WorldWideScience

Sample records for displacements seismic

  1. Development of a Real-Time GPS/Seismic Displacement Meter: Seismic Component and Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, F.; Bock, Y.

    2002-12-01

    In two abstracts, we report on an ongoing effort to develop an Integrated Real-Time GPS/Seismic System for Orange and Western Riverside Counties, California, spanning three major strike-slip faults in southern California (San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Elsinore) and significant populations and civilian infrastructure. The system relying on existing GPS and seismic networks will collect and analyze GPS and seismic data for the purpose of estimating and disseminating real-time positions and total ground displacements (dynamic, as well as static) covering all phases of the seismic cycle, from fractions of seconds to years. Besides its intrinsic scientific use as a real-time displacement meter (transducer), the GPS/Seismic System will be a powerful tool for local and state decision makers for risk mitigation, disaster management, and structural monitoring (dams, bridges, and buildings). Furthermore, the GPS/Seismic System will become an integral part of California's spatial referencing and positioning infrastructure, which is complicated by tectonic motion, seismic displacements, and land subsidence. This development is taking place under the umbrella of the California Spatial Reference Center, in partnership with local (The Counties, Riverside County Flood and Water Conservation District, Southern California Metropolitan Water District), state (Caltrans), and Federal agencies (NGS, NASA, USGS), the geophysics community (SCEC2/SCIGN), and the private sector (RBF Consulting). The project is leveraging considerable funding, resources, and research and development from SCIGN, CSRC and two NSF-funded IT projects at UCSD and SDSU: RoadNet (Real-Time Observatories, Applications and Data Management Network) and the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (HPWREN). These two projects are funded to develop both the wireless networks and the integrated, seamless, and transparent information management system that will deliver seismic, geodetic, oceanographic

  2. Design and analysis of fractional order seismic transducer for displacement and acceleration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraian, Parthasarathi; Gandhi, Uma; Mangalanathan, Umapathy

    2018-04-01

    Seismic transducers are widely used for measurement of displacement, velocity, and acceleration. This paper presents the design of seismic transducer in the fractional domain for the measurement of displacement and acceleration. The fractional order transfer function for seismic displacement and acceleration transducer are derived using Grünwald-Letnikov derivative. Frequency response analysis of fractional order seismic displacement transducer (FOSDT) and fractional order seismic acceleration transducer (FOSAT) are carried out for different damping ratio with the different fractional order, and the maximum dynamic measurement range is identified. The results demonstrate that fractional order seismic transducer has increased dynamic measurement range and less phase distortion as compared to the conventional seismic transducer even with a lower damping ratio. Time response of FOSDT and FOSAT are derived analytically in terms of Mittag-Leffler function, the effect of fractional behavior in the time domain is evaluated from the impulse and step response. The fractional order system is found to have significantly reduced overshoot as compared to the conventional transducer. The fractional order seismic transducer design proposed in this paper is illustrated with a design example for FOSDT and FOSAT. Finally, an electrical equivalent of FOSDT and FOSAT is considered, and its frequency response is found to be in close agreement with the proposed fractional order seismic transducer.

  3. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  4. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Got

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  5. Staff technical position on investigations to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, K.I.; Blackford, M.E.; Ibrahim, A.K.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this Staff Technical Position (STP) is to provide guidance to the US Department of Energy (DOE) on acceptable geologic repository investigations that can be used to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards. ne staff considers that the approach this STP takes to investigations of fault displacement and seismic phenomena is appropriate for the collection of sufficient data for input to analyses of fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards, both for the preclosure and postclosure performance periods. However, detailed analyses of fault displacement and seismic data, such as those required for comprehensive assessments of repository performance, may identify the need for additional investigations. Section 2.0 of this STP describes the 10 CFR Part 60 requirements that form the basis for investigations to describe fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository. Technical position statements and corresponding discussions are presented in Sections 3.0 and 4.0, respectively. Technical position topics in this STP are categorized thusly: (1) investigation considerations, (2) investigations for fault-displacement hazards, and (3) investigations for seismic hazards

  6. Correlations between Energy and Displacement Demands for Performance-Based Seismic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaioli, Fabrizio; Bruno, Silvia; Decanini, Luis; Saragoni, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    The development of a scientific framework for performance-based seismic engineering requires, among other steps, the evaluation of ground motion intensity measures at a site and the characterization of their relationship with suitable engineering demand parameters (EDPs) which describe the performance of a structure. In order to be able to predict the damage resulting from earthquake ground motions in a structural system, it is first necessary to properly identify ground motion parameters that are well correlated with structural response and, in turn, with damage. Since structural damage during an earthquake ground motion may be due to excessive deformation or to cumulative cyclic damage, reliable methods for estimating displacement demands on structures are needed. Even though the seismic performance is directly related to the global and local deformations of the structure, energy-based methodologies appear more helpful in concept, as they permit a rational assessment of the energy absorption and dissipation mechanisms that can be effectively accomplished to balance the energy imparted to the structure. Moreover, energy-based parameters are directly related to cycles of response of the structure and, therefore, they can implicitly capture the effect of ground motion duration, which is ignored by conventional spectral parameters. Therefore, the identification of reliable relationships between energy and displacement demands represents a fundamental issue in both the development of more reliable seismic code provisions and the evaluation of seismic vulnerability aimed at the upgrading of existing hazardous facilities. As these two aspects could become consistently integrated within a performance-based seismic design methodology, understanding how input and dissipated energy are correlated with displacement demands emerges as a decisive prerequisite. The aim of the present study is the establishment of functional relationships between input and dissipated energy

  7. Seismic displacements monitoring for 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake with GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, T.; Su, X.; Xie, X.

    2017-12-01

    The high-rate Global Positioning Satellite System (GNSS) has been recognized as one of the powerful tools for monitoring ground motions generated by seismic events. The high-rate GPS and BDS data collected during the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake have been analyzed using two methods, that are the variometric approach and Precise point positioning (PPP). The variometric approach is based on time differenced technique using only GNSS broadcast products to estimate velocity time series from tracking observations in real time, followed by an integration procedure on the velocities to derive the seismic event induced displacements. PPP is a positioning method to calculate precise positions at centimeter- or even millimeter-level accuracy with a single GNSS receiver using precise satellite orbit and clock products. The displacement motions with accuracy of 2 cm at far-field stations and 5 cm at near-field stations with great ground motions and static offsets up to 1-2 m could be achieved. The multi-GNSS, GPS + BDS, could provide higher accuracy displacements with the increasing of satellite numbers and the improvement of the Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) values. Considering the time consumption of clock estimates and the precision of PPP solutions, 5 s GNSS satellite clock interval is suggested. In addition, the GNSS-derived displacements are in good agreement with those from strong motion data. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of real-time capturing seismic waves with multi-GNSS observations, which is of great promise for the purpose of earthquake early warning and rapid hazard assessment.

  8. An under-designed RC frame: Seismic assessment through displacement based approach and possible refurbishment with FRP strips and RC jacketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Marco; Milani, Gabriele

    2017-07-01

    Many existing reinforced concrete buildings in Southern Europe were built (and hence designed) before the introduction of displacement based design in national seismic codes. They are obviously highly vulnerable to seismic actions. In such a situation, simplified methodologies for the seismic assessment and retrofitting of existing structures are required. In this study, a displacement based procedure using non-linear static analyses is applied to a four-story existing RC frame. The aim is to obtain an estimation of its overall structural inadequacy as well as the effectiveness of a specific retrofitting intervention by means of GFRP laminates and RC jacketing. Accurate numerical models are developed within a displacement based approach to reproduce the seismic response of the RC frame in the original configuration and after strengthening.

  9. Parametric stress analyses for low-level liquid radwaste system piping of ITER subjected to seismic displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yoon-Suk [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chang-Kyun [Materials Engineering Department, KEPCO E& C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Su, E-mail: hyunsu@kepco-enc.com [Materials Engineering Department, KEPCO E& C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The ITER project is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of fusion as one of the possible energy options. A layout optimization is one of the design concerns for maintaining safety and reliability of the piping, because some piping penetrating the buildings is subjected to large seismic displacements. The objective of this study is to determine an optimum layout for the radioactive liquid transfer piping to withstand a given seismic displacements combined with internal pressure and thermal expansion. To do this, a series of finite element analyses were performed for various layouts. In addition, the feasibility for utilizing the double-walled structure was investigated. Analysis result shows that effects of the internal pressure and thermal expansion on the total stress are very small compared to that of the seismic displacements. Also, the stress as well as the deformation of the double-walled piping is larger than that of the single-walled piping although the difference is not big. Based on this result, an optimum configuration, a spiral along with U shape, is suggested.

  10. Asymptotic Co- and Post-seismic displacements in a homogeneous Maxwell sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, He; Sun, Wenke

    2018-05-01

    The deformations of the Earth caused by internal and external forces are usually expressed through Green's functions or the superposition of normal modes, i.e. via numerical methods, which are applicable for computing both co- and post-seismic deformations. It is difficult to express these deformations in an analytical form, even for a uniform viscoelastic sphere. In this study, we present a set of asymptotic solutions for computing co- and post-seismic displacements; these solutions can be further applied to solving co- and post-seismic geoid, gravity, and strain changes. Expressions are derived for a uniform Maxwell Earth by combining the reciprocity theorem, which links earthquake, tidal, shear and loading deformations, with the asymptotic solutions of these three external forces (tidal, shear and loading) and analytical inverse Laplace transformation formulae. Since the asymptotic solutions are given in a purely analytical form without series summations or extra convergence skills, they can be practically applied in an efficient way, especially when computing post-seismic deformations and glacial isotactic adjustments of the Earth over long timescales.

  11. Early estimation of epicenter seismic intensities according to co-seismic deformation

    OpenAIRE

    Weidong, Li; Chaojun, Zhang; Dahui, Li; Jiayong, He; Huizhong, Chen; Lomnitz, Cinna

    2010-01-01

    The absolute fault displacement in co-seismic deformation is derived assuming that location, depth, faulting mechanism and magnitude of the earthquake are known. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M8.0) is used as an example to determine the distribution of seismic intensities using absolute displacement and a crustal model. We fnd that an early prediction of the distribution of seismic intensities after a large earthquake may be performed from the estimated absolute co-seismic displacements using...

  12. Displacement based seismic design of symmetric single-storey wood-frame buildings with the aid of N2 method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis eMergos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology for the displacement-based seismic design of symmetric single-storey wood-frame buildings. Previous displacement-based design efforts were based on the direct displacement-based design (DDBD approach, which uses a substitute linear system with an appropriate stiffness and viscous damping combination. Despite the fact that this method has shown to produce promising results for wood structures, it does not fit into the framework of the Eurocode 8 (EC8 provisions. The methodology presented herein is based on the N2 method, which is incorporated in EC8 and combines the non-linear pushover analysis with the response spectrum method. The N2 method has been mostly applied to reinforced concrete and steel structures. In order to properly implement the N2 method for the case of wood-frame buildings new behavior factor – displacement ductility relationships are proposed. These relationships were derived from inelastic time history analyses of 35 SDOF systems subjected to 80 different ground motion records. Furthermore, the validity of the N2 method is examined for the case of a timber shear wall tested on a shake table and satisfactory predictions are obtained. Last, the proposed design methodology is applied to the displacement-based seismic design of a realistic symmetric single-storey wood-frame building in order to meet the performance objectives of EC8. It is concluded that the simplicity and computational efficiency of the adopted methodology make it a valuable tool for the seismic design of this category of wood-frame buildings, while the need for extending the method to more complex wood-frame buildings is also highlighted.

  13. Effects of seismic intensity and socioeconomic status on injury and displacement after the 2007 Peru earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milch, Karen; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-10-01

    Earthquakes are a major cause of displacement, particularly in developing countries. Models of injury and displacement can be applied to assist governments and aid organisations in effectively targeting preparedness and relief efforts. A stratified cluster survey was conducted in January 2008 to evaluate risk factors for injury and displacement following the 15 August 2007 earthquake in southern Peru. In statistical modelling, seismic intensity, distance to rupture, living conditions, and educational attainment collectively explained 54.9 per cent of the variability in displacement rates across clusters. Living conditions was a particularly significant predictor of injury and displacement, indicating a strong relationship between risk and socioeconomic status. Contrary to expectations, urban, periurban, and rural clusters did not exhibit significantly different injury and displacement rates. Proxies of socioeconomic status, particularly the living conditions index score, proved relevant in explaining displacement, likely due to unmeasured aspects of housing construction practices and building materials. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  14. Prediction of Seismic Slope Displacements by Dynamic Stick-Slip Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausilio, Ernesto; Costanzo, Antonio; Silvestri, Francesco; Tropeano, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    A good-working balance between simplicity and reliability in assessing seismic slope stability is represented by displacement-based methods, in which the effects of deformability and ductility can be either decoupled or coupled in the dynamic analyses. In this paper, a 1D lumped mass ''stick-slip'' model is developed, accounting for soil heterogeneity and non-linear behaviour, with a base sliding mechanism at a potential rupture surface. The results of the preliminary calibration show a good agreement with frequency-domain site response analysis in no-slip conditions. The comparison with rigid sliding block analyses and with the decoupled approach proves that the stick-slip procedure can result increasingly unconservative for soft soils and deep sliding depths

  15. Displacement of Pile-Reinforced Slopes with a Weak Layer Subjected to Seismic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haizuo Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a weak layer in a slope requires special attention because it has a negative impact on slope stability. However, limited insight into the seismic stability of slopes with a weak layer exists. In this study, the seismic stability of a pile-reinforced slope with a weak thin layer is investigated. Based on the limit analysis theory, a translational failure mechanism for an earth slope is developed. The rotational rigid blocks in the previous rotational-translational failure mechanism are replaced by continuous deformation regions, which consist of a sequence of n rigid triangles. The predicted static factor of safety and collapse mechanism in two typical examples of slopes with a weak layer compare well with the results obtained from the available literature and by using the Discontinuity Layout Optimization (DLO technique. The lateral forces provided by the stabilizing piles are evaluated using the theory of plastic deformation. An analytical solution for estimating the critical yield acceleration coefficient for the pile-reinforced slopes is derived. Based on the proposed translational failure mechanism and the corresponding critical yield acceleration coefficient, Newmark’s analytical procedure is employed to evaluate the cumulative displacement. Considering different real earthquake acceleration records as input motion, the effect of stabilizing piles and varying the spacing of piles on the cumulative displacement of slopes with a weak layer is investigated.

  16. Development of a Real-Time GPS/Seismic Displacement Meter: Applications to Civilian Infrastructure in Orange and Western Riverside Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Yehuda

    2005-01-01

    We propose a three-year applications project that will develop an Integrated Real-Time GPS/Seismic System and deploy it in Orange and Western Riverside Counties, spanning three major strike-slip faults in southern California (San Andreas, San Jacinto, and Elsinore) and significant populations and civilian infrastructure. The system relying on existing GPS and seismic networks will collect and analyze GPS and seismic data for the purpose of estimating and disseminating real-time positions and total ground displacements (dynamic, as well as static) during all phases of the seismic cycle, from fractions of seconds to years. Besides its intrinsic scientific use as a real-time displacement meter (transducer), the GPS/Seismic System will be a powerful tool for local and state decision makers for risk mitigation, disaster management, and structural monitoring (dams, bridges, and buildings). Furthermore, the GPS/Seismic System will become an integral part of California's spatial referencing and positioning infrastructure, which is complicated by tectonic motion, seismic displacements, and land subsidence. Finally, the GPS/Seismic system will also be applicable to navigation in any environment (land, sea, or air) by combining precise real-time instantaneous GPS positioning with inertial navigation systems. This development will take place under the umbrella of the California Spatial Reference Center, in partnership with local (Counties, Riverside County Flood and Water Conservation District, Metropolitan Water District), state (Caltrans), and Federal agencies (NGS, NASA, USGS), the geophysics community (SCIGN/SCEC2), and the private sector (RBF Consulting). The project will leverage considerable funding, resources, and R&D from SCIGN, CSRC and two NSF-funded IT projects at UCSD and SDSU: RoadNet (Real-Time Observatories, Applications and Data Management Network) and the High Performance Wireless Research and Education Network (HPWREN). These two projects are funded to

  17. Stability of cracked pipe under seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.2 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Veith, P.; Marschall, C.

    1997-06-01

    Results of displacement-controlled pipe fracture experiments, analyses, and material characterization efforts performed within the International Piping Integrity Research Group, IPIRG, Program Subtask 1.2 are discussed. Effects of dynamic versus quasi-static and monotonic versus cyclic loading were evaluated for ductile tearing of two materials, A106 Grade B ferritic steel and TP304 austenitic steel. Twelve through-wall-cracked pipe experiments were conducted on 6-inch diameter Schedule 120 pipe at 288 C (550 F). The results indicated dynamic loading at seismic strain rates marginally increased the load-carrying capacity of austenitic steel. The ferritic steel tested was sensitive to dynamic strain-aging, and consequently, its load-carrying capacity decreased at dynamic strain rates. Two parameters were found to affect the apparent ductile crack growth resistance during cyclic loading, load ratio (R) and incremental plastic displacement that occurs in a cycle. Cyclic (R = 0) loading had minimal effect on ductile tearing for both materials. However, fully reversed loading decreased the load-carrying capacity and toughness for both materials. The incremental plastic displacement can be as important as the load ratio; however, it is harder to quantify from design stress reports. Large plastic displacements will minimize the effect of negative load ratios

  18. Characterization of the elastic displacement demand: Case study - Sofia city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskaleva, I.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-02-01

    The results of the study on the seismic site response in a part of the metropolitan Sofia are discussed. The neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure has been used to compute realistic synthetic waveforms considering four earthquake scenarios, with magnitudes M = 3.7, M = 6.3 and M = 7.0. Source and site specific ground motion time histories are computed along three investigated cross sections, making use of the hybrid approach, combining the modal summation technique and the finite differences scheme. Displacement and acceleration response spectra are considered. These results are validated against the design elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand, recommended in Eurocode 8. The elastic response design spectrum from the standard pseudo-acceleration, versus natural period, Tn, format is converted to the Sa - Sd format. The elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand are discussed with respect to the earthquake magnitude, the seismic source-to-site distance, seismic source mechanism, and the local geological site conditions. (author)

  19. A combined method to calculate co-seismic displacements through strong motion acceleration baseline correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, W.; Sun, Y.

    2015-12-01

    High frequency strong motion data, especially near field acceleration data, have been recorded widely through different observation station systems among the world. Due to tilting and a lot other reasons, recordings from these seismometers usually have baseline drift problems when big earthquake happens. It is hard to obtain a reasonable and precision co-seismic displacement through simply double integration. Here presents a combined method using wavelet transform and several simple liner procedures. Owning to the lack of dense high rate GNSS data in most of region of the world, we did not contain GNSS data in this method first but consider it as an evaluating mark of our results. This semi-automatic method unpacks a raw signal into two portions, a summation of high ranks and a low ranks summation using a cubic B-spline wavelet decomposition procedure. Independent liner treatments are processed against these two summations, which are then composed together to recover useable and reasonable result. We use data of 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and choose stations with a near GPS recording to validate this method. Nearly all of them have compatible co-seismic displacements when compared with GPS stations or field survey. Since seismometer stations and GNSS stations from observation systems in China are sometimes quite far from each other, we also test this method with some other earthquakes (1999 Chi-Chi earthquake and 2011 Tohoku earthquake). And for 2011 Tohoku earthquake, we will introduce GPS recordings to this combined method since the existence of a dense GNSS systems in Japan.

  20. Theoretical models for crustal displacement assessment and monitoring in Vrancea-Focsani seismic zone by integrated remote sensing and local geophysical data for seismic prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, Maria; Ciobanu, Mircea; Mitrea, Marius Gabriel; Talianu, Camelia; Cotarlan, Costel; Mateciuc, Doru; Radulescu, Florin; Biter Mircea

    2002-01-01

    The majority of strong Romanian earthquakes has the origin in Vrancea region. Subduction of the Black Sea Sub-Plate under the Pannonian Plate produces faulting processes. Crustal displacement identification and monitoring is very important for a seismically active area like Vrancea-Focsani. Earthquake displacements are very well revealed by satellite remote sensing data. At the same time, geomorphologic analysis of topographic maps is carried out and particularly longitudinal and transverse profiles are constructed, as well as structural-geomorphologic maps. Faults are interpreted by specific features in nature of relief, straightness of line of river beds and their tributaries, exits of springs, etc. Remote sensing analysis and field studies of active faults can provide a geologic history that overcomes many of the shortcomings of instrumental and historic records. Our theoretical models developed in the frame of this project are presented as follows: a) Spectral Mixture Analysis model of geomorphological and topographic characteristics for Vrancea region proposed for satellite images analysis which assumes that the different classes present in a pixel (image unit) contribute independently to its reflectance. Therefore, the reflectance of a pixel at a particular frequency is the sum of the reflectances of the components at that frequency. The same test region in Vrancea area is imaged at several different frequencies (spectral bands), leading to multispectral observations for each pixel. It is useful to merge different satellite data into a hybrid image with high spatial and spectral resolution to create detailed images map of the abundance of various materials within the scene based on material spectral fingerprint. Image fusion produces a high-resolution multispectral image that is then unmixed into high-resolution material maps. b) Model of seismic cross section analysis which is applied in seismic active zones morphology. Since a seismic section can be

  1. Transportable 56-kN, 200-mm displacement hydraulic shaker for seismic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, D.O.; Hunter, N.F.

    1972-01-01

    A large hydraulic shaker for seismic simulation is described. The shaker is 6.1 x 2.2 x 0.8 m and weighs 8800 kg. The shaker has a 56-kN force output driving a 7000 kg reaction mass, with a maximum displacement capability of 200 mm (p-p) over a frequency range from 1 to 50 Hz. The entire system, including the hydraulic power supplies, is designed to be self-contained and transportable. External support required for the system includes 110-V power for instrumentation, 64-kV . A (220- or 440-V) power for the hydraulic power supplies, and water for oil cooling. The system was successfully used to excite a four-story test structure at the AEC's Nevada Test Site. A brief description of the test series is given. (U.S.)

  2. Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground facility is considered in the evaluation of its location and design. The possible damage resulting from either large-scale displacements or high accelerations should be considered in evaluating potential sites of underground facilities. Scattered through the available literature are statements to the effect that below a few hundred meters shaking and damage in mines is less than at the surface; however, data for decreased damage underground have not been completely reported or explained. In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  3. Seismic isolation - efficient procedure for seismic response assessement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfir, M. A.; Androne, M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this analysis is to reduce the dynamic response of a structure. The seismic isolation solution must take into consideration the specific site ground motion. In this paper will be presented results obtained by applying the seismic isolation method. Based on the obtained results, important conclusions can be outlined: the seismic isolation device has the ability to reduce seismic acceleration of the seismic isolated structure to values that no longer present a danger to people and environment; the seismic isolation solution is limiting devices deformations to safety values for ensuring structural integrity and stability of the entire system; the effective seismic energy dissipation and with no side effects both for the seismic isolated building and for the devices used, and the return to the initial position before earthquake occurence are obtained with acceptable permanent displacement. (authors)

  4. Response of cylindrical steel shell under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.; Amin, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The seismic response of a cylindrical shell is simulated using the finite element method, and by spectral analysis. For this purpose the fundamental frequency of the cylinder is first calculated and compared with a published result. The mode shapes are also calculated which are later used for spectral analysis. The boundary nodes of the shell are displaced periodically according to a predetermined function of time by employing the acceleration time history of the El Centro earthquake to simulate the seismic loading. However, to conduct spectral analysis, the displacements are first transformed from the time domain to frequency domain using the Fast Fourier transformation. This spectral data is then used to obtain the actual displacement in the first mode under the given seismic loading. The techniques employed here can be used for cylindrical shell structures like rotor of a gas centrifuge, besides other structures that are subjected to seismic loading, besides in other time dependent loading conditions, for example rocket motor vibrations. (author)

  5. Tsunami simulation using submarine displacement calculated from simulation of ground motion due to seismic source model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, S.; Kawaji, K.; Fujihara, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since fault fracturing due to an earthquake can simultaneously cause ground motion and tsunami, it is appropriate to evaluate the ground motion and the tsunami by single fault model. However, several source models are used independently in the ground motion simulation or the tsunami simulation, because of difficulty in evaluating both phenomena simultaneously. Many source models for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake are proposed from the inversion analyses of seismic observations or from those of tsunami observations. Most of these models show the similar features, which large amount of slip is located at the shallower part of fault area near the Japan Trench. This indicates that the ground motion and the tsunami can be evaluated by the single source model. Therefore, we examine the possibility of the tsunami prediction, using the fault model estimated from seismic observation records. In this study, we try to carry out the tsunami simulation using the displacement field of oceanic crustal movements, which is calculated from the ground motion simulation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. We use two fault models by Yoshida et al. (2011), which are based on both the teleseismic body wave and on the strong ground motion records. Although there is the common feature in those fault models, the amount of slip near the Japan trench is lager in the fault model from the strong ground motion records than in that from the teleseismic body wave. First, the large-scale ground motion simulations applying those fault models used by the voxel type finite element method are performed for the whole eastern Japan. The synthetic waveforms computed from the simulations are generally consistent with the observation records of K-NET (Kinoshita (1998)) and KiK-net stations (Aoi et al. (2000)), deployed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). Next, the tsunami simulations are performed by the finite

  6. Co-Seismic Mass Displacement and its Effect on Earth's Rotation and Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, B. F.; Gross, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    Mantle processes often involve large-scale mass transport, ranging from mantle convection, tectonic motions, glacial isostatic adjustment, to tides, atmospheric and oceanic loadings, volcanism and seismicity. On very short time scale of less than an hour, co-seismic event, apart from the "shaking" that is the earthquake, leaves behind permanent (step-function-like) displacements in the crust and mantle. This redistribution of mass changes the Earth's inertia tensor (and hence Earth's rotation in both length-of-day and polar motion), and the gravity field. The question is whether these effects are large enough to be of any significance. In this paper we report updated calculation results based on Chao & Gross. The calculation uses the normal mode summation scheme, applied to over twenty thousand major earthquakes that occurred during 1976-2002, according to source mechanism solutions given by the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor catalog. Compared to the truly large ones earlier in the century, the earthquakes we study are individually all too small to have left any discernible signature in geodetic records of Earth rotation or global gravity field. However, their collective effects continue to exhibit an extremely strong statistical tendencies, conspiring to decrease J2 and J22 while shortening LOD, resulting in a rounder and more compact Earth. Strong tendency is also seen in the earthquakes trying to "nudge" the Earth rotation pole towards approx. 140 deg.E, roughly opposite to the observed polar drift direction. Currently, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) is measuring the time-variable gravity to high degree and order with unprecedented accuracy. Our results show that great earthquakes such as the 1960 Chilean or 1964 Alaskan events cause gravitational field changes that are large enough to be detected by GRACE.

  7. Seismic Response Analysis and Design of Structure with Base Isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosko, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper reports the study on seismic response and energy distribution of a multi-story civil structure. The nonlinear analysis used the 2003 Bam earthquake acceleration record as the excitation input to the structural model. The displacement response was analyzed in time domain and in frequency domain. The displacement and its derivatives result energy components. The energy distribution in each story provides useful information for the structural upgrade with help of added devices. The objective is the structural displacement response minimization. The application of the structural seismic response research is presented in base-isolation example.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE RELEVANCE OF DISPLACEMENT BASED DESIGN METHODS/CRITERIA TO NUCLEAR PLANT STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOFMAYER, C.; MILLER, C.; WANG, Y.; COSTELLO, J.

    2001-01-01

    Revisions to the USNRC Regulatory Guides and Standard Review Plan Sections devoted to earthquake engineering practice are currently in process. The intent is to reflect changes in engineering practice that have evolved in the twenty years that have passed since those criteria were originally published. Additionally, field observations of the effects of the Northridge (1994) and Kobe (1995) earthquakes have inspired some reassessment in the technical community about certain aspects of design practice. In particular, questions have arisen about the effectiveness of basing earthquake resistant designs on resistance to seismic forces and, then evaluating tolerability of the expected displacements. Therefore, a research effort was undertaken to examine the implications for NRC's seismic practice of the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The results of the NRC sponsored research on this subject are reported in this paper. A slow trend toward the utilization of displacement based methods for design was noted. However, there is a more rapid trend toward the use of displacement based methods for seismic evaluation of existing facilities. A document known as FEMA 273, has been developed and is being used as the basis for the design of modifications to enhance the seismic capability of existing non-nuclear facilities. The research concluded that displacement based methods, such as given in FEMA 273, may be useful for seismic margin studies of existing nuclear power stations. They are unlikely to be useful for the basic design of new stations since nuclear power stations are designed to remain elastic during a seismic event. They could, however, be useful for estimating the margins associated with that design

  9. Seismic analysis for the ALMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajirian, F.F.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design uses seismic isolation as a cost effective approach for simplifying seismic design of the reactor module, and for enhancing margins to handle beyond design basis earthquakes (BDBE). A comprehensive seismic analysis plan has been developed to confirm the adequacy of the design and to support regulatory licensing activities. In this plan state-of-the-art computer programs are used to evaluate the system response of the ALMR. Several factors that affect seismic response will be investigated. These include variability in the input earthquake mechanism, soil-structure interaction effects, and nonlinear response of the isolators. This paper reviews the type of analyses that are planned, and discuses the approach that will be used for validating the specific features of computer programs that are required in the analysis of isolated structures. To date, different linear and nonlinear seismic analyses have been completed. The results of recently completed linear analyses have been summarized elsewhere. The findings of three-dimensional seismic nonlinear analyses are presented in this paper. These analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of changes of isolator horizontal stiffness with horizontal displacement on overall response, to develop an approach for representing BDBE events with return periods exceeding 10,000 years, and to assess margins in the design for BDBEs. From the results of these analyses and bearing test data, it can be concluded that a properly designed and constructed seismic isolation system can accommodate displacements several times the design safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) for the ALMR. (author)

  10. Analysis of large concrete storage tank under seismic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Jingyuan; Cui, Hongcheng; He, Qiang; Ju, Jinsan [China Agricultural University, Beijing (China); You, Xiaochuan [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-01-15

    This study adopted the finite element software ABAQUS to trace the dynamic response history of large reinforced concrete storage tank during different seismic excitations. The dynamic characteristics and failure modes of the tank's structure were investigated by considering the rebar's effect. Calculation results show that the large concrete storage tank remains in safe working conditions under a seismic acceleration of 55 cm/s{sup 2}. The joint of the concrete wall and dome begins to crack when seismic acceleration reaches 250 cm/s{sup 2}. As the earthquake continues, cracks spread until the top of the wall completely fails and stops working. The maximum displacement of the concrete tank and seismic acceleration are in proportion. Peak displacement and stress of the tank always appear behind the maximum acceleration.

  11. Modification of Displacement Coefficient Method in Estimation of Target Displacement for Regular Concrete Bridges Based on ASCE 41-06 Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Bahram Beheshti-Aval

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Displacement Coefficient Method (DCM stipulated in the ASCE 41-06 standard is becoming the preferred method for seismic rehabilitation of buildings in many high-seismic-hazard countries. Applications of the method for non-building constructions such as bridges are beyond the scope of this standard. Thus its application to this kind of structure should be approached with care. Target displacement has reasonable accuracy for buildings with strong columns and weak beams, where there is the development of plastic hinges. Due to high stiffness and strength of the deck relative to the piers in most bridges, this mechanism does not occur, and it is necessary to evaluate the accuracy of DCM for such structures. In this research, an attempt is made to evaluate the credibility of DCM in the ASCE/SEI 41-06 standard for estimating target drifts in concrete regular bridges under strong ground motions. To apply the extension of the method to bridge structures, the definition of new correction factor CB, which should be multiplied to previous coefficients, is required. This novel coefficient can improve the accuracy of the mentioned method in accessing seismic displacement demands. The coefficient is presented for soil types A to D based on NEHRP soil classification. The validity of the modified DCM is examined for several bridges with use of nonlinear dynamic analysis. Good correlation is found between both procedures.

  12. New seismic sources parameterization in El Salvador. Implications to seismic hazard.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Staller, A.; Martínez Díaz, José J.; Benito, Belén; Álvarez Gómez, José Antonio; Canora Catalán, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    El Salvador is located at the pacific active margin of Central America, here, the subduction of the Cocos Plate under the Caribbean Plate at a rate of 80 mm/yr is the main seismic source. Although the seismic sources located in the Central American Volcanic Arc have been responsible for some of the most damaging earthquakes in El Salvador. The El Salvador Fault Zone is the main geological structure in El Salvador and accommodates 14 mm/yr of horizontal displacement between the Caribbean Plate...

  13. Seismic analysis of liquid metal reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the finite-element numerical algorithm and its applications to LMR piping under seismic excitations. A time-history analysis technique using the implicit temporal integration scheme is addressed. A 3-D pipe element is formulated which has eight degrees of freedom per node (three displacements, three rotations, one membrane displacement, and one bending rotation) to account for the hoop, flexural, rotational, and torsional modes of the piping system. Both geometric and material nonlinearities are considered. This algorithm is unconditionally stable and is particularly suited for the seismic analysis. (orig./GL)

  14. Analysis of EAST tokamak cryostat anti-seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wei; Kong Xiaoling; Liu Sumei; Ni Xiaojun; Wang Zhongwei

    2014-01-01

    A 3-D finite element model for EAST tokamak cryostat is established by using ANSYS. On the basis of the modal analysis, the seismic response of the EAST tokamak cryostat structure is calculated according to an input of the design seismic response spectrum referring to code for seismic design of nuclear power plants. Calculation results show that EAST cryostat displacement and stress response is small under the action of earthquake. According to the standards, EAST tokamak cryostat structure under the action of design seismic can meet the requirements of anti-seismic design intensity, and ensure the anti-seismic safety of equipment. (authors)

  15. Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.

    1979-04-01

    Relative displacements of rock masses are evaluated in terms of geological evidence, seismological evidence, data from simulation experiments, and analytical predictive models. Numerical models have been developed to determine displacement fields as a function of depth, distance, and azimuth from an earthquake source. Computer calculations for several types of faults indicate that displacements decrease rapidly with distance from the fault, but that displacements can either increase or decrease as a function of depth depending on the type and geometry of the fault. For long shallow vertical strike-slip faults the displacement decreases markedly with depth. For square strike slip faults and for dip slip faults displacement does not decrease as markedly with depth. Geologic structure, material properties, and depth affect the seismic source spectrum. Amplification of the high frequencies of shear waves is larger by a factor of about 2 for layered geologic models than for an elastic half space

  16. Simulating the seismic behaviour of soil slopes and embankments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2010-01-01

    In the current study the clarification of the main assumptions, related to the two most commonly used methods of seismic slope stability analysis (pseudostatic and permanent deformation) is attempted. The seismic permanent displacements and the corresponding seismic coefficients were determined via...... parametric dynamic numerical analyses taking into account not only the main parameters dominating the seismic slope stability, but also the inherent assumptions of the applied approaches that affect the obtained results. The investigation conclude to a realistic procedure for seismic slope stability...

  17. Sensitivity Analysis on Elbow Piping Components in Seismically Isolated NPP under Seismic Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hee Kun; Hahm, Dae Gi; Kim, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the FE model is verified using specimen test results and simulation with parameter variations are conducted. Effective parameters will randomly sampled and used as input values for simulations to be applied to the fragility analysis. pipelines are representative of them because they could undergo larger displacements when they are supported on both isolated and non-isolated structures simultaneously. Especially elbows are critical components of pipes under severed loading conditions such as earthquake action because strain is accumulated on them during the repeated bending of the pipe. Therefore, seismic performance of pipe elbow components should be examined thoroughly based on the fragility analysis. Fragility assessment of interface pipe should take different sources of uncertainty into account. However, selection of important sources and repeated tests with many random input values are very time consuming and expensive, so numerical analysis is commonly used. In the present study, finite element (FE) model of elbow component will be validated using the dynamic test results of elbow components. Using the verified model, sensitivity analysis will be implemented as a preliminary process of seismic fragility of piping system. Several important input parameters are selected and how the uncertainty of them are apportioned to the uncertainty of the elbow response is to be studied. Piping elbows are critical components under cyclic loading conditions as they are subjected large displacement. In a seismically isolated NPP, seismic capacity of piping system should be evaluated with caution. Seismic fragility assessment preliminarily needs parameter sensitivity analysis about the output of interest with different input parameter values.

  18. Seismic Applications of Energy Dampers

    OpenAIRE

    Shambhu Sinha

    2004-01-01

    Damping devices based on the operating principle of high velocity fluid flow through orifices have found numerous applications in the shock and vibration isolation of aerospace and defence systems. The study aims to investigate the feasibility of using energy dissipating fluid viscous dampers in structures to protect against seismic loads and to prove analytically and  experimentally that fluid viscous dampers can improve the seismic capacity of a structure by reducing damage and displacement...

  19. Intelligent seismic risk mitigation system on structure building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanita, R.; Maizir, H.; Yuniorto, E.; Jingga, H.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, is one of the highest-risk seismic zone in the world. The strong ground motion might cause catastrophic collapse of the building which leads to casualties and property damages. Therefore, it is imperative to properly design the structural response of building against seismic hazard. Seismic-resistant building design process requires structural analysis to be performed to obtain the necessary building responses. However, the structural analysis could be very difficult and time consuming. This study aims to predict the structural response includes displacement, velocity, and acceleration of multi-storey building with the fixed floor plan using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method based on the 2010 Indonesian seismic hazard map. By varying the building height, soil condition, and seismic location in 47 cities in Indonesia, 6345 data sets were obtained and fed into the ANN model for the learning process. The trained ANN can predict the displacement, velocity, and acceleration responses with up to 96% of predicted rate. The trained ANN architecture and weight factors were later used to build a simple tool in Visual Basic program which possesses the features for prediction of structural response as mentioned previously.

  20. Seismic analysis for conceptual design of HCCR TBM-set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won, E-mail: dwlee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Dae; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Kim, Suk-Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Kyu In [Gentec Co., Daejeon, Republic of Korea (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The seismic analysis of KO HCCR TBM-set are performed. • The seismic envents like SL-1, SL-2, and SMHV are selected and evaluated with FEM code (ANSYS). • The results of the stresses and deformations are confirmed to meet the design criteria. - Abstract: Using the conceptual design of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module (TBM) including the TBM-shield for testing in ITER, a seismic analysis is performed. According to the ITER TBM port plug (TBM PP) system load specifications, seismic events are selected as SL-1 (seismic level-1), SL-2 (seismic level-2), and SMHV (seismes maximaux historiquement vraisemblables, Maximum Histroically Probable Earthquakes). In a modal analysis a total of 50 modes are obtained. Then, a spectra response analysis for each seismic event is carried out using ANSYS based on the modal analysis results. For each event, the obtained Tresca stress is evaluated to confirm the design integrity, by comparing the resulting stress to the design criteria. The Tresca strain and displacement are also estimated for the HCCR TBM-set. From the analysis, it was concluded that the maximum stresses by the seismic events meet the design criteria, and the displacements are lower than the designed gap from the TBM PP frame. The results are provided to a load combination analysis.

  1. Displacement-Based Seismic Design Procedure for Framed Buildings with Dissipative Braces Part II: Numerical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses

  2. Seismic Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground

  3. Seismic Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-01-01

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  4. On the Need for Reliable Seismic Input Assessment for Optimized Design and Retrofit of Seismically Isolated Civil and Industrial Structures, Equipment, and Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Based on the experience of recent violent earthquakes, the limits of the methods that are currently used for the definition of seismic hazard are becoming more and more evident to several seismic engineers. Considerable improvement is felt necessary not only for the seismic classification of the territory (for which the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment—PSHA—is generally adopted at present), but also for the evaluation of local amplification. With regard to the first item, among others, a better knowledge of fault extension and near-fault effects is judged essential. The aforesaid improvements are particularly important for the design of seismically isolated structures, which relies on displacement. Thus, such a design requires an accurate definition of the maximum value of displacement corresponding to the isolation period, and a reliable evaluation of the earthquake energy content at the low frequencies that are typical of the isolated structures, for the site and ground of interest. These evaluations shall include possible near-fault effects even in the vertical direction; for the construction of high-risk plants and components and retrofit of some cultural heritage, they shall be performed for earthquakes characterized by very long return periods. The design displacement shall not be underestimated, but neither be excessively overestimated, at least when using rubber bearings in the seismic isolation (SI) system. In fact, by decreasing transverse deformation of such SI systems below a certain value, their horizontal stiffness increases. Thus, should a structure (e.g. a civil defence centre, a masterpiece, etc.) protected in the aforesaid way be designed to withstand an unnecessarily too large earthquake, the behaviour of its SI system will be inadequate (i.e. it will be too stiff) during much more frequent events, which may really strike the structure during its life. Furthermore, since SI can be used only when the room available to the structure

  5. Seismic performance for vertical geometric irregularity frame structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Mahmud, N. A.; Ishak, I. S.

    2018-04-01

    This research highlights the result of vertical geometric irregularity frame structures. The aid of finite element analysis software, LUSAS was used to analyse seismic performance by focusing particularly on type of irregular frame on the differences in height floors and continued in the middle of the building. Malaysia’s building structures were affected once the earthquake took place in the neighbouring country such as Indonesia (Sumatera Island). In Malaysia, concrete is widely used in building construction and limited tension resistance to prevent it. Analysing structural behavior with horizontal and vertical static load is commonly analyses by using the Plane Frame Analysis. The case study of this research is to determine the stress and displacement in the seismic response under this type of irregular frame structures. This study is based on seven-storey building of Clinical Training Centre located in Sungai Buloh, Selayang, Selangor. Since the largest earthquake occurs in Acheh, Indonesia on December 26, 2004, the data was recorded and used in conducting this research. The result of stress and displacement using IMPlus seismic analysis in LUSAS Modeller Software under the seismic response of a formwork frame system states that the building is safe to withstand the ground and in good condition under the variation of seismic performance.

  6. Force-displacement response of unreinforced masonry walls for seismic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL contributes to the improvement of the design and assessment methods for unreinforced masonry (URM) wall structures built with modern hollow core clay bricks. First, an experimental campaign on the lateral nonlinear in-plane response of URM walls is presented; secondly, an existing dataset on URM walls is extended and reanalysed. A newly developed mechanical model which describes the full force-displacement response of URM walls is described. Two series of URM walls tested under lateral in-plane loading are presented. Throughout the quasi-cyclic tests of all URM walls, the deformations were recorded using a digital photogrammetric measurement system which tracked the displacement field of the walls. Based on these findings, a new mechanical model is proposed which describes the nonlinear force-displacement response of flexural dominated URM walls up to near collapse

  7. InSAR Analysis of Post-Seismic Deformation Following the 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, K.; Barnhart, W. D.

    2017-12-01

    On September 24th, 2013, a Mw 7.7 earthquake ruptured a 200 km portion of the Hoshab fault, a reverse fault in the Makran accretionary prism of southern Pakistan. This earthquake is notable because it ruptured a reverse fault with a predominantly strike-slip sense of displacement, and it ruptured a mechanically weak accretionary prism. Here, we present initial analysis of ongoing post-seismic deformation imaged with the Sentinel-1 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) mission with the goals of a) determining the dominant post-seismic deformation processes active, b) characterizing the rigidity and rheological structure of a flat-slab subduction zone, and c) elucidating whether post-seismic deformation may account for or exacerbate the 4-6 m fault convergence deficit left by the 2013 earthquake. We first present InSAR time series analysis of the post-seismic transient derived from ongoing Sentinel-1 SAR acquisitions, including a comparison of atmosphere-corrected and uncorrected time series. Interferograms spanning December 2014 to the present reveal an ongoing post-seismic deformation transient in the region surrounding the Hoshab fault. Additionally, fault creep signals on and adjacent to the Hoshab fault are present. Second, we present a suite of forward models that explore the potential contributions of viscoelastic relaxation and frictional afterslip to the recorded displacement signal. These models, conducted using the semi-analytical solutions of RELAX and compared to InSAR line-of-sight time series displacements, explore a range of candidate rheological descriptions of the Makran subduction zone that are designed to probe the rheological structure of a region where current knowledge of the subsurface geology is highly limited. Our preliminary results suggest that post-seismic displacements arise from a combination of viscoelastic deformation and frictional afterslip, as opposed to one single mechanism. Additionally, our preliminary results suggest

  8. Field Installation and Real-Time Data Processing of the New Integrated SeismoGeodetic System with Real-Time Acceleration and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Characterization Based on High-Rate Seismic and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimakov, Leonid; Jackson, Michael; Passmore, Paul; Raczka, Jared; Alvarez, Marcos; Barrientos, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    We will discuss and show the results obtained from an integrated SeismoGeodetic System, model SG160-09, installed in the Chilean National Network. The SG160-09 provides the user high rate GNSS and accelerometer data, full epoch-by-epoch measurement integrity and, using the Trimble Pivot™ SeismoGeodetic App, the ability to create combined GNSS and accelerometer high-rate (200Hz) displacement time series in real-time. The SG160-09 combines seismic recording with GNSS geodetic measurement in a single compact, ruggedized package. The system includes a low-power, 220-channel GNSS receiver powered by the latest Trimble-precise Maxwell™6 technology and supports tracking GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals. The receiver incorporates on-board GNSS point positioning using Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technology with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered over IP networks. The seismic recording element includes an ANSS Class A, force balance triaxial accelerometer with the latest, low power, 24-bit A/D converter, which produces high-resolution seismic data. The SG160-09 processor acquires and packetizes both seismic and geodetic data and transmits it to the central station using an advanced, error-correction protocol with back fill capability providing data integrity between the field and the processing center. The SG160-09 has been installed in the seismic station close to the area of the Iquique earthquake of April 1, 2014, in northern Chile, a seismically prone area at the current time. The hardware includes the SG160-09 system, external Zephyr Geodetic-2 GNSS antenna, and high-speed Internet communication media. Both acceleration and displacement data was transmitted in real-time to the National Seismological Center in Santiago for real-time data processing using Earthworm / Early Bird software. Command/Control of the field station and real-time GNSS position correction are provided via the Pivot software suite. Data from the SG160-09 system was

  9. Topical opinion paper - Apparent Discrepancies Between Nuclear and Conventional Seismic Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald, John; Smith, Ian

    2003-01-01

    The differences between nuclear and conventional seismic standards are considered and their potential significance discussed. The approach to the design of nuclear facilities is appropriately both more rigorous and conservative than that required by conventional seismic standards and codes. For nuclear seismic design the requirements can be presented as assessment principles, e.g., NII SAPs or a safety guide e.g. IAEA; Seismic Design and Qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. The adoption of novel methods or designs are required to be supported by appropriate research and development with the ability to cite a precedent within the industry being a powerful endorsement. The method adopted must reliably predict the seismic response of the item to be qualified, including the seismic response of attached or supported Structures, Systems and Components. (SSC's) The traditional method adopted for seismic qualification by analysis has been based on linear elastic analyses. This is justified on the basis that the response is reliably predicted and realistic, provided that the elements remain elastic. In contrast the benefit of ductile behaviour of conventional structures within the design envelope has long been recognised and used as the basis to justify significant reductions in the seismic demand. Provided the acceptance criteria are met, the SAPs do not preclude and the IAEA safety guide specifically permits non linear behaviour within the design envelope for category 1 items. Both the current nuclear practice and the current conventional seismic standards can be classified as 'force based'. The displacement based approach, also referred to as performance based engineering (PBE), has been developed as a powerful tool in the evaluation and seismic retrofit of existing structures. This approach could be equally valid to the design of new structures and can be used to represent elastic or non linear behaviour although the full benefit will only be realised in the latter

  10. RTX Correction Accuracy and Real-Time Data Processing of the New Integrated SeismoGeodetic System with Real-Time Acceleration and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Characterization Based on High-Rate Seismic and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimakov, L. G.; Raczka, J.; Barrientos, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    We will discuss and show the results obtained from an integrated SeismoGeodetic System, model SG160-09, installed in the Chile (Chilean National Network), Italy (University of Naples Network), and California. The SG160-09 provides the user high rate GNSS and accelerometer data, full epoch-by-epoch measurement integrity and the ability to create combined GNSS and accelerometer high-rate (200Hz) displacement time series in real-time. The SG160-09 combines seismic recording with GNSS geodetic measurement in a single compact, ruggedized case. The system includes a low-power, 220-channel GNSS receiver powered by the latest Trimble-precise Maxwell™6 technology and supports tracking GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals. The receiver incorporates on-board GNSS point positioning using Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technology with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered over IP networks. The seismic recording includes an ANSS Class A, force balance accelerometer with the latest, low power, 24-bit A/D converter, producing high-resolution seismic data. The SG160-09 processor acquires and packetizes both seismic and geodetic data and transmits it to the central station using an advanced, error-correction protocol providing data integrity between the field and the processing center. The SG160-09 has been installed in three seismic stations in different geographic locations with different Trimble global reference stations coverage The hardware includes the SG160-09 system, external Zephyr Geodetic-2 GNSS antenna, both radio and high-speed Internet communication media. Both acceleration and displacement data was transmitted in real-time to the centralized Data Acquisition Centers for real-time data processing. Command/Control of the field station and real-time GNSS position correction are provided via the Pivot platform. Data from the SG160-09 system was used for seismic event characterization along with data from traditional seismic and geodetic stations

  11. Numerical simulation of co-seismic deformation of 2011 Japan Mw9. 0 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Keliang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Co-seismic displacements associated with the Mw9. 0 earthquake on March 11, 2011 in Japan are numerically simulated on the basis of a finite-fault dislocation model with PSGRN/PSCMP software. Compared with the inland GPS observation, 90% of the computed eastward, northward and vertical displacements have residuals less than 0.10 m, suggesting that the simulated results can be, to certain extent, used to demonstrate the co-seismic deformation in the near field. In this model, the maximum eastward displacement increases from 6 m along the coast to 30 m near the epicenter, where the maximum southward displacement is 13 m. The three-dimensional display shows that the vertical displacement reaches a maximum uplift of 14.3 m, which is comparable to the tsunami height in the near-trench region. The maximum subsidence is 5.3 m.

  12. Seismic hazard evaluation for major cities in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razafindrakoto, Hoby N.T.; Rambolamanana, Gerard; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2009-09-01

    The seismic hazard in some areas in Madagascar has been assessed at regional scale in terms of peak ground motion values (displacement, velocity, acceleration) and their periods, following the Neodeterministic approach, based on the computation of realistic synthetic seismograms. The main data input integrates all available tectonic, seismicity and structural model information. The largest peak values are 1.6cm/s for the velocity, 0.03g for the acceleration and more than 0.5cm for the displacement. These values are consistent within a range of macroseismic intensity from VI to VII MCS, and indicate that relatively simple prevention measures and retrofitting actions may guarantee a high safety level and a well sustainable development. (author)

  13. Multi performance option in direct displacement based design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljati Ima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compare to traditional method, direct displacement based design (DDBD offers the more rational design choice due to its compatibility with performance based design which is controlled by the targeted displacement in design. The objectives of this study are: 1 to explore the performance of DDBD for design Level-1, -2 and -3; 2 to determine the most appropriate design level based on material efficiency and damage risk; and 3 to verify the chosen design in order to check its performance under small-, moderate- and severe earthquake. As case study, it uses regular concrete frame structures consists of fourand eight-story with typical plan, located in low- and high-risk seismicity area. The study shows that design Level-2 (repairable damage is the most appropriate choice. Nonlinear time history analysis is run for each case study in order to verify their performance based on parameter: story drift, damage indices, and plastic mechanism. It can be concluded that DDBD performed very well in predicting seismic demand of the observed structures. Design Level-2 can be chosen as the most appropriate design level. Structures are in safe plastic mechanism under all level of seismicity although some plastic hinges formed at some unexpected locations.

  14. Seismic Capacity Estimation of Steel Piping Elbow under Low-cycle Fatigue Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Dae Gi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In some cases, this large relative displacement can increase seismic risk of the isolated facility. Especially, a inelastic behavior of crossover piping system to connect base isolated building and fixed base building can caused by a large relative displacement. Therefore, seismic capacity estimation for isolated piping system is needed to increase safety of nuclear power plant under seismic condition. Dynamic behavior analysis of piping system under seismic condition using shake table tests was performed by Touboul et al in 1995. In accordance with their study, plastic behavior could be occurred at pipe elbow under seismic condition. Experimental researches for dynamic behavior of typical piping system in nuclear power plant have been performed for several years by JNES(Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) and NUPEC(Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation). A low cycle ratcheting fatigue test was performed with scaled model of elbow which is a weakest component in piping system by Mizuno et al. In-plane cyclic loading tests under internal pressure condition were performed to evaluate the seismic capacity of the steel piping elbow. Leakage phenomenon occurred on and near the crown in piping elbow. Those cracks grew up in axial direction. The fatigue curve was estimated from test results. In the fatigue curve, loading amplitude exponentially decreased as the number of cycles increased. A FEM model of piping elbow was modified with test results. The relationships between displacement and force from tests and numerical analysis was well matched.

  15. GIS-based seismic shaking slope vulnerability map of Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Arisco, Giuseppe; Perricone, Marcella; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    Earthquakes often represent very dangerouses natural events in terms of human life and economic losses and their damage effects are amplified by the synchronous occurrence of seismically-induced ground-shaking failures in wide regions around the seismogenic source. In fact, the shaking associated with big earthquakes triggers extensive landsliding, sometimes at distances of more than 100 km from the epicenter. The active tectonics and the geomorphic/morphodinamic pattern of the regions affected by earthquakes contribute to the slopes instability tendency. In fact, earthquake-induced groun-motion loading determines inertial forces activation within slopes that, combined with the intrinsic pre-existing static forces, reduces the slope stability towards its failure. Basically, under zero-shear stress reversals conditions, a catastrophic failure will take place if the earthquake-induced shear displacement exceeds the critical level of undrained shear strength to a value equal to the gravitational shear stress. However, seismic stability analyses carried out for various infinite slopes by using the existing Newmark-like methods reveal that estimated permanent displacements smaller than the critical value should also be regarded as dangerous for the post-earthquake slope safety, in terms of human activities use. Earthquake-induced (often high-speed) landslides are among the most destructive phenomena related to slopes failure during earthquakes. In fact, damage from earthquake-induced landslides (and other ground-failures), sometimes exceeds the buildings/infrastructures damage directly related to ground-shaking for fault breaking. For this matter, several hearthquakes-related slope failures methods have been developed, for the evaluation of the combined hazard types represented by seismically ground-motion landslides. The methodologies of analysis of the engineering seismic risk related to the slopes instability processes is often achieved through the evaluation of the

  16. Structural Analysis and Seismic Design for Cold Neutron Laboratory Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sangik; Kim, Y. K.; Kim, H. R.

    2007-05-01

    This report describes all the major results of the dynamic structural analysis and seismic design for the Cold Neutron Laboratory Building which is classified in seismic class II. The results are summarized of the ground response spectrum as seismic input loads, mechanical properties of subsoil, the buoyancy stability due to ground water, the maximum displacement of the main frame under the seismic load and the member design. This report will be used as a basic design report to maintenance its structural integrity in future

  17. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274])

  18. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  19. Seismic Design of a Single Bored Tunnel: Longitudinal Deformations and Seismic Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; Moon, T.

    2018-03-01

    The large diameter bored tunnel passing through rock and alluvial deposits subjected to seismic loading is analyzed for estimating longitudinal deformations and member forces on the segmental tunnel liners. The project site has challenges including high hydrostatic pressure, variable ground profile and high seismic loading. To ensure the safety of segmental tunnel liner from the seismic demands, the performance-based two-level design earthquake approach, Functional Evaluation Earthquake and Safety Evaluation Earthquake, has been adopted. The longitudinal tunnel and ground response seismic analyses are performed using a three-dimensional quasi-static linear elastic and nonlinear elastic discrete beam-spring elements to represent segmental liner and ground spring, respectively. Three components (longitudinal, transverse and vertical) of free-field ground displacement-time histories evaluated from site response analyses considering wave passage effects have been applied at the end support of the strain-compatible ground springs. The result of the longitudinal seismic analyses suggests that seismic joint for the mitigation measure requiring the design deflection capacity of 5-7.5 cm is to be furnished at the transition zone between hard and soft ground condition where the maximum member forces on the segmental liner (i.e., axial, shear forces and bending moments) are induced. The paper illustrates how detailed numerical analyses can be practically applied to evaluate the axial and curvature deformations along the tunnel alignment under difficult ground conditions and to provide the seismic joints at proper locations to effectively reduce the seismic demands below the allowable levels.

