appropriateness, and stability of the disposal concept at an underground research site, which is constructed in the same geological formation as the host rock. In this paper, the current status of the conceptual design and the construction of a small scale URL, which is named as KURF, were described. To confirm the validity of the conceptual design of the underground facility, a geological survey including a seismic refraction survey, an electronic resistivity survey, a borehole drilling, and in situ and laboratory tests had been carried out. Based on the site characterization results, it was possible to effectively design the KURF. The construction of the KURF was started in May 2005 and the access tunnel was successfully completed in March 2006. Now the construction of the research modules is under way

  1. Operational safety of near surface waste disposal facilities in the Republic of Moldova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursulean, I.; Balaban, V.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last few years, the Republic of Moldova, with assistance from the IAEA, undertook the establishment of the legislative and normative basis consisting of a regulatory body infrastructure, including a monitoring optimization strategy concerning radioactive waste management safety. At present the following work is underway: the introduction of a new law 'About Radiation Safety and Population Protection', the re-implementation of a normative base, and the incorporation of the IAEA Basic Safety Standards through the national legislation. Presently in the Republic of Moldova, there exists a system of radioactive waste management, comprising collection, disposal, transportation and storage. This system consists of the radioactive material users, the designated disposal facility and the regulatory bodies. (author)

  2. Volumetric activity of SRS mixed waste and comparison with SRS performance and commercial facility limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Daugherty, B.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the comparative analysis performed to estimate the after-treatment volumetric activity of the radionuclides included in the Savannah River site (SRS) mixed-waste streams and its comparison with the following: (1) The performance evaluation (PE) limits established for each radionuclide for on-site disposal: These limits correspond to the permissible waste disposal limits that are the lowest limits evaluated for the most restrictive release scenarios that include the groundwater pathway, the atmospheric pathway, and the intruder scenarios. (2) The radiological performance assessment (PA) limits established for each radionuclide for disposal in the SRS disposal vaults that meet the requirements of Chap. III of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 5820.2A: The vaults considered are the low-activity waste (LAW) vaults, the intermediate-level non-tritium (ILNT) vaults. and the intermediate-level tritium (ILT) vaults. (3) The radioactive limits of a commercial mixed waste disposal facility

  3. Design and operational considerations of United States commercial nea-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk, Sandra M.

    1997-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste disposal standards and techniques in the United States have evolved significantly since the early 1960's. Six commercial LLW disposal facilities(Barnwell, Richland, Ward Valley, Sierra Blanca, Wake County and Boyd County) operated and proposed between 1962 and 1997. This report summarizes each site's design and operational considerations for near-surface disposal of low-level radioactive waste. These new standards and mitigating efforts at closed facilities (Sheffield, Maxey Flats, Beatty and West Valley) have helped to ensure that the public has been safely protected from LLW. 15 refs

  4. Concept and Idea-Project for Yugoslav Low and Intermediate level Radioactive Waste Materials Final Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peric, A.

    1997-01-01

    Encapsulation of rad waste in a mortar matrix and displacement of such solidified waste forms into the shallow land burial system, engineered trench system type is suggested concept for the final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste. The mortar-rad waste mixtures are cured in containers of either concrete or metal for an appropriate period of time, after which solidified rad waste-mortar monoliths are then placed in the engineered trench system, parallelepiped honeycomb structure. Trench consists of vertical barrier-walls, bottom barrier-floors, surface barrier-caps and permeable-reactive walls. Surroundings of the trench consists of buffer barrier materials, mainly clay. Each segment of the trench is equipped with the independent drainage system, as a part of the main drainage. Encapsulation of each filled trench honeycomb segment is performed with concrete cap. Completed trench is covered with impermeable plastic foil and soil leaner, preferably clay. Paper presents an overview of the final disposal facility engineered trench system type. Advantages in comparison with other types of final disposal system are given. (author)

  5. Safety Report within the licence application for the siting of a radioactive waste repository/disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.; Sinaglova, R.

    2004-01-01

    The initial safety specification report, which is submitted to the licensing authority as one of the application documents, is the basic document assessing the planned repository/disposal facility with respect to the suitability of the chosen site for this purpose. The following topics are covered: General information; Description and evidence of suitability of the site chosen; Description and tentative assessment of the repository/disposal facility design; Tentative assessment of impacts of running the facility on the employees, general public and environment (radionuclide inventory, transport routes, radionuclide release in normal, abnormal and emergency situations); Proposed concept of repository/disposal facility shutdown; and Assessment of quality assurance in the site selection, in preparatory work for the construction of the facility and in the subsequent stages. (P.A.)

  6. Plans for dealing with loss of access to the Midwest Compact Regional Disposal Facility: Regional Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report describes events that could lead to the premature closure of a disposal facility and the prospects that the closed facility could eventually be reopened. Possible courses of action leading to disposal outside the Midwest region while the Midwest Compact works to reestablish a regional disposal capability are also discussed. A likely division of responsibilities between the Compact Commission and the individual member states, with emphasis on managing low-level waste after a loss of access when disposal outside the Midwest is not possible is presented. Key elements in an agreement between compacts to accept each other's waste when one compact has experienced an unexpected interruption of its disposal operation are described

  7. Technology, socio-political acceptance, and the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.; Domenech, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The technology which is required to develop and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in the 1990's is available today. The push for best available technology is a response to the political difficulties in securing public acceptance of the site selection process. Advances in waste management technologies include development of High Integrity Containers (HIC), solidification media, liquid volume reduction techniques using GEODE/sub sm/ and DeVoe-Holbein technology of selective removal of target radioisotopes, and CASTOR V storage casks. Advances in technology alone, however, do not make the site selection process easier and without socio-political acceptance there may be no process at all. Chem-Nuclear has been successful in achieving community acceptance at the Barnwell facility and elsewhere. For example, last June in Fall River County, South Dakota, citizens voted almost 2:1 to support the development of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. In Edgemont, the city nearest the proposed site, 85% of the voters were in favor of the proposed facility

  8. Performance specifications for proton medical facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W.T.; Staples, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Renner, T.R.; Singh, R.P.; Nyman, M.A.; Collier, J.M.; Daftari, I.K.; Petti, P.L.; Alonso, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kubo, H.; Verhey, L.J. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine; Castro, J.R. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center]|[California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1993-03-01

    Performance specifications of technical components of a modern proton radiotherapy facility are presented. The technical items specified include: the accelerator; the beam transport system including rotating gantry; the treatment beamline systems including beam scattering, beam scanning, and dosimetric instrumentation; and an integrated treatment and accelerator control system. Also included are treatment ancillary facilities such as diagnostic tools, patient positioning and alignment devices, and treatment planning systems. The facility specified will accommodate beam scanning enabling the three-dimensional conformal therapy deliver .

