WorldWideScience

Sample records for display distinct expression

  1. Tumour cells expressing single VEGF isoforms display distinct growth, survival and migration characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryso Kanthou

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF is produced by most cancer cells as multiple isoforms, which display distinct biological activities. VEGF plays an undisputed role in tumour growth, vascularisation and metastasis; nevertheless the functions of individual isoforms in these processes remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of three main murine isoforms (VEGF188, 164 and 120 on tumour cell behaviour, using a panel of fibrosarcoma cells we developed that express them individually under endogenous promoter control. Fibrosarcomas expressing only VEGF188 (fs188 or wild type controls (fswt were typically mesenchymal, formed ruffles and displayed strong matrix-binding activity. VEGF164- and VEGF120-producing cells (fs164 and fs120 respectively were less typically mesenchymal, lacked ruffles but formed abundant cell-cell contacts. On 3D collagen, fs188 cells remained mesenchymal while fs164 and fs120 cells adopted rounded/amoeboid and a mix of rounded and elongated morphologies respectively. Consistent with their mesenchymal characteristics, fs188 cells migrated significantly faster than fs164 or fs120 cells on 2D surfaces while contractility inhibitors accelerated fs164 and fs120 cell migration. VEGF164/VEGF120 expression correlated with faster proliferation rates and lower levels of spontaneous apoptosis than VEGF188 expression. Nevertheless, VEGF188 was associated with constitutively active/phosphorylated AKT, ERK1/2 and Stat3 proteins. Differences in proliferation rates and apoptosis could be explained by defective signalling downstream of pAKT to FOXO and GSK3 in fs188 and fswt cells, which also correlated with p27/p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor over-expression. All cells expressed tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors, but these were not active/activatable suggesting that inherent differences between the cell lines are governed by endogenous VEGF isoform expression through complex interactions that are independent of tyrosine

  2. Genes expressed in specific areas of the human fetal cerebral cortex display distinct patterns of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelle Lambert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The developmental mechanisms through which the cerebral cortex increased in size and complexity during primate evolution are essentially unknown. To uncover genetic networks active in the developing cerebral cortex, we combined three-dimensional reconstruction of human fetal brains at midgestation and whole genome expression profiling. This novel approach enabled transcriptional characterization of neurons from accurately defined cortical regions containing presumptive Broca and Wernicke language areas, as well as surrounding associative areas. We identified hundreds of genes displaying differential expression between the two regions, but no significant difference in gene expression between left and right hemispheres. Validation by qRTPCR and in situ hybridization confirmed the robustness of our approach and revealed novel patterns of area- and layer-specific expression throughout the developing cortex. Genes differentially expressed between cortical areas were significantly associated with fast-evolving non-coding sequences harboring human-specific substitutions that could lead to divergence in their repertoires of transcription factor binding sites. Strikingly, while some of these sequences were accelerated in the human lineage only, many others were accelerated in chimpanzee and/or mouse lineages, indicating that genes important for cortical development may be particularly prone to changes in transcriptional regulation across mammals. Genes differentially expressed between cortical regions were also enriched for transcriptional targets of FoxP2, a key gene for the acquisition of language abilities in humans. Our findings point to a subset of genes with a unique combination of cortical areal expression and evolutionary patterns, suggesting that they play important roles in the transcriptional network underlying human-specific neural traits.

  3. Effector and regulatory dendritic cells display distinct patterns of miRNA expression

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Vincent; Luce, Sonia; Moussu, H?l?ne; Morizur, Lise; Gueguen, Claire; Neukirch, Catherine; Chollet?Martin, Sylvie; Mascarell, Laurent; Aubier, Michel; Baron?Bodo, V?ronique; Moingeon, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the regulation of dendritic cell (DC) polarization, thereby influencing the balance of adaptive immune responses. Herein, we studied the expression of miRNAs in polarized DCs and analyzed whether expression of these miRNAs could be associated with allergic rhinitis and allergen immunotherapy (AIT) outcome. Method Using specific culture conditions, we differentiated immature human monocyte?derived DCs into DC1, DC2, and DCreg subsets (supp...

  4. Effector and regulatory dendritic cells display distinct patterns of miRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Vincent; Luce, Sonia; Moussu, Hélène; Morizur, Lise; Gueguen, Claire; Neukirch, Catherine; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie; Mascarell, Laurent; Aubier, Michel; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Moingeon, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the regulation of dendritic cell (DC) polarization, thereby influencing the balance of adaptive immune responses. Herein, we studied the expression of miRNAs in polarized DCs and analyzed whether expression of these miRNAs could be associated with allergic rhinitis and allergen immunotherapy (AIT) outcome. Using specific culture conditions, we differentiated immature human monocyte-derived DCs into DC1, DC2, and DCreg subsets (supporting the differentiation of T H 1, T H 2 or regulatory T cells, respectively). Profiling of miRNA expression was performed in these DC subpopulations using microarrays. Levels of miRNAs specific for polarized DCs were then evaluated in a cohort of 58 patients with allergic rhinitis and 25 non-allergic controls, as well as in samples from 30 subjects treated with sublingual grass pollen tablets or placebo for four months. We successfully identified 16 miRNAs differentially regulated between immature DCs, DC1, DC2, and DCreg cells. In allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients, the expression of two of those miRNAs (miR-132 and miR-155), was down-regulated compared to non-allergic individuals. However, the levels of these miRNAs were not significantly modified following four months of grass pollen immunotherapy. Studying polarized DCs and clinical samples from subjects with or without allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, we demonstrated that the expression of two miRNAs linked to effector DCs (i.e., DC1 and/or DC2 cells), was reduced in the blood of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Nevertheless, these miRNAs did not represent relevant biomarkers to predict or follow-up AIT efficacy. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Radiation-associated breast tumors display a distinct gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M; Wessels, Lodewyk F A

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women who received irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma have a strong increased risk for developing breast cancer. Approximately 90% of the breast cancers in these patients can be attributed to their radiation treatment, rendering such series extremely useful to determine whether a common...... radiation-associated cause underlies the carcinogenic process. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this study we used gene expression profiling technology to assess gene expression changes in radiation-associated breast tumors compared with a set of control breast tumors of women unexposed to radiation, diagnosed...... at the same age. RNA was obtained from fresh frozen tissue samples from 22 patients who developed breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma (BfHL) and from 20 control breast tumors. RESULTS: Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the profile data resulted in a clustering of the radiation-associated tumors...

  6. The IFN Response in Bats Displays Distinctive IFN-Stimulated Gene Expression Kinetics with Atypical RNASEL Induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz-Rivera, Pamela C; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Liang, Hanquan; Kumar, Ashwani; Wang, Lin-Fa; Xing, Chao; Schoggins, John W

    2018-01-01

    Bats host a large number of zoonotic viruses, including several viruses that are highly pathogenic to other mammals. The mechanisms underlying this rich viral diversity are unknown, but they may be linked to unique immunological features that allow bats to act as asymptomatic viral reservoirs. Vertebrates respond to viral infection by inducing IFNs, which trigger antiviral defenses through IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. Although the IFN system of several bats is characterized at the genomic level, less is known about bat IFN-mediated transcriptional responses. In this article, we show that IFN signaling in bat cells from the black flying fox ( Pteropus alecto ) consists of conserved and unique ISG expression profiles. In IFN-stimulated cells, bat ISGs comprise two unique temporal subclusters with similar early induction kinetics but distinct late-phase declines. In contrast, human ISGs lack this decline phase and remained elevated for longer periods. Notably, in unstimulated cells, bat ISGs were expressed more highly than their human counterparts. We also found that the antiviral effector 2-5A-dependent endoribonuclease, which is not an ISG in humans, is highly IFN inducible in black flying fox cells and contributes to cell-intrinsic control of viral infection. These studies reveal distinctive innate immune features that may underlie a unique virus-host relationship in bats. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Human decidual macrophages and NK cells differentially express Toll-like receptors and display distinct cytokine profiles upon TLR stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eDuriez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Maternofetal pathogen transmission is partially controlled at the level of the maternal uterine mucosa at the fetal implantation site (the decidua basalis, where maternal and fetal cells are in close contact. Toll-like receptors (TLRs may play an important role in initiating rapid immune responses against pathogens in the decidua basalis, however the tolerant microenvironment should be preserved in order to allow fetal development. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of TLRs expressed by decidual macrophages (dMs and NK cells (dNKs, the major decidual immune cell populations.We report for the first time that both human dMs and dNK cells express mRNAs encoding TLRs 1-9, albeit with a higher expression level in dMs. TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 protein expression checked by flow cytometry was positive for both dMs and dNK cells. In vitro treatment of primary dMs and dNK cells with specific TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists enhanced their secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as cytokines and chemokines involved in immune cell crosstalk. Only dNK cells released IFN-γ, whereas only dMs released IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12. TLR9 activation of dMs resulted in a distinct pattern of cytokine expression compared to the other TLRs. The cytokine profiles expressed by dMs and dNK cells upon TLR activation are compatible with maintenance of the fetotolerant immune environment during initiation of immune responses to pathogens at the maternofetal interface.

  8. Oral cancer cells with different potential of lymphatic metastasis displayed distinct biologic behaviors and gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Zhang; Jian, Pan; Longjiang, Li; Bo, Han; Wenlin, Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often spreads from the primary tumor to regional lymph nodes in the early stage. Better understanding of the biology of lymphatic spread of oral cancer cells is important for improving the survival rate of cancer patients. We established the cell line LNMTca8113 by repeated injections in foot pads of nude mice, which had a much higher lymphatic metastasis rate than its parental cell line Tca8113. Then, we compared the biologic behaviors of cancer cells between them. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them were also compared, and a panel of differential genes was validated using real-time-PCR. In contrast to Tca8113 cells, LNMTca8113 cells were more proliferative and resistant to apoptosis in the absence of serum, and had enhanced ability of inducing capillary-like structures. Moreover, microarray-based expression profiles between them identified 1341 genes involved in cell cycle, cell adhesion, lymphangiogenesis, regulation of apoptosis, and so on. Some genes dedicating to the metastatic potential, including JAM2, TNC, CTSC, LAMB1, VEGFC, HAPLN1, ACPP, GDF9 and FGF11, were upregulated in LNMTca8113 cells. These results suggested that LNMTca8113 and Tca8113 cells were proper models for lymphatic metastasis study because there were differences in biologic behaviors and metastasis-related genes between them. Additionally, the differentially expressed gene profiles in cancer progression may be helpful in exploring therapeutic targets and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OSCC.

  9. The Plasmodium serine-type SERA proteases display distinct expression patterns and non-essential in vivo roles during life cycle progression of the malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putrianti, Elyzana D; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Arnold, Iris; Heussler, Volker T; Matuschewski, Kai; Silvie, Olivier

    2010-06-01

    Parasite proteases play key roles in several fundamental steps of the Plasmodium life cycle, including haemoglobin degradation, host cell invasion and parasite egress. Plasmodium exit from infected host cells appears to be mediated by a class of papain-like cysteine proteases called 'serine repeat antigens' (SERAs). A SERA subfamily, represented by Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, contains an atypical active site serine residue instead of a catalytic cysteine. Members of this SERAser subfamily are abundantly expressed in asexual blood stages, rendering them attractive drug and vaccine targets. In this study, we show by antibody localization and in vivo fluorescent tagging with the red fluorescent protein mCherry that the two P. berghei serine-type family members, PbSERA1 and PbSERA2, display differential expression towards the final stages of merozoite formation. Via targeted gene replacement, we generated single and double gene knockouts of the P. berghei SERAser genes. These loss-of-function lines progressed normally through the parasite life cycle, suggesting a specialized, non-vital role for serine-type SERAs in vivo. Parasites lacking PbSERAser showed increased expression of the cysteine-type PbSERA3. Compensatory mechanisms between distinct SERA subfamilies may thus explain the absence of phenotypical defect in SERAser disruptants, and challenge the suitability to develop potent antimalarial drugs based on specific inhibitors of Plasmodium serine-type SERAs.

  10. What is shared, what is different? Core relational themes and expressive displays of eight positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Belinda; Shiota, Michelle N; Keltner, Dacher; Gonzaga, Gian C; Goetz, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Understanding positive emotions' shared and differentiating features can yield valuable insight into the structure of positive emotion space and identify emotion states, or aspects of emotion states, that are most relevant for particular psychological processes and outcomes. We report two studies that examined core relational themes (Study 1) and expressive displays (Study 2) for eight positive emotion constructs--amusement, awe, contentment, gratitude, interest, joy, love, and pride. Across studies, all eight emotions shared one quality: high positive valence. Distinctive core relational theme and expressive display patterns were found for four emotions--amusement, awe, interest, and pride. Gratitude was associated with a distinct core relational theme but not an expressive display. Joy and love were each associated with a distinct expressive display but their core relational themes also characterised pride and gratitude, respectively. Contentment was associated with a distinct expressive display but not a core relational theme. The implications of this work for the study of positive emotion are discussed.

  11. Children's Knowledge of Display Rules for Emotional Expression and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubleday, Catherine; And Others

    An important task for children is to acquire their culture's rules for emotional display. Accurate knowledge of display rules prescribing, for example, safe targets for anger or indelicate situations for excitement helps regulate expressive behavior and mediate the impact of emotional expression on the self and others. In this study, children's…

  12. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu

    2011-07-28

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regenerant arabidopsis lineages display a distinct genome-wide spectrum of mutations conferring variant phenotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caifu; Mithani, Aziz; Gan, Xiangchao; Belfield, Eric J.; Klingler, John  P.; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Mott, Richard; Harberd, Nicholas  P.

    2011-01-01

    Multicellular organisms can be regenerated from totipotent differentiated somatic cell or nuclear founders [1-3]. Organisms regenerated from clonally related isogenic founders might a priori have been expected to be phenotypically invariant. However, clonal regenerant animals display variant phenotypes caused by defective epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression [2], and clonal regenerant plants exhibit poorly understood heritable phenotypic ("somaclonal") variation [4-7]. Here we show that somaclonal variation in regenerant Arabidopsis lineages is associated with genome-wide elevation in DNA sequence mutation rate. We also show that regenerant mutations comprise a distinctive molecular spectrum of base substitutions, insertions, and deletions that probably results from decreased DNA repair fidelity. Finally, we show that while regenerant base substitutions are a likely major genetic cause of the somaclonal variation of regenerant Arabidopsis lineages, transposon movement is unlikely to contribute substantially to that variation. We conclude that the phenotypic variation of regenerant plants, unlike that of regenerant animals, is substantially due to DNA sequence mutation. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning Display Rules: The Socialization of Emotion Expression in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesta, Carol Zander; Haviland, Jeannette M.

    1982-01-01

    Develops a methodology for studying emotion socialization and examines the synchrony of mother and infant expressions to determine whether "instruction" in display rules is underway in early infancy and what the short-term effects of such instruction on infant expression might be. Sixty dyads were videotaped during play and reunion after brief…

  15. The influence of context on distinct facial expressions of disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Peter J; Walle, Eric A; Knothe, Jennifer M; Lopez, Lukas D

    2018-06-11

    Face perception is susceptible to contextual influence and perceived physical similarities between emotion cues. However, studies often use structurally homogeneous facial expressions, making it difficult to explore how within-emotion variability in facial configuration affects emotion perception. This study examined the influence of context on the emotional perception of categorically identical, yet physically distinct, facial expressions of disgust. Participants categorized two perceptually distinct disgust facial expressions, "closed" (i.e., scrunched nose, closed mouth) and "open" (i.e., scrunched nose, open mouth, protruding tongue), that were embedded in contexts comprising emotion postures and scenes. Results demonstrated that the effect of nonfacial elements was significantly stronger for "open" disgust facial expressions than "closed" disgust facial expressions. These findings provide support that physical similarity within discrete categories of facial expressions is mutable and plays an important role in affective face perception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Moules, Vincent; Sibon, David; Nass, Catharie C.; Mortreux, Franck; Mauclere, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Murphy, Edward L.; Wattel, Eric

    2006-01-01

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population

  17. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biophysical subsets of embryonic stem cells display distinct phenotypic and morphological signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Bongiorno

    Full Text Available The highly proliferative and pluripotent characteristics of embryonic stem cells engender great promise for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, but the rapid identification and isolation of target cell phenotypes remains challenging. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to characterize cell mechanics as a function of differentiation and to employ differences in cell stiffness to select population subsets with distinct mechanical, morphological, and biological properties. Biomechanical analysis with atomic force microscopy revealed that embryonic stem cells stiffened within one day of differentiation induced by leukemia inhibitory factor removal, with a lagging but pronounced change from spherical to spindle-shaped cell morphology. A microfluidic device was then employed to sort a differentially labeled mixture of pluripotent and differentiating cells based on stiffness, resulting in pluripotent cell enrichment in the soft device outlet. Furthermore, sorting an unlabeled population of partially differentiated cells produced a subset of "soft" cells that was enriched for the pluripotent phenotype, as assessed by post-sort characterization of cell mechanics, morphology, and gene expression. The results of this study indicate that intrinsic cell mechanical properties might serve as a basis for efficient, high-throughput, and label-free isolation of pluripotent stem cells, which will facilitate a greater biological understanding of pluripotency and advance the potential of pluripotent stem cell differentiated progeny as cell sources for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  19. Reconstructing dynamic mental models of facial expressions in prosopagnosia reveals distinct representations for identity and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richoz, Anne-Raphaëlle; Jack, Rachael E; Garrod, Oliver G B; Schyns, Philippe G; Caldara, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The human face transmits a wealth of signals that readily provide crucial information for social interactions, such as facial identity and emotional expression. Yet, a fundamental question remains unresolved: does the face information for identity and emotional expression categorization tap into common or distinct representational systems? To address this question we tested PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with bilateral occipitotemporal lesions anatomically sparing the regions that are assumed to contribute to facial expression (de)coding (i.e., the amygdala, the insula and the posterior superior temporal sulcus--pSTS). We previously demonstrated that PS does not use information from the eye region to identify faces, but relies on the suboptimal mouth region. PS's abnormal information use for identity, coupled with her neural dissociation, provides a unique opportunity to probe the existence of a dichotomy in the face representational system. To reconstruct the mental models of the six basic facial expressions of emotion in PS and age-matched healthy observers, we used a novel reverse correlation technique tracking information use on dynamic faces. PS was comparable to controls, using all facial features to (de)code facial expressions with the exception of fear. PS's normal (de)coding of dynamic facial expressions suggests that the face system relies either on distinct representational systems for identity and expression, or dissociable cortical pathways to access them. Interestingly, PS showed a selective impairment for categorizing many static facial expressions, which could be accounted for by her lesion in the right inferior occipital gyrus. PS's advantage for dynamic facial expressions might instead relate to a functionally distinct and sufficient cortical pathway directly connecting the early visual cortex to the spared pSTS. Altogether, our data provide critical insights on the healthy and impaired face systems, question evidence of deficits

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma displays distinct DNA methylation signatures with potential as clinical predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Hernandez-Vargas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is characterized by late detection and fast progression, and it is believed that epigenetic disruption may be the cause of its molecular and clinicopathological heterogeneity. A better understanding of the global deregulation of methylation states and how they correlate with disease progression will aid in the design of strategies for earlier detection and better therapeutic decisions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized the changes in promoter methylation in a series of 30 HCC tumors and their respective surrounding tissue and identified methylation signatures associated with major risk factors and clinical correlates. A wide panel of cancer-related gene promoters was analyzed using Illumina bead array technology, and CpG sites were then selected according to their ability to classify clinicopathological parameters. An independent series of HCC tumors and matched surrounding tissue was used for validation of the signatures. We were able to develop and validate a signature of methylation in HCC. This signature distinguished HCC from surrounding tissue and from other tumor types, and was independent of risk factors. However, aberrant methylation of an independent subset of promoters was associated with tumor progression and etiological risk factors (HBV or HCV infection and alcohol consumption. Interestingly, distinct methylation of an independent panel of gene promoters was strongly correlated with survival after cancer therapy. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that HCC tumors exhibit specific DNA methylation signatures associated with major risk factors and tumor progression stage, with potential clinical applications in diagnosis and prognosis.

  1. Children's Understanding of Display Rules for Expressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarni, Carolyn

    1979-01-01

    Examined how children come to understand that internally experienced affect need not be behaviorally expressed and that the emotion that is expressed is not necessarily what is being felt internally. Sixty elementary school students were interviewed about four interpersonal conflict situations presented in comic strip style but using photographs…

  2. Gene expression profiling in the striatum of inbred mouse strains with distinct opioid-related phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piechota Marcin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse strains with a contrasting response to morphine provide a unique model for studying the genetically determined diversity of sensitivity to opioid reward, tolerance and dependence. Four inbred strains selected for this study exhibit the most distinct opioid-related phenotypes. C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice show remarkable differences in morphine-induced antinociception, self-administration and locomotor activity. 129P3/J mice display low morphine tolerance and dependence in contrast to high sensitivity to precipitated withdrawal observed in SWR/J and C57BL/6J strains. In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationships between genetic background and basal gene expression profile in the striatum, a brain region involved in the mechanism of opioid action. Results Gene expression was studied by Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430v2.0 arrays with probes for over 39.000 transcripts. Analysis of variance with the control for false discovery rate (q Khdrbs1 and ATPase Na+/K+ alpha2 subunit (Atp1a2 with morphine self-administration and analgesic effects, respectively. Finally, the examination of transcript structure demonstrated a possible inter-strain variability of expressed mRNA forms as for example the catechol-O-methyltransferase (Comt gene. Conclusion The presented study led to the recognition of differences in the gene expression that may account for distinct phenotypes. Moreover, results indicate strong contribution of genetic background to differences in gene transcription in the mouse striatum. The genes identified in this work constitute promising candidates for further animal studies and for translational genetic studies in the field of addictive and analgesic properties of opioids.

  3. Individual microRNAs (miRNAs) display distinct mRNA targeting "rules".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang-Xia; Wilfred, Bernard R; Xie, Kevin; Jennings, Mary H; Hu, Yanling Hu; Stromberg, Arnold J; Nelson, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) guide Argonaute (AGO)-containing microribonucleoprotein (miRNP) complexes to target mRNAs.It has been assumed that miRNAs behave similarly to each other with regard to mRNA target recognition. The usual assumptions, which are based on prior studies, are that miRNAs target preferentially sequences in the 3'UTR of mRNAs,guided by the 5' "seed" portion of the miRNAs. Here we isolated AGO- and miRNA-containing miRNPs from human H4 tumor cells by co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) with anti-AGO antibody. Cells were transfected with miR-107, miR-124,miR-128, miR-320, or a negative control miRNA. Co-IPed RNAs were subjected to downstream high-density Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarray analyses using an assay we validated previously-a "RIP-Chip" experimental design. RIP-Chip data provided a list of mRNAs recruited into the AGO-miRNP in correlation to each miRNA. These experimentally identified miRNA targets were analyzed for complementary six nucleotide "seed" sequences within the transfected miRNAs. We found that miR-124 targets tended to have sequences in the 3'UTR that would be recognized by the 5' seed of miR-124, as described in previous studies. By contrast, miR-107 targets tended to have 'seed' sequences in the mRNA open reading frame, but not the 3' UTR. Further, mRNA targets of miR-128 and miR-320 are less enriched for 6-mer seed sequences in comparison to miR-107 and miR-124. In sum, our data support the importance of the 5' seed in determining binding characteristics for some miRNAs; however, the "binding rules" are complex, and individual miRNAs can have distinct sequence determinants that lead to mRNA targeting.

  4. The Development of Display Rule Knowledge: Linkages with Family Expressiveness and Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Cumberland, Amanda; Abbey, Belynda Bowling

    1998-01-01

    Two studies investigated emotional-display-rule knowledge and its associations with family expressiveness and peer competence. Findings indicated that third graders combined expression regulation with prosocial reasoning, norm-maintenance, and self-protective motives more frequently than kindergartners. Negative expressiveness was related…

  5. Dynamic Displays Enhance the Ability to Discriminate Genuine and Posed Facial Expressions of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Shushi; Kabir, Russell S.; Miyatani, Makoto; Nakao, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Accurately gauging the emotional experience of another person is important for navigating interpersonal interactions. This study investigated whether perceivers are capable of distinguishing between unintentionally expressed (genuine) and intentionally manipulated (posed) facial expressions attributed to four major emotions: amusement, disgust, sadness, and surprise. Sensitivity to this discrimination was explored by comparing unstaged dynamic and static facial stimuli and analyzing the results with signal detection theory. Participants indicated whether facial stimuli presented on a screen depicted a person showing a given emotion and whether that person was feeling a given emotion. The results showed that genuine displays were evaluated more as felt expressions than posed displays for all target emotions presented. In addition, sensitivity to the perception of emotional experience, or discriminability, was enhanced in dynamic facial displays, but was less pronounced in the case of static displays. This finding indicates that dynamic information in facial displays contributes to the ability to accurately infer the emotional experiences of another person. PMID:29896135

  6. Distinct expression profile in fumarate-hydratase-deficient uterine fibroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanharanta, S; Pollard, PJ; Lehtonen, HJ

    2006-01-01

    -related genes. Other significantly up-regulated gene categories in FH mutants were, for example, iron ion homeostasis and oxidoreduction. Genes with lower expression in FH-mutant fibroids belonged to groups such as extracellular matrix, cell adhesion, muscle development and cell contraction. We show that FH...

  7. Duct- and Acinar-Derived Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Show Distinct Tumor Progression and Marker Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute M.M. Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The cell of origin of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC has been controversial. Here, we show that identical oncogenic drivers trigger PDAC originating from both ductal and acinar cells with similar histology but with distinct pathophysiology and marker expression dependent on cell of origin. Whereas acinar-derived tumors exhibited low AGR2 expression and were preceded by pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs, duct-derived tumors displayed high AGR2 and developed independently of a PanIN stage via non-mucinous lesions. Using orthotopic transplantation and chimera experiments, we demonstrate that PanIN-like lesions can be induced by PDAC as bystanders in adjacent healthy tissues, explaining the co-existence of mucinous and non-mucinous lesions and highlighting the need to distinguish between true precursor PanINs and PanIN-like bystander lesions. Our results suggest AGR2 as a tool to stratify PDAC according to cell of origin, highlight that not all PanIN-like lesions are precursors of PDAC, and add an alternative progression route to the current model of PDAC development.

  8. Heterologous Expression of Three Plant Serpins with Distinct Inhibitory Specificities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Søren Weis; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgård; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1996-01-01

    For the first time, inhibitory plant serpins, including WSZ1 from wheat, BSZ4, and the previously unknown protein BSZx from barley, have been expressed in Escherichia coli, and a procedure for fast purification of native plant serpins has been developed, BSZx, BSZ4, and WSZ1 were assayed...... favorable P-2 Leu. BSZ4 inhibited cathepsin G (k(a) = 2.7 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) at P-1 Met but was hydrolyzed by trypsin and chymotrypsin. The three plant serpins formed stable SDS-resistant complexes with the proteinases in accordance with the kinetic data....

  9. The establishment of Saccharomyces boulardii surface display system using a single expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Chen, Peipei; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, an a-agglutinin-based Saccharomyces boulardii surface display system was successfully established using a single expression vector. Based on the two protein co-expression vector pSP-G1 built by Partow et al., a S. boulardii surface display vector-pSDSb containing all the display elements was constructed. The display results of heterologous proteins were confirmed by successfully displaying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and chicken Eimeria tenella Microneme-2 proteins (EtMic2) on the S. boulardii cell surface. The DNA sequence of AGA1 gene from S. boulardii (SbAGA1) was determined and used as the cell wall anchor partner. This is the first time heterologous proteins have been displayed on the cell surface of S. boulardii. Because S. boulardii is probiotic and eukaryotic, its surface display system would be very valuable, particularly in the development of a live vaccine against various pathogenic organisms especially eukaryotic pathogens such as protistan parasites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lentivirus display: stable expression of human antibodies on the surface of human cells and virus particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Taube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isolation of human antibodies using current display technologies can be limited by constraints on protein expression, folding and post-translational modifications. Here we describe a discovery platform that utilizes self-inactivating (SIN lentiviral vectors for the surface display of high-affinity single-chain variable region (scFv antibody fragments on human cells and lentivirus particles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bivalent scFvFc human antibodies were fused in frame with different transmembrane (TM anchoring moieties to allow efficient high-level expression on human cells and the optimal TM was identified. The addition of an eight amino acid HIV-1 gp41 envelope incorporation motif further increased scFvFc expression on human cells and incorporation into lentiviral particles. Both antibody-displaying human cells and virus particles bound antigen specifically. Sulfation of CDR tyrosine residues, a property recently shown to broaden antibody binding affinity and antigen recognition was also demonstrated. High level scFvFc expression and stable integration was achieved in human cells following transduction with IRES containing bicistronic SIN lentivectors encoding ZsGreen when scFvFc fusion proteins were expressed from the first cassette. Up to 10(6-fold enrichment of antibody expressing cells was achieved with one round of antigen coupled magnetic bead pre-selection followed by FACS sorting. Finally, the scFvFc displaying human cells could be used directly in functional biological screens with remarkable sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This antibody display platform will complement existing technologies by virtue of providing properties unique to lentiviruses and antibody expression in human cells, which, in turn, may aid the discovery of novel therapeutic human mAbs.

  11. Expression and surface display of Cellulomonas endoglucanase in the ethanologenic bacterium Zymobacter palmae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Motoki; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Kenji; Yanase, Hideshi [Tottori Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

    2012-11-15

    In order to reduce the cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, we developed a tool for cell surface display of cellulolytic enzymes on the ethanologenic bacterium Zymobacter palmae. Z. palmae is a novel ethanol-fermenting bacterium capable of utilizing a broad range of sugar substrates, but not cellulose. Therefore, to express and display heterologous cellulolytic enzymes on the Z. palmae cell surface, we utilized the cell-surface display motif of the Pseudomonas ice nucleation protein Ina. The gene encoding Ina from Pseudomonas syringae IFO3310 was cloned, and its product was comprised of three functional domains: an N-terminal domain, a central domain with repeated amino acid residues, and a C-terminal domain. The N-terminal domain of Ina was shown to function as the anchoring motif for a green fluorescence protein fusion protein in Escherichia coli. To express a heterologous cellulolytic enzyme extracellularly in Z. palmae, we fused the N-terminal coding sequence of Ina to the coding sequence of an N-terminal-truncated Cellulomonas endoglucanase. Z. palmae cells carrying the fusion endoglucanase gene were shown to degrade carboxymethyl cellulose. Although a portion of the expressed fusion endoglucanase was released from Z. palmae cells into the culture broth, we confirmed the display of the protein on the cell surface by immunofluorescence microscopy. The results indicate that the N-terminal anchoring motif of Ina from P. syringae enabled the translocation and display of the heterologous cellulase on the cell surface of Z. palmae. (orig.)

  12. Radiation-associated breast tumors display a distinct gene expression profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeks, Annegien; Braaf, Linde M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; van de Vijver, Marc; de Bruin, Marie L.; Stovall, Marilyn; Russell, Nicola S.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; van 't Veer, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women who received irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma have a strong increased risk for developing breast cancer. Approximately 90% of the breast cancers in these patients can be attributed to their radiation treatment, rendering such series extremely useful to determine whether a common

  13. Visual Display of 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA Expression with a Mobile Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chao-Yu; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Chiu, Chien-Yuan; Lin, Wen-Chang

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in human cancers. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that both 5p-arm and 3p-arm of mature miRNAs could be expressed from the same precursor and we further interrogated the 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression with a comprehensive arm feature annotation list. To assist biologists to visualize the differential 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression patterns, we utilized a user-friendly mobile App to display. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) miRNA-Seq expression information. We have collected over 4,500 miRNA-Seq datasets from 15 TCGA cancer types and further processed them with the 5p-arm and 3p-arm annotation analysis pipeline. In order to be displayed with the RNA-Seq Viewer App, annotated 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression information and miRNA gene loci information were converted into SQLite tables. In this distinct application, for any given miRNA gene, 5p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the top of chromosome ideogram and 3p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the bottom of chromosome ideogram. Users can then easily interrogate the differentially 5p-arm/3p-arm expressed miRNAs with their mobile devices. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of RNA-Seq Viewer App in addition to mRNA-Seq data visualization.

  14. Visual Display of 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA Expression with a Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yu Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play important roles in human cancers. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that both 5p-arm and 3p-arm of mature miRNAs could be expressed from the same precursor and we further interrogated the 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression with a comprehensive arm feature annotation list. To assist biologists to visualize the differential 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression patterns, we utilized a user-friendly mobile App to display. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA miRNA-Seq expression information. We have collected over 4,500 miRNA-Seq datasets from 15 TCGA cancer types and further processed them with the 5p-arm and 3p-arm annotation analysis pipeline. In order to be displayed with the RNA-Seq Viewer App, annotated 5p-arm and 3p-arm miRNA expression information and miRNA gene loci information were converted into SQLite tables. In this distinct application, for any given miRNA gene, 5p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the top of chromosome ideogram and 3p-arm miRNA is illustrated on the bottom of chromosome ideogram. Users can then easily interrogate the differentially 5p-arm/3p-arm expressed miRNAs with their mobile devices. This study demonstrates the feasibility and utility of RNA-Seq Viewer App in addition to mRNA-Seq data visualization.

  15. The expression pattern of small nucleolar and small Cajal body-specific RNAs characterizes distinct molecular subtypes of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, D; Todoerti, K; Tuana, G; Agnelli, L; Mosca, L; Lionetti, M; Fabris, S; Colapietro, P; Miozzo, M; Ferrarini, M; Tassone, P; Neri, A

    2012-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and small Cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in the maturation of other RNA molecules and generally located in the introns of host genes. It is now emerging that altered sno/scaRNAs expression may have a pathological role in cancer. This study elucidates the patterns of sno/scaRNAs expression in multiple myeloma (MM) by profiling purified malignant plasma cells from 55 MMs, 8 secondary plasma cell leukemias (sPCLs) and 4 normal controls. Overall, a global sno/scaRNAs downregulation was found in MMs and, even more, in sPCLs compared with normal plasma cells. Whereas SCARNA22 resulted the only sno/scaRNA characterizing the translocation/cyclin D4 (TC4) MM, TC2 group displayed a distinct sno/scaRNA signature overexpressing members of SNORD115 and SNORD116 families located in a region finely regulated by an imprinting center at 15q11, which, however, resulted overall hypomethylated in MMs independently of the SNORD115 and SNORD116 expression levels. Finally, integrative analyses with available gene expression and genome-wide data revealed the occurrence of significant sno/scaRNAs/host genes co-expression and the putative influence of allelic imbalances on specific snoRNAs expression. Our data extend the current view of sno/scaRNAs deregulation in cancer and add novel information to the bio-molecular complexity of plasma cell dyscrasias

  16. Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Allcock, Bethan; Thomas, Chris; Bard, Kim A

    2011-10-01

    Humans have the ability to replicate the emotional expressions of others even when they undergo different emotions. Such distinct responses of expressions, especially positive expressions, play a central role in everyday social communication of humans and may give the responding individuals important advantages in cooperation and communication. The present work examined laughter in chimpanzees to test whether nonhuman primates also use their expressions in such distinct ways. The approach was first to examine the form and occurrence of laugh replications (laughter after the laughter of others) and spontaneous laughter of chimpanzees during social play and then to test whether their laugh replications represented laugh-elicited laugh responses (laughter triggered by the laughter of others) by using a quantitative method designed to measure responses in natural social settings. The results of this study indicated that chimpanzees produce laugh-elicited laughter that is distinct in form and occurrence from their spontaneous laughter. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that nonhuman primates have the ability to replicate the expressions of others by producing expressions that differ in their underlying emotions and social implications. The data further showed that the laugh-elicited laugh responses of the subjects were closely linked to play maintenance, suggesting that chimpanzees might gain important cooperative and communicative advantages by responding with laughter to the laughter of their social partners. Notably, some chimpanzee groups of this study responded more with laughter than others, an outcome that provides empirical support of a socialization of expressions in great apes similar to that of humans.

  17. Distinctive properties and expression profiles of glutamine synthetase from a plant symbiotic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanini, Barbara; Betti, Marco; Márquez, Antonio J; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2003-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences reported in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank(R)/EBI Nucleotide Sequence Databases with accession numbers AF462037 (glutamine synthetase) and AF462032 (glutamate synthase). Nitrogen retrieval and assimilation by symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi is thought to play a central role in the mutualistic interaction between these organisms and their plant hosts. Here we report on the molecular characterization of the key N-assimilation enzyme glutamine synthetase from the mycorrhizal ascomycete Tuber borchii (TbGS). TbGS displayed a strong positive co-operativity ( n =1.7+/-0.29) and an unusually high S(0.5) value (54+/-16 mM; S(0.5) is the substrate concentration value at which v =(1/2) V (max)) for glutamate, and a correspondingly low sensitivity towards inhibition by the glutamate analogue herbicide phosphinothricin. The TbGS mRNA, which is encoded by a single-copy gene in the Tuber genome, was up-regulated in N-starved mycelia and returned to basal levels upon resupplementation of various forms of N, the most effective of which was nitrate. Both responses were accompanied by parallel variations of TbGS protein amount and glutamine synthetase activity, thus indicating that TbGS levels are primarily controlled at the pre-translational level. As revealed by a comparative analysis of the TbGS mRNA and of the mRNAs for the metabolically related enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate synthase, TbGS is not only the sole messenger that positively responds to N starvation, but also the most abundant under N-limiting conditions. A similar, but even more discriminating expression pattern, with practically undetectable glutamate dehydrogenase mRNA levels, was observed in fruitbodies. The TbGS mRNA was also found to be expressed in symbiosis-engaged hyphae, with distinctively higher hybridization signals in hyphae that were penetrating among and within root cells. PMID:12683951

  18. Fab is the most efficient format to express functional antibodies by yeast surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivelle, Coline; Sierocki, Raphaël; Ferreira-Pinto, Kelly; Simon, Stéphanie; Maillere, Bernard; Nozach, Hervé

    2018-04-30

    Multiple formats are available for engineering of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by yeast surface display, but they do not all lead to efficient expression of functional molecules. We therefore expressed four anti-tumor necrosis factor and two anti-IpaD mAbs as single-chain variable fragment (scFv), antigen-binding fragment (Fab) or single-chain Fabs and compared their expression levels and antigen-binding efficiency. Although the scFv and scFab formats are widely used in the literature, 2 of 6 antibodies were either not or weakly expressed. In contrast, all 6 antibodies expressed as Fab revealed strong binding and high affinity, comparable to that of the soluble form. We also demonstrated that the variations in expression did not affect Fab functionality and were due to variations in light chain display and not to misfolded dimers. Our results suggest that Fab is the most versatile format for the engineering of mAbs.

  19. Gene expression profiling of two distinct neuronal populations in the rodent spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryge, Jesper; Westerdahl, Ann Charlotte; Alstøm, Preben

    2008-01-01

    Background: In the field of neuroscience microarray gene expression profiles on anatomically defined brain structures are being used increasingly to study both normal brain functions as well as pathological states. Fluorescent tracing techniques in brain tissue that identifies distinct neuronal p...

  20. Development of a flagellin surface display expression system in a moderate thermophile, Bacillus halodurans Alk36

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BIOTECHNOLOGY The development of a flagellin surface display expression system in a moderate thermophile, Bacillus halodurans Alk36 Michael Crampton & Eldie Berger & Sharon Reid & Maureen Louw Received: 3 October 2006 /Revised: 29 January 2007 /Accepted... techniques Plasmid DNA was isolated using a Plasmid Midi Kit (Qiagen). Restriction enzymes were used as specified by the manufacturer (Fermentas and Roche Diagnostics). All mini-preps were done using Perfectprep Plasmid Mini Kit (Eppendorf). All DNA...

  1. MR1-restricted MAIT cells display ligand discrimination and pathogen selectivity through distinct T cell receptor usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gold, Marielle C.; McLaren, James E.; Reistetter, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    with this interpretation, MAIT cell clones with distinct TCRs responded differentially to a riboflavin metabolite. These results suggest that MAIT cells can discriminate between pathogen-derived ligands in a clonotype-dependent manner, providing a basis for adaptive memory via recruitment of specific repertoires shaped...

  2. GDNF family ligands display distinct action profiles on cultured GABAergic and serotonergic neurons of rat ventral mesencephalon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducray, Angélique; Krebs, Sandra H:; Schaller, Benoft

    2006-01-01

    Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), neurturin (NRTN), artemin (ARTN) and persephin (PSPN), known as the GDNF family ligands (GFLs), influence the development, survival and differentiation of cultured dopaminergic neurons from ventral mesencephalon (VM). Detailed knowledge about...... factors for VM GABAergic and serotonergic neurons, demonstrating characteristic individual action profiles emphasizing their important and distinct roles during brain development....

  3. Diverse Kir expression contributes to distinct bimodal distribution of resting potentials and vasotone responses of arterioles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqin Yang

    Full Text Available The resting membrane potential (RP of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs is a major determinant of cytosolic calcium concentration and vascular tone. The heterogeneity of RPs and its underlying mechanism among different vascular beds remain poorly understood. We compared the RPs and vasomotion properties between the guinea pig spiral modiolar artery (SMA, brain arterioles (BA and mesenteric arteries (MA. We found: 1 RPs showed a robust bimodal distribution peaked at -76 and -40 mV evenly in the SMA, unevenly at -77 and -51 mV in the BA and ~-71 and -52 mV in the MA. Ba(2+ 0.1 mM eliminated their high RP peaks ~-75 mV. 2 Cells with low RP (~-45 mV hyperpolarized in response to 10 mM extracellular K(+, while cells with a high RP depolarized, and cells with intermediate RP (~-58 mV displayed an initial hyperpolarization followed by prolonged depolarization. Moderate high K(+ typically induced dilation, constriction and a dilation followed by constriction in the SMA, MA and BA, respectively. 3 Boltzmann-fit analysis of the Ba(2+-sensitive inward rectifier K(+ (Kir whole-cell current showed that the maximum Kir conductance density significantly differed among the vessels, and the half-activation voltage was significantly more negative in the MA. 4 Corresponding to the whole-cell data, computational modeling simulated the three RP distribution patterns and the dynamics of RP changes obtained experimentally, including the regenerative swift shifts between the two RP levels after reaching a threshold. 5 Molecular works revealed strong Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 transcripts and Kir2.1 immunolabeling in all 3 vessels, while Kir2.3 and Kir2.4 transcript levels varied. We conclude that a dense expression of functional Kir2.X channels underlies the more negative RPs in endothelial cells and a subset of VSMC in these arterioles, and the heterogeneous Kir function is primarily responsible for the distinct bimodal RPs among these arterioles. The fast Kir

  4. Dynamic Changes in Amygdala Psychophysiological Connectivity Reveal Distinct Neural Networks for Facial Expressions of Basic Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diano, Matteo; Tamietto, Marco; Celeghin, Alessia; Weiskrantz, Lawrence; Tatu, Mona-Karina; Bagnis, Arianna; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso

    2017-03-27

    The quest to characterize the neural signature distinctive of different basic emotions has recently come under renewed scrutiny. Here we investigated whether facial expressions of different basic emotions modulate the functional connectivity of the amygdala with the rest of the brain. To this end, we presented seventeen healthy participants (8 females) with facial expressions of anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and emotional neutrality and analyzed amygdala's psychophysiological interaction (PPI). In fact, PPI can reveal how inter-regional amygdala communications change dynamically depending on perception of various emotional expressions to recruit different brain networks, compared to the functional interactions it entertains during perception of neutral expressions. We found that for each emotion the amygdala recruited a distinctive and spatially distributed set of structures to interact with. These changes in amygdala connectional patters characterize the dynamic signature prototypical of individual emotion processing, and seemingly represent a neural mechanism that serves to implement the distinctive influence that each emotion exerts on perceptual, cognitive, and motor responses. Besides these differences, all emotions enhanced amygdala functional integration with premotor cortices compared to neutral faces. The present findings thus concur to reconceptualise the structure-function relation between brain-emotion from the traditional one-to-one mapping toward a network-based and dynamic perspective.

  5. Differentially displayed expressed sequence tags in Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Flávia A; Nunes, Francis M F; Vieira, Carlos U; Machado, Maria Alice M S; Kerr, Warwick E; Silva, Wilson A; Bonetti, Ana Maria

    2006-03-01

    We have compared gene expression, using the Differential Display Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (DDRT-PCR) technique, by means of mRNA profile in Melipona scutellaris during ontogenetic postembryonic development, in adult worker, and in both Natural and Juvenile Hormone III-induced adult queen. Six, out of the nine ESTs described here, presented differentially expressed in the phases L1 or L2, or even in both of them, suggesting that key mechanisms to the development of Melipona scutellaris are regulated in these stages. The combination HT11G-AP05 revealed in L1 and L2 a product which matches to thioredoxin reductase protein domain in the Clostridium sporogenes, an important protein during cellular oxidoreduction processes. This study represents the first molecular evidence of differential gene expression profiles toward a description of the genetic developmental traits in the genus Melipona.

  6. Differentially displayed expressed sequence tags in Melipona scutellaris (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Flávia A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have compared gene expression, using the Differential Display Reverse Transcriptase - Polymerase Chain Reaction (DDRT-PCR technique, by means of mRNA profile in Melipona scutellaris during ontogenetic postembryonic development, in adult worker, and in both Natural and Juvenile Hormone III-induced adult queen. Six, out of the nine ESTs described here, presented differentially expressed in the phases L1 or L2, or even in both of them, suggesting that key mechanisms to the development of Melipona scutellaris are regulated in these stages. The combination HT11G-AP05 revealed in L1 and L2 a product which matches to thioredoxin reductase protein domain in the Clostridium sporogenes, an important protein during cellular oxidoreduction processes. This study represents the first molecular evidence of differential gene expression profiles toward a description of the genetic developmental traits in the genus Melipona.

  7. Facial expressions of emotion (KDEF): identification under different display-duration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Lundqvist, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    Participants judged which of seven facial expressions (neutrality, happiness, anger, sadness, surprise, fear, and disgust) were displayed by a set of 280 faces corresponding to 20 female and 20 male models of the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces database (Lundqvist, Flykt, & Ohman, 1998). Each face was presented under free-viewing conditions (to 63 participants) and also for 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 msec (to 160 participants), to examine identification thresholds. Measures of identification accuracy, types of errors, and reaction times were obtained for each expression. In general, happy faces were identified more accurately, earlier, and faster than other faces, whereas judgments of fearful faces were the least accurate, the latest, and the slowest. Norms for each face and expression regarding level of identification accuracy, errors, and reaction times may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  8. Analysis on expression of gene for flower shape in Dendrobium sonia mutants using differential display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affrida Abu Hassan; Ahmad Syazni Kamarudin; Nurul Nadia Aminuddin; Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2004-01-01

    In vitro mutagenesis on Dendrobium Sonia in MINT has produced mutants with wide range of flower form and colour variations. Among the mutants are plants with different flower size and shape. These changes could be caused by alterations to the expression level of the genes responsible for the characteristics. In this studies, Differential Display technique was used to identify and analyse altered gene expression at the mRNA level. Total RNA of the control and mutants were reversed transcribed using three anchored oligo-d T primers. Subsequently, these cDNAs were Pcr amplified in combination with 16 arbitrary primers. The amplified products were electrophoresed side by side on agarose gel. Differentially expressed bands are isolated for further analysis. (Author)

  9. Distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 variants in different types of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Saamaaneh; Asadi, Malek Hossein; Farsinejad, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    OCT4 is a key regulator of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells which can potentially encode three spliced variants designated OCT4A, OCT4B and OCT4B1. Based on cancer stem cell concept, it is suggested that the stemness factors misexpressed in cancer cells and potentially is involved in tumorigenesis. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the potential expression of OCT4 variants in breast cancer tissues. A total of 94 tumoral and peritumoral breast specimens were evaluated with respect to the expression of OCT4 variants using quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. We detected the expression of OCT4 variants in breast tumor tissues with no or very low levels of expression in peritumoral samples of the same patients. While OCT4B was highly expressed in lobular type of breast cancer, OCT4A and OCTB1 variants are highly expressed in low grade (I and II) ductal tumors. Furthermore, the results of this study revealed a considerable association between the expression level of OCT4 variants and the expression of ER, PR, Her2 and P53 factors. All data demonstrated a distinctive expression pattern of OCT4 spliced variants in different types of breast cancer and provide further evidence for the involvement of embryonic genes in carcinogenesis.

  10. Expression of cardiac neural crest and heart genes isolated by modified differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Brad J; Groebner, Nathan J; Frasier, Allison J; Lohr, Jamie L

    2003-08-01

    The invasion of the cardiac neural crest (CNC) into the outflow tract (OFT) and subsequent outflow tract septation are critical events during vertebrate heart development. We have performed four modified differential display screens in the chick embryo to identify genes that may be involved in CNC, OFT, secondary heart field, and heart development. The screens included differential display of RNA isolated from three different axial segments containing premigratory cranial neural crest cells; of RNA from distal outflow tract, proximal outflow tract, and atrioventricular tissue of embryonic chick hearts; and of RNA isolated from left and right cranial tissues, including the early heart fields. These screens have resulted in the identification of the five cDNA clones presented here, which are expressed in the cardiac neural crest, outflow tract and developing heart in patterns that are unique in heart development.

  11. Growth and gene expression are predominantly controlled by distinct regions of the human IL-4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J J; McReynolds, L J; Keegan, A; Wang, L H; Garfein, E; Rothman, P; Nelms, K; Paul, W E

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 causes hematopoietic cells to proliferate and express a series of genes, including CD23. We examined whether IL-4-mediated growth, as measured by 4PS phosphorylation, and gene induction were similarly controlled. Studies of M12.4.1 cells expressing human IL-4R truncation mutants indicated that the region between amino acids 557-657 is necessary for full gene expression, which correlated with Stat6 DNA binding activity. This region was not required for 4PS phosphorylation. Tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutations in the interval between amino acids 557-657 revealed that as long as one tyrosine remained unmutated, CD23 was fully induced. When all three tyrosines were mutated, the receptor was unable to induce CD23. The results indicate that growth regulation and gene expression are principally controlled by distinct regions of IL-4R.

  12. Multiple ace genes encoding acetylcholinesterases of Caenorhabditis elegans have distinct tissue expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Didier; Fedon, Yann; Toutant, Jean-Pierre; Arpagaus, Martine

    2003-08-01

    ace-1 and ace-2 genes encoding acetylcholinesterase in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans present 35% identity in coding sequences but no homology in noncoding regions (introns, 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions). A 5'-region of ace-2 was defined by rescue of ace-1;ace-2 mutants. When green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was driven by this regulatory region, the resulting pattern was distinct from that of ace-1. This latter gene is expressed in all body-wall and vulval muscle cells (Culetto et al., 1999), whereas ace-2 is expressed almost exclusively in neurons. ace-3 and ace-4 genes are located in close proximity on chromosome II (Combes et al., 2000). These two genes were first transcribed in vivo as a bicistronic messenger and thus constitute an ace-3;ace-4 operon. However, there was a very low level of monocistronic mRNA of ace-4 (the upstream gene) in vivo, and no ACE-4 enzymatic activity was ever detected. GFP expression driven by a 5' upstream region of the ace-3;ace-4 operon was detected in several muscle cells of the pharynx (pm3, pm4, pm5 and pm7) and in the two canal associated neurons (CAN cells). A dorsal row of body-wall muscle cells was intensively labelled in larval stages but no longer detected in adults. The distinct tissue-specific expression of ace-1, ace-2 and ace-3 (coexpressed only in pm5 cells) indicates that ace genes are not redundant.

  13. Distinct Calcium Signaling Pathways Regulate Calmodulin Gene Expression in Tobacco1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Luit, Arnold H.; Olivari, Claudio; Haley, Ann; Knight, Marc R.; Trewavas, Anthony J.

    1999-01-01

    Cold shock and wind stimuli initiate Ca2+ transients in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) seedlings (named MAQ 2.4) containing cytoplasmic aequorin. To investigate whether these stimuli initiate Ca2+ pathways that are spatially distinct, stress-induced nuclear and cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients and the expression of a stress-induced calmodulin gene were compared. Tobacco seedlings were transformed with a construct that encodes a fusion protein between nucleoplasmin (a major oocyte nuclear protein) and aequorin. Immunocytochemical evidence indicated targeting of the fusion protein to the nucleus in these plants, which were named MAQ 7.11. Comparison between MAQ 7.11 and MAQ 2.4 seedlings confirmed that wind stimuli and cold shock invoke separate Ca2+ signaling pathways. Partial cDNAs encoding two tobacco calmodulin genes, NpCaM-1 and NpCaM-2, were identified and shown to have distinct nucleotide sequences that encode identical polypeptides. Expression of NpCaM-1, but not NpCaM-2, responded to wind and cold shock stimulation. Comparison of the Ca2+ dynamics with NpCaM-1 expression after stimulation suggested that wind-induced NpCaM-1 expression is regulated by a Ca2+ signaling pathway operational predominantly in the nucleus. In contrast, expression of NpCaM-1 in response to cold shock is regulated by a pathway operational predominantly in the cytoplasm. PMID:10557218

  14. Bacterial feeding, Leishmania infection and distinct infection routes induce differential defensin expression in Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telleria, Erich L; Sant'Anna, Maurício R Viana; Alkurbi, Mohammad O; Pitaluga, André N; Dillon, Rod J; Traub-Csekö, Yara M

    2013-01-11

    Phlebotomine insects harbor bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens that can cause diseases of public health importance. Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. Insects can mount a powerful innate immune response to pathogens. Defensin peptides take part in this response and are known to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and some parasites. We studied the expression of a defensin gene from Lutzomyia longipalpis to understand its role in sand fly immune response. We identified, sequenced and evaluated the expression of a L. longipalpis defensin gene by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The gene sequence was compared to other vectors defensins and expression was determined along developmental stages and after exposure of adult female L. longipalpis to bacteria and Leishmania. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the L. longipalpis defensin is closely related to a defensin from the Old World sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi. Expression was high in late L4 larvae and pupae in comparison to early larval stages and newly emerged flies. Defensin expression was modulated by oral infection with bacteria. The Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus induced early high defensin expression, whilst the Gram-negative entomopathogenic Serratia marcescens induced a later response. Bacterial injection also induced defensin expression in adult insects. Female sand flies infected orally with Leishmania mexicana showed no significant difference in defensin expression compared to blood fed insects apart from a lower defensin expression 5 days post Leishmania infection. When Leishmania was introduced into the hemolymph by injection there was no induction of defensin expression until 72 h later. Our results suggest that L. longipalpis modulates defensin expression upon bacterial and Leishmania infection, with patterns of expression that are distinct among bacterial species and routes of infection.

  15. Gene expression profiling of two distinct neuronal populations in the rodent spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Ryge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the field of neuroscience microarray gene expression profiles on anatomically defined brain structures are being used increasingly to study both normal brain functions as well as pathological states. Fluorescent tracing techniques in brain tissue that identifies distinct neuronal populations can in combination with global gene expression profiling potentially increase the resolution and specificity of such studies to shed new light on neuronal functions at the cellular level. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examine the microarray gene expression profiles of two distinct neuronal populations in the spinal cord of the neonatal rat, the principal motor neurons and specific interneurons involved in motor control. The gene expression profiles of the respective cell populations were obtained from amplified mRNA originating from 50-250 fluorescently identified and laser microdissected cells. In the data analysis we combine a new microarray normalization procedure with a conglomerate measure of significant differential gene expression. Using our methodology we find 32 genes to be more expressed in the interneurons compared to the motor neurons that all except one have not previously been associated with this neuronal population. As a validation of our method we find 17 genes to be more expressed in the motor neurons than in the interneurons and of these only one had not previously been described in this population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide an optimized experimental protocol that allows isolation of gene transcripts from fluorescent retrogradely labeled cell populations in fresh tissue, which can be used to generate amplified aRNA for microarray hybridization from as few as 50 laser microdissected cells. Using this optimized experimental protocol in combination with our microarray analysis methodology we find 49 differentially expressed genes between the motor neurons and the interneurons that reflect the functional

  16. MR1-restricted MAIT cells display ligand discrimination and pathogen selectivity through distinct T cell receptor usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gold, Marielle C.; McLaren, James E.; Reistetter, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) that detects microbial metabolites presented by the nonpolymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-like molecule MR1. The highly conserved nature of MR1 in conjunction with biased MAIT TCRα chain usa...

