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Sample records for dispersion strengthened steels

  1. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 2205 duplex stainless steel composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladayo OLANIRAN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Composites of duplex stainless steel were produced by oxide dispersion strengthening with comparatively improved mechanical properties by hot press sintering of partially stabilized Zirconia (PSZ, 3% yttria, mole fraction dispersion in 2205 duplex stainless steels. Ceramic oxide was added as reinforcement, while chromium (Cr and Nickel (Ni were incorporated to maintain the austenitic/ferritic phase balance of the duplex stainless steel. The powders and sintered were characterized in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microstructural evolution and phase formation during oxide dispersion strengthening of duplex stainless steel composites were investigated. The influence of composition variation of the reinforcements on the microstructural and corrosion behaviour in simulated mine water of the composites were investigated. In this manuscript, it was established that composition has great influence on the structure/properties relationship of the composites developed.

  2. Development oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Froes, F.H.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Uniaxial tension creep response is reported for an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel, Fe-13.5Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.25 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in weight percent) manufactured using the mechanical alloying process. Acceptable creep response is obtained at 900{degrees}C.

  3. Tube manufacturing and characterization of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu; Mizuta, Shunji; Yoshitake, Tunemitsu; Okuda, Takanari; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Hagi, Shigeki; Kobayashi, Toshimi

    2000-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have an advantage in radiation resistance and superior creep rupture strength at elevated temperature due to finely distributed Y 2 O 3 particles in the ferritic matrix. Using a basic composition of low activation ferritic steel (Fe-12Cr-2W-0.05C), cladding tube manufacturing by means of pilger mill rolling and subsequent recrystallization heat-treatment was conducted while varying titanium and yttria contents. The recrystallization heat-treatment, to soften the tubes hardened due to cold-rolling and to subsequently improve the degraded mechanical properties, was demonstrated to be effective in the course of tube manufacturing. For a titanium content of 0.3 wt% and yttria of 0.25 wt%, improvement of the creep rupture strength can be attained for the manufactured cladding tubes. The ductility is also adequately maintained

  4. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y_2O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y_2O_3 were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 oxides and body-centered cubic Y_2O_3 oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y_4Zr_3O_1_2 particles is much smaller than that of Y_2O_3. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10"2"3/m"3 with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time

  5. Microstructure refinement and strengthening mechanisms of a 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel by zirconium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hai Jian; Lu, Zheng; Wang, Dong Mei; Liu, Chunming [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2017-02-15

    To study the effects of zirconium (Zr) addition on the microstructure, hardness and the tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels, two kinds of 9Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%) of Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Y{sub 2}O-3 and Fe-9Cr-2W-0.3Zr-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were fabricated by the mechanical alloying (MA) of premixed powders and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) techniques. The experimental results showed that the average grain size decreases with Zr addition. The trigonal δ-phase Y{sub 4}Zr{sub 3}O{sub 12} oxides and body-centered cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} oxides are formed in the 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel and 9Cr non-Zr ODS steel, respectively, and the average size of Y{sub 4}Zr{sub 3}O{sub 12} particles is much smaller than that of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The dispersion morphology of the oxide particles in 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel is significantly improved and the number density is 1.1 x 10{sup 23}/m{sup 3} with Zr addition. The 9Cr-Zr-ODS steel shows much higher tensile ductility, ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time.

  6. Nanostructures in a ferritic and an oxide dispersion strengthened steel induced by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo

    fission and fusion reactors. In this study, two candidate steels for nuclear reactors, namely a ferritic/martensitic steel (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) and an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (PM2000), were nanostructured by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). The resulting microstructure...

  7. Positron annihilation lifetime study of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krsjak, V.; Szaraz, Z.; Hähner, P.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative positron annihilation lifetime study has been performed on various commercial ferritic and ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. Both as-extruded and recrystallized materials were investigated. In the materials with recrystallized coarse-grained microstructures, only the positron trapping at small vacancy clusters and yttria nanofeatures was observed. Materials which had not undergone recrystallization treatment clearly showed additional positron trapping which is associated with dislocations. Dislocation densities were calculated from a two-component decomposition of the positron lifetime spectra by assuming the first component to be a superposition of the bulk controlled annihilation rate and the dislocation controlled trapping rate. The second component (which translates into lifetimes of 240–260 ps) was found to be well separated in all those ODS materials. This paper presents the potentialities and limitations of the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and discusses the results of the experimental determination of the defect concentrations and sensitivity of this technique to the material degradation due to thermally induced precipitation of chromium-rich α′ phases.

  8. Character evaluation of strength in dispersion strengthened ferritic steel. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Fuyuki; Nakashima, Hideharu

    1997-03-01

    In order to clarify the high-temperature deformation behaviour and the origin of threshold stress of ODS martensite steel with Y 2 O 3 particles, the stress-strain curves were measured by compression test at 600 to 700degC and at strain rates from 2x10 -5 to 2x10 -3 s -1 , and the threshold stress was measured by stress abruptly loading test (SAL test) at 650degC. Further, the possibility of temperature dependence of threshold stress was discussed by estimating the activation energy for dislocations to detach the Y 2 O 3 particles. The results are summarized as follows. 1) The stress exponents of ODS martensite steel were 22-35. And the activation energy of high-temperature deformation was 742 kJ/mol. Those deformation behaviour of ODS martensite steel agrees with the deformation behaviour of ODS ferritic steel. 2) The Orowan stress and the void-hardening stress calculated from dispersion parameters approximately agreed with the threshold stress obtained by SAL test. It is concluded that the originating mechanism of the threshold stress in ODS martensite steel is the Srolovitz's one. 3) The calculated activation energy for a dislocation to detach the particles was very high compared to the thermal energy. Therefor, the threshold stress is almost independent of temperature. (author)

  9. Creep resistant, precipitation-dispersion-strengthened, martensitic stainless steel and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, R.F.

    1994-05-10

    An iron-based, corrosion-resistant, precipitation strengthened, martensitic steel essentially free of delta ferrite for use at high temperatures has a nominal composition of 0.05--0.1 C, 8--12 Cr, 1--5 Co, 0.5--2.0 Ni, 0.41--1.0 Mo, 0.1--0.5 Ti, and the balance iron. This steel is different from other corrosion-resistant martensitic steels because its microstructure consists of a uniform dispersion of fine particles, which are very closely spaced, and which do not coarsen at high temperatures. Thus at high temperatures this steel combines the excellent creep strength of dispersion-strengthened steels, with the ease of fabricability afforded by precipitation hardenable steels. 2 figures.

  10. Creep resistant, precipitation-dispersion-strengthened, martensitic stainless steel and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    An iron-based, corrosion-resistant, precipitation strengthened, martensitic steel essentially free of delta ferrite for use at high temperatures has a nominal composition of 0.05-0.1 C, 8-12 Cr, 1-5 Co, 0.5-2.0 Ni, 0.41-1.0 Mo, 0.1-0.5 Ti, and the balance iron. This steel is different from other corrosion-resistant martensitic steels because its microstructure consists of a uniform dispersion of fine particles, which are very closely spaced, and which do not coarsen at high temperatures. Thus at high temperatures this steel combines the excellent creep strength of dispersion-strengthened steels, with the ease of fabricability afforded by precipitation hardenable steels.

  11. Load-partitioning in an oxide dispersion-strengthened 310 steel at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin; Mo, Kun; Zhou, Zhangjian; Liu, Xiang; Lan, Kuan-Che; Zhang, Guangming; Park, Jun-Sang; Almer, Jonathan; Stubbins, James F.

    2016-12-01

    Here the high temperature tensile performance of an oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) 310 steel is reported upon. The microstructure of the steel was examined through both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron scattering. In situ synchrotron tensile investigation was performed at a variety of temperatures, from room temperature up to 800°C. Pyrochlore structure yttrium titanate and sodium chloride structure titanium nitride phases were identified in the steel along with an austenite matrix and marginal residual α’-martensite. The inclusion phases strengthen the steel by taking extra load through particle-dislocation interaction during plastic deformation or dislocation creep procedures. As temperature rises, the load partitioning effect of conventional precipitate phases starts to diminish, whereas those ultra-fine oxygen-enriched nanoparticles continue to bear a considerable amount of extra load. Introduction of oxygen-enriched nanoparticles in austenitic steel proves to improve the high temperature performance, making austenitic ODS steels promising for advanced nuclear applications.

  12. Microstructure and tensile properties of yttrium nitride dispersion-strengthened 14Cr–3W ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Liqing [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4067, QLD (Australia); Liu, Zuming, E-mail: lzm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Shiqi; Guo, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Innovative nano yttrium nitride dispersion strengthened steels were fabricated. • Higher content of additives accelerate the steel-ceramic powder milling process more. • Steel with high content (3%) of YN dispersoids can obtain good performance at 500 °C. - Abstract: 14Cr–3W ferritic steel powders were mechanically milled with microscale yttrium nitride (YN) particles to fabricate particle dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels. After hot consolidation and annealing, the steel matrix was homogeneously dispersed with nano-scale YN particles. The steel containing 0.3 wt.% YN particles exhibited a yield strength of 1445 MPa at room temperature. Its total elongation was 10.3%, and the fracture surface exhibited mixed ductile and quasi-cleavage fracture morphologies. The steel with a much higher content of YN particles (3 wt.%) in its matrix was much stronger (1652 MPa) at room temperature at the cost of ductility. In particular, it exhibited a high yield strength (1350 MPa) with applicable ductility (total elongation > 10%) at 500 °C. This study has developed a new kind of reinforcement particle to fabricate high-performance ferritic steels.

  13. Water corrosion test of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2006-07-01

    As a part of feasibility study of ODS steel cladding, its water corrosion resistance was examined under water pool condition. Although addition of Cr is effective for preventing water corrosion, excessive Cr addition leads to embrittlement due to the Cr-rich α' precipitate formation. In the ODS steel developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Cr content is controlled in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite. In this study, water corrosion test was conducted for these ODS steels, and their results were compared with that of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) Corrosion rate of 9Cr-ODS martensitic and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel are significantly small and no pitting was observed. Thus, these ODS steels have superior resistance for water corrosion under the condition of 60degC and pH8-12. (2) It was showed that 9Cr-ODS martensitic steel and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel have comparable water corrosion resistance to that of PNC316 and PNC-FMS at 60degC for 1,000h under varying pH of 8, 10. Water corrosion resistance of these alloys is slightly larger than that of PNC316 and PNC-FMS at pH12 without significant difference of appearance and uneven condition. (author)

  14. Nanoscale lamellae in an oxide dispersion strengthened steel processed by dynamic plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Mishin, Oleg; Tao, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic PM2000 steel with a strong initial (100) texture has been investigated after compression by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD) at room temperature to a strain of 2.1. Measurements using electron backscatter diffraction and transmission...

  15. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  16. Corrosion-resistant coating technique for oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ando, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are attractive materials for application as fuel cladding in fast reactors and first-wall material of fusion blanket. Recent studies have focused more on high-chromium ferritic (12-18 wt% Cr) ODS steels with attractive corrosion resistance properties. However, they have poor material workability, require complicated heat treatments for recrystallization, and possess anisotropic microstructures and mechanical properties. On the other hand, low-chromium ferritic/martensitic (8-9 wt% Cr) ODS steels have no such limitations; nonetheless, they have poor corrosion resistance properties. In our work, we developed a corrosion-resistant coating technique for a low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steel. The ODS steel was coated with the 304 or 430 stainless steel, which has better corrosion resistances than the low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steels. The 304 or 430 stainless steel was coated by changing the canning material from mild steel to stainless steel in the conventional material processing procedure for ODS steels. Microstructural observations and micro-hardness tests proved that the stainless steels were successfully coated without causing a deterioration in the mechanical property of the low-chromium ferritic/martensitic ODS steel. (author)

  17. Some microstructural characterisations in a friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, F.; Poissonnet, S.; Bonnaillie, P.; Boulanger, L.; Forest, L.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to characterize microstructure of a friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened alloy. The welded material is constituted by two sheets of an yttria-dispersion-strengthened PM 2000 ferritic steel. Different areas of the friction stir welded product were analyzed using field emission gun secondary electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and electron microprobe whereas nanoindentation was used to evaluate mechanical properties. The observed microstructural evolution, including distribution of the yttria dispersoids, after friction stir welding process is discussed and a correlation between the microstructure and the results of nanoindentation tests is established.

  18. Mechanosynthesis of A Ferritic ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) Steel Containing 14% Chromium and Its Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivai, A. K.; Dimyati, A.; Adi, W. A.

    2017-05-01

    One of the advanced materials for application at high temperatures which is aggressively developed in the world is ODS (Oxide Dispersion strengthened) steel. ODS ferritic steels are one of the candidate materials for future nuclear reactors in the world (Generation IV reactors) because it is able to be used in the reactor above 600 °C. ODS ferritic steels have also been developed for the interconnect material of SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell) which will be exposed to about 800 °C of temperature. The steel is strengthened by dispersing homogeneously of oxide particles (ceramic) in nano-meter sized in the matrix of the steel. Synthesis of a ferritic ODS steel by dispersion of nano-particles of yttrium oxide (yttria: Y2O3) as the dispersion particles, and containing high-chromium i.e. 14% has been conducted. Synthesis of the ODS steels was done mechanically (mechanosynthesis) using HEM (High Energy ball Milling) technique for 40 and 100 hours. The resulted samples were characterized using SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscope), and XRD (X-ray diffraction) to analyze the microstructure characteristics. The results showed that the crystal grains of the sample with 100 hours milling time was much smaller than the sample with 40 hours milling time, and some amount of alloy was formed during the milling process even for 40 hours milling time. Furthermore, the structure analysis revealed that some amount of iron atom substituted by a slight amount of chromium atom as a solid solution. The quantitative analysis showed that the phase mostly consisted of FeCr solid-solution with the structure was BCC (body-centered cubic).

  19. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened 9Cr ferritic-martensitic steel clad tube for fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laha, K.; Saroja, S.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T.; Vijay, R.; Venugopal Reddy, A.; Lakshminarayana, B.; Kapoor, Komal; Jha, S.K.; Tonpe, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the key issues in the economical operation of FBR is to achieve high burn-up of fuel (200-250 GWd/t) which considerably reduces the fuel cycle cost. This imposes stringent requirements of void swelling resistance upto 200 dpa for the core structural materials. Presently used alloy 09 (a modified austenitic stainless steel, 15Cr-15Ni-Ti) for PFBR has void swelling limit less than 150 dpa. Because of the inherent void swelling resistance, 9-12Cr steels ferritic/martensitic steels are qualified for irradiation upto 200 dpa but their low creep strength at temperatures above 600 deg C restricts their application as a clad material. Oxide dispersion strengthening is found to be promising means of extending the creep resistance of ferritic/martensitic steels beyond 650 deg C without sacrificing the inherent advantages of high thermal conductivity and low swelling of ferritic steels

  20. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened steels for FBR core application. 2. Morphology improvement by martensite transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu; Nishida, Toshio; Yoshitake, Tunemitsu; Okuda, Takanari

    1998-01-01

    Previously manufactured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel cladding tubes had inferior internal creep rupture strength in the circumferential hoop direction. This unexpected feature of ODS cladding tubes was substantially ascribed to the needle-like grain structure aligned with the forming direction. In this study, the grain morphology was controlled by using the martensite transformation in ODS martensitic steels to produce an equi-axial grain structure. A major improvement in the strength anisotropy was successfully achieved. The most effective yttria addition was about 1 mass% in improving the strength of the ODS martensitic steels. A simple addition of titanium was particularly effective in increasing the strength level of the ODS martensitic steels to that of ODS ferritic steels. (author)

  1. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels: a basic research joint program in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutard, J.-L., E-mail: jean-louis.boutard@cea.fr [Cabinet du Haut-Commissaire, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Badjeck, V. [LPS, UMR CNRS 8502, Building 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Barguet, L. [LAUM, UMR CNRS 6613, Building IAM – UFR Sciences, Avenue O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France); Barouh, C. [DMN/SRMP, CEA/Saclay, Building 520, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bhattacharya, A. [DMN/SRMP, CEA/Saclay, Building 520, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); CSNSM, UMR CNRS 8609, Université Paris-Sud 11, Buildings 104 and 108, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Colignon, Y. [IM2NP, UMR CNRS 7334, Case 142, Faculté des Sciences, Campus de Saint Jérôme, Aix Marseille Université, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Hatzoglou, C. [GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, Technopôle du Madrillet, Avenue de l’Université, BP12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Loyer-Prost, M. [DMN/SRMP, CEA/Saclay, Building 520, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Rouffié, A.L. [DMN/SRMA, CEA/Saclay, Building 455, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Sallez, N. [SIMAP, UMR CNRS 5266, INPG, Domaine Universitaire, 1130 rue de la Piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères Cedex (France); Salmon-Legagneur, H. [DMN/SRMA, CEA/Saclay, Building 455, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Schuler, T. [DMN/SRMP, CEA/Saclay, Building 520, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    AREVA, CEA, CNRS, EDF and Mécachrome are funding a joint program of basic research on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (ODISSEE), in support to the development of oxide dispersion strengthened 9–14% Cr ferritic–martensitic steels for the fuel element cladding of future Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors. The selected objectives and the results obtained so far will be presented concerning (i) physical–chemical characterisation of the nano-clusters as a function of ball-milling process, metallurgical conditions and irradiation, (ii) meso-scale understanding of failure mechanisms under dynamic loading and creep, and, (iii) kinetic modelling of nano-clusters nucleation and α/α′ unmixing.

  2. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels: a basic research joint program in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard, J.-L.; Badjeck, V.; Barguet, L.; Barouh, C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Colignon, Y.; Hatzoglou, C.; Loyer-Prost, M.; Rouffié, A. L.; Sallez, N.; Salmon-Legagneur, H.; Schuler, T.

    2014-12-01

    AREVA, CEA, CNRS, EDF and Mécachrome are funding a joint program of basic research on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (ODISSEE), in support to the development of oxide dispersion strengthened 9-14% Cr ferritic-martensitic steels for the fuel element cladding of future Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors. The selected objectives and the results obtained so far will be presented concerning (i) physical-chemical characterisation of the nano-clusters as a function of ball-milling process, metallurgical conditions and irradiation, (ii) meso-scale understanding of failure mechanisms under dynamic loading and creep, and, (iii) kinetic modelling of nano-clusters nucleation and α/α‧ unmixing.

  3. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels: a basic research joint program in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutard, J.-L.; Badjeck, V.; Barguet, L.; Barouh, C.; Bhattacharya, A.; Colignon, Y.; Hatzoglou, C.; Loyer-Prost, M.; Rouffié, A.L.; Sallez, N.; Salmon-Legagneur, H.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    AREVA, CEA, CNRS, EDF and Mécachrome are funding a joint program of basic research on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels (ODISSEE), in support to the development of oxide dispersion strengthened 9–14% Cr ferritic–martensitic steels for the fuel element cladding of future Sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors. The selected objectives and the results obtained so far will be presented concerning (i) physical–chemical characterisation of the nano-clusters as a function of ball-milling process, metallurgical conditions and irradiation, (ii) meso-scale understanding of failure mechanisms under dynamic loading and creep, and, (iii) kinetic modelling of nano-clusters nucleation and α/α′ unmixing

  4. Development of ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened) ferritic-martensitic steels for fast reactor fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Shigeharu

    2000-01-01

    In order to attain higher burnup and higher coolant outlet temperature in fast reactor, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels were developed as a long life fuel cladding. The improvement in formability and ductility, which are indispensable in the cold-rolling method for manufacturing cladding tube, were achieved by controlling the microstructure using techniques such as recrystallization heat-treatment and α to γ phase transformation. The ODS ferritic-martensitic cladding tubes manufactured using these techniques have the highest internal creep rupture strength in the world as ferritic stainless steels. Strength level approaches adequate value at 700degC, which meets the requirement for commercial fast reactors. (author)

  5. Radiation Stability of Nanoclusters in Nano-structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain, Alicia G.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana; Shutthanandan, V.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered candidates for nuclear fission and fusion applications at high temperature and dose. The complex oxide nanoclusters in these alloys provide high-temperature strength and are expected to afford better radiation resistance. Proton, heavy ion, and neutron irradiations have been performed to evaluate cluster stability in 14YWT and 9CrODS steel under a range of irradiation conditions. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography were used in this work to analyze the evolution of the oxide population.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ferritic Steel via a Sol-Gel Route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qinxing; Zhang Tao; Wang Xianping; Fang Qianfeng; Hu Jing; Liu Changsong

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystalline oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel powders with nominal composition of Fe-14Cr-3W-0.3Ti-0.4Y 2 O 3 are synthesized using sol-gel method and hydrogen reduction. At low reduction temperature the impurity phase of CrO is detected. At higher reduction temperature the impurity phase is Cr 2 O 3 which eventually disappears with increasing reduction time. A pure ODS ferritic steel phase is obtained after reducing the sol-gel resultant products at 1200°C for 3 h. The HRTEM and EDS mapping indicate that the Y 2 O 3 particles with a size of about 15 nm are homogenously dispersed in the alloy matrix. The bulk ODS ferritic steel samples prepared from such powders exhibit good mechanical performance with an ultimate tensile stress of 960 MPa.

  7. Microstructure of rapidly solidified Al2O3-dispersion-strengthened Type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megusar, J.; Arnberg, L.; Vander Sande, J.B.; Grant, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    An aluminum oxide dispersion strengthened 316 stainless steel was developed by surface oxidation. Surface oxidation was chosen as a preferred method in order to minimize formation of less stable chromium oxides. Ultra low C+N 316 stainless steel was alloyed with 1 wt % Al, rapidly solidified to produce fine powders and attrited to approximately 0.5 μm thick flakes to provide for surface oxidation. Oxide particles in the extruded material were identified mostly as Al oxides. In the preirradiated condition, oxide dispersion retarded crystallization and grain growth and had an effect on room temperature tensile properties. These structural modifications are expected to have an effect on the swelling resistance, structure stability and high temperature strength of austenitic stainless steels

  8. Microstructure evolution of the oxide dispersion strengthened CLAM steel during mechanical alloying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Liangliang [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Liu, Shaojun, E-mail: shaojun.liu@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Mao, Xiaodong [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A nano-sized oxides dispersed ODS-CLAM steel was obtained by MA and HIP. • A minimum saturated grain size of down to 30 nm was achieved by varying the milling time from 0 to 100 h. • Solution of W in the MA powder could be significantly improved by increasing MA rotation speed. - Abstracts: Oxide dispersion strengthened Ferritic/Martensitic steel is considered as one of the most potential structural material for future fusion reactor, owing to its high mechanical properties and good irradiation resistance. The oxide dispersion strengthened China Low Activation Martensitic (ODS-CLAM) steel was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The microstructural evolutions during the process of ball milling and subsequent consolidation were investigated by SEM, XRD and TEM. The results showed that increasing the milling time during the first 36 h milling could effectively decrease the grain size to a value of around 30 nm, over which grain sized remained nearly constant. Increasing the rotation speed promoted the solution of tungsten (W) element obviously and decreased the grain size to a certain degree. Observation on the consolidated and further heat-treated ODS-CLAM steel samples indicated that a martensite microstructure with a high density of nano-particles was achieved.

  9. Study on the Hot Extrusion Process of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoungkwon; Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Kibaik; Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Youngbum; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ferritic/martensitic steel has a better thermal conductivity and swelling resistance than austenitic stainless steel. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited at up to 650 .deg. C. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developed as the most prospective core structural materials for next generation nuclear systems because of their excellent high strength and irradiation resistance. The material performances of this new alloy are attributed to the existence of uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density, which is extremely stable at high temperature in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. This microstructure can be very attractive in achieving superior mechanical properties at high temperatures, and thus, these favorable microstructures should be obtained through the controls of the fabrication process parameters during the mechanical alloying and hot consolidation procedures. In this study, a hot extrusion process for advanced radiation resistant ODS steel tube was investigated. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels. A microstructure observation and creep rupture test were examined to investigate the effects of the optimized fabrication conditions. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel has been designed to have homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. For these characteristics, modified mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were developed. Microstructure observation revealed that the ODS steel has uniformly distributed fine-grain nano-oxide particles. The fabrication process for the tubing is also being propelled in earnest.

  10. Study on the Hot Extrusion Process of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byoungkwon; Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Kibaik; Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Youngbum; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic steel has a better thermal conductivity and swelling resistance than austenitic stainless steel. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited at up to 650 .deg. C. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels have been developed as the most prospective core structural materials for next generation nuclear systems because of their excellent high strength and irradiation resistance. The material performances of this new alloy are attributed to the existence of uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density, which is extremely stable at high temperature in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. This microstructure can be very attractive in achieving superior mechanical properties at high temperatures, and thus, these favorable microstructures should be obtained through the controls of the fabrication process parameters during the mechanical alloying and hot consolidation procedures. In this study, a hot extrusion process for advanced radiation resistant ODS steel tube was investigated. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels. A microstructure observation and creep rupture test were examined to investigate the effects of the optimized fabrication conditions. Advanced radiation resistant ODS steel has been designed to have homogeneity, productivity, and reproducibility. For these characteristics, modified mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes were developed. Microstructure observation revealed that the ODS steel has uniformly distributed fine-grain nano-oxide particles. The fabrication process for the tubing is also being propelled in earnest

  11. Oxide nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened steel: crystallographic structure and interface with ferrite matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Oxide nanoparticles are quintessential for ensuring the extraordinary properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. In this study, the crystallographic structure of oxide nanoparticles, and their interface with the ferritic steel matrix in an Al-alloyed ODS steel, i.e. PM2000, were...

  12. Evaluation of microstructural parameters of oxide dispersion strengthened steels from X-ray diffraction profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasenko, Svetlana; Benediktovitch, Andrei; Ulyanenkova, Tatjana; Uglov, Vladimir; Skuratov, Vladimir; O'Connell, Jacques; Neethling, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural parameters of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels from measured diffraction profiles were evaluated using an approach where the complex oxide nanoparticles (Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 and Y 4 Al 2 O 9 ) are modeled as spherical inclusions in the steel matrix with coherent or incoherent boundaries. The proposed method enables processing of diffraction data from materials containing spherical inclusions in addition to straight dislocations, and taking into account broadening due to crystallite size and instrumental effects. The parameters of crystallite size distribution modeled by a lognormal distribution function (the parameters m and σ), the strain anisotropy parameter q, the dislocation density ρ, the dislocation arrangement parameter M, the density of oxide nanoparticles ρ np and the nanoparticle radius r 0 were determined for the ODS steel samples. The results obtained are in good agreement with the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). - Highlights: • The microstructural parameters of oxide dispersion strengthened steels were obtained. • The microstructure of irradiated and unirradiated samples was investigated. • Oxide nanoparticles are modeled as spherical inclusions. • We considered the influence of dislocations, inclusions and size effects.

  13. Evaluation of microstructural parameters of oxide dispersion strengthened steels from X-ray diffraction profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, Svetlana, E-mail: svetlana.vlasenko.bsu@gmail.com [Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosti Avenue 4, Minsk (Belarus); Benediktovitch, Andrei [Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosti Avenue 4, Minsk (Belarus); Ulyanenkova, Tatjana [Rigaku Europe SE, Am Hardtwald 11, Ettlingen (Germany); Uglov, Vladimir [Belarusian State University, Nezavisimosti Avenue 4, Minsk (Belarus); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 2a, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Skuratov, Vladimir [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); O' Connell, Jacques; Neethling, Johannes [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2016-03-15

    The microstructural parameters of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels from measured diffraction profiles were evaluated using an approach where the complex oxide nanoparticles (Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}) are modeled as spherical inclusions in the steel matrix with coherent or incoherent boundaries. The proposed method enables processing of diffraction data from materials containing spherical inclusions in addition to straight dislocations, and taking into account broadening due to crystallite size and instrumental effects. The parameters of crystallite size distribution modeled by a lognormal distribution function (the parameters m and σ), the strain anisotropy parameter q, the dislocation density ρ, the dislocation arrangement parameter M, the density of oxide nanoparticles ρ{sub np} and the nanoparticle radius r{sub 0} were determined for the ODS steel samples. The results obtained are in good agreement with the results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). - Highlights: • The microstructural parameters of oxide dispersion strengthened steels were obtained. • The microstructure of irradiated and unirradiated samples was investigated. • Oxide nanoparticles are modeled as spherical inclusions. • We considered the influence of dislocations, inclusions and size effects.

  14. Effects of mechanical force on grain structures of friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Wentuo; Kimura, Akihiko; Tsuda, Naoto; Serizawa, Hisashi; Chen, Dongsheng; Je, Hwanil; Fujii, Hidetoshi; Ha, Yoosung; Morisada, Yoshiaki; Noto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The weldability of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels is a critical obstructive in the development and use of these steels. Friction stir welding has been considered to be a promising way to solve this problem. The main purpose of this work was to reveal the effects of mechanical force on grain structures of friction stir welded ODS ferritic steel. The grain appearances and the misorientation angles of grain boundaries in different welded zones were investigated by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Results showed that the mechanical force imposed by the stir tool can activate and promote the recrystallization characterized by the transformation of boundaries from LABs to HABs, and contribute to the grain refinement. The type of recrystallization in the stir zone can be classified as the continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX)

  15. Effects of mechanical force on grain structures of friction stir welded oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Wentuo, E-mail: hanwentuo@hotmail.com [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Tsuda, Naoto [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Serizawa, Hisashi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Chen, Dongsheng [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Je, Hwanil [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Fujii, Hidetoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ha, Yoosung [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Morisada, Yoshiaki [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Noto, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    The weldability of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels is a critical obstructive in the development and use of these steels. Friction stir welding has been considered to be a promising way to solve this problem. The main purpose of this work was to reveal the effects of mechanical force on grain structures of friction stir welded ODS ferritic steel. The grain appearances and the misorientation angles of grain boundaries in different welded zones were investigated by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Results showed that the mechanical force imposed by the stir tool can activate and promote the recrystallization characterized by the transformation of boundaries from LABs to HABs, and contribute to the grain refinement. The type of recrystallization in the stir zone can be classified as the continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX)

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel by a new fabrication route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lina; Jia Chengchang; Hu Benfu; Li Huiying

    2010-01-01

    A reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with nominal composition of Fe-12Cr-2.5W-0.25Ti-0.2V-0.4Y 2 O 3 (designated 12Cr-ODS) was produced by using EDTA-citrate complex method to synthesize and add Y 2 O 3 particles to an argon atomized steel powder, followed by hot isostatic pressing at 1160 deg. C for 3 h under the pressure of 130 MPa, forging at 1150 deg. C, and heat treatment at 1050 deg. C for 2 h. The microstructure, tensile, and Charpy impact properties of the 12Cr-ODS steel were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that the 12Cr-ODS steel exhibits the characteristic ferritic structure containing few dislocations. Tensile characterization has shown that the 12Cr-ODS steel has superior tensile strength accompanied by good elongation at room temperature and 550 deg. C. The material exhibits very attractive Charpy impact properties with upper shelf energy of 22 J and a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of about -15 deg. C. The formation of small, equiaxed grains and fine dispersion of oxide particles are the main reasons for the good compromise between tensile strength and impact properties.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel by a new fabrication route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Lina, E-mail: guoln702@yahoo.com.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Jia Chengchang; Hu Benfu; Li Huiying [School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-07-25

    A reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with nominal composition of Fe-12Cr-2.5W-0.25Ti-0.2V-0.4Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (designated 12Cr-ODS) was produced by using EDTA-citrate complex method to synthesize and add Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles to an argon atomized steel powder, followed by hot isostatic pressing at 1160 deg. C for 3 h under the pressure of 130 MPa, forging at 1150 deg. C, and heat treatment at 1050 deg. C for 2 h. The microstructure, tensile, and Charpy impact properties of the 12Cr-ODS steel were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that the 12Cr-ODS steel exhibits the characteristic ferritic structure containing few dislocations. Tensile characterization has shown that the 12Cr-ODS steel has superior tensile strength accompanied by good elongation at room temperature and 550 deg. C. The material exhibits very attractive Charpy impact properties with upper shelf energy of 22 J and a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of about -15 deg. C. The formation of small, equiaxed grains and fine dispersion of oxide particles are the main reasons for the good compromise between tensile strength and impact properties.

  18. Corrosion behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels in supercritical water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenhua [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Guo, Xianglong, E-mail: guoxianglong@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shen, Zhao [Department of Materials Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Zhang, Lefu, E-mail: lfzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-04-01

    The corrosion resistance of three different Cr content oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels in supercritical water (SCW) and their passive films formed on the surface have been investigated. The results show that the dissolved oxygen (DO) and chemical composition have significant influence on the corrosion behavior of the ODS ferritic steels. In 2000 ppb DO SCW at 650 °C, the 14Cr-4Al ODS steel forms a tri-layer oxide film and the surface morphologies have experienced four structures. For the tri-layer oxide film, the middle layer is mainly Fe-Cr spinel and the Al is gradually enriched in the inner layer. - Highlights: • We evaluated the corrosion resistance of three different Cr content ODS steels at 650 °C in supercritical water. • Corrosion behavior of ODS steels is rarely reported and ODS steel may be promising material for generation IV reactors. • We found total opposite phenomenon compared to Lee's work before. Our result may be more reasonable.

  19. Modeling and experimental evaluation of the diffusion bonding of the oxide dispersion strengthened steel PM2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittel, Wiebke; Basuki, Widodo W.; Aktaa, Jarir

    2015-01-01

    A modeling based optimization process of the solid state diffusion bonding is presented for joining ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened steels PM2000. An optimization study employing varying bonding temperatures and pressures results in almost the same strength and toughness of the bonded compared to the as received material. TEM investigations of diffusion bonded samples show a homogeneous distribution of oxide particles at the bonding seam similar to that in the bulk. Hence, no loss in strength or creep resistance due to oxide particle agglomeration is found, as verified by the mechanical properties observed for the joint.

  20. High resolution neutron diffraction crystallographic investigation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened steels of interest for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, R.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Wang, M.; Zhang, G.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out to characterize the crystallographic phases present in different Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels of interest for fusion technology. The different lattice structures, Im3m for the ferritic ODS and Fm3m for the austenitic ODS, are resolved showing line anisotropy effects possibly correlated with differences in dislocation densities and texture. Many contributions from minority phases are detected well above the background noise; none of the expected crystallographic phases, such as M 23 C 6 and including Y 2 O 3 , fits them, but the TiN phase is identified in accordance with results of other microstructural techniques

  1. Experimental study and modelling of the high temperature mechanical behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckmeyer, A.

    2012-01-01

    The strength of metals, and therefore their maximum operating temperature, can be improved by oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS). Numerous research studies are carried out at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in order to develop a cladding tube material for Gen IV nuclear power reactors. Oxide dispersion strengthened steels appear to be the most promising candidates for such application, which demands a minimum operating temperature of 650 C. The present dissertation intends to improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of ODS steels, in terms of creep lifetime and mechanical anisotropy. The methodology of this work includes mechanical tests between room temperature and 900 C as well as macroscopic and polycrystalline modelling. These tests are carried out on a Fe-14Cr1W0,26Ti + 0,3 Y 2 O 3 ODS ferritic steel processed at CEA by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion. The as-received material is a bar with a circular section. The mechanical tests reveal the high mechanical strength of this steel at high temperature. A strong influence of the strain rate on the ductility and the mechanical strength is also observed. A macroscopic mechanical model has been developed on the basis of some experimental statements such as the high kinematic contribution to the flow stress. This model has a strong ability to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of the studied material. Two different polycrystalline models have also been developed in order to reproduce the mechanical anisotropy of the material. They are based on its specific grain morphology and crystallographic texture. The discrepancy between the predictions of both models and experimental results reveal the necessity to formulate alternate assumptions on the deformation mechanisms of ODS ferritic steels. (author) [fr

  2. Microstructural evolution and some mechanical properties of nanosized yttrium oxide dispersion strengthened 13Cr steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Van Tich; Doan, Dinh Phuong; Tran, Tran BaoTrung; Luong, Van Duong; Nguyen, Van An; Phan, Anh Tu

    2010-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels, manufactured by a mechanical alloying method, during the past few years, appear to be promising candidates for structural applications in nuclear power plants. The purpose of this work is to elaborate the manufacturing processes of ODS 13Cr steel with the addition of 1.0 wt% yttrium oxide through the powder metallurgy route using the high energy ball mill. Microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and hardness testing have been used to optimize the technological parameters of milling, hot isostatic pressing and heat-treatment processes. The steel hardness increases with decreasing particle size of 13Cr ODS steel. The best hardness was obtained from more than 70 h of milling in the two tanks planetary ball mill or 30 h of milling in the one tank planetary ball mill and hot isostatic pressing at 1150 °C . The particle size of the steel is less than 100 nm, and the density and hardness are about 7.3 g cm −3 and 490 HB, respectively

  3. Investigation of influence of radioactive irradiation on the microstructure of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasenko, S.V.; Benediktovich, A.I.; Ul'yanenkova, T.A.; O’Konnell, Zh.; Nitling, I.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of unirradiated and irradiated samples of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels was investigated by X-ray diffraction in order to determine the influence of radiation on mechanical properties of steels. The microstructural parameters of ODS steels from measured diffraction profiles were evaluated using an approach where the complex oxide nanoparticles (Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 and Y 4 Al 2 O 9 ) are modeled as spherical inclusions in the steel matrix with coherent boundaries. The proposed method enables processing of diffraction data from materials containing spherical inclusions by treating them as one more source of peak broadening in addition to straight dislocations, and taking into account broadening due to crystallite size and instrumental effects. The microstructural parameters were obtained on the basis of fitting of experimental data by theoretical curve. The parameters of crystallite size distribution modeled by a lognormal distribution function (the median m and the variance σ), the strain anisotropy parameter q, the dislocation density, the dislocation arrangement parameter M, the density of oxide nanoparticles and the nanoparticle radius r 0 were determined for the ODS steel samples. It was established that irradiation has no significant influence on microstructure. The results obtained for physical parameters are in good agreement with the results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). (authors)

  4. When do oxide precipitates form during consolidation of oxide dispersion strengthened steels?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, A., E-mail: alexis.deschamps@grenoble-inp.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); De Geuser, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Malaplate, J.; Sornin, D. [DEN, DANS, DMN, Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-12-15

    The processing of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels involves ball milling, where the oxide forming species are driven in solid solution. Precipitation of the nanometre-scale oxides occurs during subsequent annealing and consolidation. This paper reports in-situ Small-Angle X-ray Scattering measurements of the formation of these precipitates during heating of cold-compressed as-milled powders. Clusters are already initially present, and precipitation starts at 300 °C. The maximum precipitate density is achieved at 600 °C, followed by very slow coarsening at higher temperature. These results open the way to understand the coupled evolution of precipitation and crystalline defects during heating and consolidation of ODS steels.