  20. Quantitative identification and analysis of sub-seismic extensional structure system: technique schemes and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenghua, Ou; Chen, Wei; Ma, Zhonggao

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative characterization of complex sub-seismic extensional structure system that essentially controls petroleum exploitation is difficult to implement in seismic profile interpretation. This research, based on a case study in block M of Myanmar, established a set of quantitative treatment schemes and technique processes for the identification of sub-seismic low-displacement (SSLD) extensional faults or fractures upon structural deformation restoration and geometric inversion. Firstly, the master-subsidiary inheritance relations and configuration of the seismic-scale extensional fault systems are determined by analyzing the structural pattern. Besides, three-dimensional (3D) pattern and characteristics of the seismic-scale extensional structure have been illustrated by a 3D structure model built upon seismic sections. Moreover, according to the dilatancy obtained from structural restoration on the basis of inclined shear method, as well as the fracture-flow index, potential SSLD extensional faults or fractures have been quantitatively identified. Application of the technique processes to the sub-seismic low-displacement extensional structures in block M in Myanmar is instructive to quantitatively interpret those SSLD extensional structure systems in practice. (paper)

  1. Seismic analysis of Industrial Waste Landfill 4 at Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This calculation was to seismically evaluate Landfill IV at Y-12 as required by Tennessee Rule 1200-1-7-04(2) for seismic impact zones. The calculation verifies that the landfill meets the seismic requirements of the Tennessee Division of Solid Waste, ''Earthquake Evaluation Guidance Document.'' The theoretical displacements of 0.17 in. and 0.13 in. for the design basis earthquake are well below the limiting seimsic slope stability design criteria. There is no potential for liquefaction due to absence of chohesionless soils, or for loss or reduction of shear strength for the clays at this site as result of earthquake vibration. The vegetative cover on slopes will most likely be displaced and move during a large seismic event, but this is not considered a serious deficiency because the cover is not involved in the structural stability of the landfill and there would be no release of waste to the environment

  2. Synthetic seismic acceleration time-histories and their acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hong

    1996-01-01

    In seismic dynamic response analysis of structures and equipment, time-history analysis is now widely used. The 3-D seismic acceleration time-histories or 3-D seismic displacement time-histories are required in the 3-D seismic dynamic response analysis as the seismic excitation input data. Because of the lack of actual acceleration time-histories for the field where the structures or equipment are installed, the general practice is to use the synthetic seismic acceleration time-histories, which are derived from the design seismic response spectra of the field, as the seismic excitation input data. However, from one specified design response spectrum indefinite solutions of acceleration time-histories can be derived depending on the values of the input parameters. Not all the derived synthetic time-histories can be used as seismic excitation input data. Only those which meet the acceptance criteria can be used. The factors (input parameters), which will affect the time-history solution from a specified seismic response spectrum, and the acceptance criteria are discussed

  3. Combination of coseismic displacement fields: a geodetic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Devoti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides the mathematical framework for the rigorous combination of coseismic offsets observed by a global positioning system (GPS network and investigates the results obtained on the occasion of the recent Emilia earthquakes (Italy. This seismic sequence that affected northern Italy from May 20, 2012, allowed two offset fields to be computed, one with reference to the mainshock (M 5.9, followed by two other M 5.1 events on the same day, and a second with reference to the replicas that occurred on May 29, 2012 (M 5.8, M 5.3 and M 5.2; ISIDe data archive, http://iside.rm.ingv.it. The final displacement field is basically the result of a comparison and validation process with repeated feedback between the different analysis groups at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology that was established to obtain prompt coseismic displacement solutions, as precise as possible, and in the first days after an event. This is important for early seismic-source evaluation as it represents the most complete and validated dataset at the very early stage of a seismic crisis, and it is also extremely useful in reducing random and systematic errors in the estimated parameters. This study is the result of a cooperative effort that involved different research groups at INGV, with the sharing of all of the collected GPS data. The intention was to compare these results and thus reducing sources of error associated with individual processing strategies, to allow the final combination of the different displacement fields into a single consensus solution. The process assessed the robustness of each single GPS result, thus minimizing erroneous interpretations of individual solutions. […

  4. Two-dimensional vertical model seismic test and analysis for HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Honma, Toshiaki.

    1983-02-01

    The resistance against earthquakes of high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) core with block-type fuels is not fully ascertained yet. Seismic studies must be made if such a reactor plant is to be installed in areas with frequent earthquakes. In the paper the test results of seismic behavior of a half-scale two-dimensional vertical slice core model and analysis are presented. The following results were obtained: (1) With soft spring support of the fixed side reflector structure, the relative column displacement is larger than that for hand support but the impact reaction force is smaller. (2) In the case of hard spring support the dowel force is smaller than for soft support. (3) The relative column displacement is larger in the core center than at the periphery. The impact acceleration (force) in the center is smaller than at the periphery. (4) The relative column displacement and impact reaction force are smaller with the gas pressure simulation spring than without. (5) With decreasing gap width between the top blocks of columns, the relative column displacement and impact reaction force decrease. (6) The column damping ratio was estimated as 4 -- 10% of critical. (7) The maximum impact reaction force for random waves such as seismic was below 60% that for a sinusoidal wave. (8) Vibration behavior and impact response are in good agreement between test and analysis. (author)

  5. Seismic analysis of plutonium glovebox by MSC/NASTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Masaru; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Korosawa, Makoto; Fukushima, Susumu; Hoshina, Hirofumi.

    1993-01-01

    Seismic analysis of the structural strength of gloveboxes is important for plutonium confinement evaluation. However, the analytical methods must be developed for evaluating the mutual displacement between the window frame and acrylic resin window panel with regard to plutonium confinement during an earthquake. Therefore, seismic analysis for a standard glovebox in Plutonium Fuel Research Facility at Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI has been conducted by FEM (Finite Element Method) computer code MSC/NASTRAN (MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation NASA Structural Analysis). Modelling of glovebox window frame has been investigated from the results of natural frequency analysis and static analysis. After the acquisition of a suitable model, displacement around the window frame and glovebox structural strength have been evaluated in detail by use of floor response spectrum analysis and time-history (transient response) analysis. (author)

  6. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürpinar, Aybars; Serva, Leonello; Livio, Franz; Rizzo, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  7. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürpinar, Aybars, E-mail: aybarsgurpinar2007@yahoo.com [Nuclear & Risk Consultancy, Anisgasse 4, 1221 Vienna (Austria); Serva, Leonello, E-mail: lserva@alice.it [Independent Consultant, Via dei Dauni 1, 00185 Rome (Italy); Livio, Franz, E-mail: franz.livio@uninsubria.it [Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Velleggio, 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Rizzo, Paul C., E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoasoc.com [RIZZO Associates, 500 Penn Center Blvd., Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  8. Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. Specific Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear installations. It supplements the Safety Requirements publication on Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The present publication provides guidance and recommends procedures for the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations. It supersedes Evaluation of Seismic Hazards for Nuclear Power Plants, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-3.3 (2002). In this publication, the following was taken into account: the need for seismic hazard curves and ground motion spectra for the probabilistic safety assessment of external events for new and existing nuclear installations; feedback of information from IAEA reviews of seismic safety studies for nuclear installations performed over the previous decade; collective knowledge gained from recent significant earthquakes; and new approaches in methods of analysis, particularly in the areas of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis and strong motion simulation. In the evaluation of a site for a nuclear installation, engineering solutions will generally be available to mitigate, by means of certain design features, the potential vibratory effects of earthquakes. However, such solutions cannot always be demonstrated to be adequate for mitigating the effects of phenomena of significant permanent ground displacement such as surface faulting, subsidence, ground collapse or fault creep. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations and guidance on evaluating seismic hazards at a nuclear installation site and, in particular, on how to determine: (a) the vibratory ground motion hazards, in order to establish the design basis ground motions and other relevant parameters for both new and existing nuclear installations; and (b) the potential for fault displacement and the rate of fault displacement that could affect the feasibility of the site or the safe operation of the installation at

  9. Measurements of translation, rotation and strain: new approaches to seismic processing and inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernauer, M.; Fichtner, A.; Igel, H.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to seismic tomography based on the joint processing of translation, strain and rotation measurements. Our concept is based on the apparent S and P velocities, defined as the ratios of displacement velocity and rotation amplitude, and displacement velocity and

  10. Seismic soil-structure interaction of foundations with large piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, L.

    1996-01-01

    In seismic regions with soft soil deposits subjected to ground surface subsidence, there is the necessity to support the weight of constructions on large diameter piles or piers hearing on deep firm strata. To justify the action of these elements working under flexo compression and shear, it is necessary to perform calculations of soil pile interaction from a practical engineering point of view and estimate the order of magnitude of the forces and displacements to which these elements will be subjected during the seismic action assigned to the foundation. In this paper we defined a pier as a large diameter pile constructed on site. Furthermore, in the seismic analysis it is necessary to evaluate the seismic pore water pressure to learn on the effective seismic soil stresses close to the ground surface. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional seismic analysis for spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyu Mahn; Kim, Kang Soo; Park, Keun Bae; Park, Jong Kyun

    1998-01-01

    Time history analysis is usually performed to characterize the nonlinear seismic behavior of a spent fuel storage rack (SFSR). In the past, the seismic analyses of the SFSR were performed with two-dimensional planar models, which could not account for torsional response and simultaneous multi-directional seismic input. In this study, three-dimensional seismic analysis methodology is developed for the single SFSR using the ANSY code. The 3-D model can be used to determine the nonlinear behavior of the rack, i.e., sliding, uplifting, and impact evaluation between the fuel assembly and rack, and rack and the pool wall. This paper also reviews the 3-D modeling of the SFSR and the adequacy of the ANSYS for the seismic analysis. As a result of the adequacy study, the method of ANSYS transient analysis with acceleration time history is suitable for the seismic analysis of highly nonlinear structure such as an SFSR but it isn't appropriate to use displacement time history of seismic input. (author)

  12. Analysis of the seismic hazard to an underground waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Conclusions are: The consequence associated with intense vibratory shaking of a well-designed repository is essentially negligible. The specification of an appropriate seismic vibratory design criteria could best be accomplished with a Bayesian seismic hazard assessment, using geologic slip rates as input. The consequence associated with fault displacement is very site specific and dependent on the host geologic media and its permeability changes in response to fault displacement. The probability of faulting through a repository in its million year design life is rather high, principally because of a high probability of primary or secondary faulting on undetected faults. The faulting probability can be minimized by deploying sophisticated site certification programs. High resolution microseismic surveillance seems to be most appropriate. The author's judgement is that the repository simulation program can neglect consequences associated with shaking of the repository, but that the probability of significant fault displacement through the repository during its design life should be conservatively taken as one

  13. Discriminating between natural versus induced seismicity from long-term deformation history of intraplate faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Maria Beatrice; Blanpied, Michael L; DeShon, Heather R; Hornbach, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    To assess whether recent seismicity is induced by human activity or is of natural origin, we analyze fault displacements on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles for two regions in the central United States (CUS): the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) of Texas and the northern Mississippi embayment (NME). Since 2009, earthquake activity in the CUS has increased markedly, and numerous publications suggest that this increase is primarily due to induced earthquakes caused by deep-well injection of wastewater, both flowback water from hydrofracturing operations and produced water accompanying hydrocarbon production. Alternatively, some argue that these earthquakes are natural and that the seismicity increase is a normal variation that occurs over millions of years. Our analysis shows that within the NME, faults deform both Quaternary alluvium and underlying sediments dating from Paleozoic through Tertiary, with displacement increasing with geologic unit age, documenting a long history of natural activity. In the FWB, a region of ongoing wastewater injection, basement faults show deformation of the Proterozoic and Paleozoic units, but little or no deformation of younger strata. Specifically, vertical displacements in the post-Pennsylvanian formations, if any, are below the resolution (~15 m) of the seismic data, far less than expected had these faults accumulated deformation over millions of years. Our results support the assertion that recent FWB earthquakes are of induced origin; this conclusion is entirely independent of analyses correlating seismicity and wastewater injection practices. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discriminate natural and induced seismicity using classical structural geology analysis techniques.

  14. Two-dimensional horizontal model seismic test and analysis for HTGR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi; Honma, Toshiaki.

    1988-05-01

    The resistance against earthquakes of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) core with block-type fuels is not fully ascertained yet. Seismic studies must be made if such a reactor plant is to be installed in areas with frequent earthquakes. The paper presented the test results of seismic behavior of a half scale two-dimensional horizontal slice core model and analysis. The following is a summary of the more important results. (1) When the core is subjected to the single axis excitation and simultaneous two-axis excitations to the core across-corners, it has elliptical motion. The core stays lumped motion at the low excitation frequencies. (2) When the load is placed on side fixed reflector blocks from outside to the core center, the core displacement and reflector impact reaction force decrease. (3) The maximum displacement occurs at simultaneous two-axis excitations. The maximum displacement occurs at the single axis excitation to the core across-flats. (4) The results of two-dimensional horizontal slice core model was compared with the results of two-dimensional vertical one. It is clarified that the seismic response of actual core can be predicted from the results of two-dimensional vertical slice core model. (5) The maximum reflector impact reaction force for seismic waves was below 60 percent of that for sinusoidal waves. (6) Vibration behavior and impact response are in good agreement between test and analysis. (author)

  15. Direct displacement-based design of special composite RC shear walls with steel boundary elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kazemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Special composite RC shear wall (CRCSW with steel boundary elements is a kind of lateral force resisting structural system which is used in earthquake-prone regions. Due to their high ductility and energy dissipation, CRCSWs have been widely used in recent years by structural engineers. However, there are few studies in the literature on the seismic design of such walls. Although there are many studies in the literature on the Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD of RC structures, however, no study can be found on DDBD of CRCSWs. Therefore, the aim of present study is to evaluate the ability of DDBD method for designing CRCSWs. In this study, four special composite reinforced concrete shear walls with steel boundary elements of 4, 8, 12 and 16 story numbers were designed using the DDBD method for target drift of 2%. The seismic behavior of the four CRCSWs was studied using nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. Dynamic analyses were performed for the mentioned walls using 7 selected earthquake records. The seismic design parameters considered in this study includes: lateral displacement profile, inelastic dynamic inter-story drift demand, failure pattern and the composite RC shear walls overstrength factor. For each shear wall, the overall overstrength factor was calculated by dividing the ultimate dynamic base shear demand (Vu by the base shear demand (Vd as per the Direct Displacement Based-Design (DDBD method. The results show that the DDBD method can be used to design CRCSWs safely in seismic regions with predicted behavior.

  16. Development of Probabilistic Performance Evaluation Procedure for Umbilical Lines of Seismically Isolated NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Daegi; Park, Junhee; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a procedure to perform the probabilistic performance evaluation of interface piping system for seismically isolated NPPs, and carried out the preliminary performance evaluation of the target example umbilical line. For EDB level earthquakes, the target performance goal cannot be fulfilled, but we also find out that the result can be changed with respect to the variation of the assumed values, i. e., the distribution of response, and the limit state of piping system. Recently, to design the nuclear power plants (NPPs) more efficiently and safely against the strong seismic load, many researchers focus on the seismic isolation system. For the adoption of seismic isolation system to the NPPs, the seismic performance of isolation devices, structures, and components should be guaranteed firstly. Hence, some researches were performed to determine the seismic performance of such items. For the interface piping system between isolated structure and non-isolated structure, the seismic capacity should be carefully estimated since that the required displacement absorption capacity will be increased significantly by the adoption of the seismic isolation system. Nowadays, in NUREG report, the probabilistic performance criteria for isolated NPP structures and components are proposed. Hence, in this study, we developed the probabilistic performance evaluation method and procedure for interface piping system, and applied the method to an example pipe. The detailed procedure and main results are summarized in next section. For the interface piping system, the seismic capacity should be carefully estimated since that the required displacement absorption capacity will be increased significantly by the adoption of the seismic isolation system

  17. Seismic hazard analysis for the NTS spent reactor fuel test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    An experiment is being directed at the Nevada Test Site to test the feasibility for storage of spent fuel from nuclear reactors in geologic media. As part of this project, an analysis of the earthquake hazard was prepared. This report presents the results of this seismic hazard assessment. Two distinct components of the seismic hazard were addressed: vibratory ground motion and surface displacement

  18. 3-D pneumatic seismic isolation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beliaev, V.S.; Vinogradov, V.V.; Kostarev, V.V.; Kuzmitchev, V.P.; Privalov, S.A.; Siro, V.A.; Krylova, I.N.; Dolgaya, A.A.; Uzdin, A.M.; Vasiliev, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the work carried at the Russian Federation Research Center of Fundamental Engineering (RCFE), in development of innovative pneumatic multicomponent low-frequency seismic isolation bearings for advanced nuclear power plants.This device incorporates both supporting spherical elements, which provide displacements in the horizontal direction, and pneumatic dampers with rubber diaphragms for displacement in the vertical direction. To decrease the relative displacements of the isolated object the system uses viscoelastic dampers. Damping devices had been specially elaborated for the reactor building seismic isolation system as a result of substantial advances in the design and operation of the HD-type hydrodampers, created at the CKTI VIBROSEISM. The procedures developed have been used for comparison of the test and computer data on model isolated steel structure (MISS) and isolated rigid mass (IRM) isolators produced by ENEA and KAERI. Most recent work has concentrated on the development of mathematical models of isolators and isolated nuclear structures. Force-deformation characteristics of the HDRB model had been calculated on the basis of a special method of non-linear elastic theory using the continual transformations method. (author)

  19. Seismic analysis of liquid metal reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.

    1987-01-01

    To safely assess the adequacy of the LMR piping, a three-dimensional piping code, SHAPS, has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. This code was initially intended for calculating hydrodynamic-wave propagation in a complex piping network. It has salient features for treating fluid transients of fluid-structure interactions for piping with in-line components. The code also provides excellent structural capabilities of computing stresses arising from internal pressurization and 3-D flexural motion of the piping system. As part of the development effort, the SHAPS code has been further augmented recently by introducing the capabilities of calculating piping response subjected to seismic excitations. This paper describes the finite-element numerical algorithm and its applications to LMR piping under seismic excitations. A time-history analysis technique using the implicit temporal integration scheme is addressed. A 3-D pipe element is formulated which has eight degrees of freedom per node (three displacements, three rotations, one membrane displacement, and one bending rotation) to account for the hoop, flexural, rotational, and torsional modes of the piping system. Both geometric and material nonlinearities are considered. This algorithm is unconditionally stable and is particularly suited for the seismic analysis

  20. Volcano dome dynamics at Mount St. Helens: Deformation and intermittent subsidence monitored by seismicity and camera imagery pixel offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Jacqueline T.; Thelen, Weston A.; James, Mike R.; Walter, Thomas R.; Moran, Seth C.; Denlinger, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    The surface deformation field measured at volcanic domes provides insights into the effects of magmatic processes, gravity- and gas-driven processes, and the development and distribution of internal dome structures. Here we study short-term dome deformation associated with earthquakes at Mount St. Helens, recorded by a permanent optical camera and seismic monitoring network. We use Digital Image Correlation (DIC) to compute the displacement field between successive images and compare the results to the occurrence and characteristics of seismic events during a 6 week period of dome growth in 2006. The results reveal that dome growth at Mount St. Helens was repeatedly interrupted by short-term meter-scale downward displacements at the dome surface, which were associated in time with low-frequency, large-magnitude seismic events followed by a tremor-like signal. The tremor was only recorded by the seismic stations closest to the dome. We find a correlation between the magnitudes of the camera-derived displacements and the spectral amplitudes of the associated tremor. We use the DIC results from two cameras and a high-resolution topographic model to derive full 3-D displacement maps, which reveals internal dome structures and the effect of the seismic activity on daily surface velocities. We postulate that the tremor is recording the gravity-driven response of the upper dome due to mechanical collapse or depressurization and fault-controlled slumping. Our results highlight the different scales and structural expressions during growth and disintegration of lava domes and the relationships between seismic and deformation signals.

  1. Seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment subjected to scenario earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, In Kil; Ahn, Seong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2005-03-15

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. However, it does not reflect the characteristic of seismological and geological of Korea. In this study, the seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean NPP site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at thirty sites, were used as input motions. The acceleration, displacement and shear force responses of Wolsung containment structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. But, considering displacement response increases abruptly as Wolsung NPP structure does nonlinear behavior, the reassessment of the seismic safety margin based on the displacement is necessary if the structure does nonlinear behavior; although it has adequate the seismic safety margin within elastic limit. Among the main safety-related devices, electrical cabinet and pump showed the large responses on the scenario earthquake which has the high frequency characteristic. This has great effects of the seismic capacity of the main devices installed inside of the building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipments.

  2. Seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment subjected to scenario earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kil; Ahn, Seong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Seo, Jeong Moon

    2005-03-01

    The standard response spectrum proposed by US NRC has been used as a design earthquake for the design of Korean nuclear power plant structures. However, it does not reflect the characteristic of seismological and geological of Korea. In this study, the seismic response analysis of Wolsung NPP structure and equipment were performed. Three types of input motions, artificial time histories that envelop the US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum and the probability based scenario earthquake spectra developed for the Korean NPP site and a typical near-fault earthquake recorded at thirty sites, were used as input motions. The acceleration, displacement and shear force responses of Wolsung containment structure due to the design earthquake were larger than those due to the other input earthquakes. But, considering displacement response increases abruptly as Wolsung NPP structure does nonlinear behavior, the reassessment of the seismic safety margin based on the displacement is necessary if the structure does nonlinear behavior; although it has adequate the seismic safety margin within elastic limit. Among the main safety-related devices, electrical cabinet and pump showed the large responses on the scenario earthquake which has the high frequency characteristic. This has great effects of the seismic capacity of the main devices installed inside of the building. This means that the design earthquake is not so conservative for the safety of the safety related nuclear power plant equipments

  3. Studies on the seismic buckling design guideline of FBR main vessels. 9. Buckling evaluation under elastic-plastic seismic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kohsuke; Kawamoto, Yoji; Nakagawa, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Plastic shear-bending buckling under seismic loadings is one of the major problems in the structural design of FBR main vessels. Pseudo-dynamic and dynamic buckling tests of cylinders were performed in order to study the effects of nonlinear seismic response on buckling strength, ductility, and plastic response reduction. The buckling strength formulae and the rule for ductility factors both derived from static tests were confirmed to be valid for the tests under dynamic loads. The displacement-constant rule for response reduction effect was modified by acceleration amplification factor in order to maintain applicability for various spectral profiles of seismic excitations. The response reduction estimated by the proposed rule was reasonably conservative for all cases of the pseudo-dynamic and the dynamic tests. Finally, a seismic safety assessment rule was proposed for plastic shear-bending buckling of cylinders, which include the proposed response reduction rule. (author)

  4. Combined GPS and seismic monitoring of a 12-story structure in a region of induced seismicity in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, J. S.; Soliman, M.; Kim, H.; Jaiswal, P.; Saunders, J. K.; Vernon, F.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    This work focuses on quantifying ground motions and their effects in Oklahoma near the location of the 2016 Mw 5.8 Pawnee earthquake, where seismicity has been increasing due to wastewater injection related to oil and natural gas production. Much of the building inventory in Oklahoma was constructed before the increase in seismicity and before the implementation of earthquake design and detailing provisions for reinforced concrete (RC) structures. We will use combined GPS/seismic monitoring techniques to measure ground motion in the field and the response of structures to this ground motion. Several Oklahoma State University buildings experienced damage due to the Pawnee earthquake. The USGS Shake Map product estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) ranging from 0.12g to 0.15g at campus locations. We are deploying a high-rate GPS sensor and accelerometer on the roof and another accelerometer at ground level of a 12-story RC structure and at selected field sites in order to collect ambient noise data and nearby seismicity. The longer period recording characteristics of the GPS/seismic system are particularly well adapted to monitoring these large structures in the event of a significant earthquake. Gross characteristics of the structural system are described, which consists of RC columns and RC slabs in all stories. We conducted a preliminary structural analysis including modal analysis and response spectrum analysis based on a finite element (FE) simulation, which indicated that the period associated with the first X-axis bending, first torsional, and first Y-axis bending modes are 2.2 s, 2.1 s, and 1.8 s, respectively. Next, a preliminary analysis was conducted to estimate the range of expected deformation at the roof level for various earthquake excitations. The earthquake analysis shows a maximum roof displacement of 5 and 7 cm in the horizontal directions resulting from earthquake loads with PGA of 0.2g, well above the noise level of the combined GPS/seismic

  5. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Seismic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zameeruddin, Mohd.; Sangle, Keshav K.

    2017-06-01

    Ten storied-3 bays reinforced concrete bare frame designed for gravity loads following the guidelines of IS 456 and IS 13920 for ductility is subjected to seismic loads. The seismic demands on this building were calculated by following IS 1893 for response spectra of 5% damping (for hard soil type). Plastic hinges were assigned to the beam and column at both ends to represent the failure mode, when member yields. Non-linear static (pushover) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of the building in reference to first (ATC 40), second (FEMA 356) and next-generation (FEMA 440) performance based seismic design procedures. Base shear against top displacement curve of structure, known as pushover curve was obtained for two actions of plastic hinge behavior, force-controlled (brittle) and deformation-controlled (ductile) actions. Lateral deformation corresponding to performance point proves the building capability to sustain a certain level of seismic loads. The failure is represented by a sequence of formation of plastic hinges. Deformation-controlled action of hinges showed that building behaves like strong-column-weak-beam mechanism, whereas force-controlled action showed formation of hinges in the column. The study aims to understand the first, second and next generation performance based design procedure in prediction of actual building responses and their conservatism into the acceptance criteria.

  6. Seismic monitoring of soft-rock landslides: the Super-Sauze and Valoria case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnellier, Alice; Helmstetter, Agnès; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Corsini, Alessandro; Joswig, Manfred

    2013-06-01

    This work focuses on the characterization of seismic sources observed in clay-shale landslides. Two landslides are considered: Super-Sauze (France) and Valoria (Italy). The two landslides are developed in reworked clay-shales but differ in terms of dimensions and displacement rates. Thousands of seismic signals have been identified by a small seismic array in spite of the high-seismic attenuation of the material. Several detection methods are tested. A semi-automatic detection method is validated by the comparison with a manual detection. Seismic signals are classified in three groups based on the frequency content, the apparent velocity and the differentiation of P and S waves. It is supposed that the first group of seismic signals is associated to shearing or fracture events within the landslide bodies, while the second group may correspond to rockfalls or debris flows. A last group corresponds to external earthquakes. Seismic sources are located with an automatic beam-forming location method. Sources are clustered in several parts of the landslide in agreement with geomorphological observations. We found that the rate of rockfall and fracture events increases after periods of heavy rainfall or snowmelt. The rate of microseismicity and rockfall activity is also positively correlated with landslide displacement rates. External earthquakes did not influence the microseismic activity or the landslide movement, probably because the earthquake ground motion was too weak to trigger landslide events during the observation periods.

  7. Seismic test for safety evaluation of low level radioactive wastes containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohoka, Makoto; Horikiri, Morito

    1998-08-01

    Seismic safety of three-piled container system used in Tokai reprocessing center was confirmed by seismic test and computational analysis. Two types of container were evaluated, for low level noninflammable radioactive solid wastes, and for used filters wrapped by large plastic bags. Seismic integrity of three-piled containers was confirmed by evaluating response characteristics such as acceleration and displacement under the design earthquake condition S1, which is the maximum earthquake expected at the stored site during the storage time. Computational dynamic analysis was also performed, and several conclusions described below were made. (1) Response characteristics of the bottom board and the side board were different. The number of pile did not affect the response characteristics of the bottom board of each container. They behaved as a rigid body. (2) The response of the side board was larger than that of the bottom board. (3) The response depended on the direction in each board, either side or bottom. The response acceleration became larger to the seismic wave perpendicular to the plane which has the entrance for fork lift and the radioactive warning mark. (4) The maximum horizontal response displacement under the S1 seismic wave was approximately 10 mm. It is so small that it does not affect the seismic safety. (5) The stoppers to prevent fall down had no influence to the response acceleration. (6) There was no fall down to the S1 seismic wave and 2 times of S1 seismic wave, which was the maximum input condition of the test. (7) The response of the bottom board of the containers, which are main elements of fall down, had good agreements both in the test and in the computational analysis. (author)

  8. Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingo, H.E.

    1989-10-01

    Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping

  9. Seismic slope stability of embankments: a comparative study on EC8 provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.; Psarropoulos, P.N.

    2011-01-01

    According to EC8 provisions, seismic stability assessment of natural slopes is currently performed based on simplified methods i.e. the pseudostatic and the Newmark’s sliding block method. The application of these methods requires the beforehand consideration of major assumptions necessary...... for the selection of either the seismic coefficient or the acceleration time history of the rigid block. Although both ULS and SLS are defined according to acceptable level of deformations at the slope, the assigned level of displacements is not clarified. In the current study the seismic slope stability...

  10. One-dimensional modeling of thermal energy produced in a seismic fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konga, Guy Pascal; Koumetio, Fidèle; Yemele, David; Olivier Djiogang, Francis

    2017-12-01

    Generally, one observes an anomaly of temperature before a big earthquake. In this paper, we established the expression of thermal energy produced by friction forces between the walls of a seismic fault while considering the dynamic of a one-dimensional spring-block model. It is noted that, before the rupture of a seismic fault, displacements are caused by microseisms. The curves of variation of this thermal energy with time show that, for oscillatory and aperiodic displacement, the thermal energy is accumulated in the same way. The study reveals that thermal energy as well as temperature increases abruptly after a certain amount of time. We suggest that the corresponding time is the start of the anomaly of temperature observed which can be considered as precursory effect of a big seism. We suggest that the thermal energy can heat gases and dilate rocks until they crack. The warm gases can then pass through the cracks towards the surface. The cracks created by thermal energy can also contribute to the rupture of the seismic fault. We also suggest that the theoretical model of thermal energy, produced in seismic fault, associated with a large quantity of experimental data may help in the prediction of earthquakes.

  11. Heterogeneous porous media permeability field characterization from fluid displacement data; Integration de donnees de deplacements de fluides dans la caracterisation de milieux poreux heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretz, V.

    2002-11-01

    The prediction of oil recovery or pollutant dispersion requires an accurate knowledge of the permeability field distribution. Available data are usually measurements in well bores, and, since a few years, 4D-seismic data (seismic mappings repeated in time). Such measurements allow to evaluate fluids displacements fronts evolution. The purpose of the thesis is to evaluate the possibility to determinate permeability fields from fluid displacement measurements in heterogeneous porous media. At the laboratory scale, experimental studies are made on a model and on numerical simulations. The system uses blocks of granular materials whose individual geometries and permeabilities are controlled. The fluids displacements are detected with an acoustical. The key parameters of the study are the size and spatial correlation of the permeability heterogeneity distribution, and the influence of viscosity and gravity contrasts between the injected ant displaced fluid. Then the inverse problem - evaluating the permeability field from concentration fronts evolution - is approached. At the reservoir scale, the work will mainly be focused on the integration of 4D-seismic data into inversion programs on a 3D synthetic case. A particular importance will be given to the calculation of gradients, in order to obtain a complementary information about the sensitivity of data. The information provided by 4D-seismic data consists in maps showing the vertical average of oil saturation or the presence of gas. The purpose is to integrate this qualitative information in the inversion process and to evaluate the impact on the reservoir characterization. Comparative studies - with or without 4D-seismic data - will be realized on a synthetic case. (author)

  12. Mobile seismic exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dräbenstedt, A., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de; Seyfried, V. [Research & Development, Polytec GmbH, Waldbronn (Germany); Cao, X.; Rembe, C., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de [Institute of Electrical Information Technology, TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Polom, U., E-mail: a.draebenstedt@polytec.de, E-mail: rembe@iei.tu-clausthal.de, E-mail: ulrich.polom@liag-hannover.de [Leibniz Institute of Applied Geophysics, Hannover (Germany); Pätzold, F.; Hecker, P. [Institute of Flight Guidance, TU Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Zeller, T. [Clausthaler Umwelttechnik Institut CUTEC, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2016-06-28

    Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry (LDV) is an established technique to measure vibrations in technical systems with picometer vibration-amplitude resolution. Especially good sensitivity and resolution can be achieved at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm. High-resolution vibration measurements are possible over more than 100 m distance. This advancement of the LDV technique enables new applications. The detection of seismic waves is an application which has not been investigated so far because seismic waves outside laboratory scales are usually analyzed at low frequencies between approximately 1 Hz and 250 Hz and require velocity resolutions in the range below 1 nm/s/√Hz. Thermal displacements and air turbulence have critical influences to LDV measurements at this low-frequency range leading to noise levels of several 100 nm/√Hz. Commonly seismic waves are measured with highly sensitive inertial sensors (geophones or Micro Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS)). Approaching a laser geophone based on LDV technique is the topic of this paper. We have assembled an actively vibration-isolated optical table in a minivan which provides a hole in its underbody. The laser-beam of an infrared LDV assembled on the optical table impinges the ground below the car through the hole. A reference geophone has detected remaining vibrations on the table. We present the results from the first successful experimental demonstration of contactless detection of seismic waves from a movable vehicle with a LDV as laser geophone.

  13. Seismic analysis of axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jospin, R.J.; Toledo, E.M.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Axisymmetric shells subjected to multiple support excitation are studied. The shells are spatialy discretized by the finite element method and in order to obtain estimates for the maximum values of displacements and stresses the response spectrum tecnique is used. Finally, some numerical results are presented and discussed in the case of a shell of revolution with vertical symmetry axis, subjected to seismic ground motions in the horizontal, vertical and rocking directions. (Author) [pt

  14. A seismic vertical vibrator driven by linear synchronous motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorlandt, R.P.; Drijkoningen, G.G.; Dams, J.; Jenneskens, R.

    2015-01-01

    A linear synchronous motor (LSM) is an electric motor that can produce large controllable forces and is therefore suitable as a driving engine for a seismic vibrator. This motor consists of two independent elements, a magnet track and a coil track, allowing practically unlimited motor displacements.

  15. Response Analysis of an RC Cooling Tower Under Seismic and Windstorm Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Makovička

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the RC structure of a cooling tower unit under seismic loads and under strong wind loads. The calculated values of the envelopes of the displacements and the internal forces due to seismic loading states are compared with the envelopes of the loading states due to the dead, operational and live loads, wind and temperature actions. The seismic effect takes into account the seismic area of ground motion 0.3 g and the ductility properties of a relatively rigid structure. The ductility is assessed as the reduction in seismic load. In this case the actions of wind pressure are higher than the seismicity effect under ductility correction. The seismic effects, taking into account the ductility properties of the structure, are lower than the actions of the wind pressure. The other static loads, especially temperature action due to the environment and surface insulation are very important for the design of the structure. 

  16. Variable post-Paleozoic deformation detected by seismic reflection profiling across the northwestern "prong" of New Madrid seismic zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Devera, J.A.; Denny, F.B.; Woolery, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles across the northwesternmost part of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) and northwestern margin of the Reelfoot rift, near the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers in the northern Mississippi embayment, reveal intense structural deformation that apparently took place during the late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic up to near the end of the Cretaceous Period. The seismic profiles were sited on both sides of the northeast-trending Olmsted fault, defined by varying elevations of the top of Mississippian (locally base of Cretaceous) bedrock. The trend of this fault is close to and parallel with an unusually straight segment of the Ohio River and is approximately on trend with the westernmost of two groups of northeast-aligned epicenters ("prongs") in the NMSZ. Initially suspected on the basis of pre-existing borehole data, the deformation along the fault has been confirmed by four seismic reflection profiles, combined with some new information from drilling. The new data reveal (1) many high-angle normal and reverse faults expressed as narrow grabens and anticlines (suggesting both extensional and compressional regimes) that involved the largest displacements during the late Cretaceous (McNairy); (2) a different style of deformation involving probably more horizontal displacements (i.e., thrusting) that occurred at the end of this phase near the end of McNairy deposition, with some fault offsets of Paleocene and younger units; (3) zones of steeply dipping faults that bound chaotic blocks similar to that observed previously from the nearby Commerce geophysical lineament (CGL); and (4) complex internal deformation stratigraphically restricted to the McNairy, suggestive of major sediment liquefaction or landsliding. Our results thus confirm the prevalence of complex Cretaceous deformations continuing up into Tertiary strata near the northern terminus of the NMSZ. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non Linear Step By Step Seismic Response and the Push Over Analysis Comparison of a Reinforced Concrete of Ductile Frames 25 Level Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Jorge A.; Martinez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Based on a ductile frames 25 level building, a non-linear analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads (Push-Over) was made in order to determine its collapse and its principal responses were compared against the time-history seismic responses determined with the SCT-EW-85 record. The seismic-resistance design and faced to gravitational loads was made according to the Complementary Technical Norms of Concrete Structures Design (NTC-Concrete) and the NTC-Seismic of the Mexico City Code (RDF-04), satisfying the limit service states (relative lateral displacement between story height maximum relations, story drifts ≤0.012) and failure (seismic behavior factor, Q = 3). The compressible (soft) seismic zone III b and the office use type (group B) were considered. The non-lineal responses were determined with nominal and over-resistance effects. The comparison were made with base shear force-roof lateral displacement relations, global distribution of plastic hinges, failure mechanics tendency, lateral displacements and story drift and its distribution along the height of the building, local and global ductility demands, etc. For the non-linear static analysis with increased monotonically lateral loads, was important to select the type of lateral forces distribution

  18. Seismic stops vs. snubbers, a reliable alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloud, R.L.; Anderson, P.H.; Leung, J.S.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Seismic Stops methodology has been developed to provide a reliable alternative for providing seismic support to nuclear power plant piping. The concept is based on using rigid passive supports with large clearances. These gaps permit unrestrained thermal expansion while limiting excessive seismic displacements. This type of restraint has performed successfully in fossil fueled power plants. A simplified production analysis tool has been developed which evaluates the nonlinear piping response including the effect of the gapped supports. The methodology utilizes the response spectrum approach and has been incorporated into a piping analysis computer program RLCA-GAP. Full scale shake table tests of piping specimens were performed to provide test correlation with the developed methodology. Analyses using RLCA-GAP were in good agreement with test results. A sample piping system was evaluated using the Seismic Stops methodology to replace the existing snubbers with passive gapped supports. To provide further correlation data, the sample system was also evaluated using nonlinear time history analysis. The correlation comparisons showed RLCA-GAP to be a viable methodology and a reliable alternative for snubber optimization and elimination. (orig.)

  19. Drift Reliability Assessment of a Four Storey Frame Residential Building Under Seismic Loading Considering Multiple Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Arjun; Longmailai, Thaihamdau

    2017-09-01

    The lateral displacement of Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame building during an earthquake has an important impact on the structural stability and integrity. However, seismic analysis and design of RC building needs more concern due to its complex behavior as the performance of the structure links to the features of the system having many influencing parameters and other inherent uncertainties. The reliability approach takes into account the factors and uncertainty in design influencing the performance or response of the structure in which the safety level or the probability of failure could be ascertained. This present study, aims to assess the reliability of seismic performance of a four storey residential RC building seismically located in Zone-V as per the code provisions given in the Indian Standards IS: 1893-2002. The reliability assessment performed by deriving an explicit expression for maximum roof-lateral displacement as a failure function by regression method. A total of 319, four storey RC buildings were analyzed by linear static method using SAP2000. However, the change in the lateral-roof displacement with the variation of the parameters (column dimension, beam dimension, grade of concrete, floor height and total weight of the structure) was observed. A generalized relation established by regression method which could be used to estimate the expected lateral displacement owing to those selected parameters. A comparison made between the displacements obtained from analysis with that of the equation so formed. However, it shows that the proposed relation could be used directly to determine the expected maximum lateral displacement. The data obtained from the statistical computations was then used to obtain the probability of failure and the reliability.

  20. Reassessment of seismic hazards at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.; Hemphill-Haley, M.A.; Kelson, K.I.; Gardner, J.N.; House, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive seismic hazards evaluation program has been initiated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to update the current seismic design criteria. In part, this program has been motivated by recent studies which suggest that faults of the nearby Pajarito fault system may be capable of generating a large magnitude earthquake (M > 7). The specific objectives of this program are to: (1) characterize the tectonic setting of the LANL area; (2) characterize the nature, amount, and timing of late Quaternary fault displacements; (3) reevaluate the recorded seismicity in the LANL region to allow for the evaluation of seismogenic faults and the tectonic state of stress; (4) characterize the subsurface geologic conditions beneath the LANL required for the estimation of strong ground motions and site response; (5) estimate potential strong ground shaking both deterministically and probabilistically; and (6) develop the appropriate seismic design criteria. The approach and initial results of this seismic hazards program are described in this paper

  1. Integration of ambient seismic noise monitoring, displacement and meteorological measurements to infer the temperature-controlled long-term evolution of a complex prone-to-fall cliff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombero, C.; Baillet, L.; Comina, C.; Jongmans, D.; Larose, E.; Valentin, J.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring the temporal evolution of resonance frequencies and velocity changes detected from ambient seismic noise recordings can help in recognizing reversible and irreversible modifications within unstable rock volumes. With this aim, the long-term ambient seismic noise data set acquired at the potentially unstable cliff of Madonna delSasso (NW Italian Alps) was analysed in this study, using both spectral analysis and cross-correlation techniques. Noise results were integrated and compared with direct displacement measurements and meteorological data, to understand the long-term evolution of the cliff. No irreversible modifications in the stability of the site were detected over the monitored period. Conversely, daily and seasonal air temperature fluctuations were found to control resonance frequency values, amplitudes and directivities and to induce reversible velocity changes within the fractured rock mass. The immediate modification in the noise parameters due to temperature fluctuations was interpreted as the result of rock mass thermal expansion and contraction, inducing variations in the contact stiffness along the fractures isolating two unstable compartments. Differences with previous case studies were highlighted in the long-term evolution of noise spectral amplitudes and directivities, due to the complex 3-D fracture setting of the site and to the combined effects of the two unstable compartments.

  2. Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El Ezz, Ahmad

    Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for

  3. Seismic Risk of the Base Isolation System Protected by the Hard Stop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Han; Choi, In-Kil; Kim, Min Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The concept of base isolation is to permit the deformation of isolator for absorbing seismic input wave from the ground. In a nuclear power plant design, allowable shear deformation of isolators should be enough to absorb the displacement response by extended design basis (EDB) ground motions. However isolators cannot resist over its displacement capacity. So, the clearance of hard stop (CHS) needs to be set between the response of base isolation system excited by the EDB ground motion and the displacement capacity of isolators. The isolation system must survive with high confidence in any seismic accident because it is a non-redundant system. Therefore, the CHS should be determined carefully based on the failure risk of base isolation system considering the uncertainties of earthquake responses and isolator capacities. In this research, the fragility curve of isolation system and its failure risk were estimated. The procedure to calculate the acceleration based fragility curve of the isolation system was developed. The fragility curve and failure risk for example case was estimated and its result was compared with different isolator capacities

  4. Seismic Risk of the Base Isolation System Protected by the Hard Stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Han; Choi, In-Kil; Kim, Min Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The concept of base isolation is to permit the deformation of isolator for absorbing seismic input wave from the ground. In a nuclear power plant design, allowable shear deformation of isolators should be enough to absorb the displacement response by extended design basis (EDB) ground motions. However isolators cannot resist over its displacement capacity. So, the clearance of hard stop (CHS) needs to be set between the response of base isolation system excited by the EDB ground motion and the displacement capacity of isolators. The isolation system must survive with high confidence in any seismic accident because it is a non-redundant system. Therefore, the CHS should be determined carefully based on the failure risk of base isolation system considering the uncertainties of earthquake responses and isolator capacities. In this research, the fragility curve of isolation system and its failure risk were estimated. The procedure to calculate the acceleration based fragility curve of the isolation system was developed. The fragility curve and failure risk for example case was estimated and its result was compared with different isolator capacities.

  5. Parametric Study on Ultimate Failure Criteria of Elbow Piping Components in Seismically Isolated NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Ki, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is well known that the interface pipes between isolated and non-isolated structures will become the most critical in the seismically isolated NPPs. Therefore, seismic performance of such interface pipes should be evaluated comprehensively especially in terms of the seismic fragility capacity. To evaluate the seismic capacity of interface pipes in the isolated NPP, firstly, we should define the failure mode and failure criteria of critical pipe components. Hence, in this study, we performed the dynamic tests of elbow components which were installed in a seismically isolated NPP, and evaluated the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria by using the test results. To do this, we manufactured 25 critical elbow component specimens and performed cyclic loading tests under the internal pressure condition. The failure mode and failure criteria of a pipe component will be varied by the design parameters such as the internal pressure, pipe diameter, loading type, and loading amplitude. From the tests, we assessed the effects of the variation parameters onto the failure criteria. For the tests, we generated the seismic input protocol of relative displacement between the ends of elbow component. In this paper, elbow in piping system was defined as a fragile element and numerical model was updated by component test. Failure mode of piping component under seismic load was defined by the dynamic tests of ultimate pipe capacity. For the interface piping system, the seismic capacity should be carefully estimated since that the required displacement absorption capacity will be increased significantly by the adoption of the seismic isolation system. In this study, the dynamic tests were performed for the elbow components which were installed in an actual NPPs, and the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria were also evaluated by using the test results.

  6. Ultra-thin clay layers facilitate seismic slip in carbonate faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglia, Luca; Billi, Andrea; Carminati, Eugenio; Cavallo, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Spagnuolo, Elena; Zorzi, Federico

    2017-04-06

    Many earthquakes propagate up to the Earth's surface producing surface ruptures. Seismic slip propagation is facilitated by along-fault low dynamic frictional resistance, which is controlled by a number of physico-chemical lubrication mechanisms. In particular, rotary shear experiments conducted at seismic slip rates (1 ms -1 ) show that phyllosilicates can facilitate co-seismic slip along faults during earthquakes. This evidence is crucial for hazard assessment along oceanic subduction zones, where pelagic clays participate in seismic slip propagation. Conversely, the reason why, in continental domains, co-seismic slip along faults can propagate up to the Earth's surface is still poorly understood. We document the occurrence of micrometer-thick phyllosilicate-bearing layers along a carbonate-hosted seismogenic extensional fault in the central Apennines, Italy. Using friction experiments, we demonstrate that, at seismic slip rates (1 ms -1 ), similar calcite gouges with pre-existing phyllosilicate-bearing (clay content ≤3 wt.%) micro-layers weaken faster than calcite gouges or mixed calcite-phyllosilicate gouges. We thus propose that, within calcite gouge, ultra-low clay content (≤3 wt.%) localized along micrometer-thick layers can facilitate seismic slip propagation during earthquakes in continental domains, possibly enhancing surface displacement.

  7. History Matching of 4D Seismic Data Attributes using the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ravanelli, Fabio M.

    2013-05-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in the oil industry is the production of reliable reservoir forecast models. Because of different sources of uncertainties the numerical models employed are often only crude approximations of the reality. This problem is tackled by the conditioning of the model with production data through data assimilation. This process is known in the oil industry as history matching. Several recent advances are being used to improve history matching reliability, notably the use of time-lapse seismic data and automated history matching software tools. One of the most promising data assimilation techniques employed in the oil industry is the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) because its ability to deal with highly non-linear models, low computational cost and easy computational implementation when compared with other methods. A synthetic reservoir model was used in a history matching study designed to predict the peak production allowing decision makers to properly plan field development actions. If only production data is assimilated, a total of 12 years of historical data is required to properly characterize the production uncertainty and consequently the correct moment to take actions and decommission the field. However if time-lapse seismic data is available this conclusion can be reached 4 years in advance due to the additional fluid displacement information obtained with the seismic data. Production data provides geographically sparse data in contrast with seismic data which are sparse in time. Several types of seismic attributes were tested in this study. Poisson’s ratio proved to be the most sensitive attribute to fluid displacement. In practical applications, however the use of this attribute is usually avoided due to poor quality of the data. Seismic impedance tends to be more reliable. Finally, a new conceptual idea was proposed to obtain time-lapse information for a history matching study. The use of crosswell time-lapse seismic

  8. Influence of crustal layering and thickness on co-seismic effects of Wenchuan earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Hongbo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the PSGRN/PSCMP software and the fault model offered by USGS and on the basis of finite rectangular dislocation theory and the local layered wave velocity structures of the crust-upper-mantle, the influences of crustal layering and thickness on co-seismic gravity changes and deformation of Wenchuan earthquake have been simulated. The results indicate that; the influences have a relationship with the attitude of faults and the relative position between calculated points and fault. The difference distribution form of simulated results between the two models is similar to that of co-seismic effect. For the per centum distribution, it’s restricted by the zero line of the co-seismic effects obviously. Its positive is far away from the zero line. For the crustal thickness, the effect is about 10% – 20%. The negative and the effect over 30% focus around the zero line. The average influences of crustal layering and thickness for the E-W displacement, N-S displacement, vertical displacement and gravity changes are 18.4%,18.0%, 15.8% and 16.2% respectively, When the crustal thickness is 40 km, they are 4.6%, 5.3%, 3.8% and 3.8%. Then the crustal thickness is 70 km, the average influences are 3.5%, 4.6%, 3.0% and 2.5% respectively.

  9. Pennsylvania seismic monitoring network and related tectonic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, S.S.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the operation of the Pennsylvania Seismic Monitoring Network during the interval May 1, 1983--March 31, 1985 to monitor seismic activity in Pennsylvania and surrounding areas, to characterize the earthquake activity in terms of controlling tectonic structures and related tectonic stress conditions in the crust, and to obtain improved crustal velocity models for hypocentral determinations. Most of the earthquake activity was concentrated in the Lancaster, PA area. The magnitude 4.2 mainshock that occurred there on April 23, 1984 was the largest ever recorded instrumentally and its intensity of VI places it among the largest in the historic record for that area. Other activity during the monitoring interval of this report was confined to eastern Pennsylvania. The very large number of quarry explosions that occur regularly in Pennsylvania account for most of the seismic events recorded and they provide important crustal velocity data that are needed to obtain accurate hypocenter estimates. In general the earthquakes that occurred are located in areas of past historic seismicity. Block-tectonic structures resulting from pre-Ordovician tectonic displacements appear to influence the distribution of contemporary seismicity in Pennsylvania and surrounding areas. 17 refs., 5 figs

  10. An application of the baseline correction technique for correcting distorted seismic acceleration time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyu Mahn; Kim, Jong Wook; Jeoung, Kyeong Hoon; Kim, Tae Wan; Park, Keun Bae; Kim, Keung Koo

    2008-03-01

    Three kinds of baseline correction techniques named as 'Newmark', 'Zero-VD' and 'Newmark and Zero-VD' were introduced to correct the distorted physical characteristics of a seismic time history accelogram. The corrected seismic accelerations and distorted raw acceleration showed an identical response spectra in frequency domains, but showed various time history profiles in velocity and displacement domains. The referred correction techniques were programmed with UNIX-HP Fortran. The verification of the baseline corrected seismic data in terms of frequency response spectrum were performed by ANSYS of a commerical FEM software

  11. Impacts of seismic activity on long-term repository performance at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Borns, D.J.; Arnold, B.W.

    1995-01-01

    Several effects of seismic activity on the release of radionuclides from a potential repository at Yucca Mountain are quantified. Future seismic events are predicted using data from the seismic hazard analysis conducted for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Phenomenological models are developed, including rockfall (thermal-mechanical and seismic) in unbackfilled emplacement drifts, container damage caused by fault displacement within the repository, and flow-path chance caused by changes in strain. Using the composite-porosity flow model (relatively large-scale, regular percolation), seismic events show little effect on total-system releases; using the weeps flow model (episodic pulses of flow in locally saturated fractures), container damage and flow-path changes cause over an order of magnitude increase in releases. In separate calculations using, more realistic representations of faulting, water-table rise caused by seismically induced changes in strain are seen to be higher than previously estimated by others, but not sufficient to reach a potential repository

  12. Seismic Evaluation of A Historical Structure In Kastamonu - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pınar, USTA; Işıl ÇARHOĞLU, Asuman; EVCİ, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    The Kastomonu province is a seismically active zone. the city has many historical buildings made of stone-masonry. In case of any probable future earthquakes, existing buildings may suffer substantial or heavy damages. In the present study, one of the historical traditional house located in Kastamonu were structurally investigated through probabilistic seismic risk assessment methodology. In the study, the building was modeled by using the Finite Element Modeling (FEM) software, SAP2000. Time history analyses were carried out using 10 different ground motion data on the FEM models. Displacements were interpreted, and the results were displayed graphically and discussed.

  13. Effect of the selected seismic energy dissipation capacity on the materials quantity for reinforced concrete walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Benjumea Royero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Regarding their design of reinforced concrete structural walls, the Colombian seismic design building code allows the engineer to select one of the three seismic energy dissipation capacity (ordinary, moderate, and special depending on the seismic hazard of the site. Despite this, it is a common practice to choose the minor requirement for the site because it is thought that selecting a higher requirement will lead to larger structural materials amounts and, therefore, cost increments.  Method: In this work, an analytical study was performed in order to determine the effect of the selected energy dissipation capacity on the quantity of materials and ductility displacement capacity of R/C walls. The study was done for a region with low seismic hazard, mainly because this permitted to explore and compare the use of the three seismic energy dissipations capacities. The effect of different parameters such as the wall total height and thickness, the tributary loaded area, and the minimum volumetric steel ratio were studied. Results: The total amount of steel required for the walls with moderate and special energy dissipation capacity corresponds, on average, to 77% and 89%, respectively, of the quantity required for walls with minimum capacity. Conclusions: it is possible to achieve reductions in the total steel required weight when adopting either moderated or special seismic energy dissipation instead of the minimum capacity.  Additionally, a significant increment in the seismic ductility displacements capacity of the wall was obtained.

  14. Preclosure seismic design methodology for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This topical report is the second in a series of three reports being developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to document the preclosure seismic design of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that are important to the radiological safety of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The first topical report, Methodology to Assess Fault Displacement and Vibratory Ground Motion Hazards at Yucca Mountain, YMP/TR-002-NP, was submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff for review and comment in 1994 and has been accepted by the staff. The DOE plans to implement this methodology in fiscal year 1997 to develop probabilistic descriptions of the vibratory ground motion hazard and the fault displacement hazard at the Yucca Mountain site. The second topical report (this report) describes the DOE methodology and acceptance criteria for the preclosure seismic design of SSCs important to safety. A third report, scheduled for fiscal year 1998, will document the results of the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (conducted using the methodology in the first topical report) and the development of the preclosure seismic design inputs. This third report will be submitted to NRC staff for review and comment as a third topical report or as a design study report

  15. Semi-Active Control of Precast RC Columns under Seismic Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, Nicola; Spizzuoco, Mariacristina

    2017-10-01

    This work is inspired by the idea of dissipating seismic energy at the base of prefabricated RC columns via semi-active (SA) variable dampers exploiting the base rocking. It was performed a wide numerical campaign to investigate the seismic behaviour of a pre-cast RC column with a variable base restraint. The latter is based on the combined use of a hinge, elastic springs, and magnetorheological (MR) dampers remotely controlled according to the instantaneous response of the structural component. The MR devices are driven by a SA control algorithm purposely written to modulate the dissipative capability so as to reduce base bending moment without causing excessive displacement at the top. The proposed strategy results to be really promising, since the base restraint relaxation, that favours the base moment demand reduction, is accompanied by a high enhancement of the dissipated energy due to rocking that can be even able to reduce top displacement in respect to the “fixed base rotation” conditions.

  16. Performance-based methodology for assessing seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibin, Lin; Lili, Xie; Maosheng, Gong; Ming, Li

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a performance-based methodology for the assessment of seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings. The vulnerability assessment methodology is based on the HAZUS methodology and the improved capacitydemand-diagram method. The spectral displacement ( S d ) of performance points on a capacity curve is used to estimate the damage level of a building. The relationship between S d and peak ground acceleration (PGA) is established, and then a new vulnerability function is expressed in terms of PGA. Furthermore, the expected value of the seismic capacity index (SCev) is provided to estimate the seismic capacity of buildings based on the probability distribution of damage levels and the corresponding seismic capacity index. The results indicate that the proposed vulnerability methodology is able to assess seismic damage of a large number of building stock directly and quickly following an earthquake. The SCev provides an effective index to measure the seismic capacity of buildings and illustrate the relationship between the seismic capacity of buildings and seismic action. The estimated result is compared with damage surveys of the cities of Dujiangyan and Jiangyou in the M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, revealing that the methodology is acceptable for seismic risk assessment and decision making. The primary reasons for discrepancies between the estimated results and the damage surveys are discussed.