  17. Distinct ASIC currents are expressed in rat putative nociceptors and are modulated by nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, Olivier; Berta, Temugin; Decosterd, Isabelle; Kellenberger, Stephan

    2006-10-01

    The H(+)-gated acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones. Studies with ASIC knockout mice indicated either a pro-nociceptive or a modulatory role of ASICs in pain sensation. We have investigated in freshly isolated rat DRG neurones whether neurones with different ASIC current properties exist, which may explain distinct cellular roles, and we have investigated ASIC regulation in an experimental model of neuropathic pain. Small-diameter DRG neurones expressed three different ASIC current types which were all preferentially expressed in putative nociceptors. Type 1 currents were mediated by ASIC1a homomultimers and characterized by steep pH dependence of current activation in the pH range 6.8-6.0. Type 3 currents were activated in a similar pH range as type 1, while type 2 currents were activated at pH ASIC current density. Nerve injury induced differential regulation of ASIC subunit expression and selective changes in ASIC function in DRG neurones, suggesting a complex reorganization of ASICs during the development of neuropathic pain. In summary, we describe a basis for distinct cellular functions of different ASIC types in small-diameter DRG neurones.

  18. Distinct types of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma identified by gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefnagel, Juliette J; Dijkman, Remco; Basso, Katia; Jansen, Patty M; Hallermann, Christian; Willemze, Rein; Tensen, Cornelis P; Vermeer, Maarten H

    2005-05-01

    In the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) classification 2 types of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma (PCLBCL) are distinguished: primary cutaneous follicle center cell lymphomas (PCFCCL) and PCLBCL of the leg (PCLBCL-leg). Distinction between both groups is considered important because of differences in prognosis (5-year survival > 95% and 52%, respectively) and the first choice of treatment (radiotherapy or systemic chemotherapy, respectively), but is not generally accepted. To establish a molecular basis for this subdivision in the EORTC classification, we investigated the gene expression profiles of 21 PCLBCLs by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Hierarchical clustering based on a B-cell signature (7450 genes) classified PCLBCL into 2 distinct subgroups consisting of, respectively, 8 PCFCCLs and 13 PCLBCLsleg. PCLBCLs-leg showed increased expression of genes associated with cell proliferation; the proto-oncogenes Pim-1, Pim-2, and c-Myc; and the transcription factors Mum1/IRF4 and Oct-2. In the group of PCFCCL high expression of SPINK2 was observed. Further analysis suggested that PCFCCLs and PCLBCLs-leg have expression profiles similar to that of germinal center B-cell-like and activated B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, respectively. The results of this study suggest that different pathogenetic mechanisms are involved in the development of PCFCCLs and PCLBCLs-leg and provide molecular support for the subdivision used in the EORTC classification.

  19. Group A rotavirus and norovirus display sharply distinct seasonal profiles in Belém, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several viruses have been associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE, and group A rotavirus (RVA and nor-ovirus (NoV are the most prevalent. This study aimed to assess their prevalence among children hospitalised for diarrhoea during a three-year surveillance study. From May 2008-April 2011, overall positivity rates of 21.6% (628/2904 and 35.4% (171/483 were observed for RVA and NoV, respectively. The seasonality observed indicated distinct patterns when both viruses were compared. This finding may explain why hospitalisation for AGE remains constant throughout the year. Continuous AGE monitoring is needed to better assess the patterns of infection.

  20. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Maria C.; Nichitean, Alexandra M.; Dorus, Steve; Hall, Sarah E.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite (“seesaw”) transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome. PMID:29447162

  1. Early experiences mediate distinct adult gene expression and reproductive programs in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Ow

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stress during early development in animals can have profound effects on adult phenotypes via programmed changes in gene expression. Using the nematode C. elegans, we demonstrated previously that adults retain a cellular memory of their developmental experience that is manifested by differences in gene expression and life history traits; however, the sophistication of this system in response to different environmental stresses, and how it dictates phenotypic plasticity in adults that contribute to increased fitness in response to distinct environmental challenges, was unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show here that C. elegans adults indeed retain distinct cellular memories of different environmental conditions. We identified approximately 500 genes in adults that entered dauer due to starvation that exhibit significant opposite ("seesaw" transcriptional phenotypes compared to adults that entered dauer due to crowding, and are distinct from animals that bypassed dauer. Moreover, we show that two-thirds of the genes in the genome experience a 2-fold or greater seesaw trend in gene expression, and based upon the direction of change, are enriched in large, tightly linked regions on different chromosomes. Importantly, these transcriptional programs correspond to significant changes in brood size depending on the experienced stress. In addition, we demonstrate that while the observed seesaw gene expression changes occur in both somatic and germline tissue, only starvation-induced changes require a functional GLP-4 protein necessary for germline development, and both programs require the Argonaute CSR-1. Thus, our results suggest that signaling between the soma and the germ line can generate phenotypic plasticity as a result of early environmental experience, and likely contribute to increased fitness in adverse conditions and the evolution of the C. elegans genome.

  2. Express saccades in distinct populations: east, west, and in-between.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Paul C; Wolohan, Felicity D A; Helmy, Mai S

    2017-12-01

    Express saccades are low latency (80-130 ms), visually guided saccades. While their occurrence is encouraged by the use of gap tasks (the fixation target is extinguished 200 ms prior to the saccade target appearing) and suppressed by the use of overlap tasks (the fixation target remains present when the saccade target appears), there are some healthy, adult participants, "express saccade makers" (ESMs), who persist in generating high proportions (> 30%) of express saccades in overlap conditions. These participants are encountered much more frequently in Chinese participant groups than amongst the Caucasian participants tested to date. What is not known is whether this high number of ESMs is only a feature of Chinese participant groups. More broadly, there are few comparative studies of saccade behaviour across large participant groups drawn from different populations. We, therefore, tested an independent group of 70 healthy adult Egyptian participants, using the same equipment and procedures as employed in the previous studies. Each participant was exposed to two blocks of 200 gap, and two blocks of 200 overlap trials, with block order counterbalanced. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey were used to confirm that this group of participants was culturally distinct from the Chinese and Caucasian (white British) groups tested previously. Fourteen percent (10/70) of this new group were ESMs, and the pattern of latency distribution in these ESMs was identical to that identified in the other participant groups, with a prominent peak in the express latency range in overlap conditions. Overall, we identified three modes in the distribution of saccade latency in overlap conditions, the timing of which (express peak at 110 ms, subsequent peaks at 160 and 210 ms) were strikingly consistent with our previous observations. That these behavioural patterns of saccade latency are observed consistently in large participant groups, drawn from geographically, ethnically, and

  3. Quantitative expression profile of distinct functional regions in the adult mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeya Kasukawa

    Full Text Available The adult mammalian brain is composed of distinct regions with specialized roles including regulation of circadian clocks, feeding, sleep/awake, and seasonal rhythms. To find quantitative differences of expression among such various brain regions, we conducted the BrainStars (B* project, in which we profiled the genome-wide expression of ∼50 small brain regions, including sensory centers, and centers for motion, time, memory, fear, and feeding. To avoid confounds from temporal differences in gene expression, we sampled each region every 4 hours for 24 hours, and pooled the samples for DNA-microarray assays. Therefore, we focused on spatial differences in gene expression. We used informatics to identify candidate genes with expression changes showing high or low expression in specific regions. We also identified candidate genes with stable expression across brain regions that can be used as new internal control genes, and ligand-receptor interactions of neurohormones and neurotransmitters. Through these analyses, we found 8,159 multi-state genes, 2,212 regional marker gene candidates for 44 small brain regions, 915 internal control gene candidates, and 23,864 inferred ligand-receptor interactions. We also found that these sets include well-known genes as well as novel candidate genes that might be related to specific functions in brain regions. We used our findings to develop an integrated database (http://brainstars.org/ for exploring genome-wide expression in the adult mouse brain, and have made this database openly accessible. These new resources will help accelerate the functional analysis of the mammalian brain and the elucidation of its regulatory network systems.

  4. Lymphocytes From Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Display a Distinct Profile of Chromatin Histone H3 Lysine 9 Dimethylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Feng; Smith, David D.; Zhang, Lingxiao; Min, Andrew; Feng, Wei; Natarajan, Rama

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The complexity of interactions between genes and the environment is a major challenge for type 1 diabetes studies. Nuclear chromatin is the interface between genetics and environment and the principal carrier of epigenetic information. Because histone tail modifications in chromatin are linked to gene transcription, we hypothesized that histone methylation patterns in cells from type 1 diabetic patients can provide novel epigenetic insights into type 1 diabetes and its complications. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) linked to microarray (ChIP-chip) approach to compare genome-wide histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) patterns in blood lymphocytes and monocytes from type 1 diabetic patients versus healthy control subjects. Bioinformatics evaluation of methylated candidates was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools. RESULTS—A subset of genes in the type 1 diabetic cohort showed significant increase in H3K9me2 in lymphocytes but not in monocytes. CLTA4, a type 1 diabetes susceptibility gene, was one of the candidates displaying increased promoter H3K9me2 in type 1 diabetes. IPA identified two high-scoring networks that encompassed genes showing altered H3K9me2. Many of them were associated with autoimmune and inflammation-related pathways, such as transforming growth factor-β, nuclear factor-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, toll-like receptor, and interleukin-6. IPA also revealed biological relationships between these networks and known type 1 diabetes candidate genes. CONCLUSIONS—The concerted and synergistic alteration of histone methylation within the identified network in lymphocytes might have an effect on the etiology of type 1 diabetes and its complications. These studies provide evidence of a novel association between type 1 diabetes and altered histone methylation of key genes that are components of type 1 diabetes–related biological pathways and also a new

  5. Distinct patterns of ALDH1A1 expression predict metastasis and poor outcome of colorectal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Zeng, Dong-Zu; Dong, Wei-Guo; Ding, Yan-Qing; Rao, Jun; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Liu, Qing; Yang, Jing; Zhan, Na; Liu, Ying; Hu, Qi-Ping; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Yu, Shi-Cang; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) has been proposed as a candidate biomarker for colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the heterogeneity of its expression makes it difficult to predict the outcome of CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of this molecule in CRC. Methods and Results: In this study, we examined ALDH1A1 expression by immunohistochemistry including 406 cases of primary CRC with corresponding adjacent mucosa, with confirmation of real-time PCR and Western blotting. We found that the expression patterns of ALDH1A1 were heterogeneous in the CRC and corresponding adjacent tissues. We defined the ratio of ALDH1A1 level in adjacent mucosa to that in tumor tissues as RA/C and found that the capabilities of tumor invasion and metastasis in the tumors with RA/C < 1 were significantly higher than those with RA/C ≥ 1. Follow-up data showed the worse prognoses in the CRC patients with RA/C < 1. For understanding the underlying mechanism, the localization of β-catenin was detected in the CRC tissues with different patterns of ALDH1A1 expression from 221 patients and β-catenin was found preferentially expressed in cell nuclei of the tumors with RA/C < 1 and ALDH1A1high expression of HT29 cell line, indicating that nuclear translocation of β-catenin might contribute to the increased potentials of invasion and metastasis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that RA/C is a novel biomarker to reflect the distinct expression patterns of ALDH1A1 for predicting metastasis and prognosis of CRC. PMID:25031716

  6. Transgenic mice expressing constitutive active MAPKAPK5 display gender-dependent differences in exploration and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moens Ugo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs for short, constitute cascades of signalling pathways involved in the regulation of several cellular processes that include cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. They also intervene in neurological processes like fear conditioning and memory. Since little remains known about the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinase, MAPKAPK5, we constructed the first MAPKAPK knockin mouse model, using a constitutive active variant of MAPKAPK5 and analyzed the resulting mice for changes in anxiety-related behaviour. Methods We performed primary SHIRPA observations during background breeding into the C57BL/6 background and assessed the behaviour of the background-bred animals on the elevated plus maze and in the light-dark test. Our results were analyzed using Chi-square tests and homo- and heteroscedatic T-tests. Results Female transgenic mice displayed increased amounts of head dips and open arm time on the maze, compared to littermate controls. In addition, they also explored further into the open arm on the elevated plus maze and were less active in the closed arm compared to littermate controls. Male transgenic mice displayed no differences in anxiety, but their locomotor activity increased compared to non-transgenic littermates. Conclusion Our results revealed anxiety-related traits and locomotor differences between transgenic mice expressing constitutive active MAPKAPK5 and control littermates.

  7. Distinct patterns of gene and protein expression elicited by organophosphorus pesticides in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis William E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wide use of organophosphorus (OP pesticides makes them an important public health concern. Persistent effects of exposure and the mechanism of neuronal degeneration are continuing issues in OP toxicology. To elucidate early steps in the mechanisms of OP toxicity, we studied alterations in global gene and protein expression in Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to OPs using microarrays and mass spectrometry. We tested two structurally distinct OPs (dichlorvos and fenamiphos and employed a mechanistically different third neurotoxicant, mefloquine, as an out-group for analysis. Treatment levels used concentrations of chemical sufficient to prevent the development of 10%, 50% or 90% of mid-vulval L4 larvae into early gravid adults (EGA at 24 h after exposure in a defined, bacteria-free medium. Results After 8 h of exposure, the expression of 87 genes responded specifically to OP treatment. The abundance of 34 proteins also changed in OP-exposed worms. Many of the genes and proteins affected by the OPs are expressed in neuronal and muscle tissues and are involved in lipid metabolism, cell adhesion, apoptosis/cell death, and detoxification. Twenty-two genes were differentially affected by the two OPs; a large proportion of these genes encode cytochrome P450s, UDP-glucuronosyl/UDP-glucosyltransferases, or P-glycoproteins. The abundance of transcripts and the proteins they encode were well correlated. Conclusion Exposure to OPs elicits a pattern of changes in gene expression in exposed worms distinct from that of the unrelated neurotoxicant, mefloquine. The functional roles and the tissue location of the genes and proteins whose expression is modulated in response to exposure is consistent with the known effects of OPs, including damage to muscle due to persistent hypercontraction, neuronal cell death, and phase I and phase II detoxification. Further, the two different OPs evoked distinguishable changes in gene expression; about half

  8. Spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cells exhibit a distinct gene expression pattern from the breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qianqian

    2010-10-01

    exhibit non-malignant transformation. Although this cell line displays altered patterns of gene expression, it is clearly distinct from malignant breast cancer cell line. It showed that co-inhibition of cellular senescence and mitochondrial apoptosis pathways coordinates BME65Cs cells immortalisation. Additionally, mechanisms other than gene mutation are likely to be involved in regulation of cellular functions. This study provides an insight into the relationship between cell senescence and immortalisation. BME65Cs cells will be useful in future studies of cellular senescence and tumorigenesis.

  9. Connectivity from OR37 expressing olfactory sensory neurons to distinct cell types in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eBader

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory sensory neurons which express a member from the OR37 subfamily of odorant receptor genes are wired to the main olfactory bulb in a unique monoglomerular fashion; from these glomeruli an untypical connectivity into higher brain centers exists. In the present study we have investigated by DiI and transsynaptic tracing approaches how the connection pattern from these glomeruli into distinct hypothalamic nuclei is organized. The application of DiI onto the ventral domain of the bulb which harbors the OR37 glomeruli resulted in the labeling of fibers within the paraventricular and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus; some of these fibers were covered with varicose-like structures. No DiI-labeled cell somata were detectable in these nuclei. The data indicate that projection neurons which originate in the OR37 region of the main olfactory bulb form direct connections into these nuclei. The cells that were labeled by the transsynaptic tracer WGA in these nuclei were further characterized. Their distribution pattern in the paraventricular nucleus was reminiscent of cells which produce distinct neuropeptides. Double labeling experiments confirmed that they contained vasopressin, but not the related neuropeptide oxytocin. Morphological analysis revealed that they comprise of magno- and parvocellular cells. A comparative investigation of the WGA-positive cells in the supraoptic nucleus demonstrated that these were vasopressin-positive, as well, whereas oxytocin-producing cells of this nucleus also contained no transsynaptic tracer. Together, the data demonstrate a connectivity from OR37 expressing sensory neurons to distinct hypothalamic neurons with the same neuropeptide content.

  10. Gene expression profiling reveals distinct molecular signatures associated with the rupture of intracranial aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Tajima, Atsushi; Yoneyama, Taku; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Mizutani, Tohru; Inoue, Ituro

    2014-08-01

    The rupture of intracranial aneurysm (IA) causes subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with high morbidity and mortality. We compared gene expression profiles in aneurysmal domes between unruptured IAs and ruptured IAs (RIAs) to elucidate biological mechanisms predisposing to the rupture of IA. We determined gene expression levels of 8 RIAs, 5 unruptured IAs, and 10 superficial temporal arteries with the Agilent microarrays. To explore biological heterogeneity of IAs, we classified the samples into subgroups showing similar gene expression patterns, using clustering methods. The clustering analysis identified 4 groups: superficial temporal arteries and unruptured IAs were aggregated into their own clusters, whereas RIAs segregated into 2 distinct subgroups (early and late RIAs). Comparing gene expression levels between early RIAs and unruptured IAs, we identified 430 upregulated and 617 downregulated genes in early RIAs. The upregulated genes were associated with inflammatory and immune responses and phagocytosis including S100/calgranulin genes (S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12). The downregulated genes suggest mechanical weakness of aneurysm walls. The expressions of Krüppel-like family of transcription factors (KLF2, KLF12, and KLF15), which were anti-inflammatory regulators, and CDKN2A, which was located on chromosome 9p21 that was the most consistently replicated locus in genome-wide association studies of IA, were also downregulated. We demonstrate that gene expression patterns of RIAs were different according to the age of patients. The results suggest that macrophage-mediated inflammation is a key biological pathway for IA rupture. The identified genes can be good candidates for molecular markers of rupture-prone IAs and therapeutic targets. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Distinct interferon-gamma and interleukin-9 expression in cutaneous and oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, B; Schlapbach, C; Stuck, M; Simon, H-U; Borradori, L; Beltraminelli, H; Simon, D

    2017-05-01

    Cutaneous (CLP) and oral lichen planus (OLP) as the main subtypes of lichen planus (LP) present with different clinical manifestation and disease course, although their histopathologic features such as the band-like lymphocyte infiltrate and keratinocyte apoptosis are similar. So far, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the in situ cellular infiltrates, cytokine expression profiles and apoptosis markers in CLP and OLP. Using immunofluorescence staining and laser scanning microscopy, we evaluated the cellular infiltrate (CD1a, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD21, CD57, CD123), cytokine expression (interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, tumour necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, interferon (IFN)-γ), and apoptosis markers (Fas, Fas ligand, cleaved caspase-3, TUNEL) of 21 anonymized biopsy specimens of LP (11 CLP, 10 OLP). Among infiltrating cells mainly T cells and natural killer (NK) cells as well as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC) were observed. A predominance of CD8+ T cells was noted in OLP. In both CLP and OLP, T helper (Th)1, Th9, Th17, and Th22-type cytokines were expressed. The expression of IL-9, IFN-γ and IL-22 was higher in CLP compared to that of OLP (P = 0.0165; P = 0.0016; P = 0.052 respectively). Expression of Fas and Fas ligand as well as cleaved caspase-3-positive cells was observed in the epithelium of all LP samples. The cell and cytokine patterns of CLP and OLP were partially distinct and generally resembled those reported for autoimmune diseases. The presence of CD8+ and NK cells as well as Fas/Fas ligand expression suggested that various pathways involved in keratinocyte apoptosis are relevant for LP. These results might help to establish targeted therapies for LP. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  12. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of two distinct Sox8 genes in Paramisgurnus dabryanus (Cypriniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Qiyan; Chang, Zhongjie

    2010-08-01

    The Sox9 gene attracts a lot of attention because of its connection with gonadal development and differentiation. However, Sox8, belonging to the same subgroup SoxE, has rarely been studied. To investigate the function as well as the evolutionary origin of SOXE subgroup, we amplified the genomic DNA of Paramisgurnus dabryanu using a pair of degenerate primers. Using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE), it was discovered that P. dabryanu has two duplicates: Sox8a and Sox8b. Each has an intron of different length in the conserved HMG-box region. The overall sequence similarity of the deduced amino acid of PdSox8a and PdSox8b was 46.26%, and only two amino acids changed in the HMG-box. This is the first evidence showing that there are two distinct duplications of Sox8 genes in Cypriniformes. Southern blot analysis showed only one hybrid band, with lengths 7.4 or 9.2 kb. Both semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time quantitative PCR assay displayed that both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are downregulated during early embryonic development. In adult tissues, the two Sox8 genes expressed ubiquitously, and expression levels are particularly high in the gonads and brain. In gonads, both PdSox8a and PdSox8b are expressed at a higher level in the tesis than in the ovary. PdSox8a and PdSox8b may have functional overlaps and are essential for the neuronal development and differentiation of gonads.

  13. Emotion expression of an affective state space; a humanoid robot displaying a dynamic emotional state during a soccer game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mey, A.; Smit, F; Droog, K.J.; Visser, A.

    2010-01-01

    Following a soccer game is an example where clear emotions are displayed. This example is worked out for a humanoid robot which can express emotions with body language. The emotions expressed by the robot are not just stimuli-response, but are based on an affective state which shows dynamic behavior

  14. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia display dysregulated expression of immune checkpoints and activation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Marzia; Gentilcore, Giusy; Heimersson, Kia; Mozaffari, Fariba; Näsman-Glaser, Barbro; Young, Emma; Rosenquist, Richard; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by impaired immune functions largely due to profound T-cell defects. T-cell functions also depend on co-signaling receptors, inhibitory or stimulatory, known as immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here we analyzed the T-cell phenotype focusing on immune checkpoints and activation markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (n=80) with different clinical characteristics and compared them to healthy controls. In general, patients had higher absolute numbers of CD3 + cells and the CD8 + subset was particularly expanded in previously treated patients. Progressive patients had higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells expressing PD-1 compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in previously treated patients ( P =0.0003 and P =0.001, respectively). A significant increase in antigen-experienced T cells was observed in patients within both the CD4 + and CD8 + subsets, with a significantly higher PD-1 expression. Higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells with intracellular CTLA-4 were observed in patients, as well as high numbers of proliferating (Ki67 + ) and activated (CD69 + ) CD4 + and CD8 + cells, more pronounced in patients with active disease. The numbers of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells were substantially increased in patients compared to controls ( P leukemia T cells display increased expression of immune checkpoints, abnormal subset distribution, and a higher proportion of proliferating cells compared to healthy T cells. Disease activity and previous treatment shape the T-cell profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in different ways. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. Distinct expression profiles and different functions of odorant binding proteins in Nilaparvata lugens Stål.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs play important roles in insect olfaction. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Delphacidae, Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera is one of the most important rice pests. Its monophagy (only feeding on rice, wing form (long and short wing variation, and annual long distance migration (seeking for rice plants of high nutrition imply that the olfaction would play a central role in BPH behavior. However, the olfaction related proteins have not been characterized in this insect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full length cDNA of three OBPs were obtained and distinct expression profiles were revealed regarding to tissue, developmental stage, wing form and gender for the first time for the species. The results provide important clues in functional differentiation of these genes. Binding assays with 41 compounds demonstrated that NlugOBP3 had markedly higher binding ability and wider binding spectrum than the other two OBPs. Terpenes and Ketones displayed higher binding while Alkanes showed no binding to the three OBPs. Focused on NlugOBP3, RNA interference experiments showed that NlugOBP3 not only involved in nymph olfaction on rice seedlings, but also had non-olfactory functions, as it was closely related to nymph survival. CONCLUSIONS: NlugOBP3 plays important roles in both olfaction and survival of BPH. It may serve as a potential target for developing behavioral disruptant and/or lethal agent in N. lugens.

  16. TALE factors use two distinct functional modes to control an essential zebrafish gene expression program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladam, Franck; Stanney, William; Donaldson, Ian J; Yildiz, Ozge; Bobola, Nicoletta; Sagerström, Charles G

    2018-06-18

    TALE factors are broadly expressed embryonically and known to function in complexes with transcription factors (TFs) like Hox proteins at gastrula/segmentation stages, but it is unclear if such generally expressed factors act by the same mechanism throughout embryogenesis. We identify a TALE-dependent gene regulatory network (GRN) required for anterior development and detect TALE occupancy associated with this GRN throughout embryogenesis. At blastula stages, we uncover a novel functional mode for TALE factors, where they occupy genomic DECA motifs with nearby NF-Y sites. We demonstrate that TALE and NF-Y form complexes and regulate chromatin state at genes of this GRN. At segmentation stages, GRN-associated TALE occupancy expands to include HEXA motifs near PBX:HOX sites. Hence, TALE factors control a key GRN, but utilize distinct DNA motifs and protein partners at different stages - a strategy that may also explain their oncogenic potential and may be employed by other broadly expressed TFs. © 2018, Ladam et al.

  17. Cognitive, cultural, and linguistic sources of a handshape distinction expressing agentivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentari, Diane; Di Renzo, Alessio; Keane, Jonathan; Volterra, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the cognitive, cultural, and linguistic bases for a pattern of conventionalization of two types of iconic handshapes are described. Work on sign languages has shown that handling handshapes (H-HSs: those that represent how objects are handled or manipulated) and object handshapes (O-HSs: those that represent the class, size, or shape of objects) express an agentive/non-agentive semantic distinction in many sign languages. H-HSs are used in agentive event descriptions and O-HSs are used in non-agentive event descriptions. In this work, American Sign Language (ASL) and Italian Sign Language (LIS) productions are compared (adults and children) as well as the corresponding groups of gesturers in each country using "silent gesture." While the gesture groups, in general, did not employ an H-HS/O-HS distinction, all participants (signers and gesturers) used iconic handshapes (H-HSs and O-HSs together) more often in agentive than in no-agent event descriptions; moreover, none of the subjects produced an opposite pattern than the expected one (i.e., H-HSs associated with no-agent descriptions and O-HSs associated with agentive ones). These effects are argued to be grounded in cognition. In addition, some individual gesturers were observed to produce the H-HS/O-HS opposition for agentive and non-agentive event descriptions-that is, more Italian than American adult gesturers. This effect is argued to be grounded in culture. Finally, the agentive/non-agentive handshape opposition is confirmed for signers of ASL and LIS, but previously unreported cross-linguistic differences were also found across both adult and child sign groups. It is, therefore, concluded that cognitive, cultural, and linguistic factors contribute to the conventionalization of this distinction of handshape type. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Expression and display of UreA of Helicobacter acinonychis on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Felice Maurilio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial endospore (spore has recently been proposed as a new surface display system. Antigens and enzymes have been successfully exposed on the surface layers of the Bacillus subtilis spore, but only in a few cases the efficiency of expression and the effective surface display and have been determined. We used this heterologous expression system to produce the A subunit of the urease of the animal pathogen Helicobater acinonychis. Ureases are multi-subunit enzymes with a central role in the virulence of various bacterial pathogens and necessary for colonization of the gastric mucosa by the human pathogen H. pylori. The urease subunit UreA has been recognized as a major antigen, able to induce high levels of protection against challenge infections. Results We expressed UreA from H. acinonychis on the B. subtilis spore coat by using three different spore coat proteins as carriers and compared the efficiency of surface expression and surface display obtained with the three carriers. A combination of western-, dot-blot and immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to conclude that, when fused to CotB, UreA is displayed on the spore surface (ca. 1 × 103 recombinant molecules per spore, whereas when fused to CotC, although most efficiently expressed (7-15 × 103 recombinant molecules per spore and located in the coat layer, it is not displayed on the surface. Experiments with CotG gave results similar to those with CotC, but the CotG-UreA recombinant protein appeared to be partially processed. Conclusion UreA was efficiently expressed on the spore coat of B. subtilis when fused to CotB, CotC or CotG. Of these three coat proteins CotC allows the highest efficiency of expression, whereas CotB is the most appropriate for the display of heterologous proteins on the spore surface.

  19. Expression and display of UreA of Helicobacter acinonychis on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinc, Krzysztof; Isticato, Rachele; Dembek, Marcin; Karczewska, Joanna; Iwanicki, Adam; Peszyńska-Sularz, Grazyna; De Felice, Maurilio; Obuchowski, Michał; Ricca, Ezio

    2010-01-18

    The bacterial endospore (spore) has recently been proposed as a new surface display system. Antigens and enzymes have been successfully exposed on the surface layers of the Bacillus subtilis spore, but only in a few cases the efficiency of expression and the effective surface display and have been determined. We used this heterologous expression system to produce the A subunit of the urease of the animal pathogen Helicobater acinonychis. Ureases are multi-subunit enzymes with a central role in the virulence of various bacterial pathogens and necessary for colonization of the gastric mucosa by the human pathogen H. pylori. The urease subunit UreA has been recognized as a major antigen, able to induce high levels of protection against challenge infections. We expressed UreA from H. acinonychis on the B. subtilis spore coat by using three different spore coat proteins as carriers and compared the efficiency of surface expression and surface display obtained with the three carriers. A combination of western-, dot-blot and immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to conclude that, when fused to CotB, UreA is displayed on the spore surface (ca. 1 x 10(3) recombinant molecules per spore), whereas when fused to CotC, although most efficiently expressed (7-15 x 10(3) recombinant molecules per spore) and located in the coat layer, it is not displayed on the surface. Experiments with CotG gave results similar to those with CotC, but the CotG-UreA recombinant protein appeared to be partially processed. UreA was efficiently expressed on the spore coat of B. subtilis when fused to CotB, CotC or CotG. Of these three coat proteins CotC allows the highest efficiency of expression, whereas CotB is the most appropriate for the display of heterologous proteins on the spore surface.

  20. Distinct RNA transcriptome patterns are potentially associated with angiogenesis in Tie2-expressing monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinjing; Dai, Zhiyuan; Wu, Xiaoli; Wang, Kai; Wang, Xipeng

    2016-04-10

    Tie2-expressing Monocytes (TEMs) were previously identified as a novel subset of monocytes and were believed to have prominent pro-angiogenesis activities in human tumors. While the molecular mechanism of the angiogenesis promoting capacity of TEMs remains unclear. RNA transcriptome pattern, including non-coding RNAs as microRNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), plays important role in cell differentiation and functions. However, little is known about the transcriptome patterns of TEMs, including those non-coding RNAs. We explore the transcriptome of TEMs and the matched monocytes that do not express Tie2 (Tie2(-)monocytes) isolated from peripheral blood of healthy adults employing the Agilent Human miRNA(8*60K,Design ID: 046064)microarray and the Agilent lncRNA Gene Expression(4*180K, Design ID: 042818)microarray. A total of 141 mRNAs, 142 lncRNAs and 75 miRNAs were found dysregulated in TEMs compared to Tie2(-)monocytes. TEMs have the distinct RNA transcriptome patterns according to the Hierarchical clustering and then the gene expression patterns were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Functional annotation by Gene Ontology (GO) analyses showed that the up-regulated mRNAs in TEMs were associated to blood vessel remodeling and positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation, and the up-regulated insulin like growth factor 1(IGF1) mRNA was involved in both pathways. For functional analysis of those dysregulated non-coding RNAs, target genes of the miRNAs were predicted and cis/trans-regulation analysis of the lncRNAs were performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Corticosteroid receptor expression in a teleost fish that displays alternative male reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arterbery, Adam S; Deitcher, David L; Bass, Andrew H

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroid signaling mechanisms mediate a wide range of adaptive physiological responses, including those essential to reproduction. Here, we investigated the presence and relative abundance of corticosteroid receptors during the breeding season in the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus), a species that has two male reproductive morphs. Only type I "singing" males acoustically court females and aggressively defend a nest site, whereas type II "sneaker" males steal fertilizations from nesting type I males. Cloning and sequencing first identified glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors in midshipman that exhibited high sequence identity with other vertebrate GRs and MRs. Absolute-quantitative real-time PCR then revealed higher levels of GR in the central nervous system (CNS) of type II males than type I males and females, while GR levels in the sound-producing, vocal muscle and the liver were higher in type I males than type II males and females. MR expression was also greater in the CNS of type II males than type I males or females, but the differences were more modest in magnitude. Lastly, plasma levels of cortisol, the main glucocorticoid in teleosts, were 2- to 3-fold greater in type II males compared to type I males. Together, the results suggest a link between corticosteroid regulation and physiological and behavioral variation in a teleost fish that displays male alternative reproductive tactics.

  2. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 expression by a distinct population of mouse vestibular supporting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavazzani, Elisa; Tritto, Simona; Spaiardi, Paolo; Botta, Laura; Manca, Marco; Prigioni, Ivo; Masetto, Sergio; Russo, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The function of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is to convert glutamate in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Glutamate decarboxylase exists as two major isoforms, termed GAD65 and GAD67, that are usually expressed in GABA-containing neurons in the central nervous system. GAD65 has been proposed to be associated with GABA exocytosis whereas GAD67 with GABA metabolism. In the present immunofluorescence study, we have investigated the presence of the two GAD isoforms in the semicircular canal cristae of wild type and GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. While no evidence for GAD65 expression was found, GAD67 was detected in a distinct population of peripherally-located supporting cells, but not in hair cells or in centrally-located supporting cells. GABA, on the other hand, was found in all supporting cells. The present result indicate that only a discrete population of supporting cells use GAD67 to synthesize GABA. This is the first report of a marker that allows to distinguish two populations of supporting cells in the vestibular epithelium. On the other hand, the lack of GABA and GAD enzymes in hair cells excludes its involvement in afferent transmission.

  3. Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shangxin; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Li, Mengjie; Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Xinglian; Muller, Michael; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets. PMID:26857845

  4. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 expression by a distinct population of mouse vestibular supporting cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo eRusso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The function of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD is to convert glutamate in -aminobutyric acid (GABA.GAD exists as two major isoforms, termed GAD65 and GAD67,.that are usually expressed in GABA-containing neurons in the central nervous system. GAD65 has been proposed to be associated with GABA exocytosis whereas GAD67 with GABA metabolism. In the present immunofluorescence study, we have investigated the presence of the two GAD isoforms in the semicircular canal cristae of wild type and GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. While no evidence for GAD65 expression was found, GAD67 was detected in a distinct population of peripherally-located supporting cells, but not in hair cells or in centrally-located supporting cells. GABA, on the other hand, was found in all supporting cells. The present result indicate that only a discrete population of supporting cells use GAD67 to synthesize GABA. This is the first report of a marker that allows to distinguish two populations of supporting cells in the vestibular epithelium. On the other hand, the lack of GABA and GAD enzymes in hair cells excludes its involvement in afferent transmission.

  5. Distinct mutations in yeast TAF(II)25 differentially affect the composition of TFIID and SAGA complexes as well as global gene expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Doris B; vom Baur, Elmar; Thibault, Christelle; Sanders, Steven L; Gangloff, Yann-Gaël; Davidson, Irwin; Weil, P Anthony; Tora, Làszlò

    2002-05-01

    The RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIID, composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAF(II)s), nucleates preinitiation complex formation at protein-coding gene promoters. SAGA, a second TAF(II)-containing multiprotein complex, is involved in transcription regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. One of the essential protein components common to SAGA and TFIID is yTAF(II)25. We define a minimal evolutionarily conserved 91-amino-acid region of TAF(II)25 containing a histone fold domain that is necessary and sufficient for growth in vivo. Different temperature-sensitive mutations of yTAF(II)25 or chimeras with the human homologue TAF(II)30 arrested cell growth at either the G(1) or G(2)/M cell cycle phase and displayed distinct phenotypic changes and gene expression patterns. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that TAF(II)25 mutation-dependent gene expression and phenotypic changes correlated at least partially with the integrity of SAGA and TFIID. Genome-wide expression analysis revealed that the five TAF(II)25 temperature-sensitive mutant alleles individually affect the expression of between 18 and 33% of genes, whereas taken together they affect 64% of all class II genes. Thus, different yTAF(II)25 mutations induce distinct phenotypes and affect the regulation of different subsets of genes, demonstrating that no individual TAF(II) mutant allele reflects the full range of its normal functions.

  6. Expression of cytokeratins in odontogenic jaw cysts: monoclonal antibodies reveal distinct variation between different cyst types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormia, M; Ylipaavalniemi, P; Nagle, R B; Virtanen, I

    1987-08-01

    Immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies was used to study and compare the cytokeratin content of odontogenic cysts and normal gingival epithelium. Two monoclonal antibodies, PKK2 and KA1, stained the whole epithelium in all cyst samples. In gingiva, PKK2 gave a suprabasal staining and KA1 reacted with all epithelial cell layers. Antibodies PKK1, KM 4.62 and KS 8.12 gave a heterogeneous staining in follicular and radicular cysts. In keratocysts and in gingiva PKK1 and KM 4.62 reacted mainly with basal cells and KS 8.12 gave a suprabasal staining. Antibodies reacting with the simple epithelial cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18 (PKK3, KS 18.18) recognized in gingiva only solitary cells compatible with Merkel cells. In a case of follicular ameloblastoma a distinct staining of tumor epithelium was revealed with these antibodies. In 2 follicular cysts, but not in other cyst types, a layer of cytokeratin 18-positive cells was revealed. KA5 and KK 8.60 antibodies, reacting exclusively with keratinizing epithelia, including normal gingiva, gave no reaction in radicular cysts, keratocysts and ameloblastoma. Two of the follicular cysts, were negative for PKK3 and KS 18.18, but reacted strongly with KA5 and KK 8.60. The present results show that odontogenic jaw cysts have distinct differences in their cytokeratin content. With the exception of some follicular cysts, they lack signs of keratinizing epithelial differentiation. Only follicular cysts appear to share with some types of ameloblastoma the expression of cytokeratin polypeptide No. 18.

  7. Distinct expression profile of HCMV encoded miRNAs in plasma from oral lichen planus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xiaoshuang; Zen, Ke; Wang, Wenmei; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Chunni

    2017-06-07

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. The aetiology and molecular mechanisms of OLP remain unclear. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a causal factor in the development of various diseases, but the clinical relevance of HCMV in OLP has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we firstly examined twenty-three HCMV-encoded microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in plasma from training set that including 21 OLP patients and 18 healthy controls using RT-qPCR technology. Dysregulated miRNAs were subsequently confirmed in another larger cohort refereed as validation set consisting of 40 OLP patients and 33 healthy controls. HCMV DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) was also measured in an additional cohort of 13 OLP patients and 12 control subjects. Furthermore, bioinformatics analyses, luciferase reporter assay and western blotting were also performed to predict and verify the direct potential targets of HCMV-encoded miRNAs. The RT-qPCR results showed that the plasma levels of five HCMV-encoded miRNAs including hcmv-miR-UL112-3p, hcmv-miR-UL22a-5p, hcmv-miR-UL148d, hcmv-miR-UL36-5p and hcmv-miR-UL59 were significantly increased in OLP patients in both training and validation sets. HCMV DNA in PBLs was also significantly higher in OLP patients than in control subjects. Additionally, by using a combination of luciferase reporter assay and western blotting, we demonstrated that cytomegalovirus UL16-binding protein 1, a molecule that mediates the killing of virus-infected cells by natural killer cells, is a direct target of hcmv-miR-UL59. Our results demonstrate a distinct expression pattern of HCMV-encoded miRNAs in OLP patients, which may provide insight into the relationship between HCMV infection and OLP, and warrants additional study in the diagnosis and aetiology of OLP.

  8. Dimorphous expressions of positive emotion: displays of both care and aggression in response to cute stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Oriana R; Clark, Margaret S; Dyer, Rebecca L; Bargh, John A

    2015-03-01

    Extremely positive experiences, and positive appraisals thereof, produce intense positive emotions that often generate both positive expressions (e.g., smiles) and expressions normatively reserved for negative emotions (e.g., tears). We developed a definition of these dimorphous expressions and tested the proposal that their function is to regulate emotions. We showed that individuals who express emotions in this dimorphous manner do so as a general response across a variety of emotionally provoking situations, which suggests that these expressions are responses to intense positive emotion rather than unique to one particular situation. We used cute stimuli (an elicitor of positive emotion) to demonstrate both the existence of these dimorphous expressions and to provide preliminary evidence of their function as regulators of emotion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The defence?associated transcriptome of hexaploid wheat displays homoeolog expression and induction bias

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Jonathan J.; Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Stiller, Jiri; Berkman, Paul J.; Gardiner, Donald M.; Manners, John M.; Henry, Robert J.; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an allopolyploid species containing three ancestral genomes. Therefore, three homoeologous copies exist for the majority of genes in the wheat genome. Whether different homoeologs are differentially expressed (homoeolog expression bias) in response to biotic and abiotic stresses is poorly understood. In this study, we applied a RNA?seq approach to analyse homoeolog?specific global gene expression patterns in wheat during infection by the fungal pa...

  10. Anxa4 Genes are Expressed in Distinct Organ Systems in Xenopus laevis and tropicalis But are Functionally Conserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Karine L; Collins, Robert J; Bhamra, Surinder; Seville, Rachel A

    2007-01-01

    Anxa4 belongs to the multigenic annexin family of proteins which are characterized by their ability to interact with membranes in a calcium-dependent manner. Defined as a marker for polarized epithelial cells, Anxa4 is believed to be involved in many cellular processes but its functions in vivo are still poorly understood. Previously, we cloned Xanx4 in Xenopus laevis (now referred to as anxa4a) and demonstrated its role during organogenesis of the pronephros, providing the first evidence of a specific function for this protein during the development of a vertebrate. Here, we describe the strict conservation of protein sequence and functional domains of anxa4 during vertebrate evolution. We also identify the paralog of anxa4a, anxa4b and show its specific temporal and spatial expression pattern is different from anxa4a. We show that anxa4 orthologs in X. laevis and tropicalis display expression domains in different organ systems. Whilst the anxa4a gene is mainly expressed in the kidney, Xt anxa4 is expressed in the liver. Finally, we demonstrate Xt anxa4 and anxa4a can display conserved function during kidney organogenesis, despite the fact that Xt anxa4 transcripts are not expressed in this domain. This study highlights the divergence of expression of homologous genes during Xenopus evolution and raises the potential problems of using X. tropicalis promoters in X. laevis. PMID:19279706

  11. Different gene-expression profiles for the poorly differentiated carcinoma and the highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma in mammary glands support distinct metabolic pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilon, Tali; Barash, Itamar

    2008-01-01

    Deregulation of Stat5 in the mammary gland of transgenic mice causes tumorigenesis. Poorly differentiated carcinoma and highly differentiated papillary adenocarcinoma tumors evolve. To distinguish the genes and elucidate the cellular processes and metabolic pathways utilized to preserve these phenotypes, gene-expression profiles were analyzed. Mammary tumors were excised from transgenic mice carrying a constitutively active variant of Stat5, or a Stat5 variant lacking s transactivation domain. These tumors displayed either the carcinoma or the papillary adenocarcinoma phenotypes. cRNAs, prepared from each tumor were hybridized to an Affymetrix GeneChip ® Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 array. Gene-ontology analysis, hierarchical clustering and biological-pathway analysis were performed to distinct the two types of tumors. Histopathology and immunofluorescence staining complemented the comparison between the tumor phenotypes. The nucleus-cytoskeleton-plasma membrane axis is a major target for differential gene expression between phenotypes. In the carcinoma, stronger expression of genes coding for specific integrins, cytoskeletal proteins and calcium-binding proteins highlight cell-adhesion and motility features of the tumor cells. This is supported by the higher expression of genes involved in O-glycan synthesis, TGF-β, activin, their receptors and Smad3, as well as the Notch ligands and members of the γ-secretase complex that enable Notch nuclear localization. The Wnt pathway was also a target for differential gene expression. Higher expression of genes encoding the degradation complex of the canonical pathway and limited TCF expression in the papillary adenocarcinoma result in membranal accumulation of β-catenin, in contrast to its nuclear translocation in the carcinoma. Genes involved in cell-cycle arrest at G1 and response to DNA damage were more highly expressed in the papillary adenocarcinomas, as opposed to favored G2/M regulation in the carcinoma tumors. At least

  12. Do Infants Show Distinct Negative Facial Expressions for Fear and Anger? Emotional Expression in 11-Month-Old European American, Chinese, and Japanese Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda A.; Oster, Harriet; Bakeman, Roger; Meng, Zhaolan; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Campos, Joseph J.

    2007-01-01

    Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for different negative emotions? To address this question, European American, Chinese, and Japanese 11-month-olds were videotaped during procedures designed to elicit mild anger or frustration and fear. Facial behavior was coded using Baby FACS, an anatomically based scoring system. Infants'…

  13. On the context dependence of emotion displays : Perceptions of gold medalists’ expressions of pride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Yvette; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of various claims for cross-cultural differences in the experience of pride, studies on the expression of pride have revealed few cross-cultural differences. Five studies using archival data from Olympic and national championships do show cross-cultural differences in the expression of

  14. On the context dependence of emotion displays : Perceptions of gold medalists' expressions of pride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of various claims for cross-cultural differences in the experience of pride, studies on the expression of pride have revealed few cross-cultural differences. Five studies using archival data from Olympic and national championships do show cross-cultural differences in the expression of

  15. The Brassicaceae family displays divergent, shoot-skewed NLR resistance gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, David; Gupta, Vikas; Bachmann, Asger

    2018-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat resistance genes (NLRs) allow plants to detect microbial effectors. We hypothesized that NLR expression patterns could reflect organ-specific differences in effector challenge and tested this by carrying out a meta-analysis of expression data for 1,235 ...

  16. Warsaw set of emotional facial expression pictures: a validation study of facial display photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszanowski, M.; Pochwatko, G.; Kuklinski, K.; Scibor-Rylski, M.; Lewinski, P.; Ohme, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions play a critical role in theories of emotion and figure prominently in research on almost every aspect of emotion. This article provides a background for a new database of basic emotional expressions. The goal in creating this set was to provide high quality photographs

  17. On the context dependence of emotion displays: Perceptions of gold medalists' expressions of pride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Yvette; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Breugelmans, Seger M

    2016-11-01

    In spite of various claims for cross-cultural differences in the experience of pride, studies on the expression of pride have revealed few cross-cultural differences. Five studies using archival data from Olympic and national championships do show cross-cultural differences in the expression of pride and other positive emotions in pride-eliciting contexts, contingent on the social context of the expression, notably the in-group or out-group status of the audience. Chinese gold medalists were perceived to express less pride than American medalists when outperforming in-group competitors; when outperforming out-group members, however, no or smaller cross-cultural differences were observed. These findings are important because they indicate that cultural norms about emotion expression may be activated only in situations in which they serve a function in coordinating people's behaviour.

  18. A mammalian conserved element derived from SINE displays enhancer properties recapitulating Satb2 expression in early-born callosal projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tashiro

    Full Text Available Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered "junk DNA". However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2(+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2(+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1(-/NPY(+ portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum

  19. A distinct regulatory region of the Bmp5 locus activates gene expression following adult bone fracture or soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Catherine A; Wang, Zhen; Li, Emma; Tran, Misha C; Logan, Catriona Y; Nusse, Roel; Pantalena-Filho, Luiz; Yang, George P; Kingsley, David M

    2015-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are key signaling molecules required for normal development of bones and other tissues. Previous studies have shown that null mutations in the mouse Bmp5 gene alter the size, shape and number of multiple bone and cartilage structures during development. Bmp5 mutations also delay healing of rib fractures in adult mutants, suggesting that the same signals used to pattern embryonic bone and cartilage are also reused during skeletal regeneration and repair. Despite intense interest in BMPs as agents for stimulating bone formation in clinical applications, little is known about the regulatory elements that control developmental or injury-induced BMP expression. To compare the DNA sequences that activate gene expression during embryonic bone formation and following acute injuries in adult animals, we assayed regions surrounding the Bmp5 gene for their ability to stimulate lacZ reporter gene expression in transgenic mice. Multiple genomic fragments, distributed across the Bmp5 locus, collectively coordinate expression in discrete anatomic domains during normal development, including in embryonic ribs. In contrast, a distinct regulatory region activated expression following rib fracture in adult animals. The same injury control region triggered gene expression in mesenchymal cells following tibia fracture, in migrating keratinocytes following dorsal skin wounding, and in regenerating epithelial cells following lung injury. The Bmp5 gene thus contains an "injury response" control region that is distinct from embryonic enhancers, and that is activated by multiple types of injury in adult animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells display different gene expression profiles compared to hyaline and elastic chondrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Li-Jie; Zhao, Ke-Qing; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Ya; Xing, Shuang-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage has a poor intrinsic repair capacity, requiring surgical intervention to effect biological repair. Tissue engineering technologies or regenerative medicine strategies are currently being employed to address cartilage repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered to be an excellent cell source for this application. However, the different gene expression profiles between the MSCs and differentiated cartilage remain unclear. In this report, we first examined the gene expression ...

  1. Heterologous expression of carcinoembryonic antigen in Lactococcus lactis via LcsB-mediated surface displaying system for oral vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Shumin; Du, Xue; Li, Tiejun; Han, Lanlan; Kong, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an attractive target for immunotherapy because it is expressed minimally in normal tissue, but is overexpressed in a wide variety of malignant epithelial tissues. Lactic acid bacteria (LABs), widely used in food processes, are attractive candidates for oral vaccination. Thus, we examined whether LABs could be used as a live vaccine vector to deliver CEA antigen. CEA was cloned into an Escherichia coli/Lactococcus lactis shuttle vector pSEC:LEISS under the control of a nisin promoter. For displaying the CEA on the cell surface of the L. lactis strain, the anchor motif LcsB from the S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus was fused with CEA. Intracellular and cell surface expression of the CEA-LcsB fusion was confirmed by western blot analysis. Significantly higher levels of CEA-specific secretory immunoglobulin A in the sera of mice were observed upon oral administration of strain cultures containing the CEA-LcsB fused protein. In addition, the CEA-LcsB antigen group showed a higher spleen index compared to the CEA antigen alone or negative control, demonstrating that surface-displayed CEA antigen could induce a higher immune response. These results provided the first evidence for displaying CEA antigen on the cell surfaces of LABs as oral vaccines against cancer or infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Despite differential gene expression profiles pediatric MDS derived mesenchymal stromal cells display functionality in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkoen, F G J; Vervat, C; van Pel, M; de Haas, V; Vijfhuizen, L S; Eising, E; Kroes, W G M; 't Hoen, P A C; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Egeler, R M; van Tol, M J D; Ball, L M

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous disease covering a spectrum ranging from aplasia (RCC) to myeloproliferation (RAEB(t)). In adult-type MDS there is increasing evidence for abnormal function of the bone-marrow microenvironment. Here, we extensively studied the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from children with MDS. MSCs were expanded from the bone-marrow of 17 MDS patients (RCC: n=10 and advanced MDS: n=7) and pediatric controls (n=10). No differences were observed with respect to phenotype, differentiation capacity, immunomodulatory capacity or hematopoietic support. mRNA expression analysis by Deep-SAGE revealed increased IL-6 expression in RCC- and RAEB(t)-MDS. RCC-MDS MSC expressed increased levels of DKK3, a protein associated with decreased apoptosis. RAEB(t)-MDS revealed increased CRLF1 and decreased DAPK1 expressions. This pattern has been associated with transformation in hematopoietic malignancies. Genes reported to be differentially expressed in adult MDS-MSC did not differ between MSC of pediatric MDS and controls. An altered mRNA expression profile, associated with cell survival and malignant transformation, of MSC derived from children with MDS strengthens the hypothesis that the micro-environment is of importance in this disease. Our data support the understanding that pediatric and adult MDS are two different diseases. Further evaluation of the pathways involved might reveal additional therapy targets. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Client Proteins and Small Molecule Inhibitors Display Distinct Binding Preferences for Constitutive and Stress-Induced HSP90 Isoforms and Their Conformationally Restricted Mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L Prince

    Full Text Available The two cytosolic/nuclear isoforms of the molecular chaperone HSP90, stress-inducible HSP90α and constitutively expressed HSP90β, fold, assemble and maintain the three-dimensional structure of numerous client proteins. Because many HSP90 clients are important in cancer, several HSP90 inhibitors have been evaluated in the clinic. However, little is known concerning possible unique isoform or conformational preferences of either individual HSP90 clients or inhibitors. In this report, we compare the relative interaction strength of both HSP90α and HSP90β with the transcription factors HSF1 and HIF1α, the kinases ERBB2 and MET, the E3-ubiquitin ligases KEAP1 and RHOBTB2, and the HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin and ganetespib. We observed unexpected differences in relative client and drug preferences for the two HSP90 isoforms, with HSP90α binding each client protein with greater apparent affinity compared to HSP90β, while HSP90β bound each inhibitor with greater relative interaction strength compared to HSP90α. Stable HSP90 interaction was associated with reduced client activity. Using a defined set of HSP90 conformational mutants, we found that some clients interact strongly with a single, ATP-stabilized HSP90 conformation, only transiently populated during the dynamic HSP90 chaperone cycle, while other clients interact equally with multiple HSP90 conformations. These data suggest different functional requirements among HSP90 clientele that, for some clients, are likely to be ATP-independent. Lastly, the two inhibitors examined, although sharing the same binding site, were differentially able to access distinct HSP90 conformational states.

  4. Distinct expression of muscle-specific microRNAs (myomirs) in brown adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walden, Tomas B; Timmons, James A; Keller, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs, a novel class of post-transcriptional gene regulators, have been demonstrated to be involved in several cellular processes regulating the expression of protein-coding genes. Here we examine murine white and brown primary cell cultures for differential expression of miRNAs. The adipogen......MicroRNAs, a novel class of post-transcriptional gene regulators, have been demonstrated to be involved in several cellular processes regulating the expression of protein-coding genes. Here we examine murine white and brown primary cell cultures for differential expression of mi...

  5. Major aging-associated RNA expressions change at two distinct age-positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gheorghe, M.; Snoeck, M.; Emmerich, M.; Back, T.; Goeman, J.J.; Raz, V.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide expression profiles are altered during biological aging and can describe molecular regulation of tissue degeneration. Age-regulated mRNA expression trends from cross-sectional studies could describe how aging progresses. We developed a novel statistical methodology to

  6. Distinct abscisic acid signaling pathways for modulation of guard cell versus mesophyll cell potassium channels revealed by expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, F.; Paul, S. S.; Wang, X. Q.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K(+) current (I(Kin)) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K(+) current (I(Kout)). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, I(Kout) was generated that displayed similar properties to I(Kout) observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. I(Kout) expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K(+) channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in I(Kin) that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced I(Kin) that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K(+) channels.

  7. Organization of Mitochondrial Gene Expression in Two Distinct Ribosome-Containing Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Kehrein

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria contain their own genetic system that provides subunits of the complexes driving oxidative phosphorylation. A quarter of the mitochondrial proteome participates in gene expression, but how all these factors are orchestrated and spatially organized is currently unknown. Here, we established a method to purify and analyze native and intact complexes of mitochondrial ribosomes. Quantitative mass spectrometry revealed extensive interactions of ribosomes with factors involved in all the steps of posttranscriptional gene expression. These interactions result in large expressosome-like assemblies that we termed mitochondrial organization of gene expression (MIOREX complexes. Superresolution microscopy revealed that most MIOREX complexes are evenly distributed throughout the mitochondrial network, whereas a subset is present as nucleoid-MIOREX complexes that unite the whole spectrum of organellar gene expression. Our work therefore provides a conceptual framework for the spatial organization of mitochondrial protein synthesis that likely developed to facilitate gene expression in the organelle.

  8. Despite differential gene expression profiles pediatric MDS derived mesenchymal stromal cells display functionality in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G.J. Calkoen

    2015-03-01

    An altered mRNA expression profile, associated with cell survival and malignant transformation, of MSC derived from children with MDS strengthens the hypothesis that the micro-environment is of importance in this disease. Our data support the understanding that pediatric and adult MDS are two different diseases. Further evaluation of the pathways involved might reveal additional therapy targets.

  9. What do facial expressions of emotion express in young children? The relationship between facial display and EMG measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Balconi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explored the relationship between emotional facial response and electromyographic modulation in children when they observe facial expression of emotions. Facial responsiveness (evaluated by arousal and valence ratings and psychophysiological correlates (facial electromyography, EMG were analyzed when children looked at six facial expressions of emotions (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise and disgust. About EMG measure, corrugator and zygomatic muscle activity was monitored in response to different emotional types. ANOVAs showed differences for both EMG and facial response across the subjects, as a function of different emotions. Specifically, some emotions were well expressed by all the subjects (such as happiness, anger and fear in terms of high arousal, whereas some others were less level arousal (such as sadness. Zygomatic activity was increased mainly for happiness, from one hand, corrugator activity was increased mainly for anger, fear and surprise, from the other hand. More generally, EMG and facial behavior were highly correlated each other, showing a “mirror” effect with respect of the observed faces.