  9. ASTM STANDARD GUIDE FOR EVALUATING DISPOSAL OPTIONS FOR REUSE OF CONCRETE FROM NUCLEAR FACILITY DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Ann Marie; Meservey, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    Within the nuclear industry, many contaminated facilities that require decommissioning contain huge volumes of concrete. This concrete is generally disposed of as low-level waste at a high cost. Much of the concrete is lightly contaminated and could be reused as roadbed, fill material, or aggregate for new concrete, thus saving millions of dollars. However, because of the possibility of volumetric contamination and the lack of a method to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete, reuse is rarely considered. To address this problem, Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL-E) and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory teamed to write a ''concrete protocol'' to help evaluate the ramifications of reusing concrete within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document, titled the Protocol for Development of Authorized Release Limits for Concrete at U.S. Department of Energy Site (1) is based on ANL-E's previously developed scrap metal recycle protocols; on the 10-step method outlined in DOE's draft handbook, Controlling Release for Reuse or Recycle of Property Containing Residual Radioactive Material (2); and on DOE Order 4500.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (3). The DOE concrete protocol was the basis for the ASTM Standard Guide for Evaluating Disposal Options for Concrete from Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, which was written to make the information available to a wider audience outside DOE. The resulting ASTM Standard Guide is a more concise version that can be used by the nuclear industry worldwide to evaluate the risks and costs of reusing concrete from nuclear facility decommissioning. The bulk of the ASTM Standard Guide focuses on evaluating the dose and cost for each disposal option. The user calculates these from the detailed formulas and tabulated data provided, then compares the dose and cost for each disposal option to select the best option that meets regulatory requirements. With this information

  10. Deep geologic disposal. Lessons learnt from recent performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Andersson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment (PA) studies are part of the decision basis for the siting, operation, and closure of deep repositories of long-lived nuclear wastes. In 1995 the NEA set up the Working Group on Integrated Performance Assessments of Deep Repositories (IPAG) with the goals to analyse existing PA studies, learn about what has been produced to date, and shed light on what could be done in future studies. Ten organisations submitted their most recent PA study for analysis and discussion, including written answers to over 70 questions. Waste management programmes, disposal concepts, geologies, and different types and amounts of waste offered a unique opportunity for exchanging information, assessing progress in PA since 1990, and identifying recent trends. A report was completed whose main lessons are overviewed. (author)

  11. Conceptual design of disposal facility below the generally used depth. Document prepared by other institute, based on the trust contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Wataru; Nakagawa, Tatsuo; Mukunoki, Atsushi; Goto, Kikuji [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    Radioisotope, nuclear fuel materials, and so on have been used in the various fields such as the research activities of universities and research institutes or the treatment and diagnosis of the medical institutes. It is necessary to treat and dispose of radioactive wastes safety and economically. However, as for radioactive wastes disposal below the generally used depth, a concrete disposal concept isn't examined, and the safety of disposal isn't evaluated, either. This report contains building of the database for the radioactive wastes applicable for disposal below the generally used depth, and preliminary safety evaluation was enforced on the setup of condition presumed in the present. Finally subjects for the conceptual design of the disposal facility below the generally used depth were extracted. (author)

  12. Integrated disposal Facility Sagebrush Habitat Mitigation Project: FY2007 Compensation Area Monitoring Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, Robin E.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes the first year survival of sagebrush seedlings planted as compensatory mitigation for the Integrated Disposal Facility Project. Approximately 42,600 bare root seedlings and 26,000 pluglings were planted at a mitigation site along Army Loop Road in February 2007. Initial baseline monitoring occurred in March 2007, and first summer survival was assessed in September 2007. Overall survival was 19%, with bare root survival being marginally better than pluglings (21% versus 14%). Likely major factors contributing to low survival were late season planting and insufficient soil moisture during seedling establishment.

  13. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  14. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected

  15. The AGP-Project conceptual design for a Spanish HLW final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biurrun, E.; Engelmann, H.-J.; Huertas, F.; Ulibarri, A.

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of the AGP Project a Conceptual Design for a HLW Final Disposal Facility to be eventually built in an underground salt formation in Spain has been developed. The AGP Project has the character of a system analysis. In the current project phase I several alternatives has been considered for different subsystems and/or components of the repository. The system variants, developed to such extent as to allow a comparison of their advantages and disadvantages, will allow the selection of a reference concept, which will be further developed to technical maturity in subsequent project phases. (author)

  16. A process for establishing a financial assurance plan for LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1993-04-01

    This document describes a process by which an effective financial assurance program can be developed for new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The report identifies examples of activities that might cause financial losses and the types of losses they might create, discusses mechanisms that could be used to quantify and ensure against the various types of potential losses identified and describes a decision process to formulate a financial assurance program that takes into account the characteristics of both the potential losses and available mechanisms. A sample application of the concepts described in the report is provided

  17. A process for establishing a financial assurance plan for LLW disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). National Low-Level Waste Management Program

    1993-04-01

    This document describes a process by which an effective financial assurance program can be developed for new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The report identifies examples of activities that might cause financial losses and the types of losses they might create, discusses mechanisms that could be used to quantify and ensure against the various types of potential losses identified and describes a decision process to formulate a financial assurance program that takes into account the characteristics of both the potential losses and available mechanisms. A sample application of the concepts described in the report is provided.

  18. Procedures and techniques for closure of near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The overall objective of this report is to provide Member States with guidance on planning and implementation of closure of near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The specific objectives are to review closure concepts, requirements, and components of closure systems; to discuss issues and approaches to closure, including regulatory, economic, and technical aspects; and to present major examples of closure techniques used and/or considered by Member States. Some examples of closure experience from Member States are presented in the Appendix and were indexed separately

  19. Preliminary geotechnical evaluation of deep borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraj, M.S.; New Orleans Univ., LA

    1991-01-01

    This study is concerned with a preliminary engineering evaluation of borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales. Some of the geotechnical properties of Pierre, Rhinestreet, and typical illite shale have been collected. The influence of a few geotechnical properties on strength and deformation of host material is briefly examined. It appears that Pierre shale is very unstable and requires support to prevent collapse. Typical illite shale is more stable than Rhinestreet shale, although it undergoes relatively more deformation. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Evaluation on applicability of construction methods and construction quality of low-diffusion layer of cavern type radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Shin-ichi; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Terada, Kenji; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Yada, Tsutomu; Tsuji, Yukikazu

    2014-01-01

    A performance verification experiment of cavern type radioactive waste disposal facility with a real scale construction is being conducted to evaluate the applicability of proposed construction methods and construction quality of the facility. In this paper, we confirmed that the low-diffusion layer, which is one of the cementitious materials based members, could be filled with mortar from end to end of the member; cracks of low-diffusion layer would not affect the long-term safety evaluation of the facility. And also we figured out the relationship between the material strength and the accumulated temperature, relationship between diffusion coefficient and porosity of low-diffusion layer. (author)

  1. Restraint effect of water infiltration by soil cover types of LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. M.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    Since soil cover for LLW disposal vault shows quite different restraint effect of water infiltration depending on its type, four different types of soil cover were studied and simulated using HELP code. Simulation result showed that Profile B1 is the most effective type in restraint of water infiltration to the disposal vault. Profile B1 is totally 6m thick and composed of silt, gravelly sand, pea gravel, sand and clayey soil mixed with bentonite 20%. Profile B1 also includes artificial layers, such as asphalt and geomembrane layers. This profile is designed conceptually by NETEC for the soil cover of the near surface disposal facility of the low-level radioactive waste. For comparison, 3 types of different profile were tested. One profile includes bentonite mixed layer only as water barrier layer, or one as same as profile B1 but without geomembrane layer or one without asphalt layer respectively. The simulation using HELP code showed that the water balance in profile B1 was effectively controlled