  17. Opto-mechanical lab-on-fibre seismic sensors detected the Norcia earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisco, Marco; Bruno, Francesco Antonio; Galluzzo, Danilo; Nardone, Lucia; Gruca, Grzegorz; Rijnveld, Niek; Bianco, Francesca; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2018-04-27

    We have designed and developed lab-on-fibre seismic sensors containing a micro-opto-mechanical cavity on the fibre tip. The mechanical cavity is designed as a double cantilever suspended on the fibre end facet and connected to a proof mass to tune its response. Ground acceleration leads to displacement of the cavity length, which in turn can be remotely detected using an interferometric interrogation technique. After the sensors characterization, an experimental validation was conducted at the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology (INGV), which is responsible for seismic surveillance over the Italian country. The fabricated sensors have been continuously used for long periods to demonstrate their effectiveness as seismic accelerometer sensors. During the tests, fibre optic seismic accelerometers clearly detected the seismic sequence that culminated in the severe Mw6.5 Norcia earthquake that struck central Italy on October 30, 2016. The seismic data provided by the optical sensors were analysed by specialists at the INGV. The wave traces were compared with state-of-the-art traditional sensors typically incorporated into the INGV seismic networks. The comparison verifies the high fidelity of the optical sensors in seismic wave detection, indicating their suitability for a novel class of seismic sensors to be employed in practical scenarios.

  18. Seismic Responses of an Added-Story Frame Structure with Viscous Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuansheng Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The damping ratio of an added-story frame structure is established based on complex damping theory to determine the structure seismic response. The viscous dampers are selected and arranged through target function method. A significant damping effect is obtained when a small velocity index is selected. The seismic responses of a five-floor reinforced concrete frame structure with directly added light steel layers and light steel layers with viscous dampers are compared with the finite element software SAP2000. Calculation results show that, after adding the layers, the structure becomes flexible and the shear in the bottom layer decreases. However, the interlaminar shear of the other layers increases. The seismic response of the added layers is very significant and exhibits obvious whiplash effect. The interstory displacement angles of some layers do not meet the requirements. The seismic response of the structure decreases after the adoption of viscous dampers; thereby seismic requirements are satisfied.

  19. Slope Stability Analysis In Seismic Areas Of The Northern Apennines (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Presti, D.; Fontana, T.; Marchetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    Several research works have been published on the slope stability in the northern Tuscany (central Italy) and particularly in the seismic areas of Garfagnana and Lunigiana (Lucca and Massa-Carrara districts), aimed at analysing the slope stability under static and dynamic conditions and mapping the landslide hazard. In addition, in situ and laboratory investigations are available for the study area, thanks to the activities undertaken by the Tuscany Seismic Survey. Based on such a huge information the co-seismic stability of few ideal slope profiles have been analysed by means of Limit equilibrium method LEM - (pseudo-static) and Newmark sliding block analysis (pseudo-dynamic). The analysis--results gave indications about the most appropriate seismic coefficient to be used in pseudo-static analysis after establishing allowable permanent displacement. Such indications are commented in the light of the Italian and European prescriptions for seismic stability analysis with pseudo-static approach. The stability conditions, obtained from the previous analyses, could be used to define microzonation criteria for the study area

  20. Seismic structural response analysis using consistent mass matrices having dynamic coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    The basis for the theoretical development of this paper is the linear matrix equations of motion for an unconstrained structure subject to support excitation. The equations are formulated in terms of absolute displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors. By means of a transformation of the absolute response vectors into displacements, velocities and accelerations relative to the support motions, the homogeneous equations become non-homogeneous and the non-homogeneous boundary conditions become homogeneous with relative displacements, velocities and accelerations being zero at support points. The forcing function or inertial loading vector is shown to consist of two parts. The first part is comprised of the mass matrix times the suppport acceleration function times a vector of structural displacements resulting from a unit vector of support displacements in the direction of excitation. This inertial loading corresponds to the classical seismic loading vector and is indeed the only loading vector for lumped-mass systems. The second part of he inertial loading vectors consists of the mass matrix times the support acceleration function times a vector of structural accelerations resulting from unit support accelerations in the direction of excitation. This term is not present in classical seismic analysis formulations and results from the presence of off-diagonal terms in the mass matrices which give rise to dynamic coupling through the mass matrix. Thus, for lumped-mass models, the classical formulation of the inertial loading vector is correct. However, if dynamic coupling terms are included through off-diagonal terms in the mass matrix, an additional inertia loading vector must be considered

  1. An evolutionary approach to real-time moment magnitude estimation via inversion of displacement spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprio, M.; Lancieri, M.; Cua, G. B.; Zollo, A.; Wiemer, S.

    2011-01-01

    We present an evolutionary approach for magnitude estimation for earthquake early warning based on real-time inversion of displacement spectra. The Spectrum Inversion (SI) method estimates magnitude and its uncertainty by inferring the shape of the entire displacement spectral curve based on the part of the spectra constrained by available data. The method consists of two components: 1) estimating seismic moment by finding the low frequency plateau Ω0, the corner frequency fc and attenuation factor (Q) that best fit the observed displacement spectra assuming a Brune ω2 model, and 2) estimating magnitude and its uncertainty based on the estimate of seismic moment. A novel characteristic of this method is that is does not rely on empirically derived relationships, but rather involves direct estimation of quantities related to the moment magnitude. SI magnitude and uncertainty estimates are updated each second following the initial P detection. We tested the SI approach on broadband and strong motion waveforms data from 158 Southern California events, and 25 Japanese events for a combined magnitude range of 3 ≤ M ≤ 7. Based on the performance evaluated on this dataset, the SI approach can potentially provide stable estimates of magnitude within 10 seconds from the initial earthquake detection.

  2. Deflection-based method for seismic response analysis of concrete walls: Benchmarking of CAMUS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Prabir C.; Roshan, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    A number of shake table tests had been conducted on the scaled down model of a concrete wall as part of CAMUS experiment. The experiments were conducted between 1996 and 1998 in the CEA facilities in Saclay, France. Benchmarking of CAMUS experiments was undertaken as a part of the coordinated research program on 'Safety Significance of Near-Field Earthquakes' organised by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Technique of deflection-based method was adopted for benchmarking exercise. Non-linear static procedure of deflection-based method has two basic steps: pushover analysis, and determination of target displacement or performance point. Pushover analysis is an analytical procedure to assess the capacity to withstand seismic loading effect that a structural system can offer considering the redundancies and inelastic deformation. Outcome of a pushover analysis is the plot of force-displacement (base shear-top/roof displacement) curve of the structure. This is obtained by step-by-step non-linear static analysis of the structure with increasing value of load. The second step is to determine target displacement, which is also known as performance point. The target displacement is the likely maximum displacement of the structure due to a specified seismic input motion. Established procedures, FEMA-273 and ATC-40, are available to determine this maximum deflection. The responses of CAMUS test specimen are determined by deflection-based method and analytically calculated values compare well with the test results

  3. Development of seismic isolation system in vertical direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohoka, Makoto; Horikiri, Morito

    1999-04-01

    A structure concept of vertical seismic isolation system which uses a common deck and a set of large dish springs was created in past studies. In this report, a series of dynamic tests on a small scale model of a common deck isolation structure were performed. The model was excited by random and seismic waves in the horizontal direction and 2-D excitation, horizontal and vertical, in order to identify the characteristics of isolation effect. The tests results are summarized as below. 1) This structure has three vibration mode. The second mode is rocking. 2) Rocking frequency depends on the excitation, for this structure has dish spring which contact with cylinders. Rocking damping varies from 2 to 8%, 3) Each mode's response peak frequency to 2-D(horizontal and vertical) excitation is almost the same the some to horizontal excitation. Vertical mode damping to 2-D excitation is about three times to horizontal excitation. 4) Isolation effect depends on a characteristics of frequency of input motion. The minimum response is to the Monju design seismic wave, soil shear wave:Vs=2000 m/sec, natural frequency of horizontal isolation in vertical direction:fv=20 Hz. A relative displacement is controlled. 5) A rocking angular displacement to 2-D excitation is about 2 times to 1-D excitation(vertical). However, it is about 1.2 E-4(rad), sufficiently small for a practical plant. (author)

  4. Kinematic seismic response of piles in layered soil profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.; Khan, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is aimed at highlighting the importance of Kinematic Seismic Response of Piles, a phenomenon often ignored in dynamic analysis. A case study is presented where the end bearing pile is embedded in two layer soil system of highly contrasting stiffnesses; a typical case where kinematic loading plays important role. The pile soil system is modeled as continuous system and as discrete parameter system; both are based on BDWF (Beam on Dynamic Winkler Foundation) formulation. For discrete parameter system, a finite element software SAP2000 is used and the modeling technique of kinematic interaction in finite element software is discussed. For pile soil system modeled as continuous system, a general MATLAB code is developed capable of performing elastic site response analysis in two layer soil system, solving differential equation governing kinematic interaction, and giving as output the maximum ground displacement, maximum pile displacement, rotation, moment and shear distribution along pile length. The paper concludes that kinematic seismic actions must be evaluated particularly at the interface of soil layers of significantly differing soil stiffnesses. (author)

  5. Seismic Response Analysis of Continuous Multispan Bridges with Partial Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tubaldi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially isolated bridges are a particular class of bridges in which isolation bearings are placed only between the piers top and the deck whereas seismic stoppers restrain the transverse motion of the deck at the abutments. This paper proposes an analytical formulation for the seismic analysis of these bridges, modelled as beams with intermediate viscoelastic restraints whose properties describe the pier-isolator behaviour. Different techniques are developed for solving the seismic problem. The first technique employs the complex mode superposition method and provides an exact benchmark solution to the problem at hand. The two other simplified techniques are based on an approximation of the displacement field and are useful for preliminary assessment and design purposes. A realistic bridge is considered as case study and its seismic response under a set of ground motion records is analyzed. First, the complex mode superposition method is applied to study the characteristic features of the dynamic and seismic response of the system. A parametric analysis is carried out to evaluate the influence of support stiffness and damping on the seismic performance. Then, a comparison is made between the exact solution and the approximate solutions in order to evaluate the accuracy and suitability of the simplified analysis techniques for evaluating the seismic response of partially isolated bridges.

  6. Core seismic behaviour: linear and non-linear models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, M.; Van Dorsselaere, M.; Gauvain, M.; Jenapierre-Gantenbein, M.

    1981-08-01

    The usual methodology for the core seismic behaviour analysis leads to a double complementary approach: to define a core model to be included in the reactor-block seismic response analysis, simple enough but representative of basic movements (diagrid or slab), to define a finer core model, with basic data issued from the first model. This paper presents the history of the different models of both kinds. The inert mass model (IMM) yielded a first rough diagrid movement. The direct linear model (DLM), without shocks and with sodium as an added mass, let to two different ones: DLM 1 with independent movements of the fuel and radial blanket subassemblies, and DLM 2 with a core combined movement. The non-linear (NLM) ''CORALIE'' uses the same basic modelization (Finite Element Beams) but accounts for shocks. It studies the response of a diameter on flats and takes into account the fluid coupling and the wrapper tube flexibility at the pad level. Damping consists of one modal part of 2% and one part due to shocks. Finally, ''CORALIE'' yields the time-history of the displacements and efforts on the supports, but damping (probably greater than 2%) and fluid-structures interaction are still to be precised. The validation experiments were performed on a RAPSODIE core mock-up on scale 1, in similitude of 1/3 as to SPX 1. The equivalent linear model (ELM) was developed for the SPX 1 reactor-block response analysis and a specified seismic level (SB or SM). It is composed of several oscillators fixed to the diagrid and yields the same maximum displacements and efforts than the NLM. The SPX 1 core seismic analysis with a diagrid input spectrum which corresponds to a 0,1 g group acceleration, has been carried out with these models: some aspects of these calculations are presented here

  7. Large-Strain Monitoring Above a Longwall Coal Mine With GPS and Seismic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, P. L.; Andreatta, V.; Meertens, C. M.; Krahenbuhl, T.; Kenner, B.

    2001-12-01

    As part of an effort to evaluate continuous GPS measurements for use in mine safety studies, a joint GPS-seismic experiment was conducted at an underground longwall coal mine near Paonia, Colorado in June, 2001. Seismic and deformation signals were measured using prototype low-cost monitoring systems as a longwall panel was excavated 150 m beneath the site. Data from both seismic and GPS instruments were logged onto low-power PC-104 Linux computers which were networked using a wireless LAN. The seismic system under development at NIOSH/SRL is based on multiple distributed 8-channel 24-bit A/D converters. The GPS system uses a serial single-frequency (L1) receiver and UNAVCO's "Jstream" Java data logging software. For this experiment, a continuously operating dual-frequency GPS receiver was installed 2.4 km away to serve as a reference site. In addition to the continuously operating sites, 10 benchmarks were surveyed daily with short "rapid-static" occupations in order to provide greater spatial sampling. Two single-frequency sites were located 35 meters apart on a relatively steep north-facing slope. As mining progressed from the east, net displacements of 1.2 meters to the north and 1.65 meters of subsidence were observed over a period of 6 days. The east component exhibited up to 0.45 meters of eastward displacement (toward the excavation) followed by reverse movement to the west. This cycle, observed approximately two days earlier at the eastern L1 site, is consistent with a change in surface strain from tension to compression as the excavation front passed underneath. As this strain "wave" propagated across the field site, surface deformation underwent a cycle of tension crack nucleation, crack opening (up to 15 cm normal displacements), subsequent crack closure, and production of low-angle-thrust compressional deformation features. Analysis of seismic results, surface deformation, and additional survey results are presented.

  8. High enrichment to low enrichment core's conversion. Grid seismic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoia, J.E.; Benito, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    The grid of a reactor under severe seismic conditions was structurally verified, considering that it must have been maintained without failure. Values obtained from tensions and displacements are under the admissible ones, the existing grid responds to the structural assessment before a severe S2 earthquake (OIEA classification). (Author) [es

  9. Linking ground motion measurements and macro-seismic observations in France: A case study based on the RAP (accelerometric) and BCSF (macro-seismic) databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesueur, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Comparison between accelerometric and macro-seismic observations is made for three mw∼4.5 earthquakes of eastern France between 2003 and 2005. Scalar and spectral instrumental parameters are processed from the accelerometric data recorded by nine accelerometric stations located between 29 km and 180 km from the epicentres. Macro-seismic data are based on the French internet reports. In addition to the individual macro-seismic intensity, analysis of the internal correlation between the encoded answers highlights four predominant fields of questions, bearing different physical meanings: 1) 'vibratory motions of small objects', 2) 'displacement and fall of objects', 3) 'acoustic noise', and 4) 'personal feelings'. Best correlations between macro-seismic and instrumental observations are obtained when the macro-seismic parameters are averaged over 10 km radius circles around each station. macro-seismic intensities predicted by published pgv-intensity relationships quite agree with the observed intensities, contrary to those based on pga. The correlations between the macro-seismic and instrumental data, for intensities between ii and v (ems-98), show that pgv is the instrumental parameter presenting the best correlation with all macro-seismic parameters. The correlation with response spectra, exhibits clear frequency dependence over a limited frequency range [0.5-33 hz]. Horizontal and vertical components are significantly correlated with macro-seismic parameters between 1 and 10 hz, a range corresponding to both natural frequencies of most buildings and high energy content in the seismic ground motion. Between 10 and 25 hz, a clear lack of correlation between macro-seismic and instrumental data is observed, while beyond 25 hz the correlation coefficient increases, approaching that of the PGA correlation level. (author)

  10. Non-linear seismic analysis of structures coupled with fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descleve, P.; Derom, P.; Dubois, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method to calculate non-linear structure behaviour under horizontal and vertical seismic excitation, making possible the full non-linear seismic analysis of a reactor vessel. A pseudo forces method is used to introduce non linear effects and the problem is solved by superposition. Two steps are used in the method: - Linear calculation of the complete model. - Non linear analysis of thin shell elements and calculation of seismic induced pressure originating from linear and non linear effects, including permanent loads and thermal stresses. Basic aspects of the mathematical formulation are developed. It has been applied to axi-symmetric shell element using a Fourier series solution. For the fluid interaction effect, a comparison is made with a dynamic test. In an example of application, the displacement and pressure time history are given. (orig./GL)

  11. Co-Seismic Effect of the 2011 Japan Earthquake on the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Great earthquakes introduce measurable co-seismic displacements over regions of hundreds and thousands of kilometers in width, which, if not accounted for, may significantly bias the long-term surface velocity field constrained by GPS observations performed during a period encompassing that event. Here, we first present an estimation of the far-field co-seismic off-sets associated with the 2011 Japan Mw 9.0 earthquake using GPS measurements from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC in North China. The uncertainties of co-seismic off-set, either at cGPS stations or at campaign sites, are better than 5 - 6 mm on average. We compare three methods to constrain the co-seismic off-sets at the campaign sites in northeastern China 1 interpolating cGPS coseismic offsets, 2 estimating in terms of sparsely sampled time-series, and 3 predicting by using a well-constrained slip model. We show that the interpolation of cGPS co-seismic off-sets onto the campaign sites yield the best co-seismic off-set solution for these sites. The source model gives a consistent prediction based on finite dislocation in a layered spherical Earth, which agrees with the best prediction with discrepancies of 2 - 10 mm for 32 campaign sites. Thus, the co-seismic off-set model prediction is still a reasonable choice if a good coverage cGPS network is not available for a very active region like the Tibetan Plateau in which numerous campaign GPS sites were displaced by the recent large earthquakes.

  12. Towards Improved Considerations of Risk in Seismic Design (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    The aftermath of recent earthquakes is a reminder that seismic risk is a very relevant issue for our communities. Implicit within the seismic design standards currently in place around the world is that minimum acceptable levels of seismic risk will be ensured through design in accordance with the codes. All the same, none of the design standards specify what the minimum acceptable level of seismic risk actually is. Instead, a series of deterministic limit states are set which engineers then demonstrate are satisfied for their structure, typically through the use of elastic dynamic analyses adjusted to account for non-linear response using a set of empirical correction factors. From the early nineties the seismic engineering community has begun to recognise numerous fundamental shortcomings with such seismic design procedures in modern codes. Deficiencies include the use of elastic dynamic analysis for the prediction of inelastic force distributions, the assignment of uniform behaviour factors for structural typologies irrespective of the structural proportions and expected deformation demands, and the assumption that hysteretic properties of a structure do not affect the seismic displacement demands, amongst other things. In light of this a number of possibilities have emerged for improved control of risk through seismic design, with several innovative displacement-based seismic design methods now well developed. For a specific seismic design intensity, such methods provide a more rational means of controlling the response of a structure to satisfy performance limit states. While the development of such methodologies does mark a significant step forward for the control of seismic risk, they do not, on their own, identify the seismic risk of a newly designed structure. In the U.S. a rather elaborate performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) framework is under development, with the aim of providing seismic loss estimates for new buildings. The PBEE framework

  13. Detection of induced seismicity effects on ground surface using data from Sentinel 1A/1B satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, W.

    2017-12-01

    Induced seismicity is the result of human activity and manifests itself in the form of shock and vibration of the ground surface. One of the most common factors causing the occurrence of induced shocks is underground mining activity. Sufficiently strong high-energy shocks may cause displacements of the ground surface. This type of shocks can have a significant impact on buildings and infrastructure. Assessment of the size and influence of induced seismicity on the ground surface is one of the major problems associated with mining activity. In Poland (Central Eastern Europe) induced seismicity occurs in the area of hard coal mining in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and in the area of the Legnica - Głogów Copper Basin.The study presents an assessment of the use of satellite radar data (SAR) for the detection influence of induced seismicity in mining regions. Selected induced shocks from the period 2015- 2017 which occurred in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin and the Legnica - Głogów Copper Basin areas have been analyzed. In the calculations SAR data from the Sentinel 1A and Sentinel 1B satellites have been used. The results indicate the possibility of quickly and accurate detection of ground surface displacements after an induced shock. The results of SAR data processing were compared with the results from geodetic measurements. It has been shown that SAR data can be used to detect ground surface displacements on the relative small regions.

  14. Man-caused seismicity of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanov, Alexandr; Emanov, Alexey; Leskova, Ekaterina; Fateyev, Alexandr

    2010-05-01

    . A spatial displacement of activations along with mine working has been found. An impact of technogeneous factors on behavior of seismic process was investigated. It was demonstrated that industrial explosions in neighboring open-casts have no pronounced effect on seismic process near lavas. Stoppage of mole work in lavas leads to simultaneous changes in man-caused seismicity. The number of technogeneous earthquakes is halved. The earthquakes of small powers remain, but such slack lead to occasional though more strong technogeneous earthquakes.

  15. Tectonic history in the Fort Worth Basin, north Texas, derived from well-log integration with multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys: implications for paleo and present-day seismicity in the basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M. B.; Hornbach, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production in the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) in north Texas have accelerated in the last 10 years due to the success of unconventional gas production. Here, hydraulic fracturing wastewater is disposed via re-injection into deep wells that penetrate Ordovician carbonate formations. The rise in wastewater injection has coincided with a marked rise in earthquake rates, suggesting a causal relationship between industry practices and seismicity. Most studies addressing this relationship in intraplate regions like the FWB focus on current seismicity, which provides an a-posteriori assessment of the processes involved. 3D seismic reflection data contribute complementary information on the existence, distribution, orientation and long-term deformation history of faults that can potentially become reactivated by the injection process. Here we present new insights into the tectonic evolution of faults in the FWB using multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys in the basin, west of the Dallas Fort-Worth Metroplex, where high-volume wastewater injection wells have increased most significantly in number in the past few years. The datasets image with remarkable clarity the 3,300 m-thick sedimentary rocks of the basin, from the crystalline basement to the Cretaceous cover, with particular detail of the Paleozoic section. The data, interpreted using coincident and nearby wells to correlate seismic reflections with stratigraphic markers, allow us to identify faults, extract their orientation, length and displacements at several geologic time intervals, and therefore, reconstruct the long-term deformation history. Throughout the basin, the data show that all seismically detectable faults were active during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian, but that displacement amounts drop below data resolution ( 7 m) in the post-Pennsylvanian deposits. These results indicate that faults have been inactive for at least the past 300 Ma, until the recent 2008 surge in

  16. Fluid effects on the core seismic behavior of a liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Lee, Jae Han

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical application algorithm for applying the CFAM (Consistent Fluid Added Mass) matrix for a core seismic analysis is developed and applied to the 7-ducts core system to investigate the fluid effects on the dynamic characteristics and the seismic time history responses. To this end, three cases such as the in-air condition, the in-water condition without the fluid coupling terms, and the in-water condition with the fluid coupling terms are considered in this paper. From modal analysis, the core duct assemblies revealed strongly coupled out-of-phase vibration modes unlike the other cases with the fluid coupling terms considered. From the results of the seismic time history analysis, it was also verified that the fluid coupling terms in the CFAM matrix can significantly affect the impact responses and the seismic displacement responses of the ducts

  17. Seismic hazards: New trends in analysis using geologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.P.; Coppersmith, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    In the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in response to expansion of nuclear power plant siting and issuance of a code of federal regullations by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission referred to as Appendix A-10CFR100, the need to characterize the earthquake potential of individual faults for seismic design took on greater importance. Appendix A established deterministic procedures for assessing the seismic hazard at nuclear power plant sites. Bonilla and Buchanan, using data from historical suface-faulting earthquakes, developed a set of statistical correlations relating earthquake magnitude to surface rupture length and to surface displacement. These relationships have been refined and updated along with the relationship between fault area and magnitude and seismic moment and moment magnitude have served as the basis for selecting maximum earthquakes in a wide variety of design situations. In the paper presented, the authors discuss new trends in seismic hazard analysis using geologic data, with special emphasis on fault-zone segmentation and recurrence models and the way in which they provide a basis for evaluating long-term earthquake potential

  18. Calculations on seismic coupling of underground explosions in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusinkveld, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report details the results of a theoretical study of seismic coupling and decoupling of underground explosions in a salt medium. A series of chemical and nuclear explosions was carried out years ago in salt domes for the Cowboy and the Dribble programs to provide experimental data on seismic coupling for both tamped explosions and explosions in cavities. The Cowboy program consisted of a series of chemical explosions, and the Dribble program consisted of the tamped nuclear Salmon event, the Sterling nuclear event in the Salmon cavity, and an associated site calibration effort. This report presents the results of extensive computer calculations, which are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. The calculations were extended to give general results on seismic coupling in salt. The measure of seismic coupling for most of this work was the residual reduced displacement potential (residual RDP). The decoupling associated with a shot in a cavity was expressed as the ratio of the resulting residual RDP to that of an equal-sized tamped shot

  19. Investigation of possibility of surface rupture derived from PFDHA and calculation of surface displacement based on dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Irikura, K.

    2013-12-01

    A probability of surface rupture is important to configure the seismic source, such as area sources or fault models, for a seismic hazard evaluation. In Japan, Takemura (1998) estimated the probability based on the historical earthquake data. Kagawa et al. (2004) evaluated the probability based on a numerical simulation of surface displacements. The estimated probability indicates a sigmoid curve and increases between Mj (the local magnitude defined and calculated by Japan Meteorological Agency) =6.5 and Mj=7.0. The probability of surface rupture is also used in a probabilistic fault displacement analysis (PFDHA). The probability is determined from the collected earthquake catalog, which were classified into two categories: with surface rupture or without surface rupture. The logistic regression is performed for the classified earthquake data. Youngs et al. (2003), Ross and Moss (2011) and Petersen et al. (2011) indicate the logistic curves of the probability of surface rupture by normal, reverse and strike-slip faults, respectively. Takao et al. (2013) shows the logistic curve derived from only Japanese earthquake data. The Japanese probability curve shows the sharply increasing in narrow magnitude range by comparison with other curves. In this study, we estimated the probability of surface rupture applying the logistic analysis to the surface displacement derived from a surface displacement calculation. A source fault was defined in according to the procedure of Kagawa et al. (2004), which determined a seismic moment from a magnitude and estimated the area size of the asperity and the amount of slip. Strike slip and reverse faults were considered as source faults. We applied Wang et al. (2003) for calculations. The surface displacements with defined source faults were calculated by varying the depth of the fault. A threshold value as 5cm of surface displacement was used to evaluate whether a surface rupture reach or do not reach to the surface. We carried out the

  20. Influence of joint dip angle on seismic behaviors of rock foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Lei; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Yujing; Li, Bo; Li Shucai

    2012-01-01

    The seismic response of rock foundation to seismic loads is an important issue to the stability and safety of nuclear power plants. Due to the fact that the discontinuities like joints existing in the rock mass govern principally the deformation and failure behaviors of the rock mass, the influence of discontinuities on the seismic behaviors of rock mass remains as one of the fundamental problems in the safety assessment of nuclear power plants. In this study, the distinct element method (DEM) and finite element method (FEM) were adopted to investigate the seismic responses of rock foundation to a real seismic wave, taking into account the effect of joint dip angle on the deformation and dynamic behaviors of rock foundation. In the DEM simulations, the intact rock has an amplification effect on the amplitudes of seismic waves, while the joints exhibit an attenuation effect on the seismic waves. In the FEM simulations, however, the attenuation effect of joints is not obvious. The dip angle of joints has strong effects on the deformation and dynamic behaviors of rock foundation, in terms that different dip angles lead to obviously different deformation and horizontal stress in the rock foundation when subjected to seismic load. When the dip angle of joints is around 60deg, the seismic velocity, displacement and stress reach the maximums. Therefore, attentions need to be paid on this factor during the seismic design of nuclear power plants. (author)

  1. An alternative procedure for direct generation of seismic floor spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Sharma, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Several approaches have been developed for generation of floor spectra which do not require seismic inputs in the form of acceleration time histories but can use a prescribed set of ground response spectra directly. These approaches are often referred to as direct approaches. Most of these approaches are based on the method of mode displacement of structural dynamics. Some problems can, however, occur with these approaches if the response of a system is affected by the high frequency modes and if these modes are omitted from the analyses. Herein an alternative approach based on the method of mode acceleration is proposed wherein the effect of high frequency modes is correctly included without their explicit evaluation. The seismic inputs in this approach are required to be prescribed in terms of relative acceleration and velocity spectra. The approach is very effective for the calculation of floor spectra for structural systems which have significant contribution from high frequency modes, and also for floors close to the base which are usually affected by the higher modes. In other cases too, this approach has been shown to provide better results than the mode displacement approach for a given number of modes used in the analysis. Thus, a general use of this approach in lieu of the mode displacement approach is advocated. (orig.)

  2. Reference frame access under the effects of great earthquakes: a least squares collocation approach for non-secular post-seismic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, D. D.; Piñón, D. A.; Smalley, R.; Bevis, M.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Lenzano, L. E.; Barón, J.

    2016-03-01

    The 2010, (Mw 8.8) Maule, Chile, earthquake produced large co-seismic displacements and non-secular, post-seismic deformation, within latitudes 28°S-40°S extending from the Pacific to the Atlantic oceans. Although these effects are easily resolvable by fitting geodetic extended trajectory models (ETM) to continuous GPS (CGPS) time series, the co- and post-seismic deformation cannot be determined at locations without CGPS (e.g., on passive geodetic benchmarks). To estimate the trajectories of passive geodetic benchmarks, we used CGPS time series to fit an ETM that includes the secular South American plate motion and plate boundary deformation, the co-seismic discontinuity, and the non-secular, logarithmic post-seismic transient produced by the earthquake in the Posiciones Geodésicas Argentinas 2007 (POSGAR07) reference frame (RF). We then used least squares collocation (LSC) to model both the background secular inter-seismic and the non-secular post-seismic components of the ETM at the locations without CGPS. We tested the LSC modeled trajectories using campaign and CGPS data that was not used to generate the model and found standard deviations (95 % confidence level) for position estimates for the north and east components of 3.8 and 5.5 mm, respectively, indicating that the model predicts the post-seismic deformation field very well. Finally, we added the co-seismic displacement field, estimated using an elastic finite element model. The final, trajectory model allows accessing the POSGAR07 RF using post-Maule earthquake coordinates within 5 cm for ˜ 91 % of the passive test benchmarks.

  3. Use of the finite element displacement method to solve solid-fluid interaction vibration problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Hsu, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown through comparison to experimental, theoretical, and other finite element formulations that the finite element displacement method can solve accurately and economically a certain class of solid-fluid eigenvalue problems. The problems considered are small displacements in the absence of viscous damping and are 2-D and 3-D in nature. In this study the advantages of the finite element method (in particular the displacement formulation) is apparent in that a large structure consisting of the cylinders, support flanges, fluid, and other experimental boundaries could be modeled to yield good correlation to experimental data. The ability to handle large problems with standard structural programs is the key advantage of the displacement fluid method. The greatest obstacle is the inability of the analyst to inhibit those rotational degrees of freedom that are unnecessary to his fluid-structure vibration problem. With judicious use of element formulation, boundary conditions and modeling, the displacement finite element method can be successfully used to predict solid-fluid response to vibration and seismic loading

  4. Magma displacements under insular volcanic fields, applications to eruption forecasting: El Hierro, Canary Islands, 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Berrocoso, M.; Marrero, J. M.; Prates, G.; De la Cruz-Reyna, S.; Ortiz, R.

    2014-04-01

    Significant deformations, followed by increased seismicity detected since 2011 July at El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain, prompted the deployment of additional monitoring equipment. The climax of this unrest was a submarine eruption first detected on 2011 October 10, and located at about 2 km SW of La Restinga, southernmost village of El Hierro Island. The eruption ceased on 2012 March 5, after the volcanic tremor signals persistently weakened through 2012 February. However, the seismic activity did not end with the eruption, as several other seismic crises followed. The seismic episodes presented a characteristic pattern: over a few days the number and magnitude of seismic event increased persistently, culminating in seismic events severe enough to be felt all over the island. Those crises occurred in 2011 November, 2012 June and September, 2012 December to 2013 January and in 2013 March-April. In all cases the seismic unrest was preceded by significant deformations measured on the island's surface that continued during the whole episode. Analysis of the available GPS and seismic data suggests that several magma displacement processes occurred at depth from the beginning of the unrest. The first main magma movement or `injection' culminated with the 2011 October submarine eruption. A model combining the geometry of the magma injection process and the variations in seismic energy release has allowed successful forecasting of the new-vent opening.

  5. Static loading and vertical displacement at southern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V. Timofeev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismic method is usually used for elastic parametric estimation. This is why this method presents dynamic parameters of Earth. Frequency seismic range changes greatly from geodynamic modelling time. Now we have opportunity to use geodesy result for some years for elastic parameters estimation. Static solution from elastic theory may be used for the interpretation of long term results. It presents static elastic parameter. The inverse problem for different types of vertical surface loading on one year period is calculated. Two cases of loading with maximal and minimal area are presented. Results are determined by space geodesy and leveling methods. Current relation between atmospheric pressure and vertical displacements was estimated at the center of Siberian Anti Cyclone with size varied from 2000 km to 3000 km. Pressure-displacement coefficients (PDC can be achieved by three years observation (0.997 mm/mbar for NVSK GPS station. It is used for elastic module study of geology medium with maximum thickness up to 600 km. In the context of elastic model, the modulus of rigidity is estimated to be 113 GPa. Vast expanse of anti-cyclone may relate with rheology of crust and upper mantle. Smaller size of surface loading – local loading is seasonal variation of water reservoir. Annual vertical changes were obtained by leveling near the dam of the reservoir. PDC ratio was 1.15 mm/bar for these places. In elastic theory, the Young modulus E = 80 GPa (Poisson ratio = 0.25, the modulus of rigidity = 32 GPa was calculated by sixteen years of leveling measurements. This result can effectively be represented for upper crust. Our results were checked by solution for coseismic displacement of Chyia-Altai earthquake (Sep. 27, 2003, M = 7.3. Coseismic results calculated by static modules agree with experimental coseismic GPS data at 10% level.

  6. Seismic response Analyses of Hanaro in-chimney bracket structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Han; Ryu, J.S.; Cho, Y.G.; Lee, H.Y.; Kim, J.B.

    1999-05-01

    The in-chimney bracket will be installed in the upper part of chimney, which holds the capsule extension pipes in upper one-third of length. For evaluating the effects on the capsules and related reactor structures, ANSYS finite element analysis model is developed and the dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The seismic response anlayses of in-chimney bracket and related reactor structures of HANARO under the design earthquake response spectrum loads of OBE (0.1 g) and SSE (0.2 g) are performed. The maximum horizontal displacements of the flow tubes are within the minimum half gaps between close flow tubes, it is expected that these displacement will not produce any contact between neighbor flow tubes. The stress values in main points of reactor structures and in-chimney bracket for the seismic loads are also within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is much less than 1.0. So, any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an in-chimney bracket is installed to upper part of the reactor chimney. (author). 12 refs., 24 tabs., 37 figs

  7. Uncertainty in Seismic Capacity of Masonry Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Augenti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Seismic assessment of masonry structures is plagued by both inherent randomness and model uncertainty. The former is referred to as aleatory uncertainty, the latter as epistemic uncertainty because it depends on the knowledge level. Pioneering studies on reinforced concrete buildings have revealed a significant influence of modeling parameters on seismic vulnerability. However, confidence in mechanical properties of existing masonry buildings is much lower than in the case of reinforcing steel and concrete. This paper is aimed at assessing whether and how uncertainty propagates from material properties to seismic capacity of an entire masonry structure. A typical two-story unreinforced masonry building is analyzed. Based on previous statistical characterization of mechanical properties of existing masonry types, the following random variables have been considered in this study: unit weight, uniaxial compressive strength, shear strength at zero confining stress, Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and available ductility in shear. Probability density functions were implemented to generate a significant number of realizations and static pushover analysis of the case-study building was performed for each vector of realizations, load combination and lateral load pattern. Analysis results show a large dispersion in displacement capacity and lower dispersion in spectral acceleration capacity. This can directly affect decision-making because both design and retrofit solutions depend on seismic capacity predictions. Therefore, engineering judgment should always be used when assessing structural safety of existing masonry constructions against design earthquakes, based on a series of seismic analyses under uncertain parameters.

  8. Seismic isolation of small modular reactors using metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witarto Witarto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of metamaterials at micro- to nanometer scales to metastructures at much larger scales offers a new alternative for seismic isolation systems. These new isolation systems, known as periodic foundations, function both as a structural foundation to support gravitational weight of the superstructure and also as a seismic isolator to isolate the superstructure from incoming seismic waves. Here we describe the application of periodic foundations for the seismic protection of nuclear power plants, in particular small modular reactors (SMR. For this purpose, a large-scale shake table test on a one-dimensional (1D periodic foundation supporting an SMR building model was conducted. The 1D periodic foundation was designed and fabricated using reinforced concrete and synthetic rubber (polyurethane materials. The 1D periodic foundation structural system was tested under various input waves, which include white noise, stepped sine and seismic waves in the horizontal and vertical directions as well as in the torsional mode. The shake table test results show that the 1D periodic foundation can reduce the acceleration response (transmissibility of the SMR building up to 90%. In addition, the periodic foundation-isolated structure also exhibited smaller displacement than the non-isolated SMR building. This study indicates that the challenge faced in developing metastructures can be overcome and the periodic foundations can be applied to isolating vibration response of engineering structures.

  9. Seismic isolation of small modular reactors using metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witarto, Witarto; Wang, S. J.; Yang, C. Y.; Nie, Xin; Mo, Y. L.; Chang, K. C.; Tang, Yu; Kassawara, Robert

    2018-04-01

    Adaptation of metamaterials at micro- to nanometer scales to metastructures at much larger scales offers a new alternative for seismic isolation systems. These new isolation systems, known as periodic foundations, function both as a structural foundation to support gravitational weight of the superstructure and also as a seismic isolator to isolate the superstructure from incoming seismic waves. Here we describe the application of periodic foundations for the seismic protection of nuclear power plants, in particular small modular reactors (SMR). For this purpose, a large-scale shake table test on a one-dimensional (1D) periodic foundation supporting an SMR building model was conducted. The 1D periodic foundation was designed and fabricated using reinforced concrete and synthetic rubber (polyurethane) materials. The 1D periodic foundation structural system was tested under various input waves, which include white noise, stepped sine and seismic waves in the horizontal and vertical directions as well as in the torsional mode. The shake table test results show that the 1D periodic foundation can reduce the acceleration response (transmissibility) of the SMR building up to 90%. In addition, the periodic foundation-isolated structure also exhibited smaller displacement than the non-isolated SMR building. This study indicates that the challenge faced in developing metastructures can be overcome and the periodic foundations can be applied to isolating vibration response of engineering structures.

  10. The GNSS Component of the Seismic Monitoring System in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Chile is amongst the most seismically active countries in the world. Since mid-XVI Century, a magnitude 8 or more earthquake has taken place every dozen of years, as an average. In the last 100 years, more than ten events with magnitudes around 8 or larger have taken place in this part of world. Three events with M>8 have taken place only in the last six years. The largest earthquake ever recorded took place in May, 1960, in southern Chile. Such extreme seismic activity is the result of the interaction of the Nazca, Antarctic, Scotia and South American plates in southwestern South America where Chile is located. These megathrust earthquakes exhibit long rupture regions reaching several hundreds of km with fault displacements of several tens of meters. At least eighteen of these earthquakes have generated local tsunamis with runups larger than 4 m -including events in 2010, 2014 and 2015- therefore it is mandatory to establish a system with capabilities to rapidly evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of these events. In 2013, the newly created National Seismological Center (CSN) of the University of Chile was tasked to upgrade the countrýs seismic network by increasing the numbers of real-time monitoring stations. The most important change to previous practices is the establishment of a GNSS network composed by 130 devices, in addition to the incorporation of 65 new collocated broadband and strong motion instruments. Additional 297 strong motion instruments for engineering purposes complement the system. Forty units -of the 130 devices- present an optional RTX capability, where satellite orbits and clock corrections are sent to the field device producing a 1-Hz position stream at 4-cm level. First records of ground displacement -using this technology-were recorded at the time of the largest aftershock (Mw=7.6) of the sequence that affected northern Chile in 2014. The CSN is currently developing automatic detectors and amplitude estimators of displacement from the

  11. Gravity and Displacement Variations in the Areas of Strong Earthquakes in the East of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, V. Yu.; Kalish, E. N.; Stus', Yu. F.; Ardyukov, D. G.; Valitov, M. G.; Timofeev, A. V.; Nosov, D. A.; Sizikov, I. S.; Boiko, E. V.; Gornov, P. Yu.; Kulinich, R. G.; Kolpashchikova, T. N.; Proshkina, Z. N.; Nazarov, E. O.; Kolmogorov, V. G.

    2018-05-01

    The modern gravimetry methods are capable of measuring gravity with an accuracy of up to 10-10 of the normal value, which is commensurate with the accuracy of the up-to-date methods of displacement measurements by satellite geodesy. Significant changes, e.g., in the coseismic displacements of the Earth's surface are recorded in the zones of large earthquakes. These changes should manifest themselves in the variations of gravity. Absolute measurements have been conducted by various modifications of absolute ballistic gravimeters GABL since the mid-1970s at the Klyuchi point (Novosibirsk) in the south of the West Siberian plate. Monitoring observations have been taking place in the seismically active regions since the 1990s. In this paper we consider the results of the long-term measurements of the variations in gravity and recent crustal displacements for different types of earthquakes (the zones of shear, extension, and compression). In the seismically active areas in the east of Russia, the longest annual series of absolute measurements starting from 1992 was recorded in the southeastern segment of Baikal region. In this area, the Kultuk earthquake with magnitude 6.5 occurred on August 27, 2008, at a distance of 25 km from the observation point of the Talaya seismic station. The measurements in Gornyi (Mountainous) Altai have been conducted since 2000. A strikeslip earthquake with magnitude 7.5 took place in the southern segment of the region on September 27, 2003. The effects of the catastrophic M = 9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquake of March 11, 2011 were identified in Primor'e in the far zone of the event. The empirical data are consistent with the results of modeling based on the seismological data. The coseismic variations in gravity are caused by the combined effect of the changes in the elevation of the observation point and crustal deformation.

  12. High Resolution Vertical Seismic Profile from the Chicxulub IODP/ICDP Expedition 364 Borehole: Wave Speeds and Seismic Reflectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, C.; Kofman, R.; Schmitt, D. R.; Lofi, J.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Christeson, G. L.; Saustrup, S., Sr.; Morgan, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    We acquired a closely-spaced vertical seismic profile (VSP) in the Chicxulub K-Pg Impact Crater drilling program borehole to calibrate the existing surface seismic profiles and provide complementary measurements of in situ seismic wave speeds. Downhole seismic records were obtained at spacings ranging from 1.25 m to 5 m along the borehole from 47.5 m to 1325 mwsf (meters wireline below sea floor) (Fig 1a) using a Sercel SlimwaveTM geophone chain (University of Alberta). The seismic source was a 30/30ci Sercel Mini GI airgun (University of Texas), fired a minimum of 5 times per station. Seismic data processing used a combination of a commercial processing package (Schlumberger's VISTA) and MatlabTM codes. The VSP displays detailed reflectivity (Fig. 1a) with the strongest reflection seen at 600 mwsf (280 ms one-way time), geologically corresponding to the sharp contact between the post-impact sediments and the target peak ring rock, thus confirming the pre-drilling interpretations of the seismic profiles. A two-way time trace extracted from the separated up-going wavefield matches the major reflection both in travel time and character. In the granitic rocks that form the peak ring of the Chicxulub impact crater, we observe P-wave velocities of 4000-4500 m/s which are significantly less than the expected values of granitoids ( 6000 m/s) (Fig. 1b). The VSP measured wave speeds are confirmed against downhole sonic logging and in laboratory velocimetry measurements; these data provide additional evidence that the crustal material displaced by the impact experienced a significant amount of damage. Samples and data provided by IODP. Samples can be requested at http://web.iodp.tamu.edu/sdrm after 19 October 2017. Expedition 364 was jointly funded by ECORD, ICDP, and IODP with contributions and logistical support from the Yucatan State Government and UNAM. The downhole seismic chain and wireline system is funded by grants to DRS from the Canada Foundation for Innovation and

  13. Seismic response of reinforced concrete frames at different damage levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-González, Merangeli; Vidot-Vega, Aidcer L.

    2017-03-01

    Performance-based seismic engineering is focused on the definition of limit states to represent different levels of damage, which can be described by material strains, drifts, displacements or even changes in dissipating properties and stiffness of the structure. This study presents a research plan to evaluate the behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) moment resistant frames at different performance levels established by the ASCE 41-06 seismic rehabilitation code. Sixteen RC plane moment frames with different span-to-depth ratios and three 3D RC frames were analyzed to evaluate their seismic behavior at different damage levels established by the ASCE 41-06. For each span-to-depth ratio, four different beam longitudinal reinforcement steel ratios were used that varied from 0.85 to 2.5% for the 2D frames. Nonlinear time history analyses of the frames were performed using scaled ground motions. The impact of different span-to-depth and reinforcement ratios on the damage levels was evaluated. Material strains, rotations and seismic hysteretic energy changes at different damage levels were studied.

  14. Enhanced seismic criteria for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F. . E-mail francoise.touboul@cea.fr; Blay, N.; Sollogoub, P.; Chapuliot, S.

    2006-01-01

    In situ or laboratory experiments have shown that piping systems exhibit satisfactory seismic behavior. Seismic motion is not severe enough to significantly damage piping systems unless large differential motions of anchorage are imposed. Nevertheless, present design criteria for piping are very severe and require a large number of supports, which creates overly rigid piping systems. CEA, in collaboration with EDF, FRAMATOME and IRSN, has launched a large R and D program on enhanced design methods which will be less severe, but still conservative, and compatible with defect justification during operation. This paper presents the background of the R and D work on this matter, and CEA proposed equations. Our approach is based on the difference between the real behavior (or the best estimated computed one) with the one supposed by codified methods. Codified criteria are applied on an elastically calculated behavior that can be significantly different from the real one: the effect of plasticity may be very meaningful, even with low incursion in the plastic domain. Moreover, and particularly in piping systems, the elastic follow-up effect affects stress distribution for both seismic and thermal loads. For seismic load, we have proposed to modify the elastic moment limitation, based on the interpretation of experimental results on piping systems. The methods have been validated on more industrial cases, and some of the consequences of the changes have been studied: modification of the drawings and of the number of supports, global displacements, forces in the supports, stability of potential defects, etc. The basic aim of the studies undertaken is to make a decision on the stress classification problem, one that is not limited to seismic induced stresses, and to propose simplified methods for its solution

  15. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  16. Effects of Moat Wall Impact on the Seismic Response of Base Isolated Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jung Han; Mosqueda, Gilberto; Sarebanhab, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the effects of impact on the response of seismically isolated NPPs and identify characteristics of the isolation hardware and hard stop that minimize these effects. Considering variable distances to the hard stop and properties of the moat wall, the amplification in response is reported for acceleration and floor spectral accelerations at different points along the height of a NPP containment structure. Base isolation can be an effective strategy to protect critical facilities such as Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) from the damaging effects of horizontal earthquake ground shaking. To be effective in reducing accelerations and deformations of the structure above, the seismic isolation bearings can be subjected to large displacements. In the case of an extreme earthquake, bearing displacements need to be limited by a hard stop in order to prevent failure of the bearings. Impact to the hard stop, which is often the moat wall at the basement level, is also of significant concern due to the potential for increased transfer of forces and amplification in response of the structural system, piping and other contents. However, the consequences of impact or factors important to mitigate its effects are not very well understood. The main findings of this study are related to modeling of NPP with moat wall in OpenSees and LSDyna as well as observations resulting from the parametric study of the performance of the NPP under different intensity levels of seismic excitations for different properties of the moat wall and bearings. • Variation in the isolator properties should be considered when examining seismic pounding. For BDBE even, 58.5 % cases result to the impact for lower bound properties while this value was 5.5 % for upper bound properties. Since the impact results are dependent to the assumed bearing properties, a better range of properties can be obtained from experimental testing of the bearing under large shear strains.

  17. Interpretation of a seismic test of the IPIRG2 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blay, N.; Gantenbein, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the linear and non linear analysis of PWR cracked pipes under seismic loading, the calculations of the 1.2 seismic test of the important IPIRG2 program (International Piping Integrity Research Group) was undertaken. This seismic test was performed on a pipe with a surface crack and loaded by an imposed displacement. A low level and a high level of excitation were applied to the pipe. The calculations are made with a global model including a through wall crack pipe finite element. The modal analysis made for the non-cracked pipe and the real geometrical characteristics gives a first frequency of the pipe with pressure and temperature in good agreement with the test. For the cracked pipe, the first frequency decrease is less than 0.5%. The low level response was calculated with a linear model by modal combination in order to study the importance of the both inertial and differential displacement responses in the total response. For both configurations, non-cracked and cracked, the inertial contribution to the moment at the crack location is approximately equal to 80% of the total moment. For the linear behaviour, the influence of the crack appears weak. The non linear calculations are performed with the equivalent crack previously defined up to penetration. To study the behaviour after penetration, various hypothesis for the crack size are taken. (authors). 3 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Brady, B.H.G. [ITASCA Consulting Group, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (USA)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Critical assessment of seismic and geomechanics literature related to a high-level nuclear waste underground repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kana, D.D.; Vanzant, B.W.; Nair, P.K.

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive literature assessment has been conducted to determine the nature and scope of technical information available to characterize the seismic performance of an underground repository and associated facilities. Significant deficiencies were identified in current practices for prediction of seismic response of underground excavations in jointed rock. Conventional analytical methods are based on a continuum representation of the host rock mass. Field observations and laboratory experiments indicate that, in jointed rock, the behavior of the joints controls the overall performance of underground excavations. Further, under repetitive seismic loading, shear displacement develops progressively at block boundaries. Field observations correlating seismicity and groundwater conditions have provided significant information on hydrological response to seismic events. However, lack of a comprehensive model of geohydrological response to seismicity has limited the transportability conclusions from field observations. Based on the literature study, matters requiring further research in relation to the Yucca Mountain repository are identified. The report focuses on understanding seismic processes in fractured tuff, and provides a basis for work on the geohydrologic response of a seismically disturbed rock mass. 220 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Seismic rotation waves: basic elements of theory and recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Returning to the old problem of observed rotation effects, we present the recording system and basic elements of the theory related to the rotation fi eld and its association with seismic waves. There can be many different causes leading to observed/recorded rotation effects; we can group them as follows: generation of micro-displacement motion due to asymmetry of source processes and/or due to interaction between seismic body/surface waves and medium structure; interaction between incident seismic waves and objects situated on the ground surface. New recording techniques and advanced theory of deformation in media with defects and internal (e.g., granular structure make it possible to focus our attention on the fi rst group, related to microdisplacement motion recording, which includes both rotation and twist motions. Surface rotations and twists caused directly by the action of emerging seismic waves on some objects situated on the ground surface are considered here only in the historical aspects of the problem. We present some examples of experimental results related to recording of rotation and twist components at the Ojcow Observatory, Poland, and L'Aquila Observatory, Italy, and we discuss some prospects for further research.

  1. Study on seismic stability of seawall in man-made island. Pt. 5. Deformation of actual seawall during earthquake and estimation of seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatani, Mamoru; Tochigi, Hitoshi; Kawai, Tadashi; Sakakiyama, Tsutomu; Kudo, Koji

    1999-01-01

    In the development of the man-made island siting technology of nuclear power plants, assessing the stability of the seawall against large ocean waves and earthquakes is indispensable. Concerning the seismic stability of the seawall, prediction of the deformation of the seawall during earthquake is important to evaluate the seismic performance of the seawall after the earthquake. In the this report, the deformation of the actual seawall was predicted from the results of the centrifuge model tests and the case studies by the numerical analyses. Furthermore, wave flume model tests of the seawall with the deformed armour embankment by the earthquake shaking were conducted to investigate the effects of the deformation of the armoured embankment to the overtopping discharge by the waves. Obtained results were as follows: (1) It was experimentally confirmed that the slope gentleness and the decrease of the top elevation of the armoured embankment induced by the earthquake did not lead to the increase of the overtopping discharge by the waves after the earthquake. (2) Subsidence and lateral displacement at the top of the parapet of the seawall caused by the S2 scale earthquake were approximately 0.12 m-0.2 m and 0.18 m-0.6 m respectively under the condition that the thickness of the sand seabed was 10 m and relative density was 60%. (3) Even though such displacements were induced at the top of the parapet of the seawall, seismic performance of the seawall against the large waves was kept after the earthquake. (author)

  2. Seismic response of reinforced soil slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, Ioanna; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the current study is to assess the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures taking into account the most important aspects of the problem and to compare the available design methods. For this purpose, initially the most commonly used pseudostatic approach is implemented via...... a parametric investigation to illustrate the impact of the crucial parameters of this approach. Subsequently, Newmark’s sliding block model is modified to account for the reinforcement forces in the calculation of seismic displacements. Finally, finite element analyses were performed and the numerical results...

  3. Seismic analysis of a large pool-type LMR [liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the seismic study of a 450-MWe liquid metal reactor (LMR) under 0.3-g SSE ground excitation. Two calculations were performed using the new design configuration. They deal with the seismic response of the reactor vessel, the guard vessel and support skirt, respectively. In both calculations, the stress and displacement fields at important locations of those components are investigated. Assessments are also made on the elastic and inelastic structural capabilities for other beyond-design basis seismic loads. Results of the reactor vessel analysis reveal that the maximum equivalent stress is only about half of the material yield stress. For the guard vessel and support skirt, the stress level is very small. Regarding the analysis if inelastic structural capability, solutions of the Newmark-Hall ductility modification method show that the reactor vessel can withstand seismics with ground ZPAs ranging from 1.015 to 1.31 g, which corresponds to 3.37 to 4.37 times the basic 0.3-g SSE. Thus, the reactor vessel and guard vessel are strong enough to resist seismic loads. 4 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  4. Comparative Application of Capacity Models for Seismic Vulnerability Evaluation of Existing RC Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faella, C.; Lima, C.; Martinelli, E.; Nigro, E.

    2008-01-01

    Seismic vulnerability assessment of existing buildings is one of the most common tasks in which Structural Engineers are currently engaged. Since, its is often a preliminary step to approach the issue of how to retrofit non-seismic designed and detailed structures, it plays a key role in the successful choice of the most suitable strengthening technique. In this framework, the basic information for both seismic assessment and retrofitting is related to the formulation of capacity models for structural members. Plenty of proposals, often contradictory under the quantitative standpoint, are currently available within the technical and scientific literature for defining the structural capacity in terms of force and displacements, possibly with reference to different parameters representing the seismic response. The present paper shortly reviews some of the models for capacity of RC members and compare them with reference to two case studies assumed as representative of a wide class of existing buildings

  5. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    eight sites across the United States to show that the factor is equal to 1.0 for seismically isolated NPPs, if the risk is dominated by horizontal earthquake shaking. Response-history analyses using different models of seismically isolated NPPs are performed to understand the importance of the choice of friction model, model complexity and vertical ground motion for calculating horizontal displacement response across a wide range of sites and shaking intensities. A friction model for the single concave FP bearing should address heating. The pressure- and velocity-dependencies were not important for the models and sites studied. Isolation-system displacements can be computed using a macro model comprising a single FP bearing.

  6. Yield Frequency Spectra and seismic design of code-compatible RC structures: an illustrative example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanos, Evangelos; Vamvatsikos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    with given yield displacement and capacity curve shape. For the 8-story case study building, deformation checking is the governing limit state. A conventional code-based design was performed using seismic intensities tied to the desired MAF for safety checking. Then, the YFS-based approach was employed......The seismic design of an 8-story reinforced concrete space frame building is undertaken using a Yield Frequency Spectra (YFS) performance-based approach. YFS offer a visual representation of the entire range of a system’s performance in terms of the mean annual frequency (MAF) of exceeding...... to redesign the resulting structure working backwards from the desired MAF of response (rather than intensity) to estimate an appropriate value of seismic intensity for use within a typical engineering design process. For this high-seismicity and high-importance midrise building, a stiffer system with higher...