  10. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Francisco F; Springhorn, Alexander; Kague, Erika; Taylor, Erika; Pyrowolakis, George; Fisher, Shannon; Bier, Ethan

    2014-09-01

    In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS) derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio) msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS). Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  11. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F Esteves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS. Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  12. Distinct lithium-induced gene expression effects in lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Gabriel R; Colpo, Gabriela D; Monroy-Jaramillo, Nancy; Zhao, Junfei; Zhao, Zhongming; Arnold, Jodi G; Bowden, Charles L; Walss-Bass, Consuelo

    2017-11-01

    Lithium is the most commonly prescribed medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD), yet the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are still unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of lithium treatment in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from BD patients and controls. LCLs were generated from sixty-two BD patients (based on DSM-IV) and seventeen healthy controls matched for age, sex, and ethnicity. Patients were recruited from outpatient clinics from February 2012 to October 2014. LCLs were treated with 1mM lithium for 7 days followed by microarray gene expression assay and validation by real-time quantitative PCR. Baseline differences between groups, as well as differences between vehicle- and lithium-treated cells within each group were analyzed. The biological significance of differentially expressed genes was examined by pathway enrichment analysis. No significant differences in baseline gene expression (adjusted p-value < 0.05) were detected between groups. Lithium treatment of LCLs from controls did not lead to any significant differences. However, lithium altered the expression of 236 genes in LCLs from patients; those genes were enriched for signaling pathways related to apoptosis. Among those genes, the alterations in the expression of PIK3CG, SERP1 and UPP1 were validated by real-time PCR. A significant correlation was also found between circadian functioning and CEBPG and FGF2 expression levels. In summary, our results suggest that lithium treatment induces expression changes in genes associated with the apoptosis pathway in BD LCLs. The more pronounced effects of lithium in patients compared to controls suggest a disease-specific effect of this drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  13. CD30 expression defines a novel subgroup of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with favorable prognosis and distinct gene expression signature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Shimin; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Balasubramanyam, Aarthi

    2013-01-01

    CD30, originally identified as a cell-surface marker of Reed-Sternberg and Hodgkin cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is also expressed by several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the prognostic and biological importance of CD3...... value of CD30 as a therapeutic target for brentuximab vedotin in ongoing successful clinical trials, it seems appropriate to consider CD30(+) DLBCL as a distinct subgroup of DLBCL....

  14. Adiponectin and Its Receptors Are Differentially Expressed in Human Tissues and Cell Lines of Distinct Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jasinski-Bergner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and exerts high abundance and an anti-inflammatory potential. However, only little information exists about the expression profiles of adiponectin and its recently identified receptor CDH13 in non-tumorous human tissues and their association to clinical parameters. Methods: The expression levels of adiponectin and CDH13 were analyzed in heart, liver, kidney, spleen, skin, blood vessels, peripheral nerve and bone marrow of 21 human body donors, in 12 human cell lines, and in purified immune effector cell populations of healthy blood donors by immunohistochemistry, Western-blot, and semi-quantitative PCR. The obtained results were then correlated to clinical parameters, including age, sex and known diseases like cardiovascular and renal diseases. Results: Adiponectin expression in renal corpuscles was significantly higher in humans with known renal diseases. A coordinated expression of adiponectin and CDH13 was observed in the myocard. High levels of adiponectin could be detected in the bone marrow, in certain lymphoid tumor cell lines and in purified immune effector cell populations of healthy donors, in particular in cytotoxic T cells. Conclusion: For the first time, the expression profiles of adiponectin and CDH13 are analyzed in many human tissues in correlation to each other and to clinical parameters.

  15. Gene Expression Differences in Peripheral Blood of Parkinson's Disease Patients with Distinct Progression Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Pinho

    Full Text Available The prognosis of neurodegenerative disorders is clinically challenging due to the inexistence of established biomarkers for predicting disease progression. Here, we performed an exploratory cross-sectional, case-control study aimed at determining whether gene expression differences in peripheral blood may be used as a signature of Parkinson's disease (PD progression, thereby shedding light into potential molecular mechanisms underlying disease development. We compared transcriptional profiles in the blood from 34 PD patients who developed postural instability within ten years with those of 33 patients who did not develop postural instability within this time frame. Our study identified >200 differentially expressed genes between the two groups. The expression of several of the genes identified was previously found deregulated in animal models of PD and in PD patients. Relevant genes were selected for validation by real-time PCR in a subset of patients. The genes validated were linked to nucleic acid metabolism, mitochondria, immune response and intracellular-transport. Interestingly, we also found deregulation of these genes in a dopaminergic cell model of PD, a simple paradigm that can now be used to further dissect the role of these molecular players on dopaminergic cell loss. Altogether, our study provides preliminary evidence that expression changes in specific groups of genes and pathways, detected in peripheral blood samples, may be correlated with differential PD progression. Our exploratory study suggests that peripheral gene expression profiling may prove valuable for assisting in prediction of PD prognosis, and identifies novel culprits possibly involved in dopaminergic cell death. Given the exploratory nature of our study, further investigations using independent, well-characterized cohorts will be essential in order to validate our candidates as predictors of PD prognosis and to definitively confirm the value of gene expression

  16. Maximized Autotransporter-Mediated Expression (MATE for Surface Display and Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanna Sichwart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new optimized system for the surface display and secretion of recombinant proteins is described, termed MATE (maximized autotransporter-mediated expression. It is based on an artificial gene consisting of the coding region for the signal peptide of CtxB, a multiple cloning site for passenger gene insertion, flanked by coding sequences for linear epitopes for monoclonal antibodies and OmpT, and factor Xa protease cleavage sites followed by a codon-optimized DNA sequence of the linker and the β-barrel of the type V autotransporter EhaA from Escherichia coli under control of an IPTG-inducible T5 promoter. The MATE system enabled the continuous secretion of recombinant passenger mCherry via OmpT-mediated cleavage, using native OmpT protease activity in E. coli when grown at 37 °C. It is the first example to show that native OmpT activity is sufficient to facilitate the secretion of a correctly folded target protein in preparative amounts obtaining 240 μg of purified mCherry from 800 mL of crude culture supernatant. Because the release of mCherry was achieved by a simple transfer of the encoding plasmid from an OmpT-negative to an OmpT-positive strain, it bears the option to use surface display for screening purposes and secretion for production of the selected variant. A single plasmid could therefore be used for continuous secretion in OmpT-positive strains or surface display in OmpT-negative strains. In conclusion, the MATE system appears to be a versatile tool for the surface display and for the secretion of target proteins in E. coli.

  17. Host gene expression profiles in ferrets infected with genetically distinct henipavirus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon, A.J. (Alberto J.); Borisevich, V. (Viktoriya); Boroumand, N. (Nahal); Seymour, R. (Robert); Nusbaum, R. (Rebecca); Escaffre, O. (Olivier); Xu, L. (Luoling); Kelvin, D.J. (David J.); B. Rockx (Barry)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractHenipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and

  18. Distinct gene expression profile of Xanthomonas retroflexus engaged in synergistic multispecies biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Ren, Dawei; Burmølle, Mette

    2017-01-01

    biofilms. This study presents a comparative gene expression analysis of the Xanthomonas retroflexus transcriptome when grown in a single-species biofilm and in dual-and four-species consortia with Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus. The results revealed...

  19. Early and long-standing rheumatoid arthritis: distinct molecular signatures identified by gene-expression profiling in synovia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequerré, Thierry; Bansard, Carine; Vittecoq, Olivier; Derambure, Céline; Hiron, Martine; Daveau, Maryvonne; Tron, François; Ayral, Xavier; Biga, Norman; Auquit-Auckbur, Isabelle; Chiocchia, Gilles; Le Loët, Xavier; Salier, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease and its underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Because previous microarray studies have only focused on long-standing (LS) RA compared to osteoarthritis, we aimed to compare the molecular profiles of early and LS RA versus control synovia. Methods Synovial biopsies were obtained by arthroscopy from 15 patients (4 early untreated RA, 4 treated LS RA and 7 controls, who had traumatic or mechanical lesions). Extracted mRNAs were used for large-scale gene-expression profiling. The different gene-expression combinations identified by comparison of profiles of early, LS RA and healthy synovia were linked to the biological processes involved in each situation. Results Three combinations of 719, 116 and 52 transcripts discriminated, respectively, early from LS RA, and early or LS RA from healthy synovia. We identified several gene clusters and distinct molecular signatures specifically expressed during early or LS RA, thereby suggesting the involvement of different pathophysiological mechanisms during the course of RA. Conclusions Early and LS RA have distinct molecular signatures with different biological processes participating at different times during the course of the disease. These results suggest that better knowledge of the main biological processes involved at a given RA stage might help to choose the most appropriate treatment. PMID:19563633

  20. Host gene expression profiles in ferrets infected with genetically distinct henipavirus strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J Leon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the presence of abundant viral shedding, animal-to-animal transmission did not occur. The host gene expression profiles of the lung tissue showed early activation of interferon responses and subsequent expression of inflammation-related genes that coincided with the clinical deterioration. Additionally, the lung tissue showed unchanged levels of lymphocyte markers and progressive downregulation of cell cycle genes and extracellular matrix components. Infection in the brain resulted in a limited breadth of the host responses, which is in accordance with the immunoprivileged status of this organ. Finally, we propose a model of the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection that integrates multiple components of the host responses.

  1. Glutathione Transferases Superfamily: Cold-Inducible Expression of Distinct GST Genes in Brassica oleracea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshavardhanan Vijayakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants, as sessile organisms, can suffer serious growth and developmental consequences under cold stress conditions. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18 are ubiquitous and multifunctional conjugating proteins, which play a major role in stress responses by preventing oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS. Currently, understanding of their function(s during different biochemical and signaling pathways under cold stress condition remain unclear. In this study, using combined computational strategy, we identified 65 Brassica oleracea glutathione transferases (BoGST and characterized them based on evolutionary analysis into 11 classes. Inter-species and intra-species duplication was evident between BoGSTs and Arabidopsis GSTs. Based on localization analyses, we propose possible pathways in which GST genes are involved during cold stress. Further, expression analysis of the predicted putative functions for GST genes were investigated in two cold contrasting genotypes (cold tolerance and susceptible under cold condition, most of these genes were highly expressed at 6 h and 1 h in the cold tolerant (CT and cold susceptible (CS lines, respectively. Overall, BoGSTU19, BoGSTU24, BoGSTF10 are candidate genes highly expressed in B. oleracea. Further investigation of GST superfamily in B. oleracea will aid in understanding complex mechanism underlying cold tolerance in plants.

  2. Distinct spatiotemporal expression of ISM1 during mouse and chick development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Liliana; Wu, Xuewei; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2014-01-01

    Isthmin 1 (ISM1) constitutes the founder of a new family of secreted proteins characterized by the presence of 2 functional domains: thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR1) and adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP). ISM1 was identified in the frog embryo as a member of the FGF8 synexpression group due to its expression in the brain midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) or isthmus. In zebrafish, ISM1 was described as a WNT- and NODAL-regulated gene. The function of ISM1 remains largely elusive. So far, ISM1 has been described as an angiogenesis inhibitor that has a dual function in endothelial cell survival and cell death. For a better understanding of ISM1 function, we examined its spatiotemporal distribution in mouse and chick using RT-PCR, ISH, and IHC analyses. In the mouse, ISM1 transcripts are found in tissues such as the anterior mesendoderm, paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm, MHB and trunk neural tube, as well as in the somites and dermomyotome. In the newborn and adult, ISM1 is prominently expressed in the lung and brain. In addition to its putative role during embryonic and postnatal development, ISM1 may also be important for organ homeostasis in the adult. In the chick embryo, ISM1 transcripts are strongly detected in the ear, eye, and spinal cord primordia. Remarkable differences in ISM1 spatiotemporal expression were found during mouse and chick development, despite the high homology of ISM1 orthologs in these species.

  3. Dynamic facial expressions evoke distinct activation in the face perception network: a connectivity analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Elaine; Rippon, Gina; Thai, Ngoc Jade; Longe, Olivia; Senior, Carl

    2012-02-01

    Very little is known about the neural structures involved in the perception of realistic dynamic facial expressions. In the present study, a unique set of naturalistic dynamic facial emotional expressions was created. Through fMRI and connectivity analysis, a dynamic face perception network was identified, which is demonstrated to extend Haxby et al.'s [Haxby, J. V., Hoffman, E. A., & Gobbini, M. I. The distributed human neural system for face perception. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4, 223-233, 2000] distributed neural system for face perception. This network includes early visual regions, such as the inferior occipital gyrus, which is identified as insensitive to motion or affect but sensitive to the visual stimulus, the STS, identified as specifically sensitive to motion, and the amygdala, recruited to process affect. Measures of effective connectivity between these regions revealed that dynamic facial stimuli were associated with specific increases in connectivity between early visual regions, such as the inferior occipital gyrus and the STS, along with coupling between the STS and the amygdala, as well as the inferior frontal gyrus. These findings support the presence of a distributed network of cortical regions that mediate the perception of different dynamic facial expressions.

  4. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L; Pramparo, Tiziano; Winn, Mary E; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  5. Age-dependent brain gene expression and copy number anomalies in autism suggest distinct pathological processes at young versus mature ages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie L Chow

    Full Text Available Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess

  6. Age-Dependent Brain Gene Expression and Copy Number Anomalies in Autism Suggest Distinct Pathological Processes at Young Versus Mature Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Mary E.; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J.; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  7. Distinct temporal changes in host cell lncRNA expression during the course of an adenovirus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hongxing, E-mail: Hongxing.Zhao@igp.uu.se [The Beijer Laboratory, Dept. of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Chen, Maoshan [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Lind, Sara Bergström [Department of Chemistry-BMC, Analytical Chemistry, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 599, SE-751 24 Uppsala (Sweden); Pettersson, Ulf [The Beijer Laboratory, Dept. of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-05-15

    The deregulation of cellular long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression during a human adenovirus infection was studied by deep sequencing. Expression of lncRNAs increased substantially following the progression of the infection. Among 645 significantly expressed lncRNAs, the expression of 398 was changed more than 2-fold. More than 80% of them were up-regulated and 80% of them were detected during the late phase. Based on the genomic locations of the deregulated lncRNAs in relation to known mRNAs and miRNAs, they were predicted to be involved in growth, structure, apoptosis and wound healing in the early phase, cell proliferation in the intermediate phase and protein synthesis, modification and transport in the late phase. The most significant functions of cellular RNA-binding proteins, previously shown to interact with the deregulated lncRNAs identified here, are involved in RNA splicing, nuclear export and translation events. We hypothesize that adenoviruses exploit the lncRNA network to optimize their reproduction. - Highlights: • The expression of 398 lncRNAs showed a distinct temporal pattern during Ad2 infection. • 80% of the deregulated lncRNAs were up-regulated during the late phase of infection. • The deregulated lncRNAs potentiallyinteract with 33 cellular RNA binding proteins. • These RBPs are involved in RNA splicing, nuclear export and translation. • Adenovirus exploits the cellular lncRNA network to optimize its replication.

  8. Distinct spatiotemporal expression of ISM1 during mouse and chick development

    OpenAIRE

    Os?rio, Liliana; Wu, Xuewei; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2014-01-01

    Isthmin 1 (ISM1) constitutes the founder of a new family of secreted proteins characterized by the presence of 2 functional domains: thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR1) and adhesion-associated domain in MUC4 and other proteins (AMOP). ISM1 was identified in the frog embryo as a member of the FGF8 synexpression group due to its expression in the brain midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) or isthmus. In zebrafish, ISM1 was described as a WNT- and NODAL-regulated gene. The function of ISM1 remains ...

  9. Distinct Mutations Led to Inactivation of Type 1 Fimbriae Expression in Shigella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Verónica; Puhar, Andrea; Sansonetti, Philippe; Parsot, Claude; Toro, Cecilia S.

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are responsible for bacillary dysentery in humans. The acquisition or the modification of the virulence plasmid encoding factors promoting entry of bacteria into and dissemination within epithelial cells was a critical step in the evolution of these bacteria from their Escherichia coli ancestor(s). Incorporation of genomic islands (GI) and gene inactivation also shaped interactions between these pathogens and their human host. Sequence analysis of the GI inserted next to the leuX tRNA gene in S. boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. sonnei and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) suggests that this region initially carried the fec, yjhATS and fim gene clusters. The fim cluster encoding type I fimbriae is systematically inactivated in both reference strains and clinical isolates and distinct mutations are responsible for this inactivation in at least three phylogenetic groups. To investigate consequences of the presence of fimbriae on the outcome of the interaction of Shigella with host cells, we used a S. flexneri strain harboring a plasmid encoding the E. coli fim operon. Production of fimbriae by this recombinant strain increased the ability of bacteria to adhere to and enter into epithelial cells and had no effect on their ability to disseminate from cell to cell. The observations that production of type I fimbriae increases invasion of epithelial cells and that independent mutations abolish fimbriae production in Shigella suggest that these mutations correspond to pathoadaptive events. PMID:25811616

  10. Distinct mutations led to inactivation of type 1 fimbriae expression in Shigella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bravo

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are responsible for bacillary dysentery in humans. The acquisition or the modification of the virulence plasmid encoding factors promoting entry of bacteria into and dissemination within epithelial cells was a critical step in the evolution of these bacteria from their Escherichia coli ancestor(s. Incorporation of genomic islands (GI and gene inactivation also shaped interactions between these pathogens and their human host. Sequence analysis of the GI inserted next to the leuX tRNA gene in S. boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. sonnei and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC suggests that this region initially carried the fec, yjhATS and fim gene clusters. The fim cluster encoding type I fimbriae is systematically inactivated in both reference strains and clinical isolates and distinct mutations are responsible for this inactivation in at least three phylogenetic groups. To investigate consequences of the presence of fimbriae on the outcome of the interaction of Shigella with host cells, we used a S. flexneri strain harboring a plasmid encoding the E. coli fim operon. Production of fimbriae by this recombinant strain increased the ability of bacteria to adhere to and enter into epithelial cells and had no effect on their ability to disseminate from cell to cell. The observations that production of type I fimbriae increases invasion of epithelial cells and that independent mutations abolish fimbriae production in Shigella suggest that these mutations correspond to pathoadaptive events.

  11. Distinct actions of ancestral vinclozolin and juvenile stress on neural gene expression in the male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross eGillette

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical vinclozolin during gestation of an F0 generation and/or chronic restraint stress during adolescence of the F3 descendants affects behavior, physiology, and gene expression in the brain. Genes related to the networks of growth factors, signaling peptides and receptors, steroid hormone receptors and enzymes, and epigenetic related factors were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction via Taqman low density arrays targeting 48 genes in the central amygdaloid nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, medial preoptic area, lateral hypothalamus, and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. We found that growth factors are particularly vulnerable to ancestral exposure in the central and medial amygdala; restraint stress during adolescence affected neural growth factors in the medial amygdala. Signaling peptides were affected by both ancestral exposure and stress during adolescence primarily in hypothalamic nuclei. Steroid hormone receptors and enzymes were strongly affected by restraint stress in the medial preoptic area. Epigenetic related genes were affected by stress in the ventromedial hypothalamus and by both ancestral exposure and stress during adolescence independently in the central amygdala. It is noteworthy that the lateral hypothalamus showed no effects of either manipulation. Gene expression is discussed in the context of behavioral and physiological measures previously published.

  12. Distinct actions of ancestral vinclozolin and juvenile stress on neural gene expression in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Ross; Miller-Crews, Isaac; Skinner, Michael K; Crews, David

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to the endocrine disrupting chemical vinclozolin during gestation of an F0 generation and/or chronic restraint stress during adolescence of the F3 descendants affects behavior, physiology, and gene expression in the brain. Genes related to the networks of growth factors, signaling peptides, and receptors, steroid hormone receptors and enzymes, and epigenetic related factors were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction via Taqman low density arrays targeting 48 genes in the central amygdaloid nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, medial preoptic area (mPOA), lateral hypothalamus (LH), and the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. We found that growth factors are particularly vulnerable to ancestral exposure in the central and medial amygdala; restraint stress during adolescence affected neural growth factors in the medial amygdala. Signaling peptides were affected by both ancestral exposure and stress during adolescence primarily in hypothalamic nuclei. Steroid hormone receptors and enzymes were strongly affected by restraint stress in the mPOA. Epigenetic related genes were affected by stress in the ventromedial nucleus and by both ancestral exposure and stress during adolescence independently in the central amygdala. It is noteworthy that the LH showed no effects of either manipulation. Gene expression is discussed in the context of behavioral and physiological measures previously published.

  13. Layer 5 Callosal Parvalbumin-Expressing Neurons: A Distinct Functional Group of GABAergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Hector; Feyen, Paul L C; Apicella, Alfonso Junior

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that parvalbumin-expressing neurons (CC-Parv neurons) connect the two hemispheres of motor and sensory areas via the corpus callosum, and are a functional part of the cortical circuit. Here we test the hypothesis that layer 5 CC-Parv neurons possess anatomical and molecular mechanisms which dampen excitability and modulate the gating of interhemispheric inhibition. In order to investigate this hypothesis we use viral tracing to determine the anatomical and electrophysiological properties of layer 5 CC-Parv and parvalbumin-expressing (Parv) neurons of the mouse auditory cortex (AC). Here we show that layer 5 CC-Parv neurons had larger dendritic fields characterized by longer dendrites that branched farther from the soma, whereas layer 5 Parv neurons had smaller dendritic fields characterized by shorter dendrites that branched nearer to the soma. The layer 5 CC-Parv neurons are characterized by delayed action potential (AP) responses to threshold currents, lower firing rates, and lower instantaneous frequencies compared to the layer 5 Parv neurons. Kv1.1 containing K + channels are the main source of the AP repolarization of the layer 5 CC-Parv and have a major role in determining both the spike delayed response, firing rate and instantaneous frequency of these neurons.

  14. Temporal regulation of HTLV-2 expression in infected cell lines and patients: evidence for distinct expression kinetics with nuclear accumulation of APH-2 mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Cecilia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are delta retroviruses with similar genetic organization. Although both viruses immortalize T-cells in vitro, they exhibit distinct pathogenic potential in vivo. To search for possible differences in its expression strategy with respect to HTLV-1, we investigated the pattern of HTLV-2 expression in infected cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from infected patients using splice site-specific quantitative RT-PCR. Findings A novel alternative splice acceptor site for exon 2 was identified; its usage in env transcripts was found to be subtype-specific. Time-course analysis revealed a two-phase expression kinetics in an infected cell line and in PBMCs of two of the three patients examined; this pattern was reminiscent of HTLV-1. In addition, the minus-strand APH2 transcript was mainly detected in the nucleus, a feature that was similar to its HTLV-1 orthologue HBZ. In contrast to HTLV-1, expression of the mRNA encoding the main regulatory proteins Tax and Rex and that of the mRNAs encoding the p28 and truncated Rex inhibitors is skewed towards p28/truncated Rex inhibitors in HTLV-2. Conclusion Our data suggest a general converging pattern of expression of HTLV-2 and HTLV-1 and highlight peculiar differences in the expression of regulatory proteins that might influence the pathobiology of these viruses.

  15. Expression variation in connected recombinant populations of Arabidopsis thaliana highlights distinct transcriptome architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos Francisco A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression traits can vary quantitatively between individuals and have a complex inheritance. Identification of the genetics underlying transcript variation can help in the understanding of phenotypic variation due to genetic factors regulating transcript abundance and shed light into divergence patterns. So far, only a limited number of studies have addressed this subject in Arabidopsis, with contrasting results due to dissimilar statistical power. Here, we present the transcriptome architecture in leaf tissue of two RIL sets obtained from a connected-cross design involving 3 commonly used accessions. We also present the transcriptome architecture observed in developing seeds of a third independent cross. Results The utilisation of the novel R/eqtl package (which goal is to automatize and extend functions from the R/qtl package allowed us to map 4,290 and 6,534 eQTLs in the Cvi-0 × Col-0 and Bur-0 × Col-0 recombinant populations respectively. In agreement with previous studies, we observed a larger phenotypic variance explained by eQTLs in linkage with the controlled gene (potentially cis-acting, compared to distant loci (acting necessarily indirectly or in trans. Distant eQTLs hotspots were essentially not conserved between crosses, but instead, cross-specific. Accounting for confounding factors using a probabilistic approach (VBQTL increased the mapping resolution and the number of significant associations. Moreover, using local eQTLs obtained from this approach, we detected evidence for a directional allelic effect in genes with related function, where significantly more eQTLs than expected by chance were up-regulated from one of the accessions. Primary experimental data, analysis parameters, eQTL results and visualisation of LOD score curves presented here are stored and accessible through the QTLstore service database http://qtlstore.versailles.inra.fr/. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the extensive diversity and

  16. Distinct gene expression profiles in ovarian cancer linked to Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Bartuma, Katarina; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer linked to Lynch syndrome represents a rare subset that typically presents at young age as early-stage tumors with an overrepresentation of endometrioid and clear cell histologies. We investigated the molecular profiles of Lynch syndrome-associated and sporadic ovarian cancer...... with the aim to identify key discriminators and central tumorigenic mechanisms in hereditary ovarian cancer. Global gene expression profiling using whole-genome c-DNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension, and Ligation was applied to 48 histopathologically matched Lynch syndrome-associated and sporadic...... ovarian cancers. Lynch syndrome-associated and sporadic ovarian cancers differed by 349 significantly deregulated genes, including PTPRH, BIRC3, SHH and TNFRSF6B. The genes involved were predominantly linked to cell growth, proliferation, and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. When stratified...

  17. Distinct regions in the C-Terminus required for GLP-1R cell surface expression, activity and internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aiysha; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu

    2015-09-15

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R), an important drug target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that mediates insulin secretion by GLP-1. The N-terminus controls GLP-1R biosynthetic trafficking to the cell surface but the C-terminus involvement in that trafficking is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify distinct regions within the C-terminal domain required for human GLP-1R (hGLP-1R) cell surface expression, activity and internalisation using a number of C-terminal deletions and site-directed mutations. The results of this study revealed that the residues 411-418 within the C-terminal domain of the hGLP-1R are critical in targeting the newly synthesised receptor to the plasma membrane. The residues 419-430 are important for cAMP producing activity of the receptor, most likely by coupling to Gαs. However, the residues 431-450 within the C-terminus are essential for agonist-induced hGLP-1R internalisation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the hGLP-1R has distinct regions within the C-terminal domain required for its cell surface expression, activity and agonist-induced internalisation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrative genome-wide expression profiling identifies three distinct molecular subgroups of renal cell carcinoma with different patient outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleut Manfred

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is characterized by a number of diverse molecular aberrations that differ among individuals. Recent approaches to molecularly classify RCC were based on clinical, pathological as well as on single molecular parameters. As a consequence, gene expression patterns reflecting the sum of genetic aberrations in individual tumors may not have been recognized. In an attempt to uncover such molecular features in RCC, we used a novel, unbiased and integrative approach. Methods We integrated gene expression data from 97 primary RCC of different pathologic parameters, 15 RCC metastases as well as 34 cancer cell lines for two-way nonsupervised hierarchical clustering using gene groups suggested by the PANTHER Classification System. We depicted the genomic landscape of the resulted tumor groups by means of Single Nuclear Polymorphism (SNP technology. Finally, the achieved results were immunohistochemically analyzed using a tissue microarray (TMA composed of 254 RCC. Results We found robust, genome wide expression signatures, which split RCC into three distinct molecular subgroups. These groups remained stable even if randomly selected gene sets were clustered. Notably, the pattern obtained from RCC cell lines was clearly distinguishable from that of primary tumors. SNP array analysis demonstrated differing frequencies of chromosomal copy number alterations among RCC subgroups. TMA analysis with group-specific markers showed a prognostic significance of the different groups. Conclusion We propose the existence of characteristic and histologically independent genome-wide expression outputs in RCC with potential biological and clinical relevance.

  19. HTR8/SVneo Cells Display Trophoblast Progenitor Cell-Like Characteristics Indicative of Self-Renewal, Repopulation Activity, and Expression of “Stemness-” Associated Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Weber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. JEG3 is a choriocarcinoma—and HTR8/SVneo a transformed extravillous trophoblast—cell line often used to model the physiologically invasive extravillous trophoblast. Past studies suggest that these cell lines possess some stem or progenitor cell characteristics. Aim was to study whether these cells fulfill minimum criteria used to identify stem-like (progenitor cells. In summary, we found that the expression profile of HTR8/SVneo (CDX2+, NOTCH1+, SOX2+, NANOG+, and OCT- is distinct from JEG3 (CDX2+ and NOTCH1+ as seen only in human-serum blocked immunocytochemistry. This correlates with HTR8/SVneo’s self-renewal capacities, as made visible via spheroid formation and multi-passagability in hanging drops protocols paralleling those used to maintain embryoid bodies. JEG3 displayed only low propensity to form and reform spheroids. HTR8/SVneo spheroids migrated to cover and seemingly repopulate human chorionic villi during confrontation cultures with placental explants in hanging drops. We conclude that HTR8/SVneo spheroid cells possess progenitor cell traits that are probably attained through corruption of “stemness-” associated transcription factor networks. Furthermore, trophoblastic cells are highly prone to unspecific binding, which is resistant to conventional blocking methods, but which can be alleviated through blockage with human serum.

  20. HTR8/SVneo cells display trophoblast progenitor cell-like characteristics indicative of self-renewal, repopulation activity, and expression of "stemness-" associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Maja; Knoefler, Ilka; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Markert, Udo R; Fitzgerald, Justine S

    2013-01-01

    JEG3 is a choriocarcinoma--and HTR8/SVneo a transformed extravillous trophoblast--cell line often used to model the physiologically invasive extravillous trophoblast. Past studies suggest that these cell lines possess some stem or progenitor cell characteristics. Aim was to study whether these cells fulfill minimum criteria used to identify stem-like (progenitor) cells. In summary, we found that the expression profile of HTR8/SVneo (CDX2+, NOTCH1+, SOX2+, NANOG+, and OCT-) is distinct from JEG3 (CDX2+ and NOTCH1+) as seen only in human-serum blocked immunocytochemistry. This correlates with HTR8/SVneo's self-renewal capacities, as made visible via spheroid formation and multi-passagability in hanging drops protocols paralleling those used to maintain embryoid bodies. JEG3 displayed only low propensity to form and reform spheroids. HTR8/SVneo spheroids migrated to cover and seemingly repopulate human chorionic villi during confrontation cultures with placental explants in hanging drops. We conclude that HTR8/SVneo spheroid cells possess progenitor cell traits that are probably attained through corruption of "stemness-" associated transcription factor networks. Furthermore, trophoblastic cells are highly prone to unspecific binding, which is resistant to conventional blocking methods, but which can be alleviated through blockage with human serum.

  1. Dopamine receptors play distinct roles in sexual behavior expression of rats with a different sexual motivational tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Bazante, Irma L; Canseco-Alba, Ana; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a central role in the expression of male sexual behavior. The effects of DA-enhancing drugs on copulation seem to vary depending on the dose of the agonist used, the type of DA receptor activated, and the sexual condition of the animals. The aim of the present study was to carry out a systematic analysis of the effects of dopaminergic agonists on the expression of male sexual behavior by sexually competent rats in different sexual motivational states, that is when sexually active (sexually experienced) and when temporarily inhibited (sexually exhausted). To this end, the same doses of the nonselective DA receptor agonist apomorphine, the selective D2-like DA receptor agonist quinpirole, and the selective D1-like DA receptor agonist SKF38393 were injected intraperitoneally to sexually experienced or sexually exhausted male rats and their sexual behavior was recorded. Low apomorphine doses induced expression of sexual behavior in sexually satiated rats, but only reduced the intromission latency of sexually experienced rats. SKF38393 facilitated the expression of sexual behavior by sexually exhausted rats, but not that of sexually experienced males and quinpirole did not exert an effect in both types of animal. In line with these results, the apomorphine-induced reversal of sexual exhaustion was blocked by the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390. The data suggest that DA receptors play distinct roles in the expression of sexual behavior by male rats depending on their motivational state and that activation of D1-like receptors promotes the expression of sexual behavior in satiated rats.

  2. Primary EBV infection induces an expression profile distinct from other viruses but similar to hemophagocytic syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV, and Dengue fever virus (DENV, revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans.

  3. Primary EBV Infection Induces an Expression Profile Distinct from Other Viruses but Similar to Hemophagocytic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmire, Samantha K.; Odumade, Oludare A.; Porter, Jean L.; Reyes-Genere, Juan; Schmeling, David O.; Bilgic, Hatice; Fan, Danhua; Baechler, Emily C.; Balfour, Henry H.; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and establishes lifelong infection associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. To better understand immunity to EBV, we performed a prospective study of natural infection in healthy humans. Transcriptome analysis defined a striking and reproducible expression profile during acute infection but no lasting gene changes were apparent during latent infection. Comparing the EBV response profile to multiple other acute viral infections, including influenza A (influenza), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV), and Dengue fever virus (DENV), revealed similarity only to DENV. The signature shared by EBV and DENV was also present in patients with hemophagocytic syndromes, suggesting these two viruses cause uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Interestingly, while EBV induced a strong type I interferon response, a subset of interferon induced genes, including MX1, HERC5, and OAS1, were not upregulated, suggesting a mechanism by which viral antagonism of immunity results in a profound inflammatory response. These data provide an important first description of the response to a natural herpesvirus infection in humans. PMID:24465555

  4. The temporoammonic input to the hippocampal CA1 region displays distinctly different synaptic plasticity compared to the Schaffer collateral input in vivo: significance for synaptic information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla eAksoy Aksel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its sub-regional differentiation, the hippocampal CA1 region receives cortical information directly via the perforant (temporoammonic path (pp-CA1 synapse and indirectly via the tri-synaptic pathway where the last relay station is the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse (Sc-CA1 synapse. Research to date on pp-CA1 synapses has been conducted predominantly in vitro and never in awake animals, but these studies hint that information processing at this synapse might be distinct to processing at the Sc-CA1 synapse. Here, we characterized synaptic properties and synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse of freely behaving adult rats. We established that field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the pp-CA1 have longer onset latencies and a shorter time-to-peak compared to the Sc-CA1 synapse. LTP (> 24h was successfully evoked by tetanic afferent stimulation of pp-CA1 synapses. Low frequency stimulation evoked synaptic depression at Sc-CA1 synapses, but did not elicit LTD at pp-CA1 synapses unless the Schaffer collateral afferents to the CA1 region had been severed. Paired-pulse responses also showed significant differences. Our data suggest that synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse is distinct from the Sc-CA1 synapse and that this may reflect its specific role in hippocampal information processing.

  5. The CD4+CD26-T-cell population in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma displays a distinctive regulatory T-cell profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Yue; Visser, Lydia; Blokzijl, Tjasso; Harms, Geert; Atayar, Cigdem; Poppema, Sibrand; van den Berg, Anke

    Little is known about the gene expression profile and significance of the rosetting CD4+CD26- T cells in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL). To characterize these T cells, CD4+CD26- and CD4+CD26+ T-cell populations were sorted from lymph node (LN) cell suspensions from nodular sclerosis HL (NSHL)

  6. Distinct projection targets define subpopulations of mouse brainstem vagal neurons that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitakahara, Anna; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Levitt, Pat

    2017-12-15

    Detailed anatomical tracing and mapping of the viscerotopic organization of the vagal motor nuclei has provided insight into autonomic function in health and disease. To further define specific cellular identities, we paired information based on visceral connectivity with a cell-type specific marker of a subpopulation of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and nucleus ambiguus (nAmb) that express the autism-associated MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As gastrointestinal disturbances are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we sought to define the relationship between MET-expressing (MET+) neurons in the DMV and nAmb, and the gastrointestinal tract. Using wholemount tissue staining and clearing, or retrograde tracing in a MET EGFP transgenic mouse, we identify three novel subpopulations of EGFP+ vagal brainstem neurons: (a) EGFP+ neurons in the nAmb projecting to the esophagus or laryngeal muscles, (b) EGFP+ neurons in the medial DMV projecting to the stomach, and (b) EGFP+ neurons in the lateral DMV projecting to the cecum and/or proximal colon. Expression of the MET ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), by tissues innervated by vagal motor neurons during fetal development reveal potential sites of HGF-MET interaction. Furthermore, similar cellular expression patterns of MET in the brainstem of both the mouse and nonhuman primate suggests that MET expression at these sites is evolutionarily conserved. Together, the data suggest that MET+ neurons in the brainstem vagal motor nuclei are anatomically positioned to regulate distinct portions of the gastrointestinal tract, with implications for the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal comorbidities of ASD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Distinctive pattern of expression of spermatogenic molecular markers in testes of azoospermic men with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Sandra E; Yogev, Leah; Lehavi, Ofer; Yavetz, Haim; Hauser, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Mature sperm cells can be found in testicular specimens extracted from azoospermic men with non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome (KS). The present study evaluates the expression of various known molecular markers of spermatogenesis in a population of men with KS and assesses the ability of those markers to predict spermatogenesis. Two groups of men with non-obstructive azoospermia who underwent testicular sperm-retrieval procedures were included in the study: 31 had non-mosaic KS (KS group) and 91 had normal karyotype (NK group). Each group was subdivided into mixed atrophy (containing some mature sperm cells) or Sertoli cell only syndrome according to testicular histology and cytology observations. Semi-quantitative histological morphometric analysis (interstitial hyperplasia and hyalinization, tubules with cells and abnormal thickness of the basement membrane) and expression of spermatogenetic markers (DAZ, RBM, BOLL, and CDY1) were evaluated and compared among those subgroups. Clear differences in the histological morphometry and spermatogenetic marker expression were noted between the KS and NK groups. There was a significant difference in the expression of spermatogenetic markers between the subgroups of the NK group (as expected), while no difference could be discerned between the two subgroups in the KS group. We conclude that molecular spermatogenetic markers have a pattern of expression in men with KS that is distinctively different from that of men with NK, and that it precludes and limits their use for predicting spermatogenesis in the former. It is suggested that this difference might be due to the specific highly abnormal histological morphometric parameters in KS specimens.

  8. Contrasting expression of membrane metalloproteinases, MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP, suggests distinct functions in skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maozhou; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Liang; Gibson, Gary

    2008-07-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is the most ubiquitous and widely studied of the membrane-type metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). It was thus surprising to find no published data on chicken MT1-MMP. We report here the characterization of the chicken gene. Its low sequence identity with the MT1-MMP genes of other species, high GC content, and divergent catalytic domain explains the absence of data and our difficulties in characterizing the gene. The absence of structural features in the chicken gene that have been suggested to be critical for the activation of MMP-2 by MT1-MMP; for the effect of MT1-MMP on cell migration and for the recycling of MT1-MMP suggest these features are either not essential or that MT1-MMP does not perform these functions in chickens. Comparison of the expression of chicken MT1-MMP with MT3-MMP and with MMP-2 and MMP-13 has confirmed the previously recognized co-expression of MT1-MMP with MMP-2 and MMP-13 in fibrous and vascular tissues, particularly those surrounding the developing long bones in other species. By contrast, MT3-MMP expression differs markedly from that of MT1-MMP and of both MMP-2 and MMP-13. MT3-MMP is expressed by chondrocytes of the developing articular surface. Similar expression patterns of this group of MT-MMPs and MMPs have been observed in mouse embryos and suggest distinct and specific functions for MT1-MMP and MT3-MMP in skeletal development.

  9. Fragile X Proteins FMRP and FXR2P Control Synaptic GluA1 Expression and Neuronal Maturation via Distinct Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixiang Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP and its autosomal paralog FXR2P are selective neuronal RNA-binding proteins, and mice that lack either protein exhibit cognitive deficits. Although double-mutant mice display more severe learning deficits than single mutants, the molecular mechanism behind this remains unknown. In the present study, we discovered that FXR2P (also known as FXR2 is important for neuronal dendritic development. FMRP and FXR2P additively promote the maturation of new neurons by regulating a common target, the AMPA receptor GluA1, but they do so via distinct mechanisms: FXR2P binds and stabilizes GluA1 mRNA and enhances subsequent protein expression, whereas FMRP promotes GluA1 membrane delivery. Our findings unveil important roles for FXR2P and GluA1 in neuronal development, uncover a regulatory mechanism of GluA1, and reveal a functional convergence between fragile X proteins in neuronal development.

  10. Development of a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray: analysis of differential transcript expression in phenotypically distinct muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stear Michael

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray profiling has the potential to illuminate the molecular processes that govern the phenotypic characteristics of porcine skeletal muscles, such as hypertrophy or atrophy, and the expression of specific fibre types. This information is not only important for understanding basic muscle biology but also provides underpinning knowledge for enhancing the efficiency of livestock production. Results We report on the de novo development of a composite skeletal muscle cDNA microarray, comprising 5500 clones from two developmentally distinct cDNA libraries (longissimus dorsi of a 50-day porcine foetus and the gastrocnemius of a 3-day-old pig. Clones selected for the microarray assembly were of low to moderate abundance, as indicated by colony hybridisation. We profiled the differential expression of genes between the psoas (red muscle and the longissimus dorsi (white muscle, by co-hybridisation of Cy3 and Cy5 labelled cDNA derived from these two muscles. Results from seven microarray slides (replicates correctly identified genes that were expected to be differentially expressed, as well as a number of novel candidate regulatory genes. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR on selected genes was used to confirm the results from the microarray. Conclusion We have developed a porcine skeletal muscle cDNA microarray and have identified a number of candidate genes that could be involved in muscle phenotype determination, including several members of the casein kinase 2 signalling pathway.

  11. Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels exhibit distinct transmembrane domain archetypes for folding/expression and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, J P Daniel; Baenziger, John E

    2017-03-27

    Although transmembrane helix-helix interactions must be strong enough to drive folding, they must still permit the inter-helix movements associated with conformational change. Interactions between the outermost M4 and adjacent M1 and M3 α-helices of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels have been implicated in folding and function. Here, we evaluate the role of different physical interactions at this interface in the function of two prokaryotic homologs, GLIC and ELIC. Strikingly, disruption of most interactions in GLIC lead to either a reduction or a complete loss of expression and/or function, while analogous disruptions in ELIC often lead to gains in function. Structural comparisons suggest that GLIC and ELIC represent distinct transmembrane domain archetypes. One archetype, exemplified by GLIC, the glycine and GABA receptors and the glutamate activated chloride channel, has extensive aromatic contacts that govern M4-M1/M3 interactions and that are essential for expression and function. The other archetype, exemplified by ELIC and both the nicotinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors, has relatively few aromatic contacts that are detrimental to function. These archetypes likely have evolved different mechanisms to balance the need for strong M4 "binding" to M1/M3 to promote folding/expression, and the need for weaker interactions that allow for greater conformational flexibility.

  12. Distinct Fiber Type Signature in Mouse Muscles Expressing a Mutant Lamin A Responsible for Congenital Muscular Dystrophy in a Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Barateau

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific mutations in LMNA, which encodes nuclear intermediate filament proteins lamins A/C, affect skeletal muscle tissues. Early-onset LMNA myopathies reveal different alterations of muscle fibers, including fiber type disproportion or prominent dystrophic and/or inflammatory changes. Recently, we identified the p.R388P LMNA mutation as responsible for congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD and lipodystrophy. Here, we asked whether viral-mediated expression of mutant lamin A in murine skeletal muscles would be a pertinent model to reveal specific muscle alterations. We found that the total amount and size of muscle fibers as well as the extent of either inflammation or muscle regeneration were similar to wildtype or mutant lamin A. In contrast, the amount of fast oxidative muscle fibers containing myosin heavy chain IIA was lower upon expression of mutant lamin A, in correlation with lower expression of genes encoding transcription factors MEF2C and MyoD. These data validate this in vivo model for highlighting distinct muscle phenotypes associated with different lamin contexts. Additionally, the data suggest that alteration of muscle fiber type identity may contribute to the mechanisms underlying physiopathology of L-CMD related to R388P mutant lamin A.

  13. Visual Neurons in the Superior Colliculus Innervated by Islet2+ or Islet2− Retinal Ganglion Cells Display Distinct Tuning Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel B. Kay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the visual system, different subtypes of neurons are tuned to distinct aspects of the visual scene, establishing parallel circuits. Defining the mechanisms by which such tuning arises has been a long-standing challenge for neuroscience. To investigate this, we have focused on the retina’s projection to the superior colliculus (SC, where multiple visual neuron subtypes have been described. The SC receives inputs from a variety of retinal ganglion cell (RGC subtypes; however, which RGCs drive the tuning of different SC neurons remains unclear. Here, we pursued a genetic approach that allowed us to determine the tuning properties of neurons innervated by molecularly defined subpopulations of RGCs. In homozygous Islet2-EphA3 knock-in (Isl2EA3/EA3 mice, Isl2+ and Isl2− RGCs project to non-overlapping sub-regions of the SC. Based on molecular and anatomic data, we show that significantly more Isl2− RGCs are direction-selective (DS in comparison with Isl2+ RGCs. Targeted recordings of visual responses from each SC sub-region in Isl2EA3/EA3 mice revealed that Isl2− RGC-innervated neurons were significantly more DS than those innervated by Isl2+ RGCs. Axis-selective (AS neurons were found in both sub-regions, though AS neurons innervated by Isl2+ RGCs were more tightly tuned. Despite this segregation, DS and AS neurons innervated by Isl2+ or Isl2− RGCs did not differ in their spatial summation or spatial frequency (SF tuning. Further, we did not observe alterations in receptive field (RF size or structure of SC neurons innervated by Isl2+ or Isl2− RGCs. Together, these data show that innervation by Isl2+ and Isl2− RGCs results in distinct tuning in the SC and set the stage for future studies investigating the mechanisms by which these circuits are built.

  14. Two distinct genes for ADP/ATP translocase are expressed at the mRNA level in adult human liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houldsworth, J.; Attardi, G.

    1988-01-01

    Several clones hybridizing with a bovine ADP/ATP translocase cDNA were isolated from an adult human liver cDNA library in the vector pEX1. DNA sequence analysis revealed that these clones encode two distinct forms of translocase. In particular, two clones specifying the COOH-end-proximal five-sixths of the protein exhibit a 9% amino acid sequence divergence and totally dissimilar 3' untranslated regions. One of these cDNAs is nearly identical in sequence to an ADP/ATP translocase clone (hp2F1) recently isolated from a human fibroblast cDNA library with three amino acid changes and a few differences in the 3' untranslated region. Another clone isolated from the pEX1 library contains a reading frame encoding the remaining, NH 2 -end-proximal, 37 amino acids of the translocase. This sequence differs significantly (14% amino acid sequence divergence) from the corresponding segment of hp2F1, and the 5' untranslated regions of the two clones are totally dissimilar. RNA transfer hybridization experiments utilizing the clones isolated from the pEX1 library revealed the presence in HeLa cells of three distinct mRNA species. The pattern of hybridization and the sizes of these mRNAs suggest a greater complexity of organization and expression of the ADP/ATP translocase genes in human cells than indicated by the analysis of the cDNA clones

  15. Distinct populations of GABAergic neurons in mouse rhombomere 1 express but do not require the homeodomain transcription factor PITX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mindy R; Skaggs, Kaia; Kaviany, Parisa; Skidmore, Jennifer M; Causeret, Frédéric; Martin, James F; Martin, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Hindbrain rhombomere 1 (r1) is located caudal to the isthmus, a critical organizer region, and rostral to rhombomere 2 in the developing mouse brain. Dorsal r1 gives rise to the cerebellum, locus coeruleus, and several brainstem nuclei, whereas cells from ventral r1 contribute to the trochlear and trigeminal nuclei as well as serotonergic and GABAergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Recent studies have identified several molecular events controlling dorsal r1 development. In contrast, very little is known about ventral r1 gene expression and the genetic mechanisms regulating its formation. Neurons with distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes have been identified in ventral r1 including GABAergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic neurons. Here we show that PITX2 marks a distinct population of GABAergic neurons in mouse embryonic ventral r1. This population appears to retain its GABAergic identity even in the absence of PITX2. We provide a comprehensive map of markers that places these PITX2-positive GABAergic neurons in a region of r1 that intersects and is potentially in communication with the dorsal raphe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac protein expression patterns are associated with distinct inborn exercise capacity in non-selectively bred rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we successfully demonstrated for the first time the existence of cardiac proteomic differences between non-selectively bred rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacities. A proteomic approach based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry was used to study the left ventricle (LV tissue proteome of rats with distinct intrinsic exercise capacity. Low running performance (LRP and high running performance (HRP rats were categorized by a treadmill exercise test, according to distance run to exhaustion. The running capacity of HRPs was 3.5-fold greater than LRPs. Protein profiling revealed 29 differences between HRP and LRP rats (15 proteins were identified. We detected alterations in components involved in metabolism, antioxidant and stress response, microfibrillar and cytoskeletal proteins. Contractile proteins were upregulated in the LVs of HRP rats (α-myosin heavy chain-6, myosin light chain-1 and creatine kinase, whereas the LVs of LRP rats exhibited upregulation in proteins associated with stress response (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, α-crystallin B chain and HSPβ-2. In addition, the cytoskeletal proteins desmin and α-actin were upregulated in LRPs. Taken together, our results suggest that the increased contractile protein levels in HRP rats partly accounted for their improved exercise capacity, and that proteins considered risk factors to the development of cardiovascular disease were expressed in higher amounts in LRP animals.

  17. Generation of human antibody fragments recognizing distinct epitopes of the nucleocapsid (N SARS-CoV protein using a phage display approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasso Felicia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV is a newly emerging virus that causes SARS with high mortality rate in infected people. Successful control of the global SARS epidemic will require rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests to monitor its spread, as well as, the development of vaccines and new antiviral compounds including neutralizing antibodies that effectively prevent or treat this disease. Methods The human synthetic single-chain fragment variable (scFv ETH-2 phage antibody library was used for the isolation of scFvs against the nucleocapsid (N protein of SARS-CoV using a bio panning-based strategy. The selected scFvs were characterized under genetics-molecular aspects and for SARS-CoV N protein detection in ELISA, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Results Human scFv antibodies to N protein of SARS-CoV can be easily isolated by selecting the ETH-2 phage library on immunotubes coated with antigen. These in vitro selected human scFvs specifically recognize in ELISA and western blotting studies distinct epitopes in N protein domains and detect in immunohistochemistry investigations SARS-CoV particles in infected Vero cells. Conclusion The human scFv antibodies isolated and described in this study represent useful reagents for rapid detection of N SARS-CoV protein and SARS virus particles in infected target cells.

  18. The Staphylococcus aureus Two-Component System AgrAC Displays Four Distinct Genomic Arrangements That Delineate Genomic Virulence Factor Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari S. Choudhary

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-component systems (TCSs consist of a histidine kinase and a response regulator. Here, we evaluated the conservation of the AgrAC TCS among 149 completely sequenced Staphylococcus aureus strains. It is composed of four genes: agrBDCA. We found that: (i AgrAC system (agr was found in all but one of the 149 strains, (ii the agr positive strains were further classified into four agr types based on AgrD protein sequences, (iii the four agr types not only specified the chromosomal arrangement of the agr genes but also the sequence divergence of AgrC histidine kinase protein, which confers signal specificity, (iv the sequence divergence was reflected in distinct structural properties especially in the transmembrane region and second extracellular binding domain, and (v there was a strong correlation between the agr type and the virulence genomic profile of the organism. Taken together, these results demonstrate that bioinformatic analysis of the agr locus leads to a classification system that correlates with the presence of virulence factors and protein structural properties.

  19. The Staphylococcus aureus Two-Component System AgrAC Displays Four Distinct Genomic Arrangements That Delineate Genomic Virulence Factor Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Kumari S.; Mih, Nathan; Monk, Jonathan; Kavvas, Erol; Yurkovich, James T.; Sakoulas, George; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2018-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) consist of a histidine kinase and a response regulator. Here, we evaluated the conservation of the AgrAC TCS among 149 completely sequenced Staphylococcus aureus strains. It is composed of four genes: agrBDCA. We found that: (i) AgrAC system (agr) was found in all but one of the 149 strains, (ii) the agr positive strains were further classified into four agr types based on AgrD protein sequences, (iii) the four agr types not only specified the chromosomal arrangement of the agr genes but also the sequence divergence of AgrC histidine kinase protein, which confers signal specificity, (iv) the sequence divergence was reflected in distinct structural properties especially in the transmembrane region and second extracellular binding domain, and (v) there was a strong correlation between the agr type and the virulence genomic profile of the organism. Taken together, these results demonstrate that bioinformatic analysis of the agr locus leads to a classification system that correlates with the presence of virulence factors and protein structural properties. PMID:29887846

  20. The pursuit of optimal distinctiveness and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingnan; Cong, Feng; Liu, Yanping; Zhou, Xinyue

    2010-10-01

    This article investigates the effect of optimal distinctiveness on consumer product consumption. The authors argue that consumers acquire and display material possessions to restore their optimal levels of distinctiveness. Results showed that placing consumers in a state of low distinctiveness increased desire to acquire distinctive products, whereas perceptions of high distinctiveness reduced desire to acquire such products. Consumers' desire for distinctiveness-related products held true for various consumer choices, including willingness to pay more for limited-edition products and preference for unpopular gifts. This finding has implications for understanding consumer choice in expressing identity. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  1. Differential display of abundantly expressed genes of Trichoderma harzianum during colonization of tomato-germinating seeds and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi-Koushki, Mehdi; Rouhani, Hamid; Mahdikhani-Moghaddam, Esmat

    2012-11-01

    The identification of Trichoderma genes whose expression is altered during early stages of interaction with developing roots of germinated seeds is an important step toward understanding the rhizosphere competency of Trichoderma spp. The potential of 13 Trichoderma strains to colonize tomato root and promote plant growth has been evaluated. All used strains successfully propagated in spermosphere and continued their growth in rhizoplane simultaneously root enlargement while the strains T6 and T7 were the most abundant in the apical segment of roots. Root colonization in most strains associated with promoting the roots and shoots growth while they significantly increased up to 43 and 40 % roots and shoots dry weights, respectively. Differential display reverse transcriptase-PCR (DDRT-PCR) has been developed to detect differentially expressed genes in the previously selected strain, Trichoderma harzianum T7, during colonization stages of tomato-germinating seeds and roots. Amplified DDRT-PCR products were analyzed on gel agarose and 62 differential bands excised, purified, cloned, and sequenced. Obtained ESTs were submit-queried to NCBI database by BLASTx search and gene ontology hierarchy. Most of transcripts (29 EST) corresponds to known and hypothetical proteins such as secretion-related small GTPase, 40S ribosomal protein S3a, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, DNA repair protein rad50, lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 3, nuclear essential protein, phospholipase A2, fatty acid desaturase, nuclear pore complex subunit Nup133, ubiquitin-activating enzyme, and 60S ribosomal protein L40. Also, 13 of these sequences showed no homology (E > 0.05) with public databases and considered as novel genes. Some of these ESTs corresponded to genes encodes enzymes potentially involved in nutritional support of microorganisms which have obvious importance in the establishment of Trichoderma in spermosphere and rhizosphere, via potentially functioning in

  2. Large-scale expression analysis reveals distinct microRNA profiles at different stages of human neurodevelopment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs predicted to regulate one third of protein coding genes via mRNA targeting. In conjunction with key transcription factors, such as the repressor REST (RE1 silencing transcription factor, miRNAs play crucial roles in neurogenesis, which requires a highly orchestrated program of gene expression to ensure the appropriate development and function of diverse neural cell types. Whilst previous studies have highlighted select groups of miRNAs during neural development, there remains a need for amenable models in which miRNA expression and function can be analyzed over the duration of neurogenesis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed large-scale expression profiling of miRNAs in human NTera2/D1 (NT2 cells during retinoic acid (RA-induced transition from progenitors to fully differentiated neural phenotypes. Our results revealed dynamic changes of miRNA patterns, resulting in distinct miRNA subsets that could be linked to specific neurodevelopmental stages. Moreover, the cell-type specific miRNA subsets were very similar in NT2-derived differentiated cells and human primary neurons and astrocytes. Further analysis identified miRNAs as putative regulators of REST, as well as candidate miRNAs targeted by REST. Finally, we confirmed the existence of two predicted miRNAs; pred-MIR191 and pred-MIR222 associated with SLAIN1 and FOXP2, respectively, and provided some evidence of their potential co-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we demonstrate that regulation of miRNAs occurs in precise patterns indicative of their roles in cell fate commitment, progenitor expansion and differentiation into neurons and glia. Furthermore, the similarity between our NT2 system and primary human cells suggests their roles in molecular pathways critical for human in vivo neurogenesis.