  2. Leachate migration from a solid waste disposal facility near Biscayne National Park, South Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, B.G.; Labowski, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Leachate from the Dade County Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) is migrating to the east (seaward) and to the south from the currently active disposal cell. Water levels and ground-water flow directions are strongly influenced by water-management practices, especially in the Black Creek Canal and structure S-21 to the north of the SWDF. Ground-water flow is initially to the south, from Black Creek Canal, and then to the east through the disposal area. The SWDF is constructed over the salt-intruded part of the highly transmissive Biscayne aquifer and because of this, chloride ion concentrations and specific conductance levels could not be used as indicators of leachate concentrations. Water-quality indicators used to identify leachate migration were primarily ammonium, organic nitrogen, phenols, and chemical oxygen demand with cadmium, chromium, and lead used as auxiliary indicator constituents. Leachate was detected in multi-depth wells located 75 meters to the south and 20 meters to the east of the active cell. Concentrations of water-quality indicators had mean concentrations generally 2 to 10 times higher than baseline conditions. Leachate was not detected in any of the other ground-water, canal water, or Biscayne Bay sampling sites. Primary controls over leachate movement in the SWDF are water-management practices in the Black Creek and Gould Canals, configuration and integrity of the liner beneath the active cell, and low hydraulic gradients in the landfill area

  3. Long-term criticality control in radioactive waste disposal facilities using depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Plant photosynthesis has created a unique planetary-wide geochemistry - an oxidizing atmosphere with oxidizing surface waters on a planetary body with chemically reducing conditions near or at some distance below the surface. Uranium is four orders of magnitude more soluble under chemically oxidizing conditions than it is under chemically reducing conditions. Thus, uranium tends to leach from surface rock and disposal sites, move with groundwater, and concentrate where chemically reducing conditions appear. Earth's geochemistry concentrates uranium and can separate uranium from all other elements except oxygen, hydrogen (in water), and silicon (silicates, etc). Fissile isotopes include 235 U, 233 U, and many higher actinides that eventually decay to one of these two uranium isotopes. The potential for nuclear criticality exists if the precipitated uranium from disposal sites has a significant fissile enrichment, mass, and volume. The earth's geochemistry suggests that isotopic dilution of fissile materials in waste with 238 U is a preferred strategy to prevent long-term nuclear criticality in and beyond the boundaries of waste disposal facilities because the 238 U does not separate from the fissile uranium isotopes. Geological, laboratory, and theoretical data indicate that the potential for nuclear criticality can be minimized by diluting fissile materials with- 238 U to 1 wt % 235 U equivalent

  4. A summary of the geotechnical and environmental investigations pertaining to the Vaalputs national radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Levin, M.; Camisani-Calzolari, F.A.G.M.

    1986-08-01

    This report describes the geological environmental surveys that lead to the choice and final evaluation of the Vaalputs national facility for the disposal of radioactive waste. This survey looked at the geography, demography, ecology, meteorology, geology, geohydrology and background radiological characteristics of the Vaalputs radioactive waste facility

  5. Corrosion life-time assessment of carbon steel and stainless alloys for geological disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaki, Akio; Komada, Hiroya

    1993-01-01

    The disposal facility for radioactive wastes requires long-term integrity. Metal is being considered for use as the engineered barrier which constructs the outer walls in such a facility, in order to prevent groundwater percolation. Thus, the most important problem for the integrity of the engineered barrier is corrosion by groundwater. There are two ways for using metal as an engineered barrier; one is as a structural material; and the other is as the inner-lining material of a concrete wall. This report discusses the corrosion lifetime assessment of carbon steel used as a structural and lining material, and stainless alloys, Type 304 steel and Titanium alloys used as lining materials. Corrosion potential and crevice corrosion are measured in the environment of neutral and alkalized water

  6. The establishment of a radioactive waste disposal facility in Western Australia for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.; Wall, B.; Munslow-Davies, L.; Toussaint, L.F.; Hirschberg, K-J.; Terry, K.W.; Shepherd, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Radiation Health Section of the Health Department of Western Australia has been a repository for unwanted radioactive sources for many years. They have been placed in the radioactive store located on the Queen Elizabeth II Medical Centre Campus. After a collection period of more than 20 years the storage facilities of the Radiation Health Section were nearing capacity. A decision was made to relocate these sources into a permanent near surface burial facility. Following extensive community consultation and site investigations, waste originating in Western Australia was disposed of at Mt Walton (East), 80 km North East of Koolyanobbing Western Australia in November 1992. The site selection process, the radiation monitoring program and the legislative requirements are briefly outlined. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  7. The impact of a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel on a municipality's image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kankaanpaeae, H.; Haapavaara, L.; Lampinen, T.

    1999-02-01

    The study comprised on one hand a nationwide telephone interview (totally 800 interviews) aimed at mapping out the current image of possible host municipalities to a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel, and on the other hand some group interviews of people of another parish but of interest from the municipalities' point of view. The purpose of these group interviews was the same as that of the telephone interview, i.e. to find out what kind of an impact locating a final disposal facility of spent nuclear fuel in a certain municipality would have on the host municipality's image. Because the groups interviewed were selected on different grounds the results of the interviews are not fully comparable. The most important result of the study is that the current attitude towards a final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel is calm and collected and that the matter is often considered from the standpoint of an outsider. The issue is easily ignored, classified as a matter 'which does not concern me', provided that the facility will not be placed too near one's own home. Among those interviewed the subject seemed not to be of any 'great interest and did not arouse spontaneous feelings for or against'. There are, however, deeply rooted beliefs concerning the facility and quite strong negative and positive attitudes towards it. The facility itself and the associated decision-making procedure arouse many questions, which at present to a large extent are still unexpressed because the subject is considered so remote. It is, however, necessary to give concrete answers to the questions because this makes it possible for people to relate the issue to daily life. It is further important that things arousing fear and doubts also can be discussed because a silence in this respect only emphasizes their importance. The attitude towards the facility is varying. On one hand there are economic and technical factors: the probable economic benefit from it, the obligation to

  8. Financial compensation for municipalities hosting interim or final disposal facilities for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, Alex; Vicente, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Brazilian Law No. 10308 issued November 20, 2001, establishes in its 34th article that 'those municipalities hosting interim or final disposal facilities for radioactive waste are eligible to receive a monthly payment as compensation'. The values of due payments depend on parameters such as volume of wastes and activity and half-lives of the radionuclides. The method to calculating those values was established by the National Commission on Nuclear Energy, the Brazilian regulatory authority, by Resolution No. 10, issued in the August 18, 2003. In this paper we report the application of that method to a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste interim storage facility at the Nuclear Energy Research Institute. (author)