  5. Texture evolution in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel tubes during pilgering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhitova, E.; Sornin, D.; Barcelo, F.; François, M.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are foreseen as fuel cladding material in the coming generation of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). Cladding tubes are manufactured by hot extrusion and subsequent cold forming steps. In this study, a 9 wt% Cr ODS steel exhibiting α-γ phase transformation at high temperature is cold formed under industrial conditions with a large section reduction in two pilgering steps. The influence of pilgering process parameters and intermediate heat treatment on the microstructure evolution is studied experimentally using Electron Backscattering Diffraction (EBSD) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Pilgered samples show elongated grains and a high texture formation with a preferential orientation along the rolling direction. During the heat treatment, grain morphology is recovered from elongated grains to almost equiaxed ones, while the well-known α-fiber texture presents an unexpected increase in intensity. The remarkable temperature stability of this fiber is attributed to a crystallographic structure memory effect during phase transformations.

  6. Phase stability of oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels in neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, S.; Oka, K.; Ohnuki, S.; Akasaka, N.; Ukai, S.

    2002-01-01

    Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels were irradiated by neutrons up to 21 dpa and studied by microstructural observation and microchemical analysis. The original high dislocation density did not change after neutron irradiation, indicating that the dispersed oxide particles have high stability under neutron irradiation. However, there is potential for recoil resolution of the oxide particles due to ballistic ejection at high dose. From the microchemical analysis, it was implied that some of the complex oxides have a double-layer structure, such that TiO 2 occupied the core region and Y 2 O 3 the outer layer. Such a structure may be more stable than the simple mono-oxides. Under high-temperature irradiation, Laves phase was the predominant precipitate occurring at grain boundaries α phase and χ phase were not observed in this study

  7. Microstructures and mechanical properties of 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel produced by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Rui [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lu, Zheng, E-mail: luz@atm.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lu, Chenyang; Li, Zhengyuan [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ding, Xueyong [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Chunming [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A 9Cr-ODS steel was produced by mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. • Bimodal grain size distribution was observed. • Formation mechanism of bimodal grain size distribution was discussed. • The size and number density of nanoscale particles were obtained by SAXS and HRTEM. • The contribution of nano-sized particles to yield strength is dominating. - Abstract: 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel was fabricated by mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The nano-sized particles, grain size distribution and mechanical properties of 9Cr-ODS steel sintered at 950 °C were studied by synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and tensile experiment. The results showed that bimodal grain size distribution in the matrix is observed, which is attributed to the heterogeneous recrystallization process during the SPS. High-density nano-sized Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} and some large oxides of Cr{sub 2}Mn(Ti)O{sub 4} are formed in 9Cr-ODS steel. The number density and average size of Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} obtained from SAXS are 4.72 × 10{sup 22}/m{sup 3} and 4.4 nm, respectively. The yield strengths of 9Cr-ODS steel fabricated by SPS are compared with the typical 9Cr-ODS steel produced by HIP.

  8. In-situ formation of complex oxide precipitates during processing of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayasankar, K.; Pandey, Abhishek; Mishra, B.K.; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of dual drive planetary ball mill for Bench scale (>1 kg) production. • X-ray diffraction and TEM were used to study transformations during sintering. • HIPped and rolled samples with nearly 99% density successfully produced. - Abstract: In fusion and fission reactor material development, ODS alloys are the most suitable candidate materials due to its high temperature creep properties and irradiation resistance properties. This paper describes the preparation of oxide dispersion strengthened alloy powder in large quantity (>1 kg batch) in dual drive planetary ball mill using pre-alloyed ferrtic steel powder with nano sized Y_2O_3. The consolidation of the powders was carried out in hot isostatic press (HIP) followed by hot rolling. 99% of the theoretical density was achieved by this method. The vickers hardness values of pressed and rolled samples were in the range of 380 ± 2HV and 719 ± 2HV, respectively. Samples were further investigated using X-ray diffraction particle size analyzer and electron microscope. Initial increase in particle size with milling was observed showing flattening of the particle. It was found that 5 h of milling time is sufficient to reduce the particle size to achieve the desired size. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of milled ODS steel powder revealed a uniform distribution of combustion synthesized nano-Y_2O_3 in ferritic steel matrix after a milling time of 5 h. Preliminary results demonstrated suitability of dual drive planetary ball mill for mass production of alloy within a short time due to various kinds of forces acting at a time during milling process. Fine monoclinic Y_2Si_2O_7 precipitates were also observed in the steel. This study explains the particle characteristics of nano Y_2O_3 dispersed ODS powder and formation of nano clusters in ODS ferritic alloy.

  9. Development of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Ferritic Steel Through Powder Forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Prakash, Ujjwal; Dabhade, Vikram V.; Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T.

    2017-04-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are candidates for cladding tubes in fast breeder nuclear reactors. In this study, an 18%Cr ODS ferritic steel was prepared through powder forging route. Elemental powders with a nominal composition of Fe-18Cr-2 W-0.2Ti (composition in wt.%) with 0 and 0.35% yttria were prepared by mechanical alloying in a Simoloyer attritor under argon atmosphere. The alloyed powders were heated in a mild steel can to 1473 K under flowing hydrogen atmosphere. The can was then hot forged. Steps of sealing, degassing and evacuation are eliminated by using powder forging. Heating ODS powder in hydrogen atmosphere ensures good bonding between alloy powders. A dense ODS alloy with an attractive combination of strength and ductility was obtained after re-forging. On testing at 973 K, a loss in ductility was observed in yttria-containing alloy. The strength and ductility increased with increase in strain rate at 973 K. Reasons for this are discussed. The ODS alloy exhibited a recrystallized microstructure which is difficult to achieve by extrusion. No prior particle boundaries were observed after forging. The forged compacts exhibited isotropic mechanical properties. It is suggested that powder forging may offer several advantages over the traditional extrusion/HIP routes for fabrication of ODS alloys.

  10. Helium behavior in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel: Insights from ab initio modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Li, Ruihuan; Ding, Jianhua; Huang, Shaosong; Zhang, Pengbo; Lu, Zheng; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-02-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we systemically investigate the energetics and stability behavior of helium (He) atoms and small Hen (n = 2-4) clusters inside oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel, as well as the incorporation of large amount of He atoms inside Y2O3 crystal. From the energetic point of view, He atom inside Y2O3 cluster is most stable, followed by the interstitial sites at the α-Fe/Y2O3 interface, and the tetrahedral interstitial sites inside α-Fe region. We further consider Hen (n = 2-4) clusters at the tetrahedral interstitial site surrounded by four Y atoms, which is the most stable site in the ODS steel model. The incorporation energies of all these Hen clusters are lower than that of single He atom in α-Fe, while the binding energy between two He atoms is relatively small. With insertion of 15 He atoms into 80-atom unit cell of Y2O3 crystal, the incorporation energy of He atoms is still lower than that of He4 cluster in α-Fe crystal. These theoretical results suggest that He atoms tend to aggregate inside Y2O3 clusters or at the α-Fe/Y2O3 interface, which is beneficial to prevent the He embrittlement in ODS steels.

  11. The influence of deformation, annealing and recrystallisation on oxide nanofeatures in oxide dispersion strengthened steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl, E-mail: k.dawson@liverpool.ac.uk; Tatlock, Gordon J.

    2017-04-01

    This work demonstrates that Y-Ti oxide nanofeatures, observed in as-extruded oxide dispersion strengthened steel, are structurally modified by cold forging. A 950 °C heat treatment promoted restructuring of the deformed particles and partial recrystallisation of the cold forged alloy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that cuboid shaped nanofeatures were deformed during forging, which resulted in high number densities of lens shaped yttrium-titanium oxide particles. Annealing the forged alloy promoted partial recrystallisation of the ferritic matrix. Particle morphology reverted from lens shaped, as witnessed in the deformed material, to cuboid shaped oxide nanofeatures, identical to those observed in as-extruded material. Precipitation distributions evaluated in both recrystallised and recovering grains were indistinguishable from those first measured in the as-extruded alloy. TEM images revealed a widespread orientation relationship between the oxide precipitates and the recrystallised grains; registration with the ferrite lattice was omnipresent in both recovering and recrystallised grains.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrO{sub 2} particle dispersion strengthened 16MnV steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.A. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, N. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); CNOOC Research Institute of Oil and Petrochemicals (CRI), Beijing 100000 (China); Yang, Y.J.; Zhong, H. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, M.Z., E-mail: mz550509@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, X.Y.; Liu, R.P. [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-04-24

    The dispersion strengthened 16MnV steels with 0.5 wt% and 1.2 wt% ZrO{sub 2} particles were prepared using medium frequency induction melting furnace. The ZrO{sub 2} particles mixed with iron powder were added into the 16MnV steel through cored-wire injection process. Optical metallographic microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to observe and analyze the microstructure, fracture morphology, dislocation configuration and strengthening mechanism of ZrO{sub 2} particle dispersion strengthened 16MnV steel under as-cast, normalizing and quenching states. Results showed that the strength of 16MnV steel under various states increased significantly after the addition of dispersed ZrO{sub 2} particles. Analysis indicates that the dislocation cell formed by high density dislocation around ZrO{sub 2} particles and attractive interaction between those particles are the main strengthening mechanism of dispersion strengthened 16MnV steel. The tensile test results showed that remarkable strengthening effect of ZrO{sub 2} particle on 16MnV steel has been observed. As the addition of 1.2 wt% ZrO{sub 2}, the improvement of strength in ZrO{sub 2}/16MnV is approximately 37.69% for as-casting, 24.2% after normalization and 29.96% after quenching, respectively. The normalized ZrO{sub 2}/16MnV with 1.2 wt% ZrO{sub 2} has the highest strength of 1453 MPa.

  13. Fast high-temperature consolidation of Oxide-Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels: process, microstructure, precipitation, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulnat, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to lighten the understanding of the behavior of a class of metallic materials called Oxide-Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels. ODS steels are produced by powder metallurgy with various steps including atomization, mechanical alloying and high-temperature consolidation. The consolidation involves the formation of nanoparticles in the steel and various evolutions of the microstructure of the material that are not fully understood. In this thesis, a novel consolidation technique assisted by electric field called 'Spark Plasma Sintering' (SPS) or 'Field-Assisted Sintering Technique' (FAST) was assessed. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained by SPS, comparable to those of conventional hot isostatic pressed (HIP) materials but with much shorter processing time. Also, a broad range of microstructures and thus of tensile strength and ductility were obtained by performing SPS on either milled or atomized powder at different temperatures. However, SPS consolidation failed to avoid heterogeneous microstructure composed of ultrafine-grained regions surrounded by micron grains despite of the rapid consolidation kinetics. A multi-scale characterization allowed to understand and model the evolution of this complex microstructure. An analytical evaluation of the contributing mechanisms can explain the appearance of the complex grain structure and its thermal stability during further heat treatments. Inhomogeneous distribution of plastic deformation in the powder is argued to be the major cause of heterogeneous recrystallization and further grain growth during hot consolidation. Even if increasing the solute content of yttrium, titanium and oxygen does not impede abnormal growth, it permits to control the fraction and the size of the retained ultrafine grains, which is a key-factor to tailor the mechanical properties. Since precipitation through grain boundary pinning plays a significant role on grain growth, a careful

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of 12Cr Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haijian; Lu, Zheng; Jia, Chunyan; Gao, Hao; Liu, Chunming

    2016-03-01

    Nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels with nominal compositions (wt%): Fe-12Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3 were produced by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure was characterized by means of electron microscopy (EBSD, TEM and HRTEM) and the hardness and the tensile properties at different temperatures were measured. The results showed that the ultimate tensile strength of the fabricated 12Cr-ODS steel reached nearly 1,100 MPa at room temperature and maintained around 340 MPa at 700°C. Nano-oxide particles with size ranging from several nm to 30 nm and the number density was 3.6 × 1020/m3 were observed by TEM. Following heat treatment, including normalizing at 1,100°C for 1 h and tempering at 750°C for 2 h, the average grain size was a little decreased. The number of nano-oxide particles increased and the number density was 8.9 × 1020/m3. Specimens showed much higher ductility and there was a slight increase of ultimate tensile strength and Vickers hardness at the same time.

  15. Microscopy of Alloy Formation on Arc Plasma Sintered Oxide Dispersion Strengthen (ODS) Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandriyana, B.; Sujatno, A.; Salam, R.; Dimyati, A.; Untoro, P.

    2017-07-01

    The oxide dispersed strengthened (ODS) alloys steel developed as structure material for nuclear power plants (NPP) has good resistant against creep due to their unique microstructure. Microscopy investigation on the microstructure formation during alloying process especially at the early stages was carried out to study the correlation between structure and property of ODS alloys. This was possible thanks to the arc plasma sintering (APS) device which can simulate the time dependent alloying processes. The ODS sample with composition of 88 wt.% Fe and 12 wt.% Cr powder dispersed with 1 wt.% ZrO2 nano powder was mixed in a high energy milling, isostatic compressed to form sample coins and then alloyed in APS. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy (EDX) line scan and mapping was used to characterize the microstructure and elemental composition distribution of the samples. The alloying process with unification of each Fe and Cr phase continued by the alloying formation of Fe-Cr by inter-diffusion of both Fe and Cr and followed by the improvement of the mechanical properties of hardness.

  16. Characterisation of high-temperature damage mechanisms of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon-Legagneur, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    The development of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants relies on the improvement of cladding materials, in order to achieve resistance to high temperature, stress and irradiation dose levels. Strengthening of ferritic steels through nano-oxide dispersion allows obtaining good mechanical strength at high temperature and good resistance to irradiation induced swelling. Nonetheless, studies available from open literature evidenced an unusual creep behavior of these materials: high anisotropy in time to rupture and flow behavior, low ductility and quasi-inexistent tertiary creep stage. These phenomena, and their still unclear origin are addressed in this study. Three 14Cr ODS steels rods have been studied. Their mechanical behavior is similar to those of other ODS steels from open literature. During creep tests, the specimens fractured by through crack nucleation and propagation from the lateral surfaces, followed by ductile tearing once the critical stress intensity factor was reached at the crack tip. Tensile and creep properties did not depend on the chemical environment of specimens. Crack propagation tests performed at 650 C showed a low value of the stress intensity factor necessary to start crack propagation. The cracks followed an intergranular path through the smaller-grained regions, which partly explains the anisotropy of high temperature strength. Notched specimens have been used to study the impact of the main loading parameters (deformation rate, temperature, stress triaxiality) on macroscopic crack initiation and stable propagation, from the central part of the specimens. These tests allowed revealing cavities created during high temperature loading, but unexposed to the external environment. These cavities showed a high chemical reactivity of the free surfaces in this material. The performed tests also evidenced different types of grain boundaries, which presented different damage development behaviors, probably due to differences in local

  17. Evaluation of feasibility of tungsten/oxide dispersion strengthened steel bonding with vanadium insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noto, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Akihiko; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Satoru; Nogami, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    A diffusion bonding (DB) technique to reduce thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between tungsten (W) and oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel (ODS-FS) was developed by applying a vanadium (V) alloy as an insert material. In order to suppress σ phase precipitation at the interface, DB of ODS-FS and V-4Cr-4Ti was carried out by introducing a Ti insert as a diffusion barrier between V-4Cr-4Ti and ODS-FS, and examined feasibility of W/V/Ti/ODS-FS joint for application to fusion reactor components by comparing the three-point bending strength and microstructure between the joints with and without a Ti diffusion barrier layer. It is shown that the fracture strength of the joint without a Ti insert was decreased by 25% after aging at 700°C for 100 h, but that with a Ti insert shows no change after the aging treatment up to 1000 h. The result indicates that the introduction of a Ti insert leads to the prevention of the formation of σ phase during aging and resultant control of the degradation of the bonding strength. (author)

  18. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of a milled oxide dispersion strengthened steel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyer-Prost, M., E-mail: marie.loyer-prost@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Merot, J.-S. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Ribis, J. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Bouar, Y. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Chaffron, L. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legendre, F. [DEN-Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Matériaux dans leur Environnement, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for generation IV fuel claddings as their dense nano-oxide dispersion provides good creep and irradiation resistance. Even if they have been studied for years, the formation mechanism of these nano-oxides is still unclear. Here we report for the first time a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of an ODS milled powder. It provides clear evidence of the presence of small crystalline nanoclusters (NCs) enriched in titanium directly after milling. Small NCs (<5 nm) have a crystalline structure and seem partly coherent with the matrix. They have an interplanar spacing close to the (011) {sub bcc} iron structure. They coexist with larger crystalline spherical precipitates of 15–20 nm in size. Their crystalline structure may be metastable as they are not consistent with any Y-Ti-O or Ti-O structure. Such detailed observations in the as-milled grain powder confirm a mechanism of Y, Ti, O dissolution in the ferritic matrix followed by a NC precipitation during the mechanical alloying process of ODS materials. - Highlights: • We observed an ODS ball-milled powder by high resolution transmission microscopy. • The ODS ball-milled powder exhibits a lamellar microstructure. • Small crystalline nanoclusters were detected in the milled ODS powder. • The nanoclusters in the ODS milled powder are enriched in titanium. • Larger NCs of 15–20 nm in size are, at least, partly coherent with the matrix.

  19. High temperature oxidation test of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2006-07-01

    In a feasibility study of ODS steel cladding, its high temperature oxidation resistance was evaluated. Although addition of Cr is effective for preventing high temperature oxidation, excessively higher amount of Cr leads to embrittlement due to the Cr-rich α' precipitate formation. In the ODS steel developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Cr content is controlled in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite. In this study, high temperature oxidation test was conducted for ODS steels, and their results were compared with that of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) 9Cr-ODS martensitic and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel have superior high temperature oxidation resistance compared to 11mass%Cr PNC-FMS and even 17mass% SUS430 and equivalent to austenitic PNC316. (2) The superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel was attributed to earlier formation of the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer at the matrix and inner oxide scale interface. The grain size of ODS steel is finer than that of PNC-FMS, so the superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel can be attributed to the enhanced Cr-supplying rate throughout the accelerated grain boundary diffusion. Finely dispersed Y 2 O 3 oxide particles in the ODS steel matrix may also stabilized the adherence between the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer and the matrix. (author)

  20. Assessment of consolidation of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels by spark plasma sintering: from laboratory scale to industrial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulnat, X.; Fabregue, D.; Perez, M.; Urvoy, S.; Hamon, D.; Carlan, Y. de

    2014-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened steels are new generation alloys that are usually processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). In this study, spark plasma sintering (SPS) was studied as an alternative consolidation technique. The influence of the processing parameters on the microstructure was quantified. The homogeneity of the SPSed materials was characterised by electron microprobe and microhardness. A combination of limited grain growth and minimised porosity can be achieved on semi-industrial compact. Excellent tensile properties were obtained compared to the literature. (authors)

  1. Quantification of oxide particle composition in model oxide dispersion strengthened steel alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, A.J., E-mail: andrew.london@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lozano-Perez, S.; Moody, M.P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Amirthapandian, S.; Panigrahi, B.K.; Sundar, C.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, TN (India); Grovenor, C.R.M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels (ODS) are being considered for structural components of future designs of fission and fusion reactors because of their impressive high-temperature mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage, both of which arise from the nanoscale oxide particles they contain. Because of the critical importance of these nanoscale phases, significant research activity has been dedicated to analysing their precise size, shape and composition (Odette et al., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38 (2008) 471–503 [1]; Miller et al., Mater. Sci. Technol. 29(10) (2013) 1174–1178 [2]). As part of a project to develop new fuel cladding alloys in India, model ODS alloys have been produced with the compositions, Fe–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe–0.2Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe–14Cr–0.2Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The oxide particles in these three model alloys have been studied by APT in their as-received state and following ion irradiation (as a proxy for neutron irradiation) at various temperatures. In order to adequately quantify the composition of the oxide clusters, several difficulties must be managed, including issues relating to the chemical identification (ranging and variable peak-overlaps); trajectory aberrations and chemical structure; and particle sizing. This paper presents how these issues can be addressed by the application of bespoke data analysis tools and correlative microscopy. A discussion follows concerning the achievable precision in these measurements, with reference to the fundamental limiting factors.

  2. Quantification of oxide particle composition in model oxide dispersion strengthened steel alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, A J; Lozano-Perez, S; Moody, M P; Amirthapandian, S; Panigrahi, B K; Sundar, C S; Grovenor, C R M

    2015-12-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels (ODS) are being considered for structural components of future designs of fission and fusion reactors because of their impressive high-temperature mechanical properties and resistance to radiation damage, both of which arise from the nanoscale oxide particles they contain. Because of the critical importance of these nanoscale phases, significant research activity has been dedicated to analysing their precise size, shape and composition (Odette et al., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 38 (2008) 471-503 [1]; Miller et al., Mater. Sci. Technol. 29(10) (2013) 1174-1178 [2]). As part of a project to develop new fuel cladding alloys in India, model ODS alloys have been produced with the compositions, Fe-0.3Y2O3, Fe-0.2Ti-0.3Y2O3 and Fe-14Cr-0.2Ti-0.3Y2O3. The oxide particles in these three model alloys have been studied by APT in their as-received state and following ion irradiation (as a proxy for neutron irradiation) at various temperatures. In order to adequately quantify the composition of the oxide clusters, several difficulties must be managed, including issues relating to the chemical identification (ranging and variable peak-overlaps); trajectory aberrations and chemical structure; and particle sizing. This paper presents how these issues can be addressed by the application of bespoke data analysis tools and correlative microscopy. A discussion follows concerning the achievable precision in these measurements, with reference to the fundamental limiting factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels Made from Water-Atomized Ferritic Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhurst, Barton Mensah; Kim, Jeoung Han

    2018-05-01

    Nano-structured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels produced from a 410L stainless steel powder prepared by water-atomization was studied. The influences of Ti content and milling time on the microstructure and the mechanical properties were analysed. It was found that the ODS steels made from the Si bearing 410L powder contained Y-Ti-O, Y-Ti-Si-O, Y-Si-O, and TiO2 oxides. Most nanoparticles produced after 80 h of milling were aggregated nanoparticles; however, after 160 h of milling, most aggregated nanoparticles dissociated into smaller individual nanoparticles. Perfect mixing of Y and Ti was not achieved even after the longer milling time of 160 h; instead, the longer hours of milling rather resulted in Si incorporation into the Y-Ti-O rich nanoparticles and a change in the matrix morphology from an equiaxed microstructure to a tempered martensite-like microstructure. The overall micro-hardness of the ODS steel increased with the increase of milling time. After 80 and 160 h, the microhardnesses were over 400 HV, which primarily resulted from the finer dispersed nanoparticles and in part to the formation of martensitic phases. Tensile strength of the 410L ODS steels was comparable with that of ODS steel produced from gas-atomized powder.

  4. Novel Nano-Size Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels Development through Computational and Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shizhong [Southern Univ. and A& M College, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2016-05-30

    This report summarizes our recent works of theoretical modeling, simulation and experimental validation of the simulation results on the ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy research. The simulation of the stability and thermal dynamics simulation on potential thermal stable candidates were performed and related ODS samples were synthesized and characterized. The simulation methods and experimental texture validation techniques development, achievements already reached, course work development, students and postdoc training, and future improvement are briefly introduced.

  5. Gas atomized precursor alloy powder for oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieken, Joel [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-12-13

    Gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was employed as a simplified method for producing precursor powders for oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic stainless steels (e.g., Fe-Cr-Y-(Ti,Hf)-O), departing from the conventional mechanical alloying (MA) process. During GARS processing a reactive atomization gas (i.e., Ar-O2) was used to oxidize the powder surfaces during primary break-up and rapid solidification of the molten alloy. This resulted in envelopment of the powders by an ultra-thin (t < 150 nm) metastable Cr-enriched oxide layer that was used as a vehicle for solid-state transport of O into the consolidated microstructure. In an attempt to better understand the kinetics of this GARS reaction, theoretical cooling curves for the atomized droplets were calculated and used to establish an oxidation model for this process. Subsequent elevated temperature heat treatments, which were derived from Rhines pack measurements using an internal oxidation model, were used to promote thermodynamically driven O exchange reactions between trapped films of the initial Cr-enriched surface oxide and internal Y-enriched intermetallic precipitates. This novel microstructural evolution process resulted in the successful formation of nano-metric Y-enriched dispersoids, as confirmed using high energy X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), equivalent to conventional ODS alloys from MA powders. The thermal stability of these Y-enriched dispersoids was evaluated using high temperature (1200°C) annealing treatments ranging from 2.5 to 1,000 hrs of exposure. In a further departure from current ODS practice, replacing Ti with additions of Hf appeared to improve the Y-enriched dispersoid thermal stability by means of crystal structure modification. Additionally, the spatial distribution of the dispersoids was found to depend strongly on the original rapidly solidified microstructure. To exploit this, ODS microstructures were engineered from

  6. Detection and evaluation of embedded mild steel can material into 18 Cr-oxide dispersion strengthened steel tubes by magnetic Barkhausen emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, G. V. K.; Kumar, Anish; Rajkumar, K. V.; Purnachandra Rao, B.; Pramanik, Debabrata; Kapoor, Komal; Jha, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a new methodology for detection and evaluation of mild steel (MS) can material embedded into oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel tubes by magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) technique. The high frequency MBE measurements (125 Hz sweep frequency and 70-200 kHz analyzing frequency) are found to be very sensitive for detection of presence of MS on the surface of the ODS steel tube. However, due to a shallow depth of information from the high frequency MBE measurements, it cannot be used for evaluation of the thickness of the embedded MS. The low frequency MBE measurements (0.5 Hz sweep frequency and 2-20 kHz analyzing frequency) indicate presence of two MBE RMS voltage peaks corresponding to the MS and the ODS steel. The ratio of the two peaks changes with the thickness of the MS and hence, can be used for measurement of the thickness of the MS layer.

  7. Fracture Resistances of Y_2O_3 Particle Dispersion Strengthened 9Cr Steel at Room Temperature and High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Hyun; Kang, Suk Hoon; Lee, Yongbok; Kim, Sung Soo

    2012-01-01

    The fracture resistance and tensile properties of Y_2O_3 oxide dispersion strengthened steel containing 9 wt% Cr (9Cr-ODS) were measured at various temperatures up to 700°C. The fracture characteristics were compared with those of commercial E911 ferritic/martensitic steel. The strength of 9Cr-ODS was at least 30% higher than that of E911 steel at the test temperatures below 500°C. The strength difference between the two materials was almost diminished at 700°C. 9Cr-ODS showed cleavage fracture behavior at room temperature and unstable crack growth behaviors at 300°C and 500°C. The J-R fracture resistance of 9Cr-ODS was much lower than that of E911 steel at all temperatures. It was deduced that the coarse Cr_2O_3 particles that were formed during the alloying process provided the crack initiation sites of cleavage fracture in 9Cr-ODS.

  8. Mechanical properties of brazing joints of alumina dispersion strengthened copper to 316 stainless steel for fusion reactor divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Hiroshi; Araki, Toshiaki.

    1994-01-01

    Brazing of alumina dispersion strengthened copper to 316 stainless steel was carried out with the brazing parameters such as brazing alloy, clearance and time to investigate the influence of brazing conditions on the joint strength. Tensile and Charpy impact tests of the joint specimens were performed to evaluate their strength. Microstructure and hardness of the brazed zone were examined with an optical microscope and a Vickers hardness tester. The excellent brazing joint strength was achieved with BAu-2 brazing alloy. The tensile strength of the joint with the brazing clearance of 0.2mm and the brazing time of 300s was as large as that of the diffusion bonding joint. However, Charpy absorbed energy of the brazing was lower than that of the diffusion bonding. Alumina dispersion strengthened copper remelted near the brazed zone because of diffusion of the brazing alloy, and the specimens fractured at the remelted zone. The brazed zone included many voids, which caused a scattering of the strength. (author)

  9. Oxide nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened steel: crystallographic structure and interface with ferrite matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    Oxide nanoparticles are quintessential for ensuring the extraordinary properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. In this study, the crystallographic structure of oxide nanoparticles, and their interface with the ferritic steel matrix in an Al-alloyed ODS steel, i.e. PM2000, were systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The majority of oxide nanoparticles were identified to be orthorhombic YAlO3. During hot consolidation and extrusion, they develop a coherent interface and a near cuboid-on-cube orientation relationship with the ferrite matrix in the material. After annealing at 1200 °C for 1 h, however, the orientation relationship between the oxide nanoparticles and the matrix becomes arbitrary, and their interface mostly incoherent. Annealing at 1300 °C leads to considerable coarsening of oxide nanoparticles, and a new orientation relationship of pseudo-cube-on-cube between oxide nanoparticles and ferrite matrix develops. The reason for the developing interfaces and orientation relationships between oxide nanoparticles and ferrite matrix under different conditions is discussed.

  10. Transmission electron microscopy study of the heavy-ion-irradiation-induced changes in the nanostructure of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozhkin, S. V.; Bogachev, A. A.; Orlov, N. N.; Korchuganova, O. A.; Nikitin, A. A.; Zaluzhnyi, A. G.; Kozodaev, M. A.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Fedin, P. A.; Chalykh, B. B.; Lindau, R.; Hoffman, Ya.; Möslang, A.; Vladimirov, P.; Klimenkov, M.

    2017-07-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the effect of heavy-ion irradiation on the structure and the phase state of three oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels: ODS Eurofer, ODS 13.5Cr, and ODS 13.5Cr-0.3Ti (wt %). Samples were irradiated with iron and titanium ions to fluences of 1015 and 3 × 1015 cm-2 at 300, 573, and 773 K. The study of the region of maximum radiation damage shows that irradiation increases the number density of oxide particles in all samples. The fraction of fine inclusions increases in the particle size distribution. This effect is most pronounced in the ODS 13.5Cr steel irradiated with titanium ions at 300 K to a fluence of 3 × 1015 cm-2. It is demonstrated that oxide inclusions in ODS 13.5Cr-0.3Ti and ODS 13.5Cr steels are more stable upon irradiation at 573 and 773 K than upon irradiation at 300 K.

  11. Processing, Microstructure, and Material Property Relationships Following Friction Stir Welding of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Fast, 200 Ferritic- martensitic steels , ODS alloys Stainless steels Lead fast reactor Lead or lead- bismuth 800 Fast, 150 Ferritic- martensitic ...from Zinkle [from 1]. T22, T9, T91, E911, NF12, NF616, and SAVE12 are all Ferritic or Martensitic steels with variations in alloy concentrations and...manufacturing techniques. Similarly HCM12 and HCM12A are High Chromium Martensitic steels

  12. High temperature creep strength of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, high temperature strength of advanced radiation resistance ODS steel was investigated for the core structural material of next generation nuclear systems. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying, hot isostactic pressing and hot rolling processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels, and creep rupture test as well as tensile test were examined to investigate the behavior at high temperatures. ODS steels were fabricated by a mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes. Mechanical properties at high temperatures were investigated. The creep resistance of advanced radiation resistant ODS steels was more superior than those of ferritic/ martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel and even a conventional ODS steel.

  13. Macroscopic and microscopic determinations of residual stresses in thin oxide dispersion strengthened steel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechade, J.L.; Toualbi, L.; Bosonnet, S.; Carlan, Y. de; Castelnau, O.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of components operating at high temperatures, many efforts are deployed to develop new materials. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) materials could be used for heat exchangers or cladding tubes for the new GENIV nuclear reactors. This type of materials are composed with a metallic matrix (usually iron base alloy for nuclear applications or nickel base alloy for heat exchangers) reinforced by a distribution of nano-oxides. They are obtained by powder metallurgy and mechanical alloying. The creep resistance of these materials is excellent, and they usually exhibit a high tensile strength at room temperature. Depending on the cold working and/or the heat treatments, several types of microstructure can be obtained: recrystallised, stress relieved. One of the key challenges is to transform ODS materials into thin tubes (up to 500 microns thick) within a robust fabrication route while keeping the excellent mechanical properties. To prevent cracking during the process or to obtain a final product with low residual stresses, it is important to quantify the effect of the heat treatments on the release of internal stresses. The aim of this study is to show how residual stresses can be determined on different thin tubes using two complementary approaches: (i) macroscopic stresses determination in the tube using beam theory (small cuts along the longitudinal and circumferential directions and measurements of the deflection), (ii) stress determination from x-ray diffraction analyses (surface analyses, using 'sin"2ψ' method with different hypothesis). Depending on the material and the heat treatment, residual stresses vary dramatically and can reach 800 MPa which is not far from the yield stress; comparisons between both methods are performed and suggestions are given in order to optimize the thermo-mechanical treatment of thin ODS tubes. (authors)

  14. Characterization of residual stress as a function of friction stir welding parameters in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel MA956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, L.N., E-mail: lnbrewer1@eng.ua.edu [Naval Postgraduate School (United States); Bennett, M.S.; Baker, B.W. [Naval Postgraduate School (United States); Payzant, E.A.; Sochalski-Kolbus, L.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Friction stir welding (FSW) can generate large residual stresses during solid state joining of oxide dispersion strengthened steels. In this work, a plate of MA956 steel was friction stir welded at three conditions: 500 rpm/25 mm per minute (mmpm), 400 rpm/50 mmpm and 400 rpm/100 mmpm. The residual stresses across these welds were measured using both x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. The distribution and magnitude of the residual stresses agreed well between the two techniques. Longitudinal residual stresses up to eighty percent of the yield strength were observed for the 400 rpm/100 mmpm condition. The surface residual stresses were somewhat larger on the root side of the weld than on the crown side. Increases in the relative heat input during FSW decreased the measured residual stresses in the stir zone and the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ). Increasing the traverse rate while holding the rotational speed fixed increased the residual stress levels. The fatigue strength of the material is predicted to decrease by at least twenty percent with cracking most likely in the TMAZ.

  15. Characterization of residual stress as a function of friction stir welding parameters in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel MA956

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, L.N.; Bennett, M.S.; Baker, B.W.; Payzant, E.A.; Sochalski-Kolbus, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) can generate large residual stresses during solid state joining of oxide dispersion strengthened steels. In this work, a plate of MA956 steel was friction stir welded at three conditions: 500 rpm/25 mm per minute (mmpm), 400 rpm/50 mmpm and 400 rpm/100 mmpm. The residual stresses across these welds were measured using both x-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. The distribution and magnitude of the residual stresses agreed well between the two techniques. Longitudinal residual stresses up to eighty percent of the yield strength were observed for the 400 rpm/100 mmpm condition. The surface residual stresses were somewhat larger on the root side of the weld than on the crown side. Increases in the relative heat input during FSW decreased the measured residual stresses in the stir zone and the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ). Increasing the traverse rate while holding the rotational speed fixed increased the residual stress levels. The fatigue strength of the material is predicted to decrease by at least twenty percent with cracking most likely in the TMAZ.

  16. Irradiation behavior evaluation of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel cladding tubes irradiated in JOYO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Shinichiro, E-mail: yamashita.shinichiro@jaea.go.jp; Yano, Yasuhide; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Yoshitake, Tsunemitsu; Kaito, Takeji; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2013-11-15

    Irradiation behavior of ODS steel cladding tubes was evaluated for the further progress in understanding of the neutron-irradiation effects on ODS steel. Two types of ODS (9Cr–ODS{sub F}/M, 12Cr–ODS{sub F}) steel cladding tubes with differences in basic compositions and matrix phases were irradiated in JOYO. Post-irradiation examination data concerning hardness, ring tensile property, and microstructure were obtained. Hardness measurement after irradiation showed that there was an apparent irradiation temperature dependence on hardness for 9Cr–ODS{sub F}/M steel whereas no distinct temperature dependence for 12Cr–ODS{sub F} steel. Also, there was no significant change in tensile strengths after irradiation below 923 K, but those above 1023 K up to 6.6 × 10{sup 26} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV) were decreased by about 20%. TEM observations showed that the radiation-induced defect cluster formation during irradiation was suppressed because of high density sink site for defect such as initially-existed dislocation, and precipitate interfaces. In addition, oxide particles were stable up to the maximum doses of this irradiation test.

  17. The interfacial orientation relationship of oxide nanoparticles in a hafnium-containing oxide dispersion-strengthened austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin, E-mail: miao2@illinois.edu [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mo, Kun [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60493 (United States); Cui, Bai [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Chen, Wei-Ying [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Miller, Michael K.; Powers, Kathy A. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); McCreary, Virginia; Gross, David [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Almer, Jonathan [X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60493 (United States); Robertson, Ian M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WA 53706 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Stubbins, James F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    This work reports comprehensive investigations on the orientation relationship of the oxide nanoparticles in a hafnium-containing austenitic oxide dispersion-strengthened 316 stainless steel. The phases of the oxide nanoparticles were determined by a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy–electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atom probe tomography and synchrotron X-ray diffraction to be complex Y–Ti–Hf–O compounds with similar crystal structures, including bixbyite Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, fluorite Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}–HfO{sub 2} solid solution and pyrochlore (or fluorite) Y{sub 2}(Ti,Hf){sub 2−x}O{sub 7−x}. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the particle–matrix interfaces. Two different coherency relationships along with one axis-parallel relation between the oxide nanoparticles and the steel matrix were found. The size of the nanoparticles significantly influences the orientation relationship. The results provide insight into the relationship of these nanoparticles with the matrix, which has implications for interpreting material properties as well as responses to radiation. - Highlights: • The oxide nanoparticles in a hafnium-containing austenitic ODS were characterized. • The nanoparticles are Y–Hf–Ti–O enriched phases according to APT and STEM–EDS. • Two coherency and an axis-parallel orientation relationships were found by HR-TEM. • Particle size has a prominent effect on the orientation relationship (OR). • Formation mechanism of the oxide nanoparticles was discussed based on the ORs.

  18. Characterisation of a complex thin walled structure fabricated by selective laser melting using a ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegelein, Thomas, E-mail: t.boegelein@liv.ac.uk; Louvis, Eleftherios; Dawson, Karl; Tatlock, Gordon J.; Jones, Andy R.

    2016-02-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys exhibit superior mechanical and physical properties due to the presence of nanoscopic Y(Al, Ti) oxide precipitates, but their manufacturing process is complex. The present study is aimed at further investigation of the application of an alternative, Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique, Selective Laser Melting (SLM), to the production of consolidated ODS alloy components. Mechanically alloyed PM2000 (ODS-FeCrAl) powders have been consolidated and a fine dispersion of Y-containing precipitates were observed in an as built thin-walled component, but these particles were typically poly-crystalline and contained a variety of elements including O, Al, Ti, Cr and Fe. Application of post-build heat treatments resulted in the modification of particle structures and compositions; in the annealed condition most precipitates were transformed to single crystal yttrium aluminium oxides. During the annealing treatment, precipitate distributions homogenised and localised variations in number density were diminished. The resulting volume fractions of those precipitates were 25–40% lower than have been reported in conventionally processed PM2000, which was attributed to Y-rich slag-like surface features and inclusions formed during SLM. - Highlights: • A wall structure was grown from ODS steel powder using selective laser melting. • A fine dispersion of nano-precipitates was apparent in as-build material. • Precipitates were multi-phased containing several elements, e.g. O, Ti, Al, Fe, Cr, Y. • Post-build annealing changed those into typically single-crystalline Y–Al–O. • The anneal also reduced and stabilised the volume fraction of precipitates to ~ 0.006.