  3. Nuclear pores and perinuclear expression sites of var and ribosomal DNA genes correspond to physically distinct regions in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizetti, Julien; Martins, Rafael Miyazawa; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Claes, Aurélie; Scherf, Artur

    2013-05-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum modifies the erythrocyte it infects by exporting variant proteins to the host cell surface. The var gene family that codes for a large, variant adhesive surface protein called P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) plays a particular role in this process, which is linked to pathogenesis and immune evasion. A single member of this gene family is highly transcribed while the other 59 members remain silenced. Importantly, var gene transcription occurs at a spatially restricted, but yet undefined, perinuclear site that is distinct from repressed var gene clusters. To advance our understanding of monoallelic expression, we investigated whether nuclear pores associate with the var gene expression site. To this end, we studied the nuclear pore organization during the asexual blood stage using a specific antibody directed against a subunit of the nuclear pore, P. falciparum Nup116 (PfNup116). Ring and schizont stage parasites showed highly polarized nuclear pore foci, whereas in trophozoite stage nuclear pores redistributed over the entire nuclear surface. Colocalization studies of var transcripts and anti-PfNup116 antibodies showed clear dissociation between nuclear pores and the var gene expression site in ring stage. Similar results were obtained for another differentially transcribed perinuclear gene family, the ribosomal DNA units. Furthermore, we show that in the poised state, the var gene locus is not physically linked to nuclear pores. Our results indicate that P. falciparum does form compartments of high transcriptional activity at the nuclear periphery which are, unlike the case in yeast, devoid of nuclear pores.

  4. A stably expressed llama single-domain intrabody targeting Rev displays broad-spectrum anti-HIV activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Eline; Li, Guangdi; Vanstreels, Els; Vercruysse, Thomas; Pannecouque, Christophe; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Daelemans, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    The HIV Rev protein mediates the transport of partially and unspliced HIV mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Rev multimerizes on a secondary stem-loop structure present in the viral intron-containing mRNA species and recruits the cellular karyopherin CRM1 to export viral mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Previously we have identified a single-domain intrabody (Nb(190)), derived from a llama heavy-chain antibody, which efficiently inhibits Rev multimerization and suppresses the production of infectious virus. We recently mapped the epitope of this nanobody and demonstrated that Rev residues K20 and Y23 are crucial for interaction while residues V16, H53 and L60 are important to a lesser extent. Here, we generated cell lines stably expressing Nb(190) and assessed the capacity of these cell lines to suppress the replication of different HIV-1 subtypes. These cells stably expressing the single-domain antibody are protected from virus-induced cytopathogenic effect even in the context of high multiplicity of infection. In addition, the replication of different subtypes of group M and one strain of group O is significantly suppressed in these cell lines. Next, we analysed the natural variations of Rev amino acids in sequence samples from HIV-1 infected patients worldwide and assessed the effect of Nb(190) on the most prevalent polymorphisms occurring at the key epitope positions (K20 and Y23) in Rev. We found that Nb(190) was able to suppress the function of these Rev variants except for the K20N mutant, which was present in only 0.7% of HIV-1 sequence populations (n = 4632). Cells stably expressing the single-domain intrabody Nb(190) are protected against virus-induced cytopathogenic effect and display a selective survival advantage upon infection. In addition, Nb(190) suppresses the replication of a wide range of different HIV-1 subtypes. Large-scale sequence analysis reveals that the Nb(190) epitope positions in Rev are well conserved across major HIV-1

  5. Microcystin-LR nanobody screening from an alpaca phage display nanobody library and its expression and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chongxin; Yang, Ying; Liu, Liwen; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-04-30

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a type of biotoxin that pollutes the ecological environment and food. The study aimed to obtain new nanobodies from phage nanobody library for determination of MC-LR. The toxin was conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively, then the conjugates were used as coated antigens for enrichment (coated MC-LR-KLH) and screening (coated MC-LR-BSA) of MC-LR phage nanobodies from an alpaca phage display nanobody library. The antigen-specific phage particles were enriched effectively with four rounds of biopanning. At the last round of enrichment, total 20 positive monoclonal phage nanobodies were obtained from the library, which were analyzed after monoclonal phage enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), colony PCR and DNA sequencing. The most three positive nanobody genes, ANAb12, ANAb9 and ANAb7 were cloned into pET26b vector, then the nanobodies were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 respectively. After being purified, the molecular weight (M.W.) of all nanobodies were approximate 15kDa with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified nanobodies, ANAb12, ANAb9 and ANAb7 were used to establish the indirect competitive ELISA (IC-ELISA) for MC-LR, and their half-maximum inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ) were 0.87, 1.17 and 1.47μg/L, their detection limits (IC 10 ) were 0.06, 0.08 and 0.12μg/L, respectively. All of them showed strong cross-reactivity (CRs) of 82.7-116.9% for MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-WR, and weak CRs of less than 4.56% for MC-LW, less than 0.1% for MC-LY and MC-LF. It was found that all the IC-ELISAs for MC-LR spiked in tap water samples detection were with good accuracy, stability and repeatability, their recoveries were 84.0-106.5%, coefficient of variations (CVs) were 3.4-10.6%. These results showed that IC-ELISA based on the nanobodies from the alpaca phage display antibody library were promising for high sensitive determination of multiple

  6. Expression of Immunoglobulin Receptors with Distinctive Features Indicating Antigen Selection by Marginal Zone B Cells from Human Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Jenny; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Calevo, Maria Grazia; De Santanna, Amleto; Truini, Mauro; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2013-01-01

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells, identified as surface (s)IgMhighsIgDlowCD23low/−CD21+CD38− B cells, were purified from human spleens, and the features of their V(D)J gene rearrangements were investigated and compared with those of germinal center (GC), follicular mantle (FM) and switched memory (SM) B cells. Most MZ B cells were CD27+ and exhibited somatic hypermutations (SHM), although to a lower extent than SM B cells. Moreover, among MZ B-cell rearrangements, recurrent sequences were observed, some of which displayed intraclonal diversification. The same diversifying sequences were detected in very low numbers in GC and FM B cells and only when a highly sensitive, gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was used. This result indicates that MZ B cells could expand and diversify in situ and also suggested the presence of a number of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-expressing B cells in the MZ. The notion of antigen-driven expansion/selection in situ is further supported by the VH CDR3 features of MZ B cells with highly conserved amino acids at specific positions and by the finding of shared (“stereotyped”) sequences in two different spleens. Collectively, the data are consistent with the notion that MZ B cells are a special subset selected by in situ antigenic stimuli. PMID:23877718

  7. Human Renal Normal, Tumoral, and Cancer Stem Cells Express Membrane-Bound Interleukin-15 Isoforms Displaying Different Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Azzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrarenal interleukin-15 (IL-15 participates to renal pathophysiology, but the role of its different membrane-bound isoforms remains to be elucidated. In this study, we reassess the biology of membrane-bound IL-15 (mb-IL-15 isoforms by comparing primary cultures of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC to peritumoral (ptumTEC, tumoral (RCC, and cancer stem cells (CSC/CD105+. RPTEC express a 14 to 16 kDa mb-IL-15, whose existence has been assumed but never formally demonstrated and likely represents the isoform anchored at the cell membrane through the IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα chain, because it is sensitive to acidic treatment and is not competent to deliver a reverse signal. By contrast, ptumTEC, RCC, and CSC express a novel N-hyperglycosylated, short-lived transmembrane mb-IL-15 (tmb-IL-15 isoform around 27 kDa, resistant to acidic shock, delivering a reverse signal in response to its soluble receptor (sIL-15Rα. This reverse signal triggers the down-regulation of the tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin in ptumTEC and RCC but not in CSC/CD105+, where it promotes survival. Indeed, through the AKT pathway, tmb-IL-15 protects CSC/CD105+ from non-programmed cell death induced by serum starvation. Finally, both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 are sensitive to metalloproteases, and the cleaved tmb-IL-15 (25 kDa displays a powerful anti-apoptotic effect on human hematopoietic cells. Overall, our data indicate that both mb-IL-15 and tmb-IL-15 isoforms play a complex role in renal pathophysiology downregulating E-cadherin and favoring cell survival. Moreover, “apparently normal” ptumTEC cells, sharing different properties with RCC, could contribute to organize an enlarged peritumoral “preneoplastic” environment committed to favor tumor progression.

  8. CD45RC isoform expression identifies functionally distinct T cell subsets differentially distributed between healthy individuals and AAV patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Ordonez

    Full Text Available In animal models of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV, the proportion of CD45RC T cell subsets is important for disease susceptibility. Their human counterparts are, however, functionally ill defined. In this report, we studied their distribution in healthy controls (HC, AAV patients and in Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE patients as disease controls. We showed that CD45RC expression level on human CD4 and CD8 T cells identifies subsets that are highly variable among individuals. Interestingly, AAV patients exhibit an increased proportion of CD45RC(low CD4 T cells as compared to HC and SLE patients. This increase is stable over time and independent of AAV subtype, ANCA specificity, disease duration, or number of relapses. We also analyzed the cytokine profile of purified CD4 and CD8 CD45RC T cell subsets from HC, after stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs. The CD45RC subsets exhibit different cytokine profiles. Type-1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were produced by all CD45RC T cell subsets, while the production of IL-17, type-2 (IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory (IL-10 cytokines was restricted to the CD45RC(low subset. In conclusion, we have shown that CD45RC expression divides human T cells in functionally distinct subsets that are imbalanced in AAV. Since this imbalance is stable over time and independent of several disease parameters, we hypothesize that this is a pre-existing immune abnormality involved in the etiology of AAV.

  9. Comparison of distinct transcriptional expression patterns of flavonoid biosynthesis in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from east and west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Sun, Run-Ze; Duan, Chang-Qing; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Flavonoids make a very important contribution to the organoleptic qualities of grapes and wines. In this work these were analyzed in Cabernet Sauvignon grown in Changli, Hebei Province in east China and Gaotai, Gansu Province in west China. These regions have distinctly different climates contributing to their different 'terroir'. RNA sequencing was performed to trace transcriptome changes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries at pea size, veraison and ripening, corresponding to E-L 31, 35 and 38. The accumulation of flavonols, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins together with the expression of relevant genes were analyzed and compared between the two regions. The biosynthesis patterns were similar between two regions, but more flavonols, anthocyanins, and tri-hydroxylated flavonoids accumulated in grapes from Gaotai before berry harvest, possibly due to the higher transcript levels of the genes that encode biosynthetic enzymes and their potential candidate transcription factors. The lower levels of flavan-3-ols, mainly (-)-epigallocatechin, in the pre-veraison grapes from Changli, might be due to limited flow of carbon to the F3'5'H branch pathway, as the ratio of F3'5'H to F3'H was lower in these berries from Changli. It is suggested that the combination of climatic factors profoundly affect the flavonoid pathway in grapes from China, providing regionally specific metabolism patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Distinct functional characteristics of levocabastine sensitive rat neurotensin NT2 receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M; Yamada, M; Lombet, A; Forgez, P; Rostène, W

    1998-01-01

    Neurotensin has been shown to produce pharmacological effects both in brain and periphery. Several of these effects are mediated by a high-affinity neurotensin NT1 receptor. On the other hand, a low-affinity levocabastine-sensitive neurotensin NT2 receptor was molecularly cloned from rodent brain recently. In this study, in contrast to NT1 receptor, levocabastine (a histamine H1 receptor antagonist) and SR48692 (an antagonist for NT1 receptor) strongly stimulated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing rat NT2 receptor, thus acting as potent NT2 receptor. Furthermore, despite of their affinities for NT2 receptor, the Ca2+ responses to potent NT1 agonists, neurotensin or JMV449 ([Lys8-(CH2NH)-Lys9]Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu, a peptidase resistant analogue of neurotensin) were much smaller than that observed with SR48692. These findings suggest that NT1 and NT2 receptors present distinct functional characteristics and that SR48692 may act as a potent agonist for NT2 receptor.

  11. Distinct interneuron types express m2 muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity on their dendrites or axon terminals in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájos, N; Papp, E C; Acsády, L; Levey, A I; Freund, T F

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-immunoreactive interneurons and various types of m2-positive axon terminals have been described in the hippocampal formation. The aim of the present study was to identify the types of interneurons expressing m2 receptor and to examine whether the somadendritic and axonal m2 immunostaining labels the same or distinct cell populations. In the CA1 subfield, neurons immunoreactive for m2 have horizontal dendrites, they are located at the stratum oriens/alveus border and have an axon that project to the dendritic region of pyramidal cells. In the CA3 subfield and the hilus, m2-positive neurons are multipolar and are scattered in all layers except stratum lacunosum-moleculare. In stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3 regions, striking axon terminal staining for m2 was observed, surrounding the somata and axon initial segments of pyramidal cells in a basket-like manner. The co-localization of m2 with neurochemical markers and GABA was studied using the "mirror" technique and fluorescent double-immunostaining at the light microscopic level and with double-labelling using colloidal gold-conjugated antisera and immunoperoxidase reaction (diaminobenzidine) at the electron microscopic level. GABA was shown to be present in the somata of most m2-immunoreactive interneurons, as well as in the majority of m2-positive terminals in all layers. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin was absent from practically all m2-immunoreactive cell bodies and dendrites. In contrast, many of the terminals synapsing on pyramidal cell somata and axon initial segments co-localized parvalbumin and m2, suggesting a differential distribution of m2 receptor immunoreactivity on the axonal and somadendritic membrane of parvalbumin-containing basket and axo-axonic cells. The co-existence of m2 receptors with the calcium-binding protein calbindin and the neuropeptides cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was rare throughout the

  12. Differential local tissue permissiveness influences the final fate of GPR17-expressing oligodendrocyte precursors in two distinct models of demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Giusy T; Marangon, Davide; Negri, Camilla; Menichetti, Gianluca; Fumagalli, Marta; Gelosa, Paolo; Dimou, Leda; Furlan, Roberto; Lecca, Davide; Abbracchio, Maria P

    2018-05-01

    Promoting remyelination is recognized as a novel strategy to foster repair in neurodegenerative demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In this respect, the receptor GPR17, recently emerged as a new target for remyelination, is expressed by early oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) and after a certain differentiation stage it has to be downregulated to allow progression to mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Here, we took advantage of the first inducible GPR17 reporter mouse line (GPR17-iCreER T2 xCAG-eGFP mice) allowing to follow the final fate of GPR17 + cells by tamoxifen-induced GFP-labeling to unveil the destiny of these cells in two demyelination models: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by marked immune cell activation and inflammation, and cuprizone induced demyelination, where myelin dysfunction is achieved by a toxic insult. In both models, demyelination induced a strong increase of fluorescent GFP + cells at damaged areas. However, only in the cuprizone model reacting GFP + cells terminally differentiated to mature oligodendrocytes, thus contributing to remyelination. In EAE, GFP + cells were blocked at immature stages and never became myelinating oligodendrocytes. We suggest these strikingly distinct fates be due to different permissiveness of the local CNS environment. Based on previously reported GPR17 activation by emergency signals (e.g., Stromal Derived Factor-1), we propose that a marked inflammatory milieu, such as that reproduced in EAE, induces GPR17 overactivation resulting in impaired downregulation, untimely and prolonged permanence in OPCs, leading, in turn, to differentiation blockade. Combined treatments with remyelinating agents and anti-inflammatory drugs may represent new potential adequate strategies to halt neurodegeneration and foster recovery. © 2018 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Characterization of Trichome-Expressed BAHD Acyltransferases in Petunia axillaris Reveals Distinct Acylsugar Assembly Mechanisms within the Solanaceae1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebler, Joseph B.; Liu, Xiaoxiao

    2017-01-01

    Acylsugars are synthesized in the glandular trichomes of the Solanaceae family and are implicated in protection against abiotic and biotic stress. Acylsugars are composed of either sucrose or glucose esterified with varying numbers of acyl chains of differing length. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), acylsugar assembly requires four acylsugar acyltransferases (ASATs) of the BAHD superfamily. Tomato ASATs catalyze the sequential esterification of acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to the R4, R3, R3ʹ, and R2 positions of sucrose, yielding a tetra-acylsucrose. Petunia spp. synthesize acylsugars that are structurally distinct from those of tomato. To explore the mechanisms underlying this chemical diversity, a Petunia axillaris transcriptome was mined for trichome preferentially expressed BAHDs. A combination of phylogenetic analyses, gene silencing, and biochemical analyses coupled with structural elucidation of metabolites revealed that acylsugar assembly is not conserved between tomato and petunia. In P. axillaris, tetra-acylsucrose assembly occurs through the action of four ASATs, which catalyze sequential addition of acyl groups to the R2, R4, R3, and R6 positions. Notably, in P. axillaris, PaxASAT1 and PaxASAT4 catalyze the acylation of the R2 and R6 positions of sucrose, respectively, and no clear orthologs exist in tomato. Similarly, petunia acylsugars lack an acyl group at the R3ʹ position, and congruently, an ortholog of SlASAT3, which catalyzes acylation at the R3ʹ position in tomato, is absent in P. axillaris. Furthermore, where putative orthologous relationships of ASATs are predicted between tomato and petunia, these are not supported by biochemical assays. Overall, these data demonstrate the considerable evolutionary plasticity of acylsugar biosynthesis. PMID:28701351

  14. Characterization of Trichome-Expressed BAHD Acyltransferases in Petunia axillaris Reveals Distinct Acylsugar Assembly Mechanisms within the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadakuduti, Satya Swathi; Uebler, Joseph B; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jones, A Daniel; Barry, Cornelius S

    2017-09-01

    Acylsugars are synthesized in the glandular trichomes of the Solanaceae family and are implicated in protection against abiotic and biotic stress. Acylsugars are composed of either sucrose or glucose esterified with varying numbers of acyl chains of differing length. In tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), acylsugar assembly requires four acylsugar acyltransferases (ASATs) of the BAHD superfamily. Tomato ASATs catalyze the sequential esterification of acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to the R4, R3, R3', and R2 positions of sucrose, yielding a tetra-acylsucrose. Petunia spp. synthesize acylsugars that are structurally distinct from those of tomato. To explore the mechanisms underlying this chemical diversity, a Petunia axillaris transcriptome was mined for trichome preferentially expressed BAHDs. A combination of phylogenetic analyses, gene silencing, and biochemical analyses coupled with structural elucidation of metabolites revealed that acylsugar assembly is not conserved between tomato and petunia. In P. axillaris , tetra-acylsucrose assembly occurs through the action of four ASATs, which catalyze sequential addition of acyl groups to the R2, R4, R3, and R6 positions. Notably, in P. axillaris , PaxASAT1 and PaxASAT4 catalyze the acylation of the R2 and R6 positions of sucrose, respectively, and no clear orthologs exist in tomato. Similarly, petunia acylsugars lack an acyl group at the R3' position, and congruently, an ortholog of SlASAT3, which catalyzes acylation at the R3' position in tomato, is absent in P. axillaris Furthermore, where putative orthologous relationships of ASATs are predicted between tomato and petunia, these are not supported by biochemical assays. Overall, these data demonstrate the considerable evolutionary plasticity of acylsugar biosynthesis. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Distinctive features of Phox2b-expressing neurons in the rat reticular formation dorsal to the trigeminal motor nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoya, Kouta; Nakamura, Shiro; Ikeda, Keiko; Onimaru, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Nakayama, Kiyomi; Mochizuki, Ayako; Kiyomoto, Masaaki; Sato, Fumihiko; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Koji; Inoue, Tomio

    2017-09-01

    Phox2b encodes a paired-like homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for development of the autonomic nervous system. Phox2b-expressing (Phox2b + ) neurons are present in the reticular formation dorsal to the trigeminal motor nucleus (RdV) as well as the nucleus of the solitary tract and parafacial respiratory group. However, the nature of Phox2b + RdV neurons is still unclear. We investigated the physiological and morphological properties of Phox2b + RdV neurons using postnatal day 2-7 transgenic rats expressing yellow fluorescent protein under the control of Phox2b. Almost all of Phox2b + RdV neurons were glutamatergic, whereas Phox2b-negative (Phox2b - ) RdV neurons consisted of a few glutamatergic, many GABAergic, and many glycinergic neurons. The majority (48/56) of Phox2b + neurons showed low-frequency firing (LF), while most of Phox2b - neurons (35/42) exhibited high-frequency firing (HF) in response to intracellularly injected currents. All, but one, Phox2b + neurons (55/56) did not fire spontaneously, whereas three-fourths of the Phox2b - neurons (31/42) were spontaneously active. K + channel and persistent Na + current blockers affected the firing of LF and HF neurons. The majority of Phox2b + (35/46) and half of the Phox2b - neurons (19/40) did not respond to stimulations of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, the trigeminal tract, and the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus. Biocytin labeling revealed that about half of the Phox2b + (5/12) and Phox2b - RdV neurons (5/10) send their axons to the trigeminal motor nucleus. These results suggest that Phox2b + RdV neurons have distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes and firing properties from Phox2b - RdV neurons and might play important roles in feeding-related functions including suckling and possibly mastication. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease Demonstrate Distinctive Pulmonary Gene Expressions for Vascular Response Genes: Impact of Ozone Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative gene expression profiling of multiple tissues from rat strains with genetic predisposition to diverse cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can help decode the transcriptional program that governs organ-specific functions. We examined expressions of CVD genes in the lungs of ...

  17. Bodily Movement and Facial Actions in Expressive Musical Performance by Solo and Duo Instrumentalists: Two Distinctive Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane W.

    2012-01-01

    The research literature concerning gesture in musical performance increasingly reports that musically communicative and meaningful performances contain highly expressive bodily movements. These movements are involved in the generation of the musically expressive performance, but enquiry into the development of expressive bodily movement has been…

  18. In silico differential display of defense-related expressed sequence tags from sugarcane tissues infected with diazotrophic endophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambais Marcio R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression patterns of 277 sugarcane expressed sequence tags (EST-contigs encoding putative defense-related (DR proteins were evaluated using the Sugarcane EST database. The DR proteins evaluated included chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, phenylalanine ammonia-lyases, chalcone synthases, chalcone isomerases, isoflavone reductases, hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, proline-rich glycoproteins, peroxidases, catalases, superoxide dismutases, WRKY-like transcription factors and proteins involved in cell death control. Putative sugarcane WRKY proteins were compared and their phylogenetic relationships determined. A hierarchical clustering approach was used to identify DR ESTs with similar expression profiles in representative cDNA libraries. To identify DR ESTs differentially expressed in sugarcane tissues infected with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus or Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, 179 putative DR EST-contigs expressed in non-infected tissues (leaves and roots and/or infected tissues were selected and arrayed by similarity of their expression profiles. Changes in the expression levels of 124 putative DR EST-contigs, expressed in non-infected tissues, were evaluated in infected tissues. Approximately 42% of these EST-contigs showed no expression in infected tissues, whereas 15% and 3% showed more than 2-fold suppression in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. Approximately 14 and 8% of the DR EST-contigs evaluated showed more than 2-fold induction in tissues infected with G. diazotrophicus or H. rubrisubalbicans, respectively. The differential expression of clusters of DR genes may be important in the establishment of a compatible interaction between sugarcane and diazotrophic endophytes. It is suggested that the hierarchical clustering approach can be used on a genome-wide scale to identify genes likely involved in controlling plant-microorganism interactions.

  19. Distinct Patterns of Stromal and Tumor Expression of ROR1 and ROR2 in Histological Subtypes of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Henry

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The ROR1 and ROR2 receptor tyrosine kinases have both been implicated in ovarian cancer progression and have been shown to drive migration and invasion. There is an increasing importance of the role of stroma in ovarian cancer metastasis; however, neither ROR1 nor ROR2 expression in tumor or stromal cells has been analyzed in the same clinical cohort. AIM: To determine ROR1 and ROR2 expression in ovarian cancer and surrounding microenvironment and examine associations with clinicopathological characteristics. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for ROR1 and ROR2 was used to assess receptor expression in a cohort of epithelial ovarian cancer patients (n = 178. Results were analyzed in relation to clinical and histopathological characteristics and survival. Matched patient sample case studies of normal, primary, and metastatic lesions were used to examine ROR expression in relation to ovarian cancer progression. RESULTS: ROR1 and ROR2 are abnormally expressed in malignant ovarian epithelium and stroma. Higher ROR2 tumor expression was found in early-stage, low-grade endometrioid carcinomas. ROR2 stromal expression was highest in the serous subtype. In matched patient case studies, metastatic samples had higher expression of ROR2 in the stroma, and a recurrent sample had the highest expression of ROR2 in both tumor and stroma. CONCLUSION: ROR1 and ROR2 are expressed in tumor-associated stroma in all histological subtypes of ovarian cancer and hold potential as therapeutic targets which may disrupt tumor and stroma interactions.

  20. Vasopressin up-regulates the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes via two distinct EGF receptor transactivation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida Q.; Reyes, Carlos E.; Sarmiento, José M.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; Navarro, Javier; González, Carlos B.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of V1a receptor triggers the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes (IEGs), including c-Fos and Egr-1. Here we found that pre-treatment of rat vascular smooth muscle A-10 cell line with the EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 or the over-expression of an EGFR dominant negative mutant (HEBCD533) blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of IEGs, suggesting that activation of these early genes mediated by V1a receptor is via transactivation of the EGF receptor. Importantly, the inhibition of the metalloproteinases, which catalyzed the shedding of the EGF receptor agonist HB-EGF, selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression c-Fos. On the other hand, the inhibition of c-Src selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of Egr-1. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression of c-Fos, the expression of Egr-1 was mediated via the Ras/MEK/MAPK-dependent signalling pathway. Vasopressin-triggered expression of both genes required the release of intracellular calcium, activation of PKC and β-arrestin 2. These findings demonstrated that vasopressin up-regulated the expression of c-Fos and Erg-1 via transactivation of two distinct EGF receptor-dependent signalling pathways. PMID:18571897

  1. Distinct GAGE and MAGE-A expression during early human development indicate specific roles in lineage differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expression of cancer/testis-associated proteins (CTAs) has traditionally been considered to be restricted to germ cells in normal tissues and to different types of malignancies. We have evaluated the potential role of CTAs in early human development. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry...... and RT-PCR, we investigated the expression of CTAs in differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and in late embryos and early fetuses. RESULTS: We found that melanoma antigen A (MAGE-A) family members were expressed during differentiation of hESC to embryoid bodies and in teratomas, and overlapped...... with expression of the neuroectodermal markers beta-tubulin 3, Pax6 and nestin. A widespread expression of MAGE-A was also observed in neurons of the early developing central nervous system and peripheral nerves. G antigen (GAGE) expression was present in the early ectoderm of embryos, including cells...

  2. Distinct differences in global gene expression profiles in non-implanted blastocysts and blastocysts resulting in live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine Kjær; Fredsted, Palle Villesen; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2015-01-01

    Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related...... to clinical outcome. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the global gene expression profiles of human blastocysts. Next Generation Sequencing was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in non-implanted embryos and embryos resulting in live birth. Three trophectoderm...

  3. Cell surface expression system for the display of heterologous gene products using chimeric flagellin fusions of bacillus halodurans isolate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available system for the display of heterologous gene products using chimeric flagellin fusions of a Bacillus halodurans isolate Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Bacillus halodurans Alk 36 xrhombus Ability to over-produce cell... for functionality of the His-tag for metal binding. Slide 13 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za PAGE gel showing over-production of chimeric poly-His flagellin proteins 66.2 kDa 45.0 kDa 31.0 kDa 1. LMW ladder 2. NC3 3. NHisC3 4. NC6 5...

  4. Chloroplast-expressed MSI-99 in tobacco improves disease resistance and displays inhibitory effect against rice blast fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Wei, Zheng-Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Lin, Chun-Jing; Zhong, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Yue-Lin; Ma, Jing-Yong; Ma, Jian; Xing, Shao-Chen

    2015-03-02

    Rice blast is a major destructive fungal disease that poses a serious threat to rice production and the improvement of blast resistance is critical to rice breeding. The antimicrobial peptide MSI-99 has been suggested as an antimicrobial peptide conferring resistance to bacterial and fungal diseases. Here, a vector harboring the MSI-99 gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome via particle bombardment. Transformed plants were obtained and verified to be homoplastomic by PCR and Southern hybridization. In planta assays demonstrated that the transgenic tobacco plants displayed an enhanced resistance to the fungal disease. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity revealed that the crude protein extracts from the transgenic plants manifested an antimicrobial activity against E. coli, even after incubation at 120 °C for 20 min, indicating significant heat stability of MSI-99. More importantly, the MSI-99-containing protein extracts were firstly proved in vitro and in vivo to display significant suppressive effects on two rice blast isolates. These findings provide a strong basis for the development of new biopesticides to combat rice blast.

  5. Chloroplast-Expressed MSI-99 in Tobacco Improves Disease Resistance and Displays Inhibitory Effect against Rice Blast Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Peng Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice blast is a major destructive fungal disease that poses a serious threat to rice production and the improvement of blast resistance is critical to rice breeding. The antimicrobial peptide MSI-99 has been suggested as an antimicrobial peptide conferring resistance to bacterial and fungal diseases. Here, a vector harboring the MSI-99 gene was constructed and introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome via particle bombardment. Transformed plants were obtained and verified to be homoplastomic by PCR and Southern hybridization. In planta assays demonstrated that the transgenic tobacco plants displayed an enhanced resistance to the fungal disease. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity revealed that the crude protein extracts from the transgenic plants manifested an antimicrobial activity against E. coli, even after incubation at 120 °C for 20 min, indicating significant heat stability of MSI-99. More importantly, the MSI-99-containing protein extracts were firstly proved in vitro and in vivo to display significant suppressive effects on two rice blast isolates. These findings provide a strong basis for the development of new biopesticides to combat rice blast.

  6. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 protein expression in the distinction between nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a proto-oncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch de-repression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.

  7. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 Protein Expression in the Distinction of Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a protooncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch derepression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24326827

  8. Based on Molecular Profiling of Gene Expression, Palmoplantar Pustulosis and Palmoplantar Pustular Psoriasis Are Highly Related Diseases that Appear to Be Distinct from Psoriasis Vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bissonnette

    Full Text Available There is a controversy surrounding the existence of palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP and palmoplantar pustular psoriasis (PPPP as separate clinical entities or as variants of the same clinical entity. We used gene expression microarray to compare gene expression in PPP and PPPP.Skin biopsies from subjects with PPP (3, PPPP (6, psoriasis vulgaris (10 and acral skin from normal subjects (7 were analyzed using gene expression microarray. Principal component analysis showed that PPP and PPPP were different from psoriasis vulgaris and normal acral skin. However gene expression of PPP and PPPP clustered together and could not be used to differentiate PPP from PPPP. Gene-wise comparison between PPP and PPPP found no gene to be differentially expressed at a false discovery rate lower than 0.05. Surprisingly we found a higher expression of several genes involved in neural pathways (e.g. GPRIN and ADAM23 in PPP/PPPP as compared to psoriasis vulgaris and normal acral skin. Immunohistochemistry confirmed those findings and showed a keratinocyte localization for those proteins.PPP and PPPP could not be differentiated using gene expression microarray suggesting that they are not distinct clinical entities. Increased expression of GPRIN1, and ADAM23 in keratinocytes suggests that these proteins could be new therapeutic targets for PPP/PPPP.

  9. Distinct cell-specific expression of homospermidine synthase involved in pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis in three species of the boraginales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemüller, Daniel; Reimann, Andreas; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-07-01

    Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme in pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) biosynthesis, a pathway involved in the plant's chemical defense. HSS has been shown to be recruited repeatedly by duplication of a gene involved in primary metabolism. Within the lineage of the Boraginales, only one gene duplication event gave rise to HSS. Here, we demonstrate that the tissue-specific expression of HSS in three boraginaceous species, Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale, is unique with respect to plant organ, tissue, and cell type. Within H. indicum, HSS is expressed exclusively in nonspecialized cells of the lower epidermis of young leaves and shoots. In S. officinale, HSS expression has been detected in the cells of the root endodermis and in leaves directly underneath developing inflorescences. In young roots of C. officinale, HSS is detected only in cells of the endodermis, but in a later developmental stage, additionally in the pericycle. The individual expression patterns are compared with those within the Senecioneae lineage (Asteraceae), where HSS expression is reproducibly found in specific cells of the endodermis and the adjacent cortex parenchyma of the roots. The individual expression patterns within the Boraginales species are discussed as being a requirement for the successful recruitment of HSS after gene duplication. The diversity of HSS expression within this lineage adds a further facet to the already diverse patterns of expression that have been observed for HSS in other PA-producing plant lineages, making this PA-specific enzyme one of the most diverse expressed proteins described in the literature.

  10. α7 and β2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits Form Heteromeric Receptor Complexes that Are Expressed in the Human Cortex and Display Distinct Pharmacological Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Zwart, Ruud; Ursu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The existence of α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has recently been demonstrated in both the rodent and human brain. Since α7-containing nAChRs are promising drug targets for schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, it is critical to determine whether α7β2 nAChRs are present in the h......The existence of α7β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has recently been demonstrated in both the rodent and human brain. Since α7-containing nAChRs are promising drug targets for schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, it is critical to determine whether α7β2 nAChRs are present...

  11. Patterning of anteroposterior body axis displayed in the expression of Hox genes in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Mani; Omori, Akihito; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Akasaka, Koji

    2015-09-01

    The presence of an anteroposterior body axis is a fundamental feature of bilateria. Within this group, echinoderms have secondarily evolved pentameral symmetric body plans. Although all echinoderms present bilaterally symmetric larval stages, they dramatically rearrange their body axis and develop a pentaradial body plan during metamorphosis. Therefore, the location of their anteroposterior body axis in adult forms remains a contentious issue. Unlike other echinoderms, sea cucumbers present an obvious anteroposterior axis not rearranged during metamorphosis, thus representing an interesting group to study their anteroposterior axis patterning. Hox genes are known to play a broadly conserved role in anteroposterior axis patterning in deuterostomes. Here, we report the expression patterns of Hox genes from early development to pentactula stage in sea cucumber. In early larval stages, five Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox11/13a, and AjHox11/13b) were expressed sequentially along the archenteron, suggesting that the role of anteroposterior patterning of the Hox genes is conserved in bilateral larvae of echinoderms. In doliolaria and pentactula stages, eight Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox5, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox9/10, AjHox11/13a, AjHox11/13b, and AjHox11/13c) were expressed sequentially along the digestive tract, following a similar expression pattern to that found in the visceral mesoderm of other bilateria. Unlike other echinoderms, pentameral expression patterns of AjHox genes were not observed in sea cucumber. Altogether, we concluded that AjHox genes are involved in the patterning of the digestive tract in both larvae and metamorphosis of sea cucumbers. In addition, the anteroposterior axis in sea cucumbers might be patterned like that of other bilateria.

  12. Distinct gene expression signatures in human embryonic stem cells differentiated towards definitive endoderm at single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Karin; Strömbeck, Anna; Semb, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    for the three activin A based protocols applied. Our data provide novel insights in DE gene expression at the cellular level of in vitro differentiated human embryonic stem cells, and illustrate the power of using single-cell gene expression profiling to study differentiation heterogeneity and to characterize...... of anterior definitive endoderm (DE). Here, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells towards DE using three different activin A based treatments. Differentiation efficiencies were evaluated by gene expression profiling over time at cell population level. A panel of key markers was used to study DE...... formation. Final DE differentiation was also analyzed with immunocytochemistry and single-cell gene expression profiling. We found that cells treated with activin A in combination with sodium butyrate and B27 serum-free supplement medium generated the most mature DE cells. Cell population studies were...

  13. Computational exploration of cis-regulatory modules in rhythmic expression data using the "Exploration of Distinctive CREs and CRMs" (EDCC) and "CRM Network Generator" (CNG) programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, Pavlos Stephanos; Tekath, Tobias; Staiger, Dorothee; Danisman, Selahattin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the effect of cis-regulatory elements (CRE) and clusters of CREs, which are called cis-regulatory modules (CRM), in eukaryotic gene expression is a challenge of computational biology. We developed two programs that allow simple, fast and reliable analysis of candidate CREs and CRMs that may affect specific gene expression and that determine positional features between individual CREs within a CRM. The first program, "Exploration of Distinctive CREs and CRMs" (EDCC), correlates candidate CREs and CRMs with specific gene expression patterns. For pairs of CREs, EDCC also determines positional preferences of the single CREs in relation to each other and to the transcriptional start site. The second program, "CRM Network Generator" (CNG), prioritizes these positional preferences using a neural network and thus allows unbiased rating of the positional preferences that were determined by EDCC. We tested these programs with data from a microarray study of circadian gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analyzing more than 1.5 million pairwise CRE combinations, we found 22 candidate combinations, of which several contained known clock promoter elements together with elements that had not been identified as relevant to circadian gene expression before. CNG analysis further identified positional preferences of these CRE pairs, hinting at positional information that may be relevant for circadian gene expression. Future wet lab experiments will have to determine which of these combinations confer daytime specific circadian gene expression.

  14. Sense and antisense transcripts of the developmentally regulated murine hsp70.2 gene are expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping areas in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, A. K.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the spatial pattern of expression of a member of the hsp70 gene family, hsp70.2, in the mouse central nervous system. Surprisingly, RNA blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed abundant expression of an 'antisense' hsp70.2 transcript in several areas of adult mouse brain. Two different transcripts recognized by sense and antisense riboprobes for the hsp70.2 gene were expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping neuronal populations. RNA blot analysis revealed low levels of the 2.7 kb transcript of hsp70.2 in several areas of the brain, with highest signal in the hippocampus. Abundant expression of a slightly larger (approximately 2.8 kb) 'antisense' transcript was detected in several brain regions, notably in the brainstem, cerebellum, mesencephalic tectum, thalamus, cortex, and hippocampus. In situ hybridization revealed that the sense and antisense transcripts were both predominantly neuronal and localized to the same cell types in the granular layer of the cerebellum, trapezoid nucleus of the superior olivary complex, locus coeruleus and hippocampus. The hsp70.2 antisense transcripts were particularly abundant in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, superior and inferior colliculi, central gray, brainstem, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our findings have revealed a distinct cellular and spatial localization of both sense and antisense transcripts, demonstrating a new level of complexity in the function of the heat shock genes.

  15. Distinct cis regulatory elements govern the expression of TAG1 in embryonic sensory ganglia and spinal cord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Hadas

    Full Text Available Cell fate commitment of spinal progenitor neurons is initiated by long-range, midline-derived, morphogens that regulate an array of transcription factors that, in turn, act sequentially or in parallel to control neuronal differentiation. Included among these are transcription factors that regulate the expression of receptors for guidance cues, thereby determining axonal trajectories. The Ig/FNIII superfamily molecules TAG1/Axonin1/CNTN2 (TAG1 and Neurofascin (Nfasc are co-expressed in numerous neuronal cell types in the CNS and PNS - for example motor, DRG and interneurons - both promote neurite outgrowth and both are required for the architecture and function of nodes of Ranvier. The genes encoding TAG1 and Nfasc are adjacent in the genome, an arrangement which is evolutionarily conserved. To study the transcriptional network that governs TAG1 and Nfasc expression in spinal motor and commissural neurons, we set out to identify cis elements that regulate their expression. Two evolutionarily conserved DNA modules, one located between the Nfasc and TAG1 genes and the second directly 5' to the first exon and encompassing the first intron of TAG1, were identified that direct complementary expression to the CNS and PNS, respectively, of the embryonic hindbrain and spinal cord. Sequential deletions and point mutations of the CNS enhancer element revealed a 130bp element containing three conserved E-boxes required for motor neuron expression. In combination, these two elements appear to recapitulate a major part of the pattern of TAG1 expression in the embryonic nervous system.

  16. The Islamic Perspective of Spiritual Intervention Effectiveness on Bio-Psychological Health Displayed by Gene Expression in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Leili; Lotfi Kashani, Farah; Akbari, Somayeh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Sarafraz Mehr, Saeedeh

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, there have been spiritual/religious interventions in cancer patients to prevent or treat a range of physical problems, including managing chronic pain, coping with the disease, boosting hope and mental health. Although societies are of different faiths and belief systems, what they all share is spirituality. Upon this we put forward the hypothesis of changes in gene receptor expressions as a result of spiritual intervention for the first time in the world. In this study, the spiritual intervention was conducted on 57 volunteer females with early breast cancer involvement. Blood samples were collected prior to and after the spiritual intervention to analyze the changes in dopamine gene receptor expressions as the main site of effect. In order to administer the spiritual intervention backed by Quran, Islam and international standards, issues, with emphasis on peace, human growth and perfection, accepting God as an eternal source of power and kindness to build trust and reduce stress, were selected. They included prayer, patience, reliance, self-sacrifice and forgiveness, altruism and kindness, remission and repentance, thankfulness, zikr (mantra), meditation, and death concept. Obtained results from peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples analyzed by real time-PCR showed significant reduction in dopamine gene receptor (DRD1-5) expressions in comparison with those of pre-test scores and the control group. Spiritual intervention based on Islamic principals can bring back mental health, increase hope and quality of life and eventually change dopamine gene receptor expressions resulting in reduction of cell proliferation, thus better prevention and management in breast cancer patients compared to other forms of treatment.

  17. Distinct expression of three estrogen receptors in response to bisphenol A and nonylphenol in male Nile tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiren; Zhang, Yong; Jia, Xiaoping; Ma, Xilan; Li, Shuisheng; Liu, Yun; Zhu, Pei; Lu, Danqi; Zhao, Huihong; Luo, Wenna; Yi, Shibai; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2010-06-01

    Environmental estrogens, such as bisphenol A (BisA) and nonylphenol (NP), have been shown to affect the estrogen receptor (ER) expression and induce male reproductive abnormalities. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of action of xenoestrogenic chemicals on the expression of estrogen receptors in the testes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), three full-length cDNAs respectively encoding ntERalpha, ntERbeta1 and ntERbeta2 were cloned from testes. The amino acid sequences of ntERalpha, ntERbeta1 and ntERbeta2 showed a high degree of similarity to the relevant fish species. Tissue-specific expression study showed that three receptors were highly expressed in pituitary, liver, testis, kidney and intestine tissues. The ntERalpha, ntERbeta1 and ntERbeta2 mRNA expressions were significantly higher at the sexual early recrudescing stage than at other recrudesced stages. After being exposed to xenoestrogens from weeks 2 to 4, the ntERalpha mRNA levels were increased significantly in testes after NP treatment at all sampling times or after 4 weeks of exposure to BPA. The ntERbeta1 mRNA levels remained unchanged, while a significant decrease of the ntERbeta2 mRNA level was observed in testes after exposure to NP and BPA. The present study demonstrates that the regulation of all three ntER subtypes in testes may act via different molecular mechanisms of exposure to NP and BPA.

  18. Phytochrome-dependent coordinate control of distinct aspects of nuclear and plastid gene expression during anterograde signalling and photomorphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookyung eOh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Light perception by photoreceptors impacts plastid transcription, development, and differentiation. This photoreceptor-dependent activity suggests a mechanism for photoregulation of gene expression in the nucleus and plastid that serves to coordinate expression of critical genes of these two organelles. This coordinate expression is required for proper stoichiometric accumulation of components needed for assembly of plastids, photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes and components such as phytochromes. Chloroplast-targeted sigma factors, which function together with the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase to regulate expression of plastid-encoded genes, and nuclear-encoded plastid development factors, such as GLK1 and GLK2, are targets of phytochrome regulation. Such phytochrome-dependent functions are hypothesized to allow light-dependent regulation, and feasibly tuning, of plastid components and function in response to changes in the external environment, which directly affects photosynthesis and the potential for light-induced damage. When the size and protein composition of the light-harvesting complexes are not tuned to the external environment, imbalances in electron transport can impact the cellular redox state and cause cellular damage. We show that phytochromes specifically regulate the expression of multiple factors that function to modulate plastid transcription and, thus, provide a paradigm for coordinate expression of the nuclear and plastid genomes in response to changes in external light conditions. As phytochromes respond to changes in the prevalent wavelengths of light and light intensity, we propose that specific phytochrome-dependent molecular mechanisms are used during light-dependent signaling between the nucleus and chloroplast during photomorphogenesis to coordinate chloroplast development with plant developmental stage and the external environment.

  19. B7h-expressing dendritic cells and plasma B cells mediate distinct outcomes of ICOS costimulation in T cell-dependent antibody responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larimore Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ICOS-B7h costimulatory receptor-ligand pair is required for germinal center formation, the production of isotype-switched antibodies, and antibody affinity maturation in response to T cell-dependent antigens. However, the potentially distinct roles of regulated B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in T cell-dependent antibody responses have not been defined. Results We generated transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression to assess the cell-type specific roles of B7h expression on B cells and dendritic cells in regulating T cell-dependent antibody responses. Our results show that endogenous B7h expression is reduced on B cells after activation in vitro and is also reduced in vivo on antibody-secreting plasma B cells in comparison to both naïve and germinal center B cells from which they are derived. Increasing the level of B7h expression on activated and plasma B cells in B-B7hTg mice led to an increase in the number of antibody-secreting plasma cells generated after immunization and a corresponding increase in the concentration of antigen-specific high affinity serum IgG antibodies of all isotypes, without affecting the number of responding germinal center B cells. In contrast, ICOS costimulation mediated by dendritic cells in DC-B7hTg mice contributed to germinal center formation and selectively increased IgG2a production without affecting the overall magnitude of antibody responses. Conclusions Using transgenic mice with lineage-restricted B7h expression, we have revealed distinct roles of ICOS costimulation mediated by dendritic cells and B cells in the regulation of T cell-dependent antibody responses.

  20. PathMAPA: a tool for displaying gene expression and performing statistical tests on metabolic pathways at multiple levels for Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ligeng

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, many genomic and pathway-related tools and databases have been developed to analyze microarray data. In published web-based applications to date, however, complex pathways have been displayed with static image files that may not be up-to-date or are time-consuming to rebuild. In addition, gene expression analyses focus on individual probes and genes with little or no consideration of pathways. These approaches reveal little information about pathways that are key to a full understanding of the building blocks of biological systems. Therefore, there is a need to provide useful tools that can generate pathways without manually building images and allow gene expression data to be integrated and analyzed at pathway levels for such experimental organisms as Arabidopsis. Results We have developed PathMAPA, a web-based application written in Java that can be easily accessed over the Internet. An Oracle database is used to store, query, and manipulate the large amounts of data that are involved. PathMAPA allows its users to (i upload and populate microarray data into a database; (ii integrate gene expression with enzymes of the pathways; (iii generate pathway diagrams without building image files manually; (iv visualize gene expressions for each pathway at enzyme, locus, and probe levels; and (v perform statistical tests at pathway, enzyme and gene levels. PathMAPA can be used to examine Arabidopsis thaliana gene expression patterns associated with metabolic pathways. Conclusion PathMAPA provides two unique features for the gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana: (i automatic generation of pathways associated with gene expression and (ii statistical tests at pathway level. The first feature allows for the periodical updating of genomic data for pathways, while the second feature can provide insight into how treatments affect relevant pathways for the selected experiment(s.

  1. Distinct UV-B and UV-A/blue light signal transduction pathways induce chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, J.M.; Jenkins, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    UV and blue light control the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes in a range of higher plants. To investigate the signal transduction processes involved in the induction of chalcone synthase (CHS) gene expression by UV-B and UV-A/blue light, we examined the, effects of specific agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components in mammalian systems in a photomixotrophic Arabidopsis cell suspension culture. CHS expression is induced specifically by these wavelengths in the cell culture, in a manner similar to that in mature Arabidopsis leaf tissue. Both the UV-B and UV-A/blue phototransduction processes involve calcium, although the elevation of cytosolic calcium is insufficient on its own to stimulate CHS expression. The UV-A/blue light induction of CHS expression does not appear to involve calmodulin, whereas the UV-B response does; this difference indicates that the signal transduction pathways are, at least in part, distinct. We provide evidence that both pathways involve reversible protein phosphorylation and require protein synthesis. The UV-B and UV-A/blue light signaling pathways are therefore different from the phytochrome signal transduction pathway regulating CHS expression in other species

  2. Lhx2 expression promotes self-renewal of a distinct multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell in embryonic stem cell-derived embryoid bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dahl

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms regulating the expansion of the hematopoietic system including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in the fetal liver during embryonic development are largely unknown. The LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 is a candidate regulator of fetal hematopoiesis since it is expressed in the fetal liver and Lhx2(-/- mice die in utero due to severe anemia. Moreover, expression of Lhx2 in embryonic stem (ES cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs can lead to the generation of HSC-like cell lines. To further define the role of this transcription factor in hematopoietic regulation, we generated ES cell lines that enabled tet-inducible expression of Lhx2. Using this approach we observed that Lhx2 expression synergises with specific signalling pathways, resulting in increased frequency of colony forming cells in developing EB cells. The increase in growth factor-responsive progenitor cells directly correlates to the efficiency in generating HSC-like cell lines, suggesting that Lhx2 expression induce self-renewal of a distinct multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell in EBs. Signalling via the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor and the gp130 signal transducer by IL-6 is necessary and sufficient for the Lhx2 induced self-renewal. While inducing self-renewal of multipotential progenitor cells, expression of Lhx2 inhibited proliferation of primitive erythroid precursor cells and interfered with early ES cell commitment, indicating striking lineage specificity of this effect.

  3. Fluorescence-based codetection with protein markers reveals distinct cellular compartments for altered MicroRNA expression in solid tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sempere, Lorenzo F; Preis, Meir; Yezefski, Todd

    2010-01-01

    of altered miRNA expression in solid tumors, we developed a sensitive fluorescence-based in situ hybridization (ISH) method to visualize miRNA accumulation within individual cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. This ISH method was implemented to be compatible with routine clinical...

  4. Quantitative rather than qualitative differences in gene expression predominate in intestinal cell maturation along distinct cell lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velcich, Anna; Corner, Georgia; Paul, Doru; Zhuang Min; Mariadason, John M.; Laboisse, Christian; Augenlicht, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    Several cell types are present in the intestinal epithelium that likely arise from a common precursor, the stem cell, and each mature cell type expresses a unique set of genes that characterizes its functional phenotype. Although the process of differentiation is intimately linked to the cessation of proliferation, the mechanisms that dictate intestinal cell fate determination are not well characterized. To investigate the reprogramming of gene expression during the cell lineage allocation/differentiation process, we took advantage of a unique system of two clonal derivatives of HT29 cells, Cl16E and Cl19A cells, which spontaneously differentiate as mucus producing goblet and chloride-secreting cells, respectively, as a function of time. By profiling gene expression, we found that these two cell lines show remarkably similar kinetics of change in gene expression and common clusters of coordinately regulated genes. This demonstrates that lineage-specific differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells is characterized overall by the sequential recruitment of functionally similar gene sets independent of the final phenotype of the mature cells

  5. Murine epidermal Langerhans cells and langerin-expressing dermal dendritic cells are unrelated and exhibit distinct functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagao, Keisuke; Ginhoux, Florent; Leitner, Wolfgang W.; Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Bennett, Clare L.; Clausen, Björn E.; Merad, Miriam; Udey, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    A new langerin(+) DC subset has recently been identified in murine dermis (langerin(+) dDC), but the lineage and functional relationships between these cells and langerin(+) epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) are incompletely characterized. Selective expression of the cell adhesion molecule EpCAM by LC

  6. Matrilin-1 expression is increased in the vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) individuals displaying spinal fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Takle, Harald; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Veiseth-Kent, Eva; Enersen, Grethe; Færgestad, Ellen; Baeverfjord, Grete; Hannesson, Kirsten O

    2011-12-01

    We have previously characterized the development of vertebral fusions induced by elevated water temperature in Atlantic salmon. Molecular markers of bone and cartilage development together with histology were used to understand the complex pathology and mechanism in the development of this spinal malformation. In this study, we wanted to use proteomics, a non-hypothetical approach to screen for possible new markers involved in the fusion process. Proteins extracted from non-deformed and fused vertebrae of Atlantic salmon were therefore compared by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and MALDI-TOF analysis. Data analysis of protein spots in the 2DE gels demonstrated matrilin-1, also named cartilage matrix protein, to be the most highly up-regulated protein in fused compared with non-deformed vertebrae. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed strong up-regulation of matrilin-1 mRNA in fused vertebrae. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated induced matrilin-1 expression in trans-differentiating cells undergoing a metaplastic shift toward chondrocytes in fusing vertebrae, whereas abundant expression was demonstrated in cartilaginous tissue and chordocytes of both non-deformed and fused vertebrae. These results identifies matrilin-1 as a new interesting candidate in the fusion process, and ratify the use of proteomic as a valuable technique to screen for markers involved in vertebral pathogenesis.

  7. Heterogeneous gene expression signatures correspond to distinct lung pathologies and biomarkers of disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePianto, Daryle J; Chandriani, Sanjay; Abbas, Alexander R; Jia, Guiquan; N'Diaye, Elsa N; Caplazi, Patrick; Kauder, Steven E; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Karnik, Satyajit K; Ha, Connie; Modrusan, Zora; Matthay, Michael A; Kukreja, Jasleen; Collard, Harold R; Egen, Jackson G; Wolters, Paul J; Arron, Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    There is microscopic spatial and temporal heterogeneity of pathological changes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue, which may relate to heterogeneity in pathophysiological mediators of disease and clinical progression. We assessed relationships between gene expression patterns, pathological features, and systemic biomarkers to identify biomarkers that reflect the aggregate disease burden in patients with IPF. Gene expression microarrays (N=40 IPF; 8 controls) and immunohistochemical analyses (N=22 IPF; 8 controls) of lung biopsies. Clinical characterisation and blood biomarker levels of MMP3 and CXCL13 in a separate cohort of patients with IPF (N=80). 2940 genes were significantly differentially expressed between IPF and control samples (|fold change| >1.5, p<0.05). Two clusters of co-regulated genes related to bronchiolar epithelium or lymphoid aggregates exhibited substantial heterogeneity within the IPF population. Gene expression in bronchiolar and lymphoid clusters corresponded to the extent of bronchiolisation and lymphoid aggregates determined by immunohistochemistry in adjacent tissue sections. Elevated serum levels of MMP3, encoded in the bronchiolar cluster, and CXCL13, encoded in the lymphoid cluster, corresponded to disease severity and shortened survival time (p<10(-7) for MMP3 and p<10(-5) for CXCL13; Cox proportional hazards model). Microscopic pathological heterogeneity in IPF lung tissue corresponds to specific gene expression patterns related to bronchiolisation and lymphoid aggregates. MMP3 and CXCL13 are systemic biomarkers that reflect the aggregate burden of these pathological features across total lung tissue. These biomarkers may have clinical utility as prognostic and/or surrogate biomarkers of disease activity in interventional studies in IPF. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Distinct signalling pathways of murine histamine H1- and H4-receptors expressed at comparable levels in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Beermann

    Full Text Available Histamine (HA is recognized by its target cells via four G-protein-coupled receptors, referred to as histamine H1-receptor (H1R, H2R, H3R, and H4R. Both H1R and H4R exert pro-inflammatory functions. However, their signal transduction pathways have never been analyzed in a directly comparable manner side by side. Moreover, the analysis of pharmacological properties of the murine orthologs, representing the main targets of pre-clinical research, is very important. Therefore, we engineered recombinant HEK293 cells expressing either mouse (mH1R or mH4R at similar levels and analyzed HA-induced signalling in these cells. HA induced intracellular calcium mobilization via both mH1R and mH4R, with the mH1R being much more effective. Whereas cAMP accumulation was potentiated via the mH1R, it was reduced via the mH4R. The regulation of both second messengers via the H4R, but not the H1R, was sensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs ERK 1/2 were massively activated downstream of both receptors and demonstrated a functional involvement in HA-induced EGR-1 gene expression. The p38 MAPK was moderately activated via both receptors as well, but was functionally involved in HA-induced EGR-1 gene expression only in H4R-expressing cells. Surprisingly, in this system p38 MAPK activity reduced the HA-induced gene expression. In summary, using this system which allows a direct comparison of mH1R- and mH4R-induced signalling, qualitative and quantitative differences on the levels of second messenger generation and also in terms of p38 MAPK function became evident.