  7. Interpretation of interseismic deformations and the seismic cycle associated with large subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubienko, Olga; Fleitout, Luce; Garaud, Jean-Didier; Vigny, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    The deformations of the overriding and subducting plates during the seismic cycle associated with large subduction earthquakes are modelled using 2D and 3D finite element techniques. A particular emphasis is put on the interseismic velocities and on the impact of the rheology of the asthenosphere. The distance over which the seismic cycle perturbs significantly the velocities depends upon the ratio of the viscosity in the asthenosphere to the period of the seismic cycle and can reach several thousand km for rheological parameters deduced from the first years of deformation after the Aceh earthquake. For a same early postseismic velocity, a Burger rheology of the asthenosphere implies a smaller duration of the postseismic phase and thus smaller interseismic velocities than a Maxwell rheology. A low viscosity wedge (LVW) modifies very significantly the predicted horizontal and vertical motions in the near and middle fields. In particular, with a LVW, the peak in vertical velocity at the end of the cycle is predicted to be no longer above the deep end of the locked section of the fault but further away, above the continentward limit of the LVW. The lateral viscosity variations linked to the presence at depth of the subducting slab affect substantially the results. The north-south interseismic compression predicted by this preliminary 2D model over more than 1500 km within the Sunda block is in good agreement with the pre-2004 velocities with respect to South-China inferred from GPS observations in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. In Japan, before the Tohoku earthquake, the eastern part of northern Honshu was subsiding while the western part was uplifting. This transition from subsidence to uplift so far away from the trench is well fitted by the predictions from our models involving a LVW. Most of the results obtained here in a 2D geometry are shown to provide a good estimate of the displacements for fault segments of finite lateral extent, with a 3D spherical

  8. Simplified inelastic seismic response analysis of piping system using improved capacity spectrum method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    We applied improved capacity spectrum method (ICSM) to a piping system with an asymmetric load-deformation relationship in a piping elbow. The capacity spectrum method can predict an inelastic response by balancing the structural capacity obtained from the load-deformation relationship with the seismic demand defined by an acceleration-displacement response spectrum. The ICSM employs (1) effective damping ratio and period that are based on a statistical methodology, (2) practical procedures necessary to obtain a balance between the structural capacity and the seismic demand. The effective damping ratio and period are defined so as to maximize the probability that predicted response errors lie inside the -10 to 20% range. However, without taking asymmetry into consideration the displacement calculated by using the load-deformation relationship on the stiffer side was 39% larger than that of a time history analysis by a direct integral method. On the other hand, when asymmetry was taken into account, the calculated displacement was only 14% larger than that of a time history analysis. Thus, we verified that the ICSM could predict the inelastic response with errors lying within the -10 to 20% range, by taking into account the asymmetric load-deformation relationship of the piping system. (author)

  9. Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-30

    mechanisms for foreshock , mainshock, and aftershock sequences using Seismic Research Observatory (SRO) data, EOS, 57(12), p. 954, 1976. Bache, T.C., W.L...the event as well as that of the immediate foreshock were 95 located (Allen and Nordquist, 1972) and where the largest surface displacements were...1972). Foreshock , main shock and larger aftershocks of the Borrego Mountain earthquake, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 787, 16-23. Bache

  10. Seismic snubber reduction on advanced gas-cooled reactor pipework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, P.A.; Harkin, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in pipework dynamic analysis procedures have enabled a more realistic approach to be taken to the design of pipework under earthquake loadings. In particular, it is proving possible to reduce the number of seismic snubbers employed to limit pipework displacements. This paper presents the background to, and outcome of, a snubber optimisation study performed for the main steam pipework system at Torness Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  11. Oscillations and residual displacements of buildings of varying heights and widths, constructed on elastic-plastic base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern regulations in the field of design and construction of buildings in seismically dangerous areas provide for stability calculation of bases, foundations and underground structures, i.e. calculations for the first group of limited states. At the same time, calculations for the second group of limited states, like deformations (yields, relative difference in yields, as a rule, are not fulfilled. This state of affairs is due to insufficient knowledge of the issues of appearance and development of additional stress and strain in ground arrays during seismic influences, that ultimately leads to residual yields and rolls of foundations of industrial and civil buildings. Essentially, residual displacements depend on the type and intensity of dynamic effects, as well as on the model foundation soils. At the same time, the most important factor is the compulsory registration of collaboration between the subgrade and the structure. Therefore, quantification of additional residual displacements of foundations of industrial buildings and structures under dynamic loads, is an actual problem of the modern earthquake-resistant construction.

  12. Seismic Response and Performance Evaluation of Self-Centering LRB Isolators Installed on the CBF Building under NF Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwon Seo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly treats the seismic behavior of lead-rubber bearing (LRB isolation systems with superealstic shape memory alloy (SMA bending bars functioning as damper and self-centering devices. The conventional LRB isolators that are usually installed at the column bases supply extra flexibility to the centrically braced frame (CBF building with a view to elongate its vibration period, and thus make a contribution to mitigating seismic acceleration transferred from ground to structure. However, these base isolation systems are somehow susceptible to shear failure due to the lack of lateral resistance. In the construction site, they have been used to be integrated with displacement control dampers additionally withstanding lateral seismic forces. For this motivation, LRB isolation systems equipped with superelastic SMA bending bars, which possess not only excellent energy dissipation but also outstanding recentering capability, are proposed in this study. These reinforced and recentering LRB base isolators are modeled as nonlinear component springs, and then assigned into the bases of 2D frame models used for numerical simulation. Their seismic performance and capacity in the base-isolated frame building can be evaluated through nonlinear dynamic analyses conducted with historic ground motion data. After comparative study with analyses results, it is clearly shown that 2D frame models with proposed LRB isolators generally have smaller maximum displacements than those with conventional LRB isolators. Furthermore, the LRB isolation systems with superelastic SMA bending bars effectively reduce residual displacement as compared to those with steel bending bars because they provide more flexibility and recentering force to the entire building structure.

  13. Study on the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR including fluid-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, K.; Ito, T.; Fujita, K.; Kurihara, C.; Sawada, Y.; Sakurai, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the seismic response of reactor vessel of pool type LMFBR with fluid-structure interaction. The reactor vessel has bottom support arrangement, the same core support system as Super-Phenix in France. Due to the bottom support arrangement, the level of core support is lower than that of the side support arrangement. So, in this reactor vessel, the displacement of the core top tends to increase because of the core's rocking. In this study, we investigated the vibration and seismic response characteristics of the reactor vessel. Therefore, the seismic experiments were carried out using one-eighth scale model and the seismic response including FSI and sloshing were investigated. From this study, the effect of liquid on the vibration characteristics and the seismic response characteristics of reactor vessel were clarified and sloshing characteristics were also clarified. It was confirmed that FEM analysis with FSI can reproduce the seismic behavior of the reactor vessel and is applicable to seismic design of the pool type LMFBR with bottom support arrangement. (author). 5 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Criteria for design of the Yucca Mountain structures, systems and components for fault displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, C.; Hossain, Q.; Nesbit, S.; Pezzopane, S.; Hardy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE intends to design the Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) for fault displacements to provide reasonable assurance that they will meet the preclosure safety performance objectives established by 10 CFR Part 60. To the extent achievable, fault displacement design of the facility will follow guidance provided in the NRC Staff Technical Position. Fault avoidance will be the primary design criterion, especially for spatially compact or clustered SSCs. When fault avoidance is not reasonably achievable, expected to be the case for most spatially extended SSCs, engineering design procedures and criteria or repair and rehabilitation actions, depending on the SSC's importance to safety, are provided. SSCs that have radiological safety importance will be designed for fault displacements that correspond to the hazard exceedance frequency equal to their established seismic safety performance goals. Fault displacement loads are generally localized and may cause local inelastic response of SSCs. For this reason, the DOE intends to use strain-based design acceptance criteria similar to the strain-based criteria used to design nuclear plant SSCs for impact and impulsive loads

  15. Statement of Canadian practice with respect to the mitigation of seismic sound in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This statement outlined mitigation requirements for marine seismic surveys conducted in all non-ice covered marine environments in Canada. During the planning phase, seismic surveys must use the minimum amount of energy and frequencies needed to achieve its objectives. Surveys must be planned to avoid impacts on individual marine mammals or species listed as endangered or threatened. Seismic surveys must also avoid displacing individual marine mammals or diverting migrating species listed as endangered or threatened. Surveys must also avoid dispersing aggregations of spawning fish or displacing groups of breeding, feeding, or nursing mammals or species. Safety zones must be established and monitored by qualified marine mammal observers for a minimum period of 30 minutes prior to the start-up of air source arrays. No cetaceans, sea turtles, endangered or threatened marine mammals must be observed in the safety zone for at least 30 minutes before the gradual ramp-up of air source arrays. Arrays must be shut down if marine mammals and species at risk are observed. Air source arrays must be shut down when seismic surveying ceases during line changes or maintenance procedures. Cetacean detection technology must be used prior to ramp-up when the full extent of the safety zone is not visible. Additional mitigation measures and modifications were presented for multiple air source arrays and surveys conducted in combination with other activities adverse to marine environmental quality.

  16. USE OF BOUNDING ANALYSES TO ESTIMATE THE PREFORMANCE OF A SEISMICALLY ISOLATED STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ÖZDEMİR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Current design approach for seismic isolated structures is to perform bounding analyses. These analyses provide an envelope for the response of the seismic isolated structure rather than focusing on the actual performance. In this study, the success of bounding analyses to estimate performance of a seismic isolated structure, in which the isolation is provided by means of lead rubber bearings (LRBs, is evaluated in a comparative manner. For this purpose, nonlinear response history analyses were performed under the effect of bidirectional ground motion excitations. In bounding analyses, non-deteriorating hysteretic representations were used to model the hysteretic behavior of LRBs. On the other hand, to estimate the actual performance of both the superstructure and isolator units, deteriorating hysteretic idealizations were employed. The deterioration in strength of LRBs was defined as a function of temperature rise in the lead core. The analyzed structure is an existing seismically isolated hospital building and analytically modeled in accordance with its reported design properties for both isolation units and superstructure. Results obtained from analyses where LRBs are idealized by both deteriorating and non-deteriorating hysteretic representations are used in the comparisons. The response quantities used in the comparisons are maximum isolator displacement, maximum isolator force, maximum absolute floor acceleration, and maximum relative story displacements. In an average sense, bounding analyses is found to provide conservative estimates for the selected response quantities and fulfills its intended purpose. However, it is revealed that there may be individual cases where bounding analyses fails to provide a safe envelope.

  17. The analysis and interpretation of very-long-period seismic signals on volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindija, Dinko; Neuberg, Jurgen; Smith, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The study of very long period (VLP) seismic signals became possible with the widespread use of broadband instruments. VLP seismic signals are caused by transients of pressure in the volcanic edifice and have periods ranging from several seconds to several minutes. For the VLP events recorded in March 2012 and 2014 at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, we model the ground displacement using several source time functions: a step function using Richards growth equation, Küpper wavelet, and a damped sine wave to which an instrument response is then applied. This way we get a synthetic velocity seismogram which is directly comparable to the data. After the full vector field of ground displacement is determined, we model the source mechanism to determine the relationship between the source mechanism and the observed VLP waveforms. Emphasis of the research is on how different VLP waveforms are related to the volcano environment and the instrumentation used and on the processing steps in this low frequency band to get most out of broadband instruments.

  18. Moment Magnitude Determination for Marmara Region-Turkey Using Displacement Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoǧlu Küsmezer, Ayşegül; Meral Özel, Nurcan; Barış, Å.žErif; Üçer, S. Balamir; Ottemöller, Lars

    2010-05-01

    The main purpose of the study is to determine moment magnitude Mω using displacement source spectra of earthquakes occurred in Marmara Region. The region is the most densely populated and fast-developing part of Turkey, bounded by 39.0°N to 42.0°N and 26.0°E to 32.0°E, and have experienced major earthquake disasters during the last four centuries with destructive earthquakes and probabilistic seismic hazard studies shows that the region have significant probability of producing M>7 earthquake within the next years. Seismic moment is a direct measurement of earthquake size (rupture area and static displacement) and does not saturate, spectral analysis at local distances is a very useful method which allows the reliable determination of seismic moment and moment magnitude. We have used converging grid search method developed by L. Ottemöller, and J. Havskov, 2008 for the automatic determination of moment magnitude for local distances. For data preperation; the time domain signal of S waves were extracted from the vertical component seismograms.Data was transformed from time to frequency domain by applying the standart fast fourier transform (fft). Source parameters and moment magnitudes of earthquakes are determined by applying spectral fitting procedure to classical Brune's model. The method is first manually and then automatically performed on the source spectrum of S waves within 20 sec. Mo and fc (Aki;1967, and Brune;1970) were determined by using the method which the model space is divided into a grid and the error function detected for all grid points. A smaller grid with denser spacing around the best solution is generated with an iterative procedure. The moment magnitudes of the earthquakes have been calculated according to the scale of Kanamori (1977) and Hanks and Kanamori (1979). A data set of 279 events recorded on broadband velocity seismograms extracted from KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute) seismic network were

  19. 2D and 3D numerical modeling of seismic waves from explosion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, K.L.; Stevens, J.L.; Barker, T.G.; Shkoller, B.; Day, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last decade, nonlinear and linear 2D axisymmetric finite difference codes have been used in conjunction with far-field seismic Green's functions to simulate seismic waves from a variety of sources. In this paper we briefly review some of the results and conclusions that have resulted from numerical simulations and explosion modeling in support of treaty verification research at S-CUBED in the last decade. We then describe in more detail the results from two recent projects. Our goal is to provide a flavor for the kinds of problems that can be examined with numerical methods for modeling excitation of seismic waves from explosions. Two classes of problems have been addressed; nonlinear and linear near-source interactions. In both classes of problems displacements and tractions are saved on a closed surface in the linear region and the representation theorem is used to propagate the seismic waves to the far-field

  20. Mechanical property test of natural rubber bearing for the evaluation of uncertainty value of seismic isolation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Jung Han; Choi, In Kil

    2012-01-01

    Seismic safety of NPP is one of the most important issues in a nuclear field after great east Japan earthquake in 2011. For the improvement of seismic safety of nuclear power plant, seismic isolation is the easiest solution for increasing the seismic safety. Otherwise, the application of seismic isolation devices for nuclear power plants doesn't make the seismic risk of NPP increases always. The rubber bearing have many uncertainties of material properties and large displacement should absorb according to the application of isolation devices. In this study, for the evaluation of uncertainty of the material properties of rubber bearing, material tests for rubber and mechanical properties test for natural rubber bearing were performed. For the evaluation of effect of hardness of rubber, 4 kinds of rubber hardness for material property tests and 2 kinds of rubber hardness for mechanical property test were considered. As a result, the variation of material properties is higher than that of mechanical properties of natural rubber bearings

  1. SEISMIC DISTRESS AND PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Yiannis; Psarropoulos, Prodromos

    2011-01-01

    Seismic distress of solid waste landfills may result from any of the two consequences of a seismic event: (a) the transient ground deformation related to seismic wave propagation, (b) the permanent ground deformation caused by abrupt fault dislocation. Design provisions for solid waste landfills...... prohibit the construction of landfills in the vicinity of an active fault aiming to prevent the latter. Nonetheless, the impact of applied permanent deformation on the system components of landfills and on the waste mass has not been fully demonstrated yet. For this purpose, efficient finite......-element analyses were performed, taking also into account the potential slip displacement development along the interfaces formulated on each side of the flexible membrane liner (FML). It is shown that base fault dislocation causes significant plastic strains at each one of the components of the waste landfill...

  2. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraswat, A., E-mail: anupams@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  3. Seismic stability of a standalone glove box structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, A.; Reddy, G.R.; Ghosh, S.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kumar, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Glove box is a leak tight, safety related structure used for handling radiotoxic materials. • To study the seismic performance of a freestanding glove box, extensive shake table testing has been carried out. • Glove box maintained structural integrity and leak tightness up to design basis earthquake loading. • Detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the structure is developed and analyzed by using direct time integration methods. • Simplified numerical method is proposed and successfully applied, to quickly estimate sliding displacement and determine upper bounds for it. - Abstract: In a nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiotoxic materials are being handled in freestanding leak tight enclosures called glove boxes (GBs). These glove boxes act as a primary confinement for the radiotoxic materials. Glove boxes are designed as per codal requirements for class I component. They are designed to withstand extreme level of earthquake loading with a return period of 10,000 years. To evaluate seismic performance of the glove box, there is a need to check the stability (sliding and overturning), structural integrity (stresses and strains) and leak tightness under earthquake loading. Extensive shake table experiments were conducted on a single standalone glove box. Actual laboratory conditions were simulated during testing to check the response. After extensive shake table testing, glove box structure was also analyzed using finite element (FE) software. Detailed three-dimensional model of glove box structure was developed and analyzed using nonlinear time history method. It was observed that finite element methods could be utilized to accurately predict dynamic response of glove box structure. This paper discusses the details and results of shake table testing and methodology used for modelling and analysing freestanding glove box structure under seismic loading. In addition, simplified numerical procedure, developed using energy conservation

  4. Seismic Tremors and Three-Dimensional Magma Wagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Y.; Bercovici, D.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic tremor is a feature shared by many silicic volcanoes and is a precursor of volcanic eruption. Many of the characteristics of tremors, including their frequency band from 0.5 Hz to 7 Hz, are common for volcanoes with very different geophysical and geochemical properties. The ubiquitous characteristics of tremor imply that it results from some generation mechanism that is common to all volcanoes, instead of being unique to each volcano. Here we present new analysis on the magma-wagging mechanism that has been proposed to generate tremor. The model is based on the suggestion given by previous work (Jellinek & Bercovici 2011; Bercovici et.al. 2013) that the magma column is surrounded by a compressible, bubble-rich foam annulus while rising inside the volcanic conduit, and that the lateral oscillation of the magma inside the annulus causes observable tremor. Unlike the previous two-dimensional wagging model where the displacement of the magma column is restricted to one vertical plane, the three-dimensional model we employ allows the magma column to bend in different directions and has angular motion as well. Our preliminary results show that, without damping from viscous deformation of the magma column, the system retains angular momentum and develops elliptical motion (i.e., the horizontal displacement traces an ellipse). In this ''inviscid'' limit, the magma column can also develop instabilities with higher frequencies than what is found in the original two-dimensional model. Lateral motion can also be out of phase for various depths in the magma column leading to a coiled wagging motion. For the viscous-magma model, we predict a similar damping rate for the uncoiled magma column as in the two-dimensional model, and faster damping for the coiled magma column. The higher damping thus requires the existence of a forcing mechanism to sustain the oscillation, for example the gas-driven Bernoulli effect proposed by Bercovici et al (2013). Finally, using our new 3

  5. Overstrength of Displacement-Based Designed Eccentrically Braced Steel Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Farahani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD is a performance-based seismic design method that has been proposed and developed over the past two decades for RC frame structures, shear walls and bridges design. The aim of this study is to evaluate overstrength of EBFs with short, intermediate and long link beams designed according to the DDBD method. For this purpose, twelve EBFs with 3, 5, 9 and 12 stories having short, intermediate and long link beams designed using the DDBD method. To investigate the seismic behavior of the considered EBFs, it is first necessary to model properly the nonlinear cyclic behavior of link beams properly. In this regard, the macro-model developed and proposed by Richards was utilized in this study to simulate the nonlinear behavior of some tested link beams available in the literature. After validating the finite-element model, the seismic behavior of the considered EBFs was studied using nonlinear static analyses. The results show that the overstrength factors of the DDB designed EBFs are variable depending on their links length ratio and may even be less than the factor proposed in the DDBD method (i.e. 1.5. This factor was evaluated as 1.51, 1.37 and 1.19 for the investigated EBFs in this study with short, intermediate and long link beams, respectively.

  6. Seismic considerations in the design of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, A.S.; Chandrasekaran, A.R.; Thakkar, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    A seismic design is one of the most important factors for the safety of nuclear power plants constructed in seismic areas. The various considerations in the design of atomic power plant structures and components to achieve high degree (near absolute) of safety during future probable earthquakes is described as follows: (a) determination of design earthquake parameters for SSE and OBE (b) fixing time history accelerograms and acceleration response spectra (c) mathematical modelling of the reactor building considering soil-structure interaction (d) deciding allowable stresses, damping factors and serviceability limits like drift, displacements and crack widths (e) tests for determining stiffness and damping characteristics of components in-situ before commissioning of plant. The main questions that arise under various items requiring further research investigations or development work are pointed out for discussion. (author)

  7. Structural pounding of concrete frame structure with masonry infill wall under seismic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Rozaina; Hasnan, Mohd Hafizudin; Shamsudin, Nurhanis

    2017-10-01

    Structural pounding is additional problem than the other harmful damage that may occurs due to the earthquake vibrations. A lot of study has been made by past researcher but most of them did not include the walls. The infill masonry walls are rarely involved analysis of structural systems but it does contribute to earthquake response of the structures. In this research, a comparison between adjacent building of 10-storey and 7-storey concrete frame structure without of masonry infill walls and the same dynamic properties of buildings. The diagonal strut approach is adopted for modeling masonry infill walls. This research also focused on finding critical building separation in order to prevent the adjacent structures from pounding. LUSAS FEA v14.03 software has been used for modeling analyzing the behavior of structures due to seismic loading and the displacement each floor of the building has been taken in order to determine the critical separation distance between the buildings. From the analysis that has been done, it is found that masonry infill walls do affect the structures behavior under seismic load. Structures without masonry infill walls needs more distance between the structures to prevent structural pounding due to higher displacement of the buildings when it sways under seismic load compared to structures with masonry infill walls. This shows that contribution of masonry infill walls to the analysis of structures cannot be neglected.

  8. Collaborative Research: Ground Truth of African and Eastern Mediterranean Shallow Seismicity Using SAR Interferometry and Gibbs Sampling Inversion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brooks, Benjamin A; Gomez, Francisco; Sandvol, Eric; Frazer, L. N

    2006-01-01

    ...) in primarily Africa and the Middle East, although we also included some events from Asia. We find that InSAR is capable of routine detection of surface displacements associated with small (seismic events...

  9. Real-time capture of seismic waves using high-rate multi-GNSS observations: Application to the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Xie, Xin; Fang, Rongxin; Su, Xing; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Gang; Li, Heng; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-01-01

    The variometric approach is investigated to measure real-time seismic waves induced by the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake with high-rate multi-GNSS observations, especially with the contribution of newly available BDS. The velocity estimation using GPS + BDS shows an additional improvement of around 20% with respect to GPS-only solutions. We also reconstruct displacements by integrating GNSS-derived velocities after a linear trend removal (IGV). The displacement waveforms with accuracy of better than 5 cm are derived when postprocessed GPS precise point positioning results are used as ground truth, even if those stations have strong ground motions and static offsets of up to 1-2 m. GNSS-derived velocity and displacement waveforms with the variometric approach are in good agreement with results from strong motion data. We therefore conclude that it is feasible to capture real-time seismic waves with multi-GNSS observations using the IGV-enhanced variometric approach, which has critical implications for earthquake early warning, tsunami forecasting, and rapid hazard assessment.

  10. A comparison of analytical approaches for the assessment of seismic displacements of geosynthetically reinforced geostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Tsompanakis, Y.; Zania, Varvara

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the current study is to assess the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics to prevent the seismic induced instabilities taking advantage of their reinforcing effect. For this purpose, representative models of reinforced soil slopes are developed...

  11. Relating high-resolution tilt measurements to the source displacement of an M2.2 event located at Mponeng gold mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Share, P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available and T2 (modified from Yabe et al., 2011) al. (2011) produced a seismic moment of 2.9 × 1012 Nm. In contrast, calculations using the same data by the Institute of Mining Seismology (Hofmann et al., 2012) gave a seismic moment of 9.875 × 1011 Nm, a corner...), had been used to reproduce the actual M2.2 rupture and displacement while taking into account factors such as stress state and the presence of excavations and tunnels (Hofmann et al., 2012). Outputs of this earlier study were used as input...

  12. Mechanical design of a single-axis monolithic accelerometer for advanced seismic attenuation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy) and LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)]. E-mail: alessandro.bertolini@desy.de; DeSalvo, Riccardo [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fidecaro, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Francesconi, Mario [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Marka, Szabolcs [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States); Sannibale, Virginio [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Simonetti, Duccio [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Takamori, Akiteru [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Tariq, Hareem [LIGO Project, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    The design and mechanics for a new very-low noise low frequency horizontal accelerometer is presented. The sensor has been designed to be integrated in an advanced seismic isolation system for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. The motion of a small monolithic folded-pendulum (FP) is monitored by a high resolution capacitance displacement sensor; a feedback force actuator keeps the mass at the equilibrium position. The feedback signal is proportional to the ground acceleration in the frequency range 0-150Hz. The very high mechanical quality factor, Q{approx}3000 at a resonant frequency of 0.5Hz, reduces the Brownian motion of the proof mass of the accelerometer below the resolution of the displacement sensor. This scheme enables the accelerometer to detect the inertial displacement of a platform with a root-mean-square noise less than 1nm, integrated over the frequency band from 0.01 to 150Hz. The FP geometry, combined with the monolithic design, allows the accelerometer to be extremely directional. A vertical-horizontal coupling ranging better than 10{sup -3} has been achieved. A detailed account of the design and construction of the accelerometer is reported here. The instrument is fully ultra-high vacuum compatible and has been tested and approved for integration in seismic attenuation system of japanese TAMA 300 gravitational wave detector. The monolithic design also makes the accelerometer suitable for cryogenic operation.

  13. Nonlinear seismic analysis of continuous RC bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čokić Miloš M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear static analysis, known as a pushover method (NSPA is oftenly used to study the behaviour of a bridge structure under the seismic action. It is shown that the Equivalent Linearization Method - ELM, recommended in FEMA 440, is appropriate for the response analysis of the bridge columns, with different geometric characteristics, quantity and distribution of steel reinforcement. The subject of analysis is a bridge structure with a carriageway plate - a continuous beam with three spans, with the 24 + 40 + 24 m range. Main girder is made of prestressed concrete and it has a box cross section of a constant height. It is important to study the behaviour, not only in the transverse, but also in the longitudinal direction of the bridge axis, when analysing the bridge columns exposed to horizontal seismic actions. The columns were designed according to EN1992, parts 1 and 2. Seismic action analysis is conducted according to EN 1998: 2004 standard. Response spectrum type 1, for the ground type B, was applied and the analysis also includes 20% of traffic load. The analysis includes the values of columns displacement and ductility. To describe the behaviour of elements under the earthquake action in both - longitudinal and transverse direction, pushover curves were formed.

  14. Response spectrum analysis of coupled structural response to a three component seismic disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, J.A.M.; Carley, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The work discussed herein is a comparison and evaluation of several response spectrum analysis (RSA) techniques as applied to the same structural model with seismic excitation having three spatial components. Lagrange's equations of motion for the system were written in matrix form and uncoupled with the modal matrix. Numerical integration (fourth order Runge-Kutta) of the resulting model equations produced time histories of system displacements in response to simultaneous application of three orthogonal components of ground motion, and displacement response spectra for each modal coordinate in response to each of the three ground motion components. Five different RSA techniques were used to combine the spectral displacements and the modal matrix to give approximations of maximum system displacements. These approximations were then compared with the maximum system displacements taken from the time histories. The RSA techniques used are the method of absolute sums, the square root of the sum of the squares, the double sum approach, the method of closely spaced modes, and Lin's method. The vectors of maximum system displacements as computed by the time history analysis and the five response spectrum analysis methods are presented. (Auth.)

  15. Seismic Dynamic Damage Characteristics of Vertical and Batter Pile-supported Wharf Structure Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering a typical steel pipe pile-supported wharf as the research object, finite element analytical models of batter and vertical pile structures were established under the same construction site, service, and geological conditions to investigate the seismic dynamic damage characteristics of vertical and batter pile-supported wharf structures. By the numerical simulation and the nonlinear time history response analysis of structure system and the moment–axial force relation curve, we analyzed the dynamic damage characteristics of the two different structures of batter and vertical piles under different seismic ground motions to provide reasonable basis and reference for designing and selecting a pile-supported wharf structure. Results showed that the axial force of batter piles was dominant in the batter pile structure and that batter piles could effectively bear and share seismic load. Under the seismic ground motion with peak ground acceleration (PGA of 350 Gal and in consideration of the factors of the design requirement of horizontal displacement, the seismic performance of the batter pile structure was better than that of the vertical pile structure. Under the seismic ground motion with a PGA of 1000 Gal, plastic failure occurred in two different structures. The contrastive analysis of the development of plastic damage and the absorption and dissipation for seismic energy indicated that the seismic performance of the vertical pile structure was better than that of the batter pile structure.

  16. Implications of Seismically Active Fault Structures in Ankay and Alaotra Regions of Northern and Central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, S.; Stamps, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the seismically active fault structures in central and northern Madagascar. We study the Ankay and Lake Alaotra regions of Madagascar, which are segmented by multiple faults that strike N-S. In general, normal seismic events occur on faults bounding the Alaotra-Ankay rift basin where Quaternary alluvium is present. Due to this pattern and moderate amounts of low magnitude seismic activity along these faults, it is hypothesized the region currently undergoes E-W extension. In this work we test how variations in fault strength and net slip changes influence expected crustal movement in the region. Using the Coulomb stress failure point as a test of strength we are able to model the Alaotra-Ankay region using MATLAB Coulomb 3.3.01. This program allows us to define realistic Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of mapped rock compositions in the region, i.e. paragneiss and orthogneiss, create 3D fault geometries, and calculate static stress changes with coinciding surface displacements. We impose slip along multiple faults and calculate seismic moment that we balance by the 3 observed earthquake magnitudes available in the USGS CMT database. Our calculations of surface displacements indicate 1-3 millimeters could be observed across the Alaotra-Ankay rift. These values are within the observable range of precision GNSS observations, therefore our results will guide future research into the area and direct potential GNSS station installation.

  17. Seismic Retrofit of a Multispan Prestressed Concrete Girder Bridge with Friction Pendulum Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Maria Avossa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the proposal and application of a procedure for the seismic retrofit of an existing multispan prestressed concrete girder bridge defined explicitly for the use of friction pendulum devices as an isolation system placed between piers top and deck. First, the outcomes of the seismic risk assessment of the existing bridge, performed using an incremental noniterative Nonlinear Static Procedure, based on the Capacity Spectrum Method as well as the Inelastic Demand Response Spectra, are described and discussed. Then, a specific multilevel design process, based on a proper application of the hierarchy of strength considerations and the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach, is adopted to dimension the FPD devices. Furthermore, to assess the impact of the FPD nonlinear behaviour on the bridge seismic response, a device model that reproduces the variation of the normal force and friction coefficient, the bidirectional coupling, and the large deformation effects during nonlinear dynamic analyses was used. Finally, the paper examines the effects of the FPD modelling parameters on the behaviour of the retrofitted bridge and assesses its seismic response with the results pointing out the efficiency of the adopted seismic retrofit solution.

  18. Seismicity within the Irpinia Fault System As Monitored By Isnet (Irpinia Seismic Network) and Its Possible Relation with Fluid Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Zollo, A.; Amoroso, O.; Ascione, A.; Colombelli, S.; Elia, L.; Emolo, A.; Martino, C.; Mazzoli, S.; Orefice, A.; Russo, G.

    2014-12-01

    ISNet (http://isnet.fisica.unina.it) is deployed in Southern Apennines along the active fault system responsible for the 1980, M 6.9 Irpinia earthquake. ISNet consists of 32 seismic stations equipped with both strong motion and velocimetric instruments (either broadband or short-period), with the aim of capture a broad set of seismic signals, from ambient noise to strong motion. Real time and near real time procedures run at ISNet with the goal of monitoring the seismicity, check possible space-time anomalies, detect seismic sequences and launch an earthquake early warning in the case of potential significant ground shaking in the area. To understand the role of fluids on the seismicity of the area, we investigated velocity and attenuation models. The former is built from accurate cross-correlation picking and S wave detection based onto polarization analysis. Joint inversion of both P and S arrival times is then based on a linearized multi-scale tomographic approach. Attenuation is instead obtained from inversion of displacement spectra, deconvolving for the source effect. High VP/VS and QS/QP >1 were found within a ~15 km wide rock volume where intense microseismicity is located. This indicates that concentration of seismicity is possibly controlled by high pore fluid pressure. This earthquake reservoir may come from a positive feedback between the seismic pumping that controls the fluid transmission through the fractured damage zone and the low permeability of cross fault barrier, increasing the fluid pore pressure within the fault bounded block. In this picture, sequences mostly occur at the base of this fluid rich layer. They show an anomalous pattern in the earthquake occurrence per magnitude classes; main events evolve with a complex source kinematics, as obtained from backprojection of apparent source time functions, indicating possible directivity effects. In this area sequences might be the key for understanding the transition between the deep

  19. Inferring Fault Frictional and Reservoir Hydraulic Properties From Injection-Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagalur-Mohan, Jayanth; Jha, Birendra; Wang, Zheng; Juanes, Ruben; Marzouk, Youssef

    2018-02-01

    Characterizing the rheological properties of faults and the evolution of fault friction during seismic slip are fundamental problems in geology and seismology. Recent increases in the frequency of induced earthquakes have intensified the need for robust methods to estimate fault properties. Here we present a novel approach for estimation of aquifer and fault properties, which combines coupled multiphysics simulation of injection-induced seismicity with adaptive surrogate-based Bayesian inversion. In a synthetic 2-D model, we use aquifer pressure, ground displacements, and fault slip measurements during fluid injection to estimate the dynamic fault friction, the critical slip distance, and the aquifer permeability. Our forward model allows us to observe nonmonotonic evolutions of shear traction and slip on the fault resulting from the interplay of several physical mechanisms, including injection-induced aquifer expansion, stress transfer along the fault, and slip-induced stress relaxation. This interplay provides the basis for a successful joint inversion of induced seismicity, yielding well-informed Bayesian posterior distributions of dynamic friction and critical slip. We uncover an inverse relationship between dynamic friction and critical slip distance, which is in agreement with the small dynamic friction and large critical slip reported during seismicity on mature faults.

  20. On development and improvement of evaluation techniques for seismic ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Issues regarding evaluation of active fault and ground motion for formulation of design basis ground motion (Ss) were prescribed in 'NSC seismic and tsunami safety reviewing manual' in 2012. Moreover, Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) is establishing the new seismic safety guideline. In this theme following four subjects were investigated to resolve the important problems for ground motion evaluation, (1) advanced evaluation of ground motion using fault model and uncertainty; (2) improving evaluation of ground motion using attenuation relation of response spectrum; (3) development of advanced and generic techniques for ground motion observation and observation tool in deep borehole; (4) improving the evaluation of site effect and seismic wave propagation characteristics. In addition as emergency requirements from NRA following two subjects were also investigated; (5) hazard evaluation development on fault displacement; (6) ground motion evaluation at near-by source location. Obtained results will be reflected not only in the domestic guideline established by NRA but in the national safety review and also in the safety standard guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through its Extra-Budgetary Program (EBP), thereby contributing to technical cooperation in global nuclear seismic safety. (author)

  1. Seismic Fortification Analysis of the Guoduo Gravity Dam in Tibet, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this research was to analyze the seismic performance of the Guoduo gravity dam. A nonlinear FEM method was implemented to study the deformation, stress, and overall stability of dam under both static and dynamic loading conditions, including both normal and overloading conditions. A dam seismic failure risk control method is proposed based on the cracking mechanism induced by the dynamic load to ensure dam safety and stability. Numerical simulation revealed that (1 under normal static and dynamic loading the symmetry of the displacement distributions is good, showing that the dam abutments and riverbed foundation have good overall stiffness. The stress distribution is a safe one for operation under both normal water loading and seismic loading. (2 Attention should be paid to the reinforcement design of outlets of the diversion dam monoliths, and enhance the capability of sustaining that tensile stress of dam monoliths. (3 The shape of the dam profile has a significant effect on the dynamic response of the dam. (4 By employing the “overload safety factor method,” the overall seismic fortification is as follows: K1=1.5, K2= 2~3, and K3= 3~4.

  2. A Study on the Fuel Assembly Seismic Analysis without Holddown Springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O Cheol; Ha, Dong Geun; Lee, Kyou Seok; Jeon, Sang Yoon; Suh, Jung Min

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect for the fuel assembly removed holddown spring under seismic event has been evaluated through the comparison with the seismic analysis result of fuel assembly with holddown spring. In order to compare each design, the simplified fuel assembly seismic analysis models have been established according to reference. The mid grid impact force, natural frequency, and top nozzle displacement for each fuel assembly model has been analyzed using ANSYS. The fuel assembly seismic analyses without holddown springs are performed and compared to the model with holddown springs. The grid impact forces of CPM 1 and CPM 2 are almost doubled in comparison with CPM 3 and almost tripled in comparison with CPM 4 so the grid impact forces depend on CPM types. The grid impact forces of the fuel assembly model without holddown springs have similar tendencies in comparison with fuel assembly with holddown springs. Moreover, the model without holddown springs analysis time is much longer than the model with holddown springs. Consequently, it is moderate that the fuel assembly analysis model with holddown springs would be used for effective analysis even though the actual model has no holddown springs

  3. A Study on the Fuel Assembly Seismic Analysis without Holddown Springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, O Cheol; Ha, Dong Geun; Lee, Kyou Seok; Jeon, Sang Yoon; Suh, Jung Min [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the effect for the fuel assembly removed holddown spring under seismic event has been evaluated through the comparison with the seismic analysis result of fuel assembly with holddown spring. In order to compare each design, the simplified fuel assembly seismic analysis models have been established according to reference. The mid grid impact force, natural frequency, and top nozzle displacement for each fuel assembly model has been analyzed using ANSYS. The fuel assembly seismic analyses without holddown springs are performed and compared to the model with holddown springs. The grid impact forces of CPM{sub 1} and CPM{sub 2} are almost doubled in comparison with CPM{sub 3} and almost tripled in comparison with CPM{sub 4} so the grid impact forces depend on CPM types. The grid impact forces of the fuel assembly model without holddown springs have similar tendencies in comparison with fuel assembly with holddown springs. Moreover, the model without holddown springs analysis time is much longer than the model with holddown springs. Consequently, it is moderate that the fuel assembly analysis model with holddown springs would be used for effective analysis even though the actual model has no holddown springs.

  4. The Influence of Overhead Cranes in the Seismic Performance of Industrial Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Belleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of overhead cranes with a hanging mass under earthquake type loading, considering the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence. The structural layout of precast concrete industrial buildings typical of the Italian territory is considered. The equations of motion describing the behavior of the hoist load are derived, and a sensitivity analysis is carried out on simplified 3 degrees of freedom systems by solving the governing differential equations. The influence of various parameters on the roof displacement and on the horizontal load transferred by the hanging mass is addressed. The considered parameters are the relative damping of the hanging mass, the length of the hoist ropes, the earthquake record, the hysteretic type of the plastic hinges at the column base, and the behavior factor of the structural system. The results show that for a horizontal component of the considered seismic sequence the structural displacements are amplified in the case of a behavior factor greater than 2.5. A simplified modeling strategy considering small displacements is also investigated. Such model is suitable for response-spectrum analyses. Finally, a three-dimensional case study is analyzed by means of non-linear time history analyses. The results show the influence of the overhead crane on the local performance of some structural and non-structural elements, such as columns and cladding panels, especially when the assumption of rigid roof diaphragm does not apply.

  5. Study of seismic responses of Candu-3 reactor building using isolator bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Seismic isolator bearings are known to increase reliability, reduce cost and increase the potential sitings for nuclear power plants located in regions of high seismicity. High seismic activities in Canada occur mainly in the western coast, the Grand Banks and regions of Quebec along the St. Lawrence river. In Canada, nuclear power plants are located in Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick where the seismicity levels are low to moderate. Consequently, seismic isolator bearings have not been used in the existing nuclear power plants in Canada. The present paper examines the effect of using seismic isolator bearings in the design for the new CANDU3 which would be suitable for regions having high seismicity. The CANDU3 Nuclear Power Plant is rated at 450 MW of net output power and is a smaller version of its predecessor CANDU6 successfully operating in Canada and abroad. The design of CANDU3 is being developed by AECL CANDU. Advanced technologies for design, construction and plant operation have been utilized. During the conceptual development of the CANDU3 design, various design options including the use of isolator bearings were considered. The present paper presents an overview of seismic isolation technology and summarizes the analytical work for predicting the seismic behavior of the CANDU3 reactor building. A lumped-parameter dynamic model for the reactor building is used for the analysis. The characteristics of the bearings are utilized in the analysis work. The time-history modal analysis has been used to compute the seismic responses. Seismic responses of the reactor building with and without isolator bearings are compared. The isolator bearings are found to reduce the accelerations of the reactor building. As a result, a lower level of seismic qualification for components and systems would be required. The use of these bearings however increases rigid body seismic displacements of the structure requiring special considerations in the layout and interfaces for

  6. Design of turbine foundations in seismic zones. Earthquake protection strategies; Planung von Turbinenfundamenten in Erdbebengebieten. Strategien zum Erdbebenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Ashish Kumar [GERB Vibration Control Systems, Noida (India); Nawrotzki, Peter [GERB Schwingungsisolierungen GmbH und Co. KG, Berlin (Germany); Siepe, Daniel [GERB Engineering GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    This contribution reveals basic principles of elastic support systems and applications on power plant equipment and buildings in medium and high seismic areas. Spring-damper combinations with special stiffness properties are used to reduce seismic acceleration levels of turbine components and other safety or non-safety related structures. For turbine buildings, the integration of the turbine substructure into the machine building can additionally reduce the relative displacement between both the structures as well as the stress levels in all structural members. (orig.)

  7. Effectiveness of Tuned Mass Dampers in Seismic Response Control of Isolated Bridges Including Soil-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Elias

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of soil-structure interaction (SSI on the dynamic responses of seismically isolated three-span continuous reinforced concrete (RC bridge is investigated. Also, tuned mass damper(s (TMD/s is/are installed to control undesirable bearing displacement, even under the SSI effect. The TMDs are placed at the mid-span of the bridge and each tuned with a modal frequency, while controlling up to first few modes as desirable. The soil surrounding the foundation of pier is modeled by frequency independent coefficients. Dynamic analysis is carried out in time domain using direct integration method. In order to specify the effects of the SSI, the responses of the non-isolated, isolated, and controlled isolated bridge are compared. It is observed that the soil surrounding the pier has significant effects on the bearing displacement of the isolated RC bridges. In addition, it is observed that the seismic responses of isolated RC bridge reduced significantly with installation of the TMDs.

  8. Comparative performance of passive devices for piping system under seismic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Praveen, E-mail: pra_veen74@rediffmail.com [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Jangid, R.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Correlated the analytical results obtained from the proposed analytical procedures with experimental results in the case of XPD. • Substantial reduction of the seismic response of piping system with passive devices is observed. • Significant increase in the modal damping of the piping system is noted. • There exist an optimum parameters of the passive devices. • Good amount of energy dissipation is observed by using passive devices. - Abstract: Among several passive control devices, X-plate damper, viscous damper, visco-elastic damper, tuned mass damper and multiple tuned mass dampers are popular and used to mitigate the seismic response in the 3-D piping system. In the present paper detailed studies are made to see the effectiveness of the dampers when used in 3-D piping system subjected to artificial earthquake with increasing amplitudes. The analytical results obtained using Wen's model are compared with the corresponding experimental results available which indicated a good match with the proposed analytical procedure for the X-plate dampers. It is observed that there is significant reduction in the seismic response of interest like relative displacement, acceleration and the support reaction of the piping system with passive devices. In general, the passive devices under particular optimum parameters such as stiffness and damping are very effective and practically implementable for the seismic response mitigation, vibration control and seismic requalification of piping system.

  9. Toward 2D Seismic Wavefield Monitoring: Seismic Gradiometry for Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope applied to the Hi-net Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Nishida, K.; Takagi, R.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km. We can observe long-period seismic wave propagation as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength. In contrast, short-period waves are quite incoherent at stations, however, their envelope shapes resemble at neighbor stations. Therefore, we may be able to extract seismic wave energy propagation by seismogram envelope analysis. We attempted to characterize seismic waveform at long-period and its envelope at short-period as 2D wavefield by applying seismic gradiometry. We applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50s) dataset prepared by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout. Wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are estimated by using data at nearby stations. The slowness vector, the radiation pattern and the geometrical spreading are extracted from estimated velocity, displacement and its spatial derivatives. For short-periods at shorter than 1 s, seismogram envelope shows temporal and spatial broadening through scattering by medium heterogeneity. It is expected that envelope shape may be coherent among nearby stations. Based on this idea, we applied the same method to the time-integration of seismogram envelope to estimate its spatial derivatives. Together with seismogram envelope, we succeeded in estimating the slowness vector from the seismogram envelope as well as long-period waveforms by synthetic test, without using phase information. Our preliminarily results show that the seismic gradiometry suits the Hi-net to extract wave propagation characteristics both at long and short periods. This method is appealing that it can estimate waves at homogeneous grid to monitor seismic wave as a wavefield. It is promising to obtain phase velocity variation from direct waves, and to grasp wave

  10. Evidence of displacement-driven maturation along the San Cristobal Trough transform plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, James S.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2018-03-01

    The San Cristobal Trough (SCT), formed by the tearing of the Australia plate as it subducts under the Pacific plate near the Solomon Islands, provides an opportunity to study the transform boundary development process. Recent seismicity (2013-2016) along the 280 km long SCT, known as a Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) fault, highlights the tearing process and ongoing development of the plate boundary. The region's earthquakes reveal two key characteristics. First, earthquakes at the western terminus of the SCT, which we interpret to indicate the Australia plate tearing, display disparate fault geometries. These events demonstrate that plate tearing is accommodated via multiple intersecting planes rather than a single through-going fault. Second, the SCT hosts sequences of Mw ∼7 strike-slip earthquakes that migrate westward through a rapid succession of events. Sequences in 1993 and 2015 both began along the eastern SCT and propagated west, but neither progression ruptured into or nucleated a large earthquake within the region near the tear. Utilizing b-value and Coulomb Failure Stress analyses, we examine these along-strike variations in the SCT's seismicity. b-Values are highest along the youngest, western end of the SCT and decrease with increasing distance from the tear. This trend may reflect increasing strain localization with increasing displacement. Coulomb Failure Stress analyses indicate that the stress conditions were conducive to continued western propagation of the 1993 and 2015 sequences suggesting that the unruptured western SCT may have fault geometries or properties that inhibit continued rupture. Our results indicate a displacement-driven fault maturation process. The multi-plane Australia plate tearing likely creates a western SCT with diffuse strain accommodated along a network of disorganized faults. After ∼90 km of cumulative displacement (∼900,000 yr of plate motion), strain localizes and faults align, allowing the SCT to host

  11. Seismic Passive Control of Cable-Stayed Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam-Eddin M. Ali

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional modeling procedure is proposed for cable-stayed bridges with rubber, steel, and lead energy dissipation devices. The passive control technique is investigated by considering the response of bridge models with and without energy dissipation devices. The impact of various design parameters on the seismic response of current and future bridge designs is studied. Appropriate locations and properties of the passive devices can achieve better performance for cable-stayed bridges by balancing the significant reduction in earthquake-induced forces against tolerable displacements. Proper design of passive systems can help provide solutions for retro-fitting some existing bridges.

  12. Evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations on how to determine the ground motion hazards for a plant at a particular site and the potential for surface faulting, which could affect the feasibility of construction and safe operation of a plant at that site. The guidelines and procedures presented in this Safety Guide can appropriately be used in evaluations of site suitability and seismic hazards for nuclear power plants in any seismotectonic environment. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis recommended in this Safety Guide also addresses the needs for seismic hazard analysis of external event PSAs conducted for nuclear power plants. Many of the methods and processes described may also be applicable to nuclear facilities other than power plants. Other phenomena of permanent ground displacement (liquefaction, slope instability, subsidence and collapse) as well as the topic of seismically induced flooding are treated in Safety Guides relating to foundation safety and coastal flooding. Recommendations of a general nature are given in Section 2. Section 3 discusses the acquisition of a database containing the information needed to evaluate and address all hazards associated with earthquakes. Section 4 covers the use of this database for construction of a seismotectonic model. Sections 5 and 6 review ground motion hazards and evaluations of the potential for surface faulting, respectively. Section 7 addresses quality assurance in the evaluation of seismic hazards for nuclear power plants

  13. Magma replenishment and volcanic unrest inferred from the analysis of VT micro-seismicity and seismic velocity changes at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, F.; Rivemale, E.; Clarke, D. S.; Schmid, A.; Got, J.; Battaglia, J.; Taisne, B.; Staudacher, T.; Peltier, A.; Shapiro, N. M.; Tait, S.; Ferrazzini, V.; Di Muro, A.

    2011-12-01

    allow magma to reach the edifice summit. Moreover, we have identified transient seismic velocity changes lasting a few weeks that could be associated with unreported lateral magma intrusions not leading to eruptions. The clustering of pre-eruptive micro-seismicity between mid 1999-2003 shows that seismic events repeat over successive seismic swarms and suggests that the magma pathway is spatially separated from the seismic faults. Also, the inversion for focal mechanisms shows dominant sub-horizontal P-axes indicating that part of the pre-eruptive micro-seismicity is due to the horizontal compressive stress induced by magma injection. Finally, the analysis of long-term GPS data recorded on the edifice flank shows a constant lateral displacement rate of 3.5 cm/year. More work will be needed in order to infer the possible mutual interactions between magma unrest and transport and the large-scale deformation of the edifice flank.

  14. Sensitivity analyses of seismic behavior of spent fuel dry cask storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk, V.K.; Spencer, B.W.; Shaukat, S.K.; Lam, I.P.; Dameron, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a research project to develop a comprehensive methodology for evaluating the seismic behavior of spent fuel dry cask storage systems (DCSS) for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A typical Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) consists of arrays of free-standing storage casks resting on concrete pads. In the safety review process of these cask systems, their seismically induced horizontal displacements and angular rotations must be quantified to determine whether casks will overturn or neighboring casks will collide during a seismic event. The ABAQUS/Explicit code is used to analyze three-dimensional coupled finite element models consisting of three submodels, which are a cylindrical cask or a rectangular module, a flexible concrete pad, and an underlying soil foundation. The coupled model includes two sets of contact surfaces between the submodels with prescribed coefficients of friction. The seismic event is described by one vertical and two horizontal components of statistically independent seismic acceleration time histories. A deconvolution procedure is used to adjust the amplitudes and frequency contents of these three-component reference surface motions before applying them simultaneously at the soil foundation base. The research project focused on examining the dynamic and nonlinear seismic behavior of the coupled model of free-standing DCSS including soil-structure interaction effects. This paper presents a subset of analysis results for a series of parametric analyses. Input variables in the parametric analyses include: designs of the cask/module, time histories of the seismic accelerations, coefficients of friction at the cask/pad interface, and material properties of the soil foundation. In subsequent research, the analysis results will be compiled and presented in nomograms to highlight the sensitivity of seismic response of DCSS to

  15. Development of a 3-dimensional seismic isolation floor for computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, M.; Shigeta, M.; Nino, T.; Matsuki, T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the applicability of a seismic isolation floor as a method for protecting computer systems from strong earthquakes, such as computer systems in nuclear power plants. Assuming that the computer system is guaranteed for 250 cm/s 2 of input acceleration in the horizontal and vertical directions as the seismic performance, the basic design specification of the seismic isolation floor is considered as follows. Against S 1 level earthquakes, the maximum acceleration response of the seismic isolation floor in the horizontal and vertical directions is kept less than 250 cm/s 2 to maintain continuous computer operation. Against S 2 level earthquakes, the isolation floor allows large horizontal movement and large displacement of the isolation devices to reduce the acceleration response, although it is not guaranteed to be less than 250 cm/s 2 . By reducing the acceleration response, however, serious damage to the computer systems is reduced, so that they can be restarted after an earthquake. Usually, seismic isolation floor systems permit 2-dimensional (horizontal) isolation. However, in the case of just-under-seated earthquakes, which have large vertical components, the vertical acceleration response of this system is amplified by the lateral vibration of the frame of the isolation floor. Therefore, in this study a 3-dimensional seismic isolation floor, including vertical isolation, was developed. This paper describes 1) the experimental results of the response characteristics of the 3-dimensional seismic isolation floor built as a trial using a 3-dimensional shaking table, and 2) comparison of a 2-dimensional analytical model, for motion in one horizontal direction and the vertical direction, to experimental results. (J.P.N.)

  16. Seismic fragility curves of bridge piers accounting for ground motions in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy-Duan; Lee, Tae-Hyung

    2018-04-01

    Korea is located in a slight-to-moderate seismic zone. Nevertheless, several studies pointed that the peak earthquake magnitude in the region can be reached to approximately 6.5. Accordingly, a seismic vulnerability evaluation of the existing structures accounting for ground motions in Korea is momentous. The purpose of this paper is to develop seismic fragility curves for bridge piers of a steel box girder bridge equipped with and without base isolators based on a set of ground motions recorded in Korea. A finite element simulation platform, OpenSees, is utilized to perform nonlinear time history analyses of the bridges. A series of damage states is defined based on a damage index which is expressed in terms of the column displacement ductility ratio. The fragility curves based on Korean motions were thereafter compared with the fragility curves generated using worldwide earthquakes to assess the effect of the two ground motion groups on the seismic fragility curves of the bridge piers. The results reveal that both non- and base-isolated bridge piers are less vulnerable during the Korean ground motions than that under worldwide earthquakes.

  17. Experiments on seismic isolation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacina, G.; Bettinali, F.; Martelli, A.; Olivieri, M.

    1992-01-01

    Static and dynamic tests have been performed in Italy on high damping steel-laminated elastomer bearings in various scales, rubber specimens and structures isolated by means of such bearings, in the framework of studies in progress to support seismic isolation development. Tests on rubber specimens and bearings have already provided important data (vertical and horizontal stiffness, damping, creep, temperature, aging and scale effects, etc.), necessary for the development and validation of numerical models, comparison with the test results of isolated structure mockups and actual buildings, and improvement of design guidelines. Dynamic experiments of structures concerned both full-scale and scaled isolated structure mock-ups and actual isolated buildings (one of those forming the SIP Administration Center at Ancona, an isolated house at Squillace, Calabria). Both snap-back tests and forced excitation experiments were performed, to rather large displacements. The latter were both sinusoidal and (on a 1/4 scale mock-up) seismic, with one- and multidirectional simultaneous excitations. Test results have already demonstrated the adequacy of seismic isolation and have provided data useful for the comparison with single bearing test results and validation of numerical models for the analysis of isolated structures. This paper reports the main features and results of tests performed or in progress. Further tests planned have been mentioned in the Status Report. Numerical analysis of measured data and guidelines development have been discussed in separate technical papers. (author)

  18. Displaced Sense: Displacement, Religion and Sense-making

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Maheshvari

    2016-01-01

    Whether formally categorized as refugees or not, displaced migrants experience varying degrees of vulnerability in relation to where they find themselves displaced. The internally displaced furthermore squat invisibly and outside the boundaries of the legal framework and incentive structures accorded to those classified as 'refugee'. They are thus arguably, by and large, left to source sustaining solutions for themselves. This article works through the theoretical prism of sense-making theory...

  19. INFLUENCE OF THE SPATIAL ARRANGEMENT OF SEISMIC DETECTORS ON THE ACCURACY OF EARTHQUAKE HYPOCENTRE DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Aslanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the coordinates of the seismic focus of an earthquake with a minimum margin of error with the use of an optimal selection of seismic sensors. Method. Seismic wave velocity data, relying on the time discrepancies between the registering of seismic waves on the seismic sensor and the defined error in determining the time difference, were used to identify errors in the location of an earthquake's hypocenter depending on the respective positions of three seismic sensors. Discrepancies between data containing an error and those without it used to determine two hypocenters provide information about the hypocenter locating error. An analysis of the influence of the respective arrangements of the seismic sensors and the earthquake epicentre on the accuracy of determination of epicentre coordinates was carried out. Results. It is established that, in order to improve the accuracy of epicenter and hypocenter earthquake coordinate determination, it is preferable to use different combinations of seismic sensors. The present recommendations are based on the desire to reduce errors in determining the earthquake source coordinates. Due to earthquake epicenter distance determination errors found in different seismic sensors both with increasing and decreasing distance, the hypocenter coordinate determining error has been found to depend on the respective arrangement of seismic sensors and on the earthquake source's geographical location. In order to determine the dependence of the source coordinate determining error on the relative position of three seismic sensors, the third seismic sensor was displaced on a horizontal plane at the location centered at the coordinate of the origin. Conclusion. When selecting seismic sensors it is essential that one of them be located perpendicular to the center of the segment formed by the other two seismic sensors. The probability of a multidirectional error of measurement at the moment of arrival of

  20. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; hide

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  1. Seismic risk assessment of Trani's Cathedral bell tower in Apulia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaferio, Mariella; Foti, Dora

    2017-09-01

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of the seismic vulnerability of slender historical buildings; these structures, in fact, may manifest a high risk with respect to seismic actions as usually they have been designed to resist to gravitational loads only, and are characterized by a high flexibility. To evaluate this behavior, the bell tower of the Trani's Cathedral is investigated. The tower is 57 m tall and is characterized by an unusual building typology, i.e., the walls are composed of a concrete core coupled with external masonry stones. The dynamic parameters and the mechanical properties of the tower have been evaluated on the basis of an extensive experimental campaign that made use of ambient vibration tests and ground penetrating radar tests. Such data have been utilized to calibrate a numerical model of the examined tower. A linear static analysis, a dynamic analysis and a nonlinear static analysis have been carried out on such model to evaluate the displacement capacity of the tower and the seismic risk assessment in accordance with the Italian guidelines.