  9. Sandia National Laboratories support of the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Danneels, Jeffrey John

    2009-03-01

    Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there are now enormous radioactive waste problems in Iraq. These waste problems include destroyed nuclear facilities, uncharacterized radioactive wastes, liquid radioactive waste in underground tanks, wastes related to the production of yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, activated metals and contaminated metals that must be constantly guarded. Iraq currently lacks the trained personnel, regulatory and physical infrastructure to safely and securely manage these facilities and wastes. In 2005 the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) agreed to organize an international cooperative program to assist Iraq with these issues. Soon after, the Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) was initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to support the IAEA and assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials. The Iraq NDs Program is providing support for the IAEA plus training, consultation and limited equipment to the GOI. The GOI owns the problems and will be responsible for implementation of the Iraq NDs Program. Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is a part of the DOS's team implementing the Iraq NDs Program. This report documents Sandia's support of the Iraq NDs Program, which has developed into three principal work streams: (1) training and technical consultation; (2) introducing Iraqis to modern decommissioning and waste management practices; and (3) supporting the IAEA, as they assist the GOI. Examples of each of these work streams include: (1) presentation of a three-day training workshop on 'Practical Concepts for Safe Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste in Arid Settings;' (2) leading GOI representatives on a tour of two operating low level radioactive waste disposal facilities in the U.S.; and (3) supporting the IAEA's Technical Meeting with the GOI from April 21

  10. Compliance matrix for the mixed waste disposal facilities, Trenches 31 ampersand 34, burial ground 218-W-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlyle, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the Trench 31 ampersand 34 Mixed Waste Disposal Facility Compliance Matrix is to provide objective evidence of implementation of all regulatory and procedural-institutional requirements for the disposal facilities. This matrix provides a listing of the individual regulatory and procedural-institutional requirements that were addressed. Subject matter experts reviewed pertinent documents that had direct or indirect impact on the facility. Those found to be applicable were so noted and listed in Appendix A. Subject matter experts then extracted individual requirements from the documents deemed applicable and listed them in the matrix tables. The results of this effort are documented in Appendix B

  11. An overview of technical requirements on durable concrete production for near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolentino, Evandro; Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste can be generated by a wide range of activities varying from activities in hospitals to nuclear power plants, to mines and mineral processing facilities. General public have devoted nowadays considerable attention to the subject of radioactive waste management due to heightened awareness of environmental protection. The preferred strategy for the management of all radioactive waste is to contain it and to isolate it from the accessible biosphere. The Federal Government of Brazil has announced the construction for the year of 2014 and operation for the year of 2016 of a near surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of technical requirements related to production of durable concrete to be used in near surface disposal facilities for radioactive waste concrete structures. These requirements have been considered by researchers dealing with ongoing designing effort of the Brazilian near surface disposal facility. (author)

  12. Inadvertent Intruder Analysis For The Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Frank G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-01-22

    The inadvertent intruder analysis considers the radiological impacts to hypothetical persons who are assumed to inadvertently intrude on the Portsmouth OSWDF site after institutional control ceases 100 years after site closure. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume that the waste disposal in the OSWDF occurs at time zero, the site is under institutional control for the next 100 years, and inadvertent intrusion can occur over the following 1,000 year time period. Disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the OSWDF must meet a requirement to assess impacts on such individuals, and demonstrate that the effective dose equivalent to an intruder would not likely exceed 100 mrem per year for scenarios involving continuous exposure (i.e. chronic) or 500 mrem for scenarios involving a single acute exposure. The focus in development of exposure scenarios for inadvertent intruders was on selecting reasonable events that may occur, giving consideration to regional customs and construction practices. An important assumption in all scenarios is that an intruder has no prior knowledge of the existence of a waste disposal facility at the site. Results of the analysis show that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, resides on the site and consumes vegetables from a garden established on the site using contaminated soil (chronic agriculture scenario) would receive a maximum chronic dose of approximately 7.0 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE chronic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. Results of the analysis also showed that a hypothetical inadvertent intruder at the OSWDF who, in the worst case scenario, excavates a basement in the soil that reaches the waste (acute basement construction scenario) would receive a maximum acute dose of approximately 0.25 mrem/yr during the 1000 year period of assessment. This dose falls well below the DOE acute dose limit of 500 mrem/yr. Disposal inventory

  13. The Vapor Plume at Material Disposal Are C in Relation to Pajarito Corridor Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, William B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-02

    A vapor plume made up of volatile organic compounds is present beneath Material Disposal Area C (MDA C) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The location and concentrations within the vapor plume are discussed in relation to existing and planned facilities and construction activities along Pajarito Road (the 'Pajarito Corridor') and in terms of worker health and safety. This document provides information that indicates that the vapor plume does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a threat to workers during construction of proposed facilities along Pajarito Road. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) monitors emissions, effluents, and environmental media to meet environmental compliance requirements, determine actions to protect the environment, and monitor the long-term health of the local environment. LANL also studies and characterizes 'legacy' waste from past Laboratory operations to make informed decisions regarding eventual corrective actions and the disposition of that waste. Starting in 1969, these activities have been annually reported in the LANL Environmental Report (formerly Environmental Surveillance Report), and are detailed in publicly accessible technical reports meeting environmental compliance requirements. Included among the legacy sites being investigated are several formerly used material disposal areas (MDAs) set aside by the Laboratory for the general on-site disposal of waste from mission-related activities. One such area is MDA C located in Technical Area 50 (TA-50), which was used for waste disposal between 1948 and 1974. The location of TA-50 is depicted in Figure 1. The present paper uses a series of maps and cross sections to address the public concerns raised about the vapor plume at MDA C. As illustrated here, extensive sampling and data interpretation indicate that the vapor plume at MDA C does not pose a threat to the health of LANL workers nor will it pose a

  14. Source term development for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    A novel method for developing a source term for radiation and hazardous material content of sludge processing equipment and barrels in a new waste water treatment facility is presented in this paper. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF), located at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. A process information and hazards analysis document needed a process flowsheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics, and organics throughout the process, including the sludge effluent flow. A hazards analysis for a processing facility usually includes a flowsheet showing the process, materials, heat balances, and instrumentation for that facility. The flow sheet estimates stream flow quantities, activities, compositions, and properties. For the 300 Area TEDF, it was necessary to prepare the flow sheet with all of the information so that radiation doses to workers could be estimated. The noble method used to develop the 300 Area TEDF flowsheet included generating recycle factors. To prepare each component in the flowsheet, precipitation, destruction, and two recycle factors were developed. The factors were entered into a spreadsheet and provided a method of estimating the steady-state concentrations of all of the components in the facility. This report describes how the factors were developed, explains how they were used in developing the flowsheet, and presents the results of using these values to estimate radiation doses for personnel working in the facility. The report concludes with a discussion of the effect of estimates of radioactive and hazardous material concentrations on shielding design and the need for containment features for equipment in the facility