  9. Immunophenotyping of Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia cell lines reveals distinct patterns of surface antigen expression: potential biological and therapeutic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneel Paulus

    Full Text Available Waldenströms macroglobulinemia (WM is a subtype of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which the tumor cell population is markedly heterogeneous, consisting of immunoglobulin-M secreting B-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes and plasma cells. Due to rarity of disease and scarcity of reliable preclinical models, many facets of WM molecular and phenotypic architecture remain incompletely understood. Currently, there are 3 human WM cell lines that are routinely used in experimental studies, namely, BCWM.1, MWCL-1 and RPCI-WM1. During establishment of RPCI-WM1, we observed loss of the CD19 and CD20 antigens, which are typically present on WM cells. Intrigued by this observation and in an effort to better define the immunophenotypic makeup of this cell line, we conducted a more comprehensive analysis for the presence or absence of other cell surface antigens that are present on the RPCI-WM1 model, as well as those on the two other WM cell lines, BCWM.1 and MWCL-1. We examined expression of 65 extracellular and 4 intracellular antigens, comprising B-cell, plasma cell, T-cell, NK-cell, myeloid and hematopoietic stem cell surface markers by flow cytometry analysis. RPCI-WM1 cells demonstrated decreased expression of CD19, CD20, and CD23 with enhanced expression of CD28, CD38 and CD184, antigens that were differentially expressed on BCWM.1 and MWCL-1 cells. Due to increased expression of CD184/CXCR4 and CD38, RPCI-WM1 represents a valuable model in which to study the effects anti-CXCR4 or anti-CD38 targeted therapies that are actively being developed for treatment of hematologic cancers. Overall, differences in surface antigen expression across the 3 cell lines may reflect the tumor clone population predominant in the index patients, from whom the cell lines were developed. Our analysis defines the utility of the most commonly employed WM cell lines as based on their immunophenotype profiles, highlighting unique differences that can be further studied for

  10. TIEG1-null tenocytes display age-dependent differences in their gene expression, adhesion, spreading and proliferation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Oualid; Gumez, Laurie [Laboratoire de Biomecanique et Bioingenierie UMR CNRS 6600, Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Compiegne (France); Hawse, John R.; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Spelsberg, Thomas C. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN (United States); Bensamoun, Sabine F., E-mail: sabine.bensamoun@utc.fr [Laboratoire de Biomecanique et Bioingenierie UMR CNRS 6600, Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Compiegne (France)

    2011-07-15

    The remodeling of extracellular matrix is a crucial mechanism in tendon development and the proliferation of fibroblasts is a key factor in this process. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the role of TIEG1 in mediating important tenocyte properties throughout the aging process. Wildtype and TIEG1 knockout tenocytes adhesion, spreading and proliferation were characterized on different substrates (fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin) and the expression levels of various genes known to be involved with tendon development were analyzed by RT-PCR. The experiments revealed age-dependent and substrate-dependent properties for both wildtype and TIEG1 knockout tenocytes. Taken together, our results indicate an important role for TIEG1 in regulating tenocytes adhesion, spreading, and proliferation throughout the aging process. Understanding the basic mechanisms of TIEG1 in tenocytes may provide valuable information for treating multiple tendon disorders.

  11. Predominant Expression of Hybrid N-Glycans Has Distinct Cellular Roles Relative to Complex and Oligomannose N-Glycans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kristen Hall

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation modulates growth, maintenance, and stress signaling processes. Consequently, altered N-glycosylation is associated with reduced fitness and disease. Therefore, expanding our understanding of N-glycans in altering biological processes is of utmost interest. Herein, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/caspase9 (CRISPR/Cas9 technology was employed to engineer a glycosylation mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell line, K16, which expresses predominantly hybrid type N-glycans. This newly engineered cell line enabled us to compare N-glycan effects on cellular properties of hybrid type N-glycans, to the well-established Pro−5 and Lec1 cell lines, which express complex and oligomannose types of N-glycans, respectively. Lectin binding studies revealed the predominant N-glycan expressed in K16 is hybrid type. Cell dissociation and migration assays demonstrated the greatest strength of cell–cell adhesion and fastest migratory rates for oligomannose N-glycans, and these properties decreased as oligomannose type were converted to hybrid type, and further decreased upon conversion to complex type. Next, we examined the roles of three general types of N-glycans on ectopic expression of E-cadherin, a cell–cell adhesion protein. Microscopy revealed more functional E-cadherin at the cell–cell border when N-glycans were oligomannose and these levels decreased as the oligomannose N-glycans were processed to hybrid and then to complex. Thus, we provide evidence that all three general types of N-glycans impact plasma membrane architecture and cellular properties.

  12. Expression of three topologically distinct membrane proteins elicits unique stress response pathways in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Teresa M; Jordan, Rick; Lyons-Weiler, James; Adelman, Joshua L; Needham, Patrick G; Kleyman, Thomas R; Brodsky, Jeffrey L

    2015-06-01

    Misfolded membrane proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are subject to ER-associated degradation, which clears the secretory pathway of potentially toxic species. While the transcriptional response to environmental stressors has been extensively studied, limited data exist describing the cellular response to misfolded membrane proteins. To this end, we expressed and then compared the transcriptional profiles elicited by the synthesis of three ER retained, misfolded ion channels: The α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR, and an inwardly rectifying potassium channel, Kir2.1, which vary in their mass, membrane topologies, and quaternary structures. To examine transcriptional profiles in a null background, the proteins were expressed in yeast, which was previously used to examine the degradation requirements for each substrate. Surprisingly, the proteins failed to induce a canonical unfolded protein response or heat shock response, although messages encoding several cytosolic and ER lumenal protein folding factors rose when αENaC or CFTR was expressed. In contrast, the levels of these genes were unaltered by Kir2.1 expression; instead, the yeast iron regulon was activated. Nevertheless, a significant number of genes that respond to various environmental stressors were upregulated by all three substrates, and compared with previous microarray data we deduced the existence of a group of genes that reflect a novel misfolded membrane protein response. These data indicate that aberrant proteins in the ER elicit profound yet unique cellular responses. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Identification of distinct genes associated with seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury by gene expression profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Lei; Zhang, Minlong; Bo, Liyan; Li, Congcong; Liu, Qingqing; Wang, Li; Jin, Faguang

    2016-01-01

    Seawater aspiration-induced acute lung injury (ALI) is a syndrome associated with a high mortality rate, which is characterized by severe hypoxemia, pulmonary edema and inflammation. The present study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to analyze gene expression profiles from a rat model of seawater aspiration-induced ALI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled with seawater (4 ml/kg) in the seawater aspiration-induced ALI group (S group) or with distilled water (4 ml/kg) in the distilled water negative control group (D group). In the blank control group (C group) the rats' tracheae were exposed without instillation. Subsequently, lung samples were examined by histopathology; total protein concentration was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); lung wet/dry weight ratios were determined; and transcript expression was detected by gene sequencing analysis. The results demonstrated that histopathological alterations, pulmonary edema and total protein concentrations in BALF were increased in the S group compared with in the D group. Analysis of differential gene expression identified up and downregulated genes in the S group compared with in the D and C groups. A gene ontology analysis of the differential gene expression revealed enrichment of genes in the functional pathways associated with neutrophil chemotaxis, immune and defense responses, and cytokine activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis revealed that the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway was one of the most important pathways involved in seawater aspiration-induced ALI. In conclusion, activation of the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway may have an essential role in the progression of seawater aspiration-induced ALI, and the downregulation of tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 10 may enhance inflammation. Furthermore, IL-6 may be considered a biomarker in seawater aspiration-induced ALI. PMID:27509884

  14. Nephrin expression is reduced in human diabetic nephropathy: evidence for a distinct role for glycated albumin and angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, Sophie; Salvidio, Gennaro; Lupia, Enrico; Ruotsalainen, Vesa; Verzola, Daniela; Deferrari, Giacomo; Camussi, Giovanni

    2003-04-01

    We studied the distribution of nephrin in renal biopsies from 17 patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome (7 type 1 and 10 type 2 diabetes), 6 patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria (1 type 1 and 5 type 2 diabetes), and 10 normal subjects. Nephrin expression was semiquantitatively evaluated by measuring immunofluorescence intensity by digital image analysis. We found an extensive reduction of nephrin staining in both type 1 (67 +/- 9%; P < 0.001) and type 2 (65 +/- 10%; P < 0.001) diabetic patients with diabetes and nephrotic syndrome when compared with control subjects. The pattern of staining shifted from punctate/linear distribution to granular. In patients with microalbuminuria, the staining pattern of nephrin also showed granular distribution and reduction intensity of 69% in the patient with type 1 diabetes and of 62 +/- 4% (P < 0.001) in the patients with type 2 diabetes. In vitro studies on human cultured podocytes demonstrated that glycated albumin and angiotensin II reduced nephrin expression. Glycated albumin inhibited nephrin synthesis through the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end products, whereas angiotensin II acted on cytoskeleton redistribution, inducing the shedding of nephrin. This study indicates that the alteration in nephrin expression is an early event in proteinuric patients with diabetes and suggests that glycated albumin and angiotensin II contribute to nephrin downregulation.

  15. Uncovering the molecular secrets of inflammatory breast cancer biology: an integrated analysis of three distinct affymetrix gene expression datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laere, Steven J; Ueno, Naoto T; Finetti, Pascal; Vermeulen, Peter; Lucci, Anthony; Robertson, Fredika M; Marsan, Melike; Iwamoto, Takayuki; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Masuda, Hiroko; van Dam, Peter; Woodward, Wendy A; Viens, Patrice; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Birnbaum, Daniel; Dirix, Luc; Reuben, James M; Bertucci, François

    2013-09-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a poorly characterized form of breast cancer. So far, the results of expression profiling in IBC are inconclusive due to various reasons including limited sample size. Here, we present the integration of three Affymetrix expression datasets collected through the World IBC Consortium allowing us to interrogate the molecular profile of IBC using the largest series of IBC samples ever reported. Affymetrix profiles (HGU133-series) from 137 patients with IBC and 252 patients with non-IBC (nIBC) were analyzed using unsupervised and supervised techniques. Samples were classified according to the molecular subtypes using the PAM50-algorithm. Regression models were used to delineate IBC-specific and molecular subtype-independent changes in gene expression, pathway, and transcription factor activation. Four robust IBC-sample clusters were identified, associated with the different molecular subtypes (Pmolecular subtype-independent 79-gene signature, which held independent prognostic value in a series of 871 nIBCs. Functional analysis revealed attenuated TGF-β signaling in IBC. We show that IBC is transcriptionally heterogeneous and that all molecular subtypes described in nIBC are detectable in IBC, albeit with a different frequency. The molecular profile of IBC, bearing molecular traits of aggressive breast tumor biology, shows attenuation of TGF-β signaling, potentially explaining the metastatic potential of IBC tumor cells in an unexpected manner. ©2013 AACR.

  16. The "good cop, bad cop" effect in the RT-based concealed information test: exploring the effect of emotional expressions displayed by a virtual investigator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Varga

    Full Text Available Concealing the possession of relevant information represents a complex cognitive process, shaped by contextual demands and individual differences in cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. The Reaction Time-based Concealed Information Test (RT-CIT is used to detect concealed knowledge based on the difference in RTs between denying recognition of critical (probes and newly encountered (irrelevant information. Several research questions were addressed in this scenario implemented after a mock crime. First, we were interested whether the introduction of a social stimulus (facial identity simulating a virtual investigator would facilitate the process of deception detection. Next, we explored whether his emotional displays (friendly, hostile or neutral would have a differential impact on speed of responses to probe versus irrelevant items. We also compared the impact of introducing similar stimuli in a working memory (WM updating context without requirements to conceal information. Finally, we explored the association between deceptive behavior and individual differences in WM updating proficiency or in internalizing problems (state / trait anxiety and depression. Results indicated that the mere presence of a neutral virtual investigator slowed down participants' responses, but not the appended lie-specific time (difference between probes and irrelevants. Emotional expression was shown to differentially affect speed of responses to critical items, with positive displays from the virtual examiner enhancing lie-specific time, compared to negative facial expressions, which had an opposite impact. This valence-specific effect was not visible in the WM updating context. Higher levels of trait / state anxiety were related to faster responses to probes in the negative condition (hostile facial expression of the RT-CIT. These preliminary findings further emphasize the need to take into account motivational and emotional factors when considering the

  17. Homo sapiens exhibit a distinct pattern of CNV genes regulation: an important role of miRNAs and SNPs in expression plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweep, Harsh; Kubikova, Nada; Gretz, Norbert; Voskarides, Konstantinos; Felekkis, Kyriacos

    2015-07-16

    Gene expression regulation is a complex and highly organized process involving a variety of genomic factors. It is widely accepted that differences in gene expression can contribute to the phenotypic variability between species, and that their interpretation can aid in the understanding of the physiologic variability. CNVs and miRNAs are two major players in the regulation of expression plasticity and may be responsible for the unique phenotypic characteristics observed in different lineages. We have previously demonstrated that a close interaction between these two genomic elements may have contributed to the regulation of gene expression during evolution. This work presents the molecular interactions between CNV and non CNV genes with miRNAs and other genomic elements in eight different species. A comprehensive analysis of these interactions indicates a unique nature of human CNV genes regulation as compared to other species. By using genes with short 3' UTR that abolish the "canonical" miRNA-dependent regulation, as a model, we demonstrate a distinct and tight regulation of human genes that might explain some of the unique features of human physiology. In addition, comparison of gene expression regulation between species indicated that there is a significant difference between humans and mice possibly questioning the effectiveness of the latest as experimental models of human diseases.

  18. Profiling of wheat class III peroxidase genes derived from powdery mildew-attacked epidermis reveals distinct sequence-associated expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guosheng; Sheng, Xiaoyan; Greenshields, David L; Ogieglo, Adam; Kaminskyj, Susan; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Wei, Yangdou

    2005-07-01

    A cDNA library was constructed from leaf epidermis of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) infected with the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) and was screened for genes encoding peroxidases. From 2,500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 36 cDNAs representing 10 peroxidase genes (designated TmPRX1 to TmPRX10) were isolated and further characterized. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences and phylogenetic clustering with peroxidases from other plant species demonstrated that these peroxidases fall into four distinct groups. Differential expression and tissue-specific localization among the members were observed during the B. graminis f. sp. tritici attack using Northern blots and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses. Consistent with its abundance in the EST collection, TmPRX1 expression showed the highest induction during pathogen attack and fluctuated in response to the fungal parasitic stages. TmPRX1 to TmPRX6 were expressed predominantly in mesophyll cells, whereas TmPRX7 to TmPRX10, which feature a putative C-terminal propeptide, were detectable mainly in epidermal cells. Using TmPRX8 as a representative, we demonstrated that its C-terminal propeptide was sufficient to target a green fluorescent protein fusion protein to the vacuoles in onion cells. Finally, differential expression profiles of the TmPRXs after abiotic stresses and signal molecule treatments were used to dissect the potential role of these peroxidases in multiple stress and defense pathways.

  19. Human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes express a distinct RNA profile compared to human control and murine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulzewsky, Frank; Arora, Sonali; de Witte, Lot; Ulas, Thomas; Markovic, Darko; Schultze, Joachim L; Holland, Eric C; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults. It is strongly infiltrated by microglia and peripheral monocytes that support tumor growth. In the present study we used RNA sequencing to compare the expression profile of CD11b(+) human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (hGAMs) to CD11b(+) microglia isolated from non-tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis showed a clear separation of the two sample groups and we identified 334 significantly regulated genes in hGAMs. In comparison to human control microglia hGAMs upregulated genes associated with mitotic cell cycle, cell migration, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix organization. We validated the expression of several genes associated with extracellular matrix organization in samples of human control microglia, hGAMs, and the hGAMs-depleted fraction via qPCR. The comparison to murine GAMs (mGAMs) showed that both cell populations share a significant fraction of upregulated transcripts compared with their respective controls. These genes were mostly related to mitotic cell cycle. However, in contrast to murine cells, human GAMs did not upregulate genes associated to immune activation. Comparison of human and murine GAMs expression data to several data sets of in vitro-activated human macrophages and murine microglia showed that, in contrast to mGAMs, hGAMs share a smaller overlap to these data sets in general and in particular to cells activated by proinflammatory stimulation with LPS + INFγ or TNFα. Our findings provide new insights into the biology of human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes and give detailed information about the validity of murine experimental models. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1416-1436. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Distinct profiles of TERT promoter mutations and telomerase expression in head and neck cancer and cervical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziata, Clorinda; Pezzuto, Francesca; Greggi, Stefano; Ionna, Franco; Losito, Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Buonaguro, Luigi; Buonaguro, Franco M; Tornesello, Maria Lina

    2018-03-31

    Two recurrent mutations (-124 G > A and -146 G > A) in the core promoter region of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene create consensus binding sites for ETS transcription factors and cause increased TERT expression in several tumour types. We analyzed TERT promoter mutations and TERT mRNA levels in head and neck cancer, cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) as well as in C-4I, CaSki, HeLa and SiHa cervical cell lines. Nucleotide sequence analysis of TERT promoter region showed that 33.3% of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 16.8% of cervical SCC harboured mutually exclusive G to A transitions at nucleotide position -124 or -146. TERT promoter was mutated at nucleotide -146 (G > A) in SiHa cell line. Other nucleotide changes creating in some cases putative ETS binding sites were more frequent in oral SCC (26.7%) than in cervical carcinoma (4.8%). The frequency of mutations was independent of human papillomavirus (HPV) tumour status in both cervical and oral cancer. Expression of TERT gene was significantly higher in TERT promoter mutated (-124G > A or -146G > A) cervical SCC compared to not mutated SCC irrespective of HPV16 E6 and E7 levels. Such hot spot changes were not detected in oropharyngeal SCC, cervical adenocarcinoma and CIN lesions. Our results suggest that TERT promoter mutations play a relevant role in oral SCC as well as in cervical SCC, besides the already known effect of HPV16 E6 protein on TERT expression. © 2018 UICC.

  1. Distinct gene subsets in pterygia formation and recurrence: dissecting complex biological phenomenon using genome wide expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Leonard PK

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by fibrovascular invasion of the cornea and is sight-threatening due to astigmatism, tear film disturbance, or occlusion of the visual axis. However, the mechanisms for formation and post-surgical recurrence of pterygium are not understood, and a valid animal model does not exist. Here, we investigated the possible mechanisms of pterygium pathogenesis and recurrence. Methods First we performed a genome wide expression analysis (human Affymetrix Genechip, >22000 genes with principal component analysis and clustering techniques, and validated expression of key molecules with PCR. The controls for this study were the un-involved conjunctival tissue of the same eye obtained during the surgical resection of the lesions. Interesting molecules were further investigated with immunohistochemistry, Western blots, and comparison with tear proteins from pterygium patients. Results Principal component analysis in pterygium indicated a signature of matrix-related structural proteins, including fibronectin-1 (both splice-forms, collagen-1A2, keratin-12 and small proline rich protein-1. Immunofluorescence showed strong expression of keratin-6A in all layers, especially the superficial layers, of pterygium epithelium, but absent in the control, with up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of the cell adhesion molecule CD24 in the pterygium epithelium. Western blot shows increased protein expression of beta-microseminoprotein, a protein up-regulated in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Gene products of 22 up-regulated genes in pterygium have also been found by us in human tears using nano-electrospray-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after pterygium surgery. Recurrent disease was associated with up-regulation of sialophorin, a negative regulator of cell adhesion, and never in mitosis a-5, known to be involved in cell motility. Conclusion Aberrant wound healing is therefore

  2. Heat Stress and Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation of Chicken Macrophage-Like Cell Line Activates Expression of Distinct Sets of Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Slawinska

    Full Text Available Acute heat stress requires immediate adjustment of the stressed individual to sudden changes of ambient temperatures. Chickens are particularly sensitive to heat stress due to development of insufficient physiological mechanisms to mitigate its effects. One of the symptoms of heat stress is endotoxemia that results from release of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS from the guts. Heat-related cytotoxicity is mitigated by the innate immune system, which is comprised mostly of phagocytic cells such as monocytes and macrophages. The objective of this study was to analyze the molecular responses of the chicken macrophage-like HD11 cell line to combined heat stress and lipopolysaccharide treatment in vitro. The cells were heat-stressed and then allowed a temperature-recovery period, during which the gene expression was investigated. LPS was added to the cells to mimic the heat-stress-related endotoxemia. Semi high-throughput gene expression analysis was used to study a gene panel comprised of heat shock proteins, stress-related genes, signaling molecules and immune response genes. HD11 cell line responded to heat stress with increased mRNA abundance of the HSP25, HSPA2 and HSPH1 chaperones as well as DNAJA4 and DNAJB6 co-chaperones. The anti-apoptotic gene BAG3 was also highly up-regulated, providing evidence that the cells expressed pro-survival processes. The immune response of the HD11 cell line to LPS in the heat stress environment (up-regulation of CCL4, CCL5, IL1B, IL8 and iNOS was higher than in thermoneutral conditions. However, the peak in the transcriptional regulation of the immune genes was after two hours of temperature-recovery. Therefore, we propose the potential influence of the extracellular heat shock proteins not only in mitigating effects of abiotic stress but also in triggering the higher level of the immune responses. Finally, use of correlation networks for the data analysis aided in discovering subtle differences in the gene

  3. Improvements in data display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    An analog signal processor is described in this patent for connecting a source of analog signals to a cathode ray tube display in order to extend the dynamic range of the display. This has important applications in the field of computerised X-ray tomography since significant medical information, such as tumours in soft tissue, is often represented by minimal level changes in image density. Cathode ray tube displays are limited to approximately 15 intensity levels. Thus if both strong and weak absorption of the X-rays occurs, the dynamic range of the transmitted signals will be too large to permit small variations to be examined directly on a cathode ray display. Present tomographic image reconstruction methods are capable of quantising X-ray absorption density measurements into 256 or more distinct levels and a description is given of the electronics which enables the upper and lower range of intensity levels to be independently set and continuously varied. (UK)

  4. The Whitish Inner Mantle of the Giant Clam, Tridacna squamosa, Expresses an Apical Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA Which Displays Light-Dependent Gene and Protein Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen K. Ip

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Giant clams live in symbiosis with extracellular zooxanthellae and display high rates of growth and shell formation (calcification in light. Light-enhanced calcification requires an increase in the supply of Ca2+ to, and simultaneously an augmented removal of H+ from, the extrapallial fluid where shell formation occurs. We have obtained the complete coding cDNA sequence of Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA from the thin and whitish inner mantle, which is in touch with the extrapallial fluid, of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa. The deduced PMCA sequence consisted of an apical targeting element. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that PMCA had an apical localization in the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle, whereby it can actively secrete Ca2+ in exchange for H+. More importantly, the apical PMCA-immunofluorescence of the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle increased significantly after 12 h of exposure to light. The transcript and protein levels of PMCA/PMCA also increased significantly in the inner mantle after 6 or 12 h of light exposure. These results offer insights into a light-dependable mechanism of shell formation in T. squamosa and a novel explanation of light-enhanced calcification in general. As the inner mantle normally lacks light sensitive pigments, our results support a previous proposition that symbiotic zooxanthellae, particularly those in the colorful and extensible outer mantle, may act as light-sensing elements for the host clam.

  5. Microcystin Biosynthesis and mcyA Expression in Geographically Distinct Microcystis Strains under Different Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Boron Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Roles of nutrients and other environmental variables in development of cyanobacterial bloom and its toxicity are complex and not well understood. We have monitored the photoautotrophic growth, total microcystin concentration, and microcystins synthetase gene (mcyA expression in lab-grown strains of Microcystis NIES 843 (reference strain, KW (Wangsong Reservoir, South Korea, and Durgakund (Varanasi, India under different nutrient regimes (nitrogen, phosphorus, and boron. Higher level of nitrogen and boron resulted in increased growth (avg. 5 and 6.5 Chl a mg/L, resp., total microcystin concentrations (avg. 1.185 and 7.153 mg/L, resp., and mcyA transcript but its expression was not directly correlated with total microcystin concentrations in the target strains. Interestingly, Durgakund strain had much lower microcystin content and lacked microcystin-YR variant over NIES 843 and KW. It is inferred that microcystin concentration and its variants are strain specific. We have also examined the heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacterial bloom in Durgakund Pond and Wangsong Reservoir which were found to be enriched in Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria and that could influence the bloom dynamics.

  6. Distinct iris gene expression profiles of primary angle closure glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma and their interaction with ocular biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Li-Fong; Narayanaswamy, Arun; Finger, Sharon N; Htoon, Hla M; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Toh, Li Zhen; Ho, Henrietta; Perera, Shamira A; Wong, Tina T

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in iris gene expression profiles between primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and their interaction with biometric characteristics. Prospective study. Thirty-five subjects with PACG and thirty-three subjects with POAG who required trabeculectomy were enrolled at the Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore. Iris specimens, obtained by iridectomy, were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of type I collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, -B and -C, as well as VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) 1 and 2. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) imaging for biometric parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and lens vault (LV), was also performed pre-operatively. Relative mRNA levels between PACG and POAG irises, biometric measurements, discriminant analyses using genes and biometric parameters. COL1A1, VEGFB, VEGFC and VEGFR2 mRNA expression was higher in PACG compared to POAG irises. LV, ACD and ACV were significantly different between the two subgroups. Discriminant analyses based on gene expression, biometric parameters or a combination of both gene expression and biometrics (LV and ACV), correctly classified 94.1%, 85.3% and 94.1% of the original PACG and POAG cases, respectively. The discriminant function combining genes and biometrics demonstrated the highest accuracy in cross-validated classification of the two glaucoma subtypes. Distinct iris gene expression supports the pathophysiological differences that exist between PACG and POAG. Biometric parameters can combine with iris gene expression to more accurately define PACG from POAG. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  7. ArraySolver: an algorithm for colour-coded graphical display and Wilcoxon signed-rank statistics for comparing microarray gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    The massive surge in the production of microarray data poses a great challenge for proper analysis and interpretation. In recent years numerous computational tools have been developed to extract meaningful interpretation of microarray gene expression data. However, a convenient tool for two-groups comparison of microarray data is still lacking and users have to rely on commercial statistical packages that might be costly and require special skills, in addition to extra time and effort for transferring data from one platform to other. Various statistical methods, including the t-test, analysis of variance, Pearson test and Mann-Whitney U test, have been reported for comparing microarray data, whereas the utilization of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, which is an appropriate test for two-groups comparison of gene expression data, has largely been neglected in microarray studies. The aim of this investigation was to build an integrated tool, ArraySolver, for colour-coded graphical display and comparison of gene expression data using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results of software validation showed similar outputs with ArraySolver and SPSS for large datasets. Whereas the former program appeared to be more accurate for 25 or fewer pairs (n < or = 25), suggesting its potential application in analysing molecular signatures that usually contain small numbers of genes. The main advantages of ArraySolver are easy data selection, convenient report format, accurate statistics and the familiar Excel platform.

  8. RNA sequencing of the human milk fat layer transcriptome reveals distinct gene expression profiles at three stages of lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle G Lemay

    Full Text Available Aware of the important benefits of human milk, most U.S. women initiate breastfeeding but difficulties with milk supply lead some to quit earlier than intended. Yet, the contribution of maternal physiology to lactation difficulties remains poorly understood. Human milk fat globules, by enveloping cell contents during their secretion into milk, are a rich source of mammary cell RNA. Here, we pair this non-invasive mRNA source with RNA-sequencing to probe the milk fat layer transcriptome during three stages of lactation: colostral, transitional, and mature milk production. The resulting transcriptomes paint an exquisite portrait of human lactation. The resulting transcriptional profiles cluster not by postpartum day, but by milk Na:K ratio, indicating that women sampled during similar postpartum time frames could be at markedly different stages of gene expression. Each stage of lactation is characterized by a dynamic range (10(5-fold in transcript abundances not previously observed with microarray technology. We discovered that transcripts for isoferritins and cathepsins are strikingly abundant during colostrum production, highlighting the potential importance of these proteins for neonatal health. Two transcripts, encoding β-casein (CSN2 and α-lactalbumin (LALBA, make up 45% of the total pool of mRNA in mature lactation. Genes significantly expressed across all stages of lactation are associated with making, modifying, transporting, and packaging milk proteins. Stage-specific transcripts are associated with immune defense during the colostral stage, up-regulation of the machinery needed for milk protein synthesis during the transitional stage, and the production of lipids during mature lactation. We observed strong modulation of key genes involved in lactose synthesis and insulin signaling. In particular, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F (PTPRF may serve as a biomarker linking insulin resistance with insufficient milk supply. This

  9. Retention in the Golgi apparatus and expression on the cell surface of Cfr/Esl-1/Glg-1/MG-160 are regulated by two distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Kato, Hidenori; Ebato, Kazuki; Saito, Shigeru; Miyata, Naoko; Imamura, Toru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2011-11-15

    Cfr (cysteine-rich fibroblast growth factor receptor) is an Fgf (fibroblast growth factor)-binding protein without a tyrosine kinase. We have shown previously that Cfr is involved in Fgf18 signalling via Fgf receptor 3c. However, as Cfr is also known as Glg (Golgi apparatus protein)-1 or MG-160 and occurs in the Golgi apparatus, it remains unknown how the distribution of Cfr is regulated. In the present study, we performed a mutagenic analysis of Cfr to show that two distinct regions contribute to its distribution and stability. First, the C-terminal region retains Cfr in the Golgi apparatus. Secondly, the Cfr repeats in the extracellular juxtamembrane region destabilizes Cfr passed through the Golgi apparatus. This destabilization does not depend on the cleavage and secretion of the extracellular domain of Cfr. Furthermore, we found that Cfr with a GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor was predominantly expressed on the cell surface in Ba/F3 cells and affected Fgf18 signalling in a similar manner to the full-length Cfr, indicating that the interaction of Cfr with Fgfs on the cell surface is important for its function in Fgf signalling. These results suggest that the expression of Cfr in the Golgi apparatus and on the plasma membrane is finely tuned through two distinct mechanisms for exhibiting different functions.

  10. Two Silene vulgaris copper transporters residing in different cellular compartments confer copper hypertolerance by distinct mechanisms when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbang; Iqbal, Mazhar; Zhang, Qianqian; Spelt, Cornelis; Bliek, Mattijs; Hakvoort, Henk W J; Quattrocchio, Francesca M; Koes, Ronald; Schat, Henk

    2017-08-01

    Silene vulgaris is a metallophyte of calamine, cupriferous and serpentine soils all over Europe. Its metallicolous populations are hypertolerant to zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) or nickel (Ni), compared with conspecific nonmetallicolous populations. These hypertolerances are metal-specific, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the role of HMA5 copper transporters in Cu-hypertolerance of a S. vulgaris copper mine population. Cu-hypertolerance in Silene is correlated and genetically linked with enhanced expression of two HMA5 paralogs, SvHMA5I and SvHMA5II, each of which increases Cu tolerance when expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Most Spermatophytes, except Brassicaceae, possess homologs of SvHMA5I and SvHMA5II, which originate from an ancient duplication predating the appearance of spermatophytes. SvHMA5II and the A. thaliana homolog AtHMA5 localize in the endoplasmic reticulum and upon Cu exposure move to the plasma membrane, from where they are internalized and degraded in the vacuole. This resembles trafficking of mammalian homologs and is apparently an extremely ancient mechanism. SvHMA5I, instead, neofunctionalized and always resides on the tonoplast, likely sequestering Cu in the vacuole. Adaption of Silene to a Cu-polluted soil is at least in part due to upregulation of two distinct HMA5 transporters, which contribute to Cu hypertolerance by distinct mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Maize rayado fino virus virus-like particles expressed in tobacco plants: A new platform for cysteine selective bioconjugation peptide display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natilla, Angela; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2011-12-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) virus-like-particles (VLPs) produced in tobacco plants were examined for their ability to serve as a novel platform to which a variety of peptides can be covalently displayed when expressed through a Potato virus X (PVX)-based vector. To provide an anchor for chemical modifications, three Cys-MRFV-VLPs mutants were created by substituting several of the amino acids present on the shell of the wild-type MRFV-VLPs with cysteine residues. The mutant designated Cys 2-VLPs exhibited, under native conditions, cysteine thiol reactivity in bioconjugation reactions with a fluorescent dye. In addition, this Cys 2-VLPs was cross-linked by NHS-PEG4-Maleimide to 17 (F) and 8 (HN) amino acid long peptides, corresponding to neutralizing epitopes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The resulting Cys 2-VLPs-F and Cys 2-VLPs-HN were recognized in Western blots by antibodies to MRFV as well as to F and HN. The results demonstrated that plant-produced MRFV-VLPs have the ability to function as a novel platform for the multivalent display of surface ligands. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. PAF-receptor is preferentially expressed in a distinct synthetic phenotype of smooth muscle cells cloned from human internal thoracic artery: Functional implications in cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengel, Dominique; O'Neil, Caroline; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Karabina, Sonia-Athina; Durand, Herve; Caplice, Noel M.; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Ninio, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Platelet-activating-Factor (PAF) and its structural analogues formed upon low density lipoprotein oxidation are involved in atherosclerotic plaque formation and may signal through PAF-receptor (PAF-R) expressed in human macrophages and in certain smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media, but rarely in the intima of human plaques. Our aim was to determine which SMC phenotype expresses PAF-R and whether this receptor is functional in cell migration. Circulating SMC progenitors and two phenotypically distinct clones of proliferative, epithelioid phenotype vs contractile, spindle-shaped SMCs from the media of adult internal thoracic artery were studied for the presence of PAF-receptor (PAF-R). The levels of specific mRNA were obtained by reverse transcription/real-time PCR, the protein expression was deduced from immunohistochemistry staining, and the functional transmigration assay was performed by Boyden chamber-type chemotaxis assay. Only SMCs of spindle-shape and synthetic phenotype expressed both mRNA and PAF-R protein and in the functional test migrated at low concentrations of PAF. Two unrelated, specific PAF-R antagonists inhibited PAF-induced migration, but did not modify the migration initiated by PDGF. The presence of functional PAF-R in arterial spindle-shaped SMCs of synthetic phenotype may be important for their migration from the media into the intima and atherosclerotic plaques formation

  13. Diverse Brain Myeloid Expression Profiles Reveal Distinct Microglial Activation States and Aspects of Alzheimer’s Disease Not Evident in Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad A. Friedman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, the CNS-resident immune cells, play important roles in disease, but the spectrum of their possible activation states is not well understood. We derived co-regulated gene modules from transcriptional profiles of CNS myeloid cells of diverse mouse models, including new tauopathy model datasets. Using these modules to interpret single-cell data from an Alzheimer’s disease (AD model, we identified microglial subsets—distinct from previously reported “disease-associated microglia”—expressing interferon-related or proliferation modules. We then analyzed whole-tissue RNA profiles from human neurodegenerative diseases, including a new AD dataset. Correcting for altered cellular composition of AD tissue, we observed elevated expression of the neurodegeneration-related modules, but also modules not implicated using expression profiles from mouse models alone. We provide a searchable, interactive database for exploring gene expression in all these datasets (http://research-pub.gene.com/BrainMyeloidLandscape. Understanding the dimensions of CNS myeloid cell activation in human disease may reveal opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  14. Testis-expressed profilins 3 and 4 show distinct functional characteristics and localize in the acroplaxome-manchette complex in spermatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothkegel Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple profilin isoforms exist in mammals; at least four are expressed in the mammalian testis. The testis-specific isoforms profilin-3 (PFN3 and profilin-4 (PFN4 may have specialized roles in spermatogenic cells which are distinct from known functions fulfilled by the "somatic" profilins, profilin-1 (PFN1 and profilin-2 (PFN2. Results Ligand interactions and spatial distributions of PFN3 and PFN4 were compared by biochemical, molecular and immunological methods; PFN1 and PFN2 were employed as controls. β-actin, phosphoinositides, poly-L-proline and mDia3, but not VASP, were confirmed as in vitro interaction partners of PFN3. In parallel experiments, PFN4 bound to selected phosphoinositides but not to poly-L-proline, proline-rich proteins, or actin. Immunofluorescence microscopy of PFN3 and PFN4 revealed distinct subcellular locations in differentiating spermatids. Both were associated first with the acroplaxome and later with the transient manchette. Predicted 3D structures indicated that PFN3 has the actin-binding site conserved, but retains only approximately half of the common poly-L-proline binding site. PFN4, in comparison, has lost both, polyproline and actin binding sites completely, which is well in line with the experimental data. Conclusion The testis-specific isoform PFN3 showed major hallmarks of the well characterized "somatic" profilin isoforms, albeit with distinct binding affinities. PFN4, on the other hand, did not interact with actin or polyproline in vitro. Rather, it seemed to be specialized for phospholipid binding, possibly providing cellular functions which are distinct from actin dynamics regulation.

  15. A global RNA-seq-driven analysis of CHO host and production cell lines reveals distinct differential expression patterns of genes contributing to recombinant antibody glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könitzer, Jennifer D; Müller, Markus M; Leparc, Germán; Pauers, Martin; Bechmann, Jan; Schulz, Patrick; Schaub, Jochen; Enenkel, Barbara; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Hampel, Martin; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2015-09-01

    Boehringer Ingelheim uses two CHO-DG44 lines for manufacturing biotherapeutics, BI-HEX-1 and BI-HEX-2, which produce distinct cell type-specific antibody glycosylation patterns. A recently established CHO-K1 descended host, BI-HEX-K1, generates antibodies with glycosylation profiles differing from CHO-DG44. Manufacturing process development is significantly influenced by these unique profiles. To investigate the underlying glycosylation related gene expression, we leveraged our CHO host and production cell RNA-seqtranscriptomics and product quality database together with the CHO-K1 genome. We observed that each BI-HEX host and antibody producing cell line has a unique gene expression fingerprint. CHO-DG44 cells only transcribe Fut10, Gfpt2 and ST8Sia6 when expressing antibodies. BI-HEX-K1 cells express ST8Sia6 at host cell level. We detected a link between BI-HEX-1/BI-HEX-2 antibody galactosylation and mannosylation and the gene expression of the B4galt gene family and genes controlling mannose processing. Furthermore, we found major differences between the CHO-DG44 and CHO-K1 lineages in the expression of sialyl transferases and enzymes synthesizing sialic acid precursors, providing a rationale for the lack of immunogenic NeuGc/NGNA synthesis in CHO. Our study highlights the value of systems biotechnology to understand glycoprotein synthesis and product glycoprofiles. Such data improve future production clone selection and process development strategies for better steering of biotherapeutic product quality. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Viral DNA Sensors IFI16 and Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Possess Distinct Functions in Regulating Viral Gene Expression, Immune Defenses, and Apoptotic Responses during Herpesvirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Benjamin A; Lum, Krystal K; Toettcher, Jared E; Cristea, Ileana M

    2016-11-15

    The human interferon-inducible protein IFI16 is an important antiviral factor that binds nuclear viral DNA and promotes antiviral responses. Here, we define IFI16 dynamics in space and time and its distinct functions from the DNA sensor cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Live-cell imaging reveals a multiphasic IFI16 redistribution, first to viral entry sites at the nuclear periphery and then to nucleoplasmic puncta upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Optogenetics and live-cell microscopy establish the IFI16 pyrin domain as required for nuclear periphery localization and oligomerization. Furthermore, using proteomics, we define the signature protein interactions of the IFI16 pyrin and HIN200 domains and demonstrate the necessity of pyrin for IFI16 interactions with antiviral proteins PML and cGAS. We probe signaling pathways engaged by IFI16, cGAS, and PML using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated knockouts in primary fibroblasts. While IFI16 induces cytokines, only cGAS activates STING/TBK-1/IRF3 and apoptotic responses upon HSV-1 and HCMV infections. cGAS-dependent apoptosis upon DNA stimulation requires both the enzymatic production of cyclic dinucleotides and STING. We show that IFI16, not cGAS or PML, represses HSV-1 gene expression, reducing virus titers. This indicates that regulation of viral gene expression may function as a greater barrier to viral replication than the induction of antiviral cytokines. Altogether, our findings establish coordinated and distinct antiviral functions for IFI16 and cGAS against herpesviruses. How mammalian cells detect and respond to DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus is poorly understood. Here, we decipher the distinct functions of two viral DNA sensors, IFI16 and cGAS, during active immune signaling upon infection with two herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We show that IFI16

  17. Tissue-specific expression of insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs with distinct 5' untranslated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irminger, J.C.; Rosen, K.M.; Humble, R.E.; Villa-Komaroff, L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used RNA from human hypothalamus as template for the production of cDNAs encoding insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The prohormone coding sequence of brain IGF-II RNA is identical to that found in liver; however, the 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA has no homology to the 5' untranslated sequence of the previously reported liver cDNAs. By using hybridization to specific probes as well as a method based on the properties of RNase H, they found that the human IGF-II gene has at least three exons that encode alternative 5' untranslated regions and that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner. A probe specific to the brain cDNA 5' untranslated region hybridizes to a 6.0-kilobase transcript present in placenta, hypothalamus, adrenal gland, kidney, Wilms tumor, and a pheochromocytoma. The 5' untranslated sequence of the brain cDNA does not hybridize to a 5.3-kilobase transcript found in liver or to a 5.0-kb transcript found in pheochromocytoma. By using RNase H to specifically fragment the IGF-II transcripts into 3' and 5' fragments, they found that the RNAs vary in size due to differences in the 5' end but not the 3' end

  18. Natural Reassortants of Potentially Zoonotic Avian Influenza Viruses H5N1 and H9N2 from Egypt Display Distinct Pathogenic Phenotypes in Experimentally Infected Chickens and Ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Mahmoud M; Ulrich, Reiner; Kasbohm, Elisa; Eng, Christine L P; Hoffmann, Donata; Grund, Christian; Beer, Martin; Harder, Timm C

    2017-12-01

    The cocirculation of zoonotic highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 and avian influenza virus (AIV) of subtype H9N2 among poultry in Egypt for at least 6 years should render that country a hypothetical hot spot for the emergence of reassortant, phenotypically altered viruses, yet no reassortants have been detected in Egypt. The present investigations proved that reassortants of the Egyptian H5N1 clade 2.2.1.2 virus and H9N2 virus of the G1-B lineage can be generated by coamplification in embryonated chicken eggs. Reassortants were restricted to the H5N1 subtype and acquired between two and all six of the internal segments of the H9N2 virus. Five selected plaque-purified reassortant clones expressed a broad phenotypic spectrum both in vitro and in vivo Two groups of reassortants were characterized to have retarded growth characteristics in vitro compared to the H5N1 parent virus. One clone provoked reduced mortality in inoculated chickens, although the characteristics of a highly pathogenic phenotype were retained. Enhanced zoonotic properties were not predicted for any of these clones, and this prediction was confirmed by ferret inoculation experiments: neither the H5N1 parent virus nor two selected clones induced severe clinical symptoms or were transmitted to sentinel ferrets by contact. While the emergence of reassortants of Egyptian HPAIV of subtype H5N1 with internal gene segments of cocirculating H9N2 viruses is possible in principle, the spread of such viruses is expected to be governed by their fitness to outcompete the parental viruses in the field. The eventual spread of attenuated phenotypes, however, would negatively impact syndrome surveillance on poultry farms and might foster enzootic virus circulation. IMPORTANCE Despite almost 6 years of the continuous cocirculation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 and avian influenza virus H9N2 in poultry in Egypt, no reassortants of the two subtypes have been reported

  19. Nitrogen transporter and assimilation genes exhibit developmental stage-selective expression in maize (Zea mays L.) associated with distinct cis-acting promoter motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liseron-Monfils, Christophe; Bi, Yong-Mei; Downs, Gregory S; Wu, Wenqing; Signorelli, Tara; Lu, Guangwen; Chen, Xi; Bondo, Eddie; Zhu, Tong; Lukens, Lewis N; Colasanti, Joseph; Rothstein, Steven J; Raizada, Manish N

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen is considered the most limiting nutrient for maize (Zea mays L.), but there is limited understanding of the regulation of nitrogen-related genes during maize development. An Affymetrix 82K maize array was used to analyze the expression of ≤ 46 unique nitrogen uptake and assimilation probes in 50 maize tissues from seedling emergence to 31 d after pollination. Four nitrogen-related expression clusters were identified in roots and shoots corresponding to, or overlapping, juvenile, adult, and reproductive phases of development. Quantitative real time PCR data was consistent with the existence of these distinct expression clusters. Promoters corresponding to each cluster were screened for over-represented cis-acting elements. The 8-bp distal motif of the Arabidopsis 43-bp nitrogen response element (NRE) was over-represented in nitrogen-related maize gene promoters. This conserved motif, referred to here as NRE43-d8, was previously shown to be critical for nitrate-activated transcription of nitrate reductase (NIA1) and nitrite reductase (NIR1) by the NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 6 (NLP6) in Arabidopsis. Here, NRE43-d8 was over-represented in the promoters of maize nitrate and ammonium transporter genes, specifically those that showed peak expression during early-stage vegetative development. This result predicts an expansion of the NRE-NLP6 regulon and suggests that it may have a developmental component in maize. We also report leaf expression of putative orthologs of nitrite transporters (NiTR1), a transporter not previously reported in maize. We conclude by discussing how each of the four transcriptional modules may be responsible for the different nitrogen uptake and assimilation requirements of leaves and roots at different stages of maize development.

  20. Influence of dietary nicotinic acid supplementation on lipid metabolism and related gene expression in two distinct broiler breeds of female chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, R R; Zhao, G P; Zhao, J P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Liu, R R; Wen, J

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of supplemental dietary nicotinic acid (NA) on lipid metabolism and hepatic expression of related genes in female chickens of two distinct broiler strains [Arbor Acres (AA) and Beijing-You (BJY)]. The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial in a completely randomized design. Day-old females (n = 384) were allocated to four treatments with six cages per treatment and fed diets (basal contained approximately 25 mg NA/kg) supplemented with 0, 30, 60 and 120 mg NA/kg. A sample of 72 birds from each breed was slaughtered and sampled at their different market times (8 week for AA and 16 week for BJY). Arbor Acres broilers had thickness of subcutaneous fat plus the skin (SFS), and plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and lower percentage of abdominal fat (PAF), plasma concentrations of TG, NEFA and adiponectin than the BJY line. The hepatic transcription of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoproteinB (ApoB), and adiponectin was significantly higher in AA broilers than in BJY broilers. In both breeds, BW, PAF, SFS, NEFA and TG were increased with increasing supplementation from 0 to 60 mg NA/kg, but then decreased slightly with 120 mg added NA/kg. With increasing supplementation, hepatic expression and plasma concentrations of adiponectin decreased from 0 to 60 mg added NA/kg and then increased with 120 mg added NA/kg. The expression of ApoA-I and ApoB mRNA showed linear response to dietary supplementation with NA. These findings indicate that: (i) supplementation of NA influenced the lipid metabolism and related gene expression; (ii) when supplemented with 120 mg NA/kg, some pharmacologic actions on lipid metabolism appeared; and (iii) changes in BW and fat deposition appeared to be associated with hepatic expression of adiponectin.

  1. Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts Display Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Modulating Inflammatory Mediator Expression in RAW264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia V. Faheina-Martins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory response plays an important role not only in the normal physiology but also in pathologies such as cancers. The Morita-Baylis-Hillman adducts (MBHA are a novel group of synthetic molecules that have demonstrated many biological activities against some parasitic cells such as Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania amazonensis, and Leishmania chagasi, and antimitotic activity against sea urchin embryonic cells was also related. However, little is known about the mechanisms induced by MBHA in inflammatory process and its relation with anticancer activity. The present work investigated the cytotoxicity of three MBHA derivatives (A2CN, A3CN, and A4CN, on human colorectal adenocarcinoma, HT-29 cells, and their anti-inflammatory activities were examined in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells, being these derivatives potentially cytotoxic to HT-29 cells. Coincubation with A2CN, A3CN, or A4CN and LPS in RAW264.7 cells inhibited NO production, as well as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS was also repressed. The mRNA expressions of IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly downregulated by such MBHA compounds in RAW264.7 cells, but only A2CN was able to inhibit the COX-2 gene expression. We also showed that MBHA compounds decreased almost to zero the production of IL-1β and IL-6. These findings display that such MBHA compounds exhibit anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities.

  2. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  3. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solmi, Rossella [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Montroni, Isacco [Dipartimento Emergenza/Urgenza, Chirurgia Generale e dei Trapianti, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Mattei, Gabriella [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Taffurelli, Mario [Dipartimento Emergenza/Urgenza, Chirurgia Generale e dei Trapianti, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Santini, Donatella [Dipartimento di Patologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Pezzetti, Furio [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Ruggeri, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Scienze Anatomiche Umane e Fisiopatologia dell' Apparato Locomotore, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Castellani, Gastone [Centro Interdipartimentale L. Galvani, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); DIMORFIPA, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Guidotti, Lia [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Coppola, Domenico [H. Lee Moffit Cancer Center and Research Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Strippoli, Pierluigi; Lauriola, Mattia [Dipartimento di Istologia, Embriologia e Biologia Applicata, Università di Bologna, Via Belmeloro 8, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Francesconi, Mirko [Centro Interdipartimentale L. Galvani, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); DIMORFIPA, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Martini, Désirée [Dipartimento di Scienze Anatomiche Umane e Fisiopatologia dell' Apparato Locomotore, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Voltattorni, Manuela [Laboratori di Biotecnologie, Via Beverara 123, Bologna (Italy); Ceccarelli, Claudio [Dipartimento di Patologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Ugolini, Giampaolo; Rosati, Giancarlo; Zanotti, Simone [Dipartimento Emergenza/Urgenza, Chirurgia Generale e dei Trapianti, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2008-08-08

    EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2), possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. This is the first study to have systematically investigated the effect of cetuximab or gefitinib, alone and in combination

  4. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzetti Furio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Methods Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Results Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2, possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. Conclusion This is the first study to have systematically investigated

  5. Displayed correlation between gene expression profiles and submicroscopic alterations in response to cetuximab, gefitinib and EGF in human colon cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solmi, Rossella; Montroni, Isacco; Mattei, Gabriella; Taffurelli, Mario; Santini, Donatella; Pezzetti, Furio; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Castellani, Gastone; Guidotti, Lia; Coppola, Domenico; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Lauriola, Mattia; Francesconi, Mirko; Martini, Désirée; Voltattorni, Manuela; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Rosati, Giancarlo; Zanotti, Simone

    2008-01-01

    EGFR is frequently overexpressed in colon cancer. We characterized HT-29 and Caco-2, human colon cancer cell lines, untreated and treated with cetuximab or gefitinib alone and in combination with EGF. Cell growth was determined using a variation on the MTT assay. Cell-cycle analysis was conducted by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate EGFR expression and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evidenced the ultrastructural morphology. Gene expression profiling was performed using hybridization of the microarray Ocimum Pan Human 40 K array A. Caco-2 and HT-29 were respectively 66.25 and 59.24 % in G0/G1. They maintained this level of cell cycle distribution after treatment, suggesting a predominantly differentiated state. Treatment of Caco-2 with EGF or the two EGFR inhibitors produced a significant reduction in their viability. SEM clearly showed morphological cellular transformations in the direction of cellular death in both cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors. HT-29 and Caco-2 displayed an important reduction of the microvilli (which also lose their erect position in Caco-2), possibly invalidating microvilli absorption function. HT-29 treated with cetuximab lost their boundary contacts and showed filipodi; when treated with gefitinib, they showed some vesicles: generally membrane reshaping is evident. Both cell lines showed a similar behavior in terms of on/off switched genes upon treatment with cetuximab. The gefitinib global gene expression pattern was different for the 2 cell lines; gefitinib treatment induced more changes, but directly correlated with EGF treatment. In cetuximab or gefitinib plus EGF treatments there was possible summation of the morphological effects: cells seemed more weakly affected by the transformation towards apoptosis. The genes appeared to be less stimulated than for single drug cases. This is the first study to have systematically investigated the effect of cetuximab or gefitinib, alone and in combination

  6. Viral DNA Sensors IFI16 and Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Possess Distinct Functions in Regulating Viral Gene Expression, Immune Defenses, and Apoptotic Responses during Herpesvirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Diner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The human interferon-inducible protein IFI16 is an important antiviral factor that binds nuclear viral DNA and promotes antiviral responses. Here, we define IFI16 dynamics in space and time and its distinct functions from the DNA sensor cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS. Live-cell imaging reveals a multiphasic IFI16 redistribution, first to viral entry sites at the nuclear periphery and then to nucleoplasmic puncta upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections. Optogenetics and live-cell microscopy establish the IFI16 pyrin domain as required for nuclear periphery localization and oligomerization. Furthermore, using proteomics, we define the signature protein interactions of the IFI16 pyrin and HIN200 domains and demonstrate the necessity of pyrin for IFI16 interactions with antiviral proteins PML and cGAS. We probe signaling pathways engaged by IFI16, cGAS, and PML using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockouts in primary fibroblasts. While IFI16 induces cytokines, only cGAS activates STING/TBK-1/IRF3 and apoptotic responses upon HSV-1 and HCMV infections. cGAS-dependent apoptosis upon DNA stimulation requires both the enzymatic production of cyclic dinucleotides and STING. We show that IFI16, not cGAS or PML, represses HSV-1 gene expression, reducing virus titers. This indicates that regulation of viral gene expression may function as a greater barrier to viral replication than the induction of antiviral cytokines. Altogether, our findings establish coordinated and distinct antiviral functions for IFI16 and cGAS against herpesviruses.

  7. Autophagosome Proteins LC3A, LC3B and LC3C Have Distinct Subcellular Distribution Kinetics and Expression in Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I Koukourakis

    Full Text Available LC3s (MAP1-LC3A, B and C are structural proteins of autophagosomal membranes, widely used as biomarkers of autophagy. Whether these three LC3 proteins have a similar biological role in autophagy remains obscure. We examine in parallel the subcellular expression patterns of the three LC3 proteins in a panel of human cancer cell lines, as well as in normal MRC5 fibroblasts and HUVEC, using confocal microscopy and western blot analysis of cell fractions. In the cytoplasm, there was a minimal co-localization between LC3A, B and C staining, suggesting that the relevant autophagosomes are formed by only one out of the three LC3 proteins. LC3A showed a perinuclear and nuclear localization, while LC3B was equally distributed throughout the cytoplasm and localized in the nucleolar regions. LC3C was located in the cytoplasm and strongly in the nuclei (excluding nucleoli, where it extensively co-localized with the LC3A and the Beclin-1 autophagy initiating protein. Beclin 1 is known to contain a nuclear trafficking signal. Blocking nuclear export function by Leptomycin B resulted in nuclear accumulation of all LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins, while Ivermectin that blocks nuclear import showed reduction of accumulation, but not in all cell lines. Since endogenous LC3 proteins are used as major markers of autophagy in clinical studies and cell lines, it is essential to check the specificity of the antibodies used, as the kinetics of these molecules are not identical and may have distinct biological roles. The distinct subcellular expression patterns of LC3s provide a basis for further studies.

  8. Distinct Expression Profiles and Novel Targets of MicroRNAs in Human Spermatogonia, Pachytene Spermatocytes, and Round Spermatids between OA Patients and NOA Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chencheng Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Human spermatogenesis includes three main stages, namely, the mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes, and spermiogenesis of spermatids, which are precisely regulated by epigenetic and genetic factors. Abnormality of epigenetic and genetic factors can result in aberrant spermatogenesis and eventual male infertility. However, epigenetic regulators in controlling each stage of normal and abnormal human spermatogenesis remain unknown. Here, we have revealed for the first time the distinct microRNA profiles in human spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids between obstructive azoospermia (OA patients and non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA patients. Human spermatogonia, pachytene spermatocytes, and round spermatids from OA patients and NOA patients were isolated using STA-PUT velocity sedimentation and identified by numerous hallmarks for these cells. RNA deep sequencing showed that 396 microRNAs were differentially expressed in human spermatogonia between OA patients and NOA patients and 395 differentially expressed microRNAs were found in human pachytene spermatocytes between OA patients and NOA patients. Moreover, 378 microRNAs were differentially expressed in human round spermatids between OA patients and NOA patients. The differential expression of numerous microRNAs identified by RNA deep sequencing was verified by real-time PCR. Moreover, a number of novel targeting genes for microRNAs were predicted using various kinds of software and further verified by real-time PCR. This study thus sheds novel insights into epigenetic regulation of human normal spermatogenesis and the etiology of azoospermia, and it could offer new targets for molecular therapy to treat male infertility.