  19. Oxide dispersion-strengthened steel PM2000 after dynamic plastic deformation: nanostructure and annealing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Tao, N. R.; Mishin, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure, texture and mechanical properties have been studied in PM2000 compressed via dynamic plastic deformation to a strain of 2.1. It is found that dynamic plastic deformation results in a duplex 〈111〉 + 〈100〉 fibre texture and refines the initial microstructure by nanoscale lamellae...... in the deformed microstructure. This reduction is more pronounced in the 〈111〉-oriented regions. Orientation-dependent recrystallisation takes place in the recovered microstructure, leading to strengthening of the 〈111〉 fibre texture component at the expense of the 〈100〉 fibre texture component....

  20. Ion implantation-induced defects in Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel probed by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwand, Wolfgang; Butterling, Maik; Brauer, Gerhard; Wagner, Andreas [HZDR, Institut fuer Strahlenphysik (Germany); Richter, Astrid [Technische Hochschule Wildau (Germany); Koegler, Reinhard [HZDR, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung (Germany); Chen, C.L. [I-Shou University, Kaohsiung (China)

    2012-07-01

    ODS steel is a promising candidate for an application in fission and fusion power plants of a new generation because of its advantageous properties as stability and temperature resistance. A microscopic understanding of the physical reasons of the mechanical and thermal properties as well as the behaviour of the material under irradiation is an important pre-condition for such applications. The investigated ODS FeCrAl alloy *PM2000* has been produced in a powder metallurgical way. Neutron-induced damage at ODS steel was simulated by He{sup +} and Fe{sup 2+} co-implantation with energies of 2.5 MeV and 400 keV, respectively, and different fluences. The implantation has been carried out with a dual ion beam which enables a simultaneous implantation of both ion types. Thereby the Fe{sup 2+} implantation was used for the creation of radiation defects, and He{sup +} was implanted in order to reproduce He bubbles as they are expected to appear by neutron irradiation. The implantation-induced damage was investigated by depth dependent Doppler broadening measurements using a variable energy slow positron beam.

  1. Influence of brazing conditions on the strength of brazed joints of alumina dispersion-strengthened copper to 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, H.; Kikuchi, K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazing of alumina dispersion-strengthened copper (DS Cu) to 316 stainless steel were conducted in order to investigate the influence of filler metals and brazing conditions on the joint strength. The brazing were performed with a silver-base (BAg-8) and three kinds of gold-base (BAu-2.4.11) filler metals with varying brazing joint clearance and brazing time. The filler metal had a greater effect on the joint strength than the brazing joint clearance and brazing time. The joint with BAu-2 was superior to the joint with other filler metals. The tensile strength of the joint with BAu-2 was as large as that of DS Cu, however, the Charpy and low cycle fatigue strength were lower than those of DS Cu. The DS Cu melted near the brazed zone, consequently recrystallization and agglomeration of alumina occurred in the diffusion layer for all filler metals. The grain size after the recrystallization was small in order of BAu-2. BAu-4 and BAu-11, that was in accordance with the order of the brazing temperature. The excellent fracture strength for the joint with BAu-2 was attributed to the smallest grain size. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of Y2O3 distribution in the welded joints of the fast reactor fuel claddings made of oxide dispersion strengthened steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakin, E.M.; Kuz'min, S.V.; Ivanovich, Yu.V.; Ukai, Sh.; Kaito, T.; Seki, M.

    2007-01-01

    The study results of Y 2 O 3 distribution in welded joints of claddings from oxide dispersion strengthened steel produced by the technique of powder metallurgy are given in this paper. Change of content and distribution uniformity of yttrium oxide in welds in comparison with metal shell is the result of using flash welding of thin-walled fuel claddings. It is shown that concentration and yttrium oxide distribution uniformity in the cross section of weld, made by pulse laser welding is more high as compared with argon-arc welding [ru

  3. A comparison between different oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel ongoing in situ oxide dissolution in High Voltage Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, I.; Van den Berghe, T.; Dubuisson, Ph.

    2012-01-01

    ODS materials are considered for nuclear applications but previous experimental studies have shown a partial dissolution of some oxides under neutron irradiation. In this work, electron irradiations were used to evaluate the stability of the oxides depending on the chemical composition of the oxide dispersion. Four ferritic steels based on EM10 (Fe–9Cr–1Mo) and reinforced respectively by Al 2 O 3 , MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 and Y 2 O 3 , were studied. These materials were irradiated with 1 MeV or 1.2 MeV electrons in a High Voltage Electron Microscope. This technique allows to follow one single oxide and to determine the evolution of its size during the irradiation. In situ HVEM observations indicate that the dissolution rate depends on the chemical composition of the oxide, on the temperature and on the irradiation dose.

  4. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Peng, E-mail: doup@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko, E-mail: kimura@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okuda, Takanari, E-mail: okuda.takanari@kki.kobelco.com [Kobelco Research Institute, 1-5-5 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Inoue, Masaki, E-mail: inoue.masaki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Nuclear System R& D Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ukai, Shigeharu, E-mail: s-ukai@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ohnuki, Somei, E-mail: ohnuki@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Fujisawa, Toshiharu, E-mail: fujisawa@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Abe, Fujio, E-mail: ABE.Fujio@nims.go.jp [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Jiang, Shan, E-mail: js93518@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Zhigang, E-mail: zgyang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-16 were found to be consistent with cubic Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.

  5. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou, Peng; Kimura, Akihiko; Kasada, Ryuta; Okuda, Takanari; Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Ohnuki, Somei; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Abe, Fujio; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y 2 O 3 ), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y 2 O 3 ), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-16 were found to be consistent with cubic Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y 2 Hf 2 O 7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.

  6. Manufacturing test of large scale hollow capsule and long length cladding in the large scale oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki

    2004-04-01

    Mass production capability of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel cladding (9Cr) has being evaluated in the Phase II of the Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System. The cost for manufacturing mother tube (raw materials powder production, mechanical alloying (MA) by ball mill, canning, hot extrusion, and machining) is a dominant factor in the total cost for manufacturing ODS ferritic steel cladding. In this study, the large-sale 9Cr-ODS martensitic steel mother tube which is made with a large-scale hollow capsule, and long length claddings were manufactured, and the applicability of these processes was evaluated. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) Manufacturing the large scale mother tube in the dimension of 32 mm OD, 21 mm ID, and 2 m length has been successfully carried out using large scale hollow capsule. This mother tube has a high degree of accuracy in size. (2) The chemical composition and the micro structure of the manufactured mother tube are similar to the existing mother tube manufactured by a small scale can. And the remarkable difference between the bottom and top sides in the manufactured mother tube has not been observed. (3) The long length cladding has been successfully manufactured from the large scale mother tube which was made using a large scale hollow capsule. (4) For reducing the manufacturing cost of the ODS steel claddings, manufacturing process of the mother tubes using a large scale hollow capsules is promising. (author)

  7. Material properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels for core materials of FBR. Mechanical strength properties of sodium exposed and Nickel diffused materials. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shoichi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2004-02-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel have excellent resistance to swelling and superior creep strength, they are expected to be used as a long-life cladding material in future advanced fast reactor. In this study, sodium environmental effects on the ODS steel developed by JNC were clarified through tensile test after sodium exposure for maximum 10,000hrs and creep-rupture test in sodium at elevated temperature. The exposure to sodium was conducted using a sodium test loop constituted by austenitic steels. For the conditions of sodium exposure test, the sodium temperatures were 923 K and 973 K, the oxygen concentration in sodium was below 2ppm and sodium flow rate on the surface of specimen was less than 1x10 -4 m/s. Further the specimen with the nickel diffused was prepared, which is simulate to nickel diffusing through sodium from the surface of structural stainless steels. The main results obtained were as follows; (1) The results showed excellent sodium-resistance up to a high temperature of about 973 K in stagnant sodium conditions, and its considered that the effects of sodium environment of tensile properties were negligible. In case of stagnant sodium condition, creep-rupture strength in sodium was equal to the in argon gas, and no sodium environmental effect was observed. The same is true for the creep-rupture ductility. (2) The tensile properties of nickel diffused test specimens at high temperatures simulating microstructure change were equal to that of the thermal aging process specimens. These tensile tests suggest that sodium environmental effects can be ignored. However, the effect of nickel diffusion on creep strength are not clear at present and experimental investigation are being conducted. (3) The coefficient of nickel diffusion in the ODS steel can be estimated based on the results of nickel concentration measurement. This value is larger than that of the diffusion coefficient for typical α-Fe steel at temperature below 973 K

  8. Optimization of HIP bonding conditions for ITER shielding blanket/first wall made from austenitic stainless steel and dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Hatano, T.; Kuroda, T.; Furuya, K.; Hara, S.; Enoeda, M.; Takatsu, H.

    1998-01-01

    Optimum bonding conditions were studied on the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonded joints of type 316L austenitic stainless steel and dispersion strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) for application to the ITER shielding blanket / first wall. HIP bonded joints were fabricated at temperatures in a 980-1050 C range, and a series of mechanical tests and metallurgical observations were conducted on the joints. Also, bondability of two grades of DSCu (Glidcop Al-25 trademark and Al-15 trademark ) with SS316L was examined in terms of mechanical properties of the HIP bonded joints. From those studies it was concluded that the HIP temperature of 1050 C was an optimal condition for obtaining higher ductility, impact values and fatigue strength. Also, SS316L/Al-15 joints showed better results in terms of ductility and impact values compared with SS316L/Al-25 joints. (orig.)

  9. Material properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels for core materials of FBR. Tensile properties of sodium exposed and nickel diffused materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shoichi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2002-12-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel is candidate for a long-life core materials of future FBR, because of good swelling resistance and high creep strength. In this study, tensile tests were carried out the long-term extrapolation of sodium environmental effects on the mechanical properties of ODS steels. The tested heats of materials are M93, M11 and F95. The specimens were pre-exposed to sodium for 1,000 and 3,000 hours under non-stress conditions. The pre-exposure to sodium was conducted using a sodium test loop constituted by austenitic steels. For the conditions of sodium exposure test, the sodium temperature was 650 and 700degC, the oxygen concentration in sodium was about 1 ppm and sodium flow rate on the surface of specimen was less than 1x10 -4 m/seconds (nearly static). Further the specimen with the nickel diffused was prepared, which is simulate to nickel diffusing through sodium from the surface of structural stainless steels. The main results obtained were as follows; (1) The tensile strength and the fracture elongation after sodium exposure (maximum 3,000 hours) were same as that of as-received materials. If was considered that the sodium environmental effect is negligible under the condition of this study. (2) Tensile properties of nickel diffused specimens were slightly lower than that of the as-received specimens, but it remains equal to that of thermal aging specimens. (3) The change in microstructure such as a degraded layer was observed on the surface of nickel diffused specimen. In the region of the degraded layer, phase transformations from the α-phase to the γ-phase were recognized. But, the microscopic oxide particles were observed same as that of α-phase base metal. (author)

  10. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al 2 O 3 , is very similar to the GlidCop trademark alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10 21 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to ∼3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90 degrees C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of ±0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as ∼2 x 10 -9 s -1 . These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys

  11. Irradiation creep of dispersion strengthened copper alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrovsky, A.S.; Barabash, V.R.; Fabritsiev, S.A. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper alloys are under consideration as reference materials for the ITER plasma facing components. Irradiation creep is one of the parameters which must be assessed because of its importance for the lifetime prediction of these components. In this study the irradiation creep of a dispersion strengthened copper (DS) alloy has been investigated. The alloy selected for evaluation, MAGT-0.2, which contains 0.2 wt.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, is very similar to the GlidCop{trademark} alloy referred to as Al20. Irradiation creep was investigated using HE pressurized tubes. The tubes were machined from rod stock, then stainless steel caps were brazed onto the end of each tube. The creep specimens were pressurized by use of ultra-pure He and the stainless steel caps subsequently sealed by laser welding. These specimens were irradiated in reactor water in the core position of the SM-2 reactors to a fluence level of 4.5-7.1 x 10{sup 21} n/cm{sup 2} (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to {approx}3-5 dpa. The irradiation temperature ranged from 60-90{degrees}C, which yielded calculated hoop stresses from 39-117 MPa. A mechanical micrometer system was used to measure the outer diameter of the specimens before and after irradiation, with an accuracy of {+-}0.001 mm. The irradiation creep was calculated based on the change in the diameter. Comparison of pre- and post-irradiation diameter measurements indicates that irradiation induced creep is indeed observed in this alloy at low temperatures, with a creep rate as high as {approx}2 x 10{sup {minus}9}s{sup {minus}1}. These results are compared with available data for irradiation creep for stainless steels, pure copper, and for thermal creep of copper alloys.

  12. Mechanical and microstructural behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened 8Cr-2W and 8Cr-1W steels during creep deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinozuka, K.; Tamura, M.; Esaka, H. [National Defense Academy, Dept. MS and E, Kanagawa (Japan); Shiba, K.; Nakamura, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel is a promising candidate for fusion reactor material because of excellent mechanical properties. However, the ODS steel exhibits some defects, such as mechanical anisotropy and little elongation . To reveal details of these defects, we investigated correlations between mechanical and microstructural behavior of ODS ferritic steels during creep deformation at high temperature. The materials used in this study are two kinds of hot rolled ODS steels: Fe-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.1Ta-0.2Ti-0.4Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (J1) and Fe-8Cr-1W-0.2Ti-0.4Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (J2). Creep tests was carried out on specimens sampling along both the rolling direction and the cross direction at 670, 700 and 730 deg. C. Microstructural analyses were made on the normalized and tempered condition by using OM, SEM, TEM and XRD. Creep ruptured and interrupted specimens were also investigated. Both J1 and J2 existed two phases, namely martensite and {delta}-ferrite which was elongated in the rolling direction. Y-Ti complex oxide particles were finely dispersed in martensite and {delta}- ferrite phases. Results of creep tests indicated that the time-to-rupture of specimens of J1 were much longer than J2, and the time-to-rupture of specimens sampling along the rolling direction were longer than cross direction. Accordingly, J1 sampling along hot rolling direction was the strongest, for instance, the time-to-rupture was 11400 h at 700 deg. C and 162 MPa. All specimens indicated that elongation was less than 1.3 % and the rupture occurred at steady state creep region from creep curves. Internal cracks were propagated in martensite phase along elongated {delta}-ferrite phase in the direction of hot rolling. On the other hand, {delta}-ferrite phases seemed to prevent combining cracks. These results suggest that elongated {delta}-ferrite and internal clacks in martensite strongly affect on the anisotropy and little elongation of creep. (authors)

  13. Atom probe tomography of the evolution of the nanostructure of oxide dispersion strengthened steels under ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, N. N.; Rogozhkin, S. V.; Bogachev, A. A.; Korchuganova, O. A.; Nikitin, A. A.; Zaluzhnyi, A. G.; Kozodaev, M. A.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Fedin, P. A.; Chalykh, B. B.; Lindau, R.; Hoffmann, Ya.; Möslang, A.; Vladimirov, P.

    2017-09-01

    The atom probe tomography of the nanostructure evolution in ODS1 Eurofer, ODS 13.5Cr, and ODS 13.5Cr-0.3Ti steels under heavy ion irradiation at 300 and 573 K is performed. The samples were irradiated by 5.6 MeV Fe2+ ions and 4.8 MeV Ti2+ ions to a fluence of 1015 cm-2. It is shown that the number of nanoclusters increases by a factor of 2-3 after irradiation. The chemical composition of the clusters in the steels changes after irradiation at 300 K, whereas the chemical composition of the clusters in the 13.5Cr-0.3Ti ODS steel remains the same after irradiation at 573 K.

  14. The influence of microstructure on the cyclic deformation and damage of copper and an oxide dispersion strengthened steel studied via in-situ micro-beam bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, C., E-mail: cam7745@berkeley.edu [University of California, 2111A Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Fritz, R.; Alfreider, M.; Kiener, D. [Department of Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, A-8700, Leoben (Austria); Hosemann, P. [University of California, 2111A Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)

    2017-02-27

    Service materials are often designed for strength, ductility, or toughness, but neglect the effects of cyclic time-variable loads ultimately leading to macroscopic mechanical failure. Fatigue originates as local plasticity that can first only be observed on the micro scale at defects serving as stress concentrators such as inclusions or grain boundaries. Thus, a recently developed technique to perform in-situ observation of micro scale bending fatigue experiments was applied. Micro-beams fabricated from copper, single grained and ultrafine grained (ufg), and an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel were subject to cyclic deformation and subsequent damage. The elastic stiffness, yield strength, dissipated energy, and maximum stress were measured as a function of cycle number and plastic strain amplitude. From these properties, cyclic stress-strain curves were developed. Initial pronounced monotonic hardening and an increasing Bauschinger effect were observed in all samples with increasing strain amplitude. Cyclic stability was maintained until plastic strain amplitudes reached a critical value. At this point, dramatic cyclic softening and microcracking occurred. The critical strain amplitude was found to be approximately 5.4×10{sup −3} for the copper with a refined grain structure and 1.2×10{sup −2} for the steel specimen. Grain rotation and noticeable changes in sub-grain structure were evident in the ufg copper after a critical strain amplitude of ε{sub a}=8.3×10{sup −3}. In-situ micro fatigue bending couples the cyclic evolution of bulk mechanical properties measurements with real-time electron microscopy analysis techniques of damage and failure mechanisms, which renders it a powerful method for developing novel fatigue resistant materials.

  15. Contribution to the development of the MARS beamline to study oxide dispersion strengthened steels (ODS) irradiated with neutrons using synchrotron source: secondary phases evolution under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menut, Denis

    2016-01-01

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) coupled with X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) analyses at the MARS beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL facility were used to study the microstructural evolution of oxides phases found in oxide dispersion strengthened steels (ODS) irradiated in Material Testing Reactors. Two hold generations of ODS steel grades (DY and MA957) irradiated up to high fluencies (∼75 dpa) were studied. These experiments have required specific developments, in particular a dedicated sample holder. An important milestone was overcome integrating the MARS beamline to the nuclearized facilities accessible for CEA. First, XRD analysis provide new results concerning intermediate sizes of precipitates (around 100 nm) essentially from crystallographic point of view, the nano-sized oxides (from 1 to 10 nm) being not detected, due to the material itself, sample preparation as thin foil and experimental set-up calibration. Secondly, XAFS analysis is not a discriminating technique as soon as the absorber atom is involved in the chemical composition of various precipitates found in ODS. Nevertheless, the stability of the Ti with a coordination number of 5 is evidenced whatever the irradiation conditions. As our experimental study was not able to detect the nano-sized oxides, an alternative way is to perform modeling approach of the behavior of massive oxides under irradiation, compared to experimental analyses under ion irradiations. We have shown that the defect fluorite is an intermediate phase of the crystal-to-amorphous phase transition of the pyrochlore oxide structure, whatever the irradiation conditions and the ratio of the cationic radii, the Ti coordination number remaining around 5 in the amorphous state. (author) [fr

  16. Corrosion of oxide dispersion strengthened iron–chromium steels and tantalum in fluoride salt coolant: An in situ compatibility study for fusion and fusion–fission hybrid reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dasher, Bassem; Farmer, Joseph; Ferreira, James; Serrano de Caro, Magdalena; Rubenchik, Alexander; Kimura, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► ODS steel corrosion in molten fluoride salts was studied in situ using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. ► Steel/coolant interfacial resistance increases from 600 to 800 °C due to an aluminum enriched layer forming at the surface. ► The addition of tungsten to ODS steels increases corrosion resistance measurably at 600 °C. - Abstract: Primary candidate classes of materials for future nuclear power plants, whether they be fission, fusion or hybrids, include oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels which rely on a dispersion of nano-oxide particles in the matrix for both mechanical strength and swelling resistance, or tantalum alloys which have an inherent neutron-induced swelling resistance and high temperature strength. For high temperature operation, eutectic molten lithium containing fluoride salts are attractive because of their breeding capability as well as their relatively high thermal capacity, which allow for a higher average operating temperature that increases power production. In this paper we test the compatibility of Flinak (LiF–NaF–KF) salts on ODS steels, comparing the performance of current generation ODS steels developed at Kyoto University with the commercial alloy MA956. Pure tantalum was also tested for comparative purposes. In situ data was obtained for temperatures ranging from 600 to 900 °C using a custom-built high temperature electrochemical impedance spectroscopy cell. Results for ODS steels show that steel/coolant interfacial resistance increases from 600 to 800 °C due to an aluminum enriched layer forming at the surface, however an increase in temperature to 900 °C causes this layer to break up and aggressive attack to occur. Performance of current generation ODS steels surpassed that of the MA956 ODS steel, with an in situ impedance behavior similar or better than that of pure tantalum.

  17. Oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbroeck, P. van.

    1976-10-01

    The publication gives the available data on the DTO2 dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy developed at C.E.N./S.C.K. Mol, Belgium. DTO2 is a Fe-Cr-Mo ferritic alloy, strengthened by addition of titanium oxide and of titanium leading to the formation of Chi phase. It was developed for use as canning material for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  18. Fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic clad fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, L.R.; Bottcher, J.H.; Shikakura, S.; Tsai, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    A resistance butt welding procedure was developed and qualified for joining ferritic fuel pin cladding to end caps. The cladding are INCO MA957 and PNC ODS lots 63DSA and 1DK1, ferritic stainless steels strengthened by oxide dispersion, while the end caps are HT9 a martensitic stainless steel. With adequate parameter control the weld is formed without a residual melt phase and its strength approaches that of the cladding. This welding process required a new design for fuel pin end cap and weld joint. Summaries of the development, characterization, and fabrication processes are given for these fuel pins. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Titanium oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, W.; Vandermeulen, W.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on the DT02 and DT3911 ferritic dispersion strengthened alloys, developed at SCK/CEN, Mol, Belgium, are presented. Both alloys consist of Fe - 13% Cr - 1.5% Mo to which 2% TiO 2 and about 3.5% Ti are added (wt.%). Their main use is for the fabrication of fast breeder reactor cladding tubes but their application as turbine blade material is also envisaged for cases where high damping is important. (auth.)

  20. Manufacturing Experience for Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doherty, Ann L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henager, Charles H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Omberg, Ronald P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Mark T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webster, Ryan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This report documents the results of the development and the manufacturing experience gained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) while working with the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) materials MA 956, 14YWT, and 9YWT. The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy has implemented a program to develop a Uranium-Molybdenum metal fuel for light water reactors. ODS materials have the potential to provide improved performance for the U-Mo concept.

  1. THE USE OF DISPERSION STRENGTHENED COPPER IN ACCELERATOR DESIGNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VALDIVIEZ, R.; SCHRAGE, D.

    2000-01-01

    Dispersion strengthened copper, known by the trade name GLIDCOP(reg sign), has found various applications in accelerator designs. Glidcop has material properties similar to OFE copper, such as thermal and electrical conductivity. Unlike OFE, however, Glidcop has yield and ultimate strengths equivalent to those of mild-carbon steel, making it a good structural material. This paper covers some accelerator components fabricated with Glidcop, material properties measured from room to brazing temperatures, and a furnace-brazing process that has produced good, consistent results with Glidcop

  2. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakine, C.; Prioul, C.; Alamo, A.; Francois, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two 13%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic alloys, DT and DY, exhibiting different oxide particle size distribution and a χ phase precipitation were studied. Their tensile properties have been tested from 20 to 700 C. Experimental observations during room temperature tensile tests performed in a scanning electronic microscope have shown that the main damage mechanism consists in microcracking of the χ phase precipitates on grain boundaries. These alloys are high tensile and creep resistant between 500 and 700 C. Their strongly stress-sensitive creep behaviour can be described by usual creep laws and incorporating a threshold stress below which the creep rate is negligible. (orig.)

  3. Forging Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.; Glasgow, T. K.; Moracz, D. J.; Austin, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Cladding of mild steel prevents surface cracking when alloy contacts die. Continual need for improvements in properties of alloys capable of withstanding elevated temperatures. Accomplished by using oxide-dispersion-strengthed superalloys such as Inconel Alloy MA 6000. Elevated tensile properties of forged alloy equal those of hot-rolled MA 6000 bar. Stress-rupture properties somewhat lower than those of bar stock but, at 1,100 degrees C, exceed those of strongest commercial single crystal, directionally solidified and conventionally cast superalloys.

  4. Strengthening Hadfield steel welds by nitrogen alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, C.; Sehitoglu, H.

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening Hadfield steel weld repairs by introducing nitrogen into the weld region was proven to be feasible via two welding techniques. The first technique required a pure Hadfield steel filler material to be diffusion treated in a high pressure nitrogen gas environment, and subsequently used during tungsten inert gas welding with a pure argon shielding gas. The second technique used a Hadfield steel filler material, and a 10% nitrogen containing argon shielding gas during tungsten inert gas welding. Both techniques increased the yield strength, the hardening rate, and the ultimate strength of the weld region. Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy, we determined that the increased strength of the weld region resulted from a combination of nitrogen alloying and microstructural refinement

  5. Processing and microstructure characterisation of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe–14Cr–0.4Ti–0.25Y2O3 ferritic steels fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Huang, Yina; Ning, Huanpo; Williams, Ceri A.; London, Andrew J.; Dawson, Karl; Hong, Zuliang; Gorley, Michael J.; Grovenor, Chris R.M.; Tatlock, Gordon J.; Roberts, Steve G.; Reece, Michael J.; Yan, Haixue; Grant, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanostructured ODS steels were successfully produced by SPS. • Presence of Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoclusters was confirmed by synchrotron XRD and microscopy. • The chemistry of nanoclusters tested by ATP indicated they are Y–Ti–O oxides. - Abstract: Ferritic steels strengthened with Ti–Y–O nanoclusters are leading candidates for fission and fusion reactor components. A Fe–14Cr–0.4Ti + 0.25Y 2 O 3 (14YT) alloy was fabricated by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The densification of the 14YT alloys significantly improved with an increase in the sintering temperature. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction revealed that 14YT SPS-sintered at 1150 °C under 50 MPa for 5 min had a high density (99.6%), a random grain orientation and a bimodal grain size distribution (<500 nm and 1–20 μm). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction patterns showed bcc ferrite, Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 , FeO, and chromium carbides, while transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography showed uniformly dispersed Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoclusters of <5 nm diameter and number density of 1.04 × 10 23 m −3 . Due to the very much shorter consolidation times and lower pressures used in SPS compared with the more usual hot isostatic pressing routes, SPS is shown to be a cost-effective technique for oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy manufacturing with microstructural features consistent with the best-performing ODS alloys

  6. Monolithic Approach to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminum, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nassau Stern Company is investigating an approach for manufacturing oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) aluminum in bulk rather than powder form. The approach...

  7. Radiation-sustained nanocluster metastability in oxide dispersion strengthened materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribis, J.; Bordas, E.; Trocellier, P.; Serruys, Y.; de Carlan, Y.; Legris, A.

    2015-12-01

    ODS materials constitute a new promising class of structural materials for advanced fission and fusion energy application. These Fe-Cr based ferritic steels contain ultra-high density of dispersion-strengthening nanoclusters conferring excellent mechanical properties to the alloy. Hence, guarantee the nanocluster stability under irradiation remain a critical issue. Nanoclusters are non-equilibrium multicomponent compounds (YTiCrO) forming through a complex nucleation pathway during the elaboration process. In this paper, it is proposed to observe the response of these nanoclusters when the system is placed far from equilibrium by means of ion beam. The results indicate that the Y, Ti, O and Cr atoms self-organized so that nanoclusters coarsened but maintain their non-equilibrium chemical composition. It is discussed that the radiation-sustained nanocluster metastability emerges from cooperative effects: radiation-induced Ostwald ripening, permanent creation of vacancies in the clusters, and fast Cr diffusion mediated by interstitials.

  8. Radiation-sustained nanocluster metastability in oxide dispersion strengthened materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribis, J.; Bordas, E.; Trocellier, P.; Serruys, Y.; Carlan, Y. de; Legris, A.

    2015-01-01

    ODS materials constitute a new promising class of structural materials for advanced fission and fusion energy application. These Fe–Cr based ferritic steels contain ultra-high density of dispersion-strengthening nanoclusters conferring excellent mechanical properties to the alloy. Hence, guarantee the nanocluster stability under irradiation remain a critical issue. Nanoclusters are non-equilibrium multicomponent compounds (YTiCrO) forming through a complex nucleation pathway during the elaboration process. In this paper, it is proposed to observe the response of these nanoclusters when the system is placed far from equilibrium by means of ion beam. The results indicate that the Y, Ti, O and Cr atoms self-organized so that nanoclusters coarsened but maintain their non-equilibrium chemical composition. It is discussed that the radiation-sustained nanocluster metastability emerges from cooperative effects: radiation-induced Ostwald ripening, permanent creation of vacancies in the clusters, and fast Cr diffusion mediated by interstitials.

  9. Brazing copper to dispersion-strengthened copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, David G.; Allen, Douglas; Lee, Richard H.

    1996-11-01

    The advanced photon source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source that will produce intense x-ray beams, which will allow the study of smaller samples and faster reactions and processes at a greater level of detail than has ben possible to date. The beam is produced by using third- generation insertion devices in a 7-GeV electron/positron storage ring that is 1,104 meters in circumference. The heat load from these intense high-power devices is very high, and certain components must sustain total heat loads of 3 to 15 kW and heat fluxes of 30 W/mm$_2). Because the beams will cycle on and off many times, thermal shock and fatigue will be a problem. High heat flux impinging on a small area causes a large thermal gradient that results in high stress. GlidCop, a dispersion-strengthened copper, is the desired design material because of its high thermal conductivity and superior mechanical properties as compared to copper and its alloys. GlidCop is not amenable to joining by fusion welding, and brazing requires diligence because of high diffusivity. Brazing procedures were developed using optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Strengthening from Nb-rich clusters in a Nb-microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Kelvin Y.; Zheng, Tianxiao; Cairney, Julie M.; Kaul, Harold; Williams, James G.; Barbaro, Frank J.; Killmore, Chris R.; Ringer, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that a Nb-microalloyed ultra-thin cast strip steel can be strengthened substantially without compromising ductility by performing a simple heat treatment at 700 °C for 4 min. The strengthening was attributed to a fine dispersion of Nb-rich solute atom clusters. These clusters had an average size of ∼60 atoms at peak hardness and resembled Guinier–Preston zones in Al–Cu alloys. The application of the Ashby–Orowan equation indicates that these clusters are potent strengthening agents when compared to conventional Nb(C,N) precipitation strengthening.

  11. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamanli Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  12. Behaviour of Strengthened RC Frames with Eccentric Steel Braced Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanli, Mehmet; Unal, Alptug

    2017-10-01

    After devastating earthquakes in recent years, strengthening of reinforced concrete buildings became an important research topic. Reinforced concrete buildings can be strengthened by steel braced frames. These steel braced frames may be made of concentrically or eccentrically indicated in Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. In this study pushover analysis of the 1/3 scaled 1 reinforced concrete frame and 1/3 scaled 4 strengthened reinforced concrete frames with internal eccentric steel braced frames were conducted by SAP2000 program. According to the results of the analyses conducted, load-displacement curves of the specimens were compared and evaluated. Adding eccentric steel braces to the bare frame decreased the story drift, and significantly increased strength, stiffness and energy dissipation capacity. In this strengthening method lateral load carrying capacity, stiffness and dissipated energy of the structure can be increased.

  13. Relaxation path of metastable nanoclusters in oxide dispersion strengthened materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribis, J., E-mail: joel.ribis@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Thual, M.A. [LLB, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guilbert, T.; Carlan, Y. de [DEN-Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliquées, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legris, A. [UMET, CNRS/UMR 8207, Bât. C6, Univ. Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2017-02-15

    ODS steels are a promising class of structural materials for sodium cooled fast reactor application. The ultra-high density of the strengthening nanoclusters dispersed within the ferritic matrix is responsible of the excellent creep properties of the alloy. Fine characterization of the nanoclusters has been conducted on a Fe-14Cr-0.3Ti-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS material using High Resolution and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy. The nanoclusters exhibit a cubic symmetry possibly identified as f.c.c and display a non-equilibrium YTiCrO chemical composition thought to be stabilized by a vacancy supersaturation. These nanoclusters undergo relaxation towards the Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}-like state as they grow. A Cr shell is observed around the relaxed nano-oxides, this size-dependent shell may form after the release of Cr by the particles. The relaxation energy barrier appears to be higher for the smaller particles probably owing to a volume/surface ratio effect in reason to the full coherency of the nanoclusters. - Highlights: • The nanoclusters display a f.c.c. cubic symmetry and a non-equilibrium YTiCrO chemical composition. • During thermal annealing the coherent nanocluster transform into semi-coherent pyrochlore particles. • A Cr ring is observed around the relaxed pyrochlore type particles.

  14. Effects of Zr Addition on Strengthening Mechanisms of Al-Alloyed High-Cr ODS Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Yu, Liming; Liu, Yongchang; Liu, Chenxi; Li, Huijun; Wu, Jiefeng

    2018-01-12

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels with different contents of zirconium (denoted as 16Cr ODS, 16Cr-0.3Zr ODS and 16Cr-0.6Zr ODS) were fabricated to investigate the effects of Zr on strengthening mechanism of Al-alloyed 16Cr ODS steel. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) results show that the mean grain size of ODS steels could be decreased by Zr addition. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results indicate that Zr addition could increase the number density but decrease the mean diameter and inter-particle spacing of oxide particles. Furthermore, it is also found that in addition to Y-Al-O nanoparticles, Y-Zr-O oxides with finer size were observed in 16Cr-0.3Zr ODS and 16Cr-0.6Zr ODS steels. These changes in microstructure significantly increase the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of ODS steels through mechanisms of grain boundary strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

  15. Electron-microscopic investigations of dispersion-strengthened superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.H.; Arzt, E.

    1988-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) superalloys possess a high creep strength up to temperatures above 1000 0 C. This is due to a fine dispersion of incoherent Y 2 O 3 particles in connection with a highly elongated grain structure. To investigate the production and properties of ODS alloys, the grain structure was studied and the shape and distribution of dispersoids were characterized after each of the various production steps. Because the interactions between lattice dislocations and dispersoids control the deformation behaviour at high temperatures, the dislocation-dispersoid configurations in crept specimens have been studied by a TEM stereo technique and under weak-beam conditions. It was possible to detect strain fields around the dispersoids using TEM. The results lead to an improved understanding of dispersion strengthening at high temperatures and provide guidelines for the optimum use of this strengthening mechanism. (orig.) [de

  16. High temperature mechanical properties of unirradiated dispersion strengthened copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentzbittel, J.M.; Rigollet, C.; Robert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) copper material, due to its excellent thermal conductivity associated with a high temperature strength is a candidate material for structural applications as divertor plasma facing components of thermonuclear fusion reactor. Tensile and creep results of oxide dispersion strengthened copper are presented. The most important features of ODS copper high temperature behaviour are the high strength corresponding to low creep rates, high stress creep rate dependence, a poor ductility and a brittleness which result in a premature creep fracture at high applied stress. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 6 figs

  17. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, John E.; Kelly, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  18. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  19. Strengthening of stainless steel weldment by high temperature precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior and the strengthening mechanism of stainless steel welded joints at 600 °C have been investigated. The welds were composed of AISI 304 stainless steel, as base metal, and niobium containing AISI 347 stainless steel, as weld metal. The investigation was conducted by means of creep tests. The welded specimens were subjected to both high temperature (600 °C and long periods (up to 2000 h under constant load, and both mechanical properties and microstructural changes in the material were monitored. It was found that the exposure of the material at 600 °C under load contributes to a strengthening effect on the weld. The phenomenon might be correlated with an accelerated process of second phase precipitation hardening. Keywords: Stainless steel, Weld, AISI 304, Precipitation hardening

  20. Strengthening of stainless steel weldment by high temperature precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Neves Monteiro; Lucio Fabio Cassiano Nascimento; Édio Pereira Lima, Jr.; Fernanda Santos da Luz; Eduardo Sousa Lima; Fábio de Oliveira Braga

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical behavior and the strengthening mechanism of stainless steel welded joints at 600 °C have been investigated. The welds were composed of AISI 304 stainless steel, as base metal, and niobium containing AISI 347 stainless steel, as weld metal. The investigation was conducted by means of creep tests. The welded specimens were subjected to both high temperature (600 °C) and long periods (up to 2000 h) under constant load, and both mechanical properties and microstructural changes in ...

  1. Solute strengthening effects for 316 stainless steel at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Nam Ju; Lee, Sang Mae

    1986-01-01

    The inelastic behavior of 316 stainless steel is studied in order to investigate the solute strengthening effects. The Arrhenius-type rate equation with inclusion of the Voce-type evolution phenomenon is extended by addition of solute strengthening term to the isotropic work hardening effect. Changing of strain rate and temperature during the tension tests, we found that the strong work hardening for the inelastic of 316 stainless steel resulted from the vacancy-interstitial pair mechanism. Thus, the calculated results using the extended constitutive equations including solute effect due to the vacancy-interstitial pair mechanism were found to be in good agreement with the stress-strain curves obtained from the tension tests. (Author)

  2. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamruzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.

  3. A review on strengthening steel beams using FRP under fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohamed; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Sulong, N H Ramli; Islam, A B M Saiful

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems.

  4. A Review on Strengthening Steel Beams Using FRP under Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the application of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for strengthening structural elements has become an efficient option to meet the increased cyclic loads or repair due to corrosion or fatigue cracking. Hence, the objective of this study is to explore the existing FRP reinforcing techniques to care for fatigue damaged structural steel elements. This study covers the surface treatment techniques, adhesive curing, and support conditions under cyclic loading including fatigue performance, crack propagation, and failure modes with finite element (FE) simulation of the steel bridge girders and structural elements. FRP strengthening composites delay initial cracking, reduce the crack growth rate, extend the fatigue life, and decrease the stiffness decay with residual deflection. Prestressed carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) is the best strengthening option. End anchorage prevents debonding of the CRRP strips at the beam ends by reducing the local interfacial shear and peel stresses. Hybrid-joint, nanoadhesive, and carbon-flex can also be attractive for strengthening systems. PMID:25243221

  5. Composite sheet made of molybdenum and dispersion-strengthened copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.D.; Fusco, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a roll-bonded composite sheet product having at least one layer of dispersion-strengthened copper and at least one layer of molybdenum. The composite is characterized by a sharply defined, cleavage-resistant interface between the copper and the molybdenum with substantially no detectable diffusion of one metal into the other across the interface. The composite is resistant to delamination and being capable of maintaining structural integrity upon repeated high temperature firings at temperatures up to 900 degrees C

  6. Fracture toughness of oxide-dispersion strengthened copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The fracture toughness of an oxide-dispersion strengthened copper alloy AL-15 has been examined at room temperature and 250{degrees}C, in air and in vacuum (< 10{sup {minus}6} torr). Increasing test temperature causes a significant decrease in the fracture toughness of this material, in either air or vacuum environments. In addition, specimens oriented in the T-L orientation (crack growth parallel to the extrusion direction) show significantly lower toughness than those in the L-T orientation (crack growth perpendicular to the extrusion direction).