  15. Current status and new trends in the methodology of safety assessment for near surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, Petre; Didita, Liana; Danchiv, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the status of the safety assessment methodology at the end of IAEA CRP 'Application of Safety Assessment Methodology for Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities (ASAM)', and the new trends outlined at the launch of the follow-up project 'Practical Implementation of Safety Assessment Methodologies in a Context of Safety Case of Near-Surface Facilities (PRISM)'. Over the duration of the ASAM project, the ISAM methodology was confirmed as providing a good framework for conducting safety assessment calculations. In contrast, ASAM project identified the limitations of the ISAM methodology as currently formulated. The major limitations are situated in the area of the use of safety assessment for informing practical decisions about alternative waste and risk management strategies for real disposal sites. As a result of the limitation of the ISAM methodology, the PRISM project is established as an extension of the ISAM and ASAM projects. Based on the outcomes of the ASAM project, the main objective of the PRISM project are: 1 - to develop an overview of what constitutes an adequate safety case and safety assessment with a view to supporting decision making processes; 2 - to provide practical illustrations of how the safety assessment methodology could be used for addressing some specific issues arising from the ASAM project and national cases; 3 - to support harmonization with the IAEA's international safety standards. (authors)

  16. Statistical approach for derivation of quantitative acceptance criteria for radioactive wastes to near surface disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Joo Wan; Lee, Eun Yong; Kim, Chang Lak

    2003-01-01

    For reference human intrusion scenarios constructed in previous study, a probabilistic safety assessment to derive the radionuclide concentration limits for the low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste disposal facility is conducted. Statistical approach by the latin hypercube sampling method is introduced and new assumptions about the disposal facility system are examined and discussed. In our previous study of deterministic approach, the post construction scenarios appeared as most limiting scenario to derive the radionuclide concentration limits. Whereas, in this statistical approach, the post drilling and the post construction scenarios are mutually competing for the scenario selection according to which radionuclides are more important in safety assessment context. Introduction of new assumption shows that the post drilling scenario can play an important role as the limiting scenario instead of the post-construction scenario. When we compare the concentration limits between the previous and this study, concentrations of radionuclides such as Nb-94, Cs-137 and alpha-emitting radionuclides show elevated values than the case of the previous study. Remaining radionuclides such as Sr-90, Tc-99 I-129, Ni-59 and Ni-63 show lower values than the case of the previous study

  17. Preoperational baseline and site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, D.C.; Ford, B.H.; Jaeger, G.K.

    1996-09-01

    This document Volume 2 in a two-volume series that comprise the site characterization report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. Volume 1 contains data interpretation and information supporting the conclusions in the main text. This document presents original data in support of Volume 1 of the report. The following types of data are presented: well construction reports; borehole logs; borehole geophysical data; well development and pump installation; survey reports; and preoperational baseline chemical data and aquifer test data. This does not represent the entire body of data available. Other types of information are archived at BHI Document Control. Five ground water monitoring wells were drilled at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility site to directly investigate site- specific hydrogeologic conditions. Well and borehole activity summaries are presented in Volume 1. Field borehole logs and geophysical data from the drilling are presented in this document. Well development and pump installation sheets are presented for the groundwater monitoring wells. Other data presented in this document include borehole geophysical logs from existing wells; chemical data from the sampling of soil, vegetation, and mammals from the ERDF to support the preoperational baseline; ERDF surface radiation surveys;a nd aquifer testing data for well 699-32-72B

  18. Safety assessment for the transportation of NECSA's LILW to the Vaalputs waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maphoto, K.P.; Raubenheimer, E.; Swart, H.

    2008-01-01

    The transport safety assessment was carried out with a view to assess the impact on the environment and the people living in it, from exposure to radioactivity during transportation of the radioactive materials. It provides estimates of radiological risks associated with the envisaged transport scenarios for the road transport mode. This is done by calculating the human health impact and radiological risk from transportation of LILW along the R563 route, N14 and eventually to the Vaalputs National Waste Disposal Facility. Various parameters are needed by the RADTRAN code in calculating the human health impact and risk. These include: numbers of population densities following the routes undertaken, number of stops made, and the speed at which the transport will be traversing at towards the final destination. The human health impact with regard to the dose to the public, LCF and risk associated with transportation of Necsa's LILW to the Vaalputs Waste Disposal Facility by road have been calculated using RADTRAN 5 code. The results for both accident and incident free scenarios have shown that the overall risks are insignificant and can be associated with any non-radiological transportation. (authors)

  19. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission's regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements

  20. Historical relationship between performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal and other types of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed until the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built on methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty

  1. Developing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Connecticut: Update on progress and new directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, R.E. [Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service, Hartford, CT (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Connecticut is a member of the Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Compact (Northeast LLRW Compact). The other member of the Northeast LLRW Compact is New Jersey. The Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission (Northeast Compact Commission), the Northeast LLRW Compact`s governing body, has designated both Connecticut and New Jersey as host states for disposal facilities. The Northeast Compact Commission has recommended that, for purposes of planning for each state`s facility, the siting agency for the state should use projected volumes and characteristics of the LLW generated in its own state. In 1987 Connecticut enacted legislation that assigns major responsibilities for developing a LLW disposal facility in Connecticut to the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service (CHWMS). The CHWMS is required to: prepare and revise, as necessary, a LLW Management Plan for the state; select a site for a LLW disposal facility; select a disposal technology to be used at the site; select a firm to obtain the necessary approvals for the facility and to develop and operate it; and serve as the custodial agency for the facility. This paper discusses progress in developing a facility.

  2. Performance of disposable endoscopic forceps according to the manufacturing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Kim, Gwangil; Moon, Jong Pil; Yun, Ho; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hong, Sung Pyo

    2018-03-05

    Recently, to lower the production costs and risk of infection, new disposable biopsy forceps made using simple manufacturing techniques have been introduced. However, the effects of the manufacturing techniques are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate which types of biopsy forceps could obtain good-quality specimens according to the manufacturing techniques. By using an in vitro nitrile glove popping model, we compared the popping ability among eight different disposable biopsy forceps (one pair of biopsy forceps with cups made by a cutting method [cutting forceps], four pairs of biopsy forceps with cups made by a pressing method [pressing forceps], and three pairs of biopsy forceps with cups made using a injection molding method [molding forceps]). Using an in vivo swine model, we compared the penetration depth and quality of specimen among the biopsy forceps. In the in vitro model, the molding forceps provided a significantly higher popping rate than the other forceps (cutting forceps, 25.0%; pressing forceps, 17.5%; and molding forceps, 41.7%; p = 0.006). In the in vivo model, the cutting and pressing forceps did not provide larger specimens, deeper biopsy specimen, and higher specimen adequacy than those obtained using the molding forceps (p = 0.2631, p = 0.5875, and p = 0.2147, respectively). However, the molding forceps showed significantly more common crush artifact than the others (cutting forceps, 0%; pressing forceps, 5.0%; and molding forceps, 43.3%; p = 0.0007). The molding forceps provided lower performance than the cutting and pressing forceps in terms of crush artifact.