  9. Identification of new TSGA10 transcript variants in human testis with conserved regulatory RNA elements in 5'untranslated region and distinct expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehipour, Pouya; Nematzadeh, Mahsa; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom; Afsharpad, Mandana; Mansouri, Kamran; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Testis specific gene antigen 10 (TSGA10) is a cancer testis antigen involved in the process of spermatogenesis. TSGA10 could also play an important role in the inhibition of angiogenesis by preventing nuclear localization of HIF-1α. Although it has been shown that TSGA10 messenger RNA (mRNA) is mainly expressed in testis and some tumors, the transcription pattern and regulatory mechanisms of this gene remain largely unknown. Here, we report that human TSGA10 comprises at least 22 exons and generates four different transcript variants. It was identified that using two distinct promoters and splicing of exons 4 and 7 produced these transcript variants, which have the same coding sequence, but the sequence of 5'untanslated region (5'UTR) is different between them. This is significant because conserved regulatory RNA elements like upstream open reading frame (uORF) and putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) were found in this region which have different combinations in each transcript variant and it may influence translational efficiency of them in normal or unusual environmental conditions like hypoxia. To indicate the transcription pattern of TSGA10 in breast cancer, expression of identified transcript variants was analyzed in 62 breast cancer samples. We found that TSGA10 tends to express variants with shorter 5'UTR and fewer uORF elements in breast cancer tissues. Our study demonstrates for the first time the expression of different TSGA10 transcript variants in testis and breast cancer tissues and provides a first clue to a role of TSGA10 5'UTR in regulation of translation in unusual environmental conditions like hypoxia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Functional displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis De, F.; Haentjens, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Functional Displays are directly derived from the Man-Machine Design key document: Function-Based Task Analysis. The presentation defines and describes the goals-means structure of the plant function along with applicable control volumes and parameters of interest. The purpose of the subject is to show, through an example of a preliminary design, what the main parts of a function are. (3 figs.)

  11. Display hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    To appreciate the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics it is necessary to have some acquaintance with the available technology. The aim of this chapter is to mention briefly the different display types and their 'ball-park' price ranges. It must be stressed that prices change rapidly, and so those quoted here are only intended to give an idea of the cost at the time of writing.

  12. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  13. Distinct spatiotemporal expression of serine proteases Prss23 and Prss35 in periimplantation mouse uterus and dispensable function of Prss35 in fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglu Diao

    Full Text Available PRSS23 and PRSS35 are homologous proteases originally identified in mouse ovaries. In the periimplantation mouse uterus, Prss23 was highly expressed in the preimplantation gestation day 3.5 (D3.5 uterine luminal epithelium (LE. It disappeared from the postimplantation LE and reappeared in the stromal compartment next to the myometrium on D6.5. It was undetectable in the embryo from D4.5 to D6.5 but highly expressed in the embryo on D7.5. Prss35 became detectable in the uterine stromal compartment surrounding the embryo on D4.5 and shifted towards the mesometrial side of the stromal compartment next to the embryo from D5.5 to D7.5. In the ovariectomized uterus, Prss23 was moderately and Prss35 was dramatically downregulated by progesterone and 17β-estradiol. Based on the expression of Prss35 in granulosa cells and corpus luteum of the ovary and the early pregnant uterus, we hypothesized that PRSS35 might play a role in female reproduction, especially in oocyte development, ovulation, implantation, and decidualization. This hypothesis was tested in Prss35((-/- mice, which proved otherwise. Between wild type (WT and Prss35((-/- mice, superovulation of immature females produced comparable numbers of cumulus-oocyte complexes; there were comparable numbers of implantation sites detected on D4.5 and D7.5; there were no obvious differences in the expression of implantation and decidualization marker genes in D4.5 or D7.5 uteri. Comparable mRNA expression levels of a few known protease-related genes in the WT and Prss35((-/- D4.5 uteri indicated no compensatory upregulation. Comparable litter sizes from WT × WT and Prss35((-/-× Prss35((-/- crosses suggested that Prss35 gene was unessential for fertility and embryo development. Prss35 gene has been linked to cleft lip/palate in humans. However, no obvious such defects were observed in Prss35((-/- mice. This study demonstrates the distinct expression of Prss23 and Prss35 in the periimplantation uterus

  14. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally M Williamson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the

  15. Distinct choline metabolic profiles are associated with differences in gene expression for basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moestue, Siver A; Borgan, Eldrid; Huuse, Else M; Lindholm, Evita M; Sitter, Beathe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Engebraaten, Olav; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Gribbestad, Ingrid S

    2010-01-01

    concentrations corresponded well with differences in gene expression, demonstrating distinct metabolic profiles in the xenograft models representing basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer. The same characteristics of choline metabolite profiles were also observed in patient material from ER+/PgR+ and triple-negative breast cancer, suggesting that the xenografts are relevant model systems for studies of choline metabolism in luminal-like and basal-like breast cancer

  16. Exposure to nickel, chromium, or cadmium causes distinct changes in the gene expression patterns of a rat liver derived cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G Permenter

    Full Text Available Many heavy metals, including nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd, and chromium (Cr are toxic industrial chemicals with an exposure risk in both occupational and environmental settings that may cause harmful outcomes. While these substances are known to produce adverse health effects leading to disease or health problems, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. To elucidate the processes involved in the toxicity of nickel, cadmium, and chromium at the molecular level and to perform a comparative analysis, H4-II-E-C3 rat liver-derived cell lines were treated with soluble salts of each metal using concentrations derived from viability assays, and gene expression patterns were determined with DNA microarrays. We identified both common and unique biological responses to exposure to the three metals. Nickel, cadmium, chromium all induced oxidative stress with both similar and unique genes and pathways responding to this stress. Although all three metals are known to be genotoxic, evidence for DNA damage in our study only exists in response to chromium. Nickel induced a hypoxic response as well as inducing genes involved in chromatin structure, perhaps by replacing iron in key proteins. Cadmium distinctly perturbed genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress and invoked the unfolded protein response leading to apoptosis. With these studies, we have completed the first gene expression comparative analysis of nickel, cadmium, and chromium in H4-II-E-C3 cells.

  17. Analysis of gene expression data from non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines reveals distinct sub-classes from those identified at the phenotype level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Dalby

    Full Text Available Microarray data from cell lines of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC can be used to look for differences in gene expression between the cell lines derived from different tumour samples, and to investigate if these differences can be used to cluster the cell lines into distinct groups. Dividing the cell lines into classes can help to improve diagnosis and the development of screens for new drug candidates. The micro-array data is first subjected to quality control analysis and then subsequently normalised using three alternate methods to reduce the chances of differences being artefacts resulting from the normalisation process. The final clustering into sub-classes was carried out in a conservative manner such that sub-classes were consistent across all three normalisation methods. If there is structure in the cell line population it was expected that this would agree with histological classifications, but this was not found to be the case. To check the biological consistency of the sub-classes the set of most strongly differentially expressed genes was be identified for each pair of clusters to check if the genes that most strongly define sub-classes have biological functions consistent with NSCLC.

  18. Specific Regional and Age-Related Small Noncoding RNA Expression Patterns Within Superior Temporal Gyrus of Typical Human Brains Are Less Distinct in Autism Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Barger, Nicole; Sharp, Frank R; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2015-12-01

    Small noncoding RNAs play a critical role in regulating messenger RNA throughout brain development and when altered could have profound effects leading to disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We assessed small noncoding RNAs, including microRNA and small nucleolar RNA, in superior temporal sulcus association cortex and primary auditory cortex in typical and ASD brains from early childhood to adulthood. Typical small noncoding RNA expression profiles were less distinct in ASD, both between regions and changes with age. Typical micro-RNA coexpression associations were absent in ASD brains. miR-132, miR-103, and miR-320 micro-RNAs were dysregulated in ASD and have previously been associated with autism spectrum disorders. These diminished region- and age-related micro-RNA expression profiles are in line with previously reported findings of attenuated messenger RNA and long noncoding RNA in ASD brain. This study demonstrates alterations in superior temporal sulcus in ASD, a region implicated in social impairment, and is the first to demonstrate molecular alterations in the primary auditory cortex. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Identification, Characterization, and Recombinant Expression of Epidermicin NI01, a Novel Unmodified Bacteriocin Produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis That Displays Potent Activity against Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    We describe the discovery, purification, characterization, and expression of an antimicrobial peptide, epidermicin NI01, which is an unmodified bacteriocin produced by Staphylococcus epidermidis strain 224. It is a highly cationic, hydrophobic, plasmid-encoded peptide that exhibits potent antimicrobial activity toward a wide range of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), enterococci, and biofilm-forming S. epidermidis strains. Purification of the peptide was achieved using a combination of hydrophobic interaction, cation exchange, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis yielded a molecular mass of 6,074 Da, and partial sequence data of the peptide were elucidated using a combination of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and de novo sequencing. The draft genome sequence of the producing strain was obtained using 454 pyrosequencing technology, thus enabling the identification of the structural gene using the de novo peptide sequence data previously obtained. Epidermicin NI01 contains 51 residues with four tryptophan and nine lysine residues, and the sequence showed approximately 50% identity to peptides lacticin Z, lacticin Q, and aureocin A53, all of which belong to a new family of unmodified type II-like bacteriocins. The peptide is active in the nanomolar range against S. epidermidis, MRSA isolates, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Other unique features displayed by epidermicin include a high degree of protease stability and the ability to retain antimicrobial activity over a pH range of 2 to 10, and exposure to the peptide does not result in development of resistance in susceptible isolates. In this study we also show the structural gene alone can be cloned into Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), and expression yields active peptide. PMID:22155816

  20. Consolidated ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers at elevated temperature by Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered with inulinase expression through cell surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, M Mahfuza; Liu, Chen-Guang; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Yuan, Wen-Jie; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2017-02-01

    Ethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke tubers was performed at elevated temperatures by the consolidated bioprocessing strategy using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MK01 expressing inulinase through cell surface display. No significant difference was observed in yeast growth when temperature was controlled at 38 and 40 °C, respectively, but inulinase activity with yeast cells was substantially enhanced at 40 °C. As a result, enzymatic hydrolysis of inulin was facilitated and ethanol production was improved with 89.3 g/L ethanol produced within 72 h from 198.2 g/L total inulin sugars consumed. Similar results were also observed in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers with 85.2 g/L ethanol produced within 72 h from 185.7 g/L total sugars consumed. On the other hand, capital investment on cooling facilities and energy consumption for running the facilities would be saved, since regular cooling water instead of chill water could be used to cool down the fermentation system.

  1. Potential costs of bacterial infection on storage protein gene expression and reproduction in queenless Apis mellifera worker bees on distinct dietary regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Anete Pedro; Martins, Juliana Ramos; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina Rosa; Macedo, Liliane Maria Fróes; Bitondi, Márcia Maria Gentile; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino

    2012-09-01

    Insects are able to combat infection by initiating an efficient immune response that involves synthesizing antimicrobial peptides and a range of other defense molecules. These responses may be costly to the organism, resulting in it exploiting endogenous resources to maintain homeostasis or support defense to the detriment of other physiological needs. We used queenless worker bees on distinct dietary regimes that may alter hemolymph protein storage and ovary activation to investigate the physiological costs of infection with Serratia marcescens. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a, the vitellogenin receptor, and vasa (which has a putative role in reproduction), was impaired in the infected bees. This impairment was mainly evident in the bees fed beebread, which caused significantly higher expression of these genes than did royal jelly or syrup, and this was confirmed at the vitellogenin and hexamerin 70a protein levels. Beebread was also the only diet that promoted ovary activation in the queenless bees, but this activation was significantly impaired by the infection. The expression of the genes encoding the storage proteins apolipophorins-I and -III and the lipophorin receptor was not altered by infection regardless the diet provided to the bees. Similarly, the storage of apolipophorin-I in the hemolymph was only slightly impaired by the infection, independently of the supplied diet. Taken together these results indicate that, infection demands a physiological cost from the transcription of specific protein storage-related genes and from the reproductive capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distinct cell clusters touching islet cells induce islet cell replication in association with over-expression of Regenerating Gene (REG protein in fulminant type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Aida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet endocrine cell-supporting architectures, including islet encapsulating basement membranes (BMs, extracellular matrix (ECM, and possible cell clusters, are unclear. PROCEDURES: The architectures around islet cell clusters, including BMs, ECM, and pancreatic acinar-like cell clusters, were studied in the non-diabetic state and in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes in humans. RESULT: Immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that human islet cell clusters and acinar-like cell clusters adhere directly to each other with desmosomal structures and coated-pit-like structures between the two cell clusters. The two cell-clusters are encapsulated by a continuous capsule composed of common BMs/ECM. The acinar-like cell clusters have vesicles containing regenerating (REG Iα protein. The vesicles containing REG Iα protein are directly secreted to islet cells. In the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes, the acinar-like cell clusters over-expressed REG Iα protein. Islet endocrine cells, including beta-cells and non-beta cells, which were packed with the acinar-like cell clusters, show self-replication with a markedly increased number of Ki67-positive cells. CONCLUSION: The acinar-like cell clusters touching islet endocrine cells are distinct, because the cell clusters are packed with pancreatic islet clusters and surrounded by common BMs/ECM. Furthermore, the acinar-like cell clusters express REG Iα protein and secrete directly to neighboring islet endocrine cells in the non-diabetic state, and the cell clusters over-express REG Iα in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes with marked self-replication of islet cells.

  3. Distinct sperm nucleus behaviors between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination males are associated with replication and expression-related pathways in a gynogenetic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao-Jun; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhi; Ding, Miao; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2018-06-05

    Coexistence and transition of diverse sex determination strategies have been revealed in some ectothermic species, but the variation between males caused by different sex determination strategies and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Here, we used the gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) with both genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) strategies to illustrate this issue. We found out that males of GSD and TSD in gibel carp had similar morphology, testicular histology, sperm structure and sperm vitality. However, when maternal individuals were mated with males of GSD, sperm nucleus swelling and fusing with the female pronucleus were observed in the fertilized eggs. On the contrary, when maternal individuals were mated with males of TSD, sperm nucleus remained in the condensed status throughout the whole process. Subsequently, semen proteomics analysis unveiled that DNA replication and gene expression-related pathways were inhibited in the sperm from males of TSD compared to males of GSD, and most differentially expressed proteins associated with DNA replication, transcription and translation were down-regulated. Moreover, via BrdU incorporation and immunofluorescence detection, male nucleus replication was revealed to be present in the fertilized eggs by the sperm from males of GSD, but absent in the fertilized eggs by the sperm from males of TSD. These findings indicate that DNA replication and gene expression-related pathways are associated with the distinct sperm nucleus development behaviors in fertilized eggs in response to the sperm from males of GSD and TSD. And this study is the first attempt to screen the differences between males determined via GSD and TSD in gynogenetic species, which might give a hint for understanding evolutionary adaption of diverse sex determination mechanisms in unisexual vertebrates.

  4. Distinctive Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    The refugee, in India's Partition history, appears as an enigmatic construct - part pitiful, part heroic, though mostly shorn of agency - representing the surface of the human tragedy of Partition. Yet this archetype masks the undercurrent of social distinctions that produced hierarchies of post...

  5. Glutathione transferase supergene family in tomato: Salt stress-regulated expression of representative genes from distinct GST classes in plants primed with salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszár, Jolán; Horváth, Edit; Váry, Zsolt; Gallé, Ágnes; Bela, Krisztina; Brunner, Szilvia; Tari, Irma

    2014-05-01

    A family tree of the multifunctional proteins, glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) was created in Solanum lycopersicum based on homology to known Arabidopsis GSTs. The involvement of selected SlGSTs was studied in salt stress response of tomato primed with salicylic acid (SA) or in un-primed plants by real-time qPCR. Selected tau GSTs (SlGSTU23, SlGSTU26) were up-regulated in the leaves, while GSTs from lambda, theta, dehydroascorbate reductase and zeta classes (SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2, SlDHAR5, SlGSTZ2) in the root tissues under salt stress. Priming with SA exhibited a concentration dependency; SA mitigated the salt stress injury and caused characteristic changes in the expression pattern of SlGSTs only at 10(-4) M concentration. SlGSTF4 displayed a significant up-regulation in the leaves, while the abundance of SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2 and SlGSTZ2 transcripts were enhanced in the roots of plants primed with high SA concentration. Unexpectedly, under high salinity the SlDHAR2 expression decreased in primed roots as compared to the salt-stressed plants, however, the up-regulation of SlDHAR5 isoenzyme contributed to the maintenance of DHAR activity in roots primed with high SA. The members of lambda, theta and zeta class GSTs have a specific role in salt stress acclimation of tomato, while SlGSTU26 and SlGSTF4, the enzymes with high glutathione conjugating activity, characterize a successful priming in both roots and leaves. In contrast to low concentration, high SA concentration induced those GSTs in primed roots, which were up-regulated under salt stress. Our data indicate that induction of GSTs provide a flexible tool in maintaining redox homeostasis during unfavourable conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Distinct mechanisms of axonal globule formation in mice expressing human wild type α-synuclein or dementia with Lewy bodies-linked P123H ß-synuclein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekigawa Akio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axonopathy is critical in the early pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB. Axonal swellings such as globules and spheroids are a distinct feature of axonopathy and our recent study showed that transgenic (tg mice expressing DLB-linked P123H β-synuclein (P123H βS were characterized by P123H βS-immunoreactive axonal swellings (P123H βS-globules. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate α-synuclein (αS-immunoreactive axonal swellings (αS-globules in the brains of tg mice expressing human wild-type αS and to compare them with the globules in P123H βS tg mice. Results In αS tg mice, αS-globules were formed in an age-dependent manner in various brain regions, including the thalamus and basal ganglia. These globules were composed of autophagosome-like membranous structures and were reminiscent of P123H βS-globules in P123H βS tg mice. In the αS-globules, frequent clustering and deformation of mitochondria were observed. These changes were associated with oxidative stress, based on staining of nitrated αS and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE. In accord with the absence of mitochondria in the P123H βS-globules, staining of nitrated αS and 4-HNE in these globules was weaker than that for αS-globules. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, the PARK8 of familial PD, was detected exclusively in αS-globules, suggesting a specific role of this molecule in these globules. Conclusions Lysosomal pathology was similarly observed for both αS- and P123H βS-globules, while oxidative stress was associated with the αS-globules, and to a lesser extent with the P123H βS-globules. Other pathologies, such as mitochondrial alteration and LRRK2 accumulation, were exclusively detected for αS-globules. Collectively, both αS- and P123H βS-globules were formed through similar but distinct pathogenic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that synuclein

  7. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cDNA cloning, two-dimensional gel immunoblotting, and amino acid microsequencing identified three sequence-unique and distinct proteins that constitute a subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins corresponding to hnRNPs H, H', and F. These proteins share...... epitopes and sequence identity with two other proteins, isoelectric focusing sample spot numbers 2222 (37.6 kDa; pI 6.5) and 2326 (39.5 kDa; pI 6.6), indicating that the subfamily may contain additional members. The identity between hnRNPs H and H' is 96%, between H and F 78%, and between H' and F 75......%, respectively. The three proteins contain three repeats, which we denote quasi-RRMs (qRRMs) since they have a remote similarity to the RNA recognition motif (RRM). The three qRRMs of hnRNP H, with a few additional NH2-terminal amino acids, were constructed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and used...

  8. The marine bacterium Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 degrades a wide range of lipids and hydrocarbons through the formation of oleolytic biofilms with distinct gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Julie; Camus, Arantxa; Mitteau, Isabelle; Vaysse, Pierre-Joseph; Goulas, Philippe; Grimaud, Régis; Sivadon, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic compounds (mainly lipids and hydrocarbons) represent a significant part of the organic matter in marine waters, and their degradation has an important impact in the carbon fluxes within oceans. However, because they are nearly insoluble in the water phase, their degradation by microorganisms occurs at the interface with water and thus requires specific adaptations such as biofilm formation. We show that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 develops biofilms, referred to as oleolytic biofilms, on a large variety of hydrophobic substrates, including hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, triglycerides, and wax esters. Microarray analysis revealed that biofilm growth on n-hexadecane or triolein involved distinct genetic responses, together with a core of common genes that might concern general mechanisms of biofilm formation. Biofilm growth on triolein modulated the expression of hundreds of genes in comparison with n-hexadecane. The processes related to primary metabolism and genetic information processing were downregulated. Most of the genes that were overexpressed on triolein had unknown functions. Surprisingly, their genome localization was restricted to a few regions identified as putative genomic islands or mobile elements. These results are discussed with regard to the adaptive responses triggered by M. hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 to occupy a specific niche in marine ecosystems. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The ctenidium of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, expresses an ammonium transporter 1 that displays light-suppressed gene and protein expression and may be involved in ammonia excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Mel V; Hiong, Kum C; Goh, Enan J K; Choo, Celine Y L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2018-04-24

    Ammonium transporters (AMTs) can participate in ammonia uptake or excretion across the plasma membrane of prokaryotic, plant and invertebrate cells. The giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, harbors nitrogen-deficient symbiotic zooxanthellae, and normally conducts light-enhanced ammonia absorption to benefit the symbionts. Nonetheless, it can excrete ammonia when there is a supply of exogenous nitrogen or exposed to continuous darkness. This study aimed to elucidate the role of AMT1 in the ctenidium of T. squamosa by cloning and characterizing the AMT1/AMT1, determining its subcellular localization, and examining changes in its transcript and protein expression levels in response to light exposure. The cDNA coding sequence of AMT1 from T. squamosa consisted of 1527 bp and encoded 508 amino acids of 54.6 kDa. AMT1-immunofluorescence was detected mainly at the apical epithelium of ctenidial filaments, and it decreased significantly after 12 h of exposure to light. By contrast, the epithelial cells surrounding the tertiary water channels in the ctentidium, which are known to exhibit light-enhanced glutamine synthetase expression and take part in the assimilation of exogenous ammonia in light, did not display any AMT1-immunolabelling. Furthermore, the transcript level and protein abundance of ctenidial AMT1/AMT1 decreased significantly at the 6th and 12th h of light exposure. Taken together, these results indicate that AMT1 might participate in ammonia excretion instead of ammonia absorption and assimilation in T. squamosa. It is probable that the expression levels of AMT1/AMT1 need to be down-regulated during light exposure to achieve light-enhanced ammonia uptake.

  10. Differential local tissue permissiveness influences the final fate of GPR17‐expressing oligodendrocyte precursors in two distinct models of demyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppolino, Giusy T.; Marangon, Davide; Negri, Camilla; Menichetti, Gianluca; Fumagalli, Marta; Gelosa, Paolo; Dimou, Leda; Furlan, Roberto; Lecca, Davide

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Promoting remyelination is recognized as a novel strategy to foster repair in neurodegenerative demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. In this respect, the receptor GPR17, recently emerged as a new target for remyelination, is expressed by early oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) and after a certain differentiation stage it has to be downregulated to allow progression to mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Here, we took advantage of the first inducible GPR17 reporter mouse line (GPR17‐iCreERT2xCAG‐eGFP mice) allowing to follow the final fate of GPR17+ cells by tamoxifen‐induced GFP‐labeling to unveil the destiny of these cells in two demyelination models: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), characterized by marked immune cell activation and inflammation, and cuprizone induced demyelination, where myelin dysfunction is achieved by a toxic insult. In both models, demyelination induced a strong increase of fluorescent GFP+ cells at damaged areas. However, only in the cuprizone model reacting GFP+ cells terminally differentiated to mature oligodendrocytes, thus contributing to remyelination. In EAE, GFP+ cells were blocked at immature stages and never became myelinating oligodendrocytes. We suggest these strikingly distinct fates be due to different permissiveness of the local CNS environment. Based on previously reported GPR17 activation by emergency signals (e.g., Stromal Derived Factor‐1), we propose that a marked inflammatory milieu, such as that reproduced in EAE, induces GPR17 overactivation resulting in impaired downregulation, untimely and prolonged permanence in OPCs, leading, in turn, to differentiation blockade. Combined treatments with remyelinating agents and anti‐inflammatory drugs may represent new potential adequate strategies to halt neurodegeneration and foster recovery. PMID:29424466

  11. New displays and new emotions: a commentary on Rozin and Cohen (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, Dacher; Shiota, Michelle N

    2003-03-01

    In this article, the authors elaborate on 3 ideas advanced in P. Rozin and A. B. Cohen's (2003) innovative study of facial expression. Taking a cue from their discovery of new expressive behaviors (e.g., the narrowed eyebrows), the authors review recent studies showing that emotions are conveyed in more channels than usually studied, including posture, gaze patterns, voice, and touch. Building on their claim that confusion has a distinct display, the authors review evidence showing distinct displays for 3 self-conscious emotions (embarrassment, shame, and pride), 5 positive emotions (amusement, desire, happiness, love, interest), and sympathy and compassion. Finally, the authors offer a functional definition of emotion to integrate these findings on "new" displays and emotions.

  12. The mouse tumor cell lines EL4 and RMA display mosaic expression of NK-related and certain other surface molecules and appear to have a common origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gays, F; Unnikrishnan, M; Shrestha, S; Fraser, K P; Brown, A R; Tristram, C M; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z M; Brooks, C G

    2000-05-15

    As a potential means for facilitating studies of NK cell-related molecules, we examined the expression of these molecules on a range of mouse tumor cell lines. Of the lines we initially examined, only EL4 and RMA expressed such molecules, both lines expressing several members of the Ly49 and NKRP1 families. Unexpectedly, several of the NK-related molecules, together with certain other molecules including CD2, CD3, CD4, CD32, and CD44, were often expressed in a mosaic manner, even on freshly derived clones, indicating frequent switching in expression. In each case examined, switching was controlled at the mRNA level, with expression of CD3zeta determining expression of the entire CD3-TCR complex. Each of the variable molecules was expressed independently, with the exception that CD3 was restricted to cells that also expressed CD2. Treatment with drugs that affect DNA methylation and histone acetylation could augment the expression of at least some of the variable molecules. The striking phenotypic similarity between EL4 and RMA led us to examine the state of their TCRbeta genes. Both lines had identical rearrangements on both chromosomes, indicating that RMA is in fact a subline of EL4. Overall, these findings suggest that EL4 is an NK-T cell tumor that may have retained a genetic mechanism that permits the variable expression of a restricted group of molecules involved in recognition and signaling.

  13. The Use of Gestural Modes to Enhance Expressive Conducting at All Levels of Entering Behavior through the Use of Illustrators, Affect Displays and Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In this article, I discuss the use of illustrators, affect displays and regulators, which I consider to be non-verbal communication categories through which conductors can employ a more varied approach to body use, gesture and non-verbal communication. These categories employ the use of a conductor's hands and arms, face, eyes and body in a way…

  14. Oligo-dT anchored cDNA-SCoT: a novel differential display method for analyzing differential gene expression in response to several stress treatments in mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Cong; He, Xin-Hua; Hu, Ying; Yu, Hai-xia; Ou, Shi-Jin; Fang, Zhong-Bin

    2014-09-15

    Differential display is a powerful technique for analyzing differences in gene expression. Oligo-dT cDNAstart codon targeted marker (cDNA-SCoT) technique is a novel, simple, cheap, rapid, and efficient method for differential gene expression research. In the present study, the oligo-dT anchored cDNA-SCoT technique was exploited to identify differentially expressed genes during several stress treatments in mango. A total of 37 primers combined with oligo-dT anchor primers 3side amplified approximately 150 fragments of 150 bp to 1500 bp in length. Up to 100 fragments were differentially expressed among the stress treatments and control samples, among which 92 were obtained and sequenced. Out of the 92 transcript derived fragments (TDFs), 70% were highly homologous to known genes, and 30% encoded unclassified proteins with unknown functions. The expression pattern of nine genes with known functions involved in several abiotic stresses in other species was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) under cold (4 °C), salinity (NaCl), polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 6000), and heavy metal treatments in leaves and stems at different time points (0, 24, 48, and 72 h). The expression patterns of the genes (TDF4, TDF7, TDF23, TDF45, TDF49, TDF50, TDF57, TDF91 and TDF92) that had direct or indirect relationships with cold, salinity, drought and heavy metal stress response were analyzed through qRT-PCR. The possible roles of these genes are discussed. This study suggests that the oligo-dT anchored cDNA-SCoT differential display method is a useful tool to serve as an initial step for characterizing transcriptional changes induced by abiotic stresses and provide gene information for further study and application in genetic improvement and breeding in mango. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. C/EBPα Expression is Partially Regulated by C/EBPβ in Response to DNA Damage and C/EBPα Deficient Fibroblasts Display an Impaired G1 Checkpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rakesh; Thompson, Elizabeth A.; Yoon, Kyungsil; Smart, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    We observed that C/EBPα is highly inducible in primary fibroblasts by DNA damaging agents that induce strand breaks, alkylate and crosslink DNA as well as those that produce bulky DNA lesions. Fibroblasts deficient in C/EBPα (C/EBPα-/-) display an impaired G1 checkpoint as evidenced by inappropriate entry into S-phase in response to DNA damage and these cells also display an enhanced G1 to S transition in response to mitogens. The induction of C/EBPα by DNA damage in fibroblasts does not require p53. EMSA analysis of nuclear extracts prepared from UVB- and MNNG-treated fibroblasts revealed increased binding of C/EBPβ to a C/EBP consensus sequence and ChIP analysis revealed increased C/EBPβ binding to the C/EBPα promoter. To determine whether C/EBPβ has a role in the regulation of C/EBPα we treated C/EBPβ-/- fibroblasts with UVB or MNNG. We observed C/EBPα induction was impaired in both UVB- and MNNG- treated C/EBPβ-/- fibroblasts. Our study reveals a novel role for C/EBPβ in the regulation of C/EBPα in response to DNA damage and provides definitive genetic evidence that C/EBPα has a critical role in the DNA damage G1 checkpoint. PMID:19581927

  16. Distinct Cell-Specific Expression of Homospermidine Synthase Involved in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Three Species of the Boraginales1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemüller, Daniel; Reimann, Andreas; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Homospermidine synthase (HSS) is the first specific enzyme in pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) biosynthesis, a pathway involved in the plant’s chemical defense. HSS has been shown to be recruited repeatedly by duplication of a gene involved in primary metabolism. Within the lineage of the Boraginales, only one gene duplication event gave rise to HSS. Here, we demonstrate that the tissue-specific expression of HSS in three boraginaceous species, Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale, is unique with respect to plant organ, tissue, and cell type. Within H. indicum, HSS is expressed exclusively in nonspecialized cells of the lower epidermis of young leaves and shoots. In S. officinale, HSS expression has been detected in the cells of the root endodermis and in leaves directly underneath developing inflorescences. In young roots of C. officinale, HSS is detected only in cells of the endodermis, but in a later developmental stage, additionally in the pericycle. The individual expression patterns are compared with those within the Senecioneae lineage (Asteraceae), where HSS expression is reproducibly found in specific cells of the endodermis and the adjacent cortex parenchyma of the roots. The individual expression patterns within the Boraginales species are discussed as being a requirement for the successful recruitment of HSS after gene duplication. The diversity of HSS expression within this lineage adds a further facet to the already diverse patterns of expression that have been observed for HSS in other PA-producing plant lineages, making this PA-specific enzyme one of the most diverse expressed proteins described in the literature. PMID:22566491

  17. Locked Nucleic Acid-Based In Situ Hybridization Reveals miR-7a as a Hypothalamus-Enriched MicroRNA with a Distinct Expression Pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzer, S; Silahtaroglu, A; Meister, B

    2012-01-01

    , a part of the brain that controls vital bodily functions, we employed locked nucleic acid (LNA) - fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The expression pattern of the mature miRNAs miR-7a, miR-7b, miR-137 and miR-153 in mouse brain tissue sections was investigated. Whereas all studied miRNAs were......R-7a expression was particularly prominent in the subfornical organ, suprachiasmatic, paraventricular, periventricular, supraoptic, dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei. Identical expression patterns for miR-7a was seen in mouse and rat hypothalamus. By combining LNA-FISH with immunohistochemistry...

  18. Cre recombinase expression can result in phenotypic aberrations in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppoolse, E.; Vroomen, de M.J.; Roelofs, D.; Smit, J.; Gennip, van F.; Hersmus, B.J.M.; Nijkamp, H.J.J.; Haaren, van M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The cre recombinase gene was stably introduced and expressed in tomato, petunia and Nicotiana tabacum. Some plants expressing the cre gene driven by a CaMV 35S promoter displayed growth retardation and a distinct pattern of chlorosis in their leaves. Although no direct relation can be proven between

  19. Cre recombinase expression can result in phenotypic aberrations in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppoolse, Eric R; de Vroomen, Marianne J; Roelofs, Dick; Smit, Jaap; van Gennip, Femke; Hersmus, Bart J M; Nijkamp, H John J; van Haaren, Mark J J

    The cre recombinase gene was stably introduced and expressed in tomato, petunia and Nicotiana tabacum. Some plants expressing the cre gene driven by a CaMV 35S promoter displayed growth retardation and a distinct pattern of chlorosis in their leaves. Although no direct relation can be proven between

  20. Chimeric bispecific OC/TR monoclonal antibody mediates lysis of tumor cells expressing the folate-binding protein (MOv18) and displays decreased immunogenicity in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, R. M.; Warnaar, S. O.; Sanborn, D.; Lamers, C. H.; Bolhuis, R. L.; Litvinov, S. V.; Zurawski, V. R.; Coney, L. R.

    1997-01-01

    The bispecific OC/TR monoclonal antibody (mAb) cross-links the CD3 molecule on T cells with the human folate-binding protein (FBP), which is highly expressed on nonmucinous ovarian carcinomas. Clinical trials of patients with ovarian carcinoma with the OC/TR mAb have shown some complete and partial

  1. Turkish- and English-speaking children display sensitivity to perceptual context in the referring expressions they produce in speech and gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; So, Wing-Chee; Özyürek, Asli; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Speakers choose a particular expression based on many factors, including availability of the referent in the perceptual context. We examined whether, when expressing referents, monolingual English- and Turkish-speaking children: (1) are sensitive to perceptual context, (2) express this sensitivity in language-specific ways, and (3) use co-speech gestures to specify referents that are underspecified. We also explored the mechanisms underlying children’s sensitivity to perceptual context. Children described short vignettes to an experimenter under two conditions: The characters in the vignettes were present in the perceptual context (perceptual context); the characters were absent (no perceptual context). Children routinely used nouns in the no perceptual context condition, but shifted to pronouns (English-speaking children) or omitted arguments (Turkish-speaking children) in the perceptual context condition. Turkish-speaking children used underspecified referents more frequently than English-speaking children in the perceptual context condition; however, they compensated for the difference by using gesture to specify the forms. Gesture thus gives children learning structurally different languages a way to achieve comparable levels of specification while at the same time adhering to the referential expressions dictated by their language. PMID:22904588

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum-directed recombinant mRNA displays subcellular localization equal to endogenous mRNA during transient expression in CHO cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert Kallehauge, Thomas; Kol, Stefan; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    When expressing pharmaceutical recombinant proteins in mammalian cells, the protein is commonly directed through the secretory pathway, in a signal peptide-dependent manner, to acquire specific post-translational modifications and to facilitate secretion into the culture medium. One key premise...

  3. Age-Dependent Brain Gene Expression and Copy Number Anomalies in Autism Suggest Distinct Pathological Processes at Young Versus Mature Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Maggie L.; Pramparo, Tiziano; Winn, Mary E.; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J.; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that disp...

  4. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    discusses aspects of process display design taking into account both the designer's and the operator's points of view. Three aspects are emphasized: the operator tasks, the display content and the display form. The distinction between these three aspects is the basis for proposing an outline for a display......Today, process displays used in industry are often designed on the basis of piping and instrumentation diagrams without any method of ensuring that the needs of the operators are fulfilled. Therefore, a method for a systematic approach to the design of process displays is needed. This paper...... by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...

  5. Switch from perforin-expressing to perforin-deficient CD8(+) T cells accounts for two distinct types of effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiraz, Avihai; Garber, Orit Gal; Harari, Shaul; Hassin, David; Berke, Gideon

    2009-09-01

    Although CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) exhibit both Fas ligand (FasL) -based and perforin-based lytic activities, the accepted hallmark of a fully active CTL remains its perforin killing machinery. Yet the origin, rationale for possessing both a slow-acting (FasL) and a fast-acting (perforin) killing mechanism has remained enigmatic. Here we have investigated perforin expression in CTL directly involved in acute tumour (i.e. leukaemias EL4 and L1210) allograft rejection occurring within the peritoneal cavity. We show that at the height of the immune response, the majority of conjugate-forming CD8(+) CTL express high levels of perforin messenger RNA and protein, and kill essentially via perforin. Later however, coinciding with complete rejection, fully cytocidal CTL emerge which exhibit a stark decrease in perforin and now kill preferentially via constitutively expressed FasL. Although late in emergence, and persistent, these powerful CTL are neither effector-memory nor memory CTL. This finding has implications for the monitoring of anti-transplant responses in clinical settings, based on assessing perforin expression in graft infiltrating CD8(+) T cells. The results show that as the immune response progresses in vivo, targeted cellular suicide mainly prunes high perforin-expressing CD8(+) cells, resulting in the gradual switch in effector CTL, from mostly perforin-based to largely Fas/FasL-based killers. Hence, two kinds of CD8(+) CTL have two killing strategies.

  6. Switch from perforin-expressing to perforin-deficient CD8+ T cells accounts for two distinct types of effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiraz, Avihai; Garber, Orit Gal; Harari, Shaul; Hassin, David; Berke, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    Although CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) exhibit both Fas ligand (FasL) -based and perforin-based lytic activities, the accepted hallmark of a fully active CTL remains its perforin killing machinery. Yet the origin, rationale for possessing both a slow-acting (FasL) and a fast-acting (perforin) killing mechanism has remained enigmatic. Here we have investigated perforin expression in CTL directly involved in acute tumour (i.e. leukaemias EL4 and L1210) allograft rejection occurring within the peritoneal cavity. We show that at the height of the immune response, the majority of conjugate-forming CD8+ CTL express high levels of perforin messenger RNA and protein, and kill essentially via perforin. Later however, coinciding with complete rejection, fully cytocidal CTL emerge which exhibit a stark decrease in perforin and now kill preferentially via constitutively expressed FasL. Although late in emergence, and persistent, these powerful CTL are neither effector-memory nor memory CTL. This finding has implications for the monitoring of anti-transplant responses in clinical settings, based on assessing perforin expression in graft infiltrating CD8+ T cells. The results show that as the immune response progresses in vivo, targeted cellular suicide mainly prunes high perforin-expressing CD8+ cells, resulting in the gradual switch in effector CTL, from mostly perforin-based to largely Fas/FasL-based killers. Hence, two kinds of CD8+ CTL have two killing strategies. PMID:19689737

  7. Overexpression of three TaEXPA1 homoeologous genes with distinct expression divergence in hexaploid wheat exhibit functional retention in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaorong Hu

    Full Text Available Common wheat is a hexaploid species with most of the genes present as triplicate homoeologs. Expression divergences of homoeologs are frequently observed in wheat as well as in other polyploid plants. However, little is known about functional variances among homologous genes arising from polyploidy. Expansins play diverse roles in plant developmental processes related to the action of cell wall loosening. Expression of the three TaEXPA1 homoeologs varied dynamically at different stages and organs, and epigenetic modifications contribute to the expression divergence of three TaEXPA1 homoeologs during wheat development. Nevertheless, their functions remain to be clarified. We found that over expression of TaEXPA1-A, -B and -D produced similar morphological changes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, including increased germination and growth rate during seedling and adult stages, indicating that the proteins encoded by these three wheat TaEXPA1 homoeologs have similar (or conserved functions in Arabidopsis. Collectively, our present study provided an example of a set of homoeologous genes expression divergence in different developmental stages and organs in hexaploid wheat but functional retention in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  8. The plasmid-encoded Ipf and Klf fimbriae display different expression and varying roles in the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis in mouse vs. avian hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Aviv

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two previously uncharacterized pESI-encoded chaperone-usher fimbriae, named Ipf and Klf. While Ipf homologs are rare and were found only in S. enterica subspecies diarizonae and subspecies VII, Klf is related to the known K88-Fae fimbria and klf clusters were identified in seven S. enterica subspecies I serovars, harboring interchanging alleles of the fimbria major subunit, KlfG. Regulation studies showed that the klf genes expression is negatively and positively controlled by the pESI-encoded regulators KlfL and KlfB, respectively, and are activated by the ancestral leucine-responsive regulator (Lrp. ipf genes are negatively regulated by Fur and activated by OmpR. Furthermore, induced expression of both klf and ipf clusters occurs under microaerobic conditions and at 41°C compared to 37°C, in-vitro. Consistent with these results, we demonstrate higher expression of ipf and klf in chicks compared to mice, characterized by physiological temperature of 41.2°C and 37°C, respectively. Interestingly, while Klf was dispensable for S. Infantis colonization in the mouse, Ipf was required for maximal colonization in the murine ileum. In contrast to these phenotypes in mice, both Klf and Ipf contributed to a restrained infection in chicks, where the absence of these fimbriae has led to moderately higher bacterial burden in the avian host. Taken together, these data suggest that physiological differences between host species, such as the body temperature, can confer differences in fimbriome expression, affecting Salmonella colonization and other host-pathogen interplays.

  9. ArraySolver: An Algorithm for Colour-Coded Graphical Display and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Statistics for Comparing Microarray Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    The massive surge in the production of microarray data poses a great challenge for proper analysis and interpretation. In recent years numerous computational tools have been developed to extract meaningful interpretation of microarray gene expression data. However, a convenient tool for two-groups comparison of microarray data is still lacking and users have to rely on commercial statistical packages that might be costly and require special skills, in addition to extra time and effort for tra...

  10. Global gene expression profiling displays a network of dysregulated genes in non-atherosclerotic arterial tissue from patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skov Vibe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generalized arterial alterations, such as endothelial dysfunction, medial matrix accumulations, and calcifications are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D. These changes may render the vessel wall more susceptible to injury; however, the molecular characteristics of such diffuse pre-atherosclerotic changes in diabetes are only superficially known. Methods To identify the molecular alterations of the generalized arterial disease in T2D, DNA microarrays were applied to examine gene expression changes in normal-appearing, non-atherosclerotic arterial tissue from 10 diabetic and 11 age-matched non-diabetic men scheduled for a coronary by-pass operation. Gene expression changes were integrated with GO-Elite, GSEA, and Cytoscape to identify significant biological pathways and networks. Results Global pathway analysis revealed differential expression of gene-sets representing matrix metabolism, triglyceride synthesis, inflammation, insulin signaling, and apoptosis. The network analysis showed a significant cluster of dysregulated genes coding for both intra- and extra-cellular proteins associated with vascular cell functions together with genes related to insulin signaling and matrix remodeling. Conclusions Our results identify pathways and networks involved in the diffuse vasculopathy present in non-atherosclerotic arterial tissue in patients with T2D and confirmed previously observed mRNA-alterations. These abnormalities may play a role for the arterial response to injury and putatively for the accelerated atherogenesis among patients with diabetes.

  11. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic gene expression in a polygenic obese line of mice displaying hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Melissa S; Ceddia, Ryan P; House, Ralph L; Cassady, Joseph P; Eisen, Eugene J; Eling, Thomas E; Collins, Jennifer B; Grissom, Sherry F; Odle, Jack

    2010-09-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes a rapid reduction of body and adipose mass in mice. In addition to changes in adipose tissue, numerous studies have reported alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism. Livers of CLA-fed mice gain mass, partly due to lipid accumulation; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate these mechanisms, we examined fatty acid composition and gene expression profiles of livers from a polygenic obese line of mice fed 1% trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 14 days. Analysis of gene expression data led to the identification of 1393 genes differentially expressed in the liver of CLA-fed male mice at a nominal P value of .01, and 775 were considered significant using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of .05. While surprisingly few genes in lipid metabolism were impacted, pathway analysis found that protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathways signaling pathways were affected by CLA treatment and 98 of the 775 genes were found to be regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, a transcription factor important in controlling liver metabolic status. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Distinct regulation of c-myb gene expression by HoxA9, Meis1 and Pbx proteins in normal hematopoietic progenitors and transformed myeloid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dassé, E; Volpe, G; Walton, D S; Wilson, N; Del Pozzo, W; O'Neill, L P; Slany, R K; Frampton, J; Dumon, S

    2012-01-01

    The proto-oncogenic protein c-Myb is an essential regulator of hematopoiesis and is frequently deregulated in hematological diseases such as lymphoma and leukemia. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the aberrant expression of c-Myb in myeloid leukemia, we analyzed and compared c-myb gene transcriptional regulation using two cell lines modeling normal hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and transformed myelomonocytic blasts. We report that the transcription factors HoxA9, Meis1, Pbx1 and Pbx2 bind in vivo to the c-myb locus and maintain its expression through different mechanisms in HPCs and leukemic cells. Our analysis also points to a critical role for Pbx2 in deregulating c-myb expression in murine myeloid cells cotransformed by the cooperative activity of HoxA9 and Meis1. This effect is associated with an intronic positioning of epigenetic marks and RNA polymerase II binding in the orthologous region of a previously described alternative promoter for c-myb. Taken together, our results could provide a first hint to explain the abnormal expression of c-myb in leukemic cells

  13. Simvastatin and Dipentyl Phthalate Lower Ex vivo Testicular Testosterone Production and Exhibit Additive Effects on Testicular Testosterone and Gene Expression Via Distinct Mechanistic Pathways in the Fetal Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex differentiation of the male reproductive tract in mammals is driven, in part, by fetal androgen production. In utero, some phthalate esters (PEs) alter fetal Leydig cell differentiation, reducing the expression of several genes associated with steroid synthesis/transport, and...

  14. Discovery of distinctive gene expression profiles in rheumatoid synovium using cDNA microarray technology: evidence for the existence of multiple pathways of tissue destruction and repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, TC van der Pouw; Gaalen, van FA; Huizinga, T.W.; Pieterman, E; Breedveld, F.C.; Verweij, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a heterogeneous disease. We used cDNA microarray technology to subclassify RA patients and disclose disease pathways in rheumatoid synovium. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression data identified two main groups of tissues (RA-I and RA-II). A total of 121 genes were

  15. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals a Massive, Aneuploidy-Dependent Transcriptional Deregulation and Distinct Differences between Lymph Node–Negative and Lymph Node–Positive Colon Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Hörmann, Patrick; Becker, Sandra; Hummon, Amanda B.; Wangsa, Danny; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Richard; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Ried, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To characterize patterns of global transcriptional deregulation in primary colon carcinomas, we did gene expression profiling of 73 tumors [Unio Internationale Contra Cancrum stage II (n = 33) and stage III (n = 40)] using oligonucleotide microarrays. For 30 of the tumors, expression profiles were compared with those from matched normal mucosa samples. We identified a set of 1,950 genes with highly significant deregulation between tumors and mucosa samples (P 5-fold average expression difference between normal colon mucosa and carcinomas, including up-regulation of MYC and of HMGA1, a putative oncogene. Furthermore, we identified 68 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between lymph node–negative and lymph node–positive tumors (P deregulated genes were validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in >40 tumor and normal mucosa samples with good concordance between the techniques. Finally, we established a relationship between specific genomic imbalances, which were mapped for 32 of the analyzed colon tumors by comparative genomic hybridization, and alterations of global transcriptional activity. Previously, we had conducted a similar analysis of primary rectal carcinomas. The systematic comparison of colon and rectal carcinomas revealed a significant overlap of genomic imbalances and transcriptional deregulation, including activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade, suggesting similar pathogenic pathways. PMID:17210682

  16. Flt3 ligand-eGFP-reporter expression characterizes functionally distinct subpopulations of CD150+ long-term repopulating murine hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornack, Julia; Kawano, Yohei; Garbi, Natalio; Hämmerling, Günter J; Melchers, Fritz; Tsuneto, Motokazu

    2017-09-01

    The pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow is a mixture of resting, proliferating, and differentiating cells. Long-term repopulating HSCs (LT-HSC) are routinely enriched as Lin - Sca1 + c-Kit + CD34 - Flt3 - CD150 + CD48 - cells. The Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) and its receptor Flt3 are important regulators of HSC maintenance, expansion and differentiation. Using Flt3L-eGFP reporter mice, we show that endogenous Flt3L-eGFP-reporter RNA expression correlates with eGFP-protein expression. This Flt3L-eGFP-reporter expression distinguishes two LT-HSC populations with differences in gene expressions and reconstituting potential. Thus, Flt3L-eGFP-reporter low cells are identified as predominantly resting HSCs with long-term repopulating capacities. In contrast, Flt3L-eGFP-reporter high cells are in majority proliferating HSCs with only short-term repopulating capacities. Flt3L-eGFP-reporter low cells express hypoxia, autophagy-inducing, and the LT-HSC-associated genes HoxB5 and Fgd5, while Flt3L-eGFP-reporter high HSCs upregulate genes involved in HSC differentiation. Flt3L-eGFP-reporter low cells develop to Flt3L-eGFP-reporter high cells in vitro, although Flt3L-eGFP-reporter high cells remain Flt3L-eGFP-reporter high . CD150 + Flt3L-eGFP-reporter low cells express either endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) or CD41, while Flt3L-eGFP-reporter high cells do express EPCR but not CD41. Thus, FACS-enrichment of Flt3/ Flt3L-eGFP-reporter negative, Lin - CD150 + CD48 - EPCR + CD41 + HSCs allows a further 5-fold enrichment of functional LT-HSCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Brun

    Full Text Available The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1-2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2, transgelin (TAGLN, calponin (CNN1, and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11 according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion

  18. Smooth Muscle-Like Cells Generated from Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Display Marker Gene Expression and Electrophysiological Competence Comparable to Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Juliane; Lutz, Katrin A; Neumayer, Katharina M H; Klein, Gerd; Seeger, Tanja; Uynuk-Ool, Tatiana; Wörgötter, Katharina; Schmid, Sandra; Kraushaar, Udo; Guenther, Elke; Rolauffs, Bernd; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Hart, Melanie L

    2015-01-01

    The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) differentiated toward a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype may provide an alternative for investigators interested in regenerating urinary tract organs such as the bladder where autologous smooth muscle cells cannot be used or are unavailable. In this study we measured the effects of good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant expansion followed by myogenic differentiation of human MSCs on the expression of a range of contractile (from early to late) myogenic markers in relation to the electrophysiological parameters to assess the functional role of the differentiated MSCs and found that differentiation of MSCs associated with electrophysiological competence comparable to bladder SMCs. Within 1-2 weeks of myogenic differentiation, differentiating MSCs significantly expressed alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA; ACTA2), transgelin (TAGLN), calponin (CNN1), and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC; MYH11) according to qRT-PCR and/or immunofluorescence and Western blot. Voltage-gated Na+ current levels also increased within the same time period following myogenic differentiation. In contrast to undifferentiated MSCs, differentiated MSCs and bladder SMCs exhibited elevated cytosolic Ca2+ transients in response to K+-induced depolarization and contracted in response to K+ indicating functional maturation of differentiated MSCs. Depolarization was suppressed by Cd2+, an inhibitor of voltage-gated Ca2+-channels. The expression of Na+-channels was pharmacologically identified as the Nav1.4 subtype, while the K+ and Ca2+ ion channels were identified by gene expression of KCNMA1, CACNA1C and CACNA1H which encode for the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel BKCa channels, Cav1.2 L-type Ca2+ channels and Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively. This protocol may be used to differentiate adult MSCs into smooth muscle-like cells with an intermediate-to-late SMC contractile phenotype exhibiting voltage-gated ion channel

  19. The PDE10A inhibitor MP-10 and haloperidol produce distinct gene expression profiles in the striatum and influence cataleptic behavior in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentzel, Renee C; Toolan, Dawn; Roberts, Rhonda; Koser, Amy Jo; Kandebo, Monika; Hershey, James; Renger, John J; Uslaner, Jason; Smith, Sean M

    2015-12-01

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) has garnered attention as a potential therapeutic target for schizophrenia due to its prominent striatal expression and ability to modulate striatal signaling. The present study used the selective PDE10A inhibitor MP-10 and the dopamine D2 antagonist haloperidol to compare effects of PDE10A inhibition and dopamine D2 blockade on striatopallidal (D2) and striatonigral (D1) pathway activation. Our studies confirmed that administration of MP-10 significantly elevates expression of the immediate early genes (IEG) c-fos, egr-1, and arc in rat striatum. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MP-10 induced egr-1 expression was distributed evenly between enkephalin-containing D2-neurons and substance P-containing D1-neurons. In contrast, haloperidol (3 mg/kg) selectively activated egr-1 expression in enkephalin neurons. Co-administration of MP-10 and haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) increased IEG expression to a greater extent than either compound alone. Similarly, in a rat catalepsy assay, administration of haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg) or MP-10 (3-30 mg/kg) did not produce cataleptic behavior when dosed alone, but co-administration of haloperidol with MP-10 (3 and 10 mg/kg) induced cataleptic behaviors. Interestingly, co-administration of haloperidol with a high dose of MP-10 (30 mg/kg) failed to produce cataleptic behavior. These findings are important for understanding the neural circuits involved in catalepsy and suggest that the behavioral effects produced by PDE10A inhibitors may be influenced by concomitant medication and the level of PDE10A inhibition achieved by the dose of the inhibitor. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Preprotachykinin A is expressed by a distinct population of excitatory neurons in the mouse superficial spinal dorsal horn including cells that respond to noxious and pruritic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mecinas, Maria; Bell, Andrew M; Marin, Alina; Taylor, Rebecca; Boyle, Kieran A; Furuta, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Polgár, Erika; Todd, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined 3 nonoverlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B, and gastrin-releasing peptide. Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P. We show with immunocytochemistry that its precursor protein (preprotachykinin A, PPTA) can be detected in ∼14% of lamina I-II neurons, and these are concentrated in the outer part of lamina II. Over 80% of the PPTA-positive cells lack the transcription factor Pax2 (which determines an inhibitory phenotype), and these account for ∼15% of the excitatory neurons in this region. They are different from the neurotensin, neurokinin B, or gastrin-releasing peptide neurons, although many of them contain somatostatin, which is widely expressed among superficial dorsal horn excitatory interneurons. We show that many of these cells respond to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli and to intradermal injection of pruritogens. Finally, we demonstrate that these cells can also be identified in a knock-in Cre mouse line (Tac1), although our findings suggest that there is an additional population of neurons that transiently express PPTA. This population of substance P-expressing excitatory neurons is likely to play an important role in the transmission of signals that are perceived as pain and itch.

  1. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  2. A Highly Efficient Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Microglia Model Displays a Neuronal-Co-culture-Specific Expression Profile and Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Haenseler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are increasingly implicated in brain pathology, particularly neurodegenerative disease, with many genes implicated in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and motor neuron disease expressed in microglia. There is, therefore, a need for authentic, efficient in vitro models to study human microglial pathological mechanisms. Microglia originate from the yolk sac as MYB-independent macrophages, migrating into the developing brain to complete differentiation. Here, we recapitulate microglial ontogeny by highly efficient differentiation of embryonic MYB-independent iPSC-derived macrophages then co-culture them with iPSC-derived cortical neurons. Co-cultures retain neuronal maturity and functionality for many weeks. Co-culture microglia express key microglia-specific markers and neurodegenerative disease-relevant genes, develop highly dynamic ramifications, and are phagocytic. Upon activation they become more ameboid, releasing multiple microglia-relevant cytokines. Importantly, co-culture microglia downregulate pathogen-response pathways, upregulate homeostatic function pathways, and promote a more anti-inflammatory and pro-remodeling cytokine response than corresponding monocultures, demonstrating that co-cultures are preferable for modeling authentic microglial physiology.

  3. Butylated hydroxyanisole induces distinct expression patterns of Nrf2 and detoxification enzymes in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lin [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Pharmacology, University of Nantong, Nantong (China); Chen, Yeru; Wu, Deqi; Shou, Jiafeng [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Shengcun [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Ye, Jie [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tang, Xiuwen, E-mail: xiuwentang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wang, Xiu Jun, E-mail: xjwang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-11-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is widely used as an antioxidant and preservative in food, food packaging and medicines. Its chemopreventive properties are attributing to its ability to activate the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which directs central genetic programs of detoxification and protection against oxidative stress. This study was to investigate the histological changes of Nrf2 and its regulated phase II enzymes Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in wild-type (WT) and Nrf2{sup −/−} mice induced by BHA. The mice were given a 200 mg/kg oral dose of BHA daily for three days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, in the liver from WT mice, BHA increased Nqo1 staining in hepatocytes, predominately in the pericentral region. In contrast, the induction of AKR1B8 appeared mostly in hepatocytes in the periportal region. The basal and inducible Ho-1 was located almost exclusively in Kupffer cells. In the small intestine from WT mice, the inducible expression patterns of Nqo1 and AKR1B8 were nearly identical to that of Nrf2, with more intense staining in the villus than that the crypt. Conversely, Keap1 was more highly expressed in the crypt, where the proliferative cells reside. Our study demonstrates that BHA elicited differential expression patterns of phase II-detoxifying enzymes in the liver and small intestine from WT but not Nrf2{sup −/−} mice, demonstrating a cell type specific response to BHA in vivo. - Highlights: • Histological view of basal and inducible Nrf2 and its targets in vivo • Induction of detoxification enzymes by BHA is cell-type dependent. • BHA induces the expression of HO-1 in Kupffer cells.