  7. Crack resistance of tungsten strengthened by dispersed refractory oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation results are presented for crack resistance of commercial tungsten, obtained during specimen testing at temperatures of 20 deg C to Tsub(cr) (upper boundary of temperature range of ductile-brittle transition). Comparison of s-n diagrams and temperature dependences of crack resistance are conducted for commercial tungsten and tungsten strengthened by refractory oxides. It is shown that dispersion hardening increases crack resistance in the temperature range of 20 to 2000 deg C but the upper boundary of ductile-brittle shifts to the side of higher temperatures

  8. High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel Strengthened by Multiply Nanoscale Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y. F.; Zuo, L.

    Recently, we have being focused on improving the strength without sacrificing ductility of High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels by designing nanostructures. Several developments have been obtained, summarized as the following three parts: (a) Depressively nanoscale precipitates: A ferritic steel with finely dispersed precipitates reveals a yield strength of 760 MPa, approximately three times higher than that of conventional Ti-bearing high strength hot-rolled sheet steels, and its ultimate tensile strength reaches 850 MPa with an elongation-to-failure value of 18%. The finely dispersed TiC precipitates in the matrix provide matrix strengthening. The estimated magnitude of precipitation strengthening is around 458 MPa. The effects of the particle size, particle distribution and intrinsic particle strength have been investigated through dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. The DD results show that strengthening is not only a function of the density of the nano-scale precipitates but also of their size. (b) Ultrafinely ferritic plate: An interstitial-free (IF) steel sheet with a cold-rolling reduction of 75% shows a high tensile strength (710MPa) while preserving a considerable plastic strain (13%). The ductility recovery with increasing the rolling reduction up to 75% is related with the decreasing both in lamellar spacings and cell blocks sizes. (c) Parallel nano-laminated austenite: A composite microstructure consisting of ferrite, bainitic ferrite (BF) laths and retained austenite (RA) platelets has been found for the steel with a chemical composition of 0.19C-0.30Si-1.76Mn-1.52Al (in mass fraction), processed with annealing and bainitic holding. The sample annealed at 820oC (for 120s) and partitioned at 400oC (for 300s) has the best combination of ultimate tensile strength (UTS, 682 MPa) and elongation to failure ( 70%) with about 26% of BF plates 16% RA in its microstructure.

  9. Dispersion strengthening of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1970-01-01

    The true stress-true strain curves at room temperature and at 400°C were determined for various types of aluminium-aluminium-oxide products containing from 0.2 to 4.7 weight per cent of aluminium oxide. The effect of particles on the initial flow stress and the flow stress for 0.2% offset at room...... temperature and at 400°C is in agreement with Orowan's theory. The increase in flow stress at room temperature for strain values below 3 per cent was related to the plastic strain by the equation σ-σoy=k1ε 1/2, where σoy is the initial flow stress and where k1 increases for increasing volume fraction...... and decreasing particle size of the dispersed particles. A general expression for k1 was derived for the relationship between the dislocation density and the strain in dispersion-strengthened products...

  10. Depositing laser-generated nanoparticles on powders for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersed strengthened alloy parts via laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, René; Wilms, Markus B.; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Weisheit, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Henrich Schleifenbaum, Johannes; Gökce, Bilal

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel route for the adsorption of pulsed laser-dispersed nanoparticles onto metal powders in aqueous solution without using any binders or surfactants. By electrostatic interaction, we deposit Y2O3 nanoparticles onto iron-chromium based powders and obtain a high dispersion of nano-sized particles on the metallic powders. Within the additively manufactured component, we show that the particle spacing of the oxide inclusion can be adjusted by the initial mass fraction of the adsorbed Y2O3 particles on the micropowder. Thus, our procedure constitutes a robust route for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys via oxide nanoparticles supported on steel micropowders.

  11. Strengthening of Steel Columns under Load: Torsional-Flexural Buckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental and numerical research into the strengthening of steel columns under load using welded plates. So far, the experimental research in this field has been limited mostly to flexural buckling of columns and the preload had low effect on the column load resistance. This paper focuses on the local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling of columns. Three sets of three columns each were tested. Two sets corresponding to the base section (D and strengthened section (E were tested without preloading and were used for comparison. Columns from set (F were first preloaded to the load corresponding to the half of the load resistance of the base section (D. Then the columns were strengthened and after they cooled, they were loaded to failure. The columns strengthened under load (F had similar average resistance as the columns welded without preloading (E, meaning the preload affects even members susceptible to local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling only slightly. This is the same behaviour as of the tested columns from previous research into flexural buckling. The study includes results gained from finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results obtained from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  12. Small fatigue crack propagation in Y2O3 strengthened steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hutař, Pavel; Kuběna, Ivo; Ševčík, Martin; Šmíd, Miroslav; Kruml, Tomáš; Náhlík, Luboš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 452, 1-3 (2014), s. 370-377 ISSN 0022-3115 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0063; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ČR(CZ) GP13-28685P Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : oxide dispersion strengthened steel * small fatigue crack * J-integral * fatigue life prediction Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014

  13. Intermetallic Strengthened Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steels for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bin [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Baker, Ian [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2016-03-31

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 % for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, the materials required must be strong, corrosion-resistant at high temperatures (>700°C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase and L12 precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The creep resistance of these alloys is significantly improved through intermetallic strengthening (Laves-Fe2Nb + L12-Ni3Al precipitates) without harmful effects on oxidation resistance. Microstructural and microchemical analyses of the recently developed alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steels (Fe-14Cr-32Ni-3Nb-3Al-2Ti-based) indicated they are strengthened by Ni3Al(Ti) L12, NiAl B2, Fe2Nb Laves phase and MC carbide precipitates. Different thermomechanical treatments (TMTs) were performed on these stainless steels in an attempt to further improve their mechanical properties. The thermo-mechanical processing produced nanocrystalline grains in AFA alloys and dramatically increased their yield strength at room temperature. Unfortunately, the TMTs didn’t increase the yield strengths of AFA alloys at ≥700ºC. At these temperatures, dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism for deformation of TMT alloys according to strain rate jump tests. After the characterization of aged AFA alloys, we found that the largest strengthening effect from L12 precipitates can be obtained by aging for less than 24 h. The coarsening behavior of the L12 precipitates was not influenced by carbon and boron additions. Failure analysis and post-mortem TEM analysis were performed to study the creep failure mechanisms of these AFA steels after creep tests. Though the Laves and B2-NiAl phase precipitated along the boundaries can improve the creep properties, cracks were

  14. Hierarchical Structure and Strengthening Mechanisms in Pearlitic Steel Wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Huang, Xiaoxu

    Microstructure evolution and strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire (the strongest engineering materials in the world) with a nanostructure down to 10 nm and a flow stress up to 5.4 GPa. The interlamellar spacing and the cementite lamellae thickness...... are reduced during drawing in accordance with the change in wire diameter up to a strain of 2.5. At a higher strain enhanced thinning of cementite lamellae points to decomposition and carbon enrichment of the ferrite lamellae. Dislocations are stored as individual dislocations and in low angle boundaries...

  15. Fundamental modelling of particle strengthened 9-12% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Hans; Sandstroem, Rolf [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Brinell Centre

    2010-07-01

    Creep strength of particle strengthened 9-12% Cr steels can be predicted by fundamental modelling. The creep strength is evaluated from the state of the microstructure during creep. Particle hardening at high temperatures can be predicted by taking dislocation climb across particles into account. Work hardening is calculated from immobile dislocations in subgrain interiors and at boundaries using the composite theory. Subgrain coarsening will lower the influence of the mechanically hard boundaries. Recovery in dislocation density is predicted through static recovery by climb and dynamic recovery by locking and dipole formation. Solid solution hardening is needed in order to explain the difference in creep strength between different 9-12% Cr steels. The accumulation of large atoms such as Mo and W will slow down the dislocation climb velocity, and thereby the microstructure recovery rate. 100000h rupture strength is predicted for X20, P91, P92 steels without any use of fitting parameters. The creep strength of P91 steel with different microstructure due to Al additions. Z-phase transformation and heat affected material is presented. (orig.)

  16. High Temperature Strength of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauer, A.H.; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    constant (except for the material with the lowest oxide content). The high temperature values of the modulus-corrected yield stresses are approximately two-thirds of the low temperature value. During high temperature creep, there is a definite indication of a threshold stress. This threshold stress......The tensile flow stress of coarse-grained dispersion strengthened Al-Al2O3 materials were measured as a function of temperature (77–873 K) and volume fraction (0.19-0.92 vol.%) of aluminium oxide. For the same material, the creep strength was determined as a function of temperature in the range 573......–873 K. The modulus-corrected yield stress (0.01 offset) is found to be temperature independent at low temperature (195–472 K). Between 473 and 573 K, the yield stress starts to decrease with increasing temperature. At high temperatures (573–873 K), the modulus-corrected yield stress is approximately...

  17. Comparison of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Behavior in Two Similar Ferritic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jesus; Rementeria, Rosalia; Aranda, Maria; Capdevila, Carlos; Gonzalez-Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    The ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) behavior of two similar Fe-Cr-Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) stainless steels was analyzed following the Cottrell–Petch model. Both alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) but by different forming routes. One was manufactured as hot rolled tube, and the other in the form of hot extruded bar. The two hot forming routes considered do not significantly influence the microstructure, but cause differences in the texture and the distribution of oxide particles. These have little influence on tensile properties; however, the DBT temperature and the upper shelf energy (USE) are significantly affected because of delamination orientation with regard to the notch plane. Whereas in hot rolled material the delaminations are parallel to the rolling surface, in the hot extruded material, they are randomly oriented because the material is transversally isotropic. PMID:28773764

  18. Comparison of Ductile-to-Brittle Transition Behavior in Two Similar Ferritic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jesus; Rementeria, Rosalia; Aranda, Maria; Capdevila, Carlos; Gonzalez-Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2016-07-29

    The ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) behavior of two similar Fe-Cr-Al oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) stainless steels was analyzed following the Cottrell-Petch model. Both alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) but by different forming routes. One was manufactured as hot rolled tube, and the other in the form of hot extruded bar. The two hot forming routes considered do not significantly influence the microstructure, but cause differences in the texture and the distribution of oxide particles. These have little influence on tensile properties; however, the DBT temperature and the upper shelf energy (USE) are significantly affected because of delamination orientation with regard to the notch plane. Whereas in hot rolled material the delaminations are parallel to the rolling surface, in the hot extruded material, they are randomly oriented because the material is transversally isotropic.

  19. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  20. Fatigue fracture of steel after mechanical and ultrasonic strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotskij, I.M.

    1978-01-01

    Fatigue fracture surfaces of samples after mechanical and ultrasonic strengthening have been studied metallographically and by electron fractography. Studied was the 40Kh steel hardened from 850 deg and then tempered at 180 deg or at 550 deg C. The ultrasound power was 25 kWt, the frequency was 20 kHz, the sample rotation velocity was 39.5 m/min. Mechanical and ultrasonic treatment was found to cause structural changes (formation of a white layer) and deformation of the material under the layer. The fatigue cracks were extending beyond the white layer; their propagation involved generation and coalescence of microcracks on account of segregation of carbides. It is concluded that mechanical and ultrasonic treatment should be used for increasing the fatigue strength of low and average strength materials rather than hardened or low-tempered ones

  1. Damage sensing and mechanical characteristics of CFRP strengthened steel plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieda, Genki; Nakano, Daiki; Fuji, Yuya; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Matsui, Takahiro; Ochi, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Yukihiro

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, a large number of structures that were built during the period of high economic growth in Japan is beginning to show signs of aging. For example, the structural performance of steel structures has degraded due to corrosion. One measure that has been proposed and studied to address this issue is the adhesive bonding method, which can be used to repair and reinforce these structures. However, this method produces brittle fracture in the adhesive layer and is difficult to maintain after bonding. To solve the problem faced by this method, a clarification of the mechanical properties inside the adhesive is necessary. Then this background, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor has been used in this study. This sensor can be embedded within the building material that needs repairing and reinforcing because an FBG sensor is extremely small. Eventually based on this, a three-point bending test of a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) strengthened steel plate that was embedded with an FBG sensor was conducted. This paper demonstrates that an FBG sensor is effectively applicable for sensing when damage occurs.

  2. Experimental study on behavior of steel channel strengthened with CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Hongyuan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the behaviour of axially loaded long and eccentrically loaded short thin-walled steel channels, strengthened with transversely bonded carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP sheets. Seven long members, each 1400 mm long, and seven short members, each 750mmlong, were tested. The main parameters were the number of CFRP plies (one or two and the clear spacing between the CFRP strips (50, 100 or 150 mm. The effect of CFRP sheet layer and clear spacing was studied. All the ultimate load capacity of the reinforced members was improved in different extent. A maximum strength gain of 9.13% was achieved for long members with two CFRP layers and 50 mm spacing of CFRP strips. The experimental results show that the global buckling happens to all the long specimens. For short members, the maximum strength gain of 12.1% was achieved with two CFRP layers and 50 mm spacing of CFRP strips. With the exception of the most heavily reinforced (2 plies at 50 and 100 mm, local buckling was observed prior to global buckling for short members, which was completely opposite of the control specimens. Meanwhile, when the clear spacing of CFRP strips is greater than theweb height of steel channel, the transversely bonded CFRP does not have a significant improvement in buckling load capacity of the short- and long-channel components. While the clear spacing is less than the web height, the more number of CFRP layer, the more enhancement of buckling load capacity.

  3. A new 12% chromium steel strengthened by Z-phase precipitates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fang; Rashidi, Masoud; Johansson, Lennart

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the corrosion resistance and simultaneously maintain the creep resistance of 9-12% Cr steels at 650 degrees C, a new alloy design concept was proposed, using thermodynamically stable Z-phase (CrTaN) precipitates to strengthen the steel. A new trial Z-phase strengthened 12% Cr...

  4. Hall–Petch and dislocation strengthening in graded nanostructured steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Gao Yukui; Huang Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    The structure and strength of low carbon steel samples have been analyzed after plastic deformation by shot-peening and cold-rolling. The fine scale surface microstructure caused by shot-peening extends to ∼50 μm below the surface. The structure is graded and subdivided by dislocation boundaries and high angle boundaries showing a clear resemblance to the lamellar structure, which evolves during conventional rolling of bulk metallic materials from medium to high strain. As the surface is approached, the boundary spacing decreases to ∼50 nm at the surface. In parallel, the misorientation angle across boundaries increases to ∼65% of high angle boundaries. The cold-rolled steel shows a low hardening rate at high strain and by assuming additive strength contributions from Hall–Petch and dislocation strengthening, the flow stress has been expressed by the relationship σ-σ 0 =k 2 D av -0.5 , where D av is the average spacing between the low and high angle boundaries which subdivide the microstructure, σ 0 is the friction stress and k 2 is a number which is expressed in terms of structural parameters which have been determined by electron backscattered diffraction. It is found that calculated k 2 values are in accord with an experimental value of 310 MPa μm 0.5 . In the shot-peened steel the increase in D av with increasing distance from the surface is transformed into a stress profile based on the σ - D av relationship established for cold-rolled bulk samples. The calculated stress profile is validated by comparison with the experimental profile based on hardness measurements, and good agreement is found. This result points to a wider application of the suggested method to derive the local flow stress in a deformed microstructure based on a measurement of the local boundary spacing and the stress–structure relationship for the bulk material in the deformed state.

  5. Ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys by spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahar, Kerry N., E-mail: KerryAllahar@boisestate.edu [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd., Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Burns, Jatuporn [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd., Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Jaques, Brian [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Wu, Y.Q. [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd., Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Charit, Indrajit [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, McClure Hall Room 405D, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Cole, James [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Butt, Darryl P. [Materials and Science Engineering Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Blvd., Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd., Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to consolidate a Fe–16Cr–3Al (wt.%) powder that was mechanically alloyed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Ti powders to produce 0.5 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 0.5 Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}–1Ti powders. The effects of mechanical alloying and sintering conditions on the microstructure, relative density and hardness of the sintered oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are presented. Scanning electron microscopy indicated a mixed fine-grain and coarse-grain microstructure that was attributed to recrystallization and grain growth during sintering. Analysis of the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) data identified Y–O and Y–O–Ti nanoclusters. Elemental ratios of these nanoclusters were consistent with that observed in hot-extruded ODS alloys. The influence of Ti was to refine the grains as well as the nanoclusters with there being greater number density and smaller sizes of the Y–O–Ti nanoclusters as compared to the Y–O nanoclusters. This resulted in the Ti-containing samples being harder than the Ti-free alloys. The hardness of the alloys with the Y–O–Ti nanoclusters was insensitive to sintering time while smaller hardness values were associated with longer sintering times for the alloys with the Y–O nanoclusters. Pressures greater than 80 MPa are recommended for improved densification as higher sintering temperatures and longer sintering times at 80 MPa did not improve the relative density beyond 97.5%.

  6. Microstructure characterization and strengthening mechanisms of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-9%Cr and Fe-14%Cr extruded bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, A.; Bergner, F.; Etienne, A.; Aktaa, J.; de Carlan, Y.; Heintze, C.; Litvinov, D.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.; Oñorbe, E.; Radiguet, B.; Ulbricht, A.

    2017-11-01

    The collaborative study is focused on the relationship between microstructure and yield stress for an ODS Fe-9%Cr-based transformable alloy and an ODS Fe-14%Cr-based ferritic alloy. The contributions to the total room temperature yield stress arising from various strengthening mechanisms are addressed on the basis of a comprehensive description of the microstructures uncovered by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and atom probe tomography (APT). While these methods provide a high degree of complementarity, a reasonable agreement was found in cases of overlap of information. The derived set of microstructure parameters along with reported strengthening equations was used to calculate the room temperature yield stress. The estimates were critically compared with the measured yield stress for an extended set of alloys including data reported for Fe-Cr model alloys and steels thus covering one order of magnitude or more in grain size, dislocation density, particle density and yield stress. The comparison shows that particle strengthening, dislocation forest strengthening, and Hall-Petch strengthening are the major contributions and that a mixed superposition rule reproduces the measured yield stress within experimental scatter for the whole extended set of alloys. The wide variation of microstructures additionally underpins the conclusions and goes beyond previous work, in which one or few ODS steels and narrow microstructure variations were typically covered.

  7. Hot mechanical behaviour of dispersion strengthened Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia G, Jose; Espinoza G, Rodrigo; Palma H, Rodrigo; Sepulveda O, Aquiles

    2003-01-01

    This work is part of a research project which objective is the improvement of the high-temperature mechanical properties of copper, without an important decrease of the electrical or thermal conduction properties. The general hypothesis is that this will be done by the incorporation of nanometric ceramic dispersoids for hindering the dislocation and grain boundaries movement. In this context, the object of the present work is the study of the resistance to hot deformation of dispersion-strengthened copper alloys which have prepared by reactive milling. Two different alloys, Cu-2,39wt.%Ti-0.56wt.%C and Cu-1.18wt.%Al, were prepared so as obtain a copper matrix reinforced with nanometric TiC y Al 2 O 3 particles with a nominal total amount of 5 vol.%. The particles were developed by an in-situ formation process during milling. The materials were prepared in an attritor mill, and consolidated by extrusion at 750 o C, with an area reduction rate of 10:1. The resistance to hot deformation was evaluated by hot compression tests at 500 and 850 o C, at initial strain rates of 10 -3 and 10 -4 s-1. To evaluate the material softening due temperature, annealing at 400, 650 y 900 o C during 1h were applied; after that, hardness was measured at room temperature. Both studies alloys presented a higher resistance to hot deformation than pure copper, with or without milling. Moreover, the Cu-Ti-C alloy presented a mechanical resistance higher than that of the Cu-Al one. Both alloys presented strain-stress compression curves with a typical hot-work shape: an initial maximum followed by a stationary plateau. The Cu-Ti-C alloy had a higher hardness and did not present a hardness decay even after annealings at the higher temperature imposed (900 o C), while the Cu-Al alloy did exhibit a strong decay of hardness after the annealing at 900 o C. The best behaviour exhibited by the Cu-Ti C alloy, was attributed to the formation of a major quantity of dispersoids that in the Cu-Al alloy. In

  8. STRENGTHENING OF A REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE WITH PRESTRESSED STEEL WIRE ROPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kexin Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes prestressed steel wire ropes as a way to strengthen a 20-year-old RC T-beam bridge. High strength, low relaxation steel wire ropes with minor radius, high tensile strain and good corrosion resistance were used in this reinforcement. The construction process for strengthening with prestressed steel wire ropes—including wire rope measuring, extruding anchor heads making, anchorage installing, tensioning steel wire ropes and pouring mortar was described. Ultimate bearing capacity of the bridge after strengthening was discussed based on the concrete structure theory. The flexural strength of RC T-beam bridges strengthened with prestressed steel wire ropes was governed by the failure of concrete crushing. To investigate effectiveness of the strengthening method, fielding-load tests were carried out before and after strengthening. The results of concrete strain and deflection show that the flexural strength and stiffness of the strengthened beam are improved. The crack width measurement also indicates that this technique could increase the durability of the bridge. Thus, this strengthened way with prestressed steel wire rope is feasible and effective.

  9. Influence of initial thermomechanical treatment on high temperature properties of laves phase strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talik, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design 17 wt%Cr Laves phase strengthened HiperFer (High performance Ferrite) steels and evaluate their properties. This class of steel is supposed to be used in Advanced Ultra Super Critical power plants. Such cycles exhibit higher efficiency and are environmentally friendly, but improved materials with high resistance to reside/steam oxidation and sufficient creep strength are required. The work focused on the characterization of creep properties of 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si heat resistant steel. Small batches of steels with nominal compositions of 17Cr3W0.5Nb0.25Si and 17Cr3W0.9Nb0.25Si were used to analyze the influence of chemical composition on the precipitation behaviour in comparison to 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si steel. Creep strength of HiperFer steels is ensured by ne dispersion of thermodynamically stable Laves phase particles, while maintaining high corrosion resistance by a relatively high chromium content. Design of HiperFer steels was accomplished by thermodynamic modeling (Thermocalc) with the main tasks of elimination of the unwelcome brittle (Fe,Cr)-σ phase and maximization of the content of the strengthening C14 Fe_2Nb type Laves phase particles. Long term annealing experiments of all HiperFer steels were performed at 650 C in order to evaluate the role of chemical composition and initial thermo-mechanical treatment state on precipitation behaviour. Laves phase particles formed quickly after few hours and the size of precipitates did not change significantly within 1,000 hours. The observed development of Laves phase particles was compared with thermodynamical calculations (TC-Prisma). The creep properties of 17Cr2.5W0.5Nb0.25Si steel in different initial thermo-mechanical treatment states were tested at 650 C. The influence of different cold rolling procedures, and heat treatments was investigated. Increased cold rolling deformation had a positive effect resulting not only from work hardening, but from the acceleration of Laves

  10. Mechanical properties of metastable austenitic steels, strengthened by hydroextruction and structural hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresnev, B.I.; Georgieva, I.Ya.; Eshchenko, R.N.; Teplov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Different regimes of complex strengthening of steels of Fe-Ni-Mo-C system by phase hardening and plastic deformation by hydroextrusion are investigated. It is stated that the degree of strengthening depends on consequence of strengthening operations. Plastic deformation by hydroextrusion of steels stre--ngthened by phase hardening ensures increase of strength (Δσsub(0.2)=500 MPa) at high plasticity (delta=25%). Maximal values of strength properties can be achieved if hydroextrusion is conducted before and after thansverse α→γ-transformation [ru

  11. Dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy for use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy is provided which has high-temperature strength and is readily fabricable at ambient temperatures, and which is useful as structural elements of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. 4 tables

  12. Behavior of partially defected R.C columns strengthened using steel jackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaban Abdel-Hay

    2015-08-01

    The main parameters studied were the type of steel jacket used and height of partial strengthened part of column. One of the tested specimens was a control specimen and the other six were partially strengthened with different types of steel jackets such as using 4 steel angles at corners connected with straps, using external ties with different spacings, and using 4 steel plates with different thicknesses welded together and connected to column by anchor bolts. Finally, the experimental results were analyzed and compared with results obtained from finite element analysis using ANSYS program.

  13. Strengthening effect of reduced graphene oxide in steel clad copper rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haitao; Liu, Xianghua; Ai, Zhengrong; Zhang, Shilong; Liu, Lizhong

    2016-11-01

    Reduced graphene oxide has been extensively used as reinforcing agent owing to their high mechanical properties. In this work, an attempt is made to synthesize steel clad copper rod reinforced with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by the combination of powder-in-tube and intermediate annealing (IA). Experiments show that the Fe/RGO/Cu composites manifest better mechanical properties than Fe/Cu composites. In the process of groove rolling, RGO acts as effective binder, which can greatly improve the adhesive strength of copper scrap and two metals. Moreover, the strengthening effect of RGO is tightly related to its dispersion state. The RGO diffuses much more uniformly on the metallic substrate under the IA temperature of 1100 °C than 800 °C, which can be characterized by less deformation twins appearing at the interface of core copper and the formation of Fe-RGO-Cu transition belt at the bonding interface. In this case, the peak hardness, tensile strength and shear strength of Fe/RGO/Cu composites are 52 HV, 125 and 41 MPa higher than those of the Fe/Cu composites, respectively. The difference of strengthening effect and mechanisms of RGO under 800 and 1100 °C of IA are systematically discussed by referring to experimental results.

  14. Crack monitoring method for an FRP-strengthened steel structure based on an antenna sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Z.; Chen, Kai; Li, Z.; Jiang, X.

    2017-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been increasingly applied to steel structures for structural strengthening or crack repair, given its high strength-to-weight ratio and high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Cracks in steel structures are the dominant hidden threats to structural safety. However, it

  15. An Experimental Study on Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Flexural Members using Steel Wire Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Saadi Hamza Salim Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges and contemporary research in the field of structural engineering is strengthening of existing structural elements using readily available materials in the market. Several investigations were conducted on strengthening of various structural components using traditional and advanced materials. Many researchers tried to enhance the reinforced concrete (RC beams strength using steel plate, Glass and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP & CFRP. For the reason that high weight to the strength ratio and compatibility in strength between FRP composites and steel bars, steel plates and GFRP and CFRP composites are not used for strengthening works practically. Hence, in this present work the suitability of using wire mesh for the purpose of strengthening the RC flexural members is studied by conducting experimental works. New technique of strengthening system using wire mesh with a view to improve sectional properties and subsequently flexural strength of RC beams is adopted in this work. The results for experimental and theoretical analysis were compared and found that good correlation exists between them. The experimental results indicate that RC beams strengthened with steel wire mesh are easy technique for strengthening of existing flexural members.

  16. On the superposition of strengthening mechanisms in dispersion strengthened alloys and metal-matrix nanocomposites: Considerations of stress and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J. B.; Schultz, Benjamin F.; Venugopalan, Dev; Lopez, Hugo F.; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.; Cho, Kyu; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2014-03-01

    Yield strength improvement in dispersion strengthened alloys and nano particle-reinforced composites by well-known strengthening mechanisms such as solid solution, grain refinement, coherent and incoherent dispersed particles, and increased dislocation density resulting from work-hardening can all be described individually. However, there is no agreed upon description of how these mechanisms combine to determine the yield strength. In this work, we propose an analytical yield strength prediction model combining arithmetic and quadratic addition approaches based on the consideration of two types of yielding mechanisms; stress-activated and energy-activated. Using data available in the literature for materials of differing grain sizes, we consider the cases of solid solutions and coherent precipitates to show that they follow stress-activated behavior. Then, we applied our model with some empirical parameters to precipitationhardenable materials of various grain sizes in both coherent and incoherent precipitate conditions, which demonstrated that grain boundary and Orowan-strengthening can be treated as energy-activated mechanisms.

  17. Dispersion-strengthened Aluminium Products Manufactured by Powder Blending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1969-01-01

    Detailed experiments carried out to examine relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of powder-blended aluminum products are reported; their results as well as structural studies by transmission electron microscopy and tensile-and creep- testing, are given; as dispersed phase......, various oxide powders were selected on criterion that during manufacturing no reaction must taken place between metal and oxide phase; strength of powder-blended aluminum products increases and elongation decreases with decreasing particle size of aluminum powder and with increasing concentration of oxide...

  18. Structural Parameters and Strengthening Mechanisms in Cold-Drawn Pearlitic Steel Wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Pearlitic steel wires have a nanoscale structure and a strength which can reach 5 GPa. In order to investigate strengthening mechanisms, structural parameters including interlamellar spacing, dislocation density and cementite decomposition, have been analyzed by transmission electron microscopy...... and high resolution electron microscopy in wires cold drawn up to a strain of 3.7. Three strengthening mechanisms, namely boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening have been analyzed and good agreement has been found between the measured flow stress and the value...

  19. MARTENSITIC CREEP RESISTANT STEEL STRENGTHENED BY Z-PHASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to steel alloys having a martensitic or martensitic- ferritic structure and comprising Z-phase (CrXN) particles, where X is one or more of the elements V, Nb, Ta, and where the Z-phase particles have an average size of less than 400 nm. The alloy comprises by wt...... % the following components: 9 to 15% Cr, 0.01-0.20% N, C in an amount less than 0.1%, one or more of: 0.01- 0.5%V,0.01-1%Nb, 0.01-2%Ta, and a balance being substantially iron and inevitable impurities. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing such a steel alloy, a component comprising...... such a steel alloy, and to the use of such a steel alloy for high temperature components....

  20. Initial study on Z-phase strengthened 9-12% Cr steels by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Andren, Hans-Olof [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2010-07-01

    The microstructure of two different types of Z-phase strengthened experimental steels, CrNbN-based or CrTaN-based, was investigated. Both steels underwent aging at 650 C for relatively short period of time, 24 hours or 1005 hours. Atom probe tomography was used to study the chemical composition of the matrix and precipitates, and the size and number density of the small precipitates. Both steels contain Laves phase at prior austenite grain boundaries and martensitic lath boundaries. The CrTaN-based steel was found more promising due to its finer and more densely distributed precipitates after 1005 hour aging. (orig.)

  1. Effect of Yttrium Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cu-Rich Nano-phase Strengthened Ferritic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; He, Jibai; Luan, Guoqing; Ke, Mingpeng; Fang, Haoyan; Lu, Jianduo

    2018-03-01

    Due to the brittle problem of Cu-rich nano-phase strengthened ferritic steel (CNSFS) after air aging, the effect of Y addition in CNSFS was systemically investigated in the present work. The microstructure, tensile fracture morphology and oxide layer of the steels were surveyed by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Transmission electron microscope with the combination of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction was used to analyze the morphology, size, number density, chemical compositions and crystal structure for nano-crystalline precipitates. Microstructural examinations of the nano-crystalline precipitates show that Cu-rich precipitates and Y compounds in the range of 2-10 and 50-100 nm, respectively, form in the Y-containing steel; meanwhile, the average size of nano-crystalline precipitates in Y-containing steel is larger, but the number density is lower, and the ferritic grains are refined. Furthermore, the tensile strength and ductility of Y-containing steel after air aging are improved, whereas the tensile strength is enhanced and the ductility decreased after vacuum aging. The drag effect of Y makes the oxide layer thinner and be compacted. Tensile properties of CNSFS after air aging are improved due to the refined grains, antioxidation and purification by the addition of Y.

  2. Repair, strengthening and upgrading of steel bridges in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, H.H.; Hesselink, B.H.

    2018-01-01

    After World War II, many steel bridges were designed and built in The Netherlands. Many of these bridges are now of a substantial age and were designed for static and fatigue loading less severe than eventually present during their lifetime. Many of these bridges now show (fatigue) damage. Depending

  3. Dislocation Strengthening without Ductility Trade-off in Metastable Austenitic Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiabin; Jin, Yongbin; Fang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Chenxu; Feng, Qiong; Liu, Xiaowei; Chen, Yuzeng; Suo, Tao; Zhao, Feng; Huang, Tianlin; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xi; Fang, Youtong; Wei, Yujie; Meng, Liang; Lu, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Strength and ductility are mutually exclusive if they are manifested as consequence of the coupling between strengthening and toughening mechanisms. One notable example is dislocation strengthening in metals, which invariably leads to reduced ductility. However, this trend is averted in metastable austenitic steels. A one-step thermal mechanical treatment (TMT), i.e. hot rolling, can effectively enhance the yielding strength of the metastable austenitic steel from 322 ± 18 MPa to 675 ± 15 MPa, while retaining both the formability and hardenability. It is noted that no boundaries are introduced in the optimized TMT process and all strengthening effect originates from dislocations with inherited thermal stability. The success of this method relies on the decoupled strengthening and toughening mechanisms in metastable austenitic steels, in which yield strength is controlled by initial dislocation density while ductility is retained by the capability to nucleate new dislocations to carry plastic deformation. Especially, the simplicity in processing enables scaling and industrial applications to meet the challenging requirements of emissions reduction. On the other hand, the complexity in the underlying mechanism of dislocation strengthening in this case may shed light on a different route of material strengthening by stimulating dislocation activities, rather than impeding motion of dislocations.

  4. Tensile and fracture characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe–12Cr produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Vanessa de, E-mail: vanessa.decastro@uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Garces-Usan, Jose Maria; Leguey, Teresa; Pareja, Ramiro [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The mechanical characteristics of a model oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe–12 wt%Cr–0.4 wt%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated by means of microhardness measurements, tensile tests up to fracture in the temperature range of 298–973 K, and fracture surface analyses. A non-ODS Fe–12 wt%Cr alloy was also studied to assess the real capacity of the oxide dispersion for strengthening the alloy. The materials were produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot isostatic pressing consolidation and heat treatment at 1023 K. The strengthening effect of the oxide nanodispersion was effective at all temperatures studied, although the tensile strength converges towards the one obtained for the reference alloy at higher temperatures. Moreover, the ODS alloys failed prematurely at T < 673 K due to the presence of Y-rich inclusions, as seen in the fracture surface of these alloys.

  5. Tensile and fracture characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe–12Cr produced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Vanessa de; Garces-Usan, Jose Maria; Leguey, Teresa; Pareja, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical characteristics of a model oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe–12 wt%Cr–0.4 wt%Y 2 O 3 were investigated by means of microhardness measurements, tensile tests up to fracture in the temperature range of 298–973 K, and fracture surface analyses. A non-ODS Fe–12 wt%Cr alloy was also studied to assess the real capacity of the oxide dispersion for strengthening the alloy. The materials were produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot isostatic pressing consolidation and heat treatment at 1023 K. The strengthening effect of the oxide nanodispersion was effective at all temperatures studied, although the tensile strength converges towards the one obtained for the reference alloy at higher temperatures. Moreover, the ODS alloys failed prematurely at T < 673 K due to the presence of Y-rich inclusions, as seen in the fracture surface of these alloys

  6. The Impact of the HMCFRP Ratio on the Strengthening of Steel Composite I-Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Agcakoca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer materials have become popular in the construction industry during the last decade for their ability to strengthen and retrofit concrete structures. The recent availability of high-modulus carbon fiber-reinforced polymer strips (HMCFRP has opened up the possibility of using this material in strengthening steel structures as well. The strips can be used in steel bridge girders and structures that are at risk of corrosion-induced cross-sectional losses, structural deterioration from aging, or changes in function. In this study, a set of bending experiments was performed on three types of steel beams reinforced with HMCFRP. The results were used to enhance a nonlinear finite element model built with ABAQUS software. The accuracy of the mathematical models for HMCFRP, epoxy, and steel profiles was compared with the experimental results, and the ability of HMCFRP to continue carrying load from the steel beams during rupture and postrupture scenarios was observed using numerical analysis. Using these verified finite element models, a parametric analysis was performed on the HMCFRP failure modes and the quantity to be used with IPE profile steel beams. The maximum amount of HMCFRP needed for strengthening was determined, and an upper limit for its use was calculated to avoid any debonding failure of the fiber material.

  7. Analysis of Strengthening Steel Distribution Channel in Domestic Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pangraksa, Sugeng; Djajadiningrat, Surna Tjahja

    2013-01-01

    Distribution has strategic role to spread up product from manufacturer into end-user. Automotive industry needs distribution channel which has: excellent data management, timely delivery management, excellent quality management, and competitive reducing cost. Krakatau Steel (KS) distributors has weaknesses to enter automotive market current that require tight prerequisite such as: consistency of product quality, good cooperation, close relationship, continuously cost reduction, wide spread to...

  8. Irradiation performance of oxide dispersion strengthened copper alloys to 150 dpa at 415 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.J.; Kumar, A.S.; Anderson, K.R.; Stubbins, J.F.; Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    Results have been obtained on the post-irradiation properties of various oxide dispersion strengthened copper alloys irradiated from 34 to 150 dpa at 415 degrees C in the Fast Flux Test Facility. The GlidCop alloys strengthened by Al 2 O 3 continue to outperform other alloys with respect to swelling resistance, and retention of both electrical conductivity and yield strength. Several castable ODS alloys and a Cr 2 O 3 -strengthened alloy show increasingly poor resistance to radiation, especially in their swelling behavior. A HfO 2 -strengthened alloy retains most of its strength and its electrical conductivity reaches a constant level after 50 dpa, but it exhibits a higher residual radioactivity

  9. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  10. Plasticity of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys; Plasticite des alliages ferritiques renforces par dispersion d`oxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakine, C

    1994-07-05

    The object of this work is to study the plasticity mechanisms of two oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys, DT and DY. Microstructural characterisation has been performed on DT and DY alloys by optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These materials, strengthened by an oxide dispersion, contain an intermetallic {chi} phase precipitated on grain boundaries. The {chi} phase, stable up to 900 deg, can be dissolved into the matrix by heat treatment beyond 1 000 deg. Between 20 and 700 deg, according to tensile tests, the DY alloy which is strengthened by a fine dispersion of yttria particles is more resistant and less ductile than DT alloy, strengthened by titanium oxides. Tensile tests performed at room temperature, in the chamber of a SEM, have shown that micro-cracking of the {chi} phase coincides with the first stage of the macroscopic yielding. The cavities initiated by the {chi} phase micro-cracking induce a ductile fracture of the matrix. A dynamic strain ageing mechanism has been observed around 400 deg, which is attributed to the Mo contribution. Between 20 and 700 deg, comparison of tensile properties of alloys with or without {chi} phase has shown that the intermetallic phase has a detrimental effect on the ductility, but has no influence on the mechanical strength. Creep tests have been performed between 500 and 700 deg. Thermally activated plasticity mechanisms are observed in this temperature range. The {chi} phase, which is always micro-cracked after tensile testing, is not damaged after creep testing below a critical stress. This behaviour is explained by the influence of strain rate through the competition between strain hardening and relaxation of the matrix. (author).

  11. Crack Monitoring Method for an FRP-Strengthened Steel Structure Based on an Antenna Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiping; Chen, Kai; Li, Zongchen; Jiang, Xiaoli

    2017-10-20

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) has been increasingly applied to steel structures for structural strengthening or crack repair, given its high strength-to-weight ratio and high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Cracks in steel structures are the dominant hidden threats to structural safety. However, it is difficult to monitor structural cracks under FRP coverage and there is little related research. In this paper, a crack monitoring method for an FRP-strengthened steel structure deploying a microstrip antenna sensor is presented. A theoretical model of the dual-substrate antenna sensor with FRP is established and the sensitivity of crack monitoring is studied. The effects of the weak conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) on the performance of crack monitoring are analyzed via contrast experiments. The effects of FRP thickness on the performance of the antenna sensor are studied. The influence of structural strain on crack detection coupling is studied through strain-crack coupling experiments. The results indicate that the antenna sensor can detect cracks in steel structures covered by FRP (including CFRP). FRP thickness affects the antenna sensor's performance significantly, while the effects of strain can be ignored. The results provide a new approach for crack monitoring of FRP-strengthened steel structures with extensive application prospects.