  2. Numerical Simulation Analysis of Seismic of Frame Structure on Hill Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Weisu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, Wenchuan,Ya’an,Yushu and other areas in china occur a series of high earthquake, however areas of earthquake is similar as mountainous terrain, building structure of seismic increasingly aroused our concern, and the research that hill topography affected building structure seismic in shallow mountain. The research content mainly includes: through modelling was built by the ANSYS software, the cooperative effects of a ten layer of frame structure- hill system were calculation. First, simple comparative dynamic characteristics analysis of soil - structure interaction and the rigid foundation assumption conditions; Second, put Hill-Soil-Structure Interaction(referred to as HSSI and Soil - Structure - Interaction(referred to as SSI further analysis of the dynamic response, including: including structural modal analysis (vibration mode, cycle, the time history analysis (such as displacement, internal force and acceleration and so on. Through Hill-Soil-Structure Interaction research, taking each factor in consideration, giving structure seismic key technology measures about shallow mountain to provide reference for such structure theory research.

  3. A Multimode Adaptive Pushover Procedure for Seismic Assessment of Integral Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Mohtashami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new adaptive pushover procedure to account for the effect of higher modes in order to accurately estimate the seismic response of bridges. The effect of higher modes is considered by introducing a minimum value for the total effective modal mass. The proposed method employs enough number of modes to ensure that the defined total effective modal mass participates in all increments of the pushover loading. An adaptive demand curve is also developed for assessment of the seismic demand. The efficiency and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated by conducting a parametric study. The analysis includes 18 four-span integral bridges with various heights of piers. The inelastic response history analysis is employed as reference solution in this study. Numerical results indicate excellent accuracy of the proposed method in assessment of the seismic response. For most bridges investigated in this study, the difference between the estimated response of the proposed method and the inelastic response history analysis is less than 25% for displacements and 10% for internal forces. This indicates a very good accuracy compared to available pushover procedures in the literature. The proposed method is therefore recommended to be applied to the seismic performance evaluation of integral bridges for engineering applications.

  4. Seismic Performance of CAP1400 Nuclear Power Station considering Foundation Uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Peng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Under earthquake action, the reinforced concrete structure at the edge of the CAP1400 nuclear power plant foundation slab will be uplifted. In order to determine the seismic performance of this structure, a 1 : 12 scale shaking table test model was fabricated using gypsum as simulated concrete in order to meet scaled design requirements. By testing this model, the seismic response of the structure with consideration of the foundation uplift was obtained. Numerical analyses of the test model and the prototype structure were conducted to gain a better understanding of the structural seismic performance. When subjected to earthquakes, the foundation slab of the nuclear power plant experiences a slight degree of uplift but remains in the elastic stage due to the weight of the structure above, which provides an antioverturning moment. The numerical simulation is in general agreement with the test results, suggesting numerical simulations could be accurately employed in place of physical tests. The superstructure displacement response was found not to affect the safety of adjacent structures, and the seismic performance of the structure was shown to meet the relevant design requirements, demonstrating that this approach to modelling can serve as a design basis for the CAP1400 nuclear power demonstration project.

  5. DEFORMATION WAVES AS A TRIGGER MECHANISM OF SEISMIC ACTIVITY IN SEISMIC ZONES OF THE CONTINENTAL LITHOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    fault zones, a brief description of the method for assessment of spatial and temporal regularities in locations of earthquake epicentres in zones of dynamic influence of faults is provided. The method can be applied to estimate a dominating direction of movement of the epicentres, which corresponds to the phase velocity of the deformation wave disturbing meta-stability of the fault-block medium, leading to displacement of neighbouring blocks and thus causing a seismic event (Fig. 14. By integration of vectors of migration of epicentres at active faults, it is possible to demonstrate a pattern of vectors of movements of the deformation waves in the seismic zones of the continental lithosphere (Fig. 18.Regional and trans-regional deformation waves are analyzed. For seismic zones of Central Asia, vectors of deformation waves are established, a scheme showing regional orientations of the waves is developed, and main wave parameters (length and time period are estimated (Fig. 19. Three depth levels of deformation waves are distinguished: the whole lithosphere, the upper brittle part of the lithosphere, and the top part of the brittle layer (Fig. 20.It is concluded that the leading factor of gradual accumulation of earthquake foci, which takes place regularly in space and time in seismic zones, are deformation waves that influence the geophysical medium. This understanding of the fundamental basis of seismic process needs to be more thoroughly justified with application of modern concepts, its revised phenomenological concept and development of a model representing a seismic zones as a geologically and geophysically independent structure of the lithosphere, which has its specific properties, based on which testing of the lithosphere becomes possible for purposes of potential earthquake prediction.

  6. Numerical modeling of the deformations associated with large subduction earthquakes through the seismic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleitout, L.; Trubienko, O.; Garaud, J.; Vigny, C.; Cailletaud, G.; Simons, W. J.; Satirapod, C.; Shestakov, N.

    2012-12-01

    A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to model deformations through the seismic cycle in the areas surrounding the last three large subduction earthquakes: Sumatra, Japan and Chile. The mesh featuring a broad spherical shell portion with a viscoelastic asthenosphere is refined close to the subduction zones. The model is constrained by 6 years of postseismic data in Sumatra area and over a year of data for Japan and Chile plus preseismic data in the three areas. The coseismic displacements on the subduction plane are inverted from the coseismic displacements using the finite element program and provide the initial stresses. The predicted horizontal postseismic displacements depend upon the thicknesses of the elastic plate and of the low viscosity asthenosphere. Non-dimensionalized by the coseismic displacements, they present an almost uniform value between 500km and 1500km from the trench for elastic plates 80km thick. The time evolution of the velocities is function of the creep law (Maxwell, Burger or power-law creep). Moreover, the forward models predict a sizable far-field subsidence, also with a spatial distribution which varies with the geometry of the asthenosphere and lithosphere. Slip on the subduction interface does not induce such a subsidence. The observed horizontal velocities, divided by the coseismic displacement, present a similar pattern as function of time and distance from trench for the three areas, indicative of similar lithospheric and asthenospheric thicknesses and asthenospheric viscosity. This pattern cannot be fitted with power-law creep in the asthenosphere but indicates a lithosphere 60 to 90km thick and an asthenosphere of thickness of the order of 100km with a burger rheology represented by a Kelvin-Voigt element with a viscosity of 3.1018Pas and μKelvin=μelastic/3. A second Kelvin-Voigt element with very limited amplitude may explain some characteristics of the short time-scale signal. The postseismic subsidence is

  7. Seismic slip on clay nano-foliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretusini, S.; Pluemper, O.; Passelègue, F. X.; Spagnuolo, E.; Di Toro, G.

    2017-12-01

    Deformation processes active at seismic slip rates (ca. 1 m/s) on smectite-rich slipping zones are not well understood, although they likely control the mechanical behaviour of: i) subduction zone faults affected by tsunamigenic earthquakes (e.g. Japan Trench affected by Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake), ii) plate-boundary faults (e.g. San Andreas Fault), and iii) landslide decollements (e.g. 1963 Vajont landslide). Here we present a set of rotary experiments performed on water-dampened 2 mm thick clay-rich (70% wt. smectite and 30% wt. opal) gouge layers sheared at slip rates V ranging from 0.01 to 1.3 m/s, for 3 m of displacement under 5 MPa normal stress. Microstructural analyses were conducted on pre- and post-sheared gouges using focused ion beam scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. All sheared gouges were slip weakening in the first 0.1 m of displacement, with friction coefficient decreasing from 0.3-0.45 to 0.5-0.15. Then, with progressive slip, gouges evolved to slip-strengthening (final friction coefficient of 0.35-0.48) at V ≤0.1 m/s and slip-neutral (final friction of 0.05) at V=1.3 m/s. Despite the large difference in the imposed slip rate and frictional behaviour, the slipping zone always consisted of a nano-foliation defined by sub-micrometric smectite crystals wrapping opal grains. The nano-foliated layer thickness decreased from 1.5 mm at V≤0.1 m/s to 0.15 mm at V=1.3 m/s. The presence of a similar nano-foliation in all the smectite-rich wet gouges suggests the activation of similar deformation processes, dominated by frictional slip on grain boundary and basal planes. The variation of deformed thickness with slip rate shows that dynamic weakening, occurring only at seismic slip rates, is controlled by strain localization.

  8. Redistribution Principle Approach for Evaluation of Seismic Active Earth Pressure Behind Retaining Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskar, A. D.; Madhekar, S. N.; Phatak, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    The knowledge of seismic active earth pressure behind the rigid retaining wall is very essential in the design of retaining wall in earthquake prone regions. Commonly used Mononobe-Okabe (MO) method considers pseudo-static approach. Recently there are many pseudo-dynamic methods used to evaluate the seismic earth pressure. However, available pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods do not incorporate the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure distribution. Dubrova (Interaction between soils and structures, Rechnoi Transport, Moscow, 1963) was the first, who considered such effect and till date, it is used for cohesionless soil, without considering the effect of seismicity. In this paper, Dubrova's model based on redistribution principle, considering the seismic effect has been developed. It is further used to compute the distribution of seismic active earth pressure, in a more realistic manner, by considering the effect of wall movement on the earth pressure, as it is displacement based method. The effects of a wide range of parameters like soil friction angle (ϕ), wall friction angle (δ), horizontal and vertical seismic acceleration coefficients (kh and kv); on seismic active earth pressure (Kae) have been studied. Results are presented for comparison of pseudo-static and pseudo-dynamic methods, to highlight the realistic, non-linearity of seismic active earth pressure distribution. The current study results in the variation of Kae with kh in the same manner as that of MO method and Choudhury and Nimbalkar (Geotech Geol Eng 24(5):1103-1113, 2006) study. To increase in ϕ, there is a reduction in static as well as seismic earth pressure. Also, by keeping constant ϕ value, as kh increases from 0 to 0.3, earth pressure increases; whereas as δ increases, active earth pressure decreases. The seismic active earth pressure coefficient (Kae) obtained from the present study is approximately same as that obtained by previous researchers. Though seismic earth

  9. Incremental-hinge piping analysis methods for inelastic seismic response prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquay, K.R.; Castle, W.R.; Larson, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper proposes nonlinear seismic response prediction methods for nuclear piping systems based on simplified plastic hinge analyses. The simplified plastic hinge analyses utilize an incremental series of flat response spectrum loadings and replace yielded components with hinge elements when a predefined hinge moment is reached. These hinge moment values, developed by Rodabaugh, result in inelastic energy dissipation of the same magnitude as observed in seismic tests of piping components. Two definitions of design level equivalent loads are employed: one conservatively based on the peaks of the design acceleration response spectra, the other based on inelastic frequencies determined by the method of Krylov and Bogolyuboff recently extended by Lazzeri to piping. Both definitions account for piping system inelastic energy dissipation using Newmark-Hall inelastic response spectrum reduction factors and the displacement ductility results of the incremental-hinge analysis. Two ratchet-fatigue damage models are used: one developed by Rodabaugh that conservatively correlates Markl static fatigue expressions to seismic tests to failure of piping components; the other developed by Severud that uses the ratchet expression of Bree for elbows and Edmunds and Beer for straights, and defines ratchet-fatigue interaction using Coffin's ductility based fatigue equation. Comparisons of predicted behavior versus experimental results are provided for a high-level seismic test of a segment of a representative nuclear plant piping system. (orig.)

  10. New Constraints on Late Pleistocene - Holocene Slip Rates and Seismic Behavior Along the Panamint Valley Fault Zone, Eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, W.; Kirby, E.; McDonald, E.; Walker, J.; Gosse, J.

    2008-12-01

    Space-time patterns of seismic strain release along active fault systems can provide insight into the geodynamics of deforming lithosphere. Along the eastern California shear zone, fault systems south of the Garlock fault appear to have experienced an ongoing pulse of seismic activity over the past ca. 1 kyr (Rockwell et al., 2000). Recently, this cluster of seismicity has been implicated as both cause and consequence of the oft-cited discrepancy between geodetic velocities and geologic slip rates in this region (Dolan et al., 2007; Oskin et al., 2008). Whether other faults within the shear zone exhibit similar behavior remains uncertain. Here we report the preliminary results of new investigations of slip rates and seismic history along the Panamint Valley fault zone (PVFZ). The PVFZ is characterized by dextral, oblique-normal displacement along a moderately to shallowly-dipping range front fault. Previous workers (Zhang et al., 1990) identified a relatively recent surface rupture confined to a ~25 km segment of the southern fault zone and associated with dextral displacements of ~3 m. Our mapping reveals that youthful scarps ranging from 2-4 m in height are distributed along the central portion of the fault zone for at least 50 km. North of Ballarat, a releasing jog in the fault zone forms a 2-3 km long embayment. Displacement of debris-flow levees and channels along NE-striking faults that confirm that displacement is nearly dip-slip, consistent with an overall transport direction toward ~340°, and affording an opportunity to constrain fault displacement directly from the vertical offset of alluvial surfaces of varying age. At the mouth of Happy Canyon, the frontal fault strand displaces a fresh debris-flow by ~3-4 m; soil development atop the debris-flow surface is incipient to negligible. Radiocarbon ages from logs embedded in the flow matrix constrain the timing of the most recent event to younger than ~ 600 cal yr BP. Older alluvial surfaces, such as that

  11. Necessity of using heterogeneous ellipsoidal Earth model with terrain to calculate co-seismic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huihong; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Huai; Huang, Luyuan; Qu, Wulin; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    Co-seismic deformation and stress changes, which reflect the elasticity of the earth, are very important in the earthquake dynamics, and also to other issues, such as the evaluation of the seismic risk, fracture process and triggering of earthquake. Lots of scholars have researched the dislocation theory and co-seismic deformation and obtained the half-space homogeneous model, half-space stratified model, spherical stratified model, and so on. Especially, models of Okada (1992) and Wang (2003, 2006) are widely applied in the research of calculating co-seismic and post-seismic effects. However, since both semi-infinite space model and layered model do not take the role of the earth curvature or heterogeneity or topography into consideration, there are large errors in calculating the co-seismic displacement of a great earthquake in its impacted area. Meanwhile, the computational methods of calculating the co-seismic strain and stress are different between spherical model and plane model. Here, we adopted the finite element method which could well deal with the complex characteristics (such as anisotropy, discontinuities) of rock and different conditions. We use the mash adaptive technique to automatically encrypt the mesh at the fault and adopt the equivalent volume force replace the dislocation source, which can avoid the difficulty in handling discontinuity surface with conventional (Zhang et al., 2015). We constructed an earth model that included earth's layered structure and curvature, the upper boundary was set as a free surface and the core-mantle boundary was set under buoyancy forces. Firstly, based on the precision requirement, we take a testing model - - a strike-slip fault (the length of fault is 500km and the width is 50km, and the slippage is 10m) for example. Because of the curvature of the Earth, some errors certainly occur in plane coordinates just as previous studies (Dong et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2012). However, we also found that: 1) the co-seismic

  12. Is the Local Seismicity in Haiti Capable of Imaging the Northern Caribbean Subduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeau, J.; Clouard, V.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S. D.; de Lepinay, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    The boundary between the Caribbean (CA) and North American (NAM) plates in the Hispaniola region is the western prolongation of the NAM plate subduction evolving from a frontal subduction in the Lesser Antilles to an oblique collision against the Bahamas platform in Cuba. We analyze P-waveforms arriving at 27 broadband seismic temporary stations deployed along a 200 km-long N-S transect across Haiti, during the Trans-Haiti project. We compute teleseismic receiver functions using the ETMTRF method, and determine crustal thickness and bulk composition (Vp/Vs) using the H-k stacking method. Three distinctive crustal domains are imaged. We relate these domains to crustal terranes that have been accreted along the plate boundary during the northeastwards displacement of the CA plate. We propose a N-S crustal profile across Haiti accounting for the surface geology, shallow structural history and these new seismological constraints. Local seismicity recorded by the temporary network from April 2013 to June 2014 is used to relocate the seismicity. A total of 593 events were identified with magnitudes ranging from 1.6 to 4.5. This local seismicity, predominantly shallow (accommodation of an important part of convergence in this area.

  13. Seismic Analysis of Concrete Dam by Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozaina Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a brief study on linear seismic analysis of Sg. Kinta Concrete Dam. The analysis was conducted in order to determine the performance and behaviour of the dam under seismic excitation. The dam was modelled as two-dimensional and developed based on the design drawing that is obtained from Angkasa Consulting Services Sdn. Bhd. The seismic analysis of the dam is conducted using finite element analysis software package LUSAS 14.3 and the dam has been analyse as a plain stress problem with a linear consideration. A set of historic data, with E1 Centro earthquake acceleration of about 0.50g is used as an earthquake excitation. The natural frequency and mode shape up to fifth mode of the dam has been obtained from the analysis to show the differences of the stress and deformation between each mode. The maximum horizontal and vertical stress of Sg. Kinta dam was found and the distribution of them was discussed in form of contours. The deformation of the dam were also been discussed by comparing the maximum displacement for each mode shaped.

  14. Comprehensive seismic monitoring of the Cascadia megathrust with real-time GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.; Webb, F.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a comprehensive real-time GPS-based seismic monitoring system for the Cascadia subduction zone based on 1- and 5-second point position estimates computed within the ITRF08 reference frame. A Kalman filter stream editor that uses a geometry-free combination of phase and range observables to speed convergence while also producing independent estimation of carrier phase biases and ionosphere delay pre-cleans raw satellite measurements. These are then analyzed with GIPSY-OASIS using satellite clock and orbit corrections streamed continuously from the International GNSS Service (IGS) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The resulting RMS position scatter is less than 3 cm, and typical latencies are under 2 seconds. Currently 31 coastal Washington, Oregon, and northern California stations from the combined PANGA and PBO networks are analyzed. We are now ramping up to include all of the remaining 400+ stations currently operating throughout the Cascadia subduction zone, all of which are high-rate and telemetered in real-time to CWU. These receivers span the M9 megathrust, M7 crustal faults beneath population centers, several active Cascades volcanoes, and a host of other hazard sources. To use the point position streams for seismic monitoring, we have developed an inter-process client communication package that captures, buffers and re-broadcasts real-time positions and covariances to a variety of seismic estimation routines running on distributed hardware. An aggregator ingests, re-streams and can rebroadcast up to 24 hours of point-positions and resultant seismic estimates derived from the point positions to application clients distributed across web. A suite of seismic monitoring applications has also been written, which includes position time series analysis, instantaneous displacement vectors, and peak ground displacement contouring and mapping. We have also implemented a continuous estimation of finite-fault slip along the Cascadia megathrust

  15. Analysis of Bi-directional Effects on the Response of a Seismic Base Isolation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyung-Kui; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The floor response spectrum depends on the height of the floor of the structure. Also FRS depends on the characteristics of the seismic base isolation system such as the natural frequency, damping ratio. In the previous study, the floor response spectrum of the base isolated structure was calculated for each axis without considering bi-directional effect. However, the shear behavior of the seismic base isolation system of two horizontal directions are correlated each other by the bi-directional effects. If the shear behavior of the seismic isolation system changes, it can influence the floor response spectrum and displacement response of isolators. In this study, the analysis of a bi-directional effect on the floor response spectrum was performed. In this study, the response of the seismic base isolation system based on the bi-directional effects was analyzed. By analyzing the time history result, while there is no alteration in the maximum shear force of seismic base isolation system, it is confirmed that the shear force is generally more decreased in a one-directional that in a two-directional in most parts. Due to the overall decreased shear force, the floor response spectrum is more reduced in a two-directional than in a one-directional

  16. Review of the seismic risk in the design of civil engineering of nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This guide aims to define, for the nuclear installations excepted the long term storage of radioactive wastes, from site data, the design specifications of earthquake resistant civil engineering and the possible methods for: the determination of the seismic response of the buildings, taking into account the interactions with the materials and the evaluation of the associated strains to size the installation; the determination of seismic displacements to be considered to size the materials. (A.L.B.)

  17. Assessment of seismic wave effects on soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-03-01

    It is normally assumed in the seismic analysis of structures that the free-field motion which is used as input is the same for all points on a given level beneath the foundation mat. This represents a simplification, as not all particles of soil describe the same motion simultaneously. As the foundation mat of the structure is rigid in the horizontal direction, it will tend to average the ground motion. Abandoning the assumption of the uniformity of the input motion may lead to a reduction of the translational motion which a foundation mat will experience, as the displacement components will cancel each other to a certain extent. This is of considerable interest for the design of nuclear power plants which are very stiff, large structures. To investigate these effects, the extremely complex phenomenon of the passage of a seismic wave has to be simplified considerably. It is the purpose of this paper to determine if wave passage effects can be determined from the simplified analyses currently used

  18. Seismic Response Analysis and Test of 1/8 Scale Model for a Spent Fuel Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Park, C. G.; Koo, G. H.; Seo, G. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, S. H. [Chungnam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B. I.; Cho, Y. D. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The seismic response tests of a spent fuel dry storage cask model of 1/8 scale are performed for an typical 1940 El-centro and Kobe earthquakes. This report firstly focuses on the data generation by seismic response tests of a free standing storage cask model to check the overturing possibility of a storage cask and the slipping displacement on concrete slab bed. The variations in seismic load magnitude and cask/bed interface friction are considered in tests. The test results show that the model gives an overturning response for an extreme condition only. A FEM model is built for the test model of 1/8 scale spent fuel dry storage cask using available 3D contact conditions in ABAQUS/Explicit. Input load for this analysis is El-centro earthquake, and the friction coefficients are obtained from the test result. Penalty and kinematic contact methods of ABAQUS are used for a mechanical contact formulation. The analysis methods was verified with the rocking angle obtained by seismic response tests. The kinematic contact method with an adequate normal contact stiffness showed a good agreement with tests. Based on the established analysis method for 1/8 scale model, the seismic response analyses of a full scale model are performed for design and beyond design seismic loads.

  19. Geoprospective study of a nuclear waste repository taking seismic activity into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godefroy, P.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the problem of taking seismic activity into account for a prospective safety analysis applied to the containment of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations. The first part briefly gives some basic notions of seismicity and specifies the problems and available methods existing to perform predictive analysis related to seismic phenomena. The reliability of the different methods is discussed according to time in consideration: short-term (few centuries to 1 000 y.), mean-term (about 10 000 y.) and long-term (100 000 y. and more). The main features of recent tectonics and seismicity of the European area and France are succinctly exposed in the second part. Qualitative and quantitative data proper to the two selected ''test-zones'' (massif armoricain and south of bassin parisien) are collected and interpreted to outline the usable hypothesis for a prospective analysis. The probabilistic assessment of earthquake occurrence is discussed in the third part. The fourth part deals with nature and magnitude of the effects of earthquake on underground facilities and with the weight of several factors as those related to seismic sources and geological properties of the site, from a literature review. The following data are taken into account: - damages to underground facilities after great earthquakes, - comparison of seismic records of earthquakes and nuclear events at different depths and at ground surface, - theoretical models developed to determine strains and displacement fields induced by earthquakes. Literature data about the effects of great earthquakes on regional hydrogeology are summarized in the fifth part of the report

  20. Active intra-basin faulting in the Northern Basin of Lake Malawi from seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillington, D. J.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Scholz, C. A.; Ebinger, C. J.; Onyango, E. A.; Peterson, K.; Gaherty, J. B.; Nyblade, A.; Accardo, N. J.; McCartney, T.; Oliva, S. J.; Kamihanda, G.; Ferdinand, R.; Salima, J.; Mruma, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Many questions remain about the development and evolution of fault systems in weakly extended rifts, including the relative roles of border faults and intra-basin faults, and segmentation at various scales. The northern Lake Malawi (Nyasa) rift in the East African Rift System is an early stage rift exhibiting pronounced tectonic segmentation, which is defined by 100-km-long border faults. The basins also contain a series of intrabasinal faults and associated synrift sediments. The occurrence of the 2009 Karonga Earthquake Sequence on one of these intrabasinal faults indicates that some of them are active. Here we present new multichannel seismic reflection data from the Northern Basin of the Malawi Rift collected in 2015 as a part of the SEGMeNT (Study of Extension and maGmatism in Malawi aNd Tanzania) project. This rift basin is bound on its east side by the west-dipping Livingstone border fault. Over 650 km of seismic reflection profiles were acquired in the Northern Basin using a 500 to 1540 cu in air gun array and a 1200- to 1500-m seismic streamer. Dip lines image a series of north-south oriented west-dipping intra-basin faults and basement reflections up to 5 s twtt near the border fault. Cumulative offsets on intra-basin faults decrease to the west. The largest intra-basin fault has a vertical displacement of >2 s two-way travel time, indicating that it has accommodated significant total extension. Some of these intra-basin faults offset the lake bottom and the youngest sediments by up to 50 s twtt ( 37 m), demonstrating they are still active. The two largest intra-basin faults exhibit the largest offsets of young sediments and also correspond to the area of highest seismicity based on analysis of seismic data from the 89-station SEGMeNT onshore/offshore network (see Peterson et al, this session). Fault patterns in MCS profiles vary along the basin, suggesting a smaller scale of segmentation of faults within the basin; these variations in fault patterns

  1. VLP seismicity from resonant modes of acoustic-gravity waves in a conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Prochnow, B. N.; OReilly, O. J.; Dunham, E. M.; Karlstrom, L.

    2016-12-01

    Oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits connected to cracks (dikes and sills) has been suggested as an explanation for very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at active basaltic volcanoes such as. Kilauea, Hawaii, and Erebus, Antarctica. We investigate the VLP seismicity using a linearized model for waves in and associated eigenmodes of a coupled conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma, an extension of the Karlstrom and Dunham (2016) model for acoustic-gravity waves in volcanic conduits. We find that the long period surface displacement (as recorded on broadband seismometers) is dominated by opening/closing of the crack rather than the deformation of the conduit conduit walls. While the fundamental eigenmode is sensitive to the fluid properties and the geometry of the magma plumbing system, a closer scrutiny of various resonant modes reveals that the surface displacement is often more sensitive to higher modes. Here we present a systematic analysis of various long period acoustic-gravity wave resonant modes of a coupled conduit-crack system that the surface displacement is most sensitive to. We extend our previous work on a quasi-one-dimensional conduit model with inviscid magma to a more general axisymmetric conduit model that properly accounts for viscous boundary layers near the conduit walls, based on the numerical method developed by Prochnow et al. (submitted to Computers and Fluids, 2016). The surface displacement is dominated by either the fundamental or higher eigenmodes, depending on magma properties and the geometry of conduit and crack. An examination of the energetics of these modes reveals the complex interplay of different restoring forces (magma compressibility in the conduit, gravity, and elasticity of the crack) driving the VLP oscillations. Both nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption and viscosity contribute to the damping of VLP signals. Our models thus provide a means to infer properties of open-vent basaltic volcanoes

  2. Seismic Response of a Platform-Frame System with Steel Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Trutalli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber platform-frame shear walls are characterized by high ductility and diffuse energy dissipation but limited in-plane shear resistance. A novel lightweight constructive system composed of steel columns braced with oriented strand board (OSB panels was conceived and tested. Preliminary laboratory tests were performed to study the OSB-to-column connections with self-drilling screws. Then, the seismic response of a shear wall was determined performing a quasi-static cyclic-loading test of a full-scale specimen. Results presented in this work in terms of force-displacement capacity show that this system confers to shear walls high in-plane strength and stiffness with good ductility and dissipative capacity. Therefore, the incorporation of steel columns within OSB bracing panels results in a strong and stiff platform-frame system with high potential for low- and medium-rise buildings in seismic-prone areas.

  3. SEISMIC Analysis of high-rise buildings with composite metal damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ruixue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly studies on the mechanical characteristics and application effect of composite metal damper in the high-rise buildings via the numerical simulation analysis. The research adopts the elastic and elastic-plastic dynamic approach and the displacement time history response and damper energy dissipation capacity and so on of the high-rise building are compared and analyzed before and after installation. The analysis found that the energy dissipation characteristic of metallic dampers is good. High-rise building story drift significantly is reduced and the extent of damage of the walls and coupling beams is decreased, achieved a good energy dissipation effect. Composite metal damper can effectively and economically improve the seismic performance of high-rise buildings, meet the requirement of the 3-level design for seismic resistance. The result has certain reference significance for the application of metallic damper in the high-rise buildings.

  4. Evaluation of potential surface rupture and review of current seismic hazards program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the authors review and evaluation of the existing seismic hazards program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The report recommends that the original program be augmented with a probabilistic analysis of seismic hazards involving assignment of weighted probabilities of occurrence to all potential sources. This approach yields a more realistic evaluation of the likelihood of large earthquake occurrence particularly in regions where seismic sources may have recurrent intervals of several thousand years or more. The report reviews the locations and geomorphic expressions of identified fault lines along with the known displacements of these faults and last know occurrence of seismic activity. Faults are mapped and categorized into by their potential for actual movement. Based on geologic site characterization, recommendations are made for increased seismic monitoring; age-dating studies of faults and geomorphic features; increased use of remote sensing and aerial photography for surface mapping of faults; the development of a landslide susceptibility map; and to develop seismic design standards for all existing and proposed facilities at LANL

  5. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  6. A semi-empirical analysis of strong-motion peaks in terms of seismic source, propagation path, and local site conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, M.; Orourke, M. J.; Flores-Berrones, R.

    1992-09-01

    A new type of semi-empirical expression for scaling strong-motion peaks in terms of seismic source, propagation path, and local site conditions is derived. Peak acceleration, peak velocity, and peak displacement are analyzed in a similar fashion because they are interrelated. However, emphasis is placed on the peak velocity which is a key ground motion parameter for lifeline earthquake engineering studies. With the help of seismic source theories, the semi-empirical model is derived using strong motions obtained in Japan. In the derivation, statistical considerations are used in the selection of the model itself and the model parameters. Earthquake magnitude M and hypocentral distance r are selected as independent variables and the dummy variables are introduced to identify the amplification factor due to individual local site conditions. The resulting semi-empirical expressions for the peak acceleration, velocity, and displacement are then compared with strong-motion data observed during three earthquakes in the U.S. and Mexico.

  7. Spatial correlation analysis of seismic noise for STAR X-ray infrastructure design

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Agostino, Raffaele; Festa, Lorenzo; Gervasi, Anna; Guerra, Ignazio; Palmer, Dennis T.; Serafini, Luca

    2014-05-01

    . For this reason, we performed some measurements of seismic noise in order to characterize the environmental noise in the site in which the X-ray accelerator arise. For the characterization of the site, we carried out several passive seismic monitoring experiments at different times of the day and in different weather conditions. We recorded microtremor using an array of broadband 3C seismic sensors arranged along the linear accelerator. For each measurement point, we determined the displacement, velocity and acceleration spectrogram and power spectral density of both horizontal and vertical components. We determined also the microtremor horizontal to vertical spectral ratio as function of azimuth to individuate the main ground vibration direction and detect the existence of site or building resonance frequencies. We applied a rotation matrix to transform the North-South and East-West signal components in transversal and radial components, respect to the direction of the linear accelerator. Subsequently, for each couple of seismic stations we determined the coherence function to analyze the seismic noise spatial correlation. These analyses have allowed us to exhaustively characterize the seismic noise of the study area, from the point of view of the power and space-time variability, both in frequency and wavelength.

  8. Evaluation of Soil-Structure Interaction on the Seismic Response of Liquid Storage Tanks under Earthquake Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Farajian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil-structure interaction (SSI could affect the seismic response of structures. Since liquid storage tanks are vital structures and must continue their operation under severe earthquakes, their seismic behavior should be studied. Accordingly, the seismic response of two types of steel liquid storage tanks (namely, broad and slender, with aspect ratios of height to radius equal to 0.6 and 1.85 founded on half-space soil is scrutinized under different earthquake ground motions. For a better comparison, the six considered ground motions are classified, based on their pulse-like characteristics, into two groups, named far and near fault ground motions. To model the liquid storage tanks, the simplified mass-spring model is used and the liquid is modeled as two lumped masses known as sloshing and impulsive, and the interaction of fluid and structure is considered using two coupled springs and dashpots. The SSI effect, also, is considered using a coupled spring and dashpot. Additionally, four types of soils are used to consider a wide variety of soil properties. To this end, after deriving the equations of motion, MATLAB programming is employed to obtain the time history responses. Results show that although the SSI effect leads to a decrease in the impulsive displacement, overturning moment, and normalized base shear, the sloshing (or convective displacement is not affected by such effects due to its long period.

  9. New seismic sources parameterization in El Salvador. Implications to seismic hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Staller, Alejandra; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Benito, Belén; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Canora, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador is located at the pacific active margin of Central America, here, the subduction of the Cocos Plate under the Caribbean Plate at a rate of ~80 mm/yr is the main seismic source. Although the seismic sources located in the Central American Volcanic Arc have been responsible for some of the most damaging earthquakes in El Salvador. The El Salvador Fault Zone is the main geological structure in El Salvador and accommodates 14 mm/yr of horizontal displacement between the Caribbean Plate and the forearc sliver. The ESFZ is a right lateral strike-slip fault zone c. 150 km long and 20 km wide .This shear band distributes the deformation among strike-slip faults trending N90º-100ºE and secondary normal faults trending N120º- N170º. The ESFZ is relieved westward by the Jalpatagua Fault and becomes less clear eastward disappearing at Golfo de Fonseca. Five sections have been proposed for the whole fault zone. These fault sections are (from west to east): ESFZ Western Section, San Vicente Section, Lempa Section, Berlin Section and San Miguel Section. Paleoseismic studies carried out in the Berlin and San Vicente Segments reveal an important amount of quaternary deformation and paleoearthquakes up to Mw 7.6. In this study we present 45 capable seismic sources in El Salvador and their preliminary slip-rate from geological and GPS data. The GPS data detailled results are presented by Staller et al., 2014 in a complimentary communication. The calculated preliminary slip-rates range from 0.5 to 8 mm/yr for individualized faults within the ESFZ. We calculated maximum magnitudes from the mapped lengths and paleoseismic observations.We propose different earthquakes scenario including the potential combined rupture of different fault sections of the ESFZ, resulting in maximum earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.6. We used deterministic models to calculate acceleration distribution related with maximum earthquakes of the different proposed scenario. The spatial distribution of

  10. Regional assessment of seismically induced slope instabilities in the Lorca Basin (Murcia): Implementation of New marks method in a GIS; Evaluacion regional de inestabilidades de ladera por efecto sismico en la Cuenca de Lorca (Murcia): Implementacion del metodo de Newmark en un SIG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Peces, M. J.; Garcia Mayordomo, J.; Azanon Hernandez, J. M.; Jabaloy Sanchez, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Lorca Basin (Murcia, SE Spain) exhibits a high seismic activity because some of the most active faults in Spain have been identified in the surroundings of this basin and there are well known cases of rock-falls associated to specific earthquakes (e.g., Mula 1999, Bullas 2002, La Paca 2005). In this area, we have used a geographic information system (GIS) to develop an implementation for the Newmarks sliding rigid block method at a regional scale. In addition, we have particularly proposed a new small variation of Newmarks method to consider soil and topographic amplification effects. Subsequently, we produce Newmark displacement maps for both deterministic and probabilistic seismic scenarios in the Lorca Basin. The estimation of static safety factor for each pixel of study area has allowed obtaining the critical acceleration (ac) map that represents seismically induced slope instability susceptibility. The obtained Newmark displacement maps allowed us to identify areas with the highest potential seismic hazard as well as interesting areas for future particular studies. The results predict the majority of identified instabilities in previous studies (mainly, rock-falls) and rock-falls associated with specific earthquakes with values of Newmark displacement lower than 2 cm. Larger instabilities and landslides occur with Newmark displacement higher than 2 cm assuming that a great earthquake (Mw=6.7-6.8) take place. (Author)

  11. Factors affecting seismic response of submarine slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Biscontin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of submerged slopes on the continental shelf to seismic or storm loading has become an important element in the risk assessment for offshore structures and 'local' tsunami hazards worldwide. The geological profile of these slopes typically includes normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated soft cohesive soils with layer thickness ranging from a few meters to hundreds of meters. The factor of safety obtained from pseudo-static analyses is not always a useful measure for evaluating the slope response, since values less than one do not necessarily imply slope failure with large movements of the soil mass. This paper addresses the relative importance of different factors affecting the response of submerged slopes during seismic loading. The analyses use a dynamic finite element code which includes a constitutive law describing the anisotropic stress-strain-strength behavior of normally consolidated to lightly overconsolidated clays. The model also incorporates anisotropic hardening to describe the effect of different shear strain and stress histories as well as bounding surface principles to provide realistic descriptions of the accumulation of the plastic strains and excess pore pressure during successive loading cycles. The paper presents results from parametric site response analyses on slope geometry and layering, soil material parameters, and input ground motion characteristics. The predicted maximum shear strains, permanent deformations, displacement time histories and maximum excess pore pressure development provide insight of slope performance during a seismic event.

  12. seismic-py: Reading seismic data with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of seismic exploration of the Earth has changed
    dramatically over the last half a century. The Society of Exploration
    Geophysicists (SEG has worked to create standards to store the vast
    amounts of seismic data in a way that will be portable across computer
    architectures. However, it has been impossible to predict the needs of the
    immense range of seismic data acquisition systems. As a result, vendors have
    had to bend the rules to accommodate the needs of new instruments and
    experiment types. For low level access to seismic data, there is need for a
    standard open source library to allow access to a wide range of vendor data
    files that can handle all of the variations. A new seismic software package,
    seismic-py, provides an infrastructure for creating and managing drivers for
    each particular format. Drivers can be derived from one of the known formats
    and altered to handle any slight variations. Alternatively drivers can be
    developed from scratch for formats that are very different from any previously
    defined format. Python has been the key to making driver development easy
    and efficient to implement. The goal of seismic-py is to be the base system
    that will power a wide range of experimentation with seismic data and at the
    same time provide clear documentation for the historical record of seismic
    data formats.

  13. Surface displacements and energy release rates for constant stress drop slip zones in joined elastic quarter spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.

    2000-08-01

    A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.

  14. Application of mass-spring model in seismic analysis of liquid storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiayi; Bai Xinran; Li Xiaoxuan

    2013-01-01

    There are many tanks for storing liquid in nuclear power plant. When seismic analysis is performed, swaying of liquid may change the mechanical parameters of those tanks, such as the center of mass and the moment of inertia, etc., so the load due to swaying of liquid can't be neglected. Mass-spring model is a simplified model to calculate the dynamic pressure of liquid in tank under earthquake, which is derived by the theory of Housner and given in the specification of seismic analysis of Safety-Related Nuclear Structures and Commentary-4-98 (ASCE-4-98 for short hereinafter). According to the theory of Housner and ASCE-4-98, the mass-spring 3-D FEM model for storage tank and liquid in it was established, by which the force of stored liquid acted on liquid storage tank in nuclear power plant under horizontal seismic load was calculated. The calculated frequency of liquid swaying and effect of liquid convection on storage tank were compared with those calculated by simplified formula. It is shown that the results of 3-D FEM model are reasonable and reliable. Further more, it is more direct and convenient compared with description in ASCE-4-98 when the mass-spring model is applied to 3-D FEM model for seismic analysis, from which the displacement and stress distributions of the plate-shell elements or the 3-D solid finite elements can be obtained directly from the seismic input model. (authors)

  15. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P. [ITB, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Tecnology (Indonesia); BMKG (Indonesia)

    2012-06-20

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance ({Delta}) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log {Delta}+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  16. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P.

    2012-06-01

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance (Δ) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log Δ + 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  17. New approach of determinations of earthquake moment magnitude using near earthquake source duration and maximum displacement amplitude of high frequency energy radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan, H.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Harjadi, P. J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The new approach method to determine the magnitude by using amplitude displacement relationship (A), epicenter distance (Δ) and duration of high frequency radiation (t) has been investigated for Tasikmalaya earthquake, on September 2, 2009, and their aftershock. Moment magnitude scale commonly used seismic surface waves with the teleseismic range of the period is greater than 200 seconds or a moment magnitude of the P wave using teleseismic seismogram data and the range of 10-60 seconds. In this research techniques have been developed a new approach to determine the displacement amplitude and duration of high frequency radiation using near earthquake. Determination of the duration of high frequency using half of period of P waves on the seismograms displacement. This is due tothe very complex rupture process in the near earthquake. Seismic data of the P wave mixing with other wave (S wave) before the duration runs out, so it is difficult to separate or determined the final of P-wave. Application of the 68 earthquakes recorded by station of CISI, Garut West Java, the following relationship is obtained: Mw = 0.78 log (A) + 0.83 log Δ+ 0.69 log (t) + 6.46 with: A (m), d (km) and t (second). Moment magnitude of this new approach is quite reliable, time processing faster so useful for early warning.

  18. Review of scientific information on impacts of seismic sound on fish, invertebrates, marine turtles and marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, H.

    2004-09-01

    This review of scientific literature on impacts of seismic sound on aquatic organisms was initiated following a 2003 workshop to develop a decision framework for seismic survey referrals in Canadian waters. That workshop revealed that there are sources of uncertainty about the effects of seismic sound on aquatic organisms. It was determined that seismic sounds on the marine environment are not completely without consequence nor are they certain to result in serious harm. Following the workshop, and in order to clearly determine the level of risk posed by seismic sounds, teams of scientists prepared reviews of literature on experimental studies and field monitoring on the effects of seismic sound on marine organisms. Standards and mitigation methods were also reviewed. The scientific deliberations resulted in a body of information that allowed several conclusions to be reached that provide a scientific basis for developing a regulatory framework for conducting seismic surveys in marine environments. This paper presented literature highlights regarding: habitat concern; management considerations; physical and behavioural effects on fish; functional uses of sound; physical, physiological and behavioural effects on invertebrates; effects of seismic sound on zooplankton, eggs, larvae of fish and invertebrates; effect of seismic sound on marine turtles; and mortality, physical and behavioural effects on marine mammals. The literature review sought to seek if seismic sound contributed to displacement and migratory diversion; changes in dive and respiratory patterns; changes in social behaviour; and changes in vocalisation patterns. Several areas of future research needs were identified following this literature review which revealed that the long-term effects of seismic sound on marine animals remain inconclusive. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Influence of apparent wave velocity on seismic performance of a super-long-span triple-tower suspension bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As one of the main characteristics of seismic waves, apparent wave velocity has great influence on seismic responses of long-span suspension bridges. Understanding these influences is important for seismic design. In this article, the critical issues concerning the traveling wave effect analysis are first reviewed. Taizhou Bridge, the longest triple-tower suspension bridge in the world, is then taken as an example for this investigation. A three-dimensional finite element model of the bridge is established in ABAQUS, and the LANCZOS eigenvalue solver is employed to calculate the structural dynamic characteristics. Traveling wave effect on seismic responses of these long-span triple-tower suspension bridges is investigated. Envelopes of seismic shear force and moment in the longitudinal direction along the three towers, relative displacements between the towers and the girder, and reaction forces at the bottoms of the three towers under different apparent wave velocities are calculated and presented in detail. The results show that the effect of apparent wave velocity on the seismic responses of triple-tower suspension bridge fluctuates when the velocity is lower than 2000 m/s, and the effects turn stable when the velocity becomes larger. In addition, the effects of traveling wave are closely related to spectral characteristics and propagation direction of the seismic wave, and seismic responses of components closer to the source are relatively larger. Therefore, reliable estimation of the seismic input and apparent wave velocity according to the characteristics of the bridge site are significant for accurate prediction of seismic responses. This study provides critical reference for seismic analysis and design of long-span triple-tower suspension bridges.

  20. Earthquake Ground Motion Measures for Seismic Response Evaluation of Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, In-Kil; Ahn, Seong-Moon; Choun, Young-Sun; Seo, Jeong-Moon

    2007-03-15

    This study used the assessment results of failure criteria - base shear, story drift, top acceleration and top displacement - for a PSC containment building subjected to 30 sets of near-fault ground motions to evaluate the earthquake ground motion intensity measures. Seven intensity measures, peak ground acceleration(PGA), peak ground velocity(PGV), spectral acceleration(Sa), velocity(Sv), spectrum intensity for acceleration(SIa), velocity(SIv) and displacement(SId), were used to represent alternative ground motion. The regression analyses of the failure criteria for a PSC containment building were carried out to evaluate a proper intensity measure by using two regression models and seven ground motion parameters. The regression analysis results demonstrate the correlation coefficients of the failure criteria in terms of the candidate IM. From the results, spectral acceleration(Sa) is estimated as the best parameter for a evaluation of the structural safety for a seismic PSA.

  1. FSI-based Overflow Assessment of the Seismically-Isolated SFP with Fuel Racks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gil Y.; Park, Hyun T.; Chang, Soo-Hyuk [Korea Maintenance Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Hoon [KEPCO E-C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To date, effectiveness of the seismic isolation systems for reducing seismic force effectively has been well demonstrated. In this context, practical application of the technology in nuclear engineering fields has become an important issue more and more. This is because fluid motion can be rather amplified due to the increased relative displacement between the base and superstructures by a long-period shift. Therefore, overflow assessment and prediction of the seismically-isolated SFP have to be conducted in design phase. For performing sloshing-induced overflow of the seismically-isolated SFP, a fluid-structure interaction(FSI) approach making a two-way coupling process between structural and fluid solvers is herein employed. In this study, fuel racks inside the SFP are included in FSI modeling to investigate effect of fuel-cell assemblies on SFP overflow. Accordingly, three different assembly sets of fuel cells are assumed to be inserted in fuel racks. In addition, floor acceleration time-histories produced from three different amplitudes of peak ground acceleration (PGA) are applied to the SFP base to investigate load effect on liquid overflow. An approach for the liquid overflow assessment of the seismically-isolated nuclear SFP with fuel storage racks based on FSI analysis was addressed. From the results of the identified cases, the following conclusions are drawn: (i) FSI technique can be effectively used to assess the seismically-isolated SFP overflow, (ii) In a conservative way, the isolated SFP without fuel racks can be used to assess its sloshing-induced overflow under earthquake since effect of fuel-cell assemblies on the SFP overflow is not significant, (iii) for given same conditions (e.g., constant design free surface, same fuel-cell assembly) except seismic loading, the higher PGA is, the more liquid overflow increases.

  2. Seismic analysis of ITER fourth PF (Poloidal Field Coil) feeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Sumei; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuntao; Ni, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhongwei; Chen, Yonghua; Gong, Chenyu

    2014-01-01

    The ITER feeder systems connect the ITER magnet systems located inside the main cryostat to the cryo-plant, power-supply and control system interfaces outside the cryostat. The main purpose of the feeders is to convey the cryogenic supply and electrical power to the coils as well as house the instrumentation wiring. The PF busbar which carries 52 kA current will suffer from high Lorentz force due to the background magnetic field inspired by the coils and the self-field between every pair of busbars. Except their mechanical strength and thermal insulation performance must be achieved, the dynamic mechanism on PF structure should be assessed. This paper presents the simulation and seismic analysis on ITER 4th PF feeder including the Coil Terminal Box and S-bend Box (CTB and SBB), the Cryostat Feed-through (CFT), the In-Cryostat-Feeder (ICF), especially for the ground supports and main outer-tube firstly. This analysis aims to study seismic resistance on system design under local seismograms with floor response spectrum, the structural response vibration mode and response duration results of displacement, membrane stress, and bending stress on structure under different directions actuating signals were obtained by using the single-seismic spectrum analysis and Dead Weight analysis respectively. Based on the simulative and analytical results, the system seismic resistance and the integrity of the support structure in the 4th PF feeder have been studied and the detail design confirmed

  3. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  4. A numerical study on seismic response of self-centring precast segmental columns at different post-tensioning forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Nikbakht

    Full Text Available Precast bridge columns have shown increasing demand over the past few years due to the advantages of such columns when compared against conventional bridge columns, particularly due to the fact that precast bridge columns can be constructed off site and erected in a short period of time. The present study analytically investigates the behaviour of self-centring precast segmental bridge columns under nonlinear-static and pseudo-dynamic loading at different prestressing strand levels. Self-centring segmental columns are composed of prefabricated reinforced concrete segments which are connected by central post-tensioning (PT strands. The present study develops a three dimensional (3D nonlinear finite element model for hybrid post-tensioned precast segmental bridge columns. The model is subjected to constant axial loading and lateral reverse cyclic loading. The lateral force displacement results of the analysed columns show good agreement with the experimental response of the columns. Bonded post-tensioned segmental columns at 25%, 40% and 70% prestressing strand stress levels are analysed and compared with an emulative monolithic conventional column. The columns with a higher initial prestressing strand levels show greater initial stiffness and strength but show higher stiffness reduction at large drifts. In the time-history analysis, the column samples are subjected to different earthquake records to investigate the effect post-tensioning force levels on their lateral seismic response in low and higher seismicity zones. The results indicate that, for low seismicity zones, post-tensioned segmental columns with a higher initial stress level deflect lower lateral peak displacement. However, in higher seismicity zones, applying a high initial stress level should be avoided for precast segmental self-centring columns with low energy dissipation capacity.

  5. Experimental Research on Seismic Performance of Four-Element Variable Cross-Sectional Concrete Filled Steel Tubular Laced Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhijing; Lin, Jianmao; Chen, Shengfu; Lin, Wen

    2017-10-01

    A total of 7 experimental tests were conducted to investigate seismic performance of four element variable cross-sectional Concrete Filled Steel Tubular (CFST) laced columns. The experimental parameters are longitudinal slope and arrangement type of lacing tubes. The rules on hysteresis loop, ductility, energy expenditure, and stiffness degradation of specimens are researched. Test results indicate that all specimens have good seismic performance; their hysteresis loops are full without obvious shrinkage. With the increase of longitudinal slope, the horizontal carrying capacity increases, energy dissipation capacity improve, and there is slightly increase in stiffness degradation. The influence of arrangement type of lacing tubes on displacement ductility of specimens is big.

  6. A deterministic seismic hazard map of India and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Imtiyaz A.; Vaccari, Franco; Panza, Giuliano

    2001-09-01

    A seismic hazard map of the territory of India and adjacent areas has been prepared using a deterministic approach based on the computation of synthetic seismograms complete of all main phases. The input data set consists of structural models, seismogenic zones, focal mechanisms and earthquake catalogue. The synthetic seismograms have been generated by the modal summation technique. The seismic hazard, expressed in terms of maximum displacement (DMAX), maximum velocity (VMAX), and design ground acceleration (DGA), has been extracted from the synthetic signals and mapped on a regular grid of 0.2 deg. x 0.2 deg. over the studied territory. The estimated values of the peak ground acceleration are compared with the observed data available for the Himalayan region and found in good agreement. Many parts of the Himalayan region have the DGA values exceeding 0.6 g. The epicentral areas of the great Assam earthquakes of 1897 and 1950 represent the maximum hazard with DGA values reaching 1.2-1.3 g. (author)

  7. Identifying Conventionally Sub-Seismic Faults in Polygonal Fault Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C.; Dix, J.

    2017-12-01

    Polygonal Fault Systems (PFS) are prevalent in hydrocarbon basins globally and represent potential fluid pathways. However the characterization of these pathways is subject to the limitations of conventional 3D seismic imaging; only capable of resolving features on a decametre scale horizontally and metres scale vertically. While outcrop and core examples can identify smaller features, they are limited by the extent of the exposures. The disparity between these scales can allow for smaller faults to be lost in a resolution gap which could mean potential pathways are left unseen. Here the focus is upon PFS from within the London Clay, a common bedrock that is tunnelled into and bears construction foundations for much of London. It is a continuation of the Ieper Clay where PFS were first identified and is found to approach the seafloor within the Outer Thames Estuary. This allows for the direct analysis of PFS surface expressions, via the use of high resolution 1m bathymetric imaging in combination with high resolution seismic imaging. Through use of these datasets surface expressions of over 1500 faults within the London Clay have been identified, with the smallest fault measuring 12m and the largest at 612m in length. The displacements over these faults established from both bathymetric and seismic imaging ranges from 30cm to a couple of metres, scales that would typically be sub-seismic for conventional basin seismic imaging. The orientations and dimensions of the faults within this network have been directly compared to 3D seismic data of the Ieper Clay from the offshore Dutch sector where it exists approximately 1km below the seafloor. These have typical PFS attributes with lengths of hundreds of metres to kilometres and throws of tens of metres, a magnitude larger than those identified in the Outer Thames Estuary. The similar orientations and polygonal patterns within both locations indicates that the smaller faults exist within typical PFS structure but are

  8. Calculation of seismic response of a flexible rotor by complex modal method, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Takao; Saito, Shinobu

    1984-01-01

    In rotary machines, at the time of earthquakes, whether the rotating part and stationary part touch or whether the bearings and seals are damaged or not are problems. In order to examine these problems, it is necessary to analyze the seismic response of a rotary shaft or sometimes a casing system. But the conventional analysis methods are unsatisfactory. Accordingly, in the case of a general shaft system supported with slide bearings and on which gyro effect acts, complex modal method must be used. This calculation method is explained in detail in the book of Lancaster, however, when this method is applied to the seismic response of rotary shafts, the calculation time is considerably different according to the method of final integration. In this study, good results were obtained when the method which did not depend on numerical integration was attempted. The equation of motion and its solution, the displacement vector of a foundation, the verification of the calculation program and the example of calculating the seismic response of two coupled rotor shafts are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Study on structural seismic margin and probabilistic seismic risk. Development of a structural capacity-seismic risk diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Masato; Ohtori, Yasuki; Hirata, Kazuta

    2010-01-01

    Seismic margin is extremely important index and information when we evaluate and account seismic safety of critical structures, systems and components quantitatively. Therefore, it is required that electric power companies evaluate the seismic margin of each plant in back-check of nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic margin of structures is usually defined as a structural capacity margin corresponding to design earthquake ground motion. However, there is little agreement as to the definition of the seismic margin and we have no knowledge about a relationship between the seismic margin and seismic risk (annual failure probability) which is obtained in PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). The purpose of this report is to discuss a definition of structural seismic margin and to develop a diagram which can identify a relation between seismic margin and seismic risk. The main results of this paper are described as follows: (1) We develop seismic margin which is defined based on the fact that intensity of earthquake ground motion is more appropriate than the conventional definition (i.e., the response-based seismic margin) for the following reasons: -seismic margin based on earthquake ground motion is invariant where different typed structures are considered, -stakeholders can understand the seismic margin based on the earthquake ground motion better than the response-based one. (2) The developed seismic margin-risk diagram facilitates us to judge easily whether we need to perform detailed probabilistic risk analysis or only deterministic analysis, given that the reference risk level although information on the uncertainty parameter beta is not obtained. (3) We have performed numerical simulations based on the developed method for four sites in Japan. The structural capacity-risk diagram differs depending on each location because the diagram is greatly influenced by seismic hazard information for a target site. Furthermore, the required structural capacity

  10. Parabolic distribution of circumeastern Snake River Plain seismicity and latest Quaternary faulting: Migratory pattern and association with the Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Mark H.; Geissman, John Wm.; Piety, Lucille A.; Sullivan, J. Timothy

    1989-02-01

    The Intermountain and Idaho seismic belts within Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana form an unusual parabolic pattern about the axis of the aseismic eastern Snake River Plain (SRP). This pattern is also reflected in the distribution of latest Quaternary normal faults. Several late Cenozoic normal faults that trend perpendicular to the axis of the eastern SRP extend from the aseismic region to the region of latest Quaternary faulting and seismicity. A study of the late Miocene to Holocene displacement history of one of these, the Grand Valley fault system in southeastern Idaho and western Wyoming, indicates that a locus of high displacement rates has migrated away from the eastern SRP to its present location in southern Star Valley in western Wyoming. In Swan Valley the studied area closest to the eastern SRP, isotopic ages, and paleomagnetic data for over 300 samples from 47 sites on well-exposed late Cenozoic volcanic rocks (the tuff of Spring Creek, the tuff of Heise, the Huckleberry Ridge tuff, the Pine Creek Basalt, and an older tuff thought to be the tuff of Cosgrove Road) are used to demonstrate differences in the displacement rate on the Grand Valley fault over the last ˜10 m.y. Tectonic tilts for these volcanic rocks are estimated by comparing the results of paleomagnetic analyses in Swan Valley to similar analyses of samples from undeformed volcanic rocks outside of Swan Valley. Basin geometry and tilt axes are established using seismic reflection profiles and field mapping. Combining these data with the tilt data makes it possible to calculate displacement rates during discrete temporal intervals. An average displacement rate of ˜1.8 mm/yr is calculated for the Grand Valley fault in Swan Valley between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma. In the subsequent 2.0-m.y. interval the rate dropped 2 orders of magnitude to ˜0.014 mm/yr; during the preceding 5.5-m.y. interval the displacement rate is ˜0.15 mm/yr, or about 1 order of magnitude less than the rate between 4.4 and 2.0 Ma

  11. Seismic Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power

  12. Linkages of fracture network geometry and hydro-mechanical properties to spatio-temporal variations of seismicity in Koyna-Warna Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selles, A.; Mikhailov, V. O.; Arora, K.; Ponomarev, A.; Gopinadh, D.; Smirnov, V.; Srinu, Y.; Satyavani, N.; Chadha, R. K.; Davulluri, S.; Rao, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Well logging data and core samples from the deep boreholes in the Koyna-Warna Seismic Zone (KWSZ) provided a glimpse of the 3-D fracture network responsible for triggered earthquakes in the region. The space-time pattern of earthquakes during the last five decades show strong linkage of favourably oriented fractures system deciphered from airborne LiDAR and borehole structural logging to the seismicity. We used SAR interferometry data on surface displacements to estimate activity of the inferred faults. The failure in rocks at depths is largely governed by overlying lithostatic and pore fluid pressure in the rock matrix which are subject to change in space and time. While lithostatic pressure tends to increase with depth pore pressure is prone to fluctuations due to any change in the hydrological regime. Based on the earthquake catalogue data, the seasonal variations in seismic activity associated with annual fluctuations in the reservoir water level were analyzed over the time span of the entire history of seismological observations in this region. The regularities in the time changes in the structure of seasonal variations are revealed. An increase in pore fluid pressure can result in rock fracture and oscillating pore fluid pressures due to a reservoir loading and unloading cycles can cause iterative and cumulative damage, ultimately resulting in brittle failure under relatively low effective mean stress conditions. These regularities were verified by laboratory physical modeling. Based on our observations of main trends of spatio-temporal variations in seismicity as well as the spatial distribution of fracture network a conceptual model is presented to explain the triggered earthquakes in the KWSZ. The work was supported under the joint Russian-Indian project of the Russian Science Foundation (RSF) and the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of India (RSF project no. 16-47-02003 and DST project INT/RUS/RSF/P-13).