  4. Human 45,X fibroblast transcriptome reveals distinct differentially expressed genes including long noncoding RNAs potentially associated with the pathophysiology of Turner syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shriram N Rajpathak

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality characterized by the absence of whole or part of the X chromosome in females. This X aneuploidy condition is associated with a diverse set of clinical phenotypes such as gonadal dysfunction, short stature, osteoporosis and Type II diabetes mellitus, among others. These phenotypes differ in their severity and penetrance among the affected individuals. Haploinsufficiency for a few X linked genes has been associated with some of these disease phenotypes. RNA sequencing can provide valuable insights to understand molecular mechanism of disease process. In the current study, we have analysed the transcriptome profiles of human untransformed 45,X and 46,XX fibroblast cells and identified differential expression of genes in these two karyotypes. Functional analysis revealed that these differentially expressing genes are associated with bone differentiation, glucose metabolism and gonadal development pathways. We also report differential expression of lincRNAs in X monosomic cells. Our observations provide a basis for evaluation of cellular and molecular mechanism(s in the establishment of Turner syndrome phenotypes.

  5. Cat odor exposure induces distinct changes in the exploratory behavior and Wfs1 gene expression in C57Bl/6 and 129Sv mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raud, Sirli; Sütt, Silva; Plaas, Mario; Luuk, Hendrik; Innos, Jürgen; Philips, Mari-Anne; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero

    2007-10-16

    129Sv and C57Bl/6 (Bl6) strains are two most widely used inbred mice strains for generation of transgenic animals. The present study confirms the existence of substantial differences in the behavior of these two mice strains. The exploratory behavior of Bl6 mice in a novel environment was significantly higher compared to 129Sv mice. The exposure of mice to cat odor-induced an anxiety-like state in Bl6, but not in 129Sv mice. The levels of Wfs1 gene expression did not differ in the prefrontal cortex, mesolimbic area and temporal lobe of experimentally naive Bl6 and 129Sv mice. However, after cat odor exposure the expression of Wfs1 gene was significantly lower in the mesolimbic area and temporal lobe of Bl6 mice compared to 129Sv strain. Dynamics of Wfs1 gene expression and exploratory behavior suggest that the down-regulation of Wfs1 gene in Bl6 mice might be related to the increased anxiety. Further studies are needed to test the robustness and possible causal relationship of this finding.

  6. Molecular diversity of tuliposide B-converting enzyme in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana): identification of the third isozyme with a distinct expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji; Kuchida, Ryo; Kitaoka, Naoki; Kato, Yasuo

    2018-02-23

    6-Tuliposide B (PosB), a major secondary metabolite that accumulates in tulip (Tulipa gesneriana), is converted to the antibacterial lactone, tulipalin B (PaB), by PosB-converting enzyme (TCEB). TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R, which encode TCEB, are specifically expressed in tulip pollen and roots, respectively, but are hardly expressed in other tissues (e.g. leaves) despite the presence of substantial PosB-converting activity, suggesting the existence of another TCEB isozyme. Here, we describe the identification of TgTCEB-L ("L" for leaf), a paralog of TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R, from leaves via native enzyme purification. The enzymatic characters of TgTCEB-L, including catalytic activity and subcellular localization, were substantially the same as those of TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R. However, TgTCEB-L did not exhibit tissue-specific expression. Identification of TgTCEB-L explains the PosB-converting activity detected in tissues where TgTCEB1 and TgTCEB-R transcripts could not be detected, indicating that tulip subtilizes the three TgTCEB isozymes depending on the tissue.

  7. Solar-simulated radiation and heat treatment induced metalloproteinase-1 expression in cultured dermal fibroblasts via distinct pathways: implications on reduction of sun-associated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Cheng-Che E; Wu, Ching-Shang; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2013-12-01

    Sun exposure is an important environmental factor affecting human beings. Most knowledge regarding solar aging focused on light radiation (photoaging), and little emphasis has been placed on heat, a factor that is also closely associated with sun exposure. This study was launched to evaluate the effects of simulated solar radiation (SSR) and environmental heat on skin fibroblasts in terms of dermal aging. Cultured human dermal fibroblasts were treated with moderate amount of SSR (200J/cm(2)) and heat (+2°C). The metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression was used as a surrogate marker for dermal aging and the involved regulatory mechanisms were explored. Both treatment conditions did not affect viability but significantly increased the expressions of MMP-1. In parallel, both treatments increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the increase induced by SSR is much greater than heat. In contrast, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV-1), the sensor of environmental heat, was upregulated by heat but not SSR treatment. Pretreating fibroblasts with antioxidant abrogated the SSR-induced MMP-1 but has limited effect on heat-induced MMP-1. On the other hand, TRPV-1 antagonist pretreatment reduced heat-induced MMP-1 in fibroblasts but not their SSR-treated counterparts. Both SSR and heat induced MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts but through different pathways. As current strategies for reducing sun-related aging focused on filtering of light and use of antioxidants, future strategies design to reduce solar aging should also incorporate heat-induced aging into consideration. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary gland, lacrimal gland, and breast are morphologically and genetically similar but have distinct microRNA expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Simon; Tan, Qihua; Agander, Tina Klitmøller; Steiner, Petr; Bjørndal, Kristine; Høgdall, Estrid; Larsen, Stine Rosenkilde; Erentaite, Daiva; Olsen, Caroline Holkmann; Ulhøi, Benedicte Parm; von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Wessel, Irene; Heegaard, Steffen; Homøe, Preben

    2018-02-21

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is among the most frequent malignancies in the salivary and lacrimal glands and has a grave prognosis characterized by frequent local recurrences, distant metastases, and tumor-related mortality. Conversely, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of triple-negative (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) and basal-like carcinoma, which in contrast to other triple-negative and basal-like breast carcinomas has a very favorable prognosis. Irrespective of site, adenoid cystic carcinoma is characterized by gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB, and the reason for the different clinical outcomes is unknown. In order to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the discrepancy in clinical outcome, we characterized the phenotypic profiles, pattern of gene rearrangements, and global microRNA expression profiles of 64 salivary gland, 9 lacrimal gland, and 11 breast adenoid cystic carcinomas. All breast and lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinomas had triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes, while salivary gland tumors were indeterminate in 13% of cases. Aberrations in MYB and/or NFIB were found in the majority of cases in all three locations, whereas MYBL1 involvement was restricted to tumors in the salivary gland. Global microRNA expression profiling separated salivary and lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma from their respective normal glands but could not distinguish normal breast adenoid cystic carcinoma from normal breast tissue. Hierarchical clustering separated adenoid cystic carcinomas of salivary gland origin from those of the breast and placed lacrimal gland carcinomas in between these. Functional annotation of the microRNAs differentially expressed between salivary gland and breast adenoid cystic carcinoma showed these as regulating genes involved in metabolism, signal transduction, and genes involved in other cancers. In conclusion, microRNA dysregulation is the first class of molecules separating adenoid

  9. Distinct high resolution genome profiles of early onset and late onset colorectal cancer integrated with gene expression data identify candidate susceptibility loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merok Marianne A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimates suggest that up to 30% of colorectal cancers (CRC may develop due to an increased genetic risk. The mean age at diagnosis for CRC is about 70 years. Time of disease onset 20 years younger than the mean age is assumed to be indicative of genetic susceptibility. We have compared high resolution tumor genome copy number variation (CNV (Roche NimbleGen, 385 000 oligo CGH array in microsatellite stable (MSS tumors from two age groups, including 23 young at onset patients without known hereditary syndromes and with a median age of 44 years (range: 28-53 and 17 elderly patients with median age 79 years (range: 69-87. Our aim was to identify differences in the tumor genomes between these groups and pinpoint potential susceptibility loci. Integration analysis of CNV and genome wide mRNA expression data, available for the same tumors, was performed to identify a restricted candidate gene list. Results The total fraction of the genome with aberrant copy number, the overall genomic profile and the TP53 mutation spectrum were similar between the two age groups. However, both the number of chromosomal aberrations and the number of breakpoints differed significantly between the groups. Gains of 2q35, 10q21.3-22.1, 10q22.3 and 19q13.2-13.31 and losses from 1p31.3, 1q21.1, 2q21.2, 4p16.1-q28.3, 10p11.1 and 19p12, positions that in total contain more than 500 genes, were found significantly more often in the early onset group as compared to the late onset group. Integration analysis revealed a covariation of DNA copy number at these sites and mRNA expression for 107 of the genes. Seven of these genes, CLC, EIF4E, LTBP4, PLA2G12A, PPAT, RG9MTD2, and ZNF574, had significantly different mRNA expression comparing median expression levels across the transcriptome between the two groups. Conclusions Ten genomic loci, containing more than 500 protein coding genes, are identified as more often altered in tumors from early onset versus late

  10. 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exert distinct effects on human skeletal muscle function and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki K Hassan-Smith

    Full Text Available Age-associated decline in muscle function represents a significant public health burden. Vitamin D-deficiency is also prevalent in aging subjects, and has been linked to loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia, but the precise role of specific vitamin D metabolites in determining muscle phenotype and function is still unclear. To address this we quantified serum concentrations of multiple vitamin D metabolites, and assessed the impact of these metabolites on body composition/muscle function parameters, and muscle biopsy gene expression in a retrospective study of a cohort of healthy volunteers. Active serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH2D3, but not inactive 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3, correlated positively with measures of lower limb strength including power (rho = 0.42, p = 0.02, velocity (Vmax, rho = 0.40, p = 0.02 and jump height (rho = 0.36, p = 0.04. Lean mass correlated positively with 1α,25(OH2D3 (rho = 0.47, p = 0.02, in women. Serum 25OHD3 and inactive 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH2D3 had an inverse relationship with body fat (rho = -0.30, p = 0.02 and rho = -0.33, p = 0.01, respectively. Serum 25OHD3 and 24,25(OH2D3 were also correlated with urinary steroid metabolites, suggesting a link with glucocorticoid metabolism. PCR array analysis of 92 muscle genes identified vitamin D receptor (VDR mRNA in all muscle biopsies, with this expression being negatively correlated with serum 25OHD3, and Vmax, and positively correlated with fat mass. Of the other 91 muscle genes analysed by PCR array, 24 were positively correlated with 25OHD3, but only 4 were correlated with active 1α,25(OH2D3. These data show that although 25OHD3 has potent actions on muscle gene expression, the circulating concentrations of this metabolite are more closely linked to body fat mass, suggesting that 25OHD3 can influence muscle function via indirect effects on adipose tissue. By contrast, serum 1α,25(OH2D3 has limited effects on muscle gene

  11. Transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs designed to express a dominant-negative porcine growth hormone receptor display small stature and a perturbed insulin/IGF-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feida; Li, Yong; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xingju; Liu, Chuxin; Tian, Kai; Bolund, Lars; Dou, Hongwei; Yang, Wenxian; Yang, Huanming; Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Du, Yutao

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic mitogen with widespread influence on cellular growth and differentiation as well as on glucose and lipid metabolism. GH binding to the growth hormone receptor (GHR) on hepatocytes prompts expression of insulin growth factor I (IGF-1) involved in nutritionally induced compensatory hyperplasia of pancreatic β-cell islets and insulin release. A prolonged hyperactivity of the IGF-1/insulin axis in the face of insulinotropic nutrition, on the other hand, can lead to collapse of the pancreatic islets and glucose intolerance. Individuals with Laron syndrome carry mutations in the GHR gene resulting in severe congenital IGF-1 deficiency and elevated GH serum levels leading to short stature as well as perturbed lipid and glucose metabolism. However, these individuals enjoy a reduced prevalence of acne, cancer and possibly diabetes. Minipigs have become important biomedical models for human conditions due to similarities in organ anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans. The purpose of this study was to generate transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs by handmade cloning with impaired systemic GHR activity and assess their growth profile and glucose metabolism. Transgenic minipigs featuring overexpression of a dominant-negative porcine GHR (GHR(dm)) presented postnatal growth retardation and proportionate dwarfism. Molecular changes included elevated GH serum levels and mild hyperglycemia. We believe that this model may prove valuable in the study of GH functions in relation to cancer, diabetes and longevity.

  12. European display scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Christopher T.

    2000-08-01

    The manufacture of Flat Panel Displays (FPDs) is dominated by Far Eastern sources, particularly in Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) and Plasma. The United States has a very powerful capability in micro-displays. It is not well known that Europe has a very active research capability which has lead to many innovations in display technology. In addition there is a capability in display manufacturing of organic technologies as well as the licensed build of Japanese or Korean designs. Finally, Europe has a display systems capability in military products which is world class.

  13. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  14. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima using suppression subtractive hybridization and dot-blot hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that different Eimeria maxima strains exhibit significant antigenic variation. However, the genetic basis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods Total RNA and mRNA were isolated from unsporulated oocysts of E. maxima strains SH and NT, which were found to have significant differences in immunogenicity in our previous research. Two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and specific genes were further analyzed by dot-blot hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis. Results A total of 561 clones were selected from both cDNA libraries and the length of the inserted fragments was 0.25–1.0 kb. Dot-blot hybridization revealed a total of 86 differentially expressed clones (63 from strain SH and 23 from strain NT). Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these clones revealed ten specific contigs (six from strain SH and four from strain NT). Further analysis found that six contigs from strain SH and three from strain NT shared significant identities with previously reported proteins, and one contig was presumed to be novel. The specific differentially expressed genes were finally verified by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Conclusions The data presented here suggest that specific genes identified between the two strains may be important molecules in the immunogenicity of E. maxima that may present potential new drug targets or vaccine candidates for coccidiosis. PMID:24894832

  15. Expression of two functionally distinct plant endo-beta-1,4-glucanases is essential for the compatible interaction between potato cyst nematode and its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarek, Aneta; Fudali, Sylwia; Lichocka, Malgorzata; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Kurek, Wojciech; Janakowski, Slawomir; Roosien, Jan; Golinowski, Wladyslaw; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Helder, Johannes

    2008-06-01

    For the proliferation of their feeding sites (syncytia), the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis is thought to recruit plant endo-beta-1,4-glucanases (EGases, EC. 3.2.1.4). Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) indicated that the expression of two out of the at least eight EGases, namely Sl-cel7 and Sl-cel9C1, is specifically upregulated during syncytium formation. In situ hybridization and immunodetection studies demonstrated that both EGases are specifically expressed inside and adjacent to proliferating syncytia. To assess the importance of Sl-cel7 and Sl-cel9C1 for nematode development, we decided to knock them out individually. Sl-cel9C1 probably is the only class C EGase in tomato, and we were unable to regenerate Sl-cel9C1-silenced plants. Potato (S. tuberosum), a close relative of tomato, harbors at least two class C EGases, and St-cel7-or St-cel9C1-silenced potato plants showed no obvious aberrant phenotype. Infection with potato cyst nematodes resulted in a severe reduction of the number of adult females (up to 60%) and a sharp increase in the fraction of females without eggs (up to 89%). Hence, the recruitment of CEL7, an enzyme that uses xyloglucan and noncrystalline cellulose as natural substrates, and CEL9C1, an enzyme that uses crystalline cellulose, is essential for growth and development of potato cyst nematodes.

  16. MicroRNA Expression in Early Mycosis Fungoides Is Distinctly Different from Atopic Dermatitis and Advanced Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralfkiaer, Ulrik; Lindahl, Lise Maria; Litman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). MF is characterized by chronic inflammation dominated by cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4(+)) T-cells and T helper 2 cytokines, and as the malignant T-cell clone is initially elusive, early diagnosis...... is often impossible. MF usually takes an indolent course, but for unknown reasons may turn into an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. Herein, we used a global quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction platform to study microRNA (miR) expression in patients with early MF (n=13), more advanced...... CTCL (n=42), and atopic dermatitis (AD, n=20). Thirty-eight miRs were differentially expressed (≥2-fold) in early MF vs. AD and 36 in early MF vs. more advanced disease. miRs that distinguish early MF from AD included both up-regulated (miR-155, miR-146a, 146b-5p, miR-342-3p, let-7i*) and down...

  17. Adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary gland, lacrimal gland, and breast are morphologically and genetically similar but have distinct microRNA expression profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Tan, Qihua; Agander, Tina Klitmøller

    2018-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is among the most frequent malignancies in the salivary and lacrimal glands and has a grave prognosis characterized by frequent local recurrences, distant metastases, and tumor-related mortality. Conversely, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast is a rare type of triple......-negative (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) and basal-like carcinoma, which in contrast to other triple-negative and basal-like breast carcinomas has a very favorable prognosis. Irrespective of site, adenoid cystic carcinoma is characterized by gene fusions involving MYB, MYBL1, and NFIB, and the reason...... for the different clinical outcomes is unknown. In order to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the discrepancy in clinical outcome, we characterized the phenotypic profiles, pattern of gene rearrangements, and global microRNA expression profiles of 64 salivary gland, 9 lacrimal gland, and 11 breast...

  18. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Gregson, James; Wetzstein, Gordon; Raskar, Ramesh; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  19. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  20. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Matus

    Full Text Available The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22 gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses

  1. Inspection of the grapevine BURP superfamily highlights an expansion of RD22 genes with distinctive expression features in berry development and ABA-mediated stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Espinoza, Carmen; Vega, Andrea; Cavallini, Erika; Dal Santo, Silvia; Cañón, Paola; Rodríguez-Hoces de la Guardia, Amparo; Serrano, Jennifer; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    The RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 22 (RD22) gene is a molecular link between abscisic acid (ABA) signalling and abiotic stress responses. Its expression has been used as a reliable ABA early response marker. In Arabidopsis, the single copy RD22 gene possesses a BURP domain also located at the C-terminus of USP embryonic proteins and the beta subunit of polygalacturonases. In grapevine, a RD22 gene has been identified but putative paralogs are also found in the grape genome, possibly forming a large RD22 family in this species. In this work, we searched for annotations containing BURP domains in the Vitis vinifera genome. Nineteen proteins were defined by a comparative analysis between the two genome predictions and RNA-Seq data. These sequences were compared to other plant BURPs identified in previous genome surveys allowing us to reconceive group classifications based on phylogenetic relationships and protein motif occurrence. We observed a lineage-specific evolution of the RD22 family, with the biggest expansion in grapevine and poplar. In contrast, rice, sorghum and maize presented highly expanded monocot-specific groups. The Vitis RD22 group may have expanded from segmental duplications as most of its members are confined to a region in chromosome 4. The inspection of transcriptomic data revealed variable expression of BURP genes in vegetative and reproductive organs. Many genes were induced in specific tissues or by abiotic and biotic stresses. Three RD22 genes were further studied showing that they responded oppositely to ABA and to stress conditions. Our results show that the inclusion of RNA-Seq data is essential while describing gene families and improving gene annotations. Robust phylogenetic analyses including all BURP members from other sequenced species helped us redefine previous relationships that were erroneously established. This work provides additional evidence for RD22 genes serving as marker genes for different organs or stresses in grapevine.

  2. Bipotential precursors of putative fibrous astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in rat cerebellar cultures express distinct surface features and neuron-like γ-aminobutyric acid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, G.; Gallo, V.; Ciotti, T.

    1986-01-01

    When postnatal rat cerebellar cells were cultured in a chemically defined, serum-free medium, the only type of astrocyte present was unable to accumulate γ-[ 3 H]aminobutyric acid (GABA), did not express surface antigens recognized by two monoclonal antibodies, A2B5 and LB1, and showed minimal proliferation. In these cultures, nonneuronal A2B5 + , LB1 + stellate cells exhibiting neuron-like [ 3 H]GABA uptake formed cell colonies of increasing size and were GFAP - . After about one week of culturing, the A2B5 + , LB1 + , GABA-uptake positive cell groups became galactocerebroside (GalCer) positive. Immunocytolysis of the A2B5 + cells at 3 and 4 days in vitro prevented the appearance of the A2B5 + , LB1 + , GABA-uptake positive cell colonies, and also of the GalCer + cell groups. If 10% (vol/vol) fetal calf serum was added to 6-day cultures, the A2B5 + , LB1 + , GABA-uptake positive cell groups expressed GFAP and not GalCer. If the serum was added to the cultures 2 days after lysing the A2B5 + cells, only A2B5 - , LB1 - , GABA-uptake negative astrocytes proliferated. It is concluded that the putative fibrous astrocytes previously described in serum-containing cultures derive from bipotential precursors that differentiate into oligodendrocytes (GalCer + ) in serum-free medium or into astrocytes (GFAP + ) in the presence of serum, while the epithelioid A2B5 - , LB1 - , GABA-uptake negative astrocytes originate from a different precursor not yet identified

  3. EAP application to artificial tactile feel display of virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyo, Masashi; Tadokoro, Satoshi; Takamori, Toshi; Oguro, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    A tactile feel display device for virtual reality was developed using Nafion-Platinum composite type EAP actuator (known as IPMC or ICPF). Conventional tactile displays can hardly express tactile human feeling of the fine touch of the surface of a cloth, because their mechanisms cannot excite minute distributed stimuli on human skin. We propose a new ciliary device using ICPF actuators. The ICPF has sufficient softness, utilizing the passive material property, that complex control is not required. The low drive voltage is safe enough for the touch of fingers. Its simple operation mechanism allows miniaturization for practical equipments. The developed device was designed with a number of cilia consisting of ICPF actuators, where a cilium is 2 mm wide and 5 mm long. An ICPF membrane is cut into pectination, and only the cilium part is plated and has a function of an actuator. An inclined configuration of the cilia produces variety of stimuli to human skin controlling frequencies. We tried to display both pressure and vibration at the same time using modulated low and high frequencies. The result clearly shows that over 80% of the subjects sensed some special tactile feeling. A comparison with real material samples shows that this display can present a subtle distinction of tactile feeling of cloth, especially like a towel and denim.

  4. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  5. Liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, K.

    1981-01-01

    An improved liquid crystal display device is described which can display letters, numerals and other necessary patterns in the night time using a minimized amount of radioactive material. To achieve this a self-luminous light source is placed in a limited region corresponding to a specific display area. (U.K.)

  6. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Cum.nings, J. P., et al., Properties and Limitations oe Liquid Crystals for Aircraft Displays, Honeywell Corporate Researc ."I Center, Final Report HR-72...basic module could be used to build displays for both the commercial and military! 157- marhecs, and so would establi sh a broad and sizable market ... market for the display becomes a reality; therein lies, f TABLE 16 THE COURSE OF FUTURE DISPLAY DEVELOPMENT Today 1976-77 1980 1985 Display Size 2" 1 3.2

  7. Anticancer properties of distinct antimalarial drug classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen

    Full Text Available We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor, emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings.

  8. Anticancer Properties of Distinct Antimalarial Drug Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Guy, R. Kiplin; Chibale, Kelly; Haynes, Richard K.; Peitz, Ingmar; Kelter, Gerhard; Phillips, Margaret A.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Wells, Timothy N. C.

    2013-01-01

    We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low µM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor), emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings. PMID:24391728

  9. Displays in scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Pizer, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Displays have several functions: to transmit images, to permit interaction, to quantitate features and to provide records. The main characteristics of displays used for image transmission are their resolution, dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity. Considerations of visual acuity suggest that the display element size should be much less than the data element size, and in current practice at least 256X256 for a gamma camera image. The dynamic range for image transmission should be such that at least 64 levels of grey (or equivalent) are displayed. Scanner displays are also considered, and in particular, the requirements of a whole-body camera are examined. A number of display systems and devices are presented including a 'new' heated object colour display system. Interaction with displays is considered, including background subtraction, contrast enhancement, position indication and region-of-interest generation. Such systems lead to methods of quantitation, which imply knowledge of the expected distributions. Methods for intercomparing displays are considered. Polaroid displays, which have for so long dominated the field, are in the process of being replaced by stored image displays, now that large cheap memories exist which give an equivalent image quality. The impact of this in nuclear medicine is yet to be seen, but a major effect will be to enable true quantitation. (author)

  10. CD44 standard and CD44v10 isoform expression on leukemia cells distinctly influences niche embedding of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Ulrike; Megaptche, Amelie Pajip; Gu, Xiaoyu; Büchler, Markus W; Zöller, Margot

    2014-03-31

    A blockade of CD44 is considered a therapeutic option for the elimination of leukemia initiating cells. However, anti-panCD44 can interfere with hematopoiesis. Therefore we explored, whether a CD44 variant isoform (CD44v)-specific antibody can inhibit leukemia growth without attacking hematopoiesis. As a model we used CD44v10 transfected EL4 thymoma cells (EL4-v10). The therapeutic efficacy of anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 was evaluated after intravenous application of EL4/EL4-v10. Ex vivo and in vitro studies evaluated the impact of anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 as well as of EL4 and EL4-v10 on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in cocultures with bone marrow stroma cells with a focus on adhesion, migration, cell cycle progression and apoptosis resistance. Intravenously injected EL4-v10 grow in bone marrow and spleen. Anti-panCD44 and, more pronounced anti-CD44v10 prolong the survival time. The higher efficacy of anti-CD44v10 compared to anti-panCD44 does not rely on stronger antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity or on promoting EL4-v10 apoptosis. Instead, EL4 compete with HSC niche embedding. This has consequences on quiescence and apoptosis-protecting signals provided by the stroma. Anti-panCD44, too, more efficiently affected embedding of HSC than of EL4 in the bone marrow stroma. EL4-v10, by catching osteopontin, migrated on bone marrow stroma and did not or weakly interfere with HSC adhesion. Anti-CD44v10, too, did not affect the HSC--bone marrow stroma crosstalk. The therapeutic effect of anti-panCD44 and anti-CD44v10 is based on stimulation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The superiority of anti-CD44v10 is partly due to blocking CD44v10-stimulated osteopontin expression that could drive HSC out of the niche. However, the main reason for the superiority of anti-CD44v10 relies on neither EL4-v10 nor anti-CD44v10 severely interfering with HSC--stroma cell interactions that, on the other hand, are affected by EL4 and anti-panCD44. Anti-panCD44

  11. Biological and immunological characterization of recombinant Yellow Fever 17D Viruses expressing a Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigote Surface Protein-2 CD8+ T cell epitope at two distinct regions of the genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaldo Myrna C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The attenuated Yellow fever (YF 17D vaccine virus is one of the safest and most effective viral vaccines administered to humans, in which it elicits a polyvalent immune response. Herein, we used the YF 17D backbone to express a Trypanosoma cruzi CD8+ T cell epitope from the Amastigote Surface Protein 2 (ASP-2 to provide further evidence for the potential of this virus to express foreign epitopes. The TEWETGQI CD8+ T cell epitope was cloned and expressed based on two different genomic insertion sites: in the fg loop of the viral Envelope protein and the protease cleavage site between the NS2B and NS3. We investigated whether the site of expression had any influence on immunogenicity of this model epitope. Results Recombinant viruses replicated similarly to vaccine virus YF 17D in cell culture and remained genetically stable after several serial passages in Vero cells. Immunogenicity studies revealed that both recombinant viruses elicited neutralizing antibodies to the YF virus as well as generated an antigen-specific gamma interferon mediated T-cell response in immunized mice. The recombinant viruses displayed a more attenuated phenotype than the YF 17DD vaccine counterpart in mice. Vaccination of a mouse lineage highly susceptible to infection by T. cruzi with a homologous prime-boost regimen of recombinant YF viruses elicited TEWETGQI specific CD8+ T cells which might be correlated with a delay in mouse mortality after a challenge with a lethal dose of T. cruzi. Conclusions We conclude that the YF 17D platform is useful to express T. cruzi (Protozoan antigens at different functional regions of its genome with minimal reduction of vector fitness. In addition, the model T. cruzi epitope expressed at different regions of the YF 17D genome elicited a similar T cell-based immune response, suggesting that both expression sites are useful. However, the epitope as such is not protective and it remains to be seen whether expression

  12. Tamoxifen-inducible gene deletion reveals a distinct cell type associated with trabecular bone, and direct regulation of PTHrP expression and chondrocyte morphology by Ihh in growth region cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Matthew J; Tu, Xiaolin; Long, Fanxin

    2007-08-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) controls multiple aspects of endochondral skeletal development by signaling to both chondrocytes and perichondrial cells. Previous efforts to delineate direct effects of Ihh on chondrocytes by Col2-Cre-mediated ablation of Smoothened (Smo, encoding a transmembrane protein indispensable for Ihh signaling) has been only partially successful, due to the inability to discriminate between chondrocytes and perichondrial cells. Here we report a transgenic line (Col2-Cre) expressing under the control of the Colalpha1(II) promoter an inert form of Cre that is activatable by exogenous tamoxifen (TM); TM administration at proper times during embryogenesis induced Cre activity in chondrocytes but not in the perichondrium. By using this mouse line, we deleted Smo within subsets of chondrocytes without affecting the perichondrium and found that Smo removal led to localized disruption of the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and the morphology of chondrocytes. Unexpectedly, TM invariably induced Cre activity in a subset of cells associated with the trabecular bone surface of long bones. These cells, when genetically marked and cultured in vitro, were capable of producing bone nodules. Expression of the Col2-Cre transgene in these cells likely reflected the endogenous Colalpha1(II) promoter activity as similar cells were found to express the IIA isoform of Colalpha1(II) mRNA endogenously. In summary, the present study has not only provided evidence that Ihh signaling directly controls PTHrP expression and chondrocyte morphology in the growth region cartilage, but has also uncovered a distinct cell type associated with the trabecular bone that appears to possess osteogenic potential.

  13. Na+/H+ Exchanger 3 Is Expressed in Two Distinct Types of Ionocyte, and Probably Augments Ammonia Excretion in One of Them, in the Gills of the Climbing Perch Exposed to Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu L. Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater climbing perch, Anabas testudineus, is an euryhaline teleost and an obligate air-breather with the ability to actively excrete ammonia. Members of the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE family help maintain intracellular pH homeostasis and ionic balance through the electroneutral exchange of Na+ and H+. This study aimed to obtain, from the gills of A. testudineus, the full cDNA coding sequence of nhe3, and to determine the effects of exposure to seawater or 100 mmol l−1 of NH4Cl in fresh water on its mRNA and protein expression levels. Efforts were also made to elucidate the type of ionocyte that Nhe3 was associated with in the branchial epithelium of A. testudineus. The transcript level and protein abundance of nhe3/Nhe3 were very low in the gills of freshwater A. testudineus, but they increased significantly in the gills of fish acclimated to seawater. In the gills of fish exposed to seawater, Nhe3 was expressed in two distinct types of seawater-inducible Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka-immunoreactive ionocytes. In Nkaα1b-immunoreactive ionocytes, Nhe3 had an apical localization. As these ionocytes also expressed apical Rhcg1 and basolateral Rhcg2, which are known to transport ammonia, they probably participated in proton-facilitated ammonia excretion in A. testudineus during seawater acclimation. In Nkaα1c-immunoreactive ionocytes, Nhe3 was atypically expressed in the basolateral membrane, and its physiological function is uncertain. For A. testudineus exposed to NH4Cl in fresh water, the transcript and protein expression levels of nhe3/Nhe3 remained low. In conclusion, the branchial Nhe3 of A. testudineus plays a greater physiological role in passive ammonia transport and acid-base balance during seawater acclimation than in active ammonia excretion during environmental ammonia exposure.

  14. The concentration, gene expression, and spatial distribution of aggrecan in canine articular cartilage, meniscus, and anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments: a new molecular distinction between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage in the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiyaveettil, Manojkumar; Mort, John S; McDevitt, Cahir A

    2005-01-01

    The concentration, spatial distribution, and gene expression of aggrecan in meniscus, articular cartilage, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL) was determined in the knee joints of five mature dogs. An anti-serum against peptide sequences specific to the G1 domain of aggrecan was employed in competitive-inhibition ELISA of guanidine HCl extracts and immunofluorescence microscopy. Gene expression was determined by Taqman real-time PCR. The concentration of aggrecan in articular cartilage (240.1 +/- 32 nMol/g dry weight) was higher than that in meniscus (medial meniscus: 33.4 +/- 4.3 nMol/g) and ligaments (ACL: 6.8 +/- 0.9 nMol/g). Aggrecan was more concentrated in the inner than the outer zone of the meniscus. Aggrecan in meniscus showed an organized, spatial network, in contrast to its diffuse distribution in articular cartilage. Thus, differences in the concentration, gene expression, and spatial distribution of aggrecan constitute another molecular distinction between hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage of the knee.

  15. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  16. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  17. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  18. Displays and simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohon, N.

    A 'simulator' is defined as a machine which imitates the behavior of a real system in a very precise manner. The major components of a simulator and their interaction are outlined in brief form, taking into account the major components of an aircraft flight simulator. Particular attention is given to the visual display portion of the simulator, the basic components of the display, their interactions, and their characteristics. Real image displays are considered along with virtual image displays, and image generators. Attention is given to an advanced simulator for pilot training, a holographic pancake window, a scan laser image generator, the construction of an infrared target simulator, and the Apollo Command Module Simulator.

  19. First comparative characterization of three distinct ferritin subunits from a teleost: Evidence for immune-responsive mRNA expression and iron depriving activity of seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) ferritins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Minyoung; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Wan, Qiang; Jo, Eunyoung; Ko, Jiyeon; Noh, Gyeong Eon; Shin, Sangok; Rho, Sum; Lee, Jehee

    2016-02-01

    Ferritins play an indispensable role in iron homeostasis through their iron-withholding function in living beings. In the current study, cDNA sequences of three distinct ferritin subunits, including a ferritin H, a ferritin M, and a ferritin L, were identified from big belly seahorse, Hippocampus abdominalis, and molecularly characterized. Complete coding sequences (CDS) of seahorse ferritin H (HaFerH), ferritin M (HaFerM), and ferritin L (HaFerL) subunits were comprised of 531, 528, and 522 base pairs (bp), respectively, which encode polypeptides of 177, 176, and 174 amino acids, respectively, with molecular masses of ∼20-21 kDa. Our in silico analyses demonstrate that these three ferritin subunits exhibit the typical characteristics of ferritin superfamily members including iron regulatory elements, domain signatures, and reactive centers. The coding sequences of HaFerH, M, and L were cloned and the corresponding proteins were overexpressed in a bacterial system. Recombinantly expressed HaFer proteins demonstrated detectable in vivo iron sequestrating (ferroxidase) activity, consistent with their putative iron binding capability. Quantification of the basal expression of these three HaFer sequences in selected tissues demonstrated a gene-specific ubiquitous spatial distribution pattern, with abundance of mRNA in HaFerM in the liver and predominant expression of HaFerH and HaFerL in blood. Interestingly, the basal expression of all three ferritin genes was found to be significantly modulated against pathogenic stress mounted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), poly I:C, Streptococcus iniae, and Edwardsiella tarda. Collectively, our findings suggest that the three HaFer subunits may be involved in iron (II) homeostasis in big belly seahorse and that they are important in its host defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum Distinction: Quantum Distinctiones!

    OpenAIRE

    Zeps, Dainis

    2009-01-01

    10 pages; How many distinctions, in Latin, quantum distinctiones. We suggest approach of anthropic principle based on anthropic reference system which should be applied equally both in theoretical physics and in mathematics. We come to principle that within reference system of life subject of mathematics (that of thinking) should be equated with subject of physics (that of nature). For this reason we enter notions of series of distinctions, quantum distinction, and argue that quantum distinct...

  1. The inner mantle of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, expresses a basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit, which displays light-dependent gene and protein expression along the shell-facing epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel V Boo

    Full Text Available Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA is essential for maintaining the Na+ and K+ gradients, and supporting the secondary active transport of certain ions/molecules, across the plasma membrane of animal cells. This study aimed to clone the NKA α-subunit (NKAα from the inner mantle adjacent to the extrapallial fluid of Tridacna squamosa, to determine its subcellular localization, and to examine the effects of light exposure on its transcript level and protein abundance. The cDNA coding sequence of NKAα from T. squamosa comprised 3105 bp, encoding 1034 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 114 kDa. NKAα had a basolateral localization along the shell-facing epithelium of the inner mantle. Exposure to 12 h of light led to a significantly stronger basolateral NKAα-immunofluorescence at the shell-facing epithelium, indicating that NKA might play a role in light-enhanced calcification in T. squamosa. After 3 h of light exposure, the transcript level of NKAα decreased transiently in the inner mantle, but returned to the control level thereafter. In comparison, the protein abundance of NKAα remained unchanged at hour 3, but became significantly higher than the control after 12 h of light exposure. Hence, the expression of NKAα in the inner mantle of T. squamosa was light-dependent. It is probable that a higher expression level of NKA was needed in the shell-facing epithelial cells of the inner mantle to cope with a rise in Na+ influx, possibly caused by increases in activities of some Na+-dependent ion transporters/channels involved in light-enhanced calcification.

  2. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  3. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  4. Temporomandibular joint formation requires two distinct hedgehog-dependent steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Patricia; Joo, Brian W; Hu, Jimmy K; Tran, Pamela V; Calicchio, Monica L; O'Connell, Daniel J; Maas, Richard L; Tabin, Clifford J

    2009-10-27

    We conducted a genetic analysis of the developing temporo-mandibular or temporomandi-bular joint (TMJ), a highly specialized synovial joint that permits movement and function of the mammalian jaw. First, we used laser capture microdissection to perform a genome-wide expression analysis of each of its developing components. The expression patterns of genes identified in this screen were examined in the TMJ and compared with those of other synovial joints, including the shoulder and the hip joints. Striking differences were noted, indicating that the TMJ forms via a distinct molecular program. Several components of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are among the genes identified in the screen, including Gli2, which is expressed specifically in the condyle and in the disk of the developing TMJ. We found that mice deficient in Gli2 display aberrant TMJ development such that the condyle loses its growth-plate-like cellular organization and no disk is formed. In addition, we used a conditional strategy to remove Smo, a positive effector of the Hh signaling pathway, from chondrocyte progenitors. This cell autonomous loss of Hh signaling allows for disk formation, but the resulting structure fails to separate from the condyle. Thus, these experiments establish that Hh signaling acts at two distinct steps in disk morphogenesis, condyle initiation, and disk-condyle separation and provide a molecular framework for future studies of the TMJ.

  5. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol) modulate expression of two distinct cytochrome P450 aromatase genes differently in gender types of the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mi; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Il-Chan; Yoon, Yong-Dal; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2006-06-30

    To understand the effect of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on cytochrome P450 aromatase (rm-cyp19) gene expression between gender types in the hermaphroditic fish Rivulus marmoratus, we cloned two distinct rm-cyp19 genes using RT-PCR with degenerative primers, obtained full-length cDNAs using 5'- and 3'-RACE-PCR methods, and completely sequenced them. The brain aromatase (rm-cyp19b) cDNA consisted of 2,124 bp including the open reading frame (ORF), which encoded a putative protein of 505 amino acids. The ovarian aromatase (rm-cyp19a) cDNA consisted of 2,075 bp, including the ORF encoding a putative protein of 516 amino acids. Expression patterns of rm-cyp19b and rm-cyp19a mRNAs were investigated in embryos of different developmental stages and in seven different tissues of adult fish. The rm-cyp19b gene in hermaphrodite and secondary male R. marmoratus was predominantly expressed in the brain, while the rm-cyp19a gene was expressed gender-specifically in the gonad. The expression of rm-cyp19b mRNA increased from stage 1 (2 d post fertilization) to stage 4 (12 d post fertilization) in a developmental stage-dependent manner but steeply decreased in the hatching stage. Compared to the rm-cyp19b gene, the abundance of ovarian aromatase rm-cyp19a transcripts was very low, and its expression was first detected at stage 3 and then decreased gradually to the hatching stage. Alteration of rm-cyp19b and rm-cyp19a gene expression was further analyzed in the brain and gonad by real-time RT-PCR 96 h after EDC exposure in hermaphrodites and secondary males. The brain aromatase rm-cyp19b gene was up-regulated in the brain after 4-nonylphenol (4-NP)-exposure, while the ovarian aromatase rm-cyp19a gene was significantly down-regulated in the gonad. In 300 microg/L 4-tert octylphenol (4-tert-OP), or 600 microg/L bisphenol A-exposed brain and gonad, both rm-cyp19b and rm-cyp19a genes were up-regulated. In the case of secondary males, the rm-cyp19b gene was highly expressed in

  6. Microlaser-based displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1997-07-01

    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  7. Mining of biomarker genes from expressed sequence tags and differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the self-fertilizing fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus and their expression patterns in response to exposure to an endocrine-disrupting alkylphenol, bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Il-Chan; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2007-06-30

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and differentially expressed cDNAs from the self-fertilizing fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus were mined to develop alternative biomarkers for endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). 1,577 K. marmoratus cDNA clones were randomly sequenced from the 5'-end. These clones corresponded to 1,518 and 1,519 genes in medaka dbEST and zebrafish dbEST, respectively. Of the matched genes, 197 and 115 genes obtained Unigene IDs in medaka dbEST and zebrafish dbEST, respectively. Many of the annotated genes are potential biomarkers for environmental stresses. In a differential display reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (DD RT-PCR) study, 56 differential expressed genes were obtained from fish liver exposed to bisphenol A. Of these, 16 genes were identified after BLAST search to GenBank, and the annotated genes were mainly involved in catalytic activity and binding. The expression patterns of these 16 genes were validated by real-time RT-PCR of liver tissue from fish exposed to bisphenol A. Our findings suggest that expression of these 16 genes is modulated by endocrine disrupting chemicals, and therefore that they are potential biomarkers for environmental stress including EDCs exposure.

  8. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  10. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  11. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs.......Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  12. Facial Displays Are Tools for Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, Carlos; Fridlund, Alan J

    2018-05-01

    Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our 'facial expressions of emotion' as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior. Finally, BECV restores continuity of human facial behavior research with modern functional accounts of non-human communication, and provides a non-mentalistic account of facial displays well-suited to new developments in artificial intelligence and social robotics. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct expression of synaptic NR2A and NR2B in the central nervous system and impaired morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice deficient in postsynaptic density-93 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Roger A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postsynaptic density (PSD-93, a neuronal scaffolding protein, binds to and clusters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B at cellular membranes in vitro. However, the roles of PSD-93 in synaptic NR2A and NR2B targeting in the central nervous system and NMDAR-dependent physiologic and pathologic processes are still unclear. We report here that PSD-93 deficiency significantly decreased the amount of NR2A and NR2B in the synaptosomal membrane fractions derived from spinal cord dorsal horn and forebrain cortex but did not change their levels in the total soluble fraction from either region. However, PSD-93 deficiency did not markedly change the amounts of NR2A and NR2B in either synaptosomal or total soluble fractions from cerebellum. In mice deficient in PSD-93, morphine dose-dependent curve failed to shift significantly rightward as it did in wild type (WT mice after acute and chronic morphine challenge. Unlike WT mice, PSD-93 knockout mice also showed marked losses of NMDAR-dependent morphine analgesic tolerance and associated abnormal sensitivity in response to mechanical, noxious thermal, and formalin-induced inflammatory stimuli after repeated morphine injection. In addition, PSD-93 knockout mice displayed dramatic loss of jumping activity, a typical NMDAR-mediated morphine withdrawal abstinence behavior. These findings indicate that impaired NMDAR-dependent neuronal plasticity following repeated morphine injection in PSD-93 knockout mice is attributed to PSD-93 deletion-induced alterations of synaptic NR2A and NR2B expression in dorsal horn and forebrain cortex neurons. The selective effect of PSD-93 deletion on synaptic NMDAR expression in these two major pain-related regions might provide the better strategies for the prevention and treatment of opioid tolerance and physical dependence.

  14. Motivation to hide emotion and children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle

    2002-12-01

    The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.

  15. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  16. Poly(I:C) reduces expression of JAM-A and induces secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α via distinct NF-κB pathways in human nasal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuni, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Ogasawara, Noriko; Masaki, Tomoyuki; Fuchimoto, Jun; Kamekura, Ryuta; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Ichimiya, Shingo; Murata, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

    2011-01-01

    Human nasal epithelium is an important physical barrier and innate immune defense protecting against inhaled substances and pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, which plays a key role in the innate immune response, has not been well characterized in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), including the epithelial tight junctional barrier. In the present study, mRNAs of TLR1-10 were detected in hTERT-transfected HNECs, which can be used as an indispensable and stable model of normal HNECs, similar to primary cultured HNECs. To investigate the changes of tight junction proteins and the signal transduction pathways via TLRs in HNECs in vitro, hTERT-transfected HNECs were treated with TLR2 ligand P 3 CSK 4 , TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), TLR4 ligand LPS, TLR7/8 ligand CL097, TLR8 ligand ssRNA40/LyoVec, and TLR9 ligand ODN2006. In hTERT-transfected HNECs, treatment with poly(I:C) significantly reduced expression of the tight junction protein JAM-A and induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α. Both the reduction of JAM-A expression and the induction of secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α after treatment with poly(I:C) were modulated by distinct signal transduction pathways via EGFR, PI3K, and p38 MAPK and finally regulated by a TLR3-mediated NF-κB pathway. The control of TLR3-mediated signaling pathways in HNECs may be important not only in infection by viral dsRNA but also in autoimmune diseases caused by endogenous dsRNA released from necrotic cells.

  17. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * DICHROIC DYES * Chemical Structure * Chemical and Photochemical Stability * THEORETICAL MODELLING * DEFECTS CAUSED BY PROLONGED LIGHT IRRADIATION * CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND PHOTOSTABILITY * OTHER PARAMETERS AFFECTING PHOTOSTABILITY * CELL PREPARATION * DICHROIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Of Dyes * Absorbance, Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Measurements * IMPACT OF DYE STRUCTURE AND LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A DICHROIC MIXTURE * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio * EFFECT OF LENGTH OF DICHROIC DYES ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE BREADTH OF DYE ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE HOST ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE ORDER PARAMETER OF DYES IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST * IMPACT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * Temperature Range * Viscosity * Dielectric Constant and Anisotropy * Refractive Indices and Birefringence * solubility43,153-156 * Absorption Wavelength and Auxochromic Groups * Molecular Engineering of Dichroic Dyes * OPTICAL, ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND LIFE PARAMETERS * Colour And CIE Colour space120,160-166 * CIE 1931 COLOUR SPACE * CIE 1976 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * CIE UNIFORM COLOUR SPACES & COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE120,160-166 * Electro-Optical Parameters120 * LUMINANCE * CONTRAST AND CONTRAST RATIO * SWITCHING SPEED * Life Parameters and Failure Modes * DICHROIC MIXTURE FORMULATION * Monochrome Mixture * Black Mixture * ACHROMATIC BLACK MIXTURE FOR HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Effect of Illuminant on Display Colour * Colour of the Field-On State * Effect of Dye Linewidth * Optimum Centroid Wavelengths * Effect of Dye Concentration * Mixture Formulation Using More Than Three Dyes * ACHROMATIC MIXTURE FOR WHITE-TAYLOR TYPE DISPLAYS * HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Theoretical Modelling * Threshold Characteristic * Effects of Dye Concentration on Electro-optical Parameters * Effect of Cholesteric Doping * Effect of Alignment

  18. On Integrity of Flexible Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouten, Piet C. P.

    Nowadays two display types are dominant in the display market: the bulky cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal displays (LCD). Both types use glass as substrate material. The LCD display is the dominant player for mobile applications, in for instance mobile phones and portable computers. In the development of displays and their applications a clear interest exists to replace the rigid rectangular display cells by free-shaped, curved or even roll-up cells. These types of applications require flexible displays.

  19. 33 CFR 173.27 - Numbers: Display; size; color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Numbers: Display; size; color...: Display; size; color. (a) Each number required by § 173.15 must: (1) Be painted on or permanently attached...; (3) Contrast with the color of the background and be distinctly visible and legible; (4) Have spaces...

  20. Paediatric dose display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.W.; Derges, S.; Hesslewood, S.

    1984-01-01

    A compact, inexpensive unit, based on an 8085 microprocessor, has been designed for calculating doses of intravenous radioactive injections for children. It has been used successfully for over a year. The dose is calculated from the body surface area and the result displayed in MBq. The operator can obtain the required dose on a twelve character alphanumeric display by entering the age of the patient and the adult dose using a hexadecimal keyboard. Circuit description, memory map and input/output, and firmware are dealt with. (U.K.)

  1. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  2. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  3. Nuclear image display controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In a nuclear imaging system the digitized x and y coordinates of gamma ray photon emission events address memory locations corresponding to the coordinates. The respective locations are incremented each time they are addressed so at the end of a selected time or event count period the locations contain digital values or raw data corresponding to the intensity of pixels comprising an image frame. The raw data for a frame is coupled to one input of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) whose output is coupled to a display controller memory. The output of the controller memory is coupled to another ALU input with a feedback bus and is also coupled to a further signal processing circuit which includes means for converting processed data to analog video signals for television display. The ALU is selectively controlled to let raw image data pass through to the display controllor memory or alternately to add (or subtract) raw data for the last image frame developed to the raw data for preceding frames held in the display controller to thereby produce the visual effect on the television screen of an isotope flowing through anatomy

  4. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  5. [Emotional display rules of Japanese and Koreans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-jin; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki

    2011-12-01

    Hypothetical stories designed to arouse feelings of happiness, sadness, or anger were presented to Japanese (n = 310) and Koreans (n = 286) university students. They were asked to rate the intensity of the emotion experienced, and to select the corresponding facial expression to display in an individual situation and in a social situation. Analyses of covariance were conducted on the rating scores of facial expression using the intensities of emotion as the covariance, except for happiness where the within-class regression coefficients were not homogeneous. The results showed that Japanese and Koreans shared the emotional display rules about the expressions of emotions in individual situations more than in social situations. Japanese thought that they should suppress emotions more than Koreans did. Moreover, the differences in facial expressions between Japanese and Koreans were greater in the individual situations than in the social situations.

  6. Development and validation of a measure of display rule knowledge: the display rule assessment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, David; Yoo, Seung Hee; Hirayama, Satoko; Petrova, Galina

    2005-03-01

    As one component of emotion regulation, display rules, which reflect the regulation of expressive behavior, have been the topic of many studies. Despite their theoretical and empirical importance, however, to date there is no measure of display rules that assesses a full range of behavioral responses that are theoretically possible when emotion is elicited. This article reports the development of a new measure of display rules that surveys 5 expressive modes: expression, deamplification, amplification, qualification, and masking. Two studies provide evidence for its internal and temporal reliability and for its content, convergent, discriminant, external, and concurrent predictive validity. Additionally, Study 1, involving American, Russian, and Japanese participants, demonstrated predictable cultural differences on each of the expressive modes. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Position display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Yukio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a device capable of easily and quickly reading mutual mounting relations of control bodies such as control rods mounted on a nuclear reactor and positions to which the control bodies are driven. Structure: A scanning circuit is provided to scan positions of controllably mounted control bodies such as control rods. Values detected by scanning the positions are converted into character signals according to the values and converted into preranked color signals. The character signals and color signals are stored in a memory circuit by synchronous signals in synchronism with the scanning in the scanning circuit. Outputs of the memory circuit are displayed by a display unit such as a color Braun tube in accordance with the synchronous signals to provide color representations according to positions to which control bodies are driven in the same positional relation as the mounting of the control bodies. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Multichannel waveform display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    For any multichannel data acquisition system, a multichannel paper chart recorder undoubtedly forms an essential part of the system. When deployed on-line, it instantaneously provides, for visual inspection, hard copies of the signal waveforms on common time base at any desired sensitivity and time resolution. Within the country, only a small range of these strip chart recorder s is available, and under stringent specifications imported recorders are often procured. The cost of such recorders may range from 1 to 5 lakhs of rupees in foreign exchange. A system to provide on the oscilloscope a steady display of multichannel waveforms, refreshed from the digital data stored in the memory is developed. The merits and demerits of the display system are compared with that built around a conventional paper chart recorder. Various illustrations of multichannel seismic event data acquired at Gauribidanur seismic array station are also presented. (author). 2 figs

  9. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  10. Helicopter Display Improvement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    PRESSURE INDICATOR 43 TURN A N D SLIP INDICATOR 21 ENGINE AND SDG OIL IN TEMPERATURE INDICATOR 44 COURSE INDICATOR 22 RADIO MAGNETIC COMPASS INDICATOR... compass seemed to present a problem to several H-l series pilots In that It was poorly located and should be moved. Possible locations Included...the UH-lNs standby compass . Both H/L and L/L pilots agreed that internal, white light was the best system currently in use. INDIVIDUAL DISPLAYS

  11. Dyes for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  12. Hypermethylation of the 5′ CpG island of the p14ARF flanking exon 1β in human colorectal cancer displaying a restricted pattern of p53 overexpression concomitant with increased MDM2 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyiraneza Christine

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that inactivation of p14ARF, a tumor suppressor central to regulating p53 protein stability through interaction with the MDM2 oncoprotein, abrogates p53 activity in human tumors retaining the wild-type TP53 gene. Differences in expression of tumor suppressor genes are frequently associated with cancer. We previously reported on a pattern of restricted p53 immunohistochemical overexpression significantly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI, low TP53 mutation frequency, and MDM2 overexpression in colorectal cancers (CRCs. In this study, we investigated whether p14ARF alterations could be a mechanism for disabling the p53 pathway in this subgroup of CRCs. Results Detailed maps of the alterations in the p14ARF gene were determined in a cohort of 98 CRCs to detect both nucleotide and copy-number changes. Methylation-specific PCR combined with bisulfite sequencing was used to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of p14ARF methylation. p14ARF alterations were then correlated with MSI status, TP53 mutations, and immunohistochemical expression of p53 and MDM2. The frequency of p14ARF mutations was extremely low (1/98; 1%, whereas coexistence of methylated and unmethylated alleles in both tumors and normal colon mucosa was common (91/98; 93%. Only seven of ninety-eight tumors (7% had a distinct pattern of methylation compared with normal colon mucosa. Evaluation of the prevalence and distribution of p14ARF promoter methylation in a region containing 27 CpG sites in 35 patients showed a range of methylated CpG sites in tumors (0 to 25 (95% CI 1 to 13 versus 0 to 17 (95% CI 0 to 2 in adjacent colon mucosa (P = 0.004. Hypermethylation of the p14ARF promoter was significantly correlated with the restricted p53 overexpression pattern (P = 0.03, and MDM2 overexpression (P = 0.02, independently of MSI phenotype. Although no significant correlation between p14ARF methylation and TP53 mutational

  13. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  14. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  15. Display of adenoregulin with a novel Pichia pastoris cell surface display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ren; Jiang, Zhengbing; Liu, Meiyun; Tao, Xinyi; Ma, Yushu; Wei, Dongzhi

    2007-02-01

    Two Pichia pastoris cell surface display vectors were constructed. The vectors consisted of the flocculation functional domain of Flo1p with its own secretion signal sequence or the alpha-factor secretion signal sequence, a polyhistidine (6xHis) tag for detection, an enterokinase recognition site, and the insertion sites for target proteins. Adenoregulin (ADR) is a 33-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide isolated from Phyllomedusa bicolor skin. The ADR was expressed and displayed on the Pichia pastoris KM71 cell surface with the system reported. The displayed recombinant ADR fusion protein was detected by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant adenoregulin was detected after proteolytic cleavage of the fusion protein on cell surface. The validity of the Pichia pastoris cell surface display vectors was proved by the displayed ADR.

  16. NCAP projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, John R.; Ishioka, J.; Jones, Philip J.; Lau, Aldrich; Tomita, Akira; Asano, A.; Konuma, Nobuhiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Takemoto, Iwao

    1997-05-01

    Projectors based on polymer-eNCAPsulated liquid crystals can provide bright displays suitable for use in conference rooms with normal lighting. Contrast is generated by light scattering among the droplets, rather than by light absorption with crossed polarizers. We have demonstrated a full-color, compact projector showing 1200 ANSI lumens with 200 watts of lamp power - a light efficiency of 6 lumens/watt. This projector is based on low-voltage NCAP material, highly reflective CMOS die, and matched illumination and projection optics. We will review each of these areas and discuss the integrated system performance.

  17. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  18. Unsolicited displays of insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part in these acti......This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part...... in these activities in small groups together with a specialized preschool teacher. One pervasive feature of this kind of data is the ongoing orientation to, and guidance from the adult towards the children on what the main business of their interaction is - what they relevantly are doing. In this light, the paper......: Unsolicited displays may lead to side sequences, they may lead to a shift in the main business of the talk, or they may be explicitly or implicitly ignored. The paper discusses whether and how these unsolicited displays of understanding then can be thought of as leading to opportunities for (language...