  12. Crack Monitoring Method for an FRP-Strengthened Steel Structure Based on an Antenna Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiping Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP has been increasingly applied to steel structures for structural strengthening or crack repair, given its high strength-to-weight ratio and high stiffness-to-weight ratio. Cracks in steel structures are the dominant hidden threats to structural safety. However, it is difficult to monitor structural cracks under FRP coverage and there is little related research. In this paper, a crack monitoring method for an FRP-strengthened steel structure deploying a microstrip antenna sensor is presented. A theoretical model of the dual-substrate antenna sensor with FRP is established and the sensitivity of crack monitoring is studied. The effects of the weak conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs on the performance of crack monitoring are analyzed via contrast experiments. The effects of FRP thickness on the performance of the antenna sensor are studied. The influence of structural strain on crack detection coupling is studied through strain–crack coupling experiments. The results indicate that the antenna sensor can detect cracks in steel structures covered by FRP (including CFRP. FRP thickness affects the antenna sensor’s performance significantly, while the effects of strain can be ignored. The results provide a new approach for crack monitoring of FRP-strengthened steel structures with extensive application prospects.

  13. Grain boundary precipitation strengthening mechanism in W containing advanced creep resistant ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, T.; Hasegawa, Y. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Grain boundary precipitation strengthening is expected to be a decisive factor in developing ferritic creep resistant steels. This study examined the grain boundary precipitation strengthening mechanism extracting the effect of the tempered martensitic microstructure and precipitates on the high angle grain boundary in M{sub 23}C4{sub 6} type carbide and the Fe{sub 2}W type Laves phase effect of the creep deformation fixing the grain boundary according to transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation. A creep test was carried out at high temperature in order to evaluate the high angle boundary strengthening effect simulating the long-term creep deformation microstructure by the lath structure disappearance. The correlation of the creep rupture time and the grain boundary shielding ratio were found to be independent of precipitate type. The creep deformation model represents block boundary shielding by precipitates as the decisive factor for W containing ferritic creep resistant steels. (orig.)

  14. Hall–Petch and dislocation strengthening in graded nanostructured steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Gao, Yukui

    2012-01-01

    The structure and strength of low carbon steel samples have been analyzed after plastic deformation by shot-peening and cold-rolling. The fine scale surface microstructure caused by shot-peening extends to ∼50 μm below the surface. The structure is graded and subdivided by dislocation boundaries...... and high angle boundaries showing a clear resemblance to the lamellar structure, which evolves during conventional rolling of bulk metallic materials from medium to high strain. As the surface is approached, the boundary spacing decreases to ∼50 nm at the surface. In parallel, the misorientation angle...... is the average spacing between the low and high angle boundaries which subdivide the microstructure, σ0 is the friction stress and k2 is a number which is expressed in terms of structural parameters which have been determined by electron backscattered diffraction. It is found that calculated k2 values...

  15. Electrocontact material based on silver dispersion-strengthened by nickel, titanium, and zinc oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeer, G. M.; Zelenkova, E. G.; Belousov, O. V.; Beletskii, V. V.; Nikolaev, S. V.; Ledyaeva, O. N.

    2017-09-01

    Samples of a composite electrocontact material based on silver strengthened by the dispersed phases of zinc and titanium oxides have been investigated by the electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A uniform distribution of the oxide phases containing 2 wt % zinc oxide in the initial charge has been revealed. The increase in the amount of zinc oxide leads to an increase of the size of the oxide phases. It has been shown that at the zinc oxide content of 2 wt %, the minimum wear is observed in the process of electroerosion tests; at 3 wt %, an overheating and welding of the contacts are observed.

  16. Rationalization of activation energies for creep of dispersion strengthened aluminium materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno, F.; Ruano, O. A.

    2001-01-01

    The high apparent activation energies for creep of various aluminum dispersion strengthened materials have been analyzed. A direct relationship between the activation energies and stress exponents for every material has been observed. The values of the Q a p/n a p ratios group around some constant values, Q m , which depend solely on the deformation mechanism. Therefore, Q m establishes an easy, fast and reliable criterion to determine the underlying creep deformation mechanism of any reinforced materials. (Author) 18 refs

  17. Research on Buckling State of Prestressed Fiber-Strengthened Steel Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruheng; Lan, Kunchang

    2018-01-01

    The main restorative methods of damaged oil and gas pipelines include welding reinforcement, fixture reinforcement and fiber material reinforcement. Owing to the severe corrosion problems of pipes in practical use, the research on renovation and consolidation techniques of damaged pipes gains extensive attention by experts and scholars both at home and abroad. The analysis of mechanical behaviors of reinforced pressure pipelines and further studies focusing on “the critical buckling” and intensity of pressure pipeline failure are conducted in this paper, providing theoretical basis to restressed fiber-strengthened steel pipes. Deformation coordination equations and buckling control equations of steel pipes under the effect of prestress is deduced by using Rayleigh Ritz method, which is an approximation method based on potential energy stationary value theory and minimum potential energy principle. According to the deformation of prestressed steel pipes, the deflection differential equation of prestressed steel pipes is established, and the critical value of buckling under prestress is obtained.

  18. Mechanical and microstructural characterization of dispersion strengthened Al-C system nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Beltran, A.; Gallegos-Orozco, V.; Reyes, R. Goytia; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2010-01-01

    Al and different amounts of C and C-Cu mixtures were used to produce Al-C and Al-C-Cu powder samples by mechanical milling. Microhardness tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites in the as-milled condition. In general, the measured values were considerably higher than pure Al. In order to determine the causes of this hardening, the crystallite size and dislocation density were measured by means of X-ray analyses coupled with a convolutional multiple whole profile (CMWP) fitting program and a comparison with atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations. In Al-C samples, the hardening is mainly due to the decrease of the crystallite size, however for the Al-C-Cu, an additional strengthening mechanism appears and it seems that it is due by a dispersion of graphite nanoparticles in the Al matrix. The strengthening contributions of dislocation density, crystallite size and particle dispersion were modeled by superposing of every single contribution to strengthening (via hardness analyses). We found a direct relationship between the mechanical properties and the nominal amount of C-Cu, where Cu apparently acts as C nanoparticles integration and dispersion agent.

  19. Microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Godfrey, Andy; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2011-01-01

    Strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress of about 3.5GPa. The wires have been drawn up to a strain of 3.7 and the structures analyzed and quantified by transmis......Strengthening mechanisms and strength–structure relationships have been analyzed in a cold-drawn pearlitic steel with a structural scale in the nanometer range and a flow stress of about 3.5GPa. The wires have been drawn up to a strain of 3.7 and the structures analyzed and quantified...... by transmission electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy. The mechanical properties have been determined by tensile testing. It is found that the interlamellar spacing and the thickness of the cementite lamellae are reduced in accordance with the changes in wire diameter up to a strain of 2...... at the ferrite/cementite interface. Three strengthening mechanisms have been analyzed: (i) boundary strengthening, (ii) dislocation strengthening and (iii) solid solution hardening. The individual and combined contributions, based on an assumption of linear additivity, of these mechanisms to the wire strength...

  20. A new ultrahigh-strength stainless steel strengthened by various coexisting nanoprecipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W., E-mail: w.xu@m2i.nl [Materials Innovation Institute M2i, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)] [Novel Aerospace Materials (NovAM) Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J. [Novel Aerospace Materials (NovAM) Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands); Yan, W.; Yang, K. [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); San Martin, D. [Materalia Group, Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kestens, L.A.I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Zwaag, S. van der [Novel Aerospace Materials (NovAM) Group, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)

    2010-06-15

    A general computational alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and physical metallurgical principles and coupled with a genetic optimization scheme is presented. The model is applied to develop a new ultrahigh-strength maraging stainless steel. The alloy composition and heat treatment parameters are integrally optimized so as to achieve microstructures of fully lath martensite matrix strengthened by multiple precipitates of MC carbides, Cu particles and Ni{sub 3}Ti intermetallics. The combined mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and identification of actual strengthening precipitates in the experimental prototype produced on the basic of the model predictions provide a strong justification for the alloy design approach.

  1. A new ultrahigh-strength stainless steel strengthened by various coexisting nanoprecipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.; Yan, W.; Yang, K.; San Martin, D.; Kestens, L.A.I.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    A general computational alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and physical metallurgical principles and coupled with a genetic optimization scheme is presented. The model is applied to develop a new ultrahigh-strength maraging stainless steel. The alloy composition and heat treatment parameters are integrally optimized so as to achieve microstructures of fully lath martensite matrix strengthened by multiple precipitates of MC carbides, Cu particles and Ni 3 Ti intermetallics. The combined mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and identification of actual strengthening precipitates in the experimental prototype produced on the basic of the model predictions provide a strong justification for the alloy design approach.

  2. Effect of a surface oxide-dispersion-strengthened layer on mechanical strength of zircaloy-4 tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Il Jung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS layer was formed on Zircaloy-4 tubes by a laser beam scanning process to increase mechanical strength. Laser beam was used to scan the yttrium oxide (Y2O3–coated Zircaloy-4 tube to induce the penetration of Y2O3 particles into Zircaloy-4. Laser surface treatment resulted in the formation of an ODS layer as well as microstructural phase transformation at the surface of the tube. The mechanical strength of Zircaloy-4 increased with the formation of the ODS layer. The ring-tensile strength of Zircaloy-4 increased from 790 to 870 MPa at room temperature, from 500 to 575 MPa at 380°C, and from 385 to 470 MPa at 500°C. Strengthening became more effective as the test temperature increased. It was noted that brittle fracture occurred at room temperature, which was not observed at elevated temperatures. Resistance to dynamic high-temperature bursting improved. The burst temperature increased from 760 to 830°C at a heating rate of 5°C/s and internal pressure of 8.3 MPa. The burst opening was also smaller than those in fresh Zircaloy-4 tubes. This method is expected to enhance the safety of Zr fuel cladding tubes owing to the improvement of their mechanical properties. Keywords: Laser Surface Treatment, Microstructure, Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Alloy, Tensile Strength, Zirconium Alloy

  3. Analysis of the strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels as a function of the hot rolling parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero Olalla, V.; Bliznuk, V.; Sanchez, N.; Thibaux, P.; Kestens, L.A.I.; Petrov, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    The yield strength of different pipeline steel grades, rolled under four different conditions, was correlated with calculated strengthening contributions. Slabs with the same composition were rolled under identical roughing conditions but varied finish rolling temperature (FRT). Two cooling routes, consisting of accelerated water cooling condition (ACC) followed by slow cooling in an oven to simulate coiling and air cooling were applied after the last rolling pass. The microstructures obtained after each thermo mechanical controlled process (TMCP) schedule, were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical properties of the plates were determined by means of tensile tests and Charpy V-notch impact test. It was confirmed that a combination of fast cooling rate and low finish rolling temperature produces higher strength than the slow cooling rate and high finish rolling temperature. Contributions to the strengthening arising from the various microstructural features like solid solution strengthening, grain size, dislocation density and precipitation hardening, were analyzed using Taylor, Hall–Petch and Ashby–Orowan approaches. The root of the sum of the squares method was applied to link the experimental with the model-predicted strength. It is believed that this approach provides a better understanding of the effect of TMCP parameters on the microstructure and strengthening mechanisms in pipeline steels

  4. Grinding as an approach to the production of high-strength, dispersion-strengthened nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, N. W.; Quatinetz, M.; Weeton, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Mechanical process produces dispersion-strengthened metal alloys. Power surface contamination during milling is removed by a cleaning method that involves heating thin shapes or partially-compacted milled powder blends in hydrogen to carefully controlled temperature schedules.

  5. Enhancement of low temperature toughness of nanoprecipitates strengthened ferritic steel by delamination structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yu; Xu, Songsong; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, P R China (China); Sun, Liangwei; Chen, Liang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming [Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics and Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), Mianyang 621999 (China); Zhang, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwzhang@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, P R China (China)

    2017-04-13

    This study investigated the effects of aging and thermomechanical treatments on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a nanoprecipitates strengthened ferritic steel. The toughness of steel at various temperatures was measured carefully and correlated with microstructural features. Tensile tests show that aging can improve the mechanical strength without scarifying the ductility. With high yield strength of ~1000 MPa, excellent low temperature Charpy impact energy more than 300 J at −80 °C can be obtained. The ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is lower than −80 °C. The high strength can be contributed by the nanocluster precipitation as determined by small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent low temperature toughness is attributed to the delamination structure of the steel, which blunts the cracks and restrains the crack propagation.

  6. The response of dispersion-strengthened copper alloys to high fluence neutron irradiation at 415 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.J.; Newkirk, J.W.; Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Nadkarni, A.; Samal, P.

    1993-01-01

    Various oxide-dispersion-strengthened copper alloys have been irradiated to 150 dpa at 415 degrees C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The Al 2 O 3 -strengthened GlidCop TM alloys, followed closely by a HfO 2 -strengthened alloy, displayed the best swelling resistance, electrical conductivity, and tensile properties. The conductivity of the HfO 2 -strengthened alloy reached a plateau at the higher levels of irradiation, instead of exhibiting the steady decrease in conductivity observed in the other alloys. A high initial oxygen content results in significantly higher swelling for a series of castable oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloys, while a Cr 2 O 3 -strengthened alloy showed poor resistance to radiation

  7. Overview of welding of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for advanced nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalvala, Prasad Rao; Raja, K.S.; Misra, Manoranjan; Tache, Ricard A.

    2009-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys are very promising materials for Generation IV reactors with a potential to be used at elevated temperatures under severe neutron exposure environment. Welding of the ODS alloys is an understudied problem. In this paper, an overview of welding of the ODS alloys useful for advanced nuclear reactor applications is presented. The microstructural changes and the resultant mechanical properties obtained by various solid state welding processes are reviewed. Based on our results on PM2000, an approach for future work on welding of the ODS alloys is suggested. (author)

  8. Full Scale Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro De Vita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy in order to investigate the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC beam-column joints strengthened with steel reinforced polymer (SRP systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP, and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems, the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.

  9. Full Scale RC Beam-Column Joints Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Alessandro; Napoli, Annalisa; Realfonzo, Roberto

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign performed at the Laboratory of Materials and Structural Testing of the University of Salerno (Italy) in order to investigate the seismic performance of RC beam-column joints strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymer (SRP) systems. With the aim to represent typical façade frames’ beam-column subassemblies found in existing RC buildings, specimens were provided with two short beam stubs orthogonal to the main beam and were designed with inadequate seismic details. Five members were strengthened by using two different SRP layouts while the remaining ones were used as benchmarks. Once damaged, two specimens were also repaired, retrofitted with SRP and subjected to cyclic test again. The results of cyclic tests performed on SRP strengthened joints are examined through a comparison with the outcomes of the previous experimental program including companion specimens not provided with transverse beam stubs and strengthened by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) systems. In particular, both qualitative and quantitative considerations about the influence of the confining effect provided by the secondary beams on the joint response, the suitability of all the adopted strengthening solutions (SRP/CFRP systems), the performances and the failure modes experienced in the several cases studied are provided.

  10. Surface strengthening using a self-protective diffusion paste and its application for ballistic protection of steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, D.C.; Solberg, J.K.; Borvik, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with surface strengthening of steel plates using a self-protective diffusion paste. During the surface strengthening process, a paste containing carbon, boron or similar is applied on the steel surface. In addition to serving as a source for the various diffusion ingredients, the paste protects the steel against contact with the environment, so no packing or gas protection is necessary. Thus, the handling is in general very simple, and the surface strengthening process can be performed in a conventional air furnace. The method provides the same type of surface strengthening that is obtained by more conventional methods. In this work, the main focus will be surface strengthening by carburizing, but also boronizing and boronizing followed by carburizing have been tested out. The methods have been applied to increase the ballistic resistance of the low-strength carbon steel NVE36 (with nominal yield stress of 355 MPa) against impacts from small-arms bullets. An empirical model combining diffusion depth, heat-treatment temperature and soaking time was established on the basis of a series of experimental data. By means of this equation, the various heat-treatment parameters can be predicted when others are chosen. Ballistic perforation tests using 7.62 mm APM2 bullets showed that the low-strength carbon steel after surface strengthening obtained a ballistic limit higher than that of Hardox 400, which is a wear steel with a yield stress of about 1200 MPa.

  11. Effects of Mn partitioning on nanoscale precipitation and mechanical properties of ferritic steels strengthened by NiAl nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Z.B.; Luan, J.H.; Miller, M.K.; Yu, C.Y.; Liu, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    The critical role of Mn partitioning in the formation of ordered NiAl nanoparticles in ferritic steels has been examined through a combination of atom probe tomography (APT) and thermodynamic and first-principles calculations. Our APT study reveals that Mn partitions to the NiAl nanoparticles, and dramatically increases the particle number density by more than an order of magnitude, leading to a threefold enhancement in strengthening. Atomistic structural analyses reveal that Mn is energetically favored to partition to the NiAl nanoparticles by preferentially occupying the Al sublattice, which not only increases the driving force, but also reduces the strain energy for nucleation, thereby significantly decreasing the critical energy for formation of the NiAl nanoparticles in ferritic steels. In addition, the effects of Mn on the precipitation strengthening mechanisms were quantitatively evaluated in terms of chemical strengthening, coherency strengthening, modulus strengthening and order strengthening

  12. Significance of dislocations in the mechanism of Hadfield cast steel strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradomski, Z.; Morgiel, J.; Olszewski, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the results of microstructural examination of the adfield cast steel (L120G13 according to Polish Standards) strengthened by explosion method, which is an attractive alternative of the surface treatment of metal materials regarding its technological, economical and organizational aspects. The presented results have been obtained by means of qualitative and quantitative analysis of thin foils taken at different distances from the material surface being strengthened by single, double or triple detonation of 3 mm thick charges of explosive. The high pressure, order of 18 GPa, causes significant changes in dislocation structure of the austenite matrix. The strengthening of Hadfield cast steel during explosion is based on the increase of the dislocation density by several times as related to the supersaturated state and on the creation of dislocation bands consisting of short, densely tangled dislocations. Plastic deformation mechanisms i. e., slip lines and micro-twins, are definitively of minor importance. It has been also proved by means of the nuclear resonance method that the explosion do not cause changes in distribution of carbon atoms in the nearest neighbourhood of Fe atoms and that austenite is not transformed into the α-martensite or the hexagonal ε-phase. (author)

  13. Improved Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Metal-Matrix Composites Dispersion-Strengthened by Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii Levashov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Co- and Fe-based alloys produced by powder technology are being widely used as a matrix for diamond-containing composites in cutting, drilling, grinding pplications, etc. The severe service conditions demand that the mechanical and tribological properties of these alloys be improved. Development of metal-matrix composites (MMCs and alloys reinforced with nanoparticles is a promising way to resolve this problem. In this work, we have investigated the effect of nano-sized WC, ZrO2, Al2O3, and Si3N4 additives on the properties of sintered dispersion-strengthened Co- and Fe-based MMCs. The results show an increase in the hardness (up to 10 HRB, bending strength (up to 50%, wear resistance (by a factor of 2–10 and a decrease in the friction coefficient (up to 4-fold of the dispersion-strengthened materials. The use of designed alloys as a binder of cutting diamond tools gave a 4-fold increment in the service life, without reduction in their cutting speed.

  14. Investigation of alloying effects in aluminum dispersion strengthened with Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, G.L.

    1975-10-01

    Two types of alloying elements were investigated to determine if the room-temperature strength could be improved and if, through lowering the oxide content, the high-temperature ductility could be improved. Mg was investigated for its solid solution strengthening in one type alloy. The other type alloy involved further dispersion strengthening through adding Fe, Mo, Zr, Cr, V, and Ti which form highly stable intermetallic compounds with Al. Fabrication techniques were developed which produced uniform and reproducible rods for testing. Prealloyed powders were produced by atomizing the molten alloys and collecting the powders in water. This procedure produced uniform powders with a very fine distribution of the intermetallic compounds. Fabrication into rods then included ball-milling, vacuum hot pressing, vacuum heat treating, and hot extrusion. Mg additions improved strengths up to 200 0 C with little effect above that temperature. Room-temperature tensile strengths up to 77,000 psi were obtained which are comparable to the strengths obtained in conventional aluminum alloys. The additional dispersion strengthening of the intermetallic compounds is additive to that of the oxide from room temperature to 450 0 C. No significant improvements in ductility are obtained by reducing the oxide content since even at very low ball-milling times (i.e., low oxide contents) the uniform elongation at 450 0 C is typically 0.5 percent. Good combinations of strength and ductility at 450 0 C were obtained in some of the alloys containing intermetallic compounds with no ball-milling. Typical properties at this temperature were tensile strengths of 7,000 psi, uniform elongation of 3 percent, and total elongation of 35 percent. (21 tables, 33 fig, 43 references) (auth)

  15. Bond Behavior of Historical Clay Bricks Strengthened with Steel Reinforced Polymers (SRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Ernesto; Imbimbo, Maura; Sacco, Elio

    2011-01-01

    In the strengthening interventions of past and historical masonry constructions, the non-standardized manufacture processes, the ageing and the damage of masonry units, could significantly affect the properties of the surfaces where strengthening materials are applied. This aspect requires particular care in evaluating the performance of externally bonded strengthening layers, especially with reference to the detachment mechanism. The bond response of old masonries could be very different from that occurring in new masonry units which are the ones generally considered in most of the bond tests available in technical literature. The aim of the present paper is the study of the bond behavior of historical clay bricks strengthened with steel reinforced polymers (SRP) materials. In particular, the results of an experimental study concerning new manufactured clay bricks and old bricks extracted from different historical masonry buildings are presented. The obtained results, particularly in terms of bond resistance, detachment mechanism and strain distributions, are discussed for the purpose of analyzing the peculiarities of the historical bricks in comparison with new manufactured ones. Some considerations on the efficacy of the theoretical formulations of the recent Italian code are also carried out. PMID:28880008

  16. Stainless austenitic steels strengthened due to reversible phase transformations and by ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagaradze, V.V.; Kositsyna, I.I.; Ozhiganov, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the reversible phase transformations, consisting in the conduction of the direct and reverse martensite transformations and aging, during which the intermetallide γ'-phase of the composition Ni 3 Ti is formed, on the streng-thening of alloys in the Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti system is considered. Stainless austenitic steels Kh12N12T3 and Kh12N14T3, which acquire high mechanical properties: σsub(0.2)=685-785 MPa, σsub(B)=1275 MPa, delta >= 20%, as a result of reversible phase transformations and aging, are suggested. After the reversible phase transformations and ageing the steels possess a high resistance to γ-α-transformation during cold treatment [ru

  17. Precipitation behavior in a nitride-strengthened martensitic heat resistant steel during hot deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The stress relaxation curves for three different hot deformation processes in the temperature range of 750–1000 °C were studied to develop an understanding of the precipitation behavior in a nitride-strengthened martensitic heat resistant steel (Zhang et al., Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 2015 [1]. This data article provides supporting data and detailed information on how to accurately analysis the stress relaxation data. The statistical analysis of the stress peak curves, including the number of peaks, the intensity of the peaks and the integral value of the pumps, was carried out. Meanwhile, the XRD energy spectrum data was also calculated in terms of lattice distortion.

  18. Effect of the wave shocking treatment on the structure and strengthening of austenitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, V.M.; Chernogorova, O.P.; Drozdova, E.I.; Afanas'ev, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The structure and hardening of austenitic manganese steels after shock wave treatment are studied. It is shown that the treatment results in the structure where an elementary cell size decreases with a pressure increase. The strain hardening resulted from shock wave loading can be estimated using a Hall-Petch equation. It is established that at similar degree of residual strains the shock wave loading compared to cold rolling gives rise to higher strengthening which value grows as austenite stacking fault energy decreases [ru

  19. Strengthening of Masonry Columns with BFRCM or with Steel Wires: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Fossetti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, innovative materials are more frequently adopted for strengthening historical constructions and masonry structures. The target of these techniques is to improve the structural efficiency with retrofitting methods while having a reduced aesthetical impact. In particular, the use of basalt fiber together with a cementitious matrix emerges as a new technique. This kind of fiber is obtained by basalt rock without other components, and consequently it could be considered a natural material, compatible with masonry. Another innovative technique for strengthening masonry columns consists of applying steel wires in the correspondence of mortar joints. Both techniques have been recently proposed and some aspects of their structural performances are still open. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the compressive behavior of clay brick masonry columns reinforced either with Basalt Fiber–Reinforced Cementitious Matrix (BFRCM or with steel wire collaring. Uniaxial compressive tests were performed on eight retrofitted columns and four control specimens until failure. Two masonry grades were considered by varying the mix used for the mortar. Results are presented and discussed in terms of axial stress-strain curves, failure modes and crack patterns of tested specimens. Comparisons with unreinforced columns show the capability of these techniques in increasing ductility with limited strength enhancements.

  20. Instantaneous strain measurements during high-temperature stress cycling of a dispersion-strengthened niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, D.M.; Mishra, R.S.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results obtained from stress cycling tests performed during high-temperature creep of a dispersion strengthened niobium alloy indicate that the instantaneous strain following the stress change decreases with accumulated strain. The true work-hardening rate was shown to be a small fraction of the elastic modulus which remained fairly constant throughout the strain history. The instantaneous strain change from a stress addition was typically greater than the strain from the corresponding stress reduction. This effect is quite pronounced for small stress changes and diminishes as the magnitude of the stress change increases. This implies that the mobility of dislocations is impeded in the reverse direction unless the magnitude of stress reduction exceeds the value of the internal stress

  1. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened W alloys produced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.; Savoini, B.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2011-01-01

    A powder metallurgy technique has been developed to produce oxide strengthened W-Ti and W-V alloys using elemental powders and nanosized powders of La 2 O 3 or Y 2 O 3 as starting materials. The alloys consolidated by hot isostatic pressing resulted in high-density materials having an ultrafine-grained structure and microhardness values in the range 7-13 GPa. Atom force microscopy studies show a topographic relief in the Ti and V pools that appear in the consolidated alloys. This relief is attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation of martensite plates. The preliminary transmission electron microscopy studies have revealed that a dispersion of nanoparticles can be induced in these alloys produced via the present technique.

  2. Stability of nanoscale secondary phases in an oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V. de; Marquis, E.A.; Lozano-Perez, S.; Pareja, R.; Jenkins, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography were used to characterize on a near-atomic scale the microstructure and oxide and carbide phases that form during thermo-mechanical treatments of a model oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12 wt.% Cr-0.4 wt.% Y 2 O 3 alloy. It was found that some of the Y-rich nanoparticles retained their initial crystallographic structure but developed a Cr-enriched shell, while others evolved into ternary oxide phases during the initial processing. The Y- and Cr-rich oxide phases formed remained stable after annealing at 1023 K for 96 h. However, the number of Cr-rich carbides appeared to increase, inducing Cr depletion in the matrix.

  3. Stability of nanoscale secondary phases in an oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12Cr alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, V. de, E-mail: vanessa.decastro@uc3m.es [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Marquis, E.A.; Lozano-Perez, S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Jenkins, M.L. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Transmission electron microscopy and atom-probe tomography were used to characterize on a near-atomic scale the microstructure and oxide and carbide phases that form during thermo-mechanical treatments of a model oxide dispersion strengthened Fe-12 wt.% Cr-0.4 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy. It was found that some of the Y-rich nanoparticles retained their initial crystallographic structure but developed a Cr-enriched shell, while others evolved into ternary oxide phases during the initial processing. The Y- and Cr-rich oxide phases formed remained stable after annealing at 1023 K for 96 h. However, the number of Cr-rich carbides appeared to increase, inducing Cr depletion in the matrix.

  4. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened W alloys produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.; Savoini, B.; Monge, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Munoz, A., E-mail: angel.munoz@uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A powder metallurgy technique has been developed to produce oxide strengthened W-Ti and W-V alloys using elemental powders and nanosized powders of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as starting materials. The alloys consolidated by hot isostatic pressing resulted in high-density materials having an ultrafine-grained structure and microhardness values in the range 7-13 GPa. Atom force microscopy studies show a topographic relief in the Ti and V pools that appear in the consolidated alloys. This relief is attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation of martensite plates. The preliminary transmission electron microscopy studies have revealed that a dispersion of nanoparticles can be induced in these alloys produced via the present technique.

  5. Transmission electron microscopy of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum: effects of irradiation on material microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, R.; Burke, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to determine the effects of irradiation on material microstructure. This work describes the results-to-date from TEM characterization of unirradiated and irradiated ODS molybdenum. The general microstructure of the unirradiated material consists of fine molybdenum grains (< 5 (micro)m average grain size) with numerous low angle boundaries and isolated dislocation networks. 'Ribbon'-like lanthanum oxides are aligned along the working direction of the product form and are frequently associated with grain boundaries, serving to inhibit grain boundary and dislocation movement. In addition to the 'ribbons', discrete lanthanum oxide particles have also been detected. After irradiation, the material is characterized by the presence of nonuniformly distributed large (∼ 20 to 100 nm in diameter), multi-faceted voids, while the molybdenum grain size and oxide morphology appear to be unaffected by irradiation

  6. Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels Strengthened by Laves Phase and MC Carbide Precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Brady, M. P.; Lu, Z. P.; Liu, C. T.; Takeyama, M.; Maziasz, P. J.; Pint, B. A.

    2007-11-01

    Creep strengthening of Al-modified austenitic stainless steels by MC carbides or Fe2Nb Laves phase was explored. Fe-20Cr-15Ni-(0-8)Al and Fe-15Cr-20Ni-5Al base alloys (at. pct) with small additions of Nb, Mo, W, Ti, V, C, and B were cast, thermally-processed, and aged. On exposure from 650 °C to 800 °C in air and in air with 10 pct water vapor, the alloys exhibited continuous protective Al2O3 scale formation at an Al level of only 5 at. pct (2.4 wt pct). Matrices of the Fe-20Cr-15Ni-5Al base alloys consisted of γ (fcc) + α (bcc) dual phase due to the strong α-Fe stabilizing effect of the Al addition and exhibited poor creep resistance. However, adjustment of composition to the Fe-15Cr-20Ni-5Al base resulted in alloys that were single-phase γ-Fe and still capable of alumina scale formation. Alloys that relied solely on Fe2Nb Laves phase precipitates for strengthening exhibited relatively low creep resistance, while alloys that also contained MC carbide precipitates exhibited creep resistance comparable to that of commercially available heat-resistant austenitic stainless steels. Phase equilibria studies indicated that NbC precipitates in combination with Fe2Nb were of limited benefit to creep resistance due to the solution limit of NbC within the γ-Fe matrix of the alloys studied. However, when combined with other MC-type strengtheners, such as V4C3 or TiC, higher levels of creep resistance were obtained.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of two Z-phase strengthened 12%Cr martensitic steels: the effects of Cu and C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, Masoud, E-mail: masoud.rashidi@chalmers.se [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Lennart [Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SE-612 83 Finspong (Sweden); Andrén, Hans-Olof; Liu, Fang [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2017-05-10

    Z-phase strengthened 12% Cr steels are designed to combine good corrosion and creep resistance for applications in fossil fuel power plants with steam temperatures up to 650 °C. Two trial Z-phase strengthened steels were investigated, Z-steel with ultra-low C content, and ZCuC-steel with relatively high C content and Cu addition. The Z-steel has better creep strength; however, the alloy has low impact toughness due to the formation of continuous Laves-phase films at grain boundaries. Atom probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were employed to study the effects of C and Cu on the microstructure of the two steels in the as-tempered condition, and after ageing for different times. The Z-steel shows a fast transformation from TaN to Z-phase. The relatively high C content in the ZCuC-steel resulted in the formation of two categories of MX: Ta(C, N) and TaN. The phase transformation from Ta(C, N) to Z-phase is slower compared to that from TaN to Z-phase. In addition, precipitation of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Cu particles in the ZCuC-steel led to easier nucleation of Laves-phase, and hence a much improved toughness.

  8. Formation of Lamellar Structured Oxide Dispersion Strengthening Layers in Zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Dong-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Yang, Jae-Ho; Koo, Yang-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yoon-Soo [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is one of the leading organizations for developing ATF claddings. One concept is to form an oxidation-resistant layer on Zr cladding surface. The other is to increase high-temperature mechanical strength of Zr tube. The oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) zirconium was proposed to increase the strength of the Zr-based alloy up to high temperatures. According to our previous investigations, the tensile strength of Zircaloy-4 was increased by up to 20% with the formation of a thin dispersed oxide layer with a thickness less than 10% of that of the Zircaloy-4 substrate. However, the tensile elongation of the samples decreased drastically. The brittle fracture was a major concern in development of the ODS Zircaloy-4. In this study, a lamellar structure of ODS layer was formed to increase ductility of the ODS Zircaloy-4. The mechanical properties were varied depending on the structure of ODS layer. For example, the partial formation of ODS layer with the thickness of 10% to the substrate thickness induced the increase in tensile strength up to about 20% than fresh Zircaloy-4.

  9. Evaluation of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum and molybdenum-rhenium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.J.; Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) molybdenum alloys being developed for high temperature applications possess excellent high temperature strength and creep resistance. In addition they exhibit a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBIT) in the worked and stress-relieved condition under longitudinal tensile load well below room temperature. However, in the recrystallized condition, the DBTT maybe near or above room temperature, depending on the volume fraction of oxide dispersion and the amount of prior work. Dilute rhenium additions (7 and 14 wt.%) to ODS molybdenum were evaluated to determine their effect on low temperature ductility. The addition of 7 wt.% rhenium to the ODS molybdenum did not significantly enhance the mechanical properties. However, the addition of 14 wt.% rhenium to the ODS molybdenum resulted in a DBTT well below room temperature in both the stress-relieved and recrystallized condition. Additionally, the tensile strength of ODS Mo-14Re is greater than the base ODS molybdenum at 1,000 to 1,250 C

  10. Effect of niobium on tensile, impact and hardness mechanical properties in martensitic steels that could be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casteletti, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    Martensitic steels that could be strengthened by precipitation, based on traditional maraging steels were developed, aiming to total or partial substitution of the expensive elements. Niobium was used as the precipitation forming element and it was very effective in the strengthening of martensitic matrix. The Ni element was completely and partially substituted by Mn. Tensile and impact tests at room temperature and aging curves were obtained in the temperature range from 400 to 600 sup(0)C, for 20 alloys systems. Metallographic and fractographic analysis were done, and the results are presents. (M.C.K.)

  11. Effects of nickel and cobalt addition on creep strength and microstructure of the precipitation-strengthened 15Cr ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Masachika; Toda, Yoshiaki; Sawada, Kota; Kushima, Hideaki; Kimura, Kazuhiro [National Inst. for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Creep strength of 15Cr ferritic steel with ferrite matrix was increased by precipitation strengthening of intermetallic compounds. It was higher than those of 9-12Cr ferritic steels with a tempered martensitic microstructure strengthened by carbide and carbonitride. Addition of nickel was confirmed to improve Charpy impact toughness of the 15Cr steels, however, creep strength was slightly reduced by the addition of nickel. Microstructure of the 15Cr steel changes from ferrite single phase to dual phases of ferrite and martensite with the addition of nickel which is an austenite stabilizing element. The 15Cr steels investigated in the previous study, contain 3mass% of cobalt which is also an austenite stabilizing element, therefore, the influence of nickel and cobalt combination on mechanical properties and microstructure of the 15Cr-1Mo-6W-V-Nb steel is investigated in this study. Creep strength, Charpy impact toughness and microstructure of the steel were strongly influenced by the composition of nickel and cobalt. Design guideline of the 15Cr steel is discussed with respect to a role of microstructure and combination of nickel and cobalt addition. (orig.)

  12. The Investigation on Strain Strengthening Induced Martensitic Phase Transformation of Austenitic Stainless Steel: A Fundamental Research for the Quality Evaluation of Strain Strengthened Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cai Ren, Fa; Tang, Xiao Ying

    2018-03-01

    The manufacture of pressure vessels with austenitic stainless steel strain strengthening technology has become an important technical means for the light weight of cryogenic pressure vessels. In the process of increasing the strength of austenitic stainless steel, strain can induce the martensitic phase transformation in austenite phase. There is a quantitative relationship between the transformation quantity of martensitic phase and the basic mechanical properties. Then, the martensitic phase variables can be obtained by means of detection, and the mechanical properties and safety performance are evaluated and calculated. Based on this, the quantitative relationship between strain hardening and deformation induced martensite phase content is studied in this paper, and the mechanism of deformation induced martensitic transformation of austenitic stainless steel is detailed.

  13. Dislocation-based plasticity and strengthening mechanisms in sub-20 nm lamellar structures in pearlitic steel wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaodan; Hansen, Niels; Godfrey, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The tensile properties and the deformation microstructure of pearlitic steel (0.8 wt % C) have been quantified in wires drawn to strains in the range from 3.7 to 5.4, having a flow stress in the range from 3.5 to 4.5 GPa. With increasing strain the interlamellar spacing (ILS) decreases from about...... mechanism in the wire and three strengthening mechanisms are applied: boundary strengthening, dislocation strengthening and solid solution hardening with their relative contributions to the total flow stress which change as the strain is increased. Based on linear additivity good correspondence between...

  14. Microstructure of oxide dispersion strengthened Eurofer and iron-chromium alloys investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintze, C. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Bergner, F., E-mail: f.bergner@fzd.de [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Ulbricht, A. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Hernandez-Mayoral, M. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Keiderling, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Lindau, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Weissgaerber, T. [Fraunhofer Institute IFAM-Dresden, Winterbergstr. 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthening of ferritic/martensitic chromium steels is a promising route for the extension of the range of operation temperatures for nuclear applications. The investigation of dedicated model alloys is an important means in order to separate individual effects contributing to the mechanical behaviour under irradiation and to improve mechanistic understanding. A powder metallurgy route based on spark plasma sintering was applied to fabricate oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe9Cr model materials. These materials along with Eurofer97 and ODS-Eurofer were investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and TEM. For Fe9Cr-0.6 wt.%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TEM results indicate a peak radius of the size distribution of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles of 4.2 nm with radii ranging up to 15 nm, and a volume fraction of 0.7%, whereas SANS indicates a peak radius of 3.8 nm and a volume fraction of 0.6%. It was found that the non-ODS Fe9Cr and Eurofer97 are suitable reference materials for ODS-Fe9Cr and ODS-Eurofer, respectively, and that the ODS-Fe9Cr variants are suitable model materials for the separated investigation of irradiation-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle interaction effects.