  3. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  4. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the

  5. A performance assessment methodology for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derring, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    To demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives governing protection of the general population in 10 CFR 61.41, applicants for land disposal of low-level radioactive waste are required to conduct a pathways analysis, or quantitative evaluation of radionuclide release, transport through environmental media, and dose to man. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff defined a strategy and initiated a project at Sandia National Laboratories to develop a methodology for independently evaluating an applicant's analysis of postclosure performance. This performance assessment methodology was developed in five stages: identification of environmental pathways, ranking the significance of the pathways, identification and integration of models for pathway analyses, identification and selection of computer codes and techniques for the methodology, and implementation of the codes and documentation of the methodology. This paper summarizes the NRC approach for conducting evaluations of license applications for low-level radioactive waste facilities. 23 refs

  6. Technical feasibility of a concept radioactive waste disposal facility in Boom clay in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardon, P.J.; Hicks, M.A.; Fokker, P.A.; Fokkens, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The current management strategy in the Netherlands for radioactive waste is interim storage for approximately 100 years, followed by final deep geological disposal. At present, both Boom Clay and Salt formations are being considered and investigated via the OPERA (Onderzoeks Programma Eindberging Radioactief Afval) and CORA (Commissie Opberging Radioactief Afval) research programmes respectively, instigated by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval). This paper outlines the on-going investigation into the initial technical feasibility of a high-level radioactive waste disposal facility, located within a stratum of Boom Clay, as part of the OPERA research programme. The feasibility study is based on the current Belgian Super-container concept, incorporating specific features relevant to the Netherlands, including the waste inventory and possible future glaciation. The repository is designed to be situated at approximately 500 m depth in a Boom Clay stratum of approximately 100 m thickness, and will co-host vitrified High Level Waste (HLW), spent fuel from research reactors, non-heat generating HLW, Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) and depleted uranium. The total footprint is designed to be 3050 m by 1300 m, and will be segregated by waste type. The waste will be stored in drifts drilled perpendicular to the main galleries and will vary in length and diameter depending upon waste type. The repository life-cycle can be considered in three phases: (i) the pre-operation phase, including the conceptual development, site investigation and selection, design and construction; (ii) the operational phase, including waste emplacement and any period of time prior to closure; and (iii) the post-operational phase. The research on the technical feasibility of the repository will investigate whether the repository can be constructed and whether it is able to perform the appropriate safety functions and meet

  7. 2008 State-of-the-Art : High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities and Project Review of Proceding Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui Joo; Choi, Jong Won; Lee, Jong Youl; Jung, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Lee, Min Soo; Cho, Dong Keun; Kook, Dong Hak

    2008-11-15

    High level radioactive waste disposal system project for advanced nuclear fuel cycle produced this report which are dealing with the repository status of proceding countries as of 2008. This report has brief review on disposal facilities which are operating and will be operating and on future plan of those nations. The other report 'Development of the Geological Disposal System for High Level Waste' which was produced like this report time and this report would help the readers grasp the current repository status. Because our country is a latecomer in the HLW disposal world, it is strongly recommended to catch up with advanced disposal system and concepts of developed nations and this report is expected to make it possible. There are several nations which were the main survey target; Finland, USA, Sweden, Germany, France, Switzerland, and Japan. Recent information was applied to this report and our project team will produce annual state-of-the-art report with continuous updates.

  8. An exposure assessment of radionuclide emissions associated with potential mixed-low level waste disposal facilities at fifteen DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Socolof, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    A screening method was developed to compare the doses received via the atmospheric pathway at 15 potential DOE MLLW (mixed low-level waste) sites. Permissible waste concentrations were back calculated using the radioactivity NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) in 40 FR 61 (DOE Order 5820.2A performance objective). Site-specific soil and meteorological data were used to determine permissible waste concentrations (PORK). For a particular radionuclide, perks for each site do not vary by more than one order of magnitude. perks of 14 C are about six orders of magnitude more restrictive than perks of 3 H because of differences in liquid/vapor partitioning, decay, and exposure dose. When comparing results from the atmospheric pathway to the water and intruder pathways, 14 C disposal concentrations were limited by the atmospheric pathway for most arid sites; for 3 H, the atmospheric pathway was not limiting at any of the sites. Results of this performance evaluation process are to be used for planning for siting of disposal facilities

  9. Risks assessment associated with the possibility of intrusion into the low and intermediate level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didita, L.; Ilie, P.; Pavelescu, M.

    1997-01-01

    In post-closure performance assessment of low and intermediate level waste disposal facilities it is necessary to assess the individual risks associated with the possibility of intrusion into repository. Intruder induced disruptive events can potentially compromise the integrity of the disposal unit and result in exhumation of the waste and radionuclides migration into environment. In this way, the main routes of exposure are: -inhalation of radioactive materials by the intruder; - external gamma irradiation of the intruder, - long-term pathways resulting from the transfer of radioactive materials to the surface of the site. This paper describes the evaluation of conditional and absolute risks associated with each route of exposure as a function of time. To evaluate the risks, it is necessary to calculate the time-dependent activities of each nuclide considered. This is achieved by employing an analytic solution to the Bateman equation at specified times of evaluation. Conditional risks by inhalation, external exposure and long-term pathways and different modes of intrusion are evaluated on the basis of an annual probability of intrusion of unity. Absolute risks are calculated by scaling the user-supplied probabilities of intrusion at various times of evaluation. The evaluation of absolute risks by long-term exposure pathways involves an interpolation procedure in time. The calculations have been performed for the most important radionuclides present in low and intermediate wastes. (authors)

  10. Criteria and techniques for field characterization and modeling related to selecting and evaluating performance of LILW disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faybishenko, Boris; Witherspoon, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    Argentina is faced with the challenging problem of developing technology for near-surface disposal and isolation of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW). The preferred option for disposal of LILW (including both relatively short-lived and long-lived radionuclides) is to use disposal facilities that are near-surface--either above or below ground level [IAEA, 1985; 2001a;2004]. How individual components of a waste disposal system perform (including waste forms, waste containers, engineered barriers and host environment) will determine system safety and the safety of the surrounding environment [IAEA, 1999]. The lack of appropriate engineering for the backfill, and for the selection of sealing and covering materials for trenches, vaults, and ditches, could result in the escape of radionuclides from the disposed wastes [IAEA, 1994a; 2001b]. Therefore, assessment and design of backfill, barriers, and cover materials are very important, both for preventing invasion of water into the disposal system, and for retarding radionuclides that could potentially migrate from the system into the atmosphere or groundwater [IAEA, 1982; 1994b;2001a

  11. Proposed Plan for an amendment to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Record of Decision, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Department of Energy (Tri- Parties) are proposing an amendment to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility Record of Decision (ERDF ROD). EPA is the lead regulatory agency for the ERDF Project. This Proposed Plan includes two elements intended to promote Hanford Site cleanup activities by broadening utilization and operation of ERDF as follows: (1) Construct the planned Phase II of ERDF using the current disposal cell design and (2) enable centralized treatment of remediation waste at ERDF prior to disposal, as appropriate