  19. Latest development of display technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hong-Yue; Yao Qiu-Xiang; Liu Pan; Zheng Zhi-Qiang; Liu Ji-Cheng; Zheng Hua-Dong; Zeng Chao; Yu Ying-Jie; Sun Tao; Zeng Zhen-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies. (topical review)

  20. 3D display system using monocular multiview displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Saruta, Kazuki; Takeda, Kazutoki

    2002-05-01

    A 3D head mounted display (HMD) system is useful for constructing a virtual space. The authors have researched the virtual-reality systems connected with computer networks for real-time remote control and developed a low-priced real-time 3D display for building these systems. We developed a 3D HMD system using monocular multi-view displays. The 3D displaying technique of this monocular multi-view display is based on the concept of the super multi-view proposed by Kajiki at TAO (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan) in 1996. Our 3D HMD has two monocular multi-view displays (used as a visual display unit) in order to display a picture to the left eye and the right eye. The left and right images are a pair of stereoscopic images for the left and right eyes, then stereoscopic 3D images are observed.

  1. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, J. William

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT * PDLC MATERIALS PREPARATION * Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) * Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) * Solvent induced phase separation (SIPS) * Encapsulation (NCAP) * RESPONSE VOLTAGE * Dielectric and resistive effects * Radial configuration * Bipolar configuration * Other director configurations * RESPONSE TIME * DISPLAY CONTRAST * Light scattering and index matching * Incorporation of dyes * Contrast measurements * PDLC DISPLAY DEVICES AND INNOVATIONS * Reflective direct view displays * Large-scale, flexible displays * Switchable windows * Projection displays * High definition spatial light modulator * Haze-free PDLC shutters: wide angle view displays * ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  2. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2000-04-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection television segment. But rear LCD (liquid crystal display) and rear reflective (DLP, or Digital Light ProcessingTM) televisions are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are still popular in the high-end home theater market. Front LCD technology and front DLP technology dominate the business market. Traditional light valve technology was the only solution for applications requiring high light outputs, but new three-chip DLP projectors meet the higher light output requirements at a lower price. In the last few years the strongest growth has been in the business market for multimedia presentation applications. This growth was due to the continued increase in display pixel formats, the continued reduction in projector weight, and the improved price/performance ratio. The projection display market will grow at a significant rate during the next five years, driven by the growth in ultraportable (market to digital and HDTV products.

  3. Crosstalk evaluation in stereoscopic displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Teunissen, C.; Tu, Yan; Chen, Li; Zhang, P.; Zhang, T.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress in liquid-crystal display and polarization film technology has enabled several types of stereoscopic displays. Despite all progress, some image distortions still exist in these 3-D displays, of which interocular crosstalk - light leakage of the image for one eye to the other eye

  4. Antecedents and consequences of emotional display rule perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M; Richard, Erin M

    2003-04-01

    Central to all theories of emotional labor is the idea that individuals follow emotional display rules that specify the appropriate expression of emotions on the job. This investigation examined antecedents and consequences of emotional display rule perceptions. Full-time working adults (N = 152) from a variety of occupations provided self-report data, and supervisors and coworkers completed measures pertaining to the focal employees. Results using structural equation modeling revealed that job-based interpersonal requirements, supervisor display rule perceptions, and employee extraversion and neuroticism were predictive of employee display rule perceptions. Employee display rule perceptions, in turn, were related to self-reported job satisfaction and coworker ratings of employees' emotional displays on the job. Finally, neuroticism had direct negative relationships with job satisfaction and coworker ratings of employees' emotional displays.

  5. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  6. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  7. Web Extensible Display Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominski, Ryan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Larrieu, Theodore L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Jefferson Lab's Web Extensible Display Manager (WEDM) allows staff to access EDM control system screens from a web browser in remote offices and from mobile devices. Native browser technologies are leveraged to avoid installing and managing software on remote clients such as browser plugins, tunnel applications, or an EDM environment. Since standard network ports are used firewall exceptions are minimized. To avoid security concerns from remote users modifying a control system, WEDM exposes read-only access and basic web authentication can be used to further restrict access. Updates of monitored EPICS channels are delivered via a Web Socket using a web gateway. The software translates EDM description files (denoted with the edl suffix) to HTML with Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) following the EDM's edl file vector drawing rules to create faithful screen renderings. The WEDM server parses edl files and creates the HTML equivalent in real-time allowing existing screens to work without modification. Alternatively, the familiar drag and drop EDM screen creation tool can be used to create optimized screens sized specifically for smart phones and then rendered by WEDM.

  8. Children's Understanding of Verbal and Facial Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnepp, Jackie; Hess, Debra L. R.

    1986-01-01

    First-, third-, fifth-, and tenth-grade children listened to eight stories designed to elicit prosocial or self-protective display rules. Children predicted protagonists' verbal and facial expressions to emotion-laden situations. Findings indicated knowledge of control of emotional displays increases between first and fifth grades, but then levels…

  9. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  10. Operant conditioning of facial displays of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Miriam; Rainville, Pierre; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2011-06-01

    The operant model of chronic pain posits that nonverbal pain behavior, such as facial expressions, is sensitive to reinforcement, but experimental evidence supporting this assumption is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate in a healthy population a) whether facial pain behavior can indeed be operantly conditioned using a discriminative reinforcement schedule to increase and decrease facial pain behavior and b) to what extent these changes affect pain experience indexed by self-ratings. In the experimental group (n = 29), the participants were reinforced every time that they showed pain-indicative facial behavior (up-conditioning) or a neutral expression (down-conditioning) in response to painful heat stimulation. Once facial pain behavior was successfully up- or down-conditioned, respectively (which occurred in 72% of participants), facial pain displays and self-report ratings were assessed. In addition, a control group (n = 11) was used that was yoked to the reinforcement plans of the experimental group. During the conditioning phases, reinforcement led to significant changes in facial pain behavior in the majority of the experimental group (p .136). Fine-grained analyses of facial muscle movements revealed a similar picture. Furthermore, the decline in facial pain displays (as observed during down-conditioning) strongly predicted changes in pain ratings (R(2) = 0.329). These results suggest that a) facial pain displays are sensitive to reinforcement and b) that changes in facial pain displays can affect self-report ratings.

  11. Serpins in fruit and vegetative tissues of apple (Malus domestica): expression of four serpins with distinct reactive centres and characterisation of a major inhibitory seed form, MdZ1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejgaard, Jørn; Laing, W.A.; Marttila, S.

    2005-01-01

    in a wide variety of tissues, including developing and mature fruits, seeds and vegetative buds as well as developing, mature and senescing leaves. Analysis of 46 sequences, most full-length, identified serpins with four distinct reactive centres belonging to two subfamilies (MdZ1 and MdZ2) with similar...

  12. Display systems for NPP control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozov, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Main trends in development of display systems used as the means for image displaying in NPP control systems are considered. It is shown that colour display devices appear to be the most universal means for concentrated data presentation. Along with digital means the display systems provide for high-speed response, sufficient for operative control of executive mechanisms. A conclusion is drawn that further development of display systems will move towards creation of large colour fields (on reflection base or with multicolour gas-discharge elements)

  13. Differential display-mediated identification of three drought

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L.) O. Kuntze], a woody and perennial plant of commercial importance. Using differential display of mRNA, three drought-modulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. Northern and BLAST analysis revealed that clone dr1 ...

  14. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  15. Irradiation from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Hannevik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Video display terminals (VDT's) are in common use by computer operators. In the last years this group of workers has expressed growing concern about their work environment and possible hazardious effects in connection with radiation emission from VDT's. Radiation types and levels of emission and possible biological effects have been the subject of research activity in Norway and in other countries. This report summarizes the various radiation types and their levels of emission from VDT's. An overview of recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments, and the conclusions given by the research groups are also presented. The conclusions drawn in this report based on the current knowledge are: Radiation, other than low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, have low and negligible emission levels and will not represent any health hazard to VDT-operator or to the foetus of pregnant operators. The biological effects of low frequency pulsed mangetic fields have been the subject of epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies carried out in Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway gave no support for any correlation between pregnancy complications and operation of VDT's. From animal experiments it has so far been impossible to assert an effect on pregnancy outcome from low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

  16. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  17. Eukaryotic ribosome display with in situ DNA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Edwards, Bryan M; Kastelic, Damjana; Taussig, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Ribosome display is a cell-free display technology for in vitro selection and optimisation of proteins from large diversified libraries. It operates through the formation of stable protein-ribosome-mRNA (PRM) complexes and selection of ligand-binding proteins, followed by DNA recovery from the selected genetic information. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosome display systems have been developed. In this chapter, we describe the eukaryotic rabbit reticulocyte method in which a distinct in situ single-primer RT-PCR procedure is used to recover DNA from the selected PRM complexes without the need for prior disruption of the ribosome.

  18. Phyllodes tumors with and without fibroadenoma-like areas display distinct genomic features and may evolve through distinct pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Fresia; Geyer, Felipe C; Kumar, Rahul; Selenica, Pier; Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Burke, Kathleen A; Edelweiss, Marcia; Murray, Melissa P; Brogi, Edi; Weigelt, Britta; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2017-01-01

    Breast fibroepithelial lesions (fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors) are underpinned by recurrent MED12 exon 2 mutations, which are more common in fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors. TERT promoter hotspot mutations have been documented in phyllodes tumors, and found to be more frequent in borderline and malignant lesions. Several lines of evidence suggest that a subset of phyllodes tumors might arise from fibroadenomas. Here we sought to investigate the genetic differences between phyllodes tumors with fibroadenoma-like areas vs. those without. We retrieved data for 16 borderline/ malignant phyllodes tumors, including seven phyllodes tumors with fibroadenoma-like areas and nine phyllodes tumors without fibroadenoma-like areas, which had been previously subjected to targeted capture massively parallel sequencing. Whilst MED12 exon 2 mutations were significantly more frequent in tumors with fibroadenoma-like areas (71 vs. 11%), an enrichment in genetic alterations targeting bona fide cancer genes was found in those without fibroadenoma-like areas, in particular in EGFR mutations and amplifications (78 vs. 14%). No significant difference in the frequency of TERT genetic alterations was observed (71% in cases with fibroadenoma-like areas vs 56% in those without fibroadenoma-like areas). Our data suggest that the development of phyllodes tumors might follow two different evolutionary pathways: a MED12 -mutant pathway that involves the progression from a fibroadenoma to a malignant phyllodes tumor; and a MED12 -wild-type pathway, where malignant phyllodes tumors arise de novo through the acquisition of genetic alterations targeting cancer genes. Additional studies are warranted to confirm our observations and define whether the outcome differs between both pathways.

  19. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  20. Touch communicates distinct emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertenstein, Matthew J; Keltner, Dacher; App, Betsy; Bulleit, Brittany A; Jaskolka, Ariane R

    2006-08-01

    The study of emotional signaling has focused almost exclusively on the face and voice. In 2 studies, the authors investigated whether people can identify emotions from the experience of being touched by a stranger on the arm (without seeing the touch). In the 3rd study, they investigated whether observers can identify emotions from watching someone being touched on the arm. Two kinds of evidence suggest that humans can communicate numerous emotions with touch. First, participants in the United States (Study 1) and Spain (Study 2) could decode anger, fear, disgust, love, gratitude, and sympathy via touch at much-better-than-chance levels. Second, fine-grained coding documented specific touch behaviors associated with different emotions. In Study 3, the authors provide evidence that participants can accurately decode distinct emotions by merely watching others communicate via touch. The findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to affective science and the evolution of altruism and cooperation. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  2. Identifying Bacterial Immune Evasion Proteins Using Phage Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevre, Cindy; Scheepmaker, Lisette; Haas, Pieter-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Methods aimed at identification of immune evasion proteins are mainly rely on in silico prediction of sequence, structural homology to known evasion proteins or use a proteomics driven approach. Although proven successful these methods are limited by a low efficiency and or lack of functional identification. Here we describe a high-throughput genomic strategy to functionally identify bacterial immune evasion proteins using phage display technology. Genomic bacterial DNA is randomly fragmented and ligated into a phage display vector that is used to create a phage display library expressing bacterial secreted and membrane bound proteins. This library is used to select displayed bacterial secretome proteins that interact with host immune components.

  3. Embarrassment: its distinct form and appeasement functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltner, D; Buswell, B N

    1997-11-01

    The authors address 2 questions about embarrassment. First, Is embarrassment a distinct emotion? The evidence indicates that the antecedents, experience, and display of embarrassment, and to a limited extent its autonomic physiology, are distinct from shame, guilt, and amusement and share the dynamic, temporal characteristics of emotion. Second, What are the theoretical accounts of embarrassment? Three accounts focus on the causes of embarrassment, positioning that it follows the loss of self-esteem, concern for others' evaluations, or absence of scripts to guide interactions. A fourth account focuses on the effects of the remedial actions of embarrassment, which correct preceding transgressions. A fifth account focuses on the functional parallels between embarrassment and nonhuman appeasement. The discussion focuses on unanswered questions about embarrassment.

  4. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  5. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  6. Display technologies for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Seungjae; Jang, Changwon; Hong, Jong-Young; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    With the virtue of rapid progress in optics, sensors, and computer science, we are witnessing that commercial products or prototypes for augmented reality (AR) are penetrating into the consumer markets. AR is spotlighted as expected to provide much more immersive and realistic experience than ordinary displays. However, there are several barriers to be overcome for successful commercialization of AR. Here, we explore challenging and important topics for AR such as image combiners, enhancement of display performance, and focus cue reproduction. Image combiners are essential to integrate virtual images with real-world. Display performance (e.g. field of view and resolution) is important for more immersive experience and focus cue reproduction may mitigate visual fatigue caused by vergence-accommodation conflict. We also demonstrate emerging technologies to overcome these issues: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL), retinal projection displays, and 3D display with focus cues. For image combiners, a novel optical element called IMACL provides relatively wide field of view. Retinal projection displays may enhance field of view and resolution of AR displays. Focus cues could be reconstructed via multi-layer displays and holographic displays. Experimental results of our prototypes are explained.

  7. You Be the Judge: Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The instructional package was developed to provide the distributive education teacher-coordinator with visual materials that can be used to supplement existing textbook offerings in the area of display (visual merchandising). Designed for use with 35mm slides of retail store displays, the package allows the student to view the slides of displays…

  8. Displays: Entering a New Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

  9. Software for graphic display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper some aspects of graphic display systems are discussed. The design of a display subroutine library is described, with an example, and graphic dialogue software is considered primarily from the point of view of the programmer who uses a high-level language. (Auth.)

  10. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  11. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'HARA, J.M.; PIRUS, D.; BELTRATCCHI, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work

  12. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  13. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified

  14. Children's Control/Display Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S; Tai, Judy P C

    2018-06-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine control/display stereotypes for children of a range of ages and development of these stereotypes with age. Background Little is known about control/display stereotypes for children of different ages and the way in which these stereotypes develop with age. This study is part of a program to determine the need to design differentially for these age groups. Method We tested four groups of children with various tasks (age groups 5 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 13, 14 to 16), with about 30 in each group. Examples of common tasks were opening a bottle, turning on taps, and allocating numbers to keypads. More complex tasks involved rotating a control to move a display in a requested direction. Results Tasks with which different age groups were familiar showed no effect of age group. Different control/display arrangements generally showed an increase in stereotype strength with age, with dependence on the form of the control/display arrangement. Two-dimensional arrangements, with the control on the same plane as the display, had higher stereotype strength than three-dimensional arrangements for all age groups, suggesting an effect of familiarity with controls and displays with increasing age. Conclusion Children's control/display stereotypes do not differ greatly from those of adults, and hence, design for children older than 5 years of age, for control/display stereotypes, can be the same as that for adult populations. Application When designing devices for children, the relationship between controls and displays can be as for adult populations, for which there are considerable experimental data.

  15. Regulation of T cell activation by HIV-1 accessory proteins: Vpr acts via distinct mechanisms to cooperate with Nef in NFAT-directed gene expression and to promote transactivation by CREB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, Anna L.; Manninen, Aki; Saksela, Kalle

    2003-01-01

    Nef and Vpr are lentiviral accessory proteins that have been implicated in regulation of cellular gene expression. We noticed that Vpr can potentiate Nef-induced activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-dependent transcription. Unlike Nef, which stimulated calcium signaling to activate NFAT, Vpr functioned farther downstream. Similar to the positive effects of Vpr on most of the transcriptional test systems that we used, potentiation of NFAT-directed gene expression was relatively modest in magnitude (two- to threefold) and depended on the cell cycle-arresting capacity of Vpr. By contrast, we found that Vpr could cause more than fivefold upregulation of cyclic AMP response element (CRE)-directed transcription via a mechanism that did not require Vpr-induced G2/M arrest. This effect, however, was only evident under suboptimal conditions known to lead to serine phosphorylation of the CRE binding factor (CREB) but not to CREB-dependent gene expression. This suggested that Vpr may act by stabilizing interactions with CREB and its transcriptional cofactor CREB binding protein (CBP). Indeed, this effect could be blocked by cotransfection of the adenoviral CBP inhibitor E1A. These results provide additional evidence for cell cycle-independent regulation of gene expression by Vpr and implicate CREB as a potentially important target for Vpr action in HIV-infected host cells

  16. Gene expression profile and functionality of ESC-derived Lin-ckit+Sca-1+ cells are distinct from Lin-ckit+Sca-1+ cells isolated from fetal liver or bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Fernandez

    Full Text Available In vitro bioreactor-based cultures are being extensively investigated for large-scale production of differentiated cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs. However, it is unclear whether in vitro ESC-derived progenitors have similar gene expression profiles and functionalities as their in vivo counterparts. This is crucial in establishing the validity of ESC-derived cells as replacements for adult-isolated cells for clinical therapies. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of Lin-ckit+Sca-1+ (LKS cells generated in vitro from mouse ESCs using either static or bioreactor-based cultures, with that of native LKS cells isolated from mouse fetal liver (FL or bone marrow (BM. We found that in vitro-generated LKS cells were more similar to FL- than to BM LKS cells in gene expression. Further, when compared to cells derived from bioreactor cultures, static culture-derived LKS cells showed fewer differentially expressed genes relative to both in vivo LKS populations. Overall, the expression of hematopoietic genes was lower in ESC-derived LKS cells compared to cells from BM and FL, while the levels of non-hematopoietic genes were up-regulated. In order to determine if these molecular profiles correlated with functionality, we evaluated ESC-derived LKS cells for in vitro hematopoietic-differentiation and colony formation (CFU assay. Although static culture-generated cells failed to form any colonies, they did differentiate into CD11c+ and B220+ cells indicating some hematopoietic potential. In contrast, bioreactor-derived LKS cells, when differentiated under the same conditions failed to produce any B220+ or CD11c+ cells and did not form colonies, indicating that these cells are not hematopoietic progenitors. We conclude that in vitro culture conditions significantly affect the transcriptome and functionality of ESC-derived LKS cells and although in vitro differentiated LKS cells were lineage negative and expressed both ckit and Sca-1

  17. Circular displays: control/display arrangements and stereotype strength with eight different display locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that were designed to investigate control/display arrangements having high stereotype strengths when using circular displays. Eight display locations relative to the operator and control were tested with rotational and translational controls situated on different planes according to the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (2010). (Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, 54: 1022-1026). In many cases, there was little effect of display locations, indicating the importance of the Worringham and Beringer (1998. Directional stimulus-response compatibility: a test of three alternative principles. Ergonomics, 41(6), 864-880) Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann and Chan (2013). The Worringham and Beringer 'visual field' principle for rotary controls. Ergonomics, 56(10), 1620-1624). The initial indicator position (12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock) had a major effect on control/display stereotype strength for many of the six controls tested. Best display/control arrangements are listed for each of the different control types (rotational and translational) and for the planes on which they are mounted. Data have application where a circular display is used due to limited display panel space and applies to space-craft, robotics operators, hospital equipment and home appliances. Practitioner Summary: Circular displays are often used when there is limited space available on a control panel. Display/control arrangements having high stereotype strength are listed for four initial indicator positions. These arrangements are best for design purposes.

  18. Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy Image-Guided Intraventricular Gene Delivery at Murine Embryonic Age 9.5 and 10.5 Produces Distinct Transgene Expression Patterns at the Adult Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon Jang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In utero injection of a retroviral vector into the embryonic telencephalon aided by ultrasound backscatter microscopy permits introduction of a gene of interest at an early stage of development. In this study, we compared the tissue distribution of gene expression in adult mice injected with retroviral vectors at different embryonic ages in utero. Following ultrasound image-guided gene delivery (UIGD into the embryonic telencephalon, adult mice were subjected to whole-body luciferase imaging and immunohistochemical analysis at 6 weeks and 1 year postinjection. Luciferase activity was observed in a wide range of tissues in animals injected at embryonic age 9.5 (E9.5, whereas animals injected at E10.5 showed brain-localized reporter gene expression. These results suggest that mouse embryonic brain creates a closed and impermeable structure around E10. Therefore, by injecting a transgene before or after E10, transgene expression can be manipulated to be local or systemic. Our results also provide information that widens the applicability of UIGD beyond neuroscience studies.

  19. Ribosome display: next-generation display technologies for production of antibodies in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Khan, Farid

    2005-06-01

    Antibodies represent an important and growing class of biologic research reagents and biopharmaceutical products. They can be used as therapeutics in a variety of diseases. With the rapid expansion of proteomic studies and biomarker discovery, there is a need for the generation of highly specific binding reagents to study the vast number of proteins encoded by the genome. Display technologies provide powerful tools for obtaining antibodies. Aside from the preservation of natural antibody repertoires, they are capable of exploiting diversity by DNA recombination to create very large libraries for selection of novel molecules. In contrast to in vivo immunization processes, display technologies allow selection of antibodies under in vitro-defined selection condition(s), resulting in enrichment of antibodies with desired properties from large populations. In addition, in vitro selection enables the isolation of antibodies against difficult antigens including self-antigens, and this can be applied to the generation of human antibodies against human targets. Display technologies can also be combined with DNA mutagenesis for antibody evolution in vitro. Some methods are amenable to automation, permitting high-throughput generation of antibodies. Ribosome display is considered as representative of the next generation of display technologies since it overcomes the limitations of cell-based display methods by using a cell-free system, offering advantages of screening larger libraries and continuously expanding new diversity during selection. Production of display-derived antibodies can be achieved by choosing one of a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-based expression systems. In the near future, cell-free protein synthesis may be developed as an alternative for large-scale generation of antibodies.

  20. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  1. Integrated Display & Environmental Awareness System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is the development of a head mounted display for use in operations here on Earth and in Space. The technology would provide various means of...

  2. Performance of NCAP projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Philip J.; Tomita, Akira; Wartenberg, Mark

    1991-08-01

    Prototypes of projection displays based on dispersions of liquid crystal in polymer matrices are beginning to appear. The principle of operation depends on electrically switchable light scattering. They are potentially much brighter than current cathode ray tube (CRT) or twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN LC) cell based displays. Comparisons of efficacy and efficiency show this. The contrast and brightness of such displays depend on a combination of the f- number of the projection system and the scattering characteristics of the light valve. Simplified equations can be derived to show these effects. The degree of scattering of current NCAP formulations is sufficient to produce good contrast projection displays, at convenient voltages, that are around three times brighter than TN LC projectors because of the lack of polarizers in the former.

  3. Interactive editing program using display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, I.; Ehsenski, J.; Namsraj, Yu.; Fefilov, B.V.

    1976-01-01

    A general description is given as well as principal functions are considered of 'DOSE' interactive editor program with a display involved. The program has been elaborated for TRA/1-1001 computer. This program enables one to edit and correct texts in algorithmical languages on a raster display screen as well as to provide perforated tapes for their further usage. 'DOSE' program is regarded as a basic program system for a set of TRA/1 and MINSK-32 computers

  4. A nanobody:GFP bacterial platform that enables functional enzyme display and easy quantification of display capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Sofie; Fischer, Emil C; Martínez, Virginia; Seppälä, Susanna; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2016-05-03

    Bacterial surface display is an attractive technique for the production of cell-anchored, functional proteins and engineering of whole-cell catalysts. Although various outer membrane proteins have been used for surface display, an easy and versatile high-throughput-compatible assay for evaluating and developing surface display systems is missing. Using a single domain antibody (also called nanobody) with high affinity for green fluorescent protein (GFP), we constructed a system that allows for fast, fluorescence-based detection of displayed proteins. The outer membrane hybrid protein LppOmpA and the autotransporter C-IgAP exposed the nanobody on the surface of Escherichia coli with very different efficiency. Both anchors were capable of functionally displaying the enzyme Chitinase A as a fusion with the nanobody, and this considerably increased expression levels compared to displaying the nanobody alone. We used flow cytometry to analyse display capability on single-cell versus population level and found that the signal peptide of the anchor has great effect on display efficiency. We have developed an inexpensive and easy read-out assay for surface display using nanobody:GFP interactions. The assay is compatible with the most common fluorescence detection methods, including multi-well plate whole-cell fluorescence detection, SDS-PAGE in-gel fluorescence, microscopy and flow cytometry. We anticipate that the platform will facilitate future in-depth studies on the mechanism of protein transport to the surface of living cells, as well as the optimisation of applications in industrial biotech.

  5. Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing rats and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in adult rats are associated with distinctive morphological and biochemical c-Jun/AP-1 (N) expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozas, E. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Planas, A.M. [Departament de Farmacologia i Toxicologia, IIBB, CSIC Barcelona (Spain); Ferrer, I. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain)

    1997-07-14

    Ionizing radiation produces apoptosis in the developing rat brain. Strong c-Jun immunoreactivity, as revealed with the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) which is raised against the amino acids 91-105 mapping with the amino terminal domain of mouse c-Jun p39, is simultaneously observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of apoptotic cells. Western blotting of total brain homogenates, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats which is accompanied by a strong, phosphorylated p62 double-band in irradiated animals. In addition, increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as found on western blots, is found in irradiated rats when compared with controls. Intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid at convulsant doses to the adult rat produces cell death with morphological features of necrosis, together with the appearance of cells with fine granular chromatin degeneration and small numbers of apoptotic-like cells, in the entorhinal and piriform cortices, basal amygdala, certain thalamic nuclei, and CA1 region of the hippocampus. c-Jun expression in kainic acid-treated rats, as revealed with the c-Jun/AP-1 (N) antibody, is found in the nuclei of a minority of cells in the same areas. The vast majority of c-Jun-immunoreactive cells have normal nuclear morphology, whereas necrotic cells are negative and only a few cells with fine granular chromatin condensation and apoptotic cells following kainic acid injection are stained with c-Jun antibodies. Western blotting, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats, which is accompanied by a band at about p26 from 6 h onwards following kainic acid injection. Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as revealed on western blots, is observed in kainic acid-treated rats.These results show that the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) recognizes three different forms of c-Jun-related immunoreactivity in normal and pathological states, which are associated with the different outcome of cells. These results stress the necessity

  6. Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.

  7. Simultaneous analysis of multiple T helper subsets in leprosy reveals distinct patterns of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs markers expression in clinical forms and reactional events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Michelle de Campos Soriani; Marques, Heloisa; Binelli, Larissa Sarri; Malange, Mariana Silva Vieira; Devides, Amanda Carreira; Silva, Eliane Aparecida; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi; Ghidella, Cassio Cesar; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Farias Fernandes; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro

    2017-12-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Previous studies have demonstrated that the difference among clinical forms of leprosy can be associated with the immune response of patients, mainly by T helper (Th) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Then, aiming at clarifying the immune response, the expression of cytokines related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs profiles were evaluated by qPCR in 87 skin biopsies from leprosy patients. Additionally, cytokines and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were determined in serum by ELISA. The results showed that the expression of various targets (mRNA) related to Th1, Th2, Th17 and Tregs were significantly modulated in leprosy when compared with healthy individuals, suggesting the presence of a mixed profile. In addition, the targets related to Th1 predominated in the tuberculoid pole and side and Th2 and Tregs predominated in the lepromatous pole and side; however, Th17 targets showed a mixed profile. Concerning reactional events, Tregs markers were decreased and IL-15 was increased in reversal reaction and IL-17F, CCL20 and IL-8 in erythema nodosum leprosum, when compared with the respective non-reactional leprosy patients. Additionally, ELISA analysis demonstrated that IL-22, IL-6, IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibody levels were significantly higher in the serum of patients when compared with healthy individuals, and IL-10 and anti-PGL-1 antibodies were also increased in the lepromatous pole and side. Together, these results indicate that Th1, Th2 and Th17 are involved in the determination of clinical forms of leprosy and suggest that decreased Tregs activity may be involved in the pathogenesis of reactional events.

  8. Revisiting the debate on the relationship between display rules and performance: considering the explicitness of display rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, Paraskevi S; Ashforth, Blake E

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the strength with which the organization communicates expectations regarding the appropriate emotional expression toward customers (i.e., explicitness of display rules) has an inverted U-shaped relationship with service delivery behaviors, customer satisfaction, and sales performance. Further, we argue that service organizations need a particular blend of explicitness of display rules and role discretion for the purpose of optimizing sales performance. As hypothesized, findings from 2 samples of salespeople suggest that either high or low explicitness of display rules impedes service delivery behaviors and sales performance, which peaks at moderate explicitness of display rules and high role discretion. The findings also suggest that the explicitness of display rules has a positive relationship with customer satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. On-line data display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli

    1993-05-01

    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  10. Work, wage and consumption: valuing and displaying among manufacturing workers Valor e expressão do trabalho, do salário e do consumo entre mulheres operárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Margarida Marques

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available When a former female manual worker decides to put on gel nails soon after losing the job that had prevented her from making up her hands (as someone in my fieldwork has recently done, it could be tempting to see a shift from a constrained worker identity to an unbound consumer identity materializing there. In the following pages, however, this episode and its local (and labour context are taken as starting points to attempt a further exploration and a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between work and consumption. On theoretical and empirical grounds, it is argued that, instead of conceiving work and consumption as separate and indeed opposite realms, a close link between them - with work providing a relevant context to the working person as a consumer, and consumption providing subjects a relevant arena where to perform the value of their work - should be acknowledged and scrutinized.Perante uma ex-operária que decide aplicar unhas de gel pouco depois de perder o emprego (cujas circunstâncias materiais lhe limitavam o arranjo das mãos, algumas influentes teorias da contemporaneidade encontrariam o exemplo acabado da transição de uma identidade operária, constrangida pelo trabalho, para uma identidade pós-trabalho, construída nas livres escolhas de consumo. Neste texto, porém, esse episódio e os respectivos contextos local e laboral são tomados como ponto de partida para uma exploração mais aprofundada das complexas relações entre trabalho e consumo. É criticada a ideia de separação, ou até oposição, entre ambos os campos de prática, propondo-se, pelo contrário, o reconhecimento e a discussão das suas estreitas ligações - designadamente, a presença do trabalho como contexto relevante para o trabalhador enquanto consumidor e a importância do consumo como lugar de expressão do valor do trabalho.

  11. Normal and prostate cancer cells display distinct molecular profiles of alpha-tubulin posttranslational modifications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Karel; Kamaid, A.; Phung, A.D.; Kubala, Lukáš; Bulinski, J.Ch.; Harper, R.W.; Eiserich, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2006), s. 954-965 ISSN 0270-4137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : prostate cancer * microtubules * detyrosination Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.724, year: 2006

  12. Two Distinctive Phenotypes of AcMNPV Display Different Immune Abilities and Intracellular Destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Guido N; Tavarone, Eugenia; Taboga, Oscar; Molinari, Paula

    2016-01-01

    The budded phenotype (BV) of the baculovirus AcMNPV has been demonstrated to have strong immunostimulatory properties that are relevant for the development of vaccines and antiviral therapies. Although the occluded phenotype (ODV) shares the main structural proteins and its genome with BV, it has been poorly studied in mammals. In this study, we assessed the capacity of ODV to induce immune responses in mice. In contrast to BVs, ODVs failed to promote the secretion of IFN-gamma, IL-6 and Il-12 and to induce antiviral activity against VSV in the short term. Furthermore, ODVs were unable to induce cellular immunity against a coadministered antigen 7 days after inoculation. By analyzing the interaction of ODVs with BMDCs, we observed that although ODVs entered the cells reaching late and acidic endosomes, they did not induce their maturation. Finally, we also analyzed if BVs and ODVs followed different routes in the cell during the infection. BVs, but not ODVs, colocalized with the protein ovalbumin in compartments with the presence of proteases. The results suggest that structural differences could be responsible for their different destinies in the dendritic cell and this could lead to a different impact on the immune response.

  13. Patient-derived acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bone marrow cells display distinct intracellular kinase phosphorylation patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shults, Keith; Flye, Leanne; Green, Lisa; Daly, Thomas; Manro, Jason R; Lahn, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Multiparametric analyses of phospho-protein activation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) offers a quantitative measure to monitor the activity of novel intracellular kinase (IK) inhibitors. As recent clinical investigation with FMS-like tyrosine-3 inhibitors demonstrated, targeting IK with selective inhibitors can have a modest clinical benefit. Because multiple IKs are active in patients with AML, multikinase inhibitors may provide the necessary inhibition profile to achieve a more sustained clinical benefit. We here describe a method of assessing the activation of several IKs by flow cytometry. In 40 different samples of patients with AML we observed hyper-activated phospho-proteins at baseline, which is modestly increased by adding stem cell factor to AML cells. Finally, AML cells had a significantly different phospho-protein profile compared with cells of the lymphocyte gate. In conclusion, our method offers a way to determine the activation status of multiple kinases in AML and hence is a reliable assay to evaluate the pharmacodynamic activity of novel multikinase inhibitors

  14. Dermal regulatory T cells display distinct migratory behavior that is modulated during adaptive and innate inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Zachary; Mueller, Scott N; Deane, James A; Hickey, Michael J

    2013-09-15

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in controlling skin inflammation, an effect dependent on their ability to home to this organ. However, little is known regarding their behavior in the skin. In this study, we used multiphoton imaging in Foxp3-GFP mice to examine the behavior of endogenous Tregs in resting and inflamed skin. Although Tregs were readily detectable in the uninflamed dermis, most were nonmotile. Induction of contact sensitivity increased the proportion of motile Tregs, and also induced Treg recruitment. This response was significantly blunted in mice challenged with an irrelevant hapten, or by inhibition of effector cell recruitment, indicating a role for T cell-dependent inflammation in induction of Treg migration. Moreover, induction of Treg migration was inhibited by local injection of a CCR4 antagonist, indicating a role for CCR4 in this response. Exposure of naive mice to hapten also induced an increase in the proportion of migratory Tregs, demonstrating that innate signals can also induce Treg migration. Simultaneous examination of the migration of CD4⁺ effector cells and Tregs in the same region of uninflamed skin demonstrated that effector cells behaved differently, being uniformly highly migratory. These findings indicate that Treg behavior in skin differs from that of CD4⁺ effector cells, in that only a low proportion of Tregs is migratory under resting conditions. However, in response to both adaptive and innate inflammation, the proportion of migratory Tregs increases, raising the possibility that this response is important in multiple forms of skin inflammation.

  15. To 'display' or not to 'display'- that is the peptide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems but has mainly focused around phages (Etz et al, 2001), yeast (Kondo and Ueda, 2004) and bacteria (Lee et al 2003). The central variable domain of the FliC protein is dispensable and can be used for the insertion and display...

  16. IMDISP - INTERACTIVE IMAGE DISPLAY PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Image Display Program (IMDISP) is an interactive image display utility for the IBM Personal Computer (PC, XT and AT) and compatibles. Until recently, efforts to utilize small computer systems for display and analysis of scientific data have been hampered by the lack of sufficient data storage capacity to accomodate large image arrays. Most planetary images, for example, require nearly a megabyte of storage. The recent development of the "CDROM" (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory) storage technology makes possible the storage of up to 680 megabytes of data on a single 4.72-inch disk. IMDISP was developed for use with the CDROM storage system which is currently being evaluated by the Planetary Data System. The latest disks to be produced by the Planetary Data System are a set of three disks containing all of the images of Uranus acquired by the Voyager spacecraft. The images are in both compressed and uncompressed format. IMDISP can read the uncompressed images directly, but special software is provided to decompress the compressed images, which can not be processed directly. IMDISP can also display images stored on floppy or hard disks. A digital image is a picture converted to numerical form so that it can be stored and used in a computer. The image is divided into a matrix of small regions called picture elements, or pixels. The rows and columns of pixels are called "lines" and "samples", respectively. Each pixel has a numerical value, or DN (data number) value, quantifying the darkness or brightness of the image at that spot. In total, each pixel has an address (line number, sample number) and a DN value, which is all that the computer needs for processing. DISPLAY commands allow the IMDISP user to display all or part of an image at various positions on the display screen. The user may also zoom in and out from a point on the image defined by the cursor, and may pan around the image. To enable more or all of the original image to be displayed on the

  17. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  18. Drag and drop display & builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  19. NIST display colorimeter calibration facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven W.; Ohno, Yoshihiro

    2003-07-01

    A facility has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to provide calibration services for color-measuring instruments to address the need for improving and certifying the measurement uncertainties of this type of instrument. While NIST has active programs in photometry, flat panel display metrology, and color and appearance measurements, these are the first services offered by NIST tailored to color-measuring instruments for displays. An overview of the facility, the calibration approach, and associated uncertainties are presented. Details of a new tunable colorimetric source and the development of new transfer standard instruments are discussed.

  20. Development of an Evaluation Method for the Design Complexity of Computer-Based Displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Ju; Lee, Seung Woo; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The importance of the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs) for human performance and the safety of process industries has long been continuously recognized for many decades. Especially, in the case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs have significant implications for the safety of the NPPs because poor HMIs can impair the decision making ability of human operators. In order to support and increase the decision making ability of human operators, advanced HMIs based on the up-to-date computer technology are provided. Human operators in advanced main control room (MCR) acquire information through video display units (VDUs) and large display panel (LDP), which is required for the operation of NPPs. These computer-based displays contain a huge amount of information and present it with a variety of formats compared to those of a conventional MCR. For example, these displays contain more display elements such as abbreviations, labels, icons, symbols, coding, etc. As computer-based displays contain more information, the complexity of advanced displays becomes greater due to less distinctiveness of each display element. A greater understanding is emerging about the effectiveness of designs of computer-based displays, including how distinctively display elements should be designed. This study covers the early phase in the development of an evaluation method for the design complexity of computer-based displays. To this end, a series of existing studies were reviewed to suggest an appropriate concept that is serviceable to unravel this problem

  1. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  2. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  3. Crystal ball single event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1997-01-01

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about π o 's and η's formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer

  4. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  5. Interference Phenomenon with Mobile Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment is presented in which the spacing and geometric pattern of pixels in mobile displays is measured. The technique is based on optical constructive interference. While the experiment is another opportunity to demonstrate wave interference from a grating-like structure, this can also be used to demonstrate concepts of solid state…

  6. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  7. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  8. Distinction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...

  9. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  10. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  11. Ruggedized Full-Color Flexible OLED Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hack, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... The team comprised Universal Display Corporation, Princeton University, the University of Southern California, Penn State University, L3 Displays and Vitex Systems, and was led by Universal Display Corporation (PI: Michael Hack...

  12. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  13. An expert display system and nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1988-01-01

    An expert display system controls automatically the display of segments on a cathode ray tube's screen to form an image of plant operations. The image consists of an icon of: 1) the process (heat engine cycle), 2) plant control systems, and 3) safety systems. A set of data-driven, forward-chaining computer stored rules control the display of segments. As plant operation changes, measured plant data are processed through the rules, and the results control the deletion and addition of segments to the display format. The icon contains information needed by control rooms operators to monitor plant operations. One example of an expert display is illustrated for the operator's task of monitoring leakage from a safety valve in a steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). In another example, the use of an expert display to monitor plant operations during pre-trip, trip, and post-trip operations is discussed as a universal display. The viewpoints and opinions expressed herein are the author's personal ones, and they are not to be interpreted as Nuclear Regulatory Commission criteria, requirements, or guidelines

  14. Reconfigurable Auditory-Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor); Anderson, Mark R. (Inventor); McClain, Bryan (Inventor); Miller, Joel D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method for visual and audible communication between a central operator and N mobile communicators (N greater than or equal to 2), including an operator transceiver and interface, configured to receive and display, for the operator, visually perceptible and audibly perceptible signals from each of the mobile communicators. The interface (1) presents an audible signal from each communicator as if the audible signal is received from a different location relative to the operator and (2) allows the operator to select, to assign priority to, and to display, the visual signals and the audible signals received from a specified communicator. Each communicator has an associated signal transmitter that is configured to transmit at least one of the visual signals and the audio signal associated with the communicator, where at least one of the signal transmitters includes at least one sensor that senses and transmits a sensor value representing a selected environmental or physiological parameter associated with the communicator.

  15. The hubris hypothesis: The downside of comparative optimism displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorens, Vera; Van Damme, Carolien; Helweg-Larsen, Marie; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    According to the hubris hypothesis, observers respond more unfavorably to individuals who express their positive self-views comparatively than to those who express their positive self-views non-comparatively, because observers infer that the former hold a more disparaging view of others and particularly of observers. Two experiments extended the hubris hypothesis in the domain of optimism. Observers attributed less warmth (but not less competence) to, and showed less interest in affiliating with, an individual displaying comparative optimism (the belief that one's future will be better than others' future) than with an individual displaying absolute optimism (the belief that one's future will be good). Observers responded differently to individuals displaying comparative versus absolute optimism, because they inferred that the former held a gloomier view of the observers' future. Consistent with previous research, observers still attributed more positive traits to a comparative or absolute optimist than to a comparative or absolute pessimist. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The virtual environment display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive computer generated or computer mediated virtual environment. It has evolved at NASA-Ames since 1984 to serve NASA's missions and goals. The exciting potential of this technology, sometimes called Virtual Reality, Artificial Reality, or Cyberspace, has been recognized recently by the popular media, industry, academia, and government organizations. Much research and development will be necessary to bring it to fruition.

  17. GaussStudio: designing seamless tangible interactions on portable displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, R.-H.; Kuo, H.-C.; Bruns Alonso, M.; Chen, B.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    The analog Hall-sensor grid, GaussSense, is a thin-form magnetic-field camera technology for designing expressive occlusion-free, near-surface tangible interactions on conventional portable displays. The studio will provide hands-on experiences that combine physical designs and the GaussSense

  18. The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Hyde, Luke W; Neumann, Craig S; Viding, Essi; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults. Path models indicated that amygdala reactivity to fearful facial expressions is negatively associated with the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, whereas amygdala reactivity to angry facial expressions is positively associated with the lifestyle facet. Furthermore, these models revealed that differential VS reactivity to positive versus negative feedback is negatively associated with the lifestyle facet. There was suggestive evidence for gender-specific patterns of association between brain function and psychopathy facets. Our findings are the first to document differential associations between both threat- and reward-related neural processes and distinct facets of psychopathy and thus provide a more comprehensive picture of the pattern of neural vulnerabilities that may predispose to maladaptive outcomes associated with psychopathy.

  19. Transcriptome sequencing in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies fusion genes associated with distinct DNA methylation profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanara Marincevic-Zuniga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural chromosomal rearrangements that lead to expressed fusion genes are a hallmark of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of 134 primary ALL patient samples to comprehensively detect fusion transcripts. Methods We combined fusion gene detection with genome-wide DNA methylation analysis, gene expression profiling, and targeted sequencing to determine molecular signatures of emerging ALL subtypes. Results We identified 64 unique fusion events distributed among 80 individual patients, of which over 50% have not previously been reported in ALL. Although the majority of the fusion genes were found only in a single patient, we identified several recurrent fusion gene families defined by promiscuous fusion gene partners, such as ETV6, RUNX1, PAX5, and ZNF384, or recurrent fusion genes, such as DUX4-IGH. Our data show that patients harboring these fusion genes displayed characteristic genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression signatures in addition to distinct patterns in single nucleotide variants and recurrent copy number alterations. Conclusion Our study delineates the fusion gene landscape in pediatric ALL, including both known and novel fusion genes, and highlights fusion gene families with shared molecular etiologies, which may provide additional information for prognosis and therapeutic options in the future.

  20. Defining poverty as distinctively human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. Lötter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.

  1. The case for transparent depth display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The continuing developments in display technology have resulted in the ability to present increasing amounts of data on computer displays. One of the coming break-throughs is generally believed to be the introduction of '3-D displays': displays with a true sense of depth. Though these types

  2. After Effects expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Geduld, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Put the power of Expressions to work in your animations with controls and efficiencies impossible to achieve with traditional keyframing techniques. No programming skills are required. Foundation concepts and skills orient the new designer and serve as a handy reference to the experienced one. Basics of creating expressions, variables, commands, and expression helpers precede the leap into javascript and math essentials for more advanced expressions that include randomness, physical simularions and 3D. Full color illustrations display the scripts and the resulti

  3. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, H. [Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  4. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  5. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.

    2002-08-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Display of album of user selected coronal/ sagital/ transverse orthogonal slices, 3) Display of three orthogonal slices through user selected point, 4) Display of a set of orthogonal slices generated in the user-selected volume, 5) Generation and display of 3-D shaded surface. 6) Generation of volume data and display along with the 3-D shaded surface, 7) Side by side display orthogonal slices of two 3-D objects. Displaying a set of two-dimensional slices of a 3-D reconstructed object through shows all the defects but lacks the 3-D perspective. Display of shaded surface lacks the ability to show the embedded defects. Volume display -combining the 3-D surface and gray level volume data is perhaps the best form of display. This report describes these forms of display along with the theory. (author)

  6. Rho GTPase expression in human myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne F G van Helden

    Full Text Available Myeloid cells are critical for innate immunity and the initiation of adaptive immunity. Strict regulation of the adhesive and migratory behavior is essential for proper functioning of these cells. Rho GTPases are important regulators of adhesion and migration; however, it is unknown which Rho GTPases are expressed in different myeloid cells. Here, we use a qPCR-based approach to investigate Rho GTPase expression in myeloid cells.We found that the mRNAs encoding Cdc42, RhoQ, Rac1, Rac2, RhoA and RhoC are the most abundant. In addition, RhoG, RhoB, RhoF and RhoV are expressed at low levels or only in specific cell types. More differentiated cells along the monocyte-lineage display lower levels of Cdc42 and RhoV, while RhoC mRNA is more abundant. In addition, the Rho GTPase expression profile changes during dendritic cell maturation with Rac1 being upregulated and Rac2 downregulated. Finally, GM-CSF stimulation, during macrophage and osteoclast differentiation, leads to high expression of Rac2, while M-CSF induces high levels of RhoA, showing that these cytokines induce a distinct pattern. Our data uncover cell type specific modulation of the Rho GTPase expression profile in hematopoietic stem cells and in more differentiated cells of the myeloid lineage.

  7. Distinct Temporal Processing of Task-Irrelevant Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter J.; Koster, Ernst H. W.; Wessel, Ineke; Martens, Sander

    There is an ongoing debate concerning the extent to which emotional faces automatically attract attention. Using a single-target Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) methodology, it has been found that presentation of task-irrelevant positive or negative emotionally salient stimuli (e. g.,

  8. LMDS Lightweight Modular Display System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-16

    based on standard functions. This means that the cost to produce a particular display function can be met in the most economical fashion and at the same...not mean that the NTDS interface would be eliminated. What is anticipated is the use of ETHERNET at a low level of system interface, ie internal to...GENERATOR dSYMBOL GEN eCOMMUNICATION 3-2 The architecture of the unit’s (fig 3-4) input circuitry is based on a video table look-up ROM. The function

  9. Displaying Annotations for Digitised Globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gede, Mátyás; Farbinger, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Thanks to the efforts of the various globe digitising projects, nowadays there are plenty of old globes that can be examined as 3D models on the computer screen. These globes usually contain a lot of interesting details that an average observer would not entirely discover for the first time. The authors developed a website that can display annotations for such digitised globes. These annotations help observers of the globe to discover all the important, interesting details. Annotations consist of a plain text title, a HTML formatted descriptive text and a corresponding polygon and are stored in KML format. The website is powered by the Cesium virtual globe engine.

  10. DP: Parameter Display Page Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parameter Display Page program (DP) is a Motif/X11-based program to allow easily configured, dynamic device and process variable monitoring and manipulation in the EPICS environment. DP provides a tabular data format for interactive viewing and manipulation of device and process variable statistics, as well as formatted PostScript output to files and printers. DP understands and operates in two (unfortunately disjoint at this time) namespaces in the EPICS environment ''devices'' and ''process variables''. The higher level namespace of devices includes Composite and Atomic Devices registered via the Device Access server; the lower level (flat) namespace is that of normal Process Variables accessible via Channel Access

  11. Emotional display rules as work unit norms: a multilevel analysis of emotional labor among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M; Erickson, Rebecca J; Grandey, Alicia A; Dahling, Jason J

    2011-04-01

    Emotional labor theory has conceptualized emotional display rules as shared norms governing the expression of emotions at work. Using a sample of registered nurses working in different units of a hospital system, we provided the first empirical evidence that display rules can be represented as shared, unit-level beliefs. Additionally, controlling for the influence of dispositional affectivity, individual-level display rule perceptions, and emotion regulation, we found that unit-level display rules are associated with individual-level job satisfaction. We also showed that unit-level display rules relate to burnout indirectly through individual-level display rule perceptions and emotion regulation strategies. Finally, unit-level display rules also interacted with individual-level dispositional affectivity to predict employee use of emotion regulation strategies. We discuss how future research on emotional labor and display rules, particularly in the health care setting, can build on these findings.

  12. Precisely Molded Nanoparticle Displaying DENV-E Proteins Induces Robust Serotype-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Metz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is the causative agent of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The virus is endemic in over 120 countries, causing over 350 million infections per year. Dengue vaccine development is challenging because of the need to induce simultaneous protection against four antigenically distinct DENV serotypes and evidence that, under some conditions, vaccination can enhance disease due to specific immunity to the virus. While several live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccines display partial efficacy, it has been challenging to induce balanced protective immunity to all 4 serotypes. Instead of using whole-virus formulations, we are exploring the potentials for a particulate subunit vaccine, based on DENV E-protein displayed on nanoparticles that have been precisely molded using Particle Replication in Non-wetting Template (PRINT technology. Here we describe immunization studies with a DENV2-nanoparticle vaccine candidate. The ectodomain of DENV2-E protein was expressed as a secreted recombinant protein (sRecE, purified and adsorbed to poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles of different sizes and shape. We show that PRINT nanoparticle adsorbed sRecE without any adjuvant induces higher IgG titers and a more potent DENV2-specific neutralizing antibody response compared to the soluble sRecE protein alone. Antigen trafficking indicate that PRINT nanoparticle display of sRecE prolongs the bio-availability of the antigen in the draining lymph nodes by creating an antigen depot. Our results demonstrate that PRINT nanoparticles are a promising platform for delivering subunit vaccines against flaviviruses such as dengue and Zika.

  13. Distinct transmitter release properties determine differences in short-term plasticity at functional and silent synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Carolina; Buño, Washington

    2006-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that functional and silent synapses are not only postsynaptically different but also presynaptically distinct. The presynaptic differences may be of functional importance in memory formation because a proposed mechanism for long-term potentiation is the conversion of silent synapses into functional ones. However, there is little direct experimentally evidence of these differences. We have investigated the transmitter release properties of functional and silent Schaffer collateral synapses and show that on the average functional synapses displayed a lower percentage of failures and higher excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitudes than silent synapses at +60 mV. Moreover, functional but not silent synapses show paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at +60 mV and thus presynaptic short-term plasticity will be distinct in the two types of synapse. We examined whether intraterminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores influenced the release properties of these synapses. Ryanodine (100 microM) and thapsigargin (1 microM) increased the percentage of failures and decreased both the EPSC amplitude and PPF in functional synapses. Caffeine (10 mM) had the opposite effects. In contrast, silent synapses were insensitive to both ryanodine and caffeine. Hence we have identified differences in the release properties of functional and silent synapses, suggesting that synaptic terminals of functional synapses express regulatory molecular mechanisms that are absent in silent synapses.

  14. Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cindy H.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, wilfred

    2008-02-14

    Surface display is a powerful technique that utilizes natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. Since the reporting of the first surface-display system in the mid-1980s, a variety of new systems have been reported for yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Non-conventional display methods are emerging, eliminating the generation of genetically modified microorganisms. Cells with surface display are used as biocatalysts, biosorbents and biostimulants. Microbial cell-surface display has proven to be extremely important for numerous applications ranging from combinatorial library screening and protein engineering to bioremediation and biofuels production.

  15. Nanobody-Displaying Flagellar Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ágnes; Kovács, Mátyás; Muskotál, Adél; Jankovics, Hajnalka; Tóth, Balázs; Pósfai, Mihály; Vonderviszt, Ferenc

    2018-02-26

    In this work we addressed the problem how to fabricate self-assembling tubular nanostructures displaying target recognition functionalities. Bacterial flagellar filaments, composed of thousands of flagellin subunits, were used as scaffolds to display single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) on their surface. As a representative example, an anti-GFP nanobody was successfully inserted into the middle part of flagellin replacing the hypervariable surface-exposed D3 domain. A novel procedure was developed to select appropriate linkers required for functional internal insertion. Linkers of various lengths and conformational properties were chosen from a linker database and they were randomly attached to both ends of an anti-GFP nanobody to facilitate insertion. Functional fusion constructs capable of forming filaments on the surface of flagellin-deficient host cells were selected by magnetic microparticles covered by target GFP molecules and appropriate linkers were identified. TEM studies revealed that short filaments of 2-900 nm were formed on the cell surface. ITC and fluorescent measurements demonstrated that the fusion protein exhibited high binding affinity towards GFP. Our approach allows the development of functionalized flagellar nanotubes against a variety of important target molecules offering potential applications in biosensorics and bio-nanotechnology.

  16. Reactor power peaking information display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, T.L.; Kochendarfer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a system for monitoring operating conditions within a nuclear reactor. The system consists of a method for measuring the operating parameters within the nuclear reactor, including the position of axial power shaping rods and regulating control rod. It also includes a method for determining from the operating parameters the operating limits before a power peaking condition exists within the nuclear reactor, and a method for displaying the operating limits which consists of a visual display permitting the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions within the nuclear reactor as a graph of the shaping rod position vs the regulating rod position having a permissible area and a restricted area. The permissible area is further divided into a recommended operating area for steady state operation and a cursor located on the graph to indicate the present operating condition of the nuclear reactor to allow an operator to view any need for corrective action based on the movement of the cursor out of the recommended operating area and to take any corrective transient action within the permissible area

  17. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  18. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation

  19. Little Artists put on a Big Display

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It has become a regular appointment for CERN people: the exhibition of naive and beautiful works made by young artists from the CERN nursery school. Physicists? Pianists? Teachers? They still don't know what they will be... some of them can hardly speak. But one thing's for sure CERN gives them the chance to discover and express their artistic aptitudes. And once a year they can proudly show their works to all CERN people. We are talking about children from le nursery school run by the CERN Staff Association, who are the creators of amazing works currently on display in the Main Building. To prepare for this very important appointment each class of young artists from 2 to 6 years old, have been hard at work for several months. Des élèves du Jardin d'enfants de 5 ans devant l'une de leurs oeuvres, un dinosaure en carton. Working together to express themselves in creative activities, such as drawing, pottery, music, musical movement, games, arts, and craftwork, children from all over the...

  20. Mice deficient in transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase display increased GABAergic transmission and neurological alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi O Nousiainen

    Full Text Available Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, the first diagnostic marker and present therapeutic target for prostate cancer, modulates nociception at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, but its function in the central nervous system has remained unknown. We studied expression and function of TMPAP (the transmembrane isoform of PAP in the brain by utilizing mice deficient in TMPAP (PAP-/- mice. Here we report that TMPAP is expressed in a subpopulation of cerebral GABAergic neurons, and mice deficient in TMPAP show multiple behavioral and neurochemical features linked to hyperdopaminergic dysregulation and altered GABAergic transmission. In addition to increased anxiety, disturbed prepulse inhibition, increased synthesis of striatal dopamine, and augmented response to amphetamine, PAP-deficient mice have enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced diazepam-induced loss of righting reflex, and increased GABAergic tone in the hippocampus. TMPAP in the mouse brain is localized presynaptically, and colocalized with SNARE-associated protein snapin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, and PAP-deficient mice display altered subcellular distribution of snapin. We have previously shown TMPAP to reside in prostatic exosomes and we propose that TMPAP is involved in the control of GABAergic tone in the brain also through exocytosis, and that PAP deficiency produces a distinct neurological phenotype.

  1. Simulator scene display evaluation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for aligning and calibrating scene displays in an aircraft simulator h