  13. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  14. Differences in Approach between Nuclear and Conventional Seismic Standards with regard to Hazard Definition - CSNI Integrity And Ageing Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djaoudi, Ali; Labbe, Pierre; Murphy, Andrew; Kitada, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    . - Introduction of the displacement based method considered as an advanced technique by the conventional industry (need for accurate modelling and introduction of the actual nonlinearities more realistic design performance assessment), is neither considered as efficient nor sufficiently conservative to be used for the nuclear structures and components. Use of displacement based methods by the nuclear industry need a definition of new acceptance criteria. - Considering the difference in approaches on safety objective, hazard definition and the methodologies, one cannot consider that nuclear seismic hazards determination and design standards are lagging behind developments in similar standards for conventional facilities

  15. Using 3D Reflection Seismics for Deep Platinum Mine Planning and Risk Mitigation: A Case Study from the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber-Enslin, S. E.; Manzi, M. S.; Webb, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Loss-of-ground in mining is a common problem. Using the integration of high resolution aeromagnetic and 3D reflection seismic data to delineate the causative geological features allows for more efficient mine planning and risk reduction. High resolution data from Impala Platinum mine in the western Bushveld Complex are used to image potholes, iron-rich ultramafic pegmatoids (IRUPs), faults, dykes and diapirs that may impact the economic horizons (UG2). Imaging of these structures was previously limited to outcrop, both on surface and underground, as well as 2D seismic data. These high resolution seismic data are able to resolve faults with throws as small as 10 m. A diapir is imaged in the southwest of the study area with a diameter of approximately 6 km. The diapir has a depth extend of around 4 km below the UG2 horizon and displaces the horizon by 350 m. It has been suggested that topographic highs in the Transvaal Supergroup basement initiate the formation of these diapirs as new magma is injected into the chamber. The origin of the diapir within the layered basement rocks, and disruption of layering within the complex is visible on the seismic section. In the north of the study area a large region of slumping or several merged potholes is identified that is up to 2.5 km in length, with up to 700 m of vertical displacement. Ductile deformation that formed the potholes is imaged on the seismic section, with the UG2 cutting down into the footwall. However, brittle deformation of the UG2 is also imaged with faulting at the edges of the regions of slumping. The edges of these slump regions are also characterised by the emplacement of iron-rich ultramafic pegmatoids (IRUPs), which show up as regions of diffuse reflectivity on the seismic data and magnetic highs. The proximity of these faults and IRUPs to the edges of the slump structure brings in to question whether they contribute to pothole formation. The diapir and slump structure displaces the economic UG2

  16. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  17. Response of piping system with semi-active variable stiffness damper under tri-directional seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Kumar; Jangid, R.S.; Reddy, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Piping system with semi-active variable stiffness damper is investigated under different seismic excitations. ► Switching control law and modified switching control law are adopted. ► There exist an optimum parameters of the SAVSD. ► Substantial reduction of the seismic response of piping system with SAVSD is observed. ► Good amount of energy dissipation is observed. -- Abstract: Seismic loads on piping system due to earthquakes can cause excessive vibrations, which can lead to serious instability resulting in damage or complete failure. In this paper, semi-active variable stiffness dampers (SAVSDs) have been studied to mitigate seismic response and vibration control of piping system used in the process industries, fossil and fissile fuel power plant. The SAVSD changes its stiffness depending upon the piping response and accordingly adds the control forces in the piping system. A study is conducted on the performance of SAVSD due to variation in device stiffness ratios in the switching control law and modified switching control law, which plays an important role in the present control algorithm of the damper. The effectiveness of the SAVSD in terms of reduction in the responses, namely, displacements, accelerations and base shear of the piping system is investigated by comparing uncontrolled responses under four different artificial earthquake motions with increasing amplitudes. The analytical results demonstrate that the SAVSDs under particular optimum parameters are very effective and practically implementable for the seismic response mitigation, vibration control and seismic requalification of piping systems

  18. Response of piping system with semi-active variable stiffness damper under tri-directional seismic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, E-mail: praveen@barc.gov.in [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jangid, R.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Piping system with semi-active variable stiffness damper is investigated under different seismic excitations. ► Switching control law and modified switching control law are adopted. ► There exist an optimum parameters of the SAVSD. ► Substantial reduction of the seismic response of piping system with SAVSD is observed. ► Good amount of energy dissipation is observed. -- Abstract: Seismic loads on piping system due to earthquakes can cause excessive vibrations, which can lead to serious instability resulting in damage or complete failure. In this paper, semi-active variable stiffness dampers (SAVSDs) have been studied to mitigate seismic response and vibration control of piping system used in the process industries, fossil and fissile fuel power plant. The SAVSD changes its stiffness depending upon the piping response and accordingly adds the control forces in the piping system. A study is conducted on the performance of SAVSD due to variation in device stiffness ratios in the switching control law and modified switching control law, which plays an important role in the present control algorithm of the damper. The effectiveness of the SAVSD in terms of reduction in the responses, namely, displacements, accelerations and base shear of the piping system is investigated by comparing uncontrolled responses under four different artificial earthquake motions with increasing amplitudes. The analytical results demonstrate that the SAVSDs under particular optimum parameters are very effective and practically implementable for the seismic response mitigation, vibration control and seismic requalification of piping systems.

  19. Seismic analysis of the Aguirre Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Soza, Cristian

    1999-01-01

    This thesis aims to verify the seismic design of the Aguirre Nuclear Reactor using the finite elements method and comparing the results with the original analysis. The study focused on the dynamic interaction of soil and structures, using the ANSYS program for the analysis, which was implemented for a work station under a UNIX platform belonging to the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission. The modeling of the structures was carried out following International Atomic Energy recommendations, those of the makers of the Swanson Analysis Systems program and the prior study by S y S Ingenieros Consultores. Two-dimensional models were developed with axial and symmetry and three-dimensional models with symmetric and asymmetric plans, where the retaining building, the pond block and the soil down to the basal rock were included. The seismic stresses were defined according to the Chilean Standard NCh433.of96, using the spectrum of design accelerations for type II soils for the structural models and type IV for the soil-structure interaction models.The results of interest for this study are: the compression and cutting tensions, the unitary cut distortions and the displacements, which are shown graphically and are compared between the different models and with the original analysis. A sensitivity analysis was prepared for the models with axial symmetry considering soil reaction coefficient values of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1 and 0.5 kp/cm 3 ; and four screens with maximum sizes of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 cm. The behavior of the stressed materials was studied as well as the result of the seismic stress (CS)

  20. On the response of large dams to incoherent seismic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, O.; Novak, M.

    1993-01-01

    An intensive parametric study was conducted to investigate the response of concrete gravity dams to horizontal, spatially variable seismic ground motions. Both segmented dams consisting of separate blocks, or monoliths, and continuous monolithic dams are considered. The study includes the effects of various parameters on system natural frequencies, vibration modes, modal displacement ratios, as well as dam displacements and internal stresses due to spatially variable ground motions. The dam analytical model, and dam response to incoherent ground motions are described. The results show that the dam vibrates almost as a rigid body under the fully correlated waves, but bends and twists significantly under the spatially correlated motions. Dam-foundation interaction magnifies the low frequency components of the dam response, more so for a full reservoir, but decreases the high frequency components. For long dams, the effects of spatially incoherent ground motions are qualitatively different and can be much greater than those due to surface travelling waves. 3 refs., 3 figs

  1. Coseismic and Early Post-Seismic Slip Distributions of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy) Seismic Sequence: New Insights in the Faults Activation and Resulting Stress Changes on Adjacent Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheloni, D.; Giuliani, R.; D'Agostino, N.; Mattone, M.; Bonano, M.; Fornaro, G.; Lanari, R.; Reale, D.

    2015-12-01

    The 2012 Emilia sequence (main shocks Mw 6.1 May 20 and Mw 5.9 May 29) ruptured two thrust segments of a ~E-W trending fault system of the buried Ferrara Arc, along a portion of the compressional system of the Apennines that had remained silent during past centuries. Here we use the rupture geometry constrained by the aftershocks and new geodetic data (levelling, InSAR and GPS measurements) to estimate an improved coseismic slip distribution of the two main events. In addition, we use post-seismic displacements, described and analyzed here for the first time, to infer a brand new post-seismic slip distribution of the May 29 event in terms of afterslip on the same coseismic plane. In particular, in this study we use a catalog of precisely relocated aftershocks to explore the different proposed geometries of the proposed thrust segments that have been published so far and estimate the coseismic and post-seismic slip distributions of the ruptured planes responsible for the two main seismic events from a joint inversion of the geodetic data.Joint inversion results revealed that the two earthquakes ruptured two distinct planar thrust faults, characterized by single main coseismic patches located around the centre of the rupture planes, in agreement with the seismological and geological information pointing out the Ferrara and the Mirandola thrust faults, as the causative structures of the May 20 and May 29 main shocks respectively.The preferred post-seismic slip distribution related to the 29 May event, yielded to a main patch of afterslip (equivalent to a Mw 5.6 event) located westward and up-dip of the main coseismic patch, suggesting that afterslip was triggered at the edges of the coseismic asperity. We then use these co- and post-seismic slip distribution models to calculate the stress changes on adjacent fault.

  2. Role and development of soil parameters for seismic responses of buried lifelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Buried lifelines, e.g. oil, gas, water and sewer pipelines have been damaged heavily in recent earthquakes such as 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, in U.S.A., 1976 Tangshan Earthquake, in China, and 1978 MiyagiKen-Oki Earthquake, in Japan, among others. Researchers on the seismic performance of these buried lifelines have been initiated in the United States and many other countries. Various analytical models have been proposed. However, only limited experimental investigations are available. The sources of earthquake damage to buried lifelines include landslide, tectonic uplift-subsidence, soil liquefaction, fault displacement and ground shaking (effects of wave propagation). This paper is concerned with the behavior of buried lifeline systems subjected to surface faulting and ground shaking. The role and development of soil parameters that significantly influence the seismic responses are discussed. The scope of this paper is to examine analytically the influence of various soil and soilstructure interaction parameters to the seismic responses of buried pipelines, to report the currently available physical data of these and related parameters for immediate applications, and to describe the experiments to obtain additional information on soil resistant characteristics to longitudinal pipe motions.

  3. Analysis of a piping system under seismic load using incremental hinge technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Kiran, A.; Agrawal, M.K.; Reddy, G.R.; Singh, R.K.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Ramesh Babu, R.

    2008-01-01

    ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code treats piping system as a series of components but not as an overall structural system. Limit analyses and collapse tests at component level are used to establish stress allowables on seismic stresses. The code does not consider the load redistributions and structural redundancy existing in piping systems that prevent system collapse even when one or more individual components loaded beyond their collapse levels. This necessitates a simple analytical method for evaluation of inelastic seismic response at system level. The present paper presents a simplified analytical procedure for predicting inelastic response of a typical piping system subjected to seismic load. The analytical method known as incremental hinge technique is based on plastic system behavior in which the yielded components are replaced with hinge models when a critical hinge moment is reached. It also takes into account the inelastic response spectrum reduction factors and displacement ductility. The analytical method is used to obtain the inelastic response, location of hinge formation and level of base excitation needed for hinge formation. The predicted hinge locations and hinge ordering is compared with the results of a shake table test conducted on the piping system. (author)

  4. A new seismic station in Romania the Bucovina seismic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigore, Adrian; Grecu, Bogdan; Ionescu, Constantin; Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela; Rizescu, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a new seismic monitoring station, the Bucovina Seismic Array, has been established in the northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania. The array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 short-period and one broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km area. On July 24, 2002 the official Opening Ceremony of Bucovina Seismic Array took place in the area near the city of Campulung Moldovenesc in the presence of Romanian Prime Minister, Adrian Nastase. Starting with this date, the new seismic monitoring system became fully operational by continuous recording and transmitting data in real-time to the National Data Center of Romania, in Bucharest and to the National Data Center of USA, in Florida. Bucovina Seismic Array, added to the present Seismic Network, will provide much better seismic monitoring coverage of Romania's territory, on-scale recording for weak-to-strong events, and will contribute to advanced seismological studies on seismic hazard and risk, local effects and microzonation, seismic source physics, Earth structure. (authors)

  5. Testing the Quick Seismic Event Locator and Magnitude Calculator (SSL_Calc) by Marsite Project Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Suleyman; Tunc, Berna; Caka, Deniz; Baris, Serif

    2016-04-01

    Locating and calculating size of the seismic events is quickly one of the most important and challenging issue in especially real time seismology. In this study, we developed a Matlab application to locate seismic events and calculate their magnitudes (Local Magnitude and empirical Moment Magnitude) using single station called SSL_Calc. This newly developed sSoftware has been tested on the all stations of the Marsite project "New Directions in Seismic Hazard Assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite-MARsite". SSL_Calc algorithm is suitable both for velocity and acceleration sensors. Data has to be in GCF (Güralp Compressed Format). Online or offline data can be selected in SCREAM software (belongs to Guralp Systems Limited) and transferred to SSL_Calc. To locate event P and S wave picks have to be marked by using SSL_Calc window manually. During magnitude calculation, instrument correction has been removed and converted to real displacement in millimeter. Then the displacement data is converted to Wood Anderson Seismometer output by using; Z=[0;0]; P=[-6.28+4.71j; -6.28-4.71j]; A0=[2080] parameters. For Local Magnitude calculation,; maximum displacement amplitude (A) and distance (dist) are used in formula (1) for distances up to 200km and formula (2) for more than 200km. ML=log10(A)-(-1.118-0.0647*dist+0.00071*dist2-3.39E-6*dist3+5.71e-9*dist4) (1) ML=log10(A)+(2.1173+0.0082*dist-0.0000059628*dist2) (2) Following Local Magnitude calculation, the programcode calculates two empiric Moment Magnitudes using formulas (3) Akkar et al. (2010) and (4) Ulusay et al. (2004). Mw=0.953* ML+0.422 (3) Mw=0.7768* ML+1.5921 (4) SSL_Calc is a software that is easy to implement and user friendly and offers practical solution to individual users to location of event and ML, Mw calculation.

  6. Seismicity and Tectonics of the West Kaibab Fault Zone, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgus, J. T.; Brumbaugh, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The West Kaibab Fault Zone (WKFZ) is the westernmost bounding structure of the Kaibab Plateau of northern Arizona. The WKFZ is a branching complex of high angle, normal faults downthrown to the west. There are three main faults within the WKFZ, the Big Springs fault with a maximum of 165 m offset, the Muav fault with 350 m of displacement, and the North Road fault having a maximum throw of approximately 90 m. Mapping of geologically recent surface deposits at or crossing the fault contacts indicates that the faults are likely Quaternary with the most recent offsets occurring one of the most seismically active areas in Arizona and lies within the Northern Arizona Seismic Belt (NASB), which stretches across northern Arizona trending NW-SE. The data set for this study includes 156 well documented events with the largest being a M5.75 in 1959 and including a swarm of seven earthquakes in 2012. The seismic data set (1934-2014) reveals that seismic activity clusters in two regions within the study area, the Fredonia cluster located in the NW corner of the study area and the Kaibab cluster located in the south central portion of the study area. The fault plane solutions to date indicate NE-SW to EW extension is occurring in the study area. Source relationships between earthquakes and faults within the WKFZ have not previously been studied in detail. The goal of this study is to use the seismic data set, the available data on faults, and the regional physiography to search for source relationships for the seismicity. Analysis includes source parameters of the earthquake data (location, depth, and fault plane solutions), and comparison of this output to the known faults and areal physiographic framework to indicate any active faults of the WKFZ, or suggested active unmapped faults. This research contributes to a better understanding of the present nature of the WKFZ and the NASB as well.

  7. Seismic analysis, support design and stress calculation of HTR-PM transport and conversion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zheyu; Yuan Chaolong; Zhang Haiquan; Nie Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    Background: The transport and conversion devices are important guarantees for normal operation of HTR-PM fuel handling system in normal and fault conditions. Purpose: A conflict of devices' support design needs to be solved. The flexibility of supports is required because of pipe thermal expansion displacement, while the stiffness is also required because of large devices quality and eccentric distance. Methods: In this paper, the numerical simulation was employed to analyze the seismic characteristics and optimize the support program, Under the chosen support program, the stress calculation of platen support bracket was designed by solidworks software. Results: The supports solved the conflict between the flexibility and stiffness requirements. Conclusions: Therefore, it can ensure the safety of transport and conversion devices and the supports in seismic conditions. (authors)

  8. The influence of climatically-driven surface loading variations on continental strain and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Tim; Calais, Eric; Fleitout, Luce; Bollinger, Laurent; Scotti, Oona

    2016-04-01

    In slowly deforming regions of plate interiors, secondary sources of stress and strain can result in transient deformation rates comparable to, or greater than, the background tectonic rates. Highly variable in space and time, these transients have the potential to influence the spatio-temporal distribution of seismicity, interfering with any background tectonic effects to either promote or inhibit the failure of pre-existing faults, and potentially leading to a clustered, or 'pulse-like', seismic history. Here, we investigate the ways in which the large-scale deformation field resulting from climatically-controlled changes in surface ice mass over the Pleistocene and Holocene may have influenced not only the seismicity of glaciated regions, but also the wider seismicity around the ice periphery. We first use a set of geodynamic models to demonstrate that a major pulse of seismic activity occurring in Fennoscandia, coincident with the time of end-glaciation, occurred in a setting where the contemporaneous horizontal strain-rate resulting from the changing ice mass, was extensional - opposite to the reverse sense of coseismic displacement accommodated on these faults. Therefore, faulting did not release extensional elastic strain that was building up at the time of failure, but compressional elastic strain that had accumulated in the lithosphere on timescales longer than the glacial cycle, illustrating the potential for a non-tectonic trigger to tap in to the background tectonic stress-state. We then move on to investigate the more distal influence that changing ice (and ocean) volumes may have had on the evolving strain field across intraplate Europe, how this is reflected in the seismicity across intraplate Europe, and what impact this might have on the paleoseismic record.

  9. The Seismic Analyzer: Interpreting and Illustrating 2D Seismic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seism...

  10. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  11. Observations and models of Co- and Post-Seismic Deformation Due to the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Fialko, Y. A.

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake occurred along the central Himalayan arc, a convergent boundary between India and Eurasian plates. We use space geodetic data to investigate co- and post-seismic deformation due to the Gorkha earthquake. Because the epicentral area of the earthquake is characterized by strong variations in surface relief and material properties, we developed finite element models that explicitly account for topography and 3-D elastic structure. Compared with slip models obtained using homogenous elastic half-space models, the model including elastic heterogeneity and topography exhibits greater (up to 10%) slip amplitude. GPS observations spanning more than 1 year following the earthquake show overall southward movement and uplift after the Gorkha earthquake, qualitatively similar to the coseismic deformation pattern. Kinematic inversions of GPS data, and forward modeling of stress-driven creep indicate that the observed post-seismic transient is consistent with afterslip on a down-dip extention of the seismic rupture. The Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) has negligible creep updip of the 2015 rupture, reiterating a future seismic hazard. A poro-elastic rebound may contribute to the observed uplift southward motion, but the predicted surface displacements are small (on the order of 1 cm or less). We also tested a wide range of visco-elastic relaxation models, including 1-D and 3-D variations in the viscosity structure. All tested visco-elastic models predict the opposite signs of horizontal and vertical displacements compared to those observed. Available surface deformation data allow one to rule out a model of a low viscosity channel beneath Tibetan Plateau invoked to explain variations in surface relief at the plateau margins.

  12. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  13. Evaluation of seismic reflection data in the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area, Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitcho, C.A.; Wong, I.G.; Turcotte, F.T.

    1986-08-01

    Seismic reflection data purchased from petroleum industry brokers and acquired through group speculative surveys were interpreted for information on the regional subsurface geologic structure and stratigraphy within and surrounding the Davis and Lavender Canyons study area in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah. Structures of interest were faults, folds, joints, and collapse structures related to salt dissolution. The seismic reflection data were used to interpret stratigraphy by identifying continuous and discontinuous reflectors on the seismic profiles. Thickening and thinning of strata and possible areas of salt flowage or dissolution could be identified from the seismic data. Identifiable reflectors included the tops of the Precambrian and Mississippian, a distinctive interbed close to the middle of the Pennsylvanian Paradox salt formation (probably the interval between Salt Cycles 10 and 13), and near the top of the Paradox salt. Of the 56 faults identified from the seismic reflection interpretation, 33 trend northwest, west-northwest, or west, and most affect only the deeper part of the stratigraphic section. These faults are part of the deep structural system found throughout the Paradox Basin, including the fold and fault belt in the northeast part of the basin. The faults bound basement Precambrian blocks that experienced minor activity during Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian deposition, and showed major displacement during early Paradox salt deposition as the Paradox Basin subsided. Based on the seismic data, most of these faults appear to have an upward terminus between the top of the Mississippian and the salt interbed reflector

  14. Seismic performance of masonry-infilled RC frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Bârnaure

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The masonry infill of RC frames structures is generally considered as non-structural. The design of the concrete frames is often made by ignoring the influence of the masonry infill, which is only accounted for its mass. The experience on buildings submitted to earthquakes shows that masonry infill walls completely change the behaviour of bare frames due to increased initial stiffness and low deformability. The way in which masonry infills affect the RC frames members is difficult to predict, as different failure modes can occur either in the masonry or in the surrounding frame. In addition to local effects, the position of the masonry infills at different levels can lead to structural irregularity, with a strong influence on the global seismic response of the building. Less infilled stories, also called soft stories, have a particularly unfavourable behaviour under seismic loads, as frame members at these levels are more susceptible to failure. This paper analyses the differences in the behaviour of bare and infilled frames through numerical modelling. Nonlinear push-over analyses of infilled frames are carried out under in-plane vertical and lateral loading. The infill panels are modelled as equivalent single diagonal struts. Several force-displacements laws are considered for these diagonals.

  15. Seismic Microzonation for Refinement of Seismic Load Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savich, A. I.; Bugaevskii, A. G., E-mail: office@geodyn.ru, E-mail: bugaevskiy@geodyn.ru [Center of the Office of Geodynamic Observations in the Power Sector, an affiliate of JSC “Institut Gidroproekt” (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Functional dependencies are established for the characteristics of seismic transients recorded at various points of a studied site, which are used to propose a new approach to seismic microzonation (SMZ) that enables the creation of new SMZ maps of strong seismic motion, with due regard for dynamic parameters of recorded transients during weak earthquakes.

  16. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

    2008-01-01

    We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

  17. Seismicity and seismic monitoring in the Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, D.; Gommlich, G.; Hente, B.

    1987-01-01

    Seismicity analyses are made in order to assess the safety of candidate sites for ultimate disposal of hazardous wastes. The report in hand reviews the seismicity history of the Asse salt mine and presents recent results of a measuring campaign made in the area. The monitoring network installed at the site supplies data and information on the regional seismicity, on seismic amplitudes under ground and above ground, and on microseismic activities. (DG) [de

  18. Analysis of Seismic Sloshing of Coolant in the ELSY-LFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G.; Dinoi, P.; Cercos, J.; Gonzalez, L.; Guerrero, A.; Beltran, F.; Moreno, A.

    2013-01-01

    The seismically induced sloshing in the ELSY-LFR reactor vessel with and without seismic isolators at the base of the reactor building are studied. The approach is to compare the results given by three different methodologies. In the first method, a detailed model has been developed using the commercial code FLUENT. The methodology is CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The goal is to obtain the evolution of the free surfaces of molten lead in the complex 3D geometry of the vessel with internals. No fluid-structure interaction is considered during the seismic shaking. The second approach is based on the commercial code ABAQUS, using the ALE methodology (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian). The purpose is to obtain the same results as with FLUENT. However, ABAQUS allows the study of the fluid structure interaction within the same computational model. In the third approach, the same simulation has been performed using the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) method, a non-classical particle based Lagrangian numerical procedure which allows extremely large displacements at the fluid surfaces. A comparative study of the three different solutions has been carried out, in order to assess the capabilities and limitations of each method. The work has been carried out within the SILER project, a EU funded R and D project included in the 7th Framework Programme.

  19. Analysis of Seismic Sloshing of Coolant in the ELSY-LFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, G.; Dinoi, P.; Cercos, J.; Gonzalez, L.; Guerrero, A.; Beltran, F.; Moreno, A.

    2013-07-01

    The seismically induced sloshing in the ELSY-LFR reactor vessel with and without seismic isolators at the base of the reactor building are studied. The approach is to compare the results given by three different methodologies. In the first method, a detailed model has been developed using the commercial code FLUENT. The methodology is CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). The goal is to obtain the evolution of the free surfaces of molten lead in the complex 3D geometry of the vessel with internals. No fluid-structure interaction is considered during the seismic shaking. The second approach is based on the commercial code ABAQUS, using the ALE methodology (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian). The purpose is to obtain the same results as with FLUENT. However, ABAQUS allows the study of the fluid structure interaction within the same computational model. In the third approach, the same simulation has been performed using the SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) method, a non-classical particle based Lagrangian numerical procedure which allows extremely large displacements at the fluid surfaces. A comparative study of the three different solutions has been carried out, in order to assess the capabilities and limitations of each method. The work has been carried out within the SILER project, a EU funded R and D project included in the 7th Framework Programme.

  20. Dynamics of the Oso-Steelhead landslide from broadband seismic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibert, C.; Stark, C. P.; Ekström, G.

    2015-06-01

    We carry out a combined analysis of the short- and long-period seismic signals generated by the devastating Oso-Steelhead landslide that occurred on 22 March 2014. The seismic records show that the Oso-Steelhead landslide was not a single slope failure, but a succession of multiple failures distinguished by two major collapses that occurred approximately 3 min apart. The first generated long-period surface waves that were recorded at several proximal stations. We invert these long-period signals for the forces acting at the source, and obtain estimates of the first failure runout and kinematics, as well as its mass after calibration against the mass-centre displacement estimated from remote-sensing imagery. Short-period analysis of both events suggests that the source dynamics of the second event is more complex than the first. No distinct long-period surface waves were recorded for the second failure, which prevents inversion for its source parameters. However, by comparing the seismic energy of the short-period waves generated by both events we are able to estimate the volume of the second. Our analysis suggests that the volume of the second failure is about 15-30% of the total landslide volume, giving a total volume mobilized by the two events between 7 × 106 and 10 × 106 m3, in agreement with estimates from ground observations and lidar mapping.

  1. Seismic response of cable stayed bridges under multi support excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ُُShiravand

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this Study, the seismic response of cable stayed bridges have been evaluated under multi-support excitations. There are three sources that cause the earthquake wave characteristics change during its propagation path. Local site effect, loss of coherency and wave passage effect are three sources of spatial variation of seismic ground motions. In long span structures, such as cable supported bridges, this phenomenon is more evident and traditional analyzing (uniform excitation may not be valid and be conservative. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the response of cable stayed bridges under non-uniform excitations. For this purpose, the non-uniform time histories were artificially generated using Kriging method based on a set of known time history in the west support of bridge. Nonlinear time history analysis was performed and cables axial force, deck moment, pylons moment and finally drift ratio of bridge have been examined in order to investigate how non-uniform excitation change the seismic response of bridge compared with uniform excitations. Results show non-uniform excitation in some bridge components increase responses and decreases in the others. In non-uniform excitation, although total time history energy is lesser than uniform excitation, it can significantly change the distribution of the forces and makes differential displacement between cables supports and increase the possibility of failure.

  2. Seismic analysis methods for LMFBR core and verification with mock-up vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Fujimoto, S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the vibration behaviors of a cluster of core elements with the hexagonal cross section in a barrel under the dynamic excitation due to seismic events. When a strong earthquake excitation is applied to the core support, the cluster of core elements displace to a geometrical limit determined by restraint rings in the barrel, and collisions could occur between adjacent elements as a result of their relative motion. For these reasons, seismic analysis on LMFBR core elements is a complicated non-linear vibration problem, which includes collisions and fluid interactions. In an actual core design, it is hard to include hundreds of elements in the numerical calculations. In order to study the seismic behaviors of core elements, experiments with single row 29 elements (17 core fuel assemblies, 4 radial blanket assemblies, and 8 neutron shield assemblies) simulated all elements in MONJU core central row, and experiments with 7 cluster rows of 37 core fuel assemblies in the core center were performed in a fluid filled tank, using a large-sized shaking table. Moreover, the numerical analyses of these experiments were performed for the validation of simplified and detailed analytical methods. 4 refs, 18 figs

  3. German seismic regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, Ruediger

    2002-01-01

    Rules and regulations for seismic design in Germany cover the following: seismic design of conventional buildings; and seismic design of nuclear facilities. Safety criteria for NPPs, accident guidelines, and guidelines for PWRs as well as safety standards are cited. Safety standards concerned with NPPs seismic design include basic principles, soil analysis, design of building structures, design of mechanical and electrical components, seismic instrumentation, and measures to be undertaken after the earthquake

  4. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented

  5. Seismic capacity of a reinforced concrete frame structure without seismic detailing and limited ductility seismic design in moderate seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. K.; Kim, I. H.

    1999-01-01

    A four-story reinforced concrete frame building model is designed for the gravity loads only. Static nonlinear pushover analyses are performed in two orthogonal horizontal directions. The overall capacity curves are converted into ADRS spectra and compared with demand spectra. At several points the deformed shape, moment and shear distribution are calculated. Based on these results limited ductility seismic design concept is proposed as an alternative seismic design approach in moderate seismicity resign

  6. Airborne LiDAR analysis and geochronology of faulted glacial moraines in the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone reveal substantial seismic hazards in the Lake Tahoe region, California-Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, James F.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Hunter, Lewis E.; Rose, Ronn S.; von Twistern, Brent

    2012-01-01

    We integrated high-resolution bare-earth airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery with field observations and modern geochronology to characterize the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone, which forms the neotectonic boundary between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range Province west of Lake Tahoe. The LiDAR imagery clearly delineates active normal faults that have displaced late Pleistocene glacial moraines and Holocene alluvium along 30 km of linear, right-stepping range front of the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Herein, we illustrate and describe the tectonic geomorphology of faulted lateral moraines. We have developed new, three-dimensional modeling techniques that utilize the high-resolution LiDAR data to determine tectonic displacements of moraine crests and alluvium. The statistically robust displacement models combined with new ages of the displaced Tioga (20.8 ± 1.4 ka) and Tahoe (69.2 ± 4.8 ka; 73.2 ± 8.7 ka) moraines are used to estimate the minimum vertical separation rate at 17 sites along the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Near the northern end of the study area, the minimum vertical separation rate is 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr, which represents a two- to threefold increase in estimates of seismic moment for the Lake Tahoe basin. From this study, we conclude that potential earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) range from 6.3 ± 0.25 to 6.9 ± 0.25. A close spatial association of landslides and active faults suggests that landslides have been seismically triggered. Our study underscores that the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone poses substantial seismic and landslide hazards.

  7. Burar seismic station: evaluation of seismic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela

    2005-01-01

    A new seismic monitoring system, the Bucovina Seismic Array (BURAR), has been established since July 2002, in the Northern part of Romania, in a joint effort of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA, and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. The small-aperture array consists of 10 seismic sensors (9 vertical short-period and one three-component broad band) located in boreholes and distributed in a 5 x 5 km 2 area. At present, the seismic data are continuously recorded by the BURAR and transmitted in real-time to the Romanian National Data Center in Bucharest and National Data Center of the USA, in Florida. Based on the BURAR seismic information gathered at the National Data Center, NIEP (ROM N DC), in the August 2002 - December 2004 time interval, analysis and statistical assessments were performed. Following the preliminary processing of the data, several observations on the global performance of the BURAR system were emphasized. Data investigation showed an excellent efficiency of the BURAR system particularly in detecting teleseismic and regional events. Also, a statistical analysis for the BURAR detection capability of the local Vrancea events was performed in terms of depth and magnitude for the year 2004. The high signal detection capability of the BURAR resulted, generally, in improving the location solutions for the Vrancea seismic events. The location solution accuracy is enhanced when adding BURAR recordings, especially in the case of low magnitude events (recorded by few stations). The location accuracy is increased, both in terms of constraining hypocenter depth and epicentral coordinates. Our analysis certifies the importance of the BURAR system in NIEP efforts to elaborate seismic bulletins. Furthermore, the specific procedures for array data processing (beam forming, f-k analysis) increase significantly the signal-to-noise ratio by summing up the coherent signals from the array components, and ensure a better accuracy

  8. The forearc crustal evolution of Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) region obtained by seismic reflection and refraction surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Takahashi, N.; Tatsumi, Y.; Kaneda, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara)-Mariana (IBM) arc is known to the typical oceanic island arc, and it is the most suitable area to understand the growth process of island arc. By previous seismic survey and deep sea drilling, convex basements are distributed along North-South direction in present forearc region. The convex basements are reported to be formed during Oligocene and Eocene (Taylor, 1992). In IBM forearc region, the middle crust with 6 km/s is recognized by seismic survey using OBSs. In IBM region, four IODP drilling sites are proposed in order to understand comprehensive growth process of arc and continental crust evolution. Two of them are located in forearc region. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out multi-channel seismic reflection survey using 7,800/12,000 cu.in. air gun and 5-6 km streamer with 444/204 ch hydrophones in the IBM region since 2004. We investigate the crustal structure beneath the Izu-Bonin forearc region for contribution of IBM drilling site along five long survey lines, which are across from present volcanic front to forearc basin. Seismic refraction survey is also conducted across forearc region using 84 OBSs every 1 km interval. Shallow crustal structure can be classified four units including basement which compared between previous drilling results and obtained seismic profiles. In IBM forearc region, thick sedimentary basin distribute from east side of volcanic front. Two convex basement peaks are indicated in across profile of forearc region. These peaks are estimated the top of paleoarc (Oligocene and Eocene) by previous ODP drilling. The half graben structure with major displacement is identified from west side of present volcanic front to the top of Oligocene arc. On the other hand, there is no displacement of sediments between the Oligocene arc and Eocene arc. This result shows the same origin of basement between the present volcanic front and Oligocene arc. There is long time difference of

  9. VADASE: a new approach for real-time fast displacement detection - First application to Taiwan High-Rate GNSS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Huang-Kai; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Colosimo, Gabriele; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to show new possibilities for GNSS Permanent Network data processing offered by VADASE (Variometric Approach for Displacements Analysis Standalone Engine) to retrieve waveforms and coseismic displacements in real-time when an earthquake occurs. The main advantage of using GNSS receiver, in a complementary way with traditional seismic network, is that it can work without being affected by saturation, which commonly influence seismometers and accelerometers close to strong earthquake epicenters. VADASE was originally proposed in 2010 ([4],[5]) as the third way in GPS Seismology (in addition to Precise Point Positioning and Instantaneous Differential Positioning). The approach is based on time single differences of carrier phase observations continuously collected at high rate (1 Hz or higher) using a standalone GPS receiver and standard GPS broadcast products (orbits and clocks) that are available in real-time. Hence, one receiver works in standalone mode and the epoch-by-epoch displacements (equivalent to velocities) are estimated. Then, they are summed over the time interval when the earthquake occurred to retrieve coseismic displacements and waveforms. Considering time intervals limited to few minutes, the receiver displacements can be ascertained at a few centimeters accuracy level in real-time. The effectiveness of this approach was recognized by DLR (German Aerospace Agency), and VADASE was awarded the DLR Special Topic Prize and the Audience Award at the European Satellite Navigation Competition 2010. Moreover, VADASE potential was proven in the dramatic occasion of the Japanese earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 ([3]-[6]); in fact VADASE was able to provide the first estimates of the displacements suffered at the IGS sites of MIZU and USUD [7], as soon as the data of these stations were available. The results were then confirmed by several other solutions based on the renown (DP, PPP) approaches. More recently, VADASE was applied

  10. Characterization of Unstable Rock Slopes Through Passive Seismic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbrod, U.; Burjanek, J.; Fäh, D.

    2014-12-01

    Catastrophic rock slope failures have high social impact, causing significant damage to infrastructure and many casualties throughout the world each year. Both detection and characterization of rock instabilities are therefore of key importance. An analysis of ambient vibrations of unstable rock slopes might be a new alternative to the already existing methods, e.g. geotechnical displacement measurements. Systematic measurements have been performed recently in Switzerland to study the seismic response of potential rockslides concerning a broad class of slope failure mechanisms and material conditions. Small aperture seismic arrays were deployed at sites of interest for a short period of time (several hours) in order to record ambient vibrations. Each measurement setup included a reference station, which was installed on a stable part close to the instability. Recorded ground motion is highly directional in the unstable parts of the rock slope, and significantly amplified with respect to stable areas. These effects are strongest at certain frequencies, which were identified as eigenfrequencies of the unstable rock mass. In most cases the directions of maximum amplification are perpendicular to open cracks and in good agreement with the deformation directions obtained by geodetic measurements. Such unique signatures might improve our understanding of slope structure and stability. Thus we link observed vibration characteristics with available results of detailed geological characterization. This is supported by numerical modeling of seismic wave propagation in fractured media with complex topography.For example, a potential relation between eigenfrequencies and unstable rock mass volume is investigated.

  11. Laboratory scale micro-seismic monitoring of rock faulting and injection-induced fault reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarout, J.; Dautriat, J.; Esteban, L.; Lumley, D. E.; King, A.

    2017-12-01

    The South West Hub CCS project in Western Australia aims to evaluate the feasibility and impact of geosequestration of CO2 in the Lesueur sandstone formation. Part of this evaluation focuses on the feasibility and design of a robust passive seismic monitoring array. Micro-seismicity monitoring can be used to image the injected CO2plume, or any geomechanical fracture/fault activity; and thus serve as an early warning system by measuring low-level (unfelt) seismicity that may precede potentially larger (felt) earthquakes. This paper describes laboratory deformation experiments replicating typical field scenarios of fluid injection in faulted reservoirs. Two pairs of cylindrical core specimens were recovered from the Harvey-1 well at depths of 1924 m and 2508 m. In each specimen a fault is first generated at the in situ stress, pore pressure and temperature by increasing the vertical stress beyond the peak in a triaxial stress vessel at CSIRO's Geomechanics & Geophysics Lab. The faulted specimen is then stabilized by decreasing the vertical stress. The freshly formed fault is subsequently reactivated by brine injection and increase of the pore pressure until slip occurs again. This second slip event is then controlled in displacement and allowed to develop for a few millimeters. The micro-seismic (MS) response of the rock during the initial fracturing and subsequent reactivation is monitored using an array of 16 ultrasonic sensors attached to the specimen's surface. The recorded MS events are relocated in space and time, and correlate well with the 3D X-ray CT images of the specimen obtained post-mortem. The time evolution of the structural changes induced within the triaxial stress vessel is therefore reliably inferred. The recorded MS activity shows that, as expected, the increase of the vertical stress beyond the peak led to an inclined shear fault. The injection of fluid and the resulting increase in pore pressure led first to a reactivation of the pre

  12. Seismic hazard estimation based on the distributed seismicity in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Shi, Bao-Ping; Sun, Liang

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we have proposed an alternative seismic hazard modeling by using distributed seismicites. The distributed seismicity model does not need delineation of seismic source zones, and simplify the methodology of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Based on the devastating earthquake catalogue, we established three seismicity model, derived the distribution of a-value in northern China by using Gaussian smoothing function, and calculated peak ground acceleration distributions for this area with 2%, 5% and 10% probability of exceedance in a 50-year period by using three attenuation models, respectively. In general, the peak ground motion distribution patterns are consistent with current seismic hazard map of China, but in some specific seismic zones which include Shanxi Province and Shijiazhuang areas, our results indicated a little bit higher peak ground motions and zonation characters which are in agreement with seismicity distribution patterns in these areas. The hazard curves have been developed for Beijing, Tianjin, Taiyuan, Tangshan, and Ji’nan, the metropolitan cities in the northern China. The results showed that Tangshan, Taiyuan, Beijing has a higher seismic hazard than that of other cities mentioned above.

  13. Segmentation of the Izu-Bonin and Mariana slabs based on the analysis of the Benioff seismicity distribution and regional tomography results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jaxybulatov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new model of P and S velocity anomalies in the mantle down to a depth of 1300 km beneath the Izu-Bonin and Mariana (IBM arcs. This model is derived based on tomographic inversion of global travel time data from the revised ISC catalogue. The results of inversion are thoroughly verified using a series of different tests. The obtained model is generally consistent with previous studies by different authors. We also present the distribution of relocated deep events projected to the vertical surface along the IBM arc system. Unexpectedly, the seismicity forms elongated vertical clusters instead of horizontal zones indicating phase transitions in the slab. We propose that these vertical seismicity zones mark zones of intense deformation and boundaries between semi-autonomous segments of the subducting plate. The P and S seismic tomography models consistently display the slab as prominent high-velocity anomalies coinciding with the distribution of deep seismicity. We can distinguish at least four segments which subduct differently. The northernmost segment of the Izu-Bonin arc has the gentlest angle of dipping which is explained by backward displacement of the trench. In the second segment, the trench stayed at the same location, and we observe the accumulation of the slab material in the transition zone and its further descending to the lower mantle. In the third segment, the trench is moving forward causing the steepening of the slab. Finally, for the Mariana segment, despite the backward displacement of the arc, the subducting slab is nearly vertical. Between the Izu-Bonin and Mariana arcs we clearly observe a gap which can be traced down to about 400 km in depth. Based on joint consideration of the tomography results and the seismicity distribution, we propose two different scenarios of the subduction evolution in the IBM zone during the recent time, depending on the reference frame of plate displacements. In the first case, we

  14. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedded steel plates. The lateral cyclic loading test is executed to investigate the seismic behavior and the electric and thermal performance with different drift angles. The seismic behavior, including failure pattern, lateral force-top displacement relationship, and deformation capacity, was investigated. The power generation and temperature variation on the back of the PV module and both sides of the shear wall were also tested. Two main results are demonstrated through the experiment: (1 the U-shaped steel connectors provide enough deformation capacity for the compatibility of the PV module to the shear wall during the whole cyclic test; (2 the electricity generation capacity is effective and stable during this seismic simulation test.

  15. Air permeability for a concrete shear wall after a damaging seismic load simulation cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girrens, S.P.; Farrar, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    A study was initiated to estimate air leakage, driven by wind-generated pressure gradients, from a seismically damaged concrete structure. This paper describes an experiment performed to measure the air permeability in a reinforced concrete shear wall, both before and after simulated seismic loading. Static load-cycle testing was used to simulate earthquake loading. Permeability measurements were made by pressurizing one side of the shear wall above atmospheric conditions and recording the transient-pressure decay. Air permeability measurements made on the shear wall before loading fell within the range of values for concrete permeability published in the literature. As long as the structure exhibited linear load-displacement response, no variation in the air permeability was detected. However, experimental results indicate that the air permeability in the shear wall increased by a factor of 40 after the wall had been damaged (cracked)

  16. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  17. Time-Independent Annual Seismic Rates, Based on Faults and Smoothed Seismicity, Computed for Seismic Hazard Assessment in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, M.; Falcone, G.; Taroni, M.; Console, R.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015 the Italian Department of Civil Protection, started a project for upgrading the official Italian seismic hazard map (MPS04) inviting the Italian scientific community to participate in a joint effort for its realization. We participated providing spatially variable time-independent (Poisson) long-term annual occurrence rates of seismic events on the entire Italian territory, considering cells of 0.1°x0.1° from M4.5 up to M8.1 for magnitude bin of 0.1 units. Our final model was composed by two different models, merged in one ensemble model, each one with the same weight: the first one was realized by a smoothed seismicity approach, the second one using the seismogenic faults. The spatial smoothed seismicity was obtained using the smoothing method introduced by Frankel (1995) applied to the historical and instrumental seismicity. In this approach we adopted a tapered Gutenberg-Richter relation with a b-value fixed to 1 and a corner magnitude estimated with the bigger events in the catalogs. For each seismogenic fault provided by the Database of the Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS), we computed the annual rate (for each cells of 0.1°x0.1°) for magnitude bin of 0.1 units, assuming that the seismic moments of the earthquakes generated by each fault are distributed according to the same tapered Gutenberg-Richter relation of the smoothed seismicity model. The annual rate for the final model was determined in the following way: if the cell falls within one of the seismic sources, we merge the respective value of rate determined by the seismic moments of the earthquakes generated by each fault and the value of the smoothed seismicity model with the same weight; if instead the cells fall outside of any seismic source we considered the rate obtained from the spatial smoothed seismicity. Here we present the final results of our study to be used for the new Italian seismic hazard map.

  18. Comparison of elastic and inelastic seismic response of high temperature piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, F.M.; McCabe, S.L.; Liu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A study of high temperature power piping systems is presented. The response of the piping systems is determined when subjected to seismic disturbances. Two piping systems are presented, a main steam line, and a cold reheat line. Each of the piping systems are modeled using the ANSYS computer program and two analyses are performed on each piping system. First, each piping system is subjected to a seismic disturbance and the pipe material is assumed to remain linear and elastic. Next the analysis is repeated for each piping system when the pipe material is modeled as having elastic-plastic behavior. The results of the linear elastic analysis and elastic-plastic analysis are compared for each of the two pipe models. The pipe stresses, strains, and displacements, are compared. These comparisons are made so that the effect of the material yielding can be determined and to access what error is made when a linear analysis is performed on a system that yields

  19. Seismic Performance of Precast Polystyrene RC Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Ari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast concrete structure such as precast wall is a concept that is growing rapidly these days. However, the earthquake resistance is believed to be one of its drawbacks. Additionally, the large weight of solid elements also increase the building weight significantly which consequently increase the earthquake base shear force as well. Therefore, investigation on the seismic performance of precast concrete wall has been carried out. Three RC wall specimens using wire mesh reinforcement and EPS (Extended Polystyrene System panel have been tested. This wall was designed as a structural wall that was capable in sustaining lateral loads (in-plane yet were lightweight to reduce the total weight of the building. Parameter observed was the ratio of height to width (aspect ratio of wall of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively with the aim to study the behaviour of brittle to ductile transition of the wall. Incremental static load tests were conducted until reaching peak load and then followed by displacement control until failure. Several data were measured at every stage of loading comprising lateral load-displacement behaviour, ultimate strength and collapse mechanism. The outcomes showed that precast concrete walls with a steel wire and EPS panel filler provided considerably good resistance against lateral load.

  20. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhara [NMAMIT, Nitte (India); Rao, Rathnamala [NITK, Surathkal (India)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  1. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhara; Rao, Rathnamala

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  2. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  3. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to delineate seismic source zones in the study area (south India) based on the seismicity parameters. Seismicity parameters and the maximum probable earthquake for these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. The probabilistic evaluation of ...

  4. Reflection seismic studies over the end-glacial Burträsk fault, Skellefteå, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Juhlin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflection seismic data were acquired along a ca. 22 km long profile over the end-glacial Burträsk fault with a nominal receiver and source spacing of 20 m. A steeply dipping reflection can be correlated to the Burträsk fault, indicating that the fault dips at about 55° to the southeast near the surface. The reflection from the fault is rather poorly imaged, probably due to a lateral offset in the fault of about 1 km at this location and the crookedness of the seismic profile in the vicinity of the fault. A more pronounced steeply dipping reflection is observed about 4 km southeast of the Burträsk fault. Based on its correlation with a topographic low at the surface this reflection is interpreted to originate from a fracture zone. There are no signs of large displacements along this zone as the glacial ice receded, but earthquakes could be associated with it today. Other reflections on the processed seismic section may originate from changes in lithological variations in the supra-crustal rocks or from intrusions of more mafic rock. Constraints on the fault geometry provided by the reflection seismic data will help determine what stresses were required to activate the fault when the major rupture along it occurred ca. 9500 years ago.

  5. Russian regulatory approaches to seismic design and seismic analysis of NPP piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliberda, Y.V.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of Russian regulatory approaches to seismic design and seismic analysis of NPP piping. The paper is focused on categorization and seismic analysis of nuclear power plant items (piping, equipment, supports, valves, but not building structures). The paper outlines the current seismic recommendations, corresponding methods with the examples of calculation models. The paper considers calculation results of the mechanisms of dynamic behavior and the problems of developing a rational and economical approaches to seismic design and seismic protection. (author)

  6. Angola Seismicity MAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  7. Implications from palaeoseismological investigations at the Markgrafneusiedl Fault (Vienna Basin, Austria) for seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintersberger, Esther; Decker, Kurt; Lomax, Johanna; Lüthgens, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Intraplate regions characterized by low rates of seismicity are challenging for seismic hazard assessment, mainly for two reasons. Firstly, evaluation of historic earthquake catalogues may not reveal all active faults that contribute to regional seismic hazard. Secondly, slip rate determination is limited by sparse geomorphic preservation of slowly moving faults. In the Vienna Basin (Austria), moderate historical seismicity (Imax, obs / Mmax, obs = 8/5.2) concentrates along the left-lateral strike-slip Vienna Basin Transfer Fault (VBTF). In contrast, several normal faults branching out from the VBTF show neither historical nor instrumental earthquake records, although geomorphological data indicate Quaternary displacement along those faults. Here, located about 15 km outside of Vienna, the Austrian capital, we present a palaeoseismological dataset of three trenches that cross one of these splay faults, the Markgrafneusiedl Fault (MF), in order to evaluate its seismic potential. Comparing the observations of the different trenches, we found evidence for five to six surface-breaking earthquakes during the last 120 kyr, with the youngest event occurring at around 14 ka. The derived surface displacements lead to magnitude estimates ranging between 6.2 ± 0.5 and 6.8 ± 0.4. Data can be interpreted by two possible slip models, with slip model 1 showing more regular recurrence intervals of about 20-25 kyr between the earthquakes with M ≥ 6.5 and slip model 2 indicating that such earthquakes cluster in two time intervals in the last 120 kyr. Direct correlation between trenches favours slip model 2 as the more plausible option. Trench observations also show that structural and sedimentological records of strong earthquakes with small surface offset have only low preservation potential. Therefore, the earthquake frequency for magnitudes between 6 and 6.5 cannot be constrained by the trenching records. Vertical slip rates of 0.02-0.05 mm a-1 derived from the

  8. France's seismic zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.

    1997-01-01

    In order to assess the seismic hazard in France in relation to nuclear plant siting, the CEA, EDF and the BRGM (Mine and Geology Bureau) have carried out a collaboration which resulted in a seismic-tectonic map of France and a data base on seismic history (SIRENE). These studies were completed with a seismic-tectonic zoning, taking into account a very long period of time, that enabled a probabilistic evaluation of the seismic hazard in France, and that may be related to adjacent country hazard maps

  9. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material.Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide.Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures.In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran

  10. Seismic Vulnerability and Performance Level of confined brick walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehnovi, M.; Rahdar, H. A.

    2008-07-01

    There has been an increase on the interest of Engineers and designers to use designing methods based on displacement and behavior (designing based on performance) Regarding to the importance of resisting structure design against dynamic loads such as earthquake, and inability to design according to prediction of nonlinear behavior element caused by nonlinear properties of constructional material. Economically speaking, easy carrying out and accessibility of masonry material have caused an enormous increase in masonry structures in villages, towns and cities. On the other hand, there is a necessity to study behavior and Seismic Vulnerability in these kinds of structures since Iran is located on the earthquake belt of Alpide. Different reasons such as environmental, economic, social, cultural and accessible constructional material have caused different kinds of constructional structures. In this study, some tied walls have been modeled with software and with relevant accelerator suitable with geology conditions under dynamic analysis to research on the Seismic Vulnerability and performance level of confined brick walls. Results from this analysis seem to be satisfactory after comparison of them with the values in Code ATC40, FEMA and standard 2800 of Iran.

  11. Response spectrum analysis of coupled structural response to a three component seismic disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, J.A.M.; Carley, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The work discussed herein is a comparison and evaluation of several response spectrum analysis (RSA) techniques as applied to the same structural model with seismic excitation having three spatial components. The structural model includes five lumped masses (floors) connected by four elastic members. The base is supported by three translational springs and two horizontal torsional springs. In general, the mass center and shear center of a building floor are distinct locations. Hence, inertia forces, which act at the mass center, induce twisting in the structure. Through this induced torsion, the lateral (x and y) displacements of the mass elements are coupled. The ground motion components used for this study are artificial earthquake records generated from recorded accelerograms by a spectrum modification technique. The accelerograms have response spectra which are compatible with U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.60. Lagrange's equations of motion for the system were written in matrix form and uncoupled with the modal matrix. Numerical integration (fourth order Runge-Kutta) of the resulting modal equations produced time histories of system displacements in response to simultaneous application of three orthogonal components of ground motion, and displacement response spectra for each modal coordinate in response to each of the three ground motion components. Five different RSA techniques were used to combine the spectral displacements and the modal matrix to give approximations of maximum system displacements. These approximations were then compared with the maximum system displacements taken from the time histories. The RSA techniques used are the method of absolute sums, the square root of the sum of the sum of the squares, the double sum approach, the method of closely spaced modes, and Lin's method

  12. Seismic Noise Analysis and Reduction through Utilization of Collocated Seismic and Atmospheric Sensors at the GRO Chile Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M. E.; Russo, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The installation of Earthscope Transportable Array-style geophysical observatories in Chile expands open data seismic recording capabilities in the southern hemisphere by nearly 30%, and has nearly tripled the number of seismic stations providing freely-available data in southern South America. Through the use of collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at these stations we are able to analyze how local atmospheric conditions generate seismic noise, which can degrade data in seismic frequency bands at stations in the ';roaring forties' (S latitudes). Seismic vaults that are climate-controlled and insulated from the local environment are now employed throughout the world in an attempt to isolate seismometers from as many noise sources as possible. However, this is an expensive solution that is neither practical nor possible for all seismic deployments; and also, the increasing number and scope of temporary seismic deployments has resulted in the collection and archiving of terabytes of seismic data that is affected to some degree by natural seismic noise sources such as wind and atmospheric pressure changes. Changing air pressure can result in a depression and subsequent rebound of Earth's surface - which generates low frequency noise in seismic frequency bands - and even moderate winds can apply enough force to ground-coupled structures or to the surface above the seismometers themselves, resulting in significant noise. The 10 stations of the permanent Geophysical Reporting Observatories (GRO Chile), jointly installed during 2011-12 by IRIS and the Chilean Servicio Sismológico, include instrumentation in addition to the standard three seismic components. These stations, spaced approximately 300 km apart along the length of the country, continuously record a variety of atmospheric data including infrasound, air pressure, wind speed, and wind direction. The collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at each station allow us to analyze both datasets together, to

  13. Non-linear seismic response of base-isolated liquid storage tanks to bi-directional excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, M.K.; Jangid, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic response of the liquid storage tanks isolated by lead-rubber bearings is investigated for bi-directional earthquake excitation (i.e. two horizontal components). The biaxial force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is considered as bi-linear modelled by coupled non-linear differential equations. The continuous liquid mass of the tank is modelled as lumped masses known as convective mass, impulsive mass and rigid mass. The corresponding stiffness associated with these lumped masses has been worked out depending upon the properties of the tank wall and liquid mass. Since the force-deformation behaviour of the bearings is non-linear, as a result, the seismic response is obtained by the Newmark's step-by-step method. The seismic responses of two types of the isolated tanks (i.e. slender and broad) are investigated under several recorded earthquake ground to study the effects of bi-directional interaction. Further, a parametric study is also carried out to study the effects of important system parameters on the effectiveness of seismic isolation for liquid storage tanks. The various important parameters considered are: (i) the period of isolation, (ii) the damping of isolation bearings and (iii) the yield strength level of the bearings. It has been observed that the seismic response of isolated tank is found to be insensitive to interaction effect of the bearing forces. Further, there exists an optimum value of isolation damping for which the base shear in the tank attains the minimum value. Therefore, increasing the bearing damping beyond a certain value may decrease the bearing and sloshing displacements but it may increase the base shear

  14. Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K., E-mail: e.m.k.elmaghraby@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Neutron induced atomic displacements was investigated based on scattering of energy of neutron. • Model for cascade function (multiplication of displacements with increasing energy transfer) was proposed and justified. • Parameterizations for the dpa induced in all elements were performed. • Table containing all necessary parameters to calculate the displacement density induced by neutron is given. • Contribution of non resonance displacement and resonant-neutron induced displacements are distinguished. - Abstract: A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.