  15. Exposure to Crude Oil and Chemical Dispersant May Impact Marine Microbial Biofilm Composition and Steel Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Salerno

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The release of hydrocarbons and chemical dispersant in marine environments may disrupt benthic ecosystems, including artificial reefs, formed by historic steel shipwrecks, and their associated organisms. Experiments were performed to determine the impacts of crude oil, dispersed crude oil, and dispersant on the community structure and function of microorganisms in seawater (SW and biofilms formed on carbon steel, a common ship hull construction material. Steel corrosion was also monitored to illustrate how oil spills may impact preservation of steel shipwrecks. Microcosms were filled with seawater (SW and incubated at 4°C. Carbon steel disks (CSDs were placed in each tank, and tanks were amended with crude oil and/or dispersant or no treatment. SW and CSD biofilms were sampled biweekly for genetic analysis using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons. Predicted and sequenced bacterial metagenomes were analyzed to examine impacts of oil and dispersant on metabolic function. Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteriia dominated SW and biofilms. Bacterial community structure differed significantly between treatments for SW and biofilms. OTUs affiliated with known (Pseudomonas and potential (Marinomonas hydrocarbon-degraders were roughly twice as abundant in biofilms treated with oil and dispersed oil, and steel corrosion of CSDs in these treatments was higher compared to control and dispersant treatments. OTUs affiliated with the Rhodobacteraceae family (biofilm formers and potential oil degraders were less abundant in the dispersant treatment compared to other treatments in biofilm and SW samples, but OTUs affiliated with the Pseudoalteromonas genus (biofilm formers and proposed hydrocarbon degraders were more abundant in dispersant-treated biofilms. Overall, functional gene analyses revealed a decrease in genes (predicted using PICRUSt and observed in sequenced metagenomes associated with hydrocarbon degradation

  16. Martensite phase stress and the strengthening mechanism in TRIP steel by neutron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjo, Stefanus; Tsuchida, Noriyuki; Abe, Jun; Gong, Wu

    2017-11-09

    Two TRIP-aided multiphase steels with different carbon contents (0.2 and 0.4 mass%) were analyzed in situ during tensile deformation by time-of-flight neutron diffraction to clarify the deformation induced martensitic transformation behavior and its role on the strengthening mechanism. The difference in the carbon content affected mainly the difference in the phase fractions before deformation, where the higher carbon content increased the phase fraction of retained austenite (γ). However, the changes in the relative fraction of martensitic transformation with respect to the applied strain were found to be similar in both steels since the carbon concentrations in γ were similar regardless of different carbon contents. The phase stress of martensite was found much larger than that of γ or bainitic ferrite since the martensite was generated at the beginning of plastic deformation. Stress contributions to the flow stress were evaluated by multiplying the phase stresses and their phase fractions. The stress contribution from martensite was observed increasing during plastic deformation while that from bainitic ferrite hardly changing and that from γ decreasing.

  17. Interface segregation behavior in thermal aged austenitic precipitation strengthened stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Technical Department, Jiuli Hi-Tech Metals Co., Ltd., Huzhou 313008 (China); Song, Hui [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Wenqing, E-mail: wqliu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Xia, Shuang; Zhou, Bangxin [Institute of Materials, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Su, Cheng; Ding, Wenyan [Technical Department, Jiuli Hi-Tech Metals Co., Ltd., Huzhou 313008 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The segregation of various elements at grain boundaries, precipitate/matrix interfaces were analyzed using atom probe tomography in an austenitic precipitation strengthened stainless steel aged at 750 °C for different time. Segregation of P, B and C at all types of interfaces in all the specimens were observed. However, Si segregated at all types of interfaces only in the specimen aged for 16 h. Enrichment of Ti at grain boundaries was evident in the specimen aged for 16 h, while Ti did not segregate at other interfaces. Mo varied considerably among interface types, e.g. from segregated at grain boundaries in the specimens after all the aging time to never segregate at γ′/γ phase interfaces. Cr co-segregated with C at grain boundaries, although carbides still did not nucleate at grain boundaries yet. Despite segregation tendency variations in different interface types, the segregation tendency evolution variation of different elements depending aging time were analyzed among all types of interfaces. Based on the experimental results, the enrichment factors, Gibbs interface excess and segregation free energies of segregated elements were calculated and discussed. - Highlights: • Solute atoms segregated at interfaces were analyzed in an austenitic stainless steel. • The comparison of segregation in different interfaces was studied by APT. • The evolution of interface segregation during aging treatment was discussed.

  18. Effect of Strengthening Mechanism on Strain-Rate Related Tensile Properties of Low-Carbon Sheet Steels for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anindya; Biswas, Pinaki; Tarafder, S.; Chakrabarti, D.; Sivaprasad, S.

    2018-05-01

    In order to ensure crash resistance of the steels used in automotive components, the ensile deformation behavior needs to be studied and predicted not only under quasi-static condition, but also under dynamic loading rates. In the present study, tensile tests have been performed on four different automobile grade sheet steels, namely interstitial free steel, dual-phase 600 and 800, and a carbon manganese steel over the strain rate regime of 0.001-800/s. Apart from the variation in strength (which always increased with strain rate), the effect of strengthening mechanism on strain rate sensitivity and strain hardening behavior has been evaluated. Strain rate sensitivity was found to increase at high-strain rate regime for all the steels. Contribution of solid solution hardening on strain rate sensitivity at lower plastic strains was found to be higher compared to dislocation strengthening and second-phase hardening. However, precipitation hardening coupled with solid solution hardening produced the highest strain rate sensitivity, in C-Mn-440 steel at high strain rates. Different strain-rate-sensitive models which take into account the change in yield stress and strain hardening behavior with strain rate for ductile materials were used to predict the flow behavior of these sheet steels at strain rates up to 800/s.

  19. High-temperature deformation of dispersion-strengthened Cu-Zr-Ti-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Rodrigo H.; Sepulveda, Aquiles; Espinoza, Rodrigo; Dianez, M. Jesus; Criado, Jose M.; Sayagues, M. Jesus

    2005-01-01

    The hot mechanical behaviour and microstructure of Cu-5 vol.% TiC, Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 and Cu-2.5 vol.% TiC-2.5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys prepared by reaction milling were studied. After a test of 1 h annealing at 1173 K, the Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloy presented the lower softening resistance to annealing, while the other two ones kept their initial room-temperature hardness (about 2 GPa). Hot-compression tests at 773 and 1123 K, at initial true strain rates of 0.85 x 10 -3 and 0.85 x 10 -4 s -1 were performed. The Cu-2.5 vol.% TiC-2.5 vol.% ZrO 2 and the Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys were the strongest and softest materials, respectively. Moreover, by electron microscopy, nanometric TiC and micrometric particles were detected in the Cu-5 vol.% TiC and Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys, respectively. A possible explanation for the observed behaviour of these materials is proposed. In the compression tests, it was also found that strain rate has a low effect on flow stress, as it has been previously observed by various authors in dispersion-strengthened alloys deformed at high temperatures

  20. Development and Testing of Dispersion-Strengthened Tungsten Alloys via Spark Plasma Sinterin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eric; Madden, Nathan; Smith, Charles; Krogstad, Jessica; Allain, Jean Paul

    2017-10-01

    Tungsten (W) is a common plasma-facing component (PFC) material in the divertor region of tokamak fusion devices due to its high melting point and high sputter threshold. However, W is intrinsically brittle and is further embrittled under neutron irradiation, and the low recrystallization temperature pose complications in fusion environments. More ductile W alloys, such as dispersion-strengthened tungsten are being developed. In this work, W samples are processed via spark plasma sintering (SPS) with TiC, ZrC, and TaC dispersoids alloyed from 0.5 to 10 weight %. SPS is a powder compaction technique that provides high pressure and heating rates via electrical current, allowing for a lower final temperature and hold time for compaction. Initial testing of material properties, smicrostructure, and composition of specimens will be presented. Deuterium and helium irradiations have been performed in IGNIS, a multi-functional, in-situ irradiation and characterization facility at the University of Illinois. High-flux, low-energy exposures at the Magnum-PSI facility at DIFFER exposed samples to a D fluence of 1×1026 cm-2 and He fluence of 1x1025-1x1026 cm-2 at temperatures of 300-1000 C. In-situ chemistry changes via XPS and ex-situ morphology changes via SEM will be studied. Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-SC0014267.

  1. Characterization of dispersion strengthened copper with 3wt%Al2O3 by mechanical alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Višeslava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The copper matrix has been dispersion strengthened with 3wt.%Al2O3 by mechanical alloying. Commercial alumina powder with an average particle size of 0.75mm was used for alloying. The mechanical alloying process was performed in a planetary ball mill up to 20h in air. After milling all powders were treated in H2 at 4000C for 1h, and finally hot pressing was used for compaction (800oC, 3h, Ar. Structure observations revealed a lamellar structure (Al2O3 particles largely restricted to interlamellar planes between adjacent copper lamellae accompanied also by structure refinement. These structural changes were mostly completed in the early stage of milling, and retained after compaction. Micro hardness was found to progressively increase with milling time. So, after 5h of milling the micro hardness of the Cu+3twt%Al2O3 compact was 1540MPa, i.e. 2.5 times greater than for the as-received electrolytic copper powder (638MPa compacted under identical conditions, while after 20h of milling it was 2370 MPa. However after exposing the tested compact at 800oC up to 5h, the achieved hardening effect vanished.

  2. High-temperature behavior of oxide dispersion strengthening CoNiCrAlY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Kinga A. [ORNL; Bergholz, Jan [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH; Huang, T [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, IEK-2, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH; Naumenko, Dymtro [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH (Julich Research Centre), Germany; Pint, Bruce A. [ORNL; Vaßen, Robert [Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany; Quadakkers, Willem Joseph [Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany

    2017-11-01

    To fabricate oxide dispersion strengthened bond coatings, commercial Co–30wt-%Ni–20Cr–8Al–0•4Y powder was milled with 2% additions of Al2O3, Y2O3 or Y2O3 + HfO2. Low-pressure plasma sprayed, free-standing specimens were oxidised in air + 10%H2O at 1100 °C both isothermally (100 h) and in 500, 1-h cycles. Dry air cyclic testing conducted at both ORNL and FZJ showed remarkably similar results. In general, the water vapour addition caused more scale spallation. Two LPPS specimens without oxide additions were tested for comparison. The specimens with 2%Al2O3 addition exhibited the best behaviour as the powder already contained 0•4%Y. Additions of 2%Y2O3 and especially 1%Y2O3 + 1%HfO2 resulted in over-doping as evidenced by high mass gains and the formation of Y- and Hf-rich pegs. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of the isothermal specimens showed no Hf and/or Y segregation to the alumina scale grain boundaries in the over-doped specimens.

  3. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests of ion irradiated oxide dispersion strengthened alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, K.H., E-mail: kaylayano@u.boisestate.edu [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Swenson, M.J. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Wu, Y. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID, 83401 (United States); Wharry, J.P. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID, 83725 (United States); Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    The growing role of charged particle irradiation in the evaluation of nuclear reactor candidate materials requires the development of novel methods to assess mechanical properties in near-surface irradiation damage layers just a few micrometers thick. In situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) mechanical testing is one such promising method. In this work, microcompression pillars are fabricated from a Fe{sup 2+} ion irradiated bulk specimen of a model Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy. Yield strengths measured directly from TEM in situ compression tests are within expected values, and are consistent with predictions based on the irradiated microstructure. Measured elastic modulus values, once adjusted for the amount of deformation and deflection in the base material, are also within the expected range. A pillar size effect is only observed in samples with minimum dimension ≤100 nm due to the low inter-obstacle spacing in the as received and irradiated material. TEM in situ micropillar compression tests hold great promise for quantitatively determining mechanical properties of shallow ion-irradiated layers.

  4. Characterization of Dispersion Strengthened Copper Alloy Prepared by Internal Oxidation Combined with Mechanical Alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziqian; Xiao, Zhu; Li, Zhou; Zhu, Mengnan; Yang, Ziqi

    2017-11-01

    Cu-3.6 vol.% Al2O3 dispersion strengthened alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) of internal oxidation Cu-Al powders. The lattice parameter of Cu matrix decreased with milling time for powders milled in argon, while the abnormal increase of lattice parameter occurred in the air resulting from mechanochemical reactions. With a quantitative analysis, the combined method makes residual aluminum oxidized completely within 10-20 h while mechanical alloying method alone needs longer than 40 h. Lamellar structure formed and the thickness of lamellar structure decreased with milling time. The size of Al2O3 particles decreased from 46 to 22 nm after 40 h milling. After reduction, core-shell structure was found in MAed powders milled in the air. The compacted alloy produced by MAed powders milled in the argon had an average hardness and electrical conductivity of 172.2 HV and 82.1% IACS while the unmilled alloy's were 119.8 HV and 74.1% IACS due to the Al2O3 particles refinement and residual aluminum in situ oxidization.

  5. Atom-Probe Tomographic Investigations of a Precipitation-Strengthened HSLA-115 Steel and a Ballistic-Resistant 10 wt. % Ni Steel for Naval Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya

    due to overaging of Cu precipitates and tempering of the martensitic matrix. This results in an extended yield strength plateau, compared to alloys relying solely on Cu precipitation strengthening (for example, NUCu-140 steels) and is highly beneficial as impact toughness improves significantly in overaged conditions with respect to Cu precipitates. Optimum mechanical properties (yield strength 141 ksi or 972.1 MPa, elongation to failure 24.8 %, and impact toughness 188.0 J at -18 °C) are attained after 3 h aging at 550 °C. Incorporating finely dispersed M2C carbides with Cu precipitates, thus provides a promising pathway for use of Cu-bearing Naval HSLA-115 steels in higher strength applications, while still meting toughness and ductility requirements. Low-carbon 10 wt. % Ni steels are optimally processed via a multi-step intercritical Quench Lamellarizing Tempering (QLT)-treatment to form a fine dispersion of thermally stable Ni-enriched austenite in a tempered martensitic matrix. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation of this austenite is key to its superior overall mechanical properties, specifically ballistic resistance over HSLA-100 steels. This research elucidates the basic physical principles controlling the thermal stability and kinetics of Ni-stabilized austenite, formed during the QLT-treatment. The role of Ni-enriched austenite and fresh martensitic regions, inherited from the first isothermal intercritical step (L) at 650 °C, in forming thermally stable austenite during the second isothermal intercritical step (T) at 590 °C is highlighted using dilatometry, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, 3-D atom-probe tomography (APT), and thermodynamic and kinetic modeling using ThermoCalc and Dictra. Results indicate the growth of nm-thick austenite layers during T-step tempering (predominantly in the Ni-enriched fresh martensitic regions), with austenite retained from L-step acting as a nucleation template. Thermal stability of austenite is estimated by

  6. Effect of thermal cycling on martensitic transformation and mechanical strengthening of stainless steels – A phase-field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeddu, Hemantha Kumar; Shaw, Brian A.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D elastoplastic phase-field model is used to study the effect of thermal cycling on martensitic transformationas well as on mechanical strengthening of both austenite and martensite in stainless steel. The results show that with an increasing number of thermal cycles, martensite becomes more...

  7. Evaluation of the increased load bearing capacity of steel beams strengthened with pre-stressed FRP laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bennati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the problem of a simply supported steel beam subjected to uniformly distributed load, strengthened with a pre-stressed fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP laminate. We assume that the laminate is first put into tension, then bonded to the beam bottom surface, and finally fixed at both its ends by suitable connections. The beam and laminate are modelled according to classical beam theory. The adhesive is modelled as a cohesive interface with a piecewise linear constitutive law defined over three intervals (elastic response, softening response, debonding. The model is described by a set of differential equations with suitable boundary conditions. An analytical solution to the problem is determined, including explicit expressions for the internal forces and interfacial stresses. As an application, we consider the standard IPE series for the steel beam and the Sika® CarboDur® system for the adhesive and laminate. For each considered cross section, we first carry out a preliminary design of the unstrengthened steel beam. Then, we imagine to apply the FRP strengthening and calculate the loads corresponding to the elastic limit states in the steel beam, adhesive, and laminate. Lastly, we take into account the ultimate limit state corresponding to the plasticisation of the mid-span steel cross section and evaluate the increased load bearing capacity of the strengthened beam

  8. Fatigue properties of MA 6000E, a gamma-prime strengthened ODS alloy. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Ni-base alloy for gas turbine blade applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. G.; Merrick, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    MA 6000E is a corrosion resistant, gamma-prime strengthened ODS alloy under development for advanced turbine blade applications. The high temperature, 1093 C, rupture strength is superior to conventional nickel-base alloys. This paper addresses the fatigue behavior of the alloy. Excellent properties are exhibited in low and high cycle fatigue and also thermal fatigue. This is attributed to a unique combination of microstructural features, i.e., a fine distribution of dispersed oxides and other nonmetallics, and the highly elongated grain structure which advantageously modify the deformation characteristics and crack initiation and propagation modes from that characteristic of conventional gamma-prime hardened superalloys.

  9. Dispersion strengthening of precipitation hardened Al-Cu-Mg alloys prepared by rapid solidification and mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, P. S.; Sankaran, K. K.

    1988-01-01

    Several Al-4Cu-1Mg-1.5Fe-0.75Ce alloys have been processed from either rapidly solidified or mechanically alloyed powder using various vacuum degassing parameters and consolidation techniques. Strengthening by the fine subgrains, grains, and the dispersoids individually or in combination is more effective when the alloys contain shearable precipitates; consequently, the strength of the alloys is higher in the naturally aged rather than the artificially aged condition. The strengths of the mechanically alloyed variants are greater than those produced from prealloyed powder. Properties and microstructural features of these dispersion strengthened alloys are discussed in regards to their processing histories.

  10. Creep and residual mechanical properties of cast superalloys and oxide dispersion strengthened alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Tensile, stress-rupture, creep, and residual tensile properties after creep testing were determined for two typical cast superalloys and four advanced oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. The superalloys examined included the nickel-base alloy B-1900 and the cobalt-base alloy MAR-M509. The nickel-base ODS MA-757 (Ni-16CR-4Al-0.6Y2O3 and the iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 (Fe-20Cr-5Al-0.8Y2O3) were extensively studied, while limited testing was conducted on the ODS nickel-base alloys STCA (Ni-16Cr-4.5Al-2Y2O3) with a without Ta and YD-NiCrAl (Ni-16Cr-5Al-2Y2O3). Elevated temperature testing was conducted from 114 to 1477 K except for STCA and YD-NiCrAl alloys, which were only tested at 1366 K. The residual tensile properties of B-1900 and MAR-M509 are not reduced by prior creep testing (strains at least up to 1 percent), while the room temperature tensile properties of ODS nickel-base alloys can be reduced by small amounts of prior creep strain (less than 0.5 percent). The iron-base ODS alloy MA-956 does not appear to be susceptible to creep degradation at least up to strains of about 0.25 percent. However, MA-956 exhibits unusual creep behavior which apparently involves crack nucleation and growth.

  11. The Effect of Hot Working on Structure and Strength of a Precipitation Strengthened Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataya, M. C.; Carr, M. J.; Krauss, G.

    1984-02-01

    The development of microstructure and strength during forging in a γ' strengthened austenitic stainless steel, JBK-75, was investigated by means of forward extrusion of cylindrical specimens. The specimens were deformed in a strain range of 0.16 to 1.0, from 800°C to 1080°C, and at approximate strain rates of 2 (press forging) and 2 × 103 s-1 (high energy rate forging), and structures examined by light and transmission microscopy. Mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing as-forged and forged and aged specimens. The alloy exhibited an extremely wide variety of structures and properties within the range of forging pzrameters studied. Deformation at the higher strain rate via high energy rate forging resulted in unrecovered substructures and high strengths at low forging temperatures, and static recrystallization and low strengths at high temperatures. In contrast, however, deformation at the lower strain rate via press forging resulted in retention of the well developed subgrain structure and associated high strength produced at high forging temperatures and strains. At lower temperatures and strains during press forging a subgrain structure formed preferentially at high angle grain boundaries, apparently by a creep-type deformation mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization was not an important restoration mechanism for any of the forging conditions. The results are interpreted on the basis of stacking fault energy and the accumulation of strain energy during hot working. The significance of observed microstructural differences for equivalent deformation conditions (iso-Z, where Z is the Zener-Holloman parameter) is discussed in relation to the utilization of Z for predicting hot work structures and strengths. Aging showed that the γ' precipitation process is not affected by substructure and that the strengthening contributions, from substructure and precipitation, were independent and additive. Applications for these findings are discussed in terms

  12. The effect of hot working on structure and strength of a precipitation strengthened austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mataya, M.C.; Carr, M.J.; Krauss, G.

    1984-01-01

    The development of microstructure and strength during forging a γ' strengthened austenitic stainless steel, JBK-75, was investigated. The specimens were deformed in a strain range of 0.16 to 1.0, from 800 0 C to 1080 0 C at approximate strain rates of 2 (press forging) and 2 X 10 3 S -1 (high energy rate forging). Mechanical properties were determined by tensile testing as-forged and forged and aged specimens. The alloy exhibited a wide variety of structures and properties within the range of forging parameters studied. Deformation at the higher strain rate via high energy rate forging resulted in unrecovered substructures and high strengths at low forging temperatures, and static recrystallization and low strengths at high temperatures. In contrast, however, deformation at the lower strain rate via press forging resulted in retention of the well developed subgrain structure and associated high strength produced at high forging temperatures and strains. At lower temperatures and strains during press forging a subgrain structure formed preferentially at high angle grain boundaries, apparently by a creep-type deformation mechanism. Dynamic recrystallization was not an important restoration mechanism for any of the forging conditions. The results are interpreted on the basis of stacking fault energy and the accumulation of strain energy during hot working. The significance of microstructural differences for equivalent deformation conditions (iso-Z, where Z is the Zener-Holloman parameter) is discussed in relation to the utilization of Z for predicting hot work structures and strengths. Aging showed that γ' precipitation is not affected by substructure and that the strengthening contributions were independent and additive. Applications for these findings are discussed in terms of process design criteria

  13. Effect of Thermal Distress on Residual Behavior of CFRP-Strengthened Steel Beams Including Periodic Unbonded Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual behavior of wide-flange steel beams strengthened with high-modulus carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates subjected to thermal loading. Because the coefficients of thermal expansion of the steel and the CFRP are different, temperature-induced distress may take place along their interface. Periodic unbonded zones are considered to represent local interfacial damage. Five test categories are designed depending on the size of the unbonded zones from 10 to 50 mm, and corresponding beams are loaded until failure occurs after exposing to a cyclic temperature range of ΔT = 25 °C (−10 to 15 °C up to 84 days. The composite action between the CFRP and the steel substrate is preserved until yielding of the beams happens, regardless of the thermal cycling and periodic unbonded zones. The initiation and progression of CFRP debonding become apparent as the beams are further loaded, particularly at geometric discontinuities in the vicinity of the unbonded zones along the interface. A simple analytical model is employed to predict the interfacial stress of the strengthened beams. A threshold temperature difference of ΔT = 30 °C is estimated for the initiation and progression of CFRP debonding. Multiple debonding-progression stages in conjunction with the extent of thermal distress appear to exist. It is recommended that high-modulus CFRP be restrictively used for strengthening steel members potentially exposed to a wide temperature variation range.

  14. Manufacturing and mechanical property test of the large-scale oxide dispersion strengthened martensitic mother tube by hot isostatic pressing and hot extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki

    2003-09-01

    Mass production capability of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel cladding (9Cr) is evaluated in the Phase II of the Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System. The cost for manufacturing mother tube is a dominant factor in the total cost for manufacturing ODS ferritic cladding. In this study, the large-scale 9Cr-ODS martensitic mother tube was produced by overseas supplier with mass production equipments for commercialized ODS steels. The process of manufacturing the ODS mother tube consists of raw material powder production, mechanical alloying by high energy ball mill, hot isostatic pressing(HIP), and hot extrusion. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) Micro structure of the ODS steels is equivalent to that of domestic products, and fine oxides are uniformly distributed. The mechanical alloying by large capacity (1 ton) ball mill can be satisfactorily carried out. (2) A large scale mother tube (65 mm OD x 48 mm ID x 10,000 mm L), which can produce about 60 pieces of 3 m length ODS ferritic claddings by four times cold rolling, have been successfully manufactured through HIP and Hot Extrusion process. (3) Rough surface of the mother tubes produced in this study can be improved by selecting the reasonable hot extrusion condition. (4) Hardness and tensile strength of the manufactured ODS steels are lower than domestic products with same chemical composition. This is owing to the high aluminum content in the product, and those properties could be improved by decreasing the aluminum content in the raw material powder. (author)

  15. Understanding dual precipitation strengthening in ultra-high strength low carbon steel containing nano-sized copper precipitates and carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaniraj, M. P.; Shin, Young-Min; Jung, Woo-Sang; Kim, Man-Ho; Choi, In-Suk

    2017-07-01

    Low carbon ferritic steel alloyed with Ti, Mo and Cu was hot rolled and interrupt cooled to produce nano-sized precipitates of copper and (Ti,Mo)C carbides. The steel had a tensile strength of 840 MPa, an increase in yield strength of 380 MPa over that of the plain carbon steel and reasonable ductility. Transmission electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering were used to characterize size and volume fraction of the precipitates in the steels designed to form only copper precipitates and only (Ti,Mo)C carbides. The individual and combined precipitation strengthening contributions was calculated using the size and volume fraction of precipitates and compared with the measured values.

  16. Fabrication technological development of the oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA957 for fast reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; GD Johnson; WF Brown; MM Paxton; RJ Puigh; CR Eiholzer; C Martinez; MA Blotter

    2000-01-01

    A significant amount of effort has been devoted to determining the properties and understanding the behavior of the alloy MA957 to define its potential usefulness as a cladding material, in the fast breeder reactor program. The numerous characterization and fabrication studies that were conducted are documented in this report. The alloy is a ferritic stainless steel developed by International Nickel Company specifically for structural reactor applications. It is strengthened by a very fine, uniformly distributed yttria dispersoid. Its fabrication involves a mechanical alloying process and subsequent extrusion, which ultimately results in a highly elongated grain structure. While the presence of the dispersoid produces a material with excellent strength, the body centered cubic structure inherent to the material coupled with the high aspect ratio that results from processing operations produces some difficulties with ductility. The alloy is very sensitive to variations in a number of processing parameters, and if the high strength is once lost during fabrication, it cannot be recovered. The microstructural evolution of the alloy under irradiation falls into two regimes. Below about 550 C, dislocation development, αprime precipitation and void evolution in the matrix are observed, while above about 550 C damage appears to be restricted to cavity formation within oxide particles. The thermal expansion of the alloy is very similar to that of HT9 up to the temperature where HT9 undergoes a phase transition to austenitic. Pulse magnetic welding of end caps onto MA957 tubing can be accomplished in a manner similar to that in which it is performed on HT9, although the welding parameters appear to be very sensitive to variations in the tubing that result from small changes in fabrication conditions. The tensile and stress rupture behavior of the alloy are acceptable in the unirradiated condition, being comparable to HT9 below about 700 C and exceeding those of HT9 at

  17. Fabrication technological development of the oxide dispersion strengthened alloy MA957 for fast reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; GD Johnson; WF Brown; MM Paxton; RJ Puigh; CR Eiholzer; C Martinez; MA Blotter

    2000-03-27

    A significant amount of effort has been devoted to determining the properties and understanding the behavior of the alloy MA957 to define its potential usefulness as a cladding material, in the fast breeder reactor program. The numerous characterization and fabrication studies that were conducted are documented in this report. The alloy is a ferritic stainless steel developed by International Nickel Company specifically for structural reactor applications. It is strengthened by a very fine, uniformly distributed yttria dispersoid. Its fabrication involves a mechanical alloying process and subsequent extrusion, which ultimately results in a highly elongated grain structure. While the presence of the dispersoid produces a material with excellent strength, the body centered cubic structure inherent to the material coupled with the high aspect ratio that results from processing operations produces some difficulties with ductility. The alloy is very sensitive to variations in a number of processing parameters, and if the high strength is once lost during fabrication, it cannot be recovered. The microstructural evolution of the alloy under irradiation falls into two regimes. Below about 550 C, dislocation development, {alpha}{prime} precipitation and void evolution in the matrix are observed, while above about 550 C damage appears to be restricted to cavity formation within oxide particles. The thermal expansion of the alloy is very similar to that of HT9 up to the temperature where HT9 undergoes a phase transition to austenitic. Pulse magnetic welding of end caps onto MA957 tubing can be accomplished in a manner similar to that in which it is performed on HT9, although the welding parameters appear to be very sensitive to variations in the tubing that result from small changes in fabrication conditions. The tensile and stress rupture behavior of the alloy are acceptable in the unirradiated condition, being comparable to HT9 below about 700 C and exceeding those of HT9

  18. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; Nathan Jerred; Dr. Indrajit Charit; James Cole

    2012-03-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  19. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, Larry; Jerred, Nathan; Charit, Indrajit; Cole, James

    2012-01-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  20. Interface segregation behavior in thermal aged austenitic precipitation strengthened stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Song, Hui; Liu, Wenqing; Xia, Shuang; Zhou, Bangxin; Su, Cheng; Ding, Wenyan

    2015-12-01

    The segregation of various elements at grain boundaries, precipitate/matrix interfaces were analyzed using atom probe tomography in an austenitic precipitation strengthened stainless steel aged at 750 °C for different time. Segregation of P, B and C at all types of interfaces in all the specimens were observed. However, Si segregated at all types of interfaces only in the specimen aged for 16 h. Enrichment of Ti at grain boundaries was evident in the specimen aged for 16 h, while Ti did not segregate at other interfaces. Mo varied considerably among interface types, e.g. from segregated at grain boundaries in the specimens after all the aging time to never segregate at γ'/γ phase interfaces. Cr co-segregated with C at grain boundaries, although carbides still did not nucleate at grain boundaries yet. Despite segregation tendency variations in different interface types, the segregation tendency evolution variation of different elements depending aging time were analyzed among all types of interfaces. Based on the experimental results, the enrichment factors, Gibbs interface excess and segregation free energies of segregated elements were calculated and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion

  2. Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beam in Shear Zone by Compensation the Stirrups with Equivalent External Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamail Abdul-Mahdi Mosheer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on reinforced concrete beams strengthened with external steel plates instead of shear stirrups has been held in this paper. Eight samples of the same dimensions and properties were used. Two of them were tested up to failure and specified as references beams; one with shear reinforcement and the other without shear reinforcement. Another samples without shear reinforcement were tested until the first shear crack occurs, then the samples strengthened on both sides with external steel plates as equivalent area of removed stirrups. The strengthened beams were divided into three groups according to the thickness of plates (1, 1.5, 2 mm, each group involved two beams; one bonded using epoxy and the other bonded using epoxy with anchored bolts. Finally, the strengthened beams tested when using anchored bolts with epoxy glue to bond plates. Where the increasing in maximum load is higher than that in reference beam with no internal stirrups reach to (75.46 –106.13% and has a good agreement with the control beam with shear reinforcement reach to (76.06 – 89.36% of ultimate load.

  3. Precipitation Behavior of Carbides in H13 Hot Work Die Steel and Its Strengthening during Tempering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angang Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The properties of carbides, such as morphology, size, and type, in H13 hot work die steel were studied with optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis; their size distribution and quantity after tempering, at different positions within the ingot, were analyzed using Image-Pro Plus software. Thermodynamic calculations were also performed for these carbides. The microstructures near the ingot surface were homogeneous and had slender martensite laths. Two kinds of carbide precipitates have been detected in H13: (1 MC and M6C, generally smaller than 200 nm; and (2 M23C6, usually larger than 200 nm. MC and M6C play the key role in precipitation hardening. These are the most frequent carbides precipitating at the halfway point from the center of the ingot, and the least frequent at the surface. From the center of the ingot to its surface, the size and volume fraction of the carbides decrease, and the toughness improves, while the contribution of the carbides to the yield strength increases.

  4. Intragranular cellular segregation network structure strengthening 316L stainless steel prepared by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Wikman, Stefan [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Cui, Daqing [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Shen, Zhijian, E-mail: shen@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). Almost fully dense 316L stainless steel (SS316L) components were prepared from gas-atomized powder and with optimized SLM processing parameters. Tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C and 250 °C and the results showed that SLM SS316L fulfill the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterization reveals the presence of hierarchical macro-, micro- and nano-structures in as-built samples that were very different from SS316L microstructures prepared by other established methods. The formation of a characteristic intragranular cellular segregation network microstructure appears to contribute to the increase of yield strength without losing ductility. Silicon oxide nano-inclusions were formed during the SLM process that generated a micro-hardness fluctuation in the building direction. The combined influence of a cellular microstructure and the nano-inclusions constraints the size of ductile dimples to nano-scale. The crack propagation is hindered by a pinning effect that improves the defect-tolerance of the SLM SS316L. This work proves that it was possible to manufacture SS316L with properties suitable for ITER First Wall panels. Further studies on irradiation properties of SLM SS316L and manufacturing of larger real-size components are needed. - Highlights: • The mechanical properties of SS316L made by selective laser melting fulfill RCC-MR. • SLM SS316L consists hierarchical structures of high heterogeneity. • Silicon rich oxide nano-inclusions are formed unexpectedly during SLM process. • Cellular structure and oxide nano-inclusions strengthen SLM SS316L.

  5. Reduction of helium embrittlement in stainless steel by finely dispersed TiC precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesternich, W.; Rothaut, J.

    1982-01-01

    The He embrittlement effects in two candidate stainless steels for first wall of fusion reactors were studied in creep tests at 700 0 C simulating the He production by He implantation. Creep rupture life before He implantation and reduction of rupture life due to He were superior by orders of magnitude in 1.4970 steel after pertinent pretreatment compared to 316 steel. The high strength and the low He embrittlement result from a fine dispersion of TiC precipitates in the grain interiors. From microstructural investigations a mechanism explaining the high sink efficiency of TiC for He atom accumulation is suggested. (orig.)

  6. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe(sub 3)Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kad, B.K.

    1999-07-01

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe3Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100C in the power generation industry. A particular 'in service application' anomaly of Fe3Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism.

  7. Strengthened currents override the effect of warming on lobster larval dispersal and survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Roughan, Moninya; van Sebille, Erik; Feng, Ming; Coleman, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Human-induced climate change is projected to increase ocean temperature and modify circulation patterns, with potential widespread implications for the transport and survival of planktonic larvae of marine organisms. Circulation affects the dispersal of larvae, whereas temperature impacts larval

  8. Friction stir welding and processing of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju

    2014-11-11

    A method of welding including forming a filler material of a first oxide dispersoid metal, the first oxide dispersoid material having first strengthening particles that compensate for decreases in weld strength of friction stir welded oxide dispersoid metals; positioning the filler material between a first metal structure and a second metal structure each being comprised of at least a second oxide dispersoid metal; and friction welding the filler material, the first metal structure and the second metal structure to provide a weld.

  9. The creep properties of a low alloy ferritic steel containing an intermetallic precipitate dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batte, A.D.; Murphy, M.C.; Edmonds, D.V.

    1976-01-01

    A good combination of creep rupture ductility and strength together with excellent long term thermal stability, has been obtained from a dispersion of intermetallic Laves phase precipitate in a non-transforming ferritic low alloy steel. The steel is without many of the problems currently associated with the heat affected zone microstructures of low alloy transformable ferritic steels, and can be used as a weld metal. Following suitable development to optimize the composition and heat treatment, such alloys may provide a useful range of weldable creep resistant steels for steam turbine and other high temperature applications. They would offer the unique possibility of easily achievable microstructural uniformity, giving good long term strength and ductility across the entire welded joint

  10. Study of the stability of the nanometer-sized oxides dispersed in ODS steels under ion irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescoat, M.-L.

    2012-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Ferritic-Martensitic (FM) alloys are expected to play an important role as cladding materials in Generation IV sodium fast reactors operating in extreme temperature (400-500 C) and irradiation conditions (up to 200 dpa). Since nano-oxides give ODS steels their high temperature strength, the stability of these particles is an important issue. The present study evaluates the radiation response of nano-oxides by the use of in-situ and ex-situ ion irradiations performed on both Fe18Cr1W0,4Ti +0,3 Y 2 O 3 and Fe18Cr1W0,4Ti + 0.3 MgO ODS steels. In particular, the results showed that Y-Ti-O nano-oxides are quite stable under very high irradiation dose, namely 219 dpa at 500 C, and that the oxide interfacial structures are likely playing an important role on the behavior under irradiation (oxide stability and point defect recombination. (author) [fr

  11. MAGNETIC-IMPULSE STRENGTHENING PROCESSING OF THE CONSTRUCTIONAL AND TOOL STEELS ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Alifanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic pulse installation, intended for hardening of cylindrical steel articles by strong pulse electromagnetic field, is developed and produced. Results of researches show high efficiency and prospects of the developed method for hardening of steel articles. 

  12. Use of Nitrocarburizing for Strengthening Threaded Joints of Drill Pipes from Medium-Carbon Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priymak, E. Yu.; Stepanchukova, A. V.; Yakovleva, I. L.; Tereshchenko, N. A.

    2015-05-01

    Nitrocarburizing is tested at the Drill Equipment Plant for reinforcing threaded joints of drill pipes for units with retrievable core receiver (RCR). The effect of the nitrocarburizing on the mechanical properties of steels of different alloying systems is considered. Steels for the production of threaded joints of drill pipes are recommended.

  13. Study of cast and thermo-mechanically strengthened chromium-nickel nitrogen-containing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokoshkina, V.G.; Kaputkina, L.M.; Svyazhin, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen on the structure and strength of corrosion-resistant chromium-nickel steels after thermal and thermomechanical treatment is studied. The 06Kh15N7AD and 07Kh15N7DAMB steels alloying by nitrogen was accomplished through the basic composition steels remelting in the molecular nitrogen atmosphere under the pressure of 0.1-2.5 MPa. The 02Kh15N5DAF and 05Kh15N5DAM steels ingots were obtained through melting in a plasma furnace under the nitrogen pressure of 0.4MPA. The high-temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT) was performed by rolling with preliminary blanks heating up to 1050 deg C and the rolling end temperature not below 950 deg C. It is shown, that the HTMT of the nitrogen-containing steels makes it possible to obtain strength characteristics by 1.5 times exceeding the properties of traditionally applicable corrosion-resistant steels, whereby sufficiently high plasticity of the nitrogen-containing steel is retained [ru

  14. Strengthening of stable Cr-Ni austenitic stainless steel under thermomechanical treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuzin, S. A.; Litovchenko, I. Yu.; Tyumentsev, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    The features of microstructure and mechanical properties of stable austenitic steel after thermomechanical treatment consisted of low-temperature deformation, deformation in the temperature range T = 273-873 K, and subsequent annealing were investigated. It is shown that under such treatment direct (γ → α')- and reverse (α'→γ)-martensitic transformations occur in the steel. As a result of the thermomechanical treatment submicrocrystalline structural states with high density of micro- and nanotwins and localized deformation bands are formed. The strength of the steel in these structural states is several times higher than that in the initial state.