  12. EnergySolution's Clive Disposal Facility Operational Research Model - 13475

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissley, Paul; Berry, Joanne [EnergySolutions, 2345 Stevens Dr. Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    EnergySolutions owns and operates a licensed, commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in Clive, Utah. The Clive site receives low-level radioactive waste from various locations within the United States via bulk truck, containerised truck, enclosed truck, bulk rail-cars, rail boxcars, and rail inter-modals. Waste packages are unloaded, characterized, processed, and disposed of at the Clive site. Examples of low-level radioactive waste arriving at Clive include, but are not limited to, contaminated soil/debris, spent nuclear power plant components, and medical waste. Generators of low-level radioactive waste typically include nuclear power plants, hospitals, national laboratories, and various United States government operated waste sites. Over the past few years, poor economic conditions have significantly reduced the number of shipments to Clive. With less revenue coming in from processing shipments, Clive needed to keep its expenses down if it was going to maintain past levels of profitability. The Operational Research group of EnergySolutions were asked to develop a simulation model to help identify any improvement opportunities that would increase overall operating efficiency and reduce costs at the Clive Facility. The Clive operations research model simulates the receipt, movement, and processing requirements of shipments arriving at the facility. The model includes shipment schedules, processing times of various waste types, labor requirements, shift schedules, and site equipment availability. The Clive operations research model has been developed using the WITNESS{sup TM} process simulation software, which is developed by the Lanner Group. The major goals of this project were to: - identify processing bottlenecks that could reduce the turnaround time from shipment arrival to disposal; - evaluate the use (or idle time) of labor and equipment; - project future operational requirements under different forecasted scenarios. By identifying

  13. Distribution Coeficients (Kd) Generated From A Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-01-01

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K d ), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and Crawford

  14. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  15. Imaging the risks - risking the image: Social impact assessment of the final disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avolahti, J.; Vira, J.

    1999-01-01

    Preparations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland started about twenty years ago. At present the work is carried out by Posiva Oy, which in 1996 took over the programme managed earlier by Teollisuuden Voima Oy, one of the country's nuclear power companies. From 1996 on the preparations have been made for all the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power stations. The site for the final disposal facility will be selected among four alternatives by the end of 2000 and - assuming that the technical approach proposed by Posiva is accepted by the Government and the Parliament - the construction of the repository will start in the 2010s. The disposal operations are planned to be started in 2020. The alternative four sites have gone through a systematic site selection process based on geologic siting criteria and on environmental and cultural considerations. One of the objectives of the process was to avoid inhabited areas, agricultural fields, valuable groundwater or preservation areas as well as areas which might draw interest as regards the potential for ore deposits. The idea was that the field investigations and later the possible disposal facility should not cause any harm to local people. Two of the candidate sites are at present nuclear power plant sites situated at the coast, the two other candidates are inland sites with no nuclear activities. The geologic siting investigations were started in 1987. Interim assessments of the results so far have been made in 1992 and 1996 and a final report of all the investigations will be published before the end of 2000. The present view is that all four candidates are geologically suitable for siting the repository. Posiva's EIA for the final disposal of spent fuel in Finland is nearing completion. A considerable effort was made to involve local groups and individuals in the assessment process. Yet the participation remained limited and consisted mainly of active opponents of the project and of those who were

  16. Imaging the risks - risking the image: Social impact assessment of the final disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avolahti, J.; Vira, J. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    Preparations for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland started about twenty years ago. At present the work is carried out by Posiva Oy, which in 1996 took over the programme managed earlier by Teollisuuden Voima Oy, one of the country's nuclear power companies. From 1996 on the preparations have been made for all the spent fuel from Finnish nuclear power stations. The site for the final disposal facility will be selected among four alternatives by the end of 2000 and - assuming that the technical approach proposed by Posiva is accepted by the Government and the Parliament - the construction of the repository will start in the 2010s. The disposal operations are planned to be started in 2020. The alternative four sites have gone through a systematic site selection process based on geologic siting criteria and on environmental and cultural considerations. One of the objectives of the process was to avoid inhabited areas, agricultural fields, valuable groundwater or preservation areas as well as areas which might draw interest as regards the potential for ore deposits. The idea was that the field investigations and later the possible disposal facility should not cause any harm to local people. Two of the candidate sites are at present nuclear power plant sites situated at the coast, the two other candidates are inland sites with no nuclear activities. The geologic siting investigations were started in 1987. Interim assessments of the results so far have been made in 1992 and 1996 and a final report of all the investigations will be published before the end of 2000. The present view is that all four candidates are geologically suitable for siting the repository. Posiva's EIA for the final disposal of spent fuel in Finland is nearing completion. A considerable effort was made to involve local groups and individuals in the assessment process. Yet the participation remained limited and consisted mainly of active opponents of the project and of those

  17. Financial risks of post-closure custodial care for the Barnwell radioactive waste disposal facility - 16155

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, Robert D.; Newberry, William F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports evaluations of the adequacy of the Barnwell Extended Care Fund in light of identified risks, with the conclusion that the fund is sufficient to cover the costs and uncertainties associated with planned post-closure care of the Barnwell, South Carolina low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. It reviews background information pertinent to the facility's post-closure monitoring and maintenance and describes financial responsibility for post-closure activities. It identifies and briefly characterizes the activities planned to be conducted following facility closure and presents the midrange estimate of planned post-closure costs. The paper identifies and quantifies sources of uncertainty in activities and costs planned for post-closure care and presents 50-, 80-, and 95-percent confidence levels of planned costs. The fund is currently sufficient to cover some but not all of the costs that might be incurred as a result of unplanned events. The paper identifies, characterizes, and quantifies unplanned events, possible consequences, and probabilities of occurrence. The paper presents costs that might be incurred in responding to the unplanned initiating events and identifies levels of confidence that the fund is adequate to cover such costs. (authors)

  18. Nasreya: a treatment and disposal facility for industrial hazardous waste in Alexandria, Egypt: phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Adham R; Kock, Per; Nadim, Amani

    2005-04-01

    A facility for the treatment and disposal of industrial hazardous waste has been established in Alexandria, Egypt. Phase I of the facility encompassing a secure landfill and solar evaporation ponds is ready to receive waste, and Phase II encompassing physico-chemical treatment, solidification, and interim storage is underway. The facility, the Nasreya Centre, is the first of its kind in Egypt, and represents the nucleus for the integration, improvement and further expansion of different hazardous waste management practices and services in Alexandria. It has been developed within the overall legal framework of the Egyptian Law for the Environment, and is expected to improve prospects for enforcement of the regulatory requirements specified in this law. It has been developed with the overall aim of promoting the establishment of an integrated industrial hazardous waste management system in Alexandria, serving as a demonstration to be replicated elsewhere in Egypt. For Phase I, the Centre only accepts inorganic industrial wastes. In this respect, a waste acceptance policy has been developed, which is expected to be reviewed during Phase II, with an expansion of the waste types accepted.

  19. Site closure and perpetual care of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in semi-arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.N.; Breeden, K.H.; Hana, S.L.A.