  15. A new tool for rapid and automatic estimation of earthquake source parameters and generation of seismic bulletins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    of the equivalent Wood-Anderson displacement recordings. The moment magnitude (Mw) is then estimated from the inversion of displacement spectra. The duration magnitude (Md) is rapidly computed, based on a simple and automatic measurement of the seismic wave coda duration. Starting from the magnitude estimates, other relevant pieces of information are also computed, such as the corner frequency, the seismic moment, the source radius and the seismic energy. The ground-shaking maps on a Google map are produced, for peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and instrumental intensity (in SHAKEMAP® format), or a plot of the measured peak ground values. Furthermore, based on a specific decisional scheme, the automatic discrimination between local earthquakes occurred within the network and regional/teleseismic events occurred outside the network is performed. Finally, for largest events, if a consistent number of P-wave polarity reading are available, the focal mechanism is also computed. For each event, all of the available pieces of information are stored in a local database and the results of the automatic analyses are published on an interactive web page. "The Bulletin" shows a map with event location and stations, as well as a table listing all the events, with the associated parameters. The catalogue fields are the event ID, the origin date and time, latitude, longitude, depth, Ml, Mw, Md, the number of triggered stations, the S-displacement spectra, and shaking maps. Some of these entries also provide additional information, such as the focal mechanism (when available). The picked traces are uploaded in the database and from the web interface of the Bulletin the traces can be download for more specific analysis. This innovative software represents a smart solution, with a friendly and interactive interface, for high-level analysis of seismic data analysis and it may represent a relevant tool not only for seismologists, but also for non

  16. Study on seismic stability of seawall in man-made island. Pt. 2. Experimental study of seismic performance of seawall using a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Tadashi; Kanatani, Mamoru; Tochigi, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    1999-01-01

    In the development of the man-made island siting technology of nuclear power plants, one of the most important factors to be verified in design is the seismic performance of the seawalls bounding the island. The overall stability of the seawalls, expected residual deformations of the caisson and of the armored embankment are important factors that must be evaluated. For this purpose, a detailed experimental study examining the performance of a seawall with an armored embankment has been conducted using centrifuge testing method. The effects of existence of an armored embankment, substratum density, substratum thickness, and the extent of ground improvement beneath the structure on the residual deformations of the seawall were closely examined. From the experiment results, it is indicated that displacements of a seawall placed on a thin and dense seabed are small and that the density of the seabed directly beneath the crushed stone mound on which the caisson is placed mainly influences the caisson movements. Moreover it is indicated that the residual displacements of the prototype expected from the results of these tests were small enough to preserve the functions of the seawall in protecting an island against ocean waves overtopping. (author)

  17. Stress development in heterogenetic lithosphere: Insights into earthquake processes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yan; Hou, Guiting; Kusky, Timothy; Gregg, Patricia M.

    2016-03-01

    The New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in the Midwestern United States was the site of several major M 6.8-8 earthquakes in 1811-1812, and remains seismically active. Although this region has been investigated extensively, the ultimate controls on earthquake initiation and the duration of the seismicity remain unclear. In this study, we develop a finite element model for the Central United States to conduct a series of numerical experiments with the goal of determining the impact of heterogeneity in the upper crust, the lower crust, and the mantle on earthquake nucleation and rupture processes. Regional seismic tomography data (CITE) are utilized to infer the viscosity structure of the lithosphere which provide an important input to the numerical models. Results indicate that when differential stresses build in the Central United States, the stresses accumulating beneath the Reelfoot Rift in the NMSZ are highly concentrated, whereas the stresses below the geologically similar Midcontinent Rift System are comparatively low. The numerical observations coincide with the observed distribution of seismicity throughout the region. By comparing the numerical results with three reference models, we argue that an extensive mantle low velocity zone beneath the NMSZ produces differential stress localization in the layers above. Furthermore, the relatively strong crust in this region, exhibited by high seismic velocities, enables the elevated stress to extend to the base of the ancient rift system, reactivating fossil rifting faults and therefore triggering earthquakes. These results show that, if boundary displacements are significant, the NMSZ is able to localize tectonic stresses, which may be released when faults close to failure are triggered by external processes such as melting of the Laurentide ice sheet or rapid river incision.

  18. Seismic re-evaluation of Mochovce nuclear power plant. Seismic reevaluation of civil structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podrouzek, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution, an overview of seismic design procedures used for reassessment of seismic safety of civil structures at the Mochovce NPP in Slovak Republic presented. As an introduction, the objectives, history, and current status of seismic design of the NPP have been explained. General philosophy of design methods, seismic classification of buildings, seismic data, calculation methods, assumptions on structural behavior under seismic loading and reliability assessment were described in detail in the subsequent section. Examples of calculation models used for dynamic calculations of seismic response are given in the last section. (author)

  19. Non-periodic homogenization of 3-D elastic media for the seismic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupillard, Paul; Capdeville, Yann

    2018-05-01

    Because seismic waves have a limited frequency spectrum, the velocity structure of the Earth that can be extracted from seismic records has a limited resolution. As a consequence, one obtains smooth images from waveform inversion, although the Earth holds discontinuities and small scales of various natures. Within the last decade, the non-periodic homogenization method shed light on how seismic waves interact with small geological heterogeneities and `see' upscaled properties. This theory enables us to compute long-wave equivalent density and elastic coefficients of any media, with no constraint on the size, the shape and the contrast of the heterogeneities. In particular, the homogenization leads to the apparent, structure-induced anisotropy. In this paper, we implement this method in 3-D and show 3-D tests for the very first time. The non-periodic homogenization relies on an asymptotic expansion of the displacement and the stress involved in the elastic wave equation. Limiting ourselves to the order 0, we show that the practical computation of an upscaled elastic tensor basically requires (i) to solve an elastostatic problem and (ii) to low-pass filter the strain and the stress associated with the obtained solution. The elastostatic problem consists in finding the displacements due to local unit strains acting in all directions within the medium to upscale. This is solved using a parallel, highly optimized finite-element code. As for the filtering, we rely on the finite-element quadrature to perform the convolution in the space domain. We end up with an efficient numerical tool that we apply on various 3-D models to test the accuracy and the benefit of the homogenization. In the case of a finely layered model, our method agrees with results derived from Backus. In a more challenging model composed by a million of small cubes, waveforms computed in the homogenized medium fit reference waveforms very well. Both direct phases and complex diffracted waves are

  20. Syntectonic Mississippi River Channel Response: Integrating River Morphology and Seismic Imaging to Detect Active Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Alluvial rivers, even great rivers such as the Mississippi, respond to hydrologic and geologic controls. Temporal variations of valley gradient can significantly alter channel morphology, as the river responds syntectonically to attain equilibrium. The river will alter its sinuosity, in an attempt to maintain a constant gradient on a surface that changes slope through time. Therefore, changes of river pattern can be the first clue that active tectonics is affecting an area of pattern change. Here I present geomorphological and seismic imaging evidence of a previously unknown fault crossing the Mississippi river south of the New Madrid seismic zone, between Caruthersville, Missouri and Osceola, Arkansas, and show that both datasets support Holocene fault movement, with the latest slip occurring in the last 200 years. High resolution marine seismic reflection data acquired along the Mississippi river imaged a NW-SE striking north-dipping fault displacing the base of the Quaternary alluvium by 15 m with reverse sense of movement. The fault consistently deforms the Tertiary, Cretaceous and Paleozoic formations. Historical river channel planforms dating back to 1765 reveal that the section of the river channel across the fault has been characterized by high sinuosity and steep projected-channel slope compared to adjacent river reaches. In particular, the reach across the fault experienced a cutoff in 1821, resulting in a temporary lowering of sinuosity followed by an increase between the survey of 1880 and 1915. Under the assumption that the change in sinuosity reflects river response to a valley slope change to maintain constant gradient, I use sinuosity through time to calculate the change in valley slope since 1880 and therefore to estimate the vertical displacement of the imaged fault in the past 200 years. Based on calculations so performed, the vertical offset of the fault is estimated to be 0.4 m, accrued since at least 1880. If the base of the river alluvium

  1. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  2. Role of seismic PRA in seismic safety decisions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Kennedy, R.P.; Sues, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the important roles that seismic probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) can play in the seismic safety decisions of nuclear power plants. If a seismic PRA has been performed for a plant, its results can be utilized to evaluate the seismic capability beyond the safe shutdown event (SSE). Seismic fragilities of key structures and equipment, fragilities of dominant plant damage states and the frequencies of occurrence of these plant damage states are reviewed to establish the seismic safety of the plant beyond the SSE level. Guidelines for seismic margin reviews and upgrading may be developed by first identifying the generic classes of structures and equipment that have been shown to be dominant risk contributors in the completed seismic PRAs, studying the underlying causes for their contribution and examining why certain other items (e.g., piping) have not proved to be high-risk-contributors

  3. Slip reactivation model for the 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake: Dynamic rupture, sea floor displacements and tsunami simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Rahnema, K.; Bader, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake has been recorded with a vast GPS and seismic network given unprecedented chance to seismologists to unveil complex rupture processes in a mega-thrust event. In fact more than one thousand near field strong-motion stations across Japan (K-Net and Kik-Net) revealed complex ground motion patterns attributed to the source effects, allowing to capture detailed information of the rupture process. The seismic stations surrounding the Miyagi regions (MYGH013) show two clear distinct waveforms separated by 40 seconds. This observation is consistent with the kinematic source model obtained from the inversion of strong motion data performed by Lee's et al (2011). In this model two rupture fronts separated by 40 seconds emanate close to the hypocenter and propagate towards the trench. This feature is clearly observed by stacking the slip-rate snapshots on fault points aligned in the EW direction passing through the hypocenter (Gabriel et al, 2012), suggesting slip reactivation during the main event. A repeating slip on large earthquakes may occur due to frictional melting and thermal fluid pressurization effects. Kanamori & Heaton (2002) argued that during faulting of large earthquakes the temperature rises high enough creating melting and further reduction of friction coefficient. We created a 3D dynamic rupture model to reproduce this slip reactivation pattern using SPECFEM3D (Galvez et al, 2014) based on a slip-weakening friction with sudden two sequential stress drops . Our model starts like a M7-8 earthquake breaking dimly the trench, then after 40 seconds a second rupture emerges close to the trench producing additional slip capable to fully break the trench and transforming the earthquake into a megathrust event. The resulting sea floor displacements are in agreement with 1Hz GPS displacements (GEONET). The seismograms agree roughly with seismic records along the coast of Japan.The simulated sea floor displacement reaches 8-10 meters of

  4. Comparison of seismic margin assessment and probabilistic risk assessment in seismic IPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.W.; Kassawara, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    A comparison of technical requirements and managerial issues between seismic margin assessment (SMA) and seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) in a seismic Individual Plant Examination (IPE) is presented and related to requirements for an Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-46 review which is required for older nuclear power plants. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for each approach. Technical requirements reviewed for a seismic IPE include: scope of plants covered, seismic input, scope of review, selection of equipment, required experience and training of engineers, walkdown procedure, evaluation of components, relay review, containment review, quality assurance, products, documentation requirements, and closure procedure. Managerial issues discussed include regulatory acceptability, compatibility with seismic IPE, compliance with seismic IPE requirements, ease of use by utilities, and relative cost

  5. Evaluation of induced seismicity forecast models in the Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Zechar, Jeremy; Doetsch, Joseph; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. Here, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models that incorporate a different mix of physical understanding and stochastic representation of the induced sequences: Shapiro in Space (SiS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). SiS is based on three pillars: the seismicity rate is computed with help of the seismogenic index and a simple exponential decay of the seismicity; the magnitude distribution follows the Gutenberg-Richter relation; and seismicity is distributed in space based on smoothing seismicity during the learning period with 3D Gaussian kernels. The HySei model describes seismicity triggered by pressure diffusion with irreversible permeability enhancement. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. HySei forecasts the seismicity rate well, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SiS forecasts the spatial distribution well but not the seismicity rate. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in. Ensemble models that combine HySei's rate forecast with SiS's spatial forecast outperform each individual model.

  6. Rupture Dynamics and Seismic Radiation on Rough Faults for Simulation-Based PSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, P. M.; Galis, M.; Thingbaijam, K. K. S.; Vyas, J. C.; Dunham, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Simulation-based ground-motion predictions may augment PSHA studies in data-poor regions or provide additional shaking estimations, incl. seismic waveforms, for critical facilities. Validation and calibration of such simulation approaches, based on observations and GMPE's, is important for engineering applications, while seismologists push to include the precise physics of the earthquake rupture process and seismic wave propagation in 3D heterogeneous Earth. Geological faults comprise both large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness that determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process and its radiated seismic wavefield. We investigate how different parameterizations of fractal fault roughness affect the rupture evolution and resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence induced by fault roughness generates realistic ω-2 decay for high-frequency displacement amplitude spectra. Waveform characteristics and GMPE-based comparisons corroborate that these rough-fault rupture simulations generate realistic synthetic seismogram for subsequent engineering application. Since dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we develop kinematic approximations that emulate the observed dynamics. Simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. The dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with local dip angles. Based on a dynamically consistent Yoffe source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic rupture well reproduces the seismic radiation of the full dynamic source process. Our findings provide an innovative pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures fault roughness effects on rupture dynamics. Including the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we present a new

  7. Seismic hazards and land-use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Donald R.; Buchanan-Banks, Jane M.

    1974-01-01

    Basic earth-science data are necessary for a realistic assessment of seismic hazards and as a basis for limiting corrective land-use controls only to those areas of greatest hazard. For example, the location, character, and amount of likely displacement and activity of surface faulting can be predicted if detailed geologic maps and seismic data are available and are augmented by field studies at critical localities. Because few structures can withstand displacement of their foundations, they should be located off active fault traces, the distance varying with the character of faulting, the certainty with which fault traces are known, and the importance of the structure. Recreational activities and other nonoccupancy land uses should be considered for fault zone areas where land is under pressure for development; elsewhere, such areas should remain as open space. Two methods of predicting ground shaking effects have applications to land-use decisions: (1) Relative earthquake effects can be related to firmness of the ground and can be used in a gross way to allocate population density in the absence of more sophisticated analyses; and (2) intensity maps, based on, (a) damage from former earthquakes, or (b) a qualitative analyses of geologic units added to a design earthquake, can be helpful both for general and specific plans. Theoretical models are used with caution to predict ground motion for critical structures to be located at specific sites with unique foundation conditions. Fully adequate methods of assessing possible shaking remain to be developed. Where land-use decisions do not reflect likely ground shaking effects, stringent building codes are needed, particularly for important structures. Ground failure (landsliding, ground cracking and lurching, differential settlement, sand boils, and subsidence) commonly results from liquefaction, loss of soil strength, or compaction. Areas suspected of being most likely to fail should not be developed unless detailed

  8. Methods used to seismically upgrade. The safety related components of Belgian plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafaille, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Belgian nuclear power amounts to about 6,000 MW, generated by seven plants that started operation as early as 1967. The latest plant started in 1985. Some of these plants were designed with no seismic requirements whatsoever. Even for those that had seismic requirements at the design stage, seismic demand was raised after design had been frozen (late during construction or at the 10 years revision). As a consequence all the plants had to undergo, to a variable extent, a seismic reevaluation and/or backfitting. Civil structures were concerned as well as electro-mechanical equipment and piping systems. The present paper deals with the mechanical aspect of the problem (equipment and piping). In order to minimize hardware modifications, advanced analytical techniques were used throughout the process, starting with the elaboration of a site specific spectrum, and using a full soil-structure interaction in order to get as 'realistic' as possible floor response spectra. In some instances, non linear elasto-plastic time history analysis was performed on piping-systems in order to qualify them without hardware modifications. In other cases a 'Load Coefficient Method' was used. Sometimes stresses or displacements taken from the original stress reports and scaled by comparison of applicable spectra, allowed to assess the seismic validity of the system under investigation. Seismic acceptability of installed active equipment is more difficult to demonstrate, as this is usually done by testing. This problem is a generic issue in the US, identified under the label USI-A-46 (Unresolved Safety Issue). It is treated by. a group of Utilities (SQUG = Seismic Qualification Utilities Group). The Belgian Utility is member of that group since 1985. The application of this program is starting in the US. SQUG methodology has been applied to three Belgian plants starting in 1988 and is now completed. The required fixes are being implemented. Experience gained in the process has been applied

  9. On the use of a laser ablation as a laboratory seismic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chengyi; Brito, Daniel; Diaz, Julien; Zhang, Deyuan; Poydenot, Valier; Bordes, Clarisse; Garambois, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Mimic near-surface seismic imaging conducted in well-controlled laboratory conditions is potentially a powerful tool to study large scale wave propagations in geological media by means of upscaling. Laboratory measurements are indeed particularly suited for tests of theoretical modellings and comparisons with numerical approaches. We have developed an automated Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) platform, which is able to detect and register broadband nano-scale displacements on the surface of various materials. This laboratory equipment has already been validated in experiments where piezoelectric transducers were used as seismic sources. We are currently exploring a new seismic source in our experiments, a laser ablation, in order to compensate some drawbacks encountered with piezoelectric sources. The laser ablation source is considered to be an interesting ultrasound wave generator since the 1960s. It was believed to have numerous potential applications such as the Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) and the measurements of velocities and attenuations in solid samples. We aim at adapting and developing this technique into geophysical experimental investigations in order to produce and explore complete micro-seismic data sets in the laboratory. We will first present the laser characteristics including its mechanism, stability, reproducibility, and will evaluate in particular the directivity patterns of such a seismic source. We have started by applying the laser ablation source on the surfaces of multi-scale homogeneous aluminum samples and are now testing it on heterogeneous and fractured limestone cores. Some other results of data processing will also be shown, especially the 2D-slice V P and V S tomographic images obtained in limestone samples. Apart from the experimental records, numerical simulations will be carried out for both the laser source modelling and the wave propagation in different media. First attempts will be done to compare quantitatively the

  10. Comparison of seismic sources for shallow seismic: sledgehammer and pyrotechnics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brom Aleksander

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The pyrotechnic materials are one of the types of the explosives materials which produce thermal, luminous or sound effects, gas, smoke and their combination as a result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Therefore, pyrotechnics can be used as a seismic source that is designed to release accumulated energy in a form of seismic wave recorded by tremor sensors (geophones after its passage through the rock mass. The aim of this paper was to determine the utility of pyrotechnics for shallow seismic engineering. The work presented comparing the conventional method of seismic wave excitation for seismic refraction method like plate and hammer and activating of firecrackers on the surface. The energy released by various sources and frequency spectra was compared for the two types of sources. The obtained results did not determine which sources gave the better results but showed very interesting aspects of using pyrotechnics in seismic measurements for example the use of pyrotechnic materials in MASW.

  11. Post-seismic relaxation from geodetic and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Rodkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the aftershock sequence and the post-seismic deformation process of the Parkfield earthquake (2004, M = 6, California, USA source area using GPS data. This event was chosen because of the possibility of joint analysis of data from the rather dense local GPS network (from SOPAC Internet archive and of the availability of the rather detailed aftershock sequence data (http://www.ncedc.org/ncedc/catalog-search.html. The relaxation process of post-seismic deformation prolongs about the same 400 days as the seismic aftershock process does. Thus, the aftershock process and the relaxation process in deformation could be the different sides of the same process. It should be noted that the ratio of the released seismic energy and of the GPS obtained deformation is quite different for the main shock and for the aftershock stage. The ratio of the released seismic energy to the deformation value decreases essentially for the post-shock process. The similar change in the seismic energy/deformation value ratio is valid in a few other strong earthquakes. Thus, this decrease seems typical of aftershock sequences testifying for decrease of ratio of elastic to inelastic deformation in the process of post-shock relaxation when the source area appears to be mostly fractured after the main shock occurs, but the healing process had no yet sufficient time to develop.

  12. Seismic texture classification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinther, R.

    1997-12-31

    The seismic texture classification method, is a seismic attribute that can both recognize the general reflectivity styles and locate variations from these. The seismic texture classification performs a statistic analysis for the seismic section (or volume) aiming at describing the reflectivity. Based on a set of reference reflectivities the seismic textures are classified. The result of the seismic texture classification is a display of seismic texture categories showing both the styles of reflectivity from the reference set and interpolations and extrapolations from these. The display is interpreted as statistical variations in the seismic data. The seismic texture classification is applied to seismic sections and volumes from the Danish North Sea representing both horizontal stratifications and salt diapers. The attribute succeeded in recognizing both general structure of successions and variations from these. Also, the seismic texture classification is not only able to display variations in prospective areas (1-7 sec. TWT) but can also be applied to deep seismic sections. The seismic texture classification is tested on a deep reflection seismic section (13-18 sec. TWT) from the Baltic Sea. Applied to this section the seismic texture classification succeeded in locating the Moho, which could not be located using conventional interpretation tools. The seismic texture classification is a seismic attribute which can display general reflectivity styles and deviations from these and enhance variations not found by conventional interpretation tools. (LN)

  13. Recent Vs. Historical Seismicity Analysis For Banat Seismic Region (Western Part Of Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Oros Eugen; Diaconescu Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The present day seismic activity from a region reflects the active tectonics and can confirm the seismic potential of the seismogenic sources as they are modelled using the historical seismicity. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the last decade seismicity recorded in the Banat Seismic Region (western part of Romania) and the historical seismicity of the region (Mw≥4.0). Four significant earthquake sequences have been recently localized in the region, three of them nearby the city of...

  14. Structure of pseudotachylyte vein systems as a key to co-seismic rupture dynamics: the case of Gavilgarh-Tan Shear Zone, central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.

    2014-04-01

    The secondary fractures associated with a major pseudotachylyte-bearing fault vein in the sheared aplitic granitoid of the Proterozoic Gavilgarh-Tan Shear Zone in central India are mapped at the outcrop scale. The fracture maps help to identify at least three different types of co-seismic ruptures, e.g., X-X', T1 and T2, which characterize sinistral-sense shearing of rocks, confined between two sinistral strike-slip faults slipping at seismic rate. From the asymmetric distribution of tensile fractures around the sinistral-sense fault vein, the direction of seismic rupture propagation is predicted to have occurred from west-southwest to east-northeast, during an ancient (Ordovician?) earthquake. Calculations of approximate co-seismic displacement on the faults and seismic moment ( M 0) of the earthquake are attempted, following the methods proposed by earlier workers. These estimates broadly agree to the findings from other studied fault zones (e.g., Gole Larghe Fault zone, Italian Alps). This study supports the proposition by some researchers that important seismological information can be extracted from tectonic pseudotachylytes of all ages, provided they are not reworked by subsequent tectonic activity.

  15. Improving the Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO{sub 2} Sequestered in Geologic Systems with Multicomponent Seismic Technology and Rock Physics Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Engin; DeAngelo, Michael; Hardage, Bob; Sava, Diana; Sullivan, Charlotte; Wagner, Donald

    2012-12-31

    concept that the same weight must be given to S-wave sequences and facies as is given to P-wave sequences and facies. This philosophy differs from the standard practice of depending on only conventional P-wave seismic stratigraphy to characterize reservoir units. The fundamental physics of elastic wavefield seismic stratigraphy is that S- wave modes sense different sequences and facies across some intervals than does a P-wave mode because S-wave displacement vectors are orthogonal to P- wave displacement vectors and thus react to a different rock fabric than do P waves. Although P and S images are different, both images can still be correct in terms of the rock fabric information they reveal.

  16. Seismic changes industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth in the seismic industry as a result of the recent increases in the foreign market. With the decline of communism and the opening of Latin America to exploration, seismic teams have moved out into these areas in support of the oil and gas industry. The paper goes on to discuss the improved technology available for seismic resolution and the subsequent use of computers to field-proof the data while the seismic team is still on-site. It also discusses the effects of new computer technology on reducing the amount of support staff that is required to both conduct and interpret seismic information

  17. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  18. Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of a Steel–Concrete Hybrid Supporting Structure in Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a steel–concrete hybrid structure consisting of reinforced concrete (RC tubular columns and steel braced truss with A-shaped steel frames, which is a novel supporting structural system to house air-cooled condensers (ACC in large-capacity thermal power plants (TPPs. First, the finite element (FE modeling approach for this hybrid structure using the software ABAQUS was validated by a range of pseudo-dynamic tests (PDTs performed on a 1/8-scaled sub-structure. The failure process, lateral displacement responses, changing rules of dynamic characteristic parameters and lateral stiffness with increase of peak ground acceleration (PGA were presented here. Then, nonlinear time-history analysis of the prototype structure was carried out. The dynamic characteristics, base shear force, lateral deformation capacity, stiffness deterioration and damage characteristics were investigated. Despite the structural complexity and irregularity, both experimental and numerical results indicate that the overall seismic performance of this steel–concrete hybrid supporting structure meets the seismic design requirements with respect to the high-intensity earthquakes.

  19. Overview of seismic margin insights gained from seismic PRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Sues, R.H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted under NRC and EPRI sponsorship in which published seismic PRAs were reviewed in order to gain insight to the seismic margins inherent in existing nuclear plants. The approach taken was to examine the fragilities of those components which have been found to be dominant contributors to seismic risk at plants in low-to-moderate seismic regions (SSE levels between 0.12g and 0.25g). It is concluded that there is significant margin inherent in the capacity of most critical components above the plant design basis. For ground motions less than about 0.3g, the predominant sources of seismic risk are loss of offsite power coupled with random failure of the emergency diesels, non-recoverable circuit breaker trip due to relay chatter, unanchored equipment, unreinforced non-load bearing block walls, vertical water storage tanks, systems interactions and possibly soil liquefaction. Recommendations as to which components should be reviewed in seismic margin studies for margin earthquakes less than 0.3g, between 0.3g and 0.5g, and greater than 0.5g, developed by the NRC expert panel on the quantification of seismic margins (based on the review of past PRA data, earthquake experience data, and their own personal experience) are presented

  20. Adding seismic broadband analysis to characterize Andean backarc seismicity in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, P.; Giuliano, A.; Beck, S.; Zandt, G.

    2007-05-01

    Characterization of the highly seismically active Andean backarc is crucial for assessment of earthquake hazards in western Argentina. Moderate-to-large crustal earthquakes have caused several deaths, damage and drastic economic consequences in Argentinean history. We have studied the Andean backarc crust between 30°S and 36°S using seismic broadband data available from a previous ("the CHARGE") IRIS-PASSCAL experiment. We collected more than 12 terabytes of continuous seismic data from 22 broadband instruments deployed across Chile and Argentina during 1.5 years. Using free software we modeled full regional broadband waveforms and obtained seismic moment tensor inversions of crustal earthquakes testing for the best focal depth for each event. We also mapped differences in the Andean backarc crustal structure and found a clear correlation with different types of crustal seismicity (i.e. focal depths, focal mechanisms, magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence) and previously mapped terrane boundaries. We now plan to use the same methodology to study other regions in Argentina using near-real time broadband data available from the national seismic (INPRES) network and global seismic networks operating in the region. We will re-design the national seismic network to optimize short-period and broadband seismic station coverage for different network purposes. This work is an international effort that involves researchers and students from universities and national government agencies with the goal of providing more information about earthquake hazards in western Argentina.

  1. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using elastomeric bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    Seismic isolation using low damping rubber (LDR) and lead-rubber (LR) bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. Although seismic isolation has been deployed in nuclear structures in France and South Africa, it has not seen widespread use because of limited new build nuclear construction in the past 30 years and a lack of guidelines, codes and standards for the analysis, design and construction of isolation systems specific to nuclear structures. The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 has led the nuclear community to consider seismic isolation for new large light water and small modular reactors to withstand the effects of extreme earthquakes. The mechanical properties of LDR and LR bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead-rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the horizontal displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) were investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead-rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees and ABAQUS. A series of experiments were conducted at University at Buffalo to characterize the behavior of elastomeric bearings in tension. The test data was used to validate a phenomenological model of an elastomeric bearing in tension. The value of three times the shear modulus of rubber in elastomeric bearing was found to be a reasonable estimate of the cavitation stress of a bearing. The sequence of loading did not change the behavior of an elastomeric bearing under cyclic tension, and there was no

  2. Seismic failure modes and seismic safety of Hardfill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on microscopic damage theory and the finite element method, and using the Weibull distribution to characterize the random distribution of the mechanical properties of materials, the seismic response of a typical Hardfill dam was analyzed through numerical simulation during the earthquakes with intensities of 8 degrees and even greater. The seismic failure modes and failure mechanism of the dam were explored as well. Numerical results show that the Hardfill dam remains at a low stress level and undamaged or slightly damaged during an earthquake with an intensity of 8 degrees. During overload earthquakes, tensile cracks occur at the dam surfaces and extend to inside the dam body, and the upstream dam body experiences more serious damage than the downstream dam body. Therefore, under the seismic conditions, the failure pattern of the Hardfill dam is the tensile fracture of the upstream regions and the dam toe. Compared with traditional gravity dams, Hardfill dams have better seismic performance and greater seismic safety.

  3. PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC ASSESSMENT OF BASE-ISOLATED NPPS SUBJECTED TO STRONG GROUND MOTIONS OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMER ALI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic seismic performance of a standard Korean nuclear power plant (NPP with an idealized isolation is investigated in the present work. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA of the Wolsong site on the Korean peninsula is performed by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA as an earthquake intensity measure. A procedure is reported on the categorization and selection of two sets of ground motions of the Tohoku earthquake, i.e. long-period and common as Set A and Set B respectively, for the nonlinear time history response analysis of the base-isolated NPP. Limit state values as multiples of the displacement responses of the NPP base isolation are considered for the fragility estimation. The seismic risk of the NPP is further assessed by incorporation of the rate of frequency exceedance and conditional failure probability curves. Furthermore, this framework attempts to show the unacceptable performance of the isolated NPP in terms of the probabilistic distribution and annual probability of limit states. The comparative results for long and common ground motions are discussed to contribute to the future safety of nuclear facilities against drastic events like Tohoku.

  4. Upgrading the seismic performance of the interior water pipe supporting system of a cooling tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, G.C.; Soulis, V.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results from a numerical study that was performed in order to simulate the seismic behavior of the interior support system of the piping and cooling features of a cooling tower in one of the old power stations located in an area at the North-Western part of Greece. This cooling tower has a diameter of 60 m and a height of 100 m. The interior piping support system consists mainly of a series of nine-meter high pre-cast vertical columns made by pre-stressed concrete; these columns, together with reinforced concrete pre-cast horizontal beams that are joined monolithically with the columns at their top, form the old interior supporting system. This system represented a very flexible structure, a fact that was verified from a preliminary numerical analysis of its seismic behavior. The maximum response to the design earthquake levels resulted in large horizontal displacements at the top of the columns as well as overstress to some of the columns. The most important part of the current numerical investigation was to examine various strengthening schemes of the old interior support system and to select one that will demonstrate acceptable seismic behavior. (authors)

  5. Probabilistic seismic assessment of base-isolated NPPs subjected to strong ground motions of Tohoku earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmer; Hayah, Nadin Abu; Kim, Doo Kie [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Gook [R and D Center, JACE KOREA Company, Gyeonggido (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The probabilistic seismic performance of a standard Korean nuclear power plant (NPP) with an idealized isolation is investigated in the present work. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Wolsong site on the Korean peninsula is performed by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA) as an earthquake intensity measure. A procedure is reported on the categorization and selection of two sets of ground motions of the Tohoku earthquake, i.e. long-period and common as Set A and Set B respectively, for the nonlinear time history response analysis of the base-isolated NPP. Limit state values as multiples of the displacement responses of the NPP base isolation are considered for the fragility estimation. The seismic risk of the NPP is further assessed by incorporation of the rate of frequency exceedance and conditional failure probability curves. Furthermore, this framework attempts to show the unacceptable performance of the isolated NPP in terms of the probabilistic distribution and annual probability of limit states. The comparative results for long and common ground motions are discussed to contribute to the future safety of nuclear facilities against drastic events like Tohoku.

  6. Reduction of seismic loads in cable tray hangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, B.K.; Jackson, J.E.; Dixon, M.W.; Bourne, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study has been conducted to partially assess the feasibility of using flexible rather than rigid support systems for carrying electrical and control cables in nuclear power plants. Using analytical and experimental studies, it was found that a flexible hanger design with appropriate stiffness and damping characteristics could be used to isolate trays from hanger vibration and significantly reduce hanger loads during seismic events if the connectors could be adequately tuned to account for system variables. Finite element techniques were used to select a flexible connector for a specified base hanger system. Tests were conducted on one-third-scale models to establish values for some of the parameters and to partially verify the analytical methods. For the hanger systems considered, introduction of the flexible connector allowed support-hanger loads and hanger displacements to be reduced greatly while satisfying tray displacement constraints. It appears that a flexible-connector system can provide better dynamic response than the conventional type system using rigid connectors. This conclusion is valid for all variations in system parameters studied. Although the flexible-connector concept looks very promising based on this study, substantial work, including full-scale testing, must be completed before this concept can be validated for actual plant designs. (orig.)

  7. Seismic response of a nuclear power plant in the presence of a waterproof lining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesi, C.; Mitsopoulou, E.

    1981-01-01

    In the presence of a high water table level or of a deeply embedded foundation a waterproof lining is generally requested. If this lies between two plane surfaces of concrete, a severe earthquake is likely to provoke relative displacements. Thus the lining may break and displacements may be too large for complying with the requirements of pipes, tunnels or adjacent structures. Though, a favourable result is also expected: a reduction of the structure accelerations. The present paper deals with the evaluation of these relative displacements and of the acceleration reduction. The friction properties of linings are studied experimentally and a relative velocity-shear friction relationship is deduced. With reference to this the behaviour of a simple structure is analyzed under seismic excitations - artificial accelerograms and strong motion records - characterized by a noticeable content of medium-low frequency components. The main result is that for a ground acceleration greater than 0.3/0.4 g the sliding is an efficient mechanism to reduce inertia forces (a reduction of about 25% for a ground acceleration of 0.5 g is expected). On the other hand the maximum displacement of the structure from its initial position, in the examined case, is no more than 2 cm, and for this range of values the technological problem of the integrity of the liner is under control. (orig.)

  8. Seismic Performance of High-Ductile Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Short Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingke Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study mainly aims to investigate the effectiveness of high-ductile fiber-reinforced concrete (HDC as a means to enhance the seismic performance of short columns. Six HDC short columns and one reinforced concrete (RC short column were designed and tested under lateral cyclic loading. The influence of the material type (concrete or HDC, axial load, stirrup ratio, and shear span ratio on crack patterns, hysteresis behavior, shear strength, deformation capacity, energy dissipation, and stiffness degradation was presented and discussed, respectively. The test results show that the RC short column failed in brittle shear with poor energy dissipation, while using HDC to replace concrete can effectively improve the seismic behavior of the short columns. Compared with the RC short column, the shear strength of HDC specimens was improved by 12.6–30.2%, and the drift ratio and the energy dissipation increases were 56.9–88.5% and 237.7–336.7%, respectively, at the ultimate displacement. Additionally, the prediction model of the shear strength for RC columns based on GB50010-2010 (Chinese code can be safely adopted to evaluate the shear strength of HDC short columns.

  9. Seismic Performance of Steel Frames with Semirigid Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Faridmehr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear stiffness matrix method was incorporated to investigate the structural performance of steel portal frames with semirigid connections. A portal frame with unstiffened extended end-plate connection was designed to demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed method. Besides, the seismic performance of steel portal frames with semirigid connections was investigated through time history analysis where kinematic hysteresis model was assigned to semirigid connections to account for energy dissipation and unloading stiffness. Based on the results of the study, it was found that generally semirigid connections influenced the force distribution which resulted in the decrease in base shear and lighter frame compared to the rigid one. The results also indicated that there was no direct relationship between maximum displacement at the top and connection stiffness in high-rise frames.

  10. Internal Displacement: Livelihood saving responses

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Hines

    2001-01-01

    Deborah Hines explores how to assist the internally displaced and those prone to displacement. She considers the major causes of internal displacement, making the case for a more comprehensive set of policy and operational actions in response to situations of internal displacement. Development (2001) 44, 34–39. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110289

  11. Implications from palaeoseismological investigations at the Markgrafneusiedl Fault (Vienna Basin, Austria for seismic hazard assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hintersberger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intraplate regions characterized by low rates of seismicity are challenging for seismic hazard assessment, mainly for two reasons. Firstly, evaluation of historic earthquake catalogues may not reveal all active faults that contribute to regional seismic hazard. Secondly, slip rate determination is limited by sparse geomorphic preservation of slowly moving faults. In the Vienna Basin (Austria, moderate historical seismicity (Imax, obs ∕ Mmax, obs = 8∕5.2 concentrates along the left-lateral strike-slip Vienna Basin Transfer Fault (VBTF. In contrast, several normal faults branching out from the VBTF show neither historical nor instrumental earthquake records, although geomorphological data indicate Quaternary displacement along those faults. Here, located about 15 km outside of Vienna, the Austrian capital, we present a palaeoseismological dataset of three trenches that cross one of these splay faults, the Markgrafneusiedl Fault (MF, in order to evaluate its seismic potential. Comparing the observations of the different trenches, we found evidence for five to six surface-breaking earthquakes during the last 120 kyr, with the youngest event occurring at around 14 ka. The derived surface displacements lead to magnitude estimates ranging between 6.2 ± 0.5 and 6.8 ± 0.4. Data can be interpreted by two possible slip models, with slip model 1 showing more regular recurrence intervals of about 20–25 kyr between the earthquakes with M ≥ 6.5 and slip model 2 indicating that such earthquakes cluster in two time intervals in the last 120 kyr. Direct correlation between trenches favours slip model 2 as the more plausible option. Trench observations also show that structural and sedimentological records of strong earthquakes with small surface offset have only low preservation potential. Therefore, the earthquake frequency for magnitudes between 6 and 6.5 cannot be constrained by the trenching records. Vertical

  12. Seismic responses of an unanchored generic fixture with different simulated boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.S.; Blomquist, C.A.; Herceg, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the design of equipment for seismic loadings, it is common to anchor the equipment to prevent tipping or sliding. However, there are situations where the equipment should not be anchored. An unanchored piece of equipment is held to the floor only by the gravitational effect and, in the absence of friction, it could move freely. In the analytical investigation of an unanchored item during a seismic event, there is uncertainty on the proper simulation of the boundary conditions so that the analysis model will have no rigid-body motion. Seismic responses of a simple analytical model that is representative of a group of unanchored equipment have been investigated with different sets of simulated boundary conditions. The results show that, when the main interest of investigation is to assess the potential for tipping during an earthquake, the case with one of the four supporting pads simply supported, its two neighboring pads constrained against twisting motion, and all pads without vertical displacements yields the most conservative prediction. The analysis is applied to the fuel processing cell of the Integral Fast Reactor project. In order not to breach the liner of the existing facility and to keep operational flexibility of the fixtures, all new equipment to be installed within the fuel processing cell are required to be unanchored

  13. Seismic Evaluation of Structural Insulated Panels in Comparison with Wood-Frame Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Terentiuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Structural Insulated Panel (SIP wall systems have been used in residential and light commercial buildings for the past sixty years. Lack of sufficient published research on racking load performance and limited understanding of the influence of fastener types on seismic response has been a deterrent in widespread use of the wall system in seismically active areas. This paper presents the results of a study involving a total of twenty one 2.4 m × 2.4 m shear walls tested under monotonic and cyclic loading. Four different 114 mm thick SIP panel configurations and one traditional wood frame wall were tested under monotonic loading according to ASTM E 564-06; and thirteen 114 mm thick SIP panels and three wood frame walls were tested under the CUREE loading protocol according to ASTM E 2126-11. Parameters such as fastener type; spline design; hold-down anchor location; and sheathing bearing were adjusted throughout the testing in order to determine their effects on the SIP’s performance. Performance parameters such as peak load and displacement; energy dissipation; allowable drift load capacity and seismic compatibility were determined for all of the specimens. Such parameters were then used to demonstrate the SIP walls’ compatibility with the wood frame walls and to determine the efficiency of the different SIP wall configuration and spline systems employed.

  14. Seismic analysis of control and safety rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meher Prasad, A.; Jaya, K.P.; Chellapandi, P.; Rajan Babu, V.; Selvaraj, T.

    2003-01-01

    Control rod and its driving mechanism for a Fast Breeder Reactor is to facilitate safe shutdown of the reactor in case of emergency. A theoretical study on the seismic qualification of control and safety rod driving mechanism is carried out. Earthquake excitations under Operational Basis (ORE) and Safe Shutdown condition (SSE) are considered. The time required for the control rod to reach the bottom position in order to shut down the reaction under excited condition is traced out. The maximum displaced positions and extreme stresses in various parts of the system under excitations are evaluated. The system modeled using beam elements. The connections between different parts are modeled through rigid elements. The interaction between various parts are modeled using GAP elements. (author)

  15. Soil-structure Interaction in the Seismic Response of Coupled Wall-frame Structures on Pile Foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, S.; Dezi, F.; Leoni, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the seismic response of coupled wall-frame structures founded on piles. A complete soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out with reference to a case study. Three different soils and seven real accelerograms are considered. Local site response analyses are performed in order to evaluate the incoming free-field motion at different depths and the ground motion amplifications. A numerical model, accounting for the pile-soil-pile interaction and for material and radiation damping, is used to evaluate the impedance matrix and the foundation input motion. The domain decomposition technique is adopted to perform time-domain seismic analyses introducing Lumped Parameter Models to take into account the impedance of the soil-structure system. Applications show that the rocking phenomena affect the behaviour of the structure by changing the base shear distribution within the wall and the frame and by increasing the structural displacements

  16. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the 'cautiousness' of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the 'precaution faults' having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a 'precaution fault'. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  17. Active fault and other geological studies for seismic assessment: present state and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakimi, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Evaluation system of earthquakes from an active fault is, in Japan, based on the characteristic earthquake model of a wide sense that postulates essentially the same (nearly the maximum) magnitude and recurrence interval during the recent geological times. Earthquake magnitude M is estimated by empirical relations among M, surface rupture length L, and surface fault displacement D per event of the earthquake faults on land in Japan. Recurrence interval R of faulting/earthquake is calculated from D and the long-term slip rate S of a fault as R=D/S. Grouping or segmentation of complicatedly distributed faults is an important, but difficult problem in order to distinguish a seismogenic fault unit corresponding to an individual characteristic earthquake. If the time t of the latest event is obtained, the `cautiousness` of a fault can be judged from R-t or t/R. According to this idea, several faults whose t/R exceed 0.5 have been designated as the `precaution faults` having higher probability of earthquake occurrence than the others. A part of above evaluation has been introduced at first into the seismic-safety examination system of NPPs in 1978. According to the progress of research on active faults, the weight of interest in respect to the seismic hazard assessment shifted gradually from the historic data to the fault data. Most of recent seismic hazard maps have been prepared in consideration with active faults on land in Japan. Since the occurrence of the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, social attention has been concentrated upon the seismic hazard due to active faults, because this event was generated from a well-known active fault zone that had been warned as a `precaution fault`. In this paper, a few recent topics on other geological and geotechnical researches aiming at improving the seismic safety of NPPs in Japan were also introduced. (J.P.N.)

  18. Dependence of residual displacements on the width and depth of compliant fault zones: a 3D study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Duan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Compliant fault zones have been detected along active faults by seismic investigations (trapped waves and travel time analysis) and InSAR observations. However, the width and depth extent of compliant fault zones are still under debate in the community. Numerical models of dynamic rupture build a bridge between theories and the geological and geophysical observations. Theoretical 2D plane-strain studies of elastic and inelastic response of compliant fault zones to nearby earthquake have been conducted by Duan [2010] and Duan et al [2010]. In this study, we further extend the experiments to 3D with a focus on elastic response. We are specifically interested in how residual displacements depend on the structure and properties of complaint fault zones, in particular on the width and depth extent. We conduct numerical experiments on various types of fault-zone models, including fault zones with a constant width along depth, with decreasing widths along depth, and with Hanning taper profiles of velocity reduction. . Our preliminary results suggest 1) the width of anomalous horizontal residual displacement is only indicative of the width of a fault zone near the surface, and 2) the vertical residual displacement contains information of the depth extent of compliant fault zones.

  19. The effect of material properties on the seismic performance of Arch Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sevim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of material properties on the seismic performance of arch dam-reservoir-foundation interaction systems based on the Lagrangian approach using demand-capacity ratios. Type-5 arch dam is selected as a numerical application. The linear time history analyses of the arch dam-reservoir-foundation interaction system are carried out for different material properties. The foundation is taken into account as massless; behaviour of the reservoir is assumed to be linearly elastic, inviscid and irrotational. The north-south component of the Erzincan earthquake in 1992 is chosen as a ground motion. Dynamic equations of motions obtained from 3-D finite element modelling of the coupled system are solved by using the Newmark integration algorithm. The damage levels of the coupled system for the different material properties are demonstrated by using demand-capacity ratios and cumulative inelastic durations. The time histories and maximum values of the displacements and principal stresses, and performance curves, are obtained from linear analyses. It is clearly seen from the study that the different material properties affect the seismic behaviour of the dam.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Submerged Floating Tunnel Subjected to Hydrodynamic and Seismic Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naik Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Submerged floating tunnels (SFTs are innovative structural solutions to waterway crossings, such as sea-straits, fjords and lakes. As the width and depth of straits increase, the conventional structures such as cable-supported bridges, underground tunnels or immersed tunnels become uneconomical alternatives. For the realization of SFT, the structural response under extreme environmental conditions needs to be evaluated properly. This study evaluates the displacements and internal forces of SFT under hydrodynamic and three-dimensional seismic excitations to check the global performance of an SFT in order to conclude on the optimum design. The formulations incorporate modeling of ocean waves, currents and mooring cables. The SFT responses were evaluated using three different mooring cable arrangements to determine the stability of the mooring configuration, and the most promising configuration was then used for further investigations. A comparison of static, hydrodynamic and seismic response envelope curves of the SFT is provided to determine the dominant structural response. The study produces useful conclusions regarding the structural behavior of the SFT using a three-dimensional numerical model.

  1. LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR ANALYSES OF CABLE-STAYED STEEL FRAME SUBJECTED TO SEISMIC ACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Đuran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, linear and non-linear dynamic analyses of a cable-stayed steel frame subjected to seismic actions are performed. The analyzed cable-stayed frame is the main supporting structure of a wide-span sports hall. Since the complex dynamic behavior of cable-stayed structures results in significant geometric nonlinearity, a nonlinear time history analysis is conducted. As a reference, an analysis using the European standard approach, the so-called linear modal response spectrum method, is also performed. The analyses are conducted for different seismic actions considering dependence on the response spectrums for various ground types and the corresponding artificially generated accelerograms. Despite fundamental differences between the two analyses, results indicate that the modal response spectrum analysis is surprisingly consistent with the internal forces and bending moment distributions of the nonlinear time history analysis. However, significantly smaller values of bending moments, internal forces, and displacements are obtained with the response spectrum analysis.

  2. Causality between expansion of seismic cloud and maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude is critical environmental issues associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Studies for prediction of the hazardous seismicity and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated recently. Many of these studies are based on the seismological statistics and these models use the information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. We have originally developed physics based model named "possible seismic moment model" to evaluate seismic activity and assess seismic moment which can be ready to release. This model is totally based on microseismic information of occurrence time, hypocenter location and magnitude (seismic moment). This model assumes existence of representative parameter having physical meaning that release-able seismic moment per rock volume (seismic moment density) at given field. Seismic moment density is to be estimated from microseismic distribution and their seismic moment. In addition to this, stimulated rock volume is also inferred by progress of microseismic cloud at given time and this quantity can be interpreted as the rock volume which can release seismic energy due to weakening effect of normal stress by injected fluid. Product of these two parameters (equation (1)) provide possible seismic moment which can be released from current stimulated zone as a model output. Difference between output of this model and observed cumulative seismic moment corresponds the seismic moment which will be released in future, based on current stimulation conditions. This value can be translated into possible maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in future. As this way, possible seismic moment can be used to have feedback to hydraulic stimulation operation in real time as an index which can be interpreted easily and intuitively. Possible seismic moment is defined as equation (1), where D

  3. Using Seismic Interferometry to Investigate Seismic Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, E.; Morency, C.; Templeton, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    Seismicity provides a direct means of measuring the physical characteristics of active tectonic features such as fault zones. Hundreds of small earthquakes often occur along a fault during a seismic swarm. This seismicity helps define the tectonically active region. When processed using novel geophysical techniques, we can isolate the energy sensitive to the fault, itself. Here we focus on two methods of seismic interferometry, ambient noise correlation (ANC) and the virtual seismometer method (VSM). ANC is based on the observation that the Earth's background noise includes coherent energy, which can be recovered by observing over long time periods and allowing the incoherent energy to cancel out. The cross correlation of ambient noise between a pair of stations results in a waveform that is identical to the seismogram that would result if an impulsive source located at one of the stations was recorded at the other, the Green function (GF). The calculation of the GF is often stable after a few weeks of continuous data correlation, any perturbations to the GF after that point are directly related to changes in the subsurface and can be used for 4D monitoring.VSM is a style of seismic interferometry that provides fast, precise, high frequency estimates of the Green's function (GF) between earthquakes. VSM illuminates the subsurface precisely where the pressures are changing and has the potential to image the evolution of seismicity over time, including changes in the style of faulting. With hundreds of earthquakes, we can calculate thousands of waveforms. At the same time, VSM collapses the computational domain, often by 2-3 orders of magnitude. This allows us to do high frequency 3D modeling in the fault region. Using data from a swarm of earthquakes near the Salton Sea, we demonstrate the power of these techniques, illustrating our ability to scale from the far field, where sources are well separated, to the near field where their locations fall within each other

  4. Seismic behaviour of LMFBR reactor cores. The SYMPHONY program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broc, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive program on the seismic behaviour of the LMFBR reactor cores, the SYMPHONY experimental program, performed at the CEA Saclay, is carried out from 1993 up to now. LMFBR reactor cores are composed of fuel assemblies and neutronic shields, immersed in sodium (the primary coolant) or water (for the experimental tests). The main objective of the seismic studies is to evaluate the assembly motions, with consequences on the reactivity and the control rod insertability, and to verify the structural integrity of the assemblies under the impact forces. The experimental program has reached its objectives. Tests have been performed in a satisfying way. Instrumentation allowed to collect displacements, accelerations, and shock forces. All the results constitute a comprehensive base of valuable and reliable data. The interpretation of the tests is based on beam models, taking into account the Fluid Structure Interaction, and the shocks between the assemblies. Theoretical results are in a quite good agreement with the experimental ones. The interpretation of the hexagonal tests in water pointed out very strong coupling between the assemblies and lead to the development of a specific Fluid Structure Interaction, taking into account not only inertial effects, but dissipative effects also. (author)

  5. Seismic qualification of equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidebrecht, A.C.; Tso, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes the results of an investigation into the seismic qualification of equipment located in CANDU nuclear power plants. It is particularly concerned with the evaluation of current seismic qualification requirements, the development of a suitable methodology for the seismic qualification of safety systems, and the evaluation of seismic qualification analysis and testing procedures

  6. Rubber bulge forming of single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloy using the displacement control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, Hiromasa; Yamaji, Toru; Okita, Keisuke; Okabe, Nagatoshi; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the bulge process for forming the single-stage bellows of TiNi shape memory alloys, which is proposed as a new type of seismic applications, and especially considering the material's special behavior. Thin walled tubes with 20% cold work, whose composition is Ti-51.0 at% Ni, were prepared. First they are appropriately heat-treated and then the rubber bulge process is introduced for the tubes under the condition of austenite phase at room temperature. Displacement control method is adapted to the process. Theoretical prediction of change in outer diameter of the tube on compression is derived, and modified taking into account the progress of the stress-induced martensite transformation on tube's surface by observing the detachment of the oxide layer of the surface. Finally theoretical relationship between compressive displacement and the outer diameter of the tube, which is the most important for the design of the bellows shape, is cleared. (author)

  7. Geomorphology and seismic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Mario

    1991-07-01

    The author analyses the contributions provided by geomorphology in studies suited to the assessment of seismic risk: this is defined as function of the seismic hazard, of the seismic susceptibility, and of the vulnerability. The geomorphological studies applicable to seismic risk assessment can be divided into two sectors: (a) morpho-neotectonic investigations conducted to identify active tectonic structures; (b) geomorphological and morphometric analyses aimed at identifying the particular situations that amplify or reduce seismic susceptibility. The morpho-neotectonic studies lead to the identification, selection and classification of the lineaments that can be linked with active tectonic structures. The most important geomorphological situations that can condition seismic susceptibility are: slope angle, debris, morphology, degradational slopes, paleo-landslides and underground cavities.

  8. Seismic assessment of a multi-span steel railway bridge in Turkey based on nonlinear time history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Mehmet F.; Çağlayan, Barlas Ö.

    2018-01-01

    Many research studies have shown that bridges are vulnerable to earthquakes, graphically confirmed by incidents such as the San Fernando (1971 USA), Northridge (1994 USA), Great Hanshin (1995 Japan), and Chi-Chi (1999 Taiwan) earthquakes, amongst many others. The studies show that fragility curves are useful tools for bridge seismic risk assessments, which can be generated empirically or analytically. Empirical fragility curves can be generated where damage reports from past earthquakes are available, but otherwise, analytical fragility curves can be generated from structural seismic response analysis. Earthquake damage data in Turkey are very limited, hence this study employed an analytical method to generate fragility curves for the Alasehir bridge. The Alasehir bridge is part of the Manisa-Uşak-Dumlupınar-Afyon railway line, which is very important for human and freight transportation, and since most of the country is seismically active, it is essential to assess the bridge's vulnerability. The bridge consists of six 30 m truss spans with a total span 189 m supported by 2 abutments and 5 truss piers, 12.5, 19, 26, 33, and 40 m. Sap2000 software was used to model the Alasehir bridge, which was refined using field measurements, and the effect of 60 selected real earthquake data analyzed using the refined model, considering material and geometry nonlinearity. Thus, the seismic behavior of Alasehir railway bridge was determined and truss pier reaction and displacements were used to determine its seismic performance. Different intensity measures were compared for efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency and their component and system fragility curves derived.