  15. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti 2 AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In situ Ti 2 AlC/TiAl composite was fabricated by hot-pressing method via the reaction system of Ti 3 AlC 2 and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150 ∘ C. The composite mainly consisted of TiAl, Ti 3 Al and Ti 2 AlC phases. Fine Ti 2 AlC particles were homogeneously distributed and dispersed in the matrix.

  16. Oxide dispersion strengthened CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadraba, Hynek; Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Antonín; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Roupcová, Pavla; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 689, MAR (2017), s. 252-256 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25246S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : Creep * High-entropy alloy (HEA) * Mechanical alloying * Oxide dispersion strength ened (ODS) alloy * Powder metallurgy * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (UFP-V) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering; Materials engineering (UFM-A); Materials engineering (UFP-V) Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  17. Casting technology for ODS steels - dispersion of nanoparticles in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, M.; Grants, I.; Kaldre, I.; Bojarevics, A.; Gerbeth, G.

    2017-07-01

    Dispersion of particles to produce metal matrix nanocomposites (MMNC) can be achieved by means of ultrasonic vibration of the melt using ultrasound transducers. However, a direct transfer of this method to produce steel composites is not feasible because of the much higher working temperature. Therefore, an inductive technology for contactless treatment by acoustic cavitation was developed. This report describes the samples produced to assess the feasibility of the proposed method for nano-particle separation in steel. Stainless steel samples with inclusions of TiB2, TiO2, Y2O3, CeO2, Al2O3 and TiN have been created and analyzed. Additional experiments have been performed using light metals with an increased value of the steady magnetic field using a superconducting magnet with a field strength of up to 5 T.

  18. Parameters identification in strain-rate and thermal sensitive visco-plastic material model for an alumina dispersion strengthened copper

    CERN Document Server

    Scapin, M; Peroni, M

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is getting strain-hardening, thermal and strain-rate parameters for a material model in order to correctly reproduce the deformation process that occurs in high strain-rate scenario, in which the material reaches also high levels of plastic deformation and temperature. In particular, in this work the numerical inverse method is applied to extract material strength parameters from experimental data obtained via mechanical tests at different strain-rates (from quasi-static loading to high strain-rate) and temperatures (between 20 C and 1000 C) for an alumina dispersion strengthened copper material, which commercial name is GLIDCOP. Thanks to its properties GLIDCOP finds several applications in particle accelerator technologies, where problems of thermal management, combined with structural requirements, play a key role. Currently, it is used for the construction of structural and functional parts of the particle beam collimation system. Since the extreme condition in which the m...

  19. Fabrication and characterization of Y2O3 dispersion strengthened copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carro, G.; Muñoz, A.; Monge, M.A.; Savoini, B.; Pareja, R.; Ballesteros, C.; Adeva, P.

    2014-01-01

    Three copper base materials were fabricated following different routes: cast Cu–1 wt.%Y (C-Cu1Y) produced by vacuum induction melting, and Cu–1 wt.%Y (PM-Cu1Y) and Cu–1 wt.%Y 2 O 3 (PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 ) both processed by a powder metallurgy route and sintering by hot isostatic pressing. PM-Cu1Y alloy was prepared by cryomilling and PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 by conventional milling at room temperature. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. C-Cu1Y presents a characteristic eutectic microstructure while PM-Cu1Y 2 O 3 exhibits a composite like microstructure. Electron microscopy analyses of as-HIP PM-Cu1Y revealed irregular decoration of yttrium-rich oxides at the grain boundaries and an inhomogeneous dispersion of polygonal shaped yttrium-rich oxides dispersed in the Cu matrix. Tensile tests performed on PM-Cu–1Y on the temperature range of 293–773 K have showed a decrease of the yield strength at temperatures higher than 473 K, and monotonically decrease of the ultimate tensile strength and maximum plastic strain on increasing temperature

  20. Fabrication and characterization of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion strengthened copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carro, G.; Muñoz, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Monge, M.A., E-mail: mmonge@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Savoini, B.; Pareja, R.; Ballesteros, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Adeva, P. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Three copper base materials were fabricated following different routes: cast Cu–1 wt.%Y (C-Cu1Y) produced by vacuum induction melting, and Cu–1 wt.%Y (PM-Cu1Y) and Cu–1 wt.%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (PM-Cu1Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both processed by a powder metallurgy route and sintering by hot isostatic pressing. PM-Cu1Y alloy was prepared by cryomilling and PM-Cu1Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by conventional milling at room temperature. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical and electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. C-Cu1Y presents a characteristic eutectic microstructure while PM-Cu1Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits a composite like microstructure. Electron microscopy analyses of as-HIP PM-Cu1Y revealed irregular decoration of yttrium-rich oxides at the grain boundaries and an inhomogeneous dispersion of polygonal shaped yttrium-rich oxides dispersed in the Cu matrix. Tensile tests performed on PM-Cu–1Y on the temperature range of 293–773 K have showed a decrease of the yield strength at temperatures higher than 473 K, and monotonically decrease of the ultimate tensile strength and maximum plastic strain on increasing temperature.

  1. Surface characteristics of the galvannealed coating in Interstitial-free high strengthen steels containing Si and Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Sun Ho; Chin, Kwang Geun; Kim, Dai Ryong

    2008-01-01

    Surface-void defects observed on the Galvannealed (GA) steel sheets in Interstitial-free high-strengthened steels containing Si and Mn have been investigated using the combination of the FIB(Focused Ion Beam) and FE-TEM(Field Emission-Transmission Electron Microscope) techniques. The scanning ion micrographs of cross-section microstructure of defects showed that these defects were identified as craters which were formed on the projecting part of the substrate surface. Also, those craters were formed on the Si or Mn-Si oxides film through the whole interface between galvannealed coating and steel substrate. Interface enrichments and oxidations of the active alloying elements such as Si and Mn during reduction annealing process for galvanizing were found to interrupt Zn and Fe interdiffusion during galvannealing process. During galvannealing, Zn and Fe interdiffusion is preferentially started on the clean substrate surface which have no oxide layer on. And then, during galvannealing, crater is developed with consumption of molten zinc on the oxide layer

  2. Surface characteristics of the galvannealed coating in Interstitial-free high strengthen steels containing Si and Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sun Ho; Chin, Kwang Geun [Pohang Iron and Steel Co. Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dai Ryong [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Surface-void defects observed on the Galvannealed (GA) steel sheets in Interstitial-free high-strengthened steels containing Si and Mn have been investigated using the combination of the FIB(Focused Ion Beam) and FE-TEM(Field Emission-Transmission Electron Microscope) techniques. The scanning ion micrographs of cross-section microstructure of defects showed that these defects were identified as craters which were formed on the projecting part of the substrate surface. Also, those craters were formed on the Si or Mn-Si oxides film through the whole interface between galvannealed coating and steel substrate. Interface enrichments and oxidations of the active alloying elements such as Si and Mn during reduction annealing process for galvanizing were found to interrupt Zn and Fe interdiffusion during galvannealing process. During galvannealing, Zn and Fe interdiffusion is preferentially started on the clean substrate surface which have no oxide layer on. And then, during galvannealing, crater is developed with consumption of molten zinc on the oxide layer.

  3. The Mechanisms of Dispersion Strengthening and Fracture in Al-based XD (TM) Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, R. M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of reinforcement size, volume fraction, and matrix deformation behavior on room and elevated temperature strength, and the fracture toughness of metal matrix composites of both pure aluminum and Al(4 percent)Cu(1.5 percent)Mg with 0 to 15 vol percent TiB2 were examined. Higher TiB2 volume fractions increased the tensile yield strength both at room and elevated temperatures, and reduced the elongation to fracture. Tensile tests also indicate that small particles provided a greater increase in strength for a given volume fraction than larger particles, whereas elongation to fracture appeared to be insensitive to reinforcement size. The fracture toughness of the Al(4 percent)Cu(1.5 percent)Mg alloys decreased rapidly with TiB2 additions of 0 to 5 vol percent and more slowly with TiB2 additions of 5 to 15 vol percent. Fracture toughness appears to be independent of TiB2 particle size. The isothermal-aging response of the precipitation strengthened Al(4 percent)Cu(1.5 percent)Mg alloys was not altered by the presence of TiB2.

  4. Nanosized-Particle Dispersion-Strengthened Al Matrix Composites Fabricated by the Double Mechanical Alloying Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungseok

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to fabricate an Al metal matrix composite strengthened by nanosized Al3Ti particles via double mechanical alloying process. Several Al-xTi alloys were fabricated, including Al-12%Ti, Al-15%Ti, and Al-12%Ti-1%Y2O3. The lattice parameter of as-milled state was calculated to be 4.0485 Å; after a milling time of 540 min, it was 4.0401 Å. This decrease was induced by Ti solutionizing into the Al matrix. The equivalent size of a coarse Al3Ti particle was 200-500 nm after the heat treatment; however, the particles were uniformly distributed and were refined through the MA2 process. The particle size of a Al3Ti phase was 30 nm or less, and the particles were uniformly distributed. These particles remained in a fine state in the matrix without growth and coarsening, even after the hot extrusion process. The microstructure of hot extruded alloys consisted of a uniform distribution of Al3Ti particles and other dispersoids in the Al matrix.

  5. SAP-like ultrafine-grained Al composites dispersion strengthened with nanometric AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, M.; Krizik, P.; Yan, M.; Simancik, F.; Schaffer, G.B.; Qian, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the development of novel Sinter-Aluminum-Pulver (SAP)-like Al–AlN nanocomposites via replacing the native Al 2 O 3 thin films on fine Al powder with a large volume fraction of in situ formed nanometric AlN dispersoids. Fine gas-atomized Al powder (d 50 =1.3 µm) compacts were first partially nitrided at 590 °C in flowing nitrogen, controlled by a small addition of Sn (0.3–0.4 wt%), and subsequently consolidated by hot direct extrusion. The resulting Al–AlN composites consisted of submicrometric Al grains reinforced with nanometric AlN dispersoids together with some nanometric Al 2 O 3 dispersoids. An Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite fabricated this way achieved exceptional ultimate tensile strength of 227 MPa, yield strength of 195 MPa and Young's modulus of 66 GPa at 300 °C, superior to typical SAP materials and coarse grained Al–AlN composites. In addition, the Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite exhibited good thermal stability up to 500 °C. The strengthening mechanism is discussed

  6. Characterization of the behavior under impact loading of a maraging steel strengthened by nano-precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, E.; Redjaïmia, A.; Leitner, H.; Clemens, H.

    2006-08-01

    Nanometer-sized precipitates are responsible for the high strength of steel alloys well known as maraging steels. The term maraging relates to aging reactions in very low-carbon martensitic steels. Due to precipitation hardening 0.2% yield stress values of up to 2.4 GPa can be achieved. The class of stainless maraging steels exhibits an excellent combination of very high strength and hardness, ductility and toughness, combined with good corrosion resistance. In many applications like crash worthiness or ballistic protection the materials are loaded at high strain-rates. The most important characteristic of material behavior under dynamic load is the dynamic yield stress. In this work compression tests had been conducted at strain-rates in the order of 5 x 10 - 3 s - 1 up to 3 x 103 s - 1 to study the materials behaviour. Additionally high dynamic compression tests had been performed in the temperature range from -40circC up to 300circC.

  7. Microstructure of Z-phase strengthened martensitic steels: Meeting the 650°C challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fang; Rashidi, Masoud; Hald, John

    2017-01-01

    content in the steels is the governing factor in this transformation. The impact toughness of some test alloys was rather low. This is attributed to the formation of a continuous W-rich film along prior austenite grain boundaries. Cu and C addition to the test alloys changed Laves phase morphology...

  8. G phase precipitation and strengthening in ultra-high strength ferritic steels: Towards lean ‘maraging’ metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, W.W.; Marceau, R.K.W.; Styles, M.J.; Barbier, D.; Hutchinson, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-high strength steels are interesting materials for light-weighting applications in the transportation industries. A key requirement of these applications is weldability and consequently a low carbon content is desirable. Maraging steels are examples of ultra-high strength, low carbon steels but their disadvantage is their high cost due to the large Ni and/or Co additions required. This contribution is focussed on the development of steels with maraging-like strengths but with low solute contents (less than 10%). A series of alloy compositions were designed to exploit precipitation of the G phase in a ferritic matrix at temperatures of 450–600 °C in order to obtain yield strengths in excess of 2 GPa. The mechanical response of the materials was measured using tension and compression testing and the precipitate evolution has been characterized using atom probe tomography (APT) and in-situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at a synchrotron beamline. Precipitate number densities of 10"2"5 m"−"3 are obtained, which are amongst the highest number densities so far observed in engineering alloys. The intrinsic strength of the G phase is shown to be proportional to its size, and deviations in the chemistry of the precipitates do not significantly affect their strengthening behaviour. An important outcome is that the common temper embrittlement issues known to occur during aging of martensite in the 450–600 °C range were mitigated in one alloy by starting with a cold-rolled and partially fragmented lath martensite instead of a freshly quenched martensite.

  9. Summary of Prior Work on Joining of Oxide Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Ian G [ORNL; Tatlock, Gordon J [ORNL; Badairy, H. [University of Liverpool; Chen, C-L. [University of Liverpool

    2009-08-01

    There is a range of joining techniques available for use with ODS alloys, but care should be exercised in matching the technique to the final duty requirements of the joint. The goal for joining ODS alloys is a joint with no local disruption of the distribution of the oxide dispersion, and no significant change in the size and orientation of the alloy microstructure. Not surprisingly, the fusion welding processes typically employed with wrought alloys produce the least satisfactory results with ODS alloys, but some versions, such as fusion spot welding, and the laser and electron-beam welding technologies, have demonstrated potential for producing sound joints. Welds made using solid-state spot welding reportedly have exhibited parent metal properties. Thus, it is possible to employ processes that result in significant disruption of the alloy microstructure, as long as the processing parameters are adjustment to minimize the extent of or influence of the changes in the alloy microstructure. Selection among these joining approaches largely depends on the particular application and component configuration, and an understanding of the relationships among processing, alloy microstructure, and final properties is key. Recent developments have resulted in friction welding evolving to be a prime method for joining ODS sheet products, and variants of brazing/diffusion bonding have shown excellent promise for use with tubes and pipes. The techniques that come closest to the goal defined above involve solid-state diffusion bonding and, in particular, it has been found that secondary recrystallization of joints made by pulsed plasma-assisted diffusion can produce the desired, continuous, large alloy grain structure through the joint. Such joints have exhibited creep rupture failure at >82% of the load needed to fail the monolithic parent alloy at 1000 C.

  10. Microstructure evolution and dislocation behaviour in high chromium, fully ferritic steels strengthened by intermetallic Laves phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Barrilao, Jennifer; Kuhn, Bernd; Wessel, Egbert

    2018-05-01

    In the present study a stainless, high strength, ferritic (non-martensitic) steel was analysed regarding microstructure and particle evolution. The preceding hot-rolling process of the steel results in the formation of sub-grain structures, which disappear over time at high temperature. Besides that the formation of particle-free zones was observed. The pronounced formation of these zones preferentially appears close to high angle grain boundaries and is considered to be responsible for long-term material failure under creep conditions. The reasons for this are lacking particle hardening and thus a concentration and accumulation of deformation in the particle free areas close to the grain boundaries. Accordingly in-depth investigations were performed by electron microscopy to analyse dislocation behaviour and its possible effect on the mechanical response of these weak areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of microstructural strengthening in the heat-affected zone of a blast-resistant naval steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Xinghua, E-mail: yu.345@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Caron, Jeremy L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)] [Welding and Joining Metallurgy Group, Welding Engineering Program, 1248 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Babu, S.S., E-mail: babu.13@osu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States) and Welding and Joining Metallurgy Group, Welding Engineering Program, 1248 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Lippold, John C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)] [Welding and Joining Metallurgy Group, Welding Engineering Program, 1248 Arthur E. Adams Drive, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 North Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)] [Northwestern University Center for Atom-Probe Tomography, 2220 North Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The influence of simulated heat-affected zone thermal cycles on the microstructural evolution in a blast-resistant naval steel was investigated by dilatometry, microhardness testing, optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction and atom-probe tomography (APT) techniques. Coarsening of Cu precipitates were observed in the subcritical and intercritical heat-affected zones, with partial dissolution in the latter. A small number density of Cu precipitates and high Cu concentration in the matrix of the fine-grained heat-affected zone indicates the onset of Cu precipitate dissolution. Cu clustering in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone indicated the potential initiation of Cu reprecipitation during cooling. Segregation of Cu was also characterized by APT. The hardening and softening observed in the heat-affected zone regions was rationalized using available strengthening models.

  12. Genetic design and characterization of novel ultra-high-strength stainless steels strengthened by Ni3Ti intermetallic nanoprecipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.; Wang, W.; Yang, K.; Bliznuk, V.; Kestens, L.A.I.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2010-01-01

    A general computational alloy design approach based on thermodynamic and physical metallurgical principles, and coupled with a genetic optimization scheme, is presented. The method is applied to the design of new ultra-high-strength maraging stainless steels strengthened by Ni 3 Ti intermetallics. In the first design round, the alloy composition is optimized on the basis of precipitate formation at a fixed ageing temperature without considering other steps in the heat treatment. In the second round, the alloy is redesigned, applying an integrated model which allows for the simultaneous optimization of alloy composition and the ageing temperature as well as the prior austenitization temperature. The experimental characterizations of prototype alloys clearly demonstrate that alloys designed by the proposed approach achieve the desired microstructures.

  13. Local laser-strengthening: Customizing the forming behavior of car body steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.; Jahn, A.; Beyer, E.; Balzani, D.

    2018-05-01

    Future trends in designing lightweight components especially for automotive applications increasingly require complex and delicate structures with highest possible level of capacity [1]. The manufacturing of metallic car body components is primarily realized by deep or stretch drawing. The forming process of especially cold rolled and large-sized components is typically characterized by inhomogeneous stress and strain distributions. As a result, the avoidance of undesirable deep drawing effects like earing and local necking is among the greatest challenges in forming complex car body structures [2]. Hence, a novel local laser-treatment approach with the objective of customizing the forming behavior of car body steel sheets is currently explored.

  14. Nanocavity formation and hardness increase by dual ion beam irradiation of oxide dispersion strengthened FeCrAl alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koegler, R., E-mail: r.koegler@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Anwand, W. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Richter, A. [Department of Engineering, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Bahnhofstrasse 1, 15745 Wildau (Germany); Butterling, M.; Ou, Xin; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Chen, C.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Open volume defects generated by ion implantation into oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy and the related hardness were investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy and nanoindentation measurements, respectively. Synchronized dual beam implantation of Fe and He ions was performed at room temperature and at moderately enhanced temperature of 300 Degree-Sign C. For room temperature implantation a significant hardness increase after irradiation is observed which is more distinctive in heat treated than in as-received ODS alloy. There is also a difference between the simultaneous and sequential implantation mode as the hardening effect for the simultaneously implanted ODS alloy is stronger than for sequential implantation. The comparison of hardness profiles and of the corresponding open volume profiles shows a qualitative agreement between the open volume defects generated on the nanoscopic scale and the macroscopic hardness characteristics. Open volume defects are drastically reduced for performing the simultaneous dual beam irradiation at 300 Degree-Sign C which is a more realistic temperature under application aspects. Few remaining defects are clusters of 3-4 vacancies in connection with Y oxide nanoparticles. These defects completely disappear in a shallow layer at the surface. The results are in agreement with hardness measurements showing little hardness increase after irradiation at 300 Degree-Sign C. Suitable characteristics of ODS alloy for nuclear applications and the close correlation between He-related open volume defects and the hardness characteristics are verified.

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nano-Size Zirconium Carbide Dispersion Strengthened Tungsten Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhuoming; Liu Rui; Fang Qianfeng; Zhang Tao; Jiang Yan; Wang Xianping; Liu Changsong

    2015-01-01

    W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC alloys with a relative density above 97.5% were fabricated through the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The grain size of W-1.0wt% ZrC is about 2.7 μm, smaller than that of pure W and W-(0.2, 0.5)wt% ZrC. The results indicated that the W-ZrC alloys exhibit higher hardness at room temperature, higher tensile strength at high temperature, and a lower ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) than pure W. The tensile strength and total elongation of W-0.5wt% ZrC alloy at 700 °C is 535 MPa and 24.8%, which are respectively 59% and 114% higher than those of pure W (337 MPa, 11.6%). The DBTT of W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC materials is in the range of 500°C–600°C, which is about 100 °C lower than that of pure W. Based on microstructure analysis, the improved mechanical properties of the W-ZrC alloys were suggested to originate from the enhanced grain boundary cohesion by ZrC capturing the impurity oxygen in tungsten and nano-size ZrC dispersion strengthening. (paper)

  16. Vacuum hot-pressed beryllium and TiC dispersion strengthened tungsten alloy developments for ITER and future fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: xliu@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Chen, Jiming; Lian, Youyun; Wu, Jihong; Xu, Zengyu; Zhang, Nianman; Wang, Quanming; Duan, Xuro [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); Wang, Zhanhong; Zhong, Jinming [Northwest Rare Metal Material Research Institute, CNMC, Ningxia Orient Group Co. Ltd.,No.119 Yejin Road, Shizuishan City, Ningxia,753000 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Beryllium and tungsten have been selected as the plasma facing materials of the ITER first wall (FW) and divertor chamber, respectively. China, as a participant in ITER, will share the manufacturing tasks of ITER first-wall mockups with the European Union and Russia. Therefore ITER-grade beryllium has been developed in China and a kind of vacuum hot-pressed (VHP) beryllium, CN-G01, was characterized for both physical, and thermo-mechanical properties and high heat flux performance, which indicated an equivalent performance to U.S. grade S-65C beryllium, a reference grade beryllium of ITER. Consequently CN-G01 beryllium has been accepted as the armor material of ITER-FW blankets. In addition, a modification of tungsten by TiC dispersion strengthening was investigated and a W–TiC alloy with TiC content of 0.1 wt.% has been developed. Both surface hardness and recrystallization measurements indicate its re-crystallization temperature approximately at 1773 K. Deuterium retention and thermal desorption behaviors of pure tungsten and the TiC alloy were also measured by deuterium ion irradiation of 1.7 keV energy to the fluence of 0.5–5 × 10{sup 18} D/cm{sup 2}; a main desorption peak at around 573 K was found and no significant difference was observed between pure tungsten and the tungsten alloy. Further characterization of the tungsten alloy is in progress.

  17. Development of accident tolerant FeCrAl-ODS steels utilizing Ce-oxide particles dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Oono, Naoko H.; Sakamoto, Kan; Hirai, Mutsumi

    2018-04-01

    FeCrAl-ODS ferritic steels with Ce-oxide dispersion instead of Y-oxide were produced for the accident tolerant fuel cladding of the light water reactor. Excess oxygen (Ex.O) was added to improve the mechanical property. The tensile strength at Ex.O = 0 is around 200 MPa at 700 °C, mainly owing to dispersed Ce2O3 particles in less than 10 nm size. The formation of the fine Ce2O3 particles is dominated by a coherent interface with ferritic matrix. With increasing Ex.O, an increased of number density of coarser Ce-Al type oxide particles over 10 nm size is responsible for the improvement of the tensile strength. Change of the type of oxide particle, CeO2, Ce2O3, CeAlO3, Al2O3, in FeCrAl-ODS steel was thermodynamically analyzed as a parameter of Ex.O.

  18. Numerical Analysis of Effectiveness of Strengthening Concrete Slab in Tension of the Steel-Concrete Composite Beam Using Pretensioned CFRP Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowiak Iwona

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods to increase the load carrying capacity of the reinforced concrete (RC structure is its strengthening by using carbon fiber (CFRP strips. There are two methods of strengthening using CFRP strips - passive method and active method. In the passive method a strip is applied to the concrete surface without initial strains, unlike in the active method a strip is initially pretensioned before its application. In the case of a steel-concrete composite beam, strips may be used to strengthen the concrete slab located in the tension zone (in the parts of beams with negative bending moments. The finite element model has been developed and validated by experimental tests to evaluate the strengthening efficiency of the composite girder with pretensioned CFRP strips applied to concrete slab in its tension zone.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Effectiveness of Strengthening Concrete Slab in Tension of the Steel-Concrete Composite Beam Using Pretensioned CFRP Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, Iwona; Madaj, Arkadiusz

    2017-12-01

    One of the methods to increase the load carrying capacity of the reinforced concrete (RC) structure is its strengthening by using carbon fiber (CFRP) strips. There are two methods of strengthening using CFRP strips - passive method and active method. In the passive method a strip is applied to the concrete surface without initial strains, unlike in the active method a strip is initially pretensioned before its application. In the case of a steel-concrete composite beam, strips may be used to strengthen the concrete slab located in the tension zone (in the parts of beams with negative bending moments). The finite element model has been developed and validated by experimental tests to evaluate the strengthening efficiency of the composite girder with pretensioned CFRP strips applied to concrete slab in its tension zone.

  20. Room temperature ductility of NiAl-strengthened ferritic steels: Effects of precipitate microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Z.K.; Liu, C.T.; Miller, M.K.; Ghosh, G.; Kenik, E.A.; Huang, S.; Liaw, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of precipitate microstructure on the ductility were investigated. ► The NiAl precipitates can be systematically characterized by TEM, APT, and USAXS. ► Ductility is a function of the precipitate volume fraction. ► Ductility is closely related to the Al and Ni solubilities in the Fe matrix. ► Ductility is independent of precipitate size and inter-particle spacing. - Abstract: The effects of precipitate microstructure on the room temperature ductility of a series of carefully designed Fe–Al–Ni–Cr–Mo steels were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultra small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS), and atom probe tomography (APT) were conducted to quantify the nano-scaled precipitates. The accuracy of the characterization results was verified by a numerical analysis. Three point bending tests results demonstrated that ductility was a function of the precipitate volume fraction and the Al and Ni concentrations in the Fe matrix, these relationships were discussed in terms of possible mechanisms. The ductility was also found to be independent of the precipitate size and inter-particle spacing in the studied range, which was validated by a theoretical model.

  1. Intragranular cellular segregation network structure strengthening 316L stainless steel prepared by selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Leifeng; Wikman, Stefan; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian

    2016-03-01

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) supported by Fusion for Energy (F4E). Almost fully dense 316L stainless steel (SS316L) components were prepared from gas-atomized powder and with optimized SLM processing parameters. Tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C and 250 °C and the results showed that SLM SS316L fulfill the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterization reveals the presence of hierarchical macro-, micro- and nano-structures in as-built samples that were very different from SS316L microstructures prepared by other established methods. The formation of a characteristic intragranular cellular segregation network microstructure appears to contribute to the increase of yield strength without losing ductility. Silicon oxide nano-inclusions were formed during the SLM process that generated a micro-hardness fluctuation in the building direction. The combined influence of a cellular microstructure and the nano-inclusions constraints the size of ductile dimples to nano-scale. The crack propagation is hindered by a pinning effect that improves the defect-tolerance of the SLM SS316L. This work proves that it was possible to manufacture SS316L with properties suitable for ITER First Wall panels. Further studies on irradiation properties of SLM SS316L and manufacturing of larger real-size components are needed.

  2. Strengthening mechanisms and mechanical properties of high interstitial stainless steel for drill collar and its corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunkyung

    Two types (CN66, CN71) of high interstitial stainless steels (HISSs) were investigated for down-hole application in sour gas well environments. Experiments were designed to identify factors that have a significant effect on mechanical properties. The three factors examined in the study were carbon + nitrogen content (0.66 or 0.71 mass %), cooling rate in quenching (air or water), and heat treatment time (2 or 4 hours). The results showed that the cooling rate, C+N content, and the two-factor interaction of these variables have a significant effect on the mechanical properties of HISSs. Based on the statistical analysis results on mechanical properties, extensive analyses were undertaken to understand the strengthening mechanisms of HISSs. Microstructure analysis revealed that a pearlite phase with a high carbide and/or nitride content is dissolved in the matrix by heat treatment at 1,200 ºC which is considered the dissolution to increase the concentration of interstitial elements in steels. The distribution of elements in HISSs was investigated by quantitative mapping using EPMA, which showed that the high carbon concentration (carbide/cementite) area was decreased by increases in both the cooling rate and C+N content. The ferrite volume fraction of each specimen is increased by an increase in cooling rate, because there is insufficient time to form austenite from retained ferrite. The lattice expansion of HISS was investigated by the calculation of lattice parameters under various conditions, and these investigations confirm the solid solution strengthening effect on HISSs. CN66 with heat treatment at fast cooling has the highest wear resistance; a finding that was consistent with hardening mechanisms that occur due to an increased ferrite volume fraction. In addition, precipitates on the surface and the chemical bonding of chromium were investigated. As the amount of CrN bonding increased, the wear resistance also increased. This study also assessed the

  3. Impact of creep-fatigue interaction on the lifetime of a dispersion strengthened copper alloy in unirradiated and irradiated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Stubbins, J.F.

    2001-06-01

    Creep-fatigue interaction behaviour of a dispersion strengthened copper alloy was investigated at 22 and 250 deg. C. To determine the effect of irradiation a number of fatigue specimens were irradiated at 250 deg. C to a dose level of 0.3 dpa and were tested at 250 deg. C. The creep-fatigue interaction was simulated by applying a certain hold-time on both tension and compression sides of the cyclic loading with a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Hold-times of 0,2, 5, 10, 100 and 1000 seconds were used. For a given hold-time, the real lifetime and the number of cycles to failure were determined at different strain amplitudes. Post-deformation micro-structures and fracture surfaces were investigated using transmission and scanning electron microscopes, respectively. The main results of these investigations are presented and their implications are briefly discussed in the present report. The central conclusion emerging from the present work is that a hold-time of 10 seconds or less causes a drastic decrease in the real lifetime as well as in the number of cycles to failure, particularly at low levels of strain amplitudes. A combination of higher temperature, higher strain amplitude and longer hold-time, on the other hand, may lead to an improvement in the lifetime. The irradiation at 250 deg. C to a dose level of 0.3 dpa does not play any significant role in determining the lifetime under creep-fatigue testing conditions. (au)

  4. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys. 14/20% chromium: effects of processing on deformation texture, recrystallization and tensile properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regle, H.

    1994-01-01

    The ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising candidates for high temperature application materials, in particular for long life core components of advanced nuclear reactors. The aim of this work is to control the microstructure, in order to optimise the mechanical properties. The two ferritic alloys examined here, MA956 and MA957, are obtained by Mechanical Alloying techniques. They are characterised by quite anisotropic microstructure and mechanical properties. We have investigated the influence of hot and cold working processes (hot extrusion, swaging and cold-drawing) and recrystallization heat treatments on deformation textures, microstructures and tensile properties. The aim was to control the size of the grains and their anisotropic shape, using recrystallization heat treatments. After consolidation and hot extrusion, as-received materials present a extremely fine microstructure with elongated grains and a very strong (110) deformation texture with single-crystal character. At that stage of processing, recrystallization temperature are very high (1450 degrees C for MA957 alloy and 1350 degrees C for MA956 alloy) and materials develop millimetric recrystallized grains. Additional hot extrusion induce a fibre texture. Cold-drawing maintains a fibre texture, but the intensity decreases with increasing cold-work level. For both materials, the decrease of texture intensities correspond to a decrease of the recrystallization temperatures (from 1350 degrees C for a low cold-work level to 750 degrees C for 60 % cold-deformation, case of MA956 alloy) and a refinement of the grain size (from a millimetric size to less than an hundred of micrometer). Swaging develop a cyclic component where the intensity increases with increasing deformation in this case, the recrystallization temperature remains always very high and the millimetric grain size is slightly modified, even though cold-work level increases. Technologically, cold-drawing is the only way

  5. Creation of Y2Ti2O7 nanoprecipitates to strengthen the Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W steels by adding Ti hydride and Y2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Linbo; Bai, Zhonglian; Shen, Hailong; Wang, Chenxi; Liu, Tong

    2017-01-01

    In order to prohibit the formation of large Y-Al-O precipitates, Ti hydride nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and used to replace Ti as raw particles to fabricate the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W-0.35Y 2 O 3 steels by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). As the content of Ti hydride increases from 0.1 to 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, the oxide nanoprecipitates in the ODS steels changes from Y 3 Al 5 O 12 phase to Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 phase (semicoherent with the matrix), and the particle size is successfully reduced. The tensile strength of the ODS steel increases remarkably with increasing Ti hydride content. The sample with 1.0 wt% Ti hydride exhibits a high strength of 1049 MPa at 25 °C and 278 MPa at 700 °C. The creation of Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride NPs opens a new way to control the structure and size of the oxide precipitates in the ODS steels. - Graphical abstract: The creation of Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride nanoparticles remarkably increases the mechanical properties of the Al-containing ODS steels. - Highlights: •TiH 1.971 reacts with Y 2 O 3 to form Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the Al-containing ODS steel. •Addition of TiH 1.971 nanoparticles can prevent the formation of Y-Al-O phases. •Y 2 Ti 2 O 7 nanoparticles share semicoherent interface with the ferrite matrix. •The mean size of oxide dispersion is reduced to 11.2 ± 7.1 nm with 1.0 wt% TiH 1.971 . •The tensile strength of the ODS steel enlarges with increasing TiH 1.971 content.

  6. Creation of Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoprecipitates to strengthen the Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W steels by adding Ti hydride and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Linbo; Bai, Zhonglian; Shen, Hailong; Wang, Chenxi; Liu, Tong, E-mail: tongliu@buaa.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    In order to prohibit the formation of large Y-Al-O precipitates, Ti hydride nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared and used to replace Ti as raw particles to fabricate the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr-3Al-2W-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} steels by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). As the content of Ti hydride increases from 0.1 to 0.5 and 1.0 wt%, the oxide nanoprecipitates in the ODS steels changes from Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase to Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase (semicoherent with the matrix), and the particle size is successfully reduced. The tensile strength of the ODS steel increases remarkably with increasing Ti hydride content. The sample with 1.0 wt% Ti hydride exhibits a high strength of 1049 MPa at 25 °C and 278 MPa at 700 °C. The creation of Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride NPs opens a new way to control the structure and size of the oxide precipitates in the ODS steels. - Graphical abstract: The creation of Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoprecipitates by adding Ti hydride nanoparticles remarkably increases the mechanical properties of the Al-containing ODS steels. - Highlights: •TiH{sub 1.971} reacts with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} to form Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} in the Al-containing ODS steel. •Addition of TiH{sub 1.971} nanoparticles can prevent the formation of Y-Al-O phases. •Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} nanoparticles share semicoherent interface with the ferrite matrix. •The mean size of oxide dispersion is reduced to 11.2 ± 7.1 nm with 1.0 wt% TiH{sub 1.971}. •The tensile strength of the ODS steel enlarges with increasing TiH{sub 1.971} content.

  7. Formation and surface strengthening of nano-meter embedded phases during high energy Ti implanted and annealed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Wu Yuguang; Cui Ping; Wang Ping

    1999-12-01

    Observation of transmission electron microscope indicated that the phase of FeTi 2 with 3.5-20 nm in diameter is embedded in high energy Ti implanted layer. It's average diameter is 8 nm. The nano-meter phases were embedded among dislocations and grain boundary in Ti implanted steel at 400 degree C. The wear resistance has been improved. The embedded structure can be changed obviously after annealing. The structure has been changed slightly after annealing at annealing temperature raging from 350 to 500 degree C, however, the hardness and wear resistance of implanted layer increased greatly. The maximum of hardness is obtained when the sample was annealed at 500 degree C for 20 min. It can be seen that the strengthening of implanted layer has enhanced by annealing indeed. The grain boundary and dislocations have disappeared; the diameter of nano-meter phases increased from 10 nm to 15 nm after annealing at temperature of 750 degree C and 1000 degree respectively. The average densities of nano-meter phases are 8.8 x 10 10 /cm 2 and 6.5 x 10 10 /cm 2 respectively for both of annealing temperature. The hardness decreased obviously when the annealing temperature is greater than 750 degree C

  8. High temperature oxidation behavior of ODS steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaito, T.; Narita, T.; Ukai, S.; Matsuda, Y.

    2004-08-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developing for application as advanced fast reactor cladding and fusion blanket materials, in order to allow increased operation temperature. Oxidation testing of ODS steel was conducted under a controlled dry air atmosphere to evaluate the high temperature oxidation behavior. This showed that 9Cr-ODS martensitic steels and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steels have superior high temperature oxidation resistance compared to 11 mass% Cr PNC-FMS and 17 mass% Cr ferritic stainless steel. This high temperature resistance is attributed to earlier formation of the protective α-Cr 2O 3 on the outer surface of ODS steels.

  9. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Fe3Al-Based Alloy Tubes: Application Specific Development for the Power Generation Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kad, B.K.

    2002-02-08

    A detailed and comprehensive research and development methodology is being prescribed to produce Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS)-Fe{sub 3}Al thin walled tubes, using powder extrusion methodologies, for eventual use at operating temperatures of up to 1100% in the power generation industry. A particular ''in service application'' anomaly of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys is that the environmental resistance is maintained up to 1200 C, well beyond where such alloys retain sufficient mechanical strength. Grain boundary creep processes at such high temperatures are anticipated to be the dominant failure mechanism. Thus, the challenges of this program are manifold: (1) to produce thin walled ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes, employing powder extrusion methodologies, with (2) adequate increased strength for service at operating temperatures, and (3) to mitigate creep failures by enhancing the as-processed grain size in ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes. Our research progress till date has resulted in the successful batch production of typically 8 Ft. lengths of 1-3/8 inch diameter, 1/8 inch wall thickness, ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al tubes via a proprietary single step extrusion consolidation process. The process parameters for such consolidation methodologies have been prescribed and evaluated as being routinely reproducible. Such processing parameters (i.e., extrusion ratios, temperature, can design etc.) were particularly guided by the need to effect post-extrusion recrystallization and grain growth at a sufficiently low temperature, while still meeting the creep requirement at service temperatures. Static recrystallization studies show that elongated grains (with their long axis parallel to the extrusion axis), typically 200-2000 {micro}m in diameter, and several millimeters long can be obtained routinely, at 1200 C. The growth kinetics are affected by the interstitial impurity content in the powder batches. For example complete recrystallization, across the tube wall thickness, is

  10. Evaluating Strengthening and Impact Toughness Mechanisms for Ferritic and Bainitic Microstructures in Nb, Nb-Mo and Ti-Mo Microalloyed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Larzabal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon microalloyed steels show interesting commercial possibilities by combining different “micro”-alloying elements when high strength and low temperature toughness properties are required. Depending on the elements chosen for the chemistry design, the mechanisms controlling the strengths and toughness may differ. In this paper, a detailed characterization of the microstructural features of three different microalloyed steels, Nb, Nb-Mo and Ti-Mo, is described using mainly the electron backscattered diffraction technique (EBSD as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The contribution of different strengthening mechanisms to yield strength and impact toughness is evaluated, and its relative weight is computed for different coiling temperatures. Grain refinement is shown to be the most effective mechanism for controlling both mechanical properties. As yield strength increases, the relative contribution of precipitation strengthening increases, and this factor is especially important in the Ti-Mo microalloyed steel where different combinations of interphase and random precipitation are detected depending on the coiling temperature. In addition to average grain size values, microstructural heterogeneity is considered in order to propose a new equation for predicting ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT. This equation considers the wide range of microstructures analyzed as well as the increase in the transition temperature related to precipitation strengthening.