    1988-01-01

    A study has been performed on site closure and perpetual care and maintenance requirements for the commercially operated low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility, referred to as the Richland Facility, on the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington. The study included a site assessment and identification and formulation of site specific design elements for closure and perpetual care and maintenance. This paper summarizes the observations, findings and conclusions resulting from Phase I of this study. Three release mechanisms and four destructive processes are considered in the conceptual closure design process. The release mechanisms considered include subsurface liquid movement, biological transport of wastes to the surface and subsurface gas movement. The destructive processes considered are wind erosion, biological penetration or damage of cover, vegetation destroying processes and subsidence and seismic activity. The closure design elements were developed with several key principles in mind. The primary goals were to prevent intrusion into, or exposure of, the waste; to prevent or minimize release from the trenches; to provide early warning of any release that should occur; and to provide definitive information as to whether or not any observed environmental contamination actually originated from the facility

  20. Characterization of actinide-bearing sediments underlying liquid waste disposal facilities at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, S.M.; Ames, L.L.

    1975-09-01

    Past liquid waste disposal practices at the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation have included the discharges of solutions containing trace quantities of actinides directly into the ground via structures collectively termed ''trenches''. Characterization of samples from two of these trenches, the 216-Z-9 and the 216-Z-1A(a), has been initiated to determine the present form and migration potential of plutonium stored in sediments which received high salt, acidic waste liquids. Analysis of samples acquired by drilling has revealed that the greatest measured concentration of Pu, approximately 10 6 μCi 239 Pu/liter of sediment, occurs in both facilities just below the points of release of the waste liquids. This concentration decreases to approximately 10 3 μCi 239 Pu/liter of sediment within the first 2 meters of the underlying sediment columns and to approximately 10 μCi 239 Pu/liter of sediment at the maximum depth sampled (9 meters). Examination of relatively undisturbed sediment cores illustrated two types of Pu occurrence responsible for this distribution. One of these types is composed of Pu particles (greater than 70 wt percent PuO 2 ) added to the disposal site in the same form. This ''particulate'' type was ''filtered out'' within the upper 1 meter of the sediment column, accounting for the high concentration of Pu/liter of sediment in this region. The second type of Pu (less than 0.5 wt percent PuO 2 ) was originally disposed of as soluble Pu(IV). This ''nonparticulate'' type penetrated deeper within the sediment profile and was deposited in association with silicate hydrolysis of the sediment fragments

  1. Groundwater Monitoring Plan for the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WELLS, DANIEL

    2005-01-01

    Groundwater monitoring has been conducted at the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility since 1987. At that time, groundwater monitoring was not required by the industrial landfill regulations, but a modest monitoring program was required by the operating permit. At the time of the 1996 permit renewal, it was determined that a more robust monitoring program was needed. The draft permit required new monitoring wells within 25 feet of each active disposal cell. As an alternative, SRS proposed a program based on direct push sampling. This program called for biennial direct push sampling within 25 feet of each waste-containing cell with additional samples being taken in areas where excessive cracking had been observed. The direct push proposal was accepted by The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), and was incorporated by reference into the Z-Area Saltstone Industrial Solid Waste Permit, No.025500-1603. The Industrial Solid Waste Landfill Regulations were revised in 1998 and now include specific requirements for groundwater monitoring. SRS's plan for complying with those regulations is discussed below. The plan calls for a return to traditional monitoring with permanent wells. It also proposes a more technically sound monitoring list based on the actual composition of saltstone

  2. Creating and managing radioactive waste disposal facilities with the involvement of the local populations - 59286

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farin, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Andra is responsible for proposing and implementing industrial management solutions for all French radioactive waste. Andra is in particular in charge of operating the two repositories in the Aube region, monitoring the Manche repository one of the world's first surface repositories and creating disposal facilities for waste currently without an operational disposal solution. Andra's communication approach. Andra's communication role is stipulated by law and is an integral part of its activities, in the same way as research, industry or risk management. Andra's aim is to make the subject of radioactive waste management one that is of nationwide interest comprehensible to the largest possible number, so that each citizen and stakeholder can, in full possession of the facts, make his or her own opinion and finally reach an informed decision. Andra's communication policy is based on four main levers: - Information, through a full range of tools (web sites, publications, periodicals) adapted to the level of expertise and understanding of its various target audiences; - Explanation, by means of opportunities throughout the year for those interested in the subject (site visits, fairs, meetings with schools, travelling exhibitions, etc.); - Local integration, through regular relations with local players

  3. Significant progress towards development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebe, M.; Henry, T.L.; Corpstein, P.

    1996-01-01

    Development of disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste is a complicated legal, regulatory and public sector process. Development of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility to support generators in Illinois and Kentucky is well under way. Significant progress has been made to re-engineer the siting development process capitalizing on prior lessons learned and a recommitment from Illinois state leadership assuring the future success of the program. Comparisons of why this new process will succeed are the major focus of this paper. Specific changes in approach from the previous process including changes in the Illinois Management Act (Management Act), creation of the Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Task Group (Task Group), new roles for the Illinois State Geologic Survey and Illinois State Water Survey (Scientific Surveys) and the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS), a new contractor reliance approach and increased confidence on the open-quote science close-quote are the major contrasts between the previous process and the new process currently underway

  4. 237 Np analytical method using 239 Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Clark, Sue B.; Olson, John E.; Watrous, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237Np analyses are challenged by low 237Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239Np (t1/2 = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 watt “Walmart” microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 106 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237Np contamination within 600 meters of this site, with maximum 237Np concentrations on the order of 103 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels.

  5. 237Np analytical method using 239Np tracers and application to a contaminated nuclear disposal facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Mathew S; Morrison, Samuel S; Clark, Sue B; Olson, John E; Watrous, Matthew G

    2017-06-01

    Environmental 237 Np analyses are challenged by low 237 Np concentrations and lack of an available yield tracer; we report a rapid, inexpensive 237 Np analytical approach employing the short lived 239 Np (t 1/2  = 2.3 days) as a chemical yield tracer followed by 237 Np quantification using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. 239 Np tracer is obtained via separation from a 243 Am stock solution and standardized using gamma spectrometry immediately prior to sample processing. Rapid digestions using a commercial, 900 W "Walmart" microwave and Parr microwave vessels result in 99.8 ± 0.1% digestion yields, while chromatographic separations enable Np/U separation factors on the order of 10 6 and total Np yields of 95 ± 4% (2σ). Application of this method to legacy soil samples surrounding a radioactive disposal facility (the Subsurface Disposal Area at Idaho National Laboratory) reveal the presence of low level 237 Np contamination within 600 m of this site, with maximum 237 Np concentrations on the order of 10 3 times greater than nuclear weapons testing fallout levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of radionuclide inventory for the low-and intermediated-level radioactive waste disposal facility the radioactive waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kang Il; Jeong, Noh Gyeom; Moon, Young Pyo; Jeong, Mi Seon; Park, Jin Beak

    2016-01-01

    To meet nuclear regulatory requirements, more than 95% individual radionuclides in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste inventory have to be identified. In this study, the radionuclide inventory has been estimated by taking the long-term radioactive waste generation, the development plan of disposal facility, and the new radioact