  9. Studying physical properties of deformed intact and fractured rocks by micro-scale hydro-mechanical-seismicity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziperchikolaee, Samin

    The pore pressure variation in an underground formation during hydraulic stimulation of low permeability formations or CO2 sequestration into saline aquifers can induce microseismicity due to fracture generation or pre-existing fracture activation. While the analysis of microseismic data mainly focuses on mapping the location of fractures, the seismic waves generated by the microseismic events also contain information for understanding of fracture mechanisms based on microseismic source analysis. We developed a micro-scale geomechanics, fluid-flow and seismic model that can predict transport and seismic source behavior during rock failure. This model features the incorporation of microseismic source analysis in fractured and intact rock transport properties during possible rock damage and failure. The modeling method considers comprehensive grains and cements interaction through a bonded-particle-model. As a result of grain deformation and microcrack development in the rock sample, forces and displacements in the grains involved in the bond breakage are measured to determine seismic moment tensor. In addition, geometric description of the complex pore structure is regenerated to predict fluid flow behavior of fractured samples. Numerical experiments are conducted for different intact and fractured digital rock samples, representing various mechanical behaviors of rocks and fracture surface properties, to consider their roles on seismic and transport properties of rocks during deformation. Studying rock deformation in detail provides an opportunity to understand the relationship between source mechanism of microseismic events and transport properties of damaged rocks to have a better characterizing of fluid flow behavior in subsurface formations.

  10. A reliable simultaneous representation of seismic hazard and of ground shaking recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresan, A.; Panza, G. F.; Magrin, A.; Vaccari, F.

    2015-12-01

    Different earthquake hazard maps may be appropriate for different purposes - such as emergency management, insurance and engineering design. Accounting for the lower occurrence rate of larger sporadic earthquakes may allow to formulate cost-effective policies in some specific applications, provided that statistically sound recurrence estimates are used, which is not typically the case of PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment). We illustrate the procedure to associate the expected ground motions from Neo-deterministic Seismic Hazard Assessment (NDSHA) to an estimate of their recurrence. Neo-deterministic refers to a scenario-based approach, which allows for the construction of a broad range of earthquake scenarios via full waveforms modeling. From the synthetic seismograms the estimates of peak ground acceleration, velocity and displacement, or any other parameter relevant to seismic engineering, can be extracted. NDSHA, in its standard form, defines the hazard computed from a wide set of scenario earthquakes (including the largest deterministically or historically defined credible earthquake, MCE) and it does not supply the frequency of occurrence of the expected ground shaking. A recent enhanced variant of NDSHA that reliably accounts for recurrence has been developed and it is applied to the Italian territory. The characterization of the frequency-magnitude relation can be performed by any statistically sound method supported by data (e.g. multi-scale seismicity model), so that a recurrence estimate is associated to each of the pertinent sources. In this way a standard NDSHA map of ground shaking is obtained simultaneously with the map of the corresponding recurrences. The introduction of recurrence estimates in NDSHA naturally allows for the generation of ground shaking maps at specified return periods. This permits a straightforward comparison between NDSHA and PSHA maps.

  11. Added-value joint source modelling of seismic and geodetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhaus, Henriette; Heimann, Sebastian; Walter, Thomas R.; Krueger, Frank

    2013-04-01

    In tectonically active regions earthquake source studies strongly support the analysis of the current faulting processes as they reveal the location and geometry of active faults, the average slip released or more. For source modelling of shallow, moderate to large earthquakes often a combination of geodetic (GPS, InSAR) and seismic data is used. A truly joint use of these data, however, usually takes place only on a higher modelling level, where some of the first-order characteristics (time, centroid location, fault orientation, moment) have been fixed already. These required basis model parameters have to be given, assumed or inferred in a previous, separate and highly non-linear modelling step using one of the these data sets alone. We present a new earthquake rupture model implementation that realizes a fully combined data integration of surface displacement measurements and seismic data in a non-linear optimization of simple but extended planar ruptures. The model implementation allows for fast forward calculations of full seismograms and surface deformation and therefore enables us to use Monte Carlo global search algorithms. Furthermore, we benefit from the complementary character of seismic and geodetic data, e. g. the high definition of the source location from geodetic data and the sensitivity of the resolution of the seismic data on moment releases at larger depth. These increased constraints from the combined dataset make optimizations efficient, even for larger model parameter spaces and with a very limited amount of a priori assumption on the source. A vital part of our approach is rigorous data weighting based on the empirically estimated data errors. We construct full data error variance-covariance matrices for geodetic data to account for correlated data noise and also weight the seismic data based on their signal-to-noise ratio. The estimation of the data errors and the fast forward modelling opens the door for Bayesian inferences of the source

  12. Seismic sequences in the Sombrero Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, J.; Huerfano, V. A.; ten Brink, U.; von Hillebrandt, C.

    2007-05-01

    The northeastern Caribbean, in the vicinity of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, has a long and well-documented history of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis, including major events in 1670, 1787, 1867, 1916, 1918, and 1943. Recently, seismicity has been concentrated to the north and west of the British Virgin Islands, in the region referred to as the Sombrero Seismic Zone by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). In the combined seismicity catalog maintained by the PRSN, several hundred small to moderate magnitude events can be found in this region prior to 2006. However, beginning in 2006 and continuing to the present, the rate of seismicity in the Sombrero suddenly increased, and a new locus of activity developed to the east of the previous location. Accurate estimates of seismic hazard, and the tsunamigenic potential of seismic events, depend on an accurate and comprehensive understanding of how strain is being accommodated in this corner region. Are faults locked and accumulating strain for release in a major event? Or is strain being released via slip over a diffuse system of faults? A careful analysis of seismicity patterns in the Sombrero region has the potential to both identify faults and modes of failure, provided the aggregation scheme is tuned to properly identify related events. To this end, we experimented with a scheme to identify seismic sequences based on physical and temporal proximity, under the assumptions that (a) events occur on related fault systems as stress is refocused by immediately previous events and (b) such 'stress waves' die out with time, so that two events that occur on the same system within a relatively short time window can be said to have a similar 'trigger' in ways that two nearby events that occurred years apart cannot. Patterns that emerge from the identification, temporal sequence, and refined locations of such sequences of events carry information about stress accommodation that is obscured by large clouds of

  13. Patterns of Seismicity Associated with USGS Identified Areas of Potentially Induced Seismicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Caitlin; Halihan, Todd

    2018-03-13

    A systematic review across U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) identified potentially induced seismic locations was conducted to discover seismic distance patterns and trends over time away from injection disposal wells. Previous research indicates a 10 km (6 miles) average where the majority of induced seismicity is expected to occur within individual locations, with some areas reporting a larger radius of 35 km (22 miles) to over 70 km (43 miles). This research analyzed earthquake occurrences within nine USGS locations where specified wells were identified as contributors to induced seismicity to determine distance patterns from disposal wells or outward seismic migration over time using established principles of hydrogeology. Results indicate a radius of 31.6 km (20 miles) where 90% of felt earthquakes occur among locations, with the closest proximal felt seismic events, on average, occurring 3 km (1.9 miles) away from injection disposal wells. The results of this research found distance trends across multiple locations of potentially induced seismicity. © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Analysis of induced seismicity at The Geysers geothermal field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emolo, A.; Maercklin, N.; Matrullo, E.; Orefice, A.; Amoroso, O.; Convertito, V.; Sharma, N.; Zollo, A.

    2012-12-01

    seismicity studies of this geothermal field, we find that events occurring in the NW sector are on average deeper than in the SE area. To infer the present stress regime, we computed focal mechanisms of a large event data set with M > 2, using P-wave first-arrival polarities. The found fault-plane solutions show a dominant strike-slip and normal faulting mechanisms, with P and T axes coherently oriented with expected regional stress field for the area. We also determined the main seismic source parameters from a multi-step, iterative inversion of P-wave displacement spectra, assuming a four-parameters spectral model and a constant-Q attenuation mechanism. In particular, we computed seismic moments, source radii and stress drops. We observe a self-similar scaling of source parameters in the whole investigated magnitude range, with a nearly constant stress-drop of 20 and 120 MPa depending on the use of Brune (1970) or Madariaga (1976)'s source model respectively.

  15. Development of Seismic Isolation Systems Using Periodic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yiqun [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Mo, Yi-Lung [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Menq, Farn-Yuh [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Stokoe, II, Kenneth H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Perkins, Judy [Prairie View A & M University, Prairie View, TX (United States); Tang, Yu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Advanced fast nuclear power plants and small modular fast reactors are composed of thin-walled structures such as pipes; as a result, they do not have sufficient inherent strength to resist seismic loads. Seismic isolation, therefore, is an effective solution for mitigating earthquake hazards for these types of structures. Base isolation, on which numerous studies have been conducted, is a well-defined structure protection system against earthquakes. In conventional isolators, such as high-damping rubber bearings, lead-rubber bearings, and friction pendulum bearings, large relative displacements occur between upper structures and foundations. Only isolation in a horizontal direction is provided; these features are not desirable for the piping systems. The concept of periodic materials, based on the theory of solid-state physics, can be applied to earthquake engineering. The periodic material is a material that possesses distinct characteristics that prevent waves with certain frequencies from being transmitted through it; therefore, this material can be used in structural foundations to block unwanted seismic waves with certain frequencies. The frequency band of periodic material that can filter out waves is called the band gap, and the structural foundation made of periodic material is referred to as the periodic foundation. The design of a nuclear power plant, therefore, can be unified around the desirable feature of a periodic foundation, while the continuous maintenance of the structure is not needed. In this research project, three different types of periodic foundations were studied: one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional. The basic theories of periodic foundations are introduced first to find the band gaps; then the finite element methods are used, to perform parametric analysis, and obtain attenuation zones; finally, experimental programs are conducted, and the test data are analyzed to verify the theory. This procedure shows that the

  16. Seismic analysis of reactor exhaust-air Filter Compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, C.; Funderburk, E.L.; Jerrel, J.W.; Vashi, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a scoping analysis for assessment of seismic adequacy of a Filter Compartments (FC) that is part of an Airborne Activity Confinement System (AACS) in K, L, and P Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS). For an expeditious assessment and to increase the possibility of showing the adequacy of the FC, the finite element model incorporated certain conceptual reinforcing modifications suggested by a previous study. The model also set the vertical displacements at zero at the interface between the FC and the rail dolly, upon which the FC rests by gravity. In addition, the rail-dolly was assumed to be rigid and rigidly attached to the rails. The analysis was performed using the dynamic modal superposition response spectra capability of the ABAQUS computer code. Certain modelling approximations and linearized representation of boundary conditions were employed for utilization of the code and the selected analysis capability. The analysis results showed that the FC stresses and deformations were within the yield limit and that the structural integrity of the FC and the operability of the filters can be preserved as required for the defined seismic event consistent with the linearization assumptions, modelling simplifications, and incorporation of the conceptual reinforcing modifications. However, the rail-dolly rigidity, the FC hold-down to the rails must be ensured for this scoping analysis to be valid. 2 refs

  17. Seismic proving test of process computer systems with a seismic floor isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Niwa, H.; Kondo, H.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have carried out seismic proving tests for process computer systems as a Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) project sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). This paper presents the seismic test results for evaluating functional capabilities of process computer systems with a seismic floor isolation system. The seismic floor isolation system to isolate the horizontal motion was composed of a floor frame (13 m x 13 m), ball bearing units, and spring-damper units. A series of seismic excitation tests was carried out using a large-scale shaking table of NUPEC. From the test results, the functional capabilities during large earthquakes of computer systems with a seismic floor isolation system were verified

  18. Seismic gaps and plate tectonics: seismic potential for major boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, W R; Nishenko, S P; Sykes, L R; Krause, J

    1979-01-01

    The theory of plate tectonics provides a basic framework for evaluating the potential for future great earthquakes to occur along major plate boundaries. Along most of the transform and convergent plate boundaries considered in this paper, the majority of seismic slip occurs during large earthquakes, i.e., those of magnitude 7 or greater. The concepts that rupture zones, as delineated by aftershocks, tend to abut rather than overlap, and large events occur in regions with histories of both long-and short-term seismic quiescence are used in this paper to delineate major seismic gaps. The term seismic gap is taken to refer to any region along an active plate boundary that has not experienced a large thrust or strike-slip earthquake for more than 30 years. A region of high seismic potential is a seismic gap that, for historic or tectonic reasons, is considered likely to produce a large shock during the next few decades. The seismic gap technique provides estimates of the location, size of future events and origin time to within a few tens of years at best. The accompanying map summarizes six categories of seismic potential for major plate boundaries in and around the margins of the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean, South Sandwich and Sunda (Indonesia) regions for the next few decades. These six categories are meant to be interpreted as forecasts of the location and size of future large shocks and should not be considered to be predictions in which a precise estimate of the time of occurrence is specified. The categories of potential assigned here provide a rationale for assigning priorities for instrumentation, for future studies aimed at predicting large earthquakes and for making estimates of tsunami potential.

  19. Near-field ground-motion intensity related to displacement of objects; Chokka jishin ni yoru buttai no ido to jishindo tsuyosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omachi, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    Examples of object displacement due to the earthquake in Japan were reversely analyzed. The example of stone jumping in 1984 was studied. Because of soft ground, the characteristic period can be detected by composing a spring system of stone (as a mass) against the ground. As the phenomenon is considered as seismic response, the following facts were known through vibrational test and numerical analysis simulation: the stone jumping is a non-linear response, and depends upon the period and amplitude of input. Its distance is influenced by the horizontal movement. To make the stone jump, the component of which the period is 0.3 to 1.0 sec is dominant with the necessary acceleration of 1.5g. A bell tower weighing 5t in total was displaced 1m by the earthquake in 1909. A model test was conducted by measuring the characteristic period of ground and bell tower. It was known that not the vibration in the direction of beams, but the stronger vibration than 0.1g in the diagonal direction made the pillars jump. The earthquake in 1930 made an exhibited torpedo slide and leave its frictional marks. Through the simulation conducted, it was presumed that the first and succeeding frictional marks were marked by the P-wave and S-wave, respectively, and that the seismic duration was almost 10 sec with the acceleration of 1.3 to 2g. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Recent Vs. Historical Seismicity Analysis For Banat Seismic Region (Western Part Of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oros Eugen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present day seismic activity from a region reflects the active tectonics and can confirm the seismic potential of the seismogenic sources as they are modelled using the historical seismicity. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the last decade seismicity recorded in the Banat Seismic Region (western part of Romania and the historical seismicity of the region (Mw≥4.0. Four significant earthquake sequences have been recently localized in the region, three of them nearby the city of Timisoara (January 2012 and March 2013 and the fourth within Hateg Basin, South Carpathians (October 2013. These sequences occurred within the epicentral areas of some strong historical earthquakes (Mw≥5.0. The main events had some macroseismic effects on people up to some few kilometers from the epicenters. Our results update the Romanian earthquakes catalogue and bring new information along the local seismic hazard sources models and seismotectonics.

  1. GPS on Every Roof, GPS Sensor Network for Post-Seismic Building-Wise Damage Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Oguni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of wireless sensor network equipped with GPS for post-seismic building-wise damage identification is presented in this paper. This system is called GPS on Every Roof. Sensor node equipped with GPS antenna and receiver is installed on the top of the roof of each and every building. The position of this sensor node is measured before and after earthquake. The final goal of this system is to i identify the displacement of the roof of each house and ii collect the information of displacement of the roof of the houses through wireless communication. Superposing this information on GIS, building-wise damage distribution due to earthquake can be obtained. The system overview, hardware and some of the key components of the system such as on-board GPS relative positioning algorithm to achieve the accuracy in the order of several centimeters are described in detail. Also, the results from a field experiment using a wireless sensor network with 39 sensor nodes are presented.

  2. Delineation of seismic source zones based on seismicity parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    these source zones were evaluated and were used in the hazard evaluation. ... seismic sources, linear and areal, were considered in the present study to model the seismic sources in the ..... taken as an authentic reference manual for iden-.

  3. Micro-seismicity and seismic moment release within the Coso Geothermal Field, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, Joern; Hickman, Stephen H.; Davatzes, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    We relocate 16 years of seismicity in the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) using differential travel times and simultaneously invert for seismic velocities to improve our knowledge of the subsurface geologic and hydrologic structure. We expand on our previous results by doubling the number of relocated events from April 1996 through May 2012 using a new field-wide 3-D velocity model. Relocated micro-seismicity sharpens in many portions of the active geothermal reservoir, likely defining large-scale fault zones and fluid pressure compartment boundaries. However, a significant fraction of seismicity remains diffuse and does not cluster into sharply defined structures, suggesting that permeability is maintained within the reservoir through distributed brittle failure. The seismic velocity structure reveals heterogeneous distributions of compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave speed, with Vs generally higher in the Main Field and East Flank and Vp remaining relatively uniform across the CGF, but with significant local variations. The Vp/Vs ratio appears to outline the two main producing compartments of the reservoir at depths below mean ground level of approximately 1 to 2.5 km, with a ridge of relatively high Vp/Vs separating the Main Field from the East Flank. Detailed analyses of spatial and temporal variations in earthquake relocations and cumulative seismic moment release in the East Flank reveal three regions with persistently high rates of seismic activity. Two of these regions exhibit sharp, stationary boundaries at the margins of the East Flank that likely represent barriers to fluid flow and advective heat transport. However, seismicity and moment release in a third region at the northern end of the East Flank spread over time to form an elongated NE to SW structure, roughly parallel both to an elongated cluster of seismicity at the southern end of the East Flank and to regional fault traces mapped at the surface. Our results indicate that high

  4. Development of Canadian seismic design approach and overview of seismic standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usmani, A. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, ON (Canada); Aziz, T. [TSAziz Consulting Inc., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Historically the Canadian seismic design approaches have evolved for CANDU® nuclear power plants to ensure that they are designed to withstand a design basis earthquake (DBE) and have margins to meet the safety requirements of beyond DBE (BDBE). While the Canadian approach differs from others, it is comparable and in some cases more conservative. The seismic requirements are captured in five CSA nuclear standards which are kept up to date and incorporate lessons learnt from recent seismic events. This paper describes the evolution of Canadian approach, comparison with others and provides an overview and salient features of CSA seismic standards. (author)

  5. Earthquake Protection of Existing Structures with Limited Seismic Joint: Base Isolation with Supplemental Damping versus Rotational Inertia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario De Domenico

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing civil engineering structures having strategic importance, such as hospitals, fire stations, and power plants, often do not comply with seismic standards in force today, as they were designed and built based on past structural guidelines. On the other hand, due to their special importance, structural integrity of such buildings is of vital importance during and after earthquakes, which puts demands on strategies for their seismic protection. In this regard, seismic base isolation has been widely employed; however, the existing limited seismic joint between adjacent buildings may hamper this application because of the large displacements concentrated at the isolation floor. In this paper, we compare two possible remedies: the former is to provide supplemental damping in conventional base isolation systems and the latter consists in a combination of base isolation with supplemental rotational inertia. For the second strategy, a mechanical device, called inerter, is arranged in series with spring and dashpot elements to form the so-called tuned-mass-damper-inerter (TMDI directly connected to an isolation floor. Several advantages of this second system as compared to the first one are outlined, especially with regard to the limitation of floor accelerations and interstory drifts, which may be an issue for nonstructural elements and equipment, in addition to disturbing occupants. Once the optimal design of the TMDI is established, possible implementation of this system into existing structures is discussed.

  6. Intensity estimation of historical earthquakes through seismic analysis of wooden house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I. K.; Soe, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The intensity of historical earthquake records related with house collapses are estimated by the seismic analyses of traditional three-bay-straw-roof house. Eighteen artificial time histories for magnitudes 6-8, epicentral distances 5 km - 350 km and hard and soft soil condition were generated for the analyses. Nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed for a traditional three-bay-roof house. Damage level of the wooden house according to the input earthquake motions and the MM intensity were estimated by maximum displacement response at the top of columns. Considering the structural characteristics of the three-bay-straw-roof house, the largest historical earthquake record related to the house collapse is about MMI VIII

  7. SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in the PS-InSAR processing chain. Besides the tectonic signal, man-induced surface displacements caused by oil extraction are investigated. A comparison between the estimates from leveling and InSAR provides detailed insight into the temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface displacement as well as into the possibilities and limits of the measurement techniques.

  8. Effects of Strike-Slip Fault Segmentation on Earthquake Energy and Seismic Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, E. H.; Cooke, M. L.; Savage, H. M.; McBeck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many major strike-slip faults are segmented along strike, including those along plate boundaries in California and Turkey. Failure of distinct fault segments at depth may be the source of multiple pulses of seismic radiation observed for single earthquakes. However, how and when segmentation affects fault behavior and energy release is the basis of many outstanding questions related to the physics of faulting and seismic hazard. These include the probability for a single earthquake to rupture multiple fault segments and the effects of segmentation on earthquake magnitude, radiated seismic energy, and ground motions. Using numerical models, we quantify components of the earthquake energy budget, including the tectonic work acting externally on the system, the energy of internal rock strain, the energy required to overcome fault strength and initiate slip, the energy required to overcome frictional resistance during slip, and the radiated seismic energy. We compare the energy budgets of systems of two en echelon fault segments with various spacing that include both releasing and restraining steps. First, we allow the fault segments to fail simultaneously and capture the effects of segmentation geometry on the earthquake energy budget and on the efficiency with which applied displacement is accommodated. Assuming that higher efficiency correlates with higher probability for a single, larger earthquake, this approach has utility for assessing the seismic hazard of segmented faults. Second, we nucleate slip along a weak portion of one fault segment and let the quasi-static rupture propagate across the system. Allowing fractures to form near faults in these models shows that damage develops within releasing steps and promotes slip along the second fault, while damage develops outside of restraining steps and can prohibit slip along the second fault. Work is consumed in both the propagation of and frictional slip along these new fractures, impacting the energy available

  9. Rescaled Range analysis of Induced Seismicity: rapid classification of clusters in seismic crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejar-Pizarro, M.; Perez Lopez, R.; Benito-Parejo, M.; Guardiola-Albert, C.; Herraiz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Different underground fluid operations, mainly gas storing, fracking and water pumping, can trigger Induced Seismicity (IS). This seismicity is normally featured by small-sized earthquakes (M<2.5), although particular cases reach magnitude as great as 5. It has been up for debate whether earthquakes greater than 5 can be triggered by IS or this level of magnitude only corresponds to tectonic earthquakes caused by stress change. Whatever the case, the characterization of IS for seismic clusters and seismic series recorded close but not into the gas storage, is still under discussion. Time-series of earthquakes obey non-linear patterns where the Hurst exponent describes the persistency or anti-persistency of the sequence. Natural seismic sequences have an H-exponent close to 0.7, which combined with the b-value time evolution during the time clusters, give us valuable information about the stationarity of the phenomena. Tectonic earthquakes consist in a main shock with a decay of time-occurrence of seismic shocks obeying the Omori's empirical law. On the contrary, IS does not exhibit a main shock and the time occurrence depends on the injection operations instead of on the tectonic energy released. In this context, the H-exponent can give information about the origin of the sequence. In 2013, a seismic crisis was declared from the Castor underground gas storing located off-shore in the Mediterranean Sea, close to the Northeastern Spanish cost. The greatest induced earthquake was 3.7. However, a 4.2 earthquake, probably of tectonic origin, occurred few days after the operations stopped. In this work, we have compared the H-exponent and the b-value time evolution according to the timeline of gas injection. Moreover, we have divided the seismic sequence into two groups: (1) Induced Seismicity and (2) Triggered Seismicity. The rescaled range analysis allows the differentiation between natural and induced seismicity and gives information about the persistency and long

  10. Seismic imaging of small horizontal scale structures of the shallow thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf (North-East Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piete, H.; Marié, L.; Marsset, B.; Gutscher, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recent development of the seismic oceanography technique has made possible the imaging of a variety of deep oceanographic structures (Holbrook et al., 2003); however, until now this method has remained ill suited for the study of shallow (environment) and 2- spectral contents offering high vertical resolutions (relevant to the mapping of small vertical wavelength structures). In this study we defined and tested a new experimental seismic acquisition system capable of imaging the ~10 m thick seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. To accomplish this task, we pursued two complementary approaches: 1. Analysis of legacy seismic data (multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired on the East-Corsican margin, Bahamas Plateau and Gulf of Cadiz in various oceanographic environments) featuring reflectors at depths between 25 and 150 m, in order to identify and quantify the influence of acquisition parameters (seismic trace length, offsets, emission level and frequency content). 2. Incorporation of new oceanographic data acquired during the FROMVAR cruise (July 28th to August 10th 2010) on the western Brittany shelf in thermally stratified waters for use in the simulation of the seismic acquisition, in order to further define the optimal parameters for the system. Finally a 3D seismic system has emerged and was tested during the ASPEX scientific cruise led from June 17th to 19th 2012 across the western Brittany shelf. The device featured: i- four seismic streamers, each consisting of 6 traces at a spacing of 1.80 m; ii- a 1000 J SIG Sparker producing a 400 Hz signal with a 220 dB re 1μPa @1m level of emission, towed at a 8 m distance of the first seismic trace. This survey provided high lateral resolution images of the seasonal thermocline located at a 30 m depth with vertical displacements induced by internal waves. References Holbrook, W.S., Paramo, P., Pearse, S. and Schmitt, R.W., 2003. Thermohaline Fine Structure in an Oceanographic

  11. Stress analysis of fuel assemblies under seismic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, A.; Krutko, E.; Kiselev, I.; Tutnov, A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the important parts of fuel assemblies (FA) safety validation is their strength estimation under the dynamic loads, such as the vibration effects caused by the work of reactor units and the seismic exposure of an earthquake, leading to extreme inertia loads on all elements of the NPP. Taking into account structural features of FA and a very large mass, the exposure of seismic loads can lead to significant deformation of fuel assemblies. It is necessary to assess the magnitude of the force interaction between the FA in case of an earthquake to estimate the strength and performance of fuel assemblies. It is also necessary to compute FA bending forms and maximum values for further RPS control rods inserting time estimation, and for disassembly possibility justification of the core and individual FA after the earthquake. The problem of WWER-1000 core dynamic behavior modeling with TVS-2M fuel assemblies under the seismic loads exposure using the finite element method is described. Each fuel assembly is represented by equivalent rod finite element model. The reactor core is simulated by 163 fuel assemblies in accordance with the reactor core construction. Stiffness characteristics of fuel assemblies are determined on the results of a series of static and dynamic TVS-2M FA field tests. The special algorithm was developed to consider the fuel rod slippage effect during deformation. The special contact elements are introduced into the model of the core to take into account the interaction of fuel assemblies with their neighbors and with core barrel. Solution of the dynamic equilibrium equations system of finite element model is implemented by direct integration using the explicit scheme. Parallel algorithms for numerical integration on multiprocessor computers with graphics processing unit is developed to improve the efficiency of calculations. Values of nodes displacement in finite element model of reactor core as a function of seismic excitation time are obtained

  12. The mechanical behavior and weakening mechanisms of smectite-rich SAFOD gouge at seismic slip-rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, M. E.; Kitajima, H.; Chester, J. S.; Chester, F. M.

    2011-12-01

    most sample centers where the velocity and displacement were smallest. A clay-foliation developed by ~5 m of displacement throughout the rest of the samples at all velocities tested; however the foliation is best developed in the highest velocity experiments. Under the highest velocity and/or displacement conditions poorly-foliated to nonfoliated regions develop parallel and oblique to the foliation. In some cases the non-foliated, disaggregated gouge contains fragments of foliated material and forms flame-like features that cross-cut and disrupt adjacent foliated zones. The disrupted zones occur in regions of different displacement and velocity conditions where the temperatures may have risen high enough to promote pore fluid pressurization and vaporization. Because these experiments are essentially vented, we expect greater weakening in-situ where fluid escape is limited. Thus, although previous studies have shown this material to be velocity-strengthening at sub-seismic slip rates, the creeping segment of the SAF and similar clay-rich faults may be capable of propagating seismic rupture.

  13. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Yongbo; Dong, Hongying; Zhou, Zhongyi; Qiao, Qiyun

    2014-08-19

    Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA) and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied.

  14. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanlin Cao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recycled concrete brick (RCB is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied.

  15. Experimental Study on the Seismic Performance of Recycled Concrete Brick Walls Embedded with Vertical Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanlin; Zhang, Yongbo; Dong, Hongying; Zhou, Zhongyi; Qiao, Qiyun

    2014-01-01

    Recycled concrete brick (RCB) is manufactured by recycled aggregate processed from discarded concrete blocks arising from the demolishing of existing buildings. This paper presents research on the seismic performance of RCB masonry walls to assess the applicability of RCB for use in rural low-rise constructions. The seismic performance of a masonry wall is closely related to the vertical load applied to the wall. Thus, the compressive performance of RCB masonry was investigated firstly by constructing and testing eighteen RCB masonry compressive specimens with different mortar strengths. The load-bearing capacity, deformation and failure characteristic were analyzed, as well. Then, a quasi-static test was carried out to study the seismic behavior of RCB walls by eight RCB masonry walls subjected to an axial compressive load and a reversed cyclic lateral load. Based on the test results, equations for predicting the compressive strength of RCB masonry and the lateral ultimate strength of an RCB masonry wall were proposed. Experimental values were found to be in good agreement with the predicted values. Meanwhile, finite element analysis (FEA) and parametric analysis of the RCB walls were carried out using ABAQUS software. The elastic-plastic deformation characteristics and the lateral load-displacement relations were studied. PMID:28788170

  16. Seismic intrusion detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  17. Inter-Rifting and Inter-Seismic Strain Accumulation in a Propagating Ridge System: A Geodetic Study from South Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, M. E.; La Femina, P. C.; Geirsson, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a slow spreading (~19 mm/yr) mid-ocean ridge boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates, is exposed subaerially in Iceland as the result of ridge-hotspot interaction. Plate spreading in Iceland is accommodated along neovolcanic zones comprised of central volcanoes and their fissure swarms. In south Iceland plate motion is partitioned between the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) and Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). The EVZ is propagating to the southwest, while the WVZ is dying out from the northeast. Plate motion across both systems has been accommodated by repeated rifting events and fissure eruptions. In this study we investigate whether the WVZ is active and accumulating strain, and how strain is partitioned between the WVZ and EVZ. We also test how strain is accumulating along fissure swarms within the EVZ (i.e. is strain accumulation localized to one fissure swarm, or are multiple systems active?). We use GPS data and elastic block models run using the program DEFNODE to investigate these issues. GPS data are processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software, and have been truncated to the 2000.5-2011 time period to avoid co-seismic displacement from the two June 2000 South Iceland Seismic Zone earthquakes. We also truncate the time series for sites within 20 km of Eyjafjallajökull to the beginning of 2010 to eliminate deformation associated with the March 2010 eruption of that volcano. We correct for co-seismic displacement from the two May 2008 SISZ earthquakes, inflation at Hekla volcano and the horizontal component of glacial isostatic rebound (GIA). Our best-fit model for inter-rifting and inter-seismic elastic strain accumulation suggests 80-90% of spreading is accommodated in the EVZ with the other 10-20% accommodated by the WVZ. The best-fit location of the EVZ is between Veidivotn and Lakigigar in an area of no Holocene volcanic activity. We suggest the WVZ is only active at Hengill and its associated fissure swarm. Geologic and

  18. Quantitative Seismic Amplitude Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dey, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Seismic Value Chain quantifies the cyclic interaction between seismic acquisition, imaging and reservoir characterization. Modern seismic innovation to address the global imbalance in hydrocarbon supply and demand requires such cyclic interaction of both feed-forward and feed-back processes.

  19. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-08-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  20. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  1. Development and seismic evaluation of the seismic monitoring analysis system for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, J. S.; Youn, D. B.; Kim, H. G.; Woo, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Since the start of operation, the seismic monitoring system has been utilized for monitoring an earthquake at the HANARO site. The existing seismic monitoring system consists of field sensors and monitoring panel. The analog-type monitoring system with magnetic tape recorder is out-of-date model. In addition, the disadvantage of the existing system is that it does not include signal-analyzing equipment. Therefore, we have improved the analog seismic monitoring system except the field sensors into a new digital Seismic Monitoring Analysis System(SMAS) that can monitor and analyze earthquake signals. To achieve this objective for HANARO, the digital type hardware of the SMAS has been developed. The seismic monitoring and analysis programs that can provide rapid and precise information for an earthquake were developed. After the installation of the SMAS, we carried out the Site Acceptance Test (SAT) to confirm the functional capability of the newly developed system. The results of the SAT satisfy the requirements of the fabrication technical specifications. In addition, the seismic characteristics and structural integrity of the SMAS were evaluated. The results show that the cabinet of SMAS can withstand the effects of seismic loads and remain functional. This new SMAS is operating in the HANARO instrument room to acquire and analyze the signal of an earthquake

  2. A seismic design of nuclear reactor building structures applying seismic isolation system in a seismicity region-a feasibility case study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Tetsuo [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Tomofumi; Sato, Kunihiko [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Jimbo, Masakazu [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Imaoka, Tetsuo [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Umeki, Yoshito [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    A feasibility study on the seismic design of nuclear reactor buildings with application of a seismic isolation system is introduced. After the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake in Japan of 1995, seismic isolation technologies have been widely employed for commercial buildings. Having become a mature technology, seismic isolation systems can be applied to NPP facilities in areas of high seismicity. Two reactor buildings are discussed, representing the PWR and BWR buildings in Japan, and the application of seismic isolation systems is discussed. The isolation system employing rubber bearings with a lead plug positioned (LRB) is examined. Through a series of seismic response analyses using the so-named standard design earthquake motions covering the design basis earthquake motions obtained for NPP sites in Japan, the responses of the seismic isolated reactor buildings are evaluated. It is revealed that for the building structures examined herein: (1) the responses of both isolated buildings and isolating LRBs fulfill the specified design criteria; (2) the responses obtained for the isolating LRBs first reach the ultimate condition when intensity of motion is 2.0 to 2.5 times as large as that of the design-basis; and (3) the responses of isolated reactor building fall below the range of the prescribed criteria.

  3. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

  4. Seismic assessment of a multi-span steel railway bridge in Turkey based on nonlinear time history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Yılmaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies have shown that bridges are vulnerable to earthquakes, graphically confirmed by incidents such as the San Fernando (1971 USA, Northridge (1994 USA, Great Hanshin (1995 Japan, and Chi-Chi (1999 Taiwan earthquakes, amongst many others. The studies show that fragility curves are useful tools for bridge seismic risk assessments, which can be generated empirically or analytically. Empirical fragility curves can be generated where damage reports from past earthquakes are available, but otherwise, analytical fragility curves can be generated from structural seismic response analysis. Earthquake damage data in Turkey are very limited, hence this study employed an analytical method to generate fragility curves for the Alasehir bridge. The Alasehir bridge is part of the Manisa–Uşak–Dumlupınar–Afyon railway line, which is very important for human and freight transportation, and since most of the country is seismically active, it is essential to assess the bridge's vulnerability. The bridge consists of six 30 m truss spans with a total span 189 m supported by 2 abutments and 5 truss piers, 12.5, 19, 26, 33, and 40 m. Sap2000 software was used to model the Alasehir bridge, which was refined using field measurements, and the effect of 60 selected real earthquake data analyzed using the refined model, considering material and geometry nonlinearity. Thus, the seismic behavior of Alasehir railway bridge was determined and truss pier reaction and displacements were used to determine its seismic performance. Different intensity measures were compared for efficiency, practicality, and sufficiency and their component and system fragility curves derived.

  5. Analytical solutions for the study of immersed unanchored structures under seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mege, Romain

    2011-01-01

    In the nuclear energy industry, most of the major components are anchored to the civil works using numerous types of supports devices. These anchorages are big issues of the nuclear plant design: the implantation of the components has to be fixed definitely, stress concentration in the surroundings of the anchorage, and for immersed structure, possible loss of the impermeability. Thereby, under certain safety regulations, some structures lay directly on the ground. This is the case for in air or underwater structure, such as fuel storage racks. This solution gives more flexibility in the use of the components and a decrease of the stress. However, one has to evaluate precisely the behavior of this sliding structure, and in particular, the cumulated sliding displacement during a seismic event in order to prevent any impact with other components. During a seismic event, the unanchored structure can slide, rotate and tilt. The aim of this paper is to present analytical solutions to estimate the sliding amplitudes of different simplified systems which represent a given dynamic behavior. These simplified models are: a sliding mass and a complex sliding structure defined by its eigenmodes. Each simplified system corresponds to a different set of assumptions made on the flexibility of the structure. Two analytical solutions are presented in this article: single sliding mass and a vertical sliding beam. In each model, the fluid-structure interaction between the immersed body and the pool is modeled as hydrodynamic masses. The sliding is represented by Coulomb friction. The seismic loading can be any 3D seismic accelerogram. The analytical solutions are obtained considering the different phases of the movement and the continuity between each phase. The results are then compared to the values computed with the commercial Finite Element package ANSYS TM . The analytical curves show a good fit of the computational results. (author)

  6. Preliminary seismic analysis of an innovative near term reactor: Methodology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Frano, R.; Pugliese, G.; Forasassi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) design is strictly dependent on seismic hazard and safety aspects concerned with the external events of the site. Earthquake resistant structures design requires realistic and accurate physical and theoretical models to describe the response of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that depend on both the ground motion characteristics and the dynamic properties of the structures themselves. In order to improve the design of new NPPs and, at the same time, to retrofit existing ones the dynamic behaviour of structures subjected to critical seismic excitations that may occur during their expected service life must be evaluated. The aim of this work is to select new effective methods to assess NPPs vulnerability by properly capturing the effects of a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event on nuclear structures, like the near term deployment IRIS reactor, and to evaluate the seismic resistance capability of as-built structures systems and components. To attain the purpose a validated deterministic methodology based on an accurate finite element modelling coupled to substructure and time history approaches was employed for studying the overall dynamic behaviour of the NPP relevant components. Moreover the set up three-dimensional model was also validated to evaluate the performance and reliability of the adopted FEM code (mesh refinements and type element influence). This detailed numerical assessment, involving the most widely used finite element numerical codes (MSC.Marc and Ansys, allowed to solve, perform and simulate as accurately as possible the dynamic behaviour of structures which may withstand a lot of more or less complicate structural problems. To evaluate the accuracy and the reliability as well as to determine the related error of the set-up procedure, the obtained seismic analyses results in term of accelerations, propagated from the ground to the auxiliary building systems and components, and displacements were compared highlighting a

  7. Seismic and Geodetic Monitoring of the Nicoya, Costa Rica, Seismic Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V.; Schwartz, S.; Dixon, T.; Kato, T.; Kaneda, Y.; Simila, G.; Sampson, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Nicoya segment of the Middle America Trench has been recognized as a mature seismic gap with potential to generate a large earthquake in the near future (it ruptured with large earthquakes in 1853, 1900 and 1950). Low level of background seismicity and fast crustal deformation of the forearc are indicatives of strong coupling along the plate interface. Given its high seismic potential, the available data and especially the fact that the Nicoya peninsula extends over large part of the rupture area, this gap was selected as one of the two sites for a MARGINS-SEIZE experiment. With the goal of documenting the evolution of loading and stress release along this seismic gap, an international effort involving several institutions from Costa Rica, the United States and Japan is being carried out for over a decade in the region. This effort involves the installation of temporary and permanent seismic and geodetic networks. The seismic network includes short period, broad band and strong motion instruments. The seismic monitoring has provided valuable information on the geometry and characteristics of the plate interface. The geodetic network includes temporary and permanent GPS stations as well as surface and borehole tiltmeters. The geodetic networks have helped quantify the extend and degree of coupling. A continuously recording, three- station GPS network on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica, recorded what we believe is the first slow slip event observed along the plate interface of the Costa Rica subduction zone. We will present results from these monitoring networks. Collaborative international efforts are focused on expanding these seismic and geodetic networks to provide improved resolution of future creep events, to enhanced understanding of the mechanical behavior of the Nicoya subduction segment of the Middle American Trench and possibly capture the next large earthquake and its potential precursor deformation.

  8. Seismic Structure of Perth Basin (Australia) and surroundings from Passive Seismic Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, N.; Saygin, E.; Lumley, D. E.; Hoskin, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    We image the subsurface structure of Perth Basin, Western Australia and surroundings by using ambient seismic noise data from 14 seismic stations recently deployed by University of Western Australia (UWA) and other available permanent stations from Geoscience Australia seismic network and the Australian Seismometers in Schools program. Each of these 14 UWA seismic stations comprises a broadband sensor and a high fidelity 3-component 10 Hz geophone, recording in tandem at 250 Hz and 1000 Hz. The other stations used in this study are equipped with short period and broadband sensors. In addition, one shallow borehole station is operated with eight 3 component geophones at depths of between 2 and 44 m. The network is deployed to characterize natural seismicity in the basin and to try and identify any microseismic activity across Darling Fault Zone (DFZ), bounding the basin to the east. The DFZ stretches to approximately 1000 km north-south in Western Australia, and is one of the longest fault zones on the earth with a limited number of detected earthquakes. We use seismic noise cross- and auto-correlation methods to map seismic velocity perturbations across the basin and the transition from DFZ to the basin. Retrieved Green's functions are stable and show clear dispersed waveforms. Travel times of the surface wave Green's functions from noise cross-correlations are inverted with a two-step probabilistic framework to map the absolute shear wave velocities as a function of depth. The single station auto-correlations from the seismic noise yields P wave reflectivity under each station, marking the major discontinuities. Resulting images show the shear velocity perturbations across the region. We also quantify the variation of ambient seismic noise at different depths in the near surface using the geophones in the shallow borehole array.

  9. Displacement cascades in diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one

  10. Long-period amplification in deep alluvial basins and consequences for site-specific probabilistic seismic-hazard: the case of Castelleone in the Po Plain (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, S.; Mascandola, C.; Massa, M.; Spallarossa, D.

    2017-12-01

    The recent Emilia seismic sequence (Northern Italy) occurred at the end of the first half of 2012 with main shock of Mw6.1 highlighted the importance of studying site effects in the Po Plain, the larger and deeper sedimentary basin in Italy. As has long been known, long-period amplification related to deep sedimentary basins can significantly affect the characteristics of the ground-motion induced by strong earthquakes. It follows that the effects of deep sedimentary deposits on ground shaking require special attention during the definition of the design seismic action. The work presented here analyzes the impact of deep-soil discontinuities on ground-motion amplification, with particular focus on long-period probabilistic seismic-hazard assessment. The study focuses on the site of Castelleone, where a seismic station of the Italian National Seismic Network has been recording since 2009. Our study includes both experimental and numerical site response analyses. Specifically, extensive active and passive geophysical measurements were carried out in order to define a detailed shear-wave velocity (VS) model to be used in the numerical analyses. These latter are needed to assess the site-specific ground-motion hazard. Besides classical seismic refraction profiles and multichannel analysis of surface waves, we analyzed ambient vibration measurements in both single and array configurations. The VS profile was determined via joint inversion of the experimental phase-velocity dispersion curve with the ellipticity curve derived from horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios. The profile shows two main discontinuities at depths of around 160 and 1350 m, respectively. The probabilistic site-specific hazard was assessed in terms of both spectral acceleration and displacement. A partially non-ergodic approach was adopted. We have found that the spectral acceleration hazard is barely sensitive to long-period (up to 10 s) amplification related to the deeper discontinuity whereas the

  11. Co-seismic deformation of the August 27, 2012 Mw 7.3 El Salvador and September 5, 2012 Mw 7.6 Costa Rica earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Mattioli, G. S.; Hernández, D.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the co-seismic deformation of two significant earthquakes that occurred along the Middle America trench in 2012. The August 27 Mw 7.3 El Salvador and September 5 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica earthquakes, were examined using a combination of episodic and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data. USGS finite fault models based on seismic data predict fundamentally different characteristics for the two ruptures. The El Salvador event occurred in a historical seismic gap and on the shallow segment of the Middle America Trench main thrust, rupturing a large area, but with a low magnitude of slip. A small tsunami was observed along the coast in Nicaragua and El Salvador, additionally indicating near-trench rupture. Conversely, the Nicoya, Costa Rica earthquake was predicted to have an order of magnitude higher slip on a spatially smaller patch deeper on the main thrust. We present results from episodic and continuous geodetic GPS measurements made in conjunction with the two earthquakes, including data from newly installed COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) sites. Episodic GPS measurements made in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua following the earthquakes, allow us to estimate the co-seismic deformation field from both earthquakes. Because of the small magnitude of the El Salvador earthquake and its shallow rupture the observed co-seismic deformation is small (earthquake occurred directly beneath a seismic and geodetic network specifically designed to capture such events. The observed displacements exceeded 0.5 m and there is a significant post-seismic transient following the earthquake. We use our estimated co-seismic offsets for both earthquakes to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for these two events.

  12. New seismic source `BLASTER` for seismic survey; Hasaiyaku wo shingen to shite mochiita danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, G; Yoshikuni, Y [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Built-up weight and vacuole have been conceived as seismic sources without using explosive. There have been problems that they have smaller energy to generate elastic wave than explosive, and that they have inferior working performance. Concrete crushing explosive is tried to use as a new seismic source. It is considered to possess rather large seismic generating energy, and it is easy to handle from the viewpoint of safety. Performance as seismic source and applicability to exploration works of this crushing explosive were compared with four kinds of seismic sources using dynamite, dropping weight, shot-pipe utilizing shot vacuole, and impact by wooden maul. When considered by the velocity amplitude, the seismic generating energy of the crushing explosive of 120 g is about one-fifth of dynamite of 100 g. Elastic wave generated includes less high frequency component than that by dynamite, and similar to that using seismic source without explosive, such as the weight dropping. The maximum seismic receiving distance obtained by the seismic generation was about 100 m. This was effective for the slope survey with the exploration depth between 20 m and 30 m. 1 ref., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Seismic rupture modelling, strong motion prediction and seismic hazard assessment: fundamental and applied approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge-Thierry, C.

    2007-05-01

    The defence to obtain the 'Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches' is a synthesis of the research work performed since the end of my Ph D. thesis in 1997. This synthesis covers the two years as post doctoral researcher at the Bureau d'Evaluation des Risques Sismiques at the Institut de Protection (BERSSIN), and the seven consecutive years as seismologist and head of the BERSSIN team. This work and the research project are presented in the framework of the seismic risk topic, and particularly with respect to the seismic hazard assessment. Seismic risk combines seismic hazard and vulnerability. Vulnerability combines the strength of building structures and the human and economical consequences in case of structural failure. Seismic hazard is usually defined in terms of plausible seismic motion (soil acceleration or velocity) in a site for a given time period. Either for the regulatory context or the structural specificity (conventional structure or high risk construction), seismic hazard assessment needs: to identify and locate the seismic sources (zones or faults), to characterize their activity, to evaluate the seismic motion to which the structure has to resist (including the site effects). I specialized in the field of numerical strong-motion prediction using high frequency seismic sources modelling and forming part of the IRSN allowed me to rapidly working on the different tasks of seismic hazard assessment. Thanks to the expertise practice and the participation to the regulation evolution (nuclear power plants, conventional and chemical structures), I have been able to work on empirical strong-motion prediction, including site effects. Specific questions related to the interface between seismologists and structural engineers are also presented, especially the quantification of uncertainties. This is part of the research work initiated to improve the selection of the input ground motion in designing or verifying the stability of structures. (author)

  14. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2015-03-10

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  16. Seismic and tsunami safety margin assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Regulation Authority is going to establish new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines to increase the safety of NPPs. The main purpose of this research is testing structures/components important to safety and tsunami resistant structures/components, and evaluating the capacity of them against earthquake and tsunami. Those capacity data will be utilized for the seismic and tsunami back-fit review based on the new seismic and tsunami safety guidelines. The summary of the program in 2012 is as follows. 1. Component seismic capacity test and quantitative seismic capacity evaluation. PWR emergency diesel generator partial-model seismic capacity tests have been conducted and quantitative seismic capacities have been evaluated. 2. Seismic capacity evaluation of switching-station electric equipment. Existing seismic test data investigation, specification survey and seismic response analyses have been conducted. 3. Tsunami capacity evaluation of anti-inundation measure facilities. Tsunami pressure test have been conducted utilizing a small breakwater model and evaluated basic characteristics of tsunami pressure against seawall structure. (author)

  17. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  18. Co-seismic slip, post-seismic slip, and largest aftershock associated with the 1994 Sanriku-haruka-oki, Japan, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Yuji; Kikuchi, Masayuki; Nishimura, Takuya

    2003-11-01

    We analyzed continuous GPS data to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of co-seismic slip, post-seismic slip, and largest aftershock associated with the 1994 Sanriku-haruka-oki, Japan, earthquake (Mw = 7.7). To get better resolution for co-seismic and post-seismic slip distribution, we imposed a weak constraint as a priori information of the co-seismic slip determined by seismic wave analyses. We found that the post-seismic slip during 100 days following the main-shock amount to as much moment release as the main-shock, and that the sites of co-seismic slip and post-seismic slip are partitioning on a plate boundary region in complimentary fashion. The major post-seismic slip was triggered by the mainshock in western side of the co-seismic slip, and the extent of the post-seismic slip is almost unchanged with time. It rapidly developed a shear stress concentration ahead of the slip area, and triggered the largest aftershock.

  19. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  20. Seismic Correlation and Coupling from Underground, Surface, to the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Waysand, G.

    2009-12-01

    , especially for post-earthquake periods with displacements associated with seismic wave arrivals at the ground surfaces. We assess the correlation and coupling among signals measured at depths, on the surface, and in the sky. While the main focus is on electromagnetic signals associated with earthquakes, there are many relevant measurements and analyses among seismic, rock mechanical, hydrochemical, electromagnetic, atmospheric, ionospheric and other processes and phenomena. The correlation of different signals in space and time can elucidate the different coupling and channeling of signals. The demonstrated low noise advantage of underground seismic-magnetic detections of global signals at the Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit de Rustrel-Pays d'Apt should set the example for the establishment of equivalent stations worldwide in other underground research laboratories. We emphasize the adoption of international and inter-disciplinary approaches that can contribute to better understanding of mechanisms among different earthquake and tectonic forces, and lead to improved assessment of earthquake and related natural hazards.

  1. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  2. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  3. SHAKING TABLE TESTS ON SEISMIC DEFORMATION OF PILE SUPPORTED PIER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daiki; Kohama, Eiji; Takenobu, Masahiro; Yoshida, Makoto; Kiku, Hiroyoshi

    The seismic deformation characeteristics of a pile supported pier was examined with the shake table test, especially focusing on the pier after its deformation during earthquakes. The model based on the similitude of the fully-plastic moment in piles was prepared to confirm the deformation and stress characteristic after reaching the fully-plastic moment. Moreover, assuming transportation of emergency supplies and occurrence of after shock in the post-disaster period, the pile supported pier was loaded with weight after reaching fully-plastic moment and excited with the shaking table. As the result, it is identified that the displacement of the pile supported pier is comparatively small if bending strength of piles does not decrease after reaching fully-plastic moment due to nonoccourrence of local backling or strain hardening.

  4. Acoustic and seismic imaging of the Adra Fault (NE Alboran Sea: in search of the source of the 1910 Adra earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gràcia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently acquired swath-bathymetry data and high-resolution seismic reflection profiles offshore Adra (Almería, Spain reveal the surficial expression of a NW–SE trending 20 km-long fault, which we termed the Adra Fault. Seismic imaging across the structure depicts a sub-vertical fault reaching the seafloor surface and slightly dipping to the NE showing an along-axis structural variability. Our new data suggest normal displacement of the uppermost units with probably a lateral component. Radiocarbon dating of a gravity core located in the area indicates that seafloor sediments are of Holocene age, suggesting present-day tectonic activity. The NE Alboran Sea area is characterized by significant low-magnitude earthquakes and by historical records of moderate magnitude, such as the Mw = 6.1 1910 Adra Earthquake. The location, dimension and kinematics of the Adra Fault agree with the fault solution and magnitude of the 1910 Adra Earthquake, whose moment tensor analysis indicates normal-dextral motion. The fault seismic parameters indicate that the Adra Fault is a potential source of large magnitude (Mw ≤ 6.5 earthquakes, which represents an unreported seismic hazard for the neighbouring coastal areas.

  5. Enhancement of seismic resistance of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu-Sorin Dragomir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the paper are both seismic instrumentation for damage assessment and enhancing of seismic resistance of buildings. In according with seismic design codes in force the buildings are designed to resist at seismic actions. Due to the time evolution of these design provisions, there are buildings that were designed decades ago, under the less stringent provisions. The conceptual conformation is nowadays provided in all Codes of seismic design. According to the Code of seismic design P100-1:2006 the asymmetric structures do not have an appropriate seismic configuration; they have disadvantageous distribution of volumes, mass and stiffness. Using results of temporary seismic instrumentation the safety condition of the building may be assessed in different phases of work. Based on this method, the strengthening solutions may be identified and the need of seismic joints may be emphasised. All the aforementioned ideas are illustrated through a case study. Therefore it will be analysed the dynamic parameter evolution of an educational building obtained in different periods. Also, structural intervention scenarios to enhance seismic resistance will be presented.

  6. Effects of threshold displacement energy on defect production by displacement cascades in α, β and γ-LiAlO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihira, H.; Oda, T.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-01-01

    Threshold displacement energy evaluation and a series of displacement cascade simulations in α, β, and γ-LiAlO 2 were performed using molecular dynamics. Threshold displacement energy evaluations indicated that higher absolute ionic charge values and larger densities both increase threshold displacement energy. The displacement cascade simulations suggest that the influence of different crystal structures on the number of interstitial atoms generated in a displacement cascade is explainable almost entirely by the difference of the threshold displacement energy

  7. Effect of displaced versus non-displaced pelvic fractures on long-term racing performance in 31 Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, S E; Muurlink, M A; Anderson, G A; Puksmann, T N; Whitton, R C

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term racing prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced versus non-displaced fractures of the pelvis identified by scintigraphy. Retrospective case analysis. Medical records of 31 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting to the University of Melbourne Equine Centre with fractures of the pelvis that were identified by scintigraphy were reviewed. Pelvic fracture site was determined and defined as displaced or non-displaced based on ultrasound and/or radiographic findings. Race records were analysed for each horse, with a minimum of 24 months' follow-up, and correlated with fracture type to determine long-term prognosis for racing. Results are expressed as median and range. Fractures at a single site were more common (n = 22) than fractures involving two sites (n = 9) and the ilial wing was the most commonly affected (n = 12). Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced pelvic fractures at any site (n = 12) raced fewer times within 24 months of diagnosis than horses with non-displaced fractures (n = 19) (median 0.5, range 0-13 vs 7, 0-24; P = 0.037), but there was no clear statistical difference in race earnings between the two groups (median A$0, range A$0-$123,250 vs A$14,440, A$0-$325,500, respectively; P = 0.080). Four horses with displaced fractures (33%) were euthanased on humane grounds because of persistent severe pain. When these horses were excluded from the analysis, there were no differences in performance variables between horses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture. Thoroughbred racehorses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture that survive the initial post-injury period have a good prognosis for racing. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  8. Monitoring Strategies of Earth Dams by Ground-Based Radar Interferometry: How to Extract Useful Information for Seismic Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Andrea; Nico, Giovanni; Pitullo, Alfredo; Prezioso, Giuseppina

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this paper is to describe how ground-based radar interferometry can provide displacement measurements of earth dam surfaces and of vibration frequencies of its main concrete infrastructures. In many cases, dams were built many decades ago and, at that time, were not equipped with in situ sensors embedded in the structure when they were built. Earth dams have scattering properties similar to landslides for which the Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GBSAR) technique has been so far extensively applied to study ground displacements. In this work, SAR and Real Aperture Radar (RAR) configurations are used for the measurement of earth dam surface displacements and vibration frequencies of concrete structures, respectively. A methodology for the acquisition of SAR data and the rendering of results is described. The geometrical correction factor, needed to transform the Line-of-Sight (LoS) displacement measurements of GBSAR into an estimate of the horizontal displacement vector of the dam surface, is derived. Furthermore, a methodology for the acquisition of RAR data and the representation of displacement temporal profiles and vibration frequency spectra of dam concrete structures is presented. For this study a Ku-band ground-based radar, equipped with horn antennas having different radiation patterns, has been used. Four case studies, using different radar acquisition strategies specifically developed for the monitoring of earth dams, are examined. The results of this work show the information that a Ku-band ground-based radar can provide to structural engineers for a non-destructive seismic assessment of earth dams.

  9. Seismicity and Seismic Hazard along the Western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Fontiela, João; Ferrão, Celia; Borges, José Fernando; Caldeira, Bento; Dib, Assia; Ousadou, Farida

    2016-04-01

    ,000) make it one of the deadliest earthquakes in history. Measured in lives lost, the 1926, 1980 and 1998 Azores earthquakes (Portugal), the 1954 and 1980 El Asnam earthquakes (North Algeria), the 1994 and 2004 Alhoceima earthquakes (North Morocco), and the 2003 Boumerdes earthquakes (North Algeria) were the worst earth