  11. Nitrogen-containing steels and thermomechanical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaputkina, L.; Prokoshkina, V.G.; Svyazhin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The strengthening of nitrogen-containing corrosion-resistant steels resulting from alloying and thermomechanical treatment have been investigated using X-ray diffraction analysis, light microscopy, hardness measurements and tensile testing. Combined data have been obtained for nitrogen interaction with alloying elements , peculiarities of deformed structure and short-range of nitrogen-containing steels of various structural classes. The higher nitrogen and total alloying element contents, the higher deformation strengthening. Prospects of use the steels with not high nitrogen content and methods of their thermomechanical strengthening are shown. High temperature thermomechanical treatment (HTMT) is very effective for obtaining high and thermally stable constructional strength of nitrogen-containing steels of all classes. The HTMT is most effective if used in a combination with dispersion hardening for aging steels or in the case of mechanically unstable austenitic steels. (author)

  12. Effect of Nb Addition to Ti-Bearing Super Martensitic Stainless Steel on Control of Austenite Grain Size and Strengthening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Langelier, Brian; Gault, Baptiste; Subramanian, Sundaresa

    2017-05-01

    The role of Nb in normalized and tempered Ti-bearing 13Cr5Ni2Mo super martensitic stainless steel is investigated through in-depth characterization of the bimodal chemistry and size of Nb-rich precipitates/atomic clusters and Nb in solid solution. Transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography are used to analyze the samples and clarify precipitates/atom cluster interactions with dislocations and austenite grain boundaries. The effect of 0.1 wt pct Nb addition on the promotion of (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates, as well as the retention of Nb in solution after cooling to room temperature, are analyzed quantitatively. (Ti, Nb)N-Nb(C,N) composite precipitates with average diameters of approximately 24 ± 8 nm resulting from epitaxial growth of Nb(C,N) on pre-existing (Ti,Nb)N particles, with inter-particle spacing on the order of 205 ± 68 nm, are found to be associated with mean austenite grain size of 28 ± 10 µm in the sample normalized at 1323 K (1050 °C). The calculated Zener limiting austenite grain size of 38 ± 13 µm is in agreement with the experimentally observed austenite grain size distribution. 0.08 wt pct Nb is retained in the as-normalized condition, which is able to promote Nb(C, N) atomic clusters at dislocations during tempering at 873 K (600 °C) for 2 hours, and increases the yield strength by 160 MPa, which is predicted to be close to maximum increase in strengthening effect. Retention of solute Nb before tempering also leads to it preferentially combing with C and N to form Nb(C, N) atom clusters, which suppresses the occurrence of Cr- and Mo-rich carbides during tempering.

  13. Oxide Evolution in ODS Steel Resulting From Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    the SZ on both the AS and RS of 304L stainless steel , from [16]. ...........................................12  Figure 7.  Past research conditions...being done on void swelling and embrittlement effects. Reduced activation ferritic/ martensitic (RAFM) steels and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS...growth by grain boundary pinning at higher temperatures. Another type of ODS steel is 9-Cr martensitic steel , which is not considered in this research

  14. Future directions for ferritic/martensitic steels for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Swindeman, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    High-chromium (7-12% Cr) ferritic/martensitic steels are being considered for nuclear applications for both fission and fusion reactors. Conventional 9-12Cr Cr-Mo steels were the first candidates for these applications. For fusion reactors, reduced-activation steels were developed that were patterned on the conventional steels but with molybdenum replaced by tungsten and niobium replaced by tantalum. Both the conventional and reduced-activation steels are considered to have an upper operating temperature limit of about 550degC. For improved reactor efficiency, higher operating temperatures are required. For ferritic/martensitic steels that could meet such requirements, oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels are being considered. In this paper, the ferritic/martensitic steels that are candidate steels for nuclear applications will be reviewed, the prospect for ODS steel development and the development of steels produced by conventional processes will be discussed. (author)

  15. Microstructure and phase analysis of Zirconia-ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthen) alloy sintered by APS with milling time variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Bambang; Bandriyana, B.; Sugeng, Bambang; Salam, Rohmad; Sumariyo; Sujatno, Agus; Dimyati, Arbi

    2018-03-01

    Investigation on the relationship between the process conditions of milling time and the microstructure on the synthesis of the zirconia-ODS steel alloy has been performed. The elemental composition of the alloy was determined on 20 wt% Cr and zirconia dispersoid of 0.50 wt%. The synthesis was carried out by powder metallurgy method with milling time of 3, 5 and 7 hours, static compression of 20 Ton and sintering process for 4 minutes using the APS (Arc Plasma Sintering) equipment. SEM-EDX and XRD test was carried out to characterize the phase and morphology of the alloy and the effect to the mechanical properties was evaluated by the Vickers Hardness testing. The synthesis produced sample of ODS steel with good dense and very little porous with the Fe-Cr phase that clearly observed in the XRD peak pattern. In addition milling time increased the homogeneously of Fe-Cr phase formulation, enhanced the grain refinement of the structure and increase the hardness of the alloy.

  16. Elevated temperature characterization of electron beam freeform fabricated Ti–6Al–4V and dispersion strengthened Ti–8Al–1Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, R.W.; Brice, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electron beam freeform fabrication process. ► Ti–6Al–4V and rare-earth dispersion Ti alloy. ► Tensile, creep, and oxidation properties comparable to alloys made with conventional fabrication methods. ► Fabrication process allows use of rare-earth dispersion Ti alloy. - Abstract: Electron beam freeform fabrication is an additive manufacturing process that can be used to build fully dense, structural metallic parts directly from a three-dimensional computer model. This technique can replace conventional fabrication methods, such as forging or machining from plate, and enable significant cost, time, and tool savings. Additionally, this method enables the fabrication of alloys with novel compositions that are not well suited to production via ingot metallurgy processes. Ti–8Al–1Er is an experimental dispersion strengthened titanium alloy composition that requires rapid cooling to achieve optimal properties and thus is not amenable to ingot metallurgy production methods. Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, such as Ti–8Al–1Er are known to have excellent thermal stability and improved high temperature properties. In this work, the room temperature tensile, elevated temperature tensile, creep properties and oxidation resistance of electron beam additive manufactured Ti–6Al–4V and Ti–8Al–1Er were measured and compared to those of laser beam additive manufactured Ti–8Al–1Er and wrought Ti–6Al–4V. Elevated temperature tensile properties were measured between 93° and 538 °C. Creep tests were performed between 425° and 455 °C at stresses between 345 and 483 MPa. It was found that the elevated temperature properties of the electron beam additive manufactured products are comparable to those of wrought forms. The elevated temperature strengths of Ti–8Al–1Er are comparable to those of Ti–6Al–4V in percentage of room temperature strength retained at temperature. Based on a Larson–Miller analysis of the creep test

  17. Elevated temperature characterization of electron beam freeform fabricated Ti-6Al-4V and dispersion strengthened Ti-8Al-1Er

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, R.W., E-mail: ralph.bush@usafa.edu [Department of Engineering Mechanics, 2354 Fairchild Dr., U.S. Air Force Academy, USAF Academy, CO 80840 (United States); Brice, C.A. [Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co., Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam freeform fabrication process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-6Al-4V and rare-earth dispersion Ti alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tensile, creep, and oxidation properties comparable to alloys made with conventional fabrication methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication process allows use of rare-earth dispersion Ti alloy. - Abstract: Electron beam freeform fabrication is an additive manufacturing process that can be used to build fully dense, structural metallic parts directly from a three-dimensional computer model. This technique can replace conventional fabrication methods, such as forging or machining from plate, and enable significant cost, time, and tool savings. Additionally, this method enables the fabrication of alloys with novel compositions that are not well suited to production via ingot metallurgy processes. Ti-8Al-1Er is an experimental dispersion strengthened titanium alloy composition that requires rapid cooling to achieve optimal properties and thus is not amenable to ingot metallurgy production methods. Oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, such as Ti-8Al-1Er are known to have excellent thermal stability and improved high temperature properties. In this work, the room temperature tensile, elevated temperature tensile, creep properties and oxidation resistance of electron beam additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-8Al-1Er were measured and compared to those of laser beam additive manufactured Ti-8Al-1Er and wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Elevated temperature tensile properties were measured between 93 Degree-Sign and 538 Degree-Sign C. Creep tests were performed between 425 Degree-Sign and 455 Degree-Sign C at stresses between 345 and 483 MPa. It was found that the elevated temperature properties of the electron beam additive manufactured products are comparable to those of wrought forms. The elevated temperature strengths of Ti-8Al-1Er are comparable to those of Ti-6Al-4V in percentage of room

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Coating Solution Based on Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersion containing Fluorine for Primer on Electro Galvanized Steel Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chung Keun; Lim, Sung Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to synthesize fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) by soap-free (internal emulsifier) emulsion polymerization techniques, to prepare coating solution based on fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) and to compare the chemical and thermo-mechanical properties on the electrogalvanized steel sheet. Environmentally friendly F-WPU was prepared with a fluorinated polyol containing 60 wt% of fluorine. There are various ways of combining a wide variety of fluorinated polyols and diisocyanate to exhibit novel properties of waterborne polyurethane dispersion. Components of coating solution were largely divided into 4 kinds i.e., F-WPU, acrylic emulsion, silane coupling agent, and colloidal silicate. F-WPU coating solution on the electro-galvanized steel sheet showed excellent properties of corrosion resistance, alkali resistance and heat resistance, as compared to other coating solutions using a general waterborne resin. The F-WPU coating solution's reliable effects are possibly due to the fluorine atoms incorporated even in a small amount of F-WPU

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Coating Solution Based on Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersion containing Fluorine for Primer on Electro Galvanized Steel Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chung Keun; Lim, Sung Hyung [Buhmwoo Institute of Technology Research, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this research was to synthesize fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) by soap-free (internal emulsifier) emulsion polymerization techniques, to prepare coating solution based on fluorine modified waterborne polyurethane dispersion (F-WPU) and to compare the chemical and thermo-mechanical properties on the electrogalvanized steel sheet. Environmentally friendly F-WPU was prepared with a fluorinated polyol containing 60 wt% of fluorine. There are various ways of combining a wide variety of fluorinated polyols and diisocyanate to exhibit novel properties of waterborne polyurethane dispersion. Components of coating solution were largely divided into 4 kinds i.e., F-WPU, acrylic emulsion, silane coupling agent, and colloidal silicate. F-WPU coating solution on the electro-galvanized steel sheet showed excellent properties of corrosion resistance, alkali resistance and heat resistance, as compared to other coating solutions using a general waterborne resin. The F-WPU coating solution's reliable effects are possibly due to the fluorine atoms incorporated even in a small amount of F-WPU.

  20. In situ oxide dispersion strengthened tungsten alloys with high compressive strength and high strain-to-failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lin; Jiang, Lin; Topping, Troy D.; Dai, Chen; Wang, Xin; Carpenter, Ryan; Haines, Christopher; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk tungsten materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS). The results show that the application of a high pressure of 1 GPa during SPS significantly accelerates the densification process. Concurrently, the second phase oxide nanoparticles with an average grain size of 108 nm, which are distributed within the interiors of the W grains, simultaneously provide strengthening and plasticity by inhibiting grain growth, and generating, blocking, and storing dislocations. - Graphical abstract: In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk W materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS).

  1. The mechanisms of dispersion strengthening and fracture in Al-based XD(tm) alloys, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, R. M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of reinforcement size, volume fraction, and matrix deformation behavior on room and elevated temperature strength; the fracture toughness; and the fatigue crack growth rate of metal matrix composites of Al-4(pct)Cu-1.5(pct)Mg with TiB2 were examined. The influence of reinforcement volume fraction was also examined for pure aluminum with TiB2. Higher TiB2 volume fractions increased the tensile yield strength at both room and elevated temperatures, and reduced the elongation to fracture. Tensile tests also indicate that small particles provided a greater increase in strength for a given volume fraction than larger particles, whereas elongation to fracture appeared to be insensitive to reinforcement size. Interparticle spacing appears to be the factor that controls the strength of these alloys, with the exact nature of the dependence relying on the nature of dislocation slip in the matrix (planar vs. diffuse). The isothermal aging response of the precipitation strengthened Al-4(pct)Cu-1.5(pct)Mg alloys was not accelerated by the presence of TiB2. Cold work prior to artificial aging created additional geometrically necessary dislocations which serve as heterogeneous nucleation sites leading to accelerated aging, a finer precipitate size, and an increase in the strength of the alloy.

  2. CFRP-Strengthening and Long-Term Performance of Fatigue Critical Welds of a Steel Box Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland E. Koller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Empa’s research efforts in the 1990s provided evidence that a considerable increase of the fatigue strength of welded aluminum beams can be achieved by externally bonding pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates using rubber-toughened epoxies over the fatigue-weak welding zone on their tensile flange. The reinforcing effect obtained is determined by the stiffness of the unidirectional CFRP laminate which has twice the elastic modulus of aluminum. One can therefore easily follow that an unstressed CFRP laminate reinforcement of welded beams made of steel will not lead to a substantial increase in fatigue strength of the steel structure. This consideration led to the idea of prestressing an external reinforcement of the welded zone. The present investigation describes experimental studies to identify the adhesive system suitable for achieving high creep and fatigue strength of the prestressed CFRP patch. Experimental results (Wöhler-fields of shear-lap-specimens and welded steel beams reinforced with prestressed CFRP laminates are presented. The paper concludes by presenting a field application, the reinforcement of a steel pendulum by adhesively bonded prestressed CFRP laminates to the tensile flanges of the welded box girder. Inspections carried out periodically on this structure revealed neither prestress losses nor crack initiation after nine years of service.

  3. Electron microscopy study of microstructure of the oxide-dispersion-strengthed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, H.; Sun, J.; Zhou, Z.J.

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure of the ODS ferritic-martensitic steel with chemical composition of Fe-12Cr-2W-0.5Ti-0.2V-0.2Si-0.13C-0.35Y 2 O 3 wt% fabricated by MA and HIP has been investigated by TEM. The emphasis is focused on the structure and chemical composition of the fine ODS particles and inclusions. The results showed that two types of complex ODS particles such as Y-Ti-O and Y-Si-O with nanometer size distribute homogeneously and incoherently in the matrix of the steel. Additionally, large (Ti,V)N inclusions were observed in the steel. The results of microstructural characterization are discussed to correlate with the processing and mechanical properties of the ODS steel. (author)

  4. Industrial application of liquid steel filtration out of dispersed nonmetallic phase in the continuous casting machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto existing investigations concerning the ceramic filter use in the steel making processes (both of laboratory and industrial scale have given good results. The obtained results of filtration (in the laboratory have proved that this method may be used as an effective and cheap way of steel filtration from non-metallic inclusions. Placing filters in the tundish is the best location in consideration of limiting the possibility of secondary pollution of steel. Yet, the results presented in this paper, of an experiment prepared and carried out in the industrial environment, are the only positive results obtained, which are connected with so much quantities of liquid steel processed with use of the multi-hole ceramic filters.

  5. Synthesis of environmentally friendly highly dispersed magnetite nanoparticles based on rosin cationic surfactants as thin film coatings of steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Hussain, Sami A

    2014-04-22

    This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA) as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement.

  6. Synthesis of Environmentally Friendly Highly Dispersed Magnetite Nanoparticles Based on Rosin Cationic Surfactants as Thin Film Coatings of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement.

  7. Microstructural comparison of effects of hafnium and titanium additions in spark-plasma-sintered Fe-based oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yina, E-mail: huangyina1981@hotmail.com [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); School of Electronic Science & Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Zhang, Hongtao [Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Auger, Maria A.; Hong, Zuliang [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Ning, Huanpo [School of Engineering of Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Nanoforce Technology Ltd, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Gorley, Michael J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Grant, Patrick S. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Reece, Michael J.; Yan, Haixue [School of Engineering of Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Nanoforce Technology Ltd, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Roberts, Steve G. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Two oxide dispersion strengthened alloys: 14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.22Hf (wt.%) and Fe-14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Ti (wt.%) were fabricated by mechanical alloying and subsequently consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Electron backscatter diffraction showed grain sizes in the range 0.5–15 μm in both alloys. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy showed a homogeneous distribution of nano-oxides precipitated during SPS. Using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atom probe tomography, several different oxide phases were found in both alloys, but the majority of dispersoids were Y-Hf-O type in Fe-14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.22Hf and Y-Ti-O type in Fe-14Cr-0.25Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-0.4Ti. There were a variety of orientation relationships between the different dispersoids and the ferritic matrix. Both alloys had dispersoid densities of ∼10{sup 23}/m{sup 3}, with average diameters of 4.3 nm and 3.5 nm in the 0.22Hf and 0.4Ti containing alloys, respectively. Per atom added, Hf (0.07 at.%) is suggested to be more potent than Ti (0.46 at.%) in refining the nano-oxides.

  8. Influence of stress change on the fatigue behavior and fatigue life of aluminum oxide-dispersion-strengthening copper alloy at room temperature and 350degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoishi, Norio; Kondo, Eiji; Nisitani, Hironobu; Shimamoto, Atsunori; Tashiro, Rieko

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of stress change on the fatigue behavior and fatigue life of an aluminum oxide-dispersion-strengthening copper alloy at elevated temperature, rotating bending fatigue tests were carried out under two-step loading at room temperature and 350degC. Both of static strength and fatigue strength decreased at 350degC. However, at the same relative stress σ a /σ B , fatigue life was longer at 350degC than at room temperature. Although the cumulative ratios Σ(N/N f ) were nearly unity for both the low to high and the high to low block loadings at room temperature, Miner's rule did not hold at 350degC. These results were related to the stress dependence on the log l-N/N f relation. That is, the crack length initiated at the same N/N f was larger in higher stress level at 350degC, whereas there was no stress dependence in the relation at room temperature. The stress dependence on the relation at 350degC was caused by the suppression of crack initiation due to the surface oxidation. (author)

  9. Age-hardening susceptibility of high-Cr ODS ferritic steels and SUS430 ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dongsheng, E-mail: chen.dongsheng85@gmail.com [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko; Han, Wentuo; Je, Hwanil [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The role of oxide particles in α/α′ phase decomposition behavior; microstructure of phase decomposition observed by TEM. • The characteristics of ductility loss caused by age-hardening. • Correlation of phase decomposition and age-hardening explained by dispersion strengthened models. • Age-hardening susceptibility of ODS steels and SUS430 steel. - Abstract: The effect of aging on high-Cr ferritic steels was investigated with focusing on the role of oxide particles in α/α′ phase decomposition behavior. 12Cr-oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel, 15Cr-ODS steel and commercial SUS430 steel were isothermally aged at 475 °C for up to 10,000 h. Thermal aging caused a larger hardening in SUS430 than 15Cr-ODS, while 12Cr-ODS showed almost no hardening. A characteristic of the ODS steels is that the hardening was not accompanied by the significant loss of ductility that was observed in SUS430 steel. After aging for 2000 h, SUS430 steel shows a larger ductile–brittle transition temperature (DBTT) shift than 15Cr-ODS steel, which suggests that the age-hardening susceptibility is lower in 15Cr-ODS steel than in conventional SUS430 steel. Thermal aging leaded to a large number of Cr-rich α′ precipitates, which were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Correlation of age-hardening and phase decomposition was interpreted by Orowan type strengthening model. Results indicate that oxide particles cannot only suppress ductility loss, but also may influence α/α′ phase decomposition kinetics.

  10. Mechanical dispersion of Y2O3 nanoparticles in steel EUROFER 97: process and optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.; Amador, D.R.; Torralba, J.M.; Victoria, M.

    2003-01-01

    The procedures followed to produce Y 2 O 3 -dispersed EUROFER 97 powder ready to be compacted and hot isostatic pressing processed are reported. An attrition mill has been used under controlled conditions. The compositional and microstructural characterization of the Y 2 O 3 /EUROFER powder along the different steps of the milling process has allowed optimising the processing conditions to obtain a nanosized Y 2 O 3 dispersion. TEM observations performed on Y 2 O 3 /EUROFER powder milled under these specific conditions reveal the presence of monoclinic Y 2 O 3 dispersoids having sizes around 10 nm in the ferrite/martensite matrix

  11. Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorev, N.N.; Astafiev, A.A.; Loboda, A.S.; Savukov, V.P.; Runov, A.E.; Belov, V.A.; Sobolev, J.V.; Sobolev, V.V.; Pavlov, N.M.; Paton, B.E.

    1977-01-01

    Steels also containing Al, N and arsenic, are suitable for the construction of large components for high-power nuclear reactors due to their good mechanical properties such as good through-hardening, sufficiently low brittleness conversion temperature and slight displacement of the latter with neutron irradiation. Defined steels and their properties are described. (IHOE) [de

  12. Spectral and raw quasi in-situ energy dispersive X-ray data captured via a TEM analysis of an ODS austenitic stainless steel sample under 1 MeV Kr2+ high temperature irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Adam J; Yao, Zhongwen

    2017-10-01

    The data presented in this article is related to the research experiment, titled: ' Quasi in-situ energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy observation of matrix and solute interactions on Y-Ti-O oxide particles in an austenitic stainless steel under 1 MeV Kr 2+ high temperature irradiation' (Brooks et al., 2017) [1]. Quasi in-situ analysis during 1 MeV Kr 2+ 520 °C irradiation allowed the same microstructural area to be observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM), on an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) austenitic stainless steel sample. The data presented contains two sets of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data collected before and after irradiation to 1.5 displacements-per-atom (~1.25×10 -3  dpa/s with 7.5×10 14  ions cm -2 ). The vendor software used to process and output the data is the Bruker Esprit v1.9 suite. The data includes the spectral (counts vs. keV energy) of the quasi in-situ scanned region (512×512 pixels at 56k magnification), along with the EDX scanning parameters. The.raw files from the Bruker Esprit v1.9 output are additionally included along with the.rpl data information files. Furthermore included are the two quasi in-situ HAADF images for visual comparison of the regions before and after irradiation. This in-situ experiment is deemed ' quasi' due to the thin foil irradiation taking place at an external TEM facility. We present this data for critical and/or extended analysis from the scientific community, with applications applying to: experimental data correlation, confirmation of results, and as computer based modeling inputs.

  13. Evolution of stainless steels in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, Farhad

    2010-01-01

    Starting with the stainless steels used in the conventional industry, their adoption and successive evolutions in the nuclear industry, from one generation of nuclear reactors to another, is presented. Specific examples for several steels are given, covering fabrication procedures, qualification methods, property databases and design allowable stresses, to show how the ever-increasing demands for better performance and reliability, in particular under neutron irradiation, have been met. Particular attention is paid to the austenitic stainless steels types 304L, 316L, 316L(N), 316L(N)-IG, titanium stabilized grade 321, precipitation strengthened alloy 800, conventional and low activation ferritic/martensitic steels and their oxygen dispersion strengthening (ODS) derivatives. For each material, the evolution of the associated filler metal and welding techniques are also presented. (author)

  14. Contributions from research on irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels to materials science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, D. S.

    1990-05-01

    Ferritic and martensitic steels are finding increased application for structural components in several reactor systems. Low-alloy steels have long been used for pressure vessels in light water fission reactors. Martensitic stainless steels are finding increasing usage in liquid metal fast breeder reactors and are being considered for fusion reactor applications when such systems become commercially viable. Recent efforts have evaluated the applicability of oxide dispersion-strengthened ferritic steels. Experiments on the effect of irradiation on these steels provide several examples where contributions are being made to materials science and engineering. Examples are given demonstrating improvements in basic understanding, small specimen test procedure development, and alloy development.

  15. The heat treatment effect on the structural changes and properties of high-nitrogen chromium steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, V.M.; Elistratov, A.A.; Kolesnikov, A.G.; Rakhshtadt, A.G.; Plokhikh, A.I.; Morozova, E.I.; Kostina, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    The structural transformations in the steels with 0.4-1.3 %N and 15-24 %Cr content, originating by thermal treatment, are studied. The dependences of the phase composition of the high-chromium steels (18 %Cr) on the nitrogen content are established. The ratio of the unchanged austenite increases and the martensite quantity decreases correspondingly with growth of the nitrogen concentration from 0.4 up to 1.2 %. The effect of strengthening the steels with the initial martensite structure as well as austenite and martensite steels is observed in the process of steels tempering due to the hardening on the account of the martensite dispersion hardening [ru

  16. Impingement heat flux by dispersed molten metal fuel on a horizontal stainless steel structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Spencer, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Although the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) possesses inherent safety features, an assessment of the consequences of melting of the metal fuel is necessary for risk analysis. As part of this effort an experimental study was conducted to determine the depths of sodium at 600 C required for pour streams of various molten uranium alloys (U, U-5 wt % Zr, U-10 wt % Zr, and U-10 wt % Fe) to break up and solidify. The quenched particulate material, which was in the shape of filaments and sheets, formed coolable beds because of the high void-age (∼0.9) and large particle size (∼10 mm). In a test with a 0.15-m sodium depth, the fragments from a pure uranium pour stream did not completely solidify but formed an agglomerated mass which did not fuse to the base plate. However, the agglomerated fragments of U-10 wt % Fe eutectic fused to the stainless steel base plate. An analysis of the temperature response of a 25-mm thick base plate was made by volume averaging the properties of the sodium and metal phases and assuming two semi-infinite solids coming into contact. Good agreement was obtained with the data during the initial 5 to 10 s of the contact period. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Comparison of gridded versus observation data to initialize ARAC dispersion models for the Algeciras, Spain steel mill CS-137 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aluzzi, F J; Pace, J C; Pobanz, B M; Vogt, P J

    1999-01-01

    On May 30, 1998 scrap metal containing radioactive Cesium-137 (Cs-137) was accidentally melted in a furnace at the Acerinox steel mill in Algeciras, Spain. Cs-137 was released from the mill's smokestack, and spread across the western Mediterranean Sea to France and Italy and beyond. The first indication of the release was radiation levels up to 1000 times background reported by Swiss, French, and Italian authorities during the following two weeks. Initially no elevated radiation levels were detected over Spain. A release of hazardous material to the atmosphere is the type of situation the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) emergency response organization was designed to address. The amount and exact time of the release were unknown, though the incident was thought to have taken place during the last week in May. Using air concentration measurements supplied by colleagues of ARAC in Spain, France, Switzerland, Italy, Sweden, Russia and the European Union, ARAC meteorologists estimated the magnitude and timing of the release (Vogt, 1999). Correctly locating the downwind footprint is the most important goal of emergency response modeling. In this study, we compare predicted results for the Algeciras event based on four wind data sources: (1) US Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) data alone, (2) surface and upper air observations alone, (3) NOGAPS data together with surface and upper air observations, and (4) forecasts from ARAC's in-house execution of the U.S. Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System (NORAPS) (without surface or upper air observations). We compare the resulting dispersion predictions from ARAC's diagnostic dispersion modeling system to the measurements supplied by our European colleagues to determine which data source produced the best results

  18. Characterization of Residual Stress as a Function of Friction Stir Welding Parameters in ODS Steel MA956

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    dispersion strengthened - Eurofer steel ,” J. Nucl. Mater., vol. 416 , pp. 2229, Sep 1, 2011. [10] H. J. K. Lemmen and K. J. Sudmeijer, I, “Laser beam...Reynolds and W. Tang, “Structure, properties, and residual stress of 304L stainless steel friction stir welds,” Scr. Mater., vol. 48, pp. 12891294...OF RESIDUAL STRESS AS A FUNCTION OF FRICTION STIR WELDING PARAMETERS IN ODS STEEL MA956 by Martin S. Bennett June 2013 Thesis Advisor

  19. The Microstructures and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Analysis of a Hypoeutectoid Steels With 1% Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rożniata E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available W artykule zamieszczono wyniki badań mikrostruktury, analizy EDS i twardości stali podeutektoidalnych z 1% Cr imitujących składem chemicznym stale do ulepszania cieplnego. Badania dylatometryczne wykonano przy użyciu dylatometru L78R.I.T.A niemieckiej firmy LlNSElS. Za pomocą dyla- tometru rejestrowano zmiany wydłużenia (Al próbek o wymiarach >p 3X10mm w funkcji temperatury (T. Otrzymane krzywe nagrzewania posłużyły do precyzyjnego wyznaczenia temperatur krytycznych (punktów przełomowych dla badanych stali. Natomiast otrzymane krzywe chłodzenia różniczkowano, co pozwoliło precyzyjnie określić temperatury początków i końców poszczególnych przemian dla wykonania dwóch wykresów CTPc. Analizę składu chemicznego występujących faz w badanych stalach dla różnych szybkości chłodzenia wykonano przy użyciu mikrosondy elektronowej (mikroanalizator rentgenowski. W niniejszej pracy wykorzystano technikę analizy punktowej, liniowej oraz w obszarze o ustalonym polu. Po umieszczeniu próbek z badanych stali w komorze i osiągnięciu odpowiedniej próżni, wyszukano miejsca i dokonano analizy techniką EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Analizy EDS dokonano przy użyciu skaningowego mikroskopu transmisyjnego typu Nova NanoS EM 450. Opracowane wykresy CTPc zgodnie z klasyfikacją Wever’a i Rose’go są typu IV, co oznacza, że przemiany dyfuzyjne są rozdzielone zakresem trwałości przechłodzonego austenitu i mają kształt litery „C". Hartowność badanych stali jest zbliżona, jednak molibden działa zdecydowanie skuteczniej niż nikiel. Molibden zajmuje I-sze miejsce wśród skuteczności pierwiastków stopowych dla stali do niskiego odpuszczania, gdzie „tło" pierwiastków jest słabe. Dla obu badanych stali podeutektoidalnych analiza EDS wykazała wydzielanie się cementy tu stopowego na granicach ziaren. Chrom, jako pierwiastek terrytotwórczy dość silnie dyfunduje do granic ziaren. Widocznie jest to przy

  20. Chemical heat treatment of low alloyed maraging steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinov, L S; Korotich, I K [Zhdanovskij Metallurgicheskij Inst. (Ukrainian SSR)

    1979-09-01

    The investigation concerned the nitriding, cementation, chromizing, borating of economically alloyed maraging grade 04Kh2N5MFYu steel. The investigated methods of chemothermal treatment were found to considerably increase the hardness of the surface layer of the maraging steel. The high tempering of the grade 04Kh2N5MFYu cemented and hardened steel was found to produce secondary hardening. On chromizing, the diffusion layer is an alloyed ferrite which strengthens because of the dispersion hardening on ageing. The formation of the plastic low-carbon martensite at relatively small cooling rates greatly decreases the tendency of the boride layer to cracking.

  1. Investigation of the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure in a Fe-9%Cr ODS steel

    OpenAIRE

    Hary Benjamin; Guilbert Thomas; Wident Pierre; Baudin Thierry; Logé Roland; de Carlan Yann

    2016-01-01

    Ferritic-martensitic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are potential materials for fuel pin cladding in Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) and their optimisation is essential for future industrial applications. In this paper, a feasibility study concerning the generation of tensile specimens using a quenching dilatometer is presented. The ODS steel investigated contains 9%Cr and exhibits a phase transformation between ferrite and austenite around 870 °C. The purpose was to generate different ...

  2. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Computational simulation of the microstructure of irradiation damaged regions for the plate type fuel of UO2 microspheres dispersed in stainless steel matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, S.C. dos; Lage, A.F.; Braga, D.; Ferraz, W.B.

    2006-01-01

    Plate type fuel elements have high efficiency of thermal transference what benefits the heat flux with high rates of power output. In reactor cores, fuel elements, in general, are subject to a high neutrons flux, high working temperatures, severe corrosion conditions, direct interference of fission products that result from nuclear reactions and radiation interaction-matter. For plate type fuels composed of ceramic particles dispersed in metallic matrix, one can observe the damage regions that arise due to the interaction fission products in the metallic matrix. Aiming at evaluating the extension of the damage regions in function of the particles and its diameters, in this paper, computational geometric simulations structure of plate type fuel cores, composed of UO 2 microspheres dispersed in stainless steel in several fractions of volume and diameters were carried out. The results of the simulations were exported to AutoCAD R where it was possible its visualization and analysis. (author)

  4. Tensile and fracture toughness properties of the nanostructured oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy 13Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiselt, Ch.Ch.; Klimenkov, M.; Lindau, R.; Moeslang, A.; Odette, G.R.; Yamamoto, T.; Gragg, D.

    2011-01-01

    The realization of fusion power as an attractive energy source requires advanced structural materials that can cope with ultra-severe thermo-mechanical loads and high neutron fluxes experienced by fusion power plant components, such as the first wall, divertor and blanket structures. Towards this end, two variants of a 13Cr-1W-0.3Ti-0.3Y 2 O 3 reduced activation ferritic (RAF-) ODS steel were produced by ball milling phase blended Fe-13Cr-1W, 0.3Y 2 0 3 and 0.3Ti powders in both argon and hydrogen atmospheres. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The as-HIPed alloys were then hot rolled into 6 mm plates. Microstructural, tensile and fracture toughness characterization of the hot rolled alloys are summarized here and compared to results previously reported for the as-HIPed condition.

  5. Analysis of the temperature and thermal stress in pure tungsten monoblock during heat loading and the influences of alloying and dispersion strengthening on these responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Makoto, E-mail: makoto.fukuda@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-aza Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Nogami, Shuhei; Guan, Wenhai; Hasegawa, Akira [Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2 Aramaki-aza Aoba, Aobaku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • The heat load response of pure W and its alloys monoblock was investigated by FEA. • The effect of alloying on heat load response of W was not clearly observed. • The possibility of cracking during cooling phase after heat load was suggested. • The effects of recrystallization and irradiation embrittlement were discussed. • W alloys will show better reliability than pure W during fusion reactor operation. - Abstract: The effects of 3% Re addition and K-bubble dispersion on temperature and stress values and the distributions thereof in a W monoblock during heat loading were investigated using finite element analysis. K-doped W-3%Re exhibited the highest recrystallization resistance but showed a higher surface temperature than pure W or K-doped W during the heat loading. The effect of K-bubble dispersion and 3% Re addition on thermal stress distribution during heat loading was not clearly observed, and residual tensile stress after heat loading, which could possibly cause cracking, was observed at the top surfaces of all materials. Because of the higher strength and temperature at which recrystallization starts for the K-doped W-3%Re and K-doped W, the probability of crack formation at the top surface might be lower compared to that in pure W. The improvement in the material properties and resistance to crack initiation and propagation in W during cyclic heat loading is crucial for the design and development of plasma-facing components. This work suggests possibility of the crack formation in a pure W monoblock in the cooling phase after a 20 MW/m{sup 2} heat loading cycle and the effectiveness of K-bubble dispersion and Re addition for improving the heat loading resistance of monoblock W.

  6. Effective Exploration of New 760°C-Capability Steels for Coal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Williams [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhao, Ji-Cheng [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-09-17

    Cost effective and high performance alloys that are capable of operating at 760 °C or higher for extended periods of time under a very aggressive environment are critically required for the design and development of advanced ultrasupercritical (AUSC) boilers and steam turbines. Finely dispersed Laves phase precipitates have been shown by Takeyama and co-workers to be a viable strengthening mechanism in high temperature austenitic steels. There is currently no straightforward theory that can predict what other intermetallic phases can serve as potent precipitation-strengthening phases for steels; thus we employed a highly effective dual-anneal diffusion multiple (DADM) approach to screen for viable strengthening precipitates over a wide range of compositions. From the Fe-Co-Cr-Ni-Mo DADMs, the Fe-Cr-Mo based Chi phase was identified as a new strengthening phase for high temperature ferritic steels; and from the Fe-Mn-Cr-Nb-Ni-Mo-FeAl DADMs, the Laves phase was identified as a viable strengthening precipitate in Fe-Mn and Fe-Ni based austenitic steels. After identification of viable strengthening phases from the DADMs that covered compositions in the basic ternary and quaternary systems, we employed computation thermodynamics to perform multicomponent alloy design and optimization. For the new the Chi-phase strengthened steels, we performed thermodynamic calculations to vary the volume fraction of the Chi phase and introduced Nb and carbon to promote the formation of stable carbides for grain size control during solution heat treatment. For the Fe-Ni-Mn based austenitic steels, we performed extensive parametric optimization of compositions in order to reduce the expensive Ni content, add Cr and Al for oxidation resistance, and balance the alloying contents (Ni, Mn, Cr, Al, Mo) to suppress the ferritic phase and promote the austenitic matrix phase. Four steels (two ferritic + two austenitic) were designed and tested. The two Chi-phase strengthened ferritic steels

  7. A Physical Model to Study the Effects of Nozzle Design on Dispersed Two-Phase Flows in a Slab Mold Casting Ultra-Low-Carbon Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Campoy, María M.; Morales, R. D.; Nájera-Bastida, A.; Calderón-Ramos, Ismael; Cedillo-Hernández, Valentín; Delgado-Pureco, J. C.

    2018-04-01

    The effects of nozzle design on dispersed, two-phase flows of the steel-argon system in a slab mold are studied using a water-air model with particle image velocimetry and ultrasound probe velocimetry techniques. Three nozzle designs were tested with the same bore size and different port geometries, including square (S), special bottom design with square ports (U), and circular (C). The meniscus velocities of the liquid increase two- or threefold in two-phase flows regarding one-phase flows using low flow rates of the gas phase. This effect is due to the dragging effects on bubbles by the liquid jets forming two-way coupled flows. Liquid velocities (primary phase) along the narrow face of the mold also are higher for two-phase flows. Flows using nozzle U are less dependent on the effects of the secondary phase (air). The smallest bubble sizes are obtained using nozzle U, which confirms that bubble breakup is dependent on the strain rates of the fluid and dissipation of kinetic energy in the nozzle bottom and port edges. Through dimensionless analysis, it was found that the bubble sizes are inversely proportional to the dissipation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy, ɛ 0.4. A simple expression involving ɛ, surface tension, and density of metal is derived to scale up bubble sizes in water to bubble sizes in steel with different degrees of deoxidation. The validity of water-air models to study steel-argon flows is discussed. Prior works related with experiments to model argon bubbling in steel slab molds under nonwetting conditions are critically reviewed.

  8. High yttria ferritic ODS steels through powder forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Prakash, Ujjwal; Dabhade, Vikram V.; Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T.

    2017-05-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developed for future nuclear reactors. ODS Fe-18%Cr-2%W-0.2%Ti steels with 0, 0.35, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% Y2O3 (all compositions in weight%) dispersion were fabricated by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The powders were placed in a mild steel can and forged in a stream of hydrogen gas at 1473 K. The steels were forged again to final density. The strength of ODS steel increased with yttria content. Though this was accompanied by a decrease in tensile elongation, all the steels showed significant ductility. The ductility in high yttria alloys may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding between milled powders due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. This may permit development of ODS steels with yttria contents higher than the conventional limit of 0.5%. It is suggested that powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels with high yttria contents and improved ductility.

  9. Creep constitutive equation of dual phase 9Cr-ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo; Ukai, Shigeharu; Tamura, Manabu; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Kohyama, Akira; Fujiwara, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    9Cr-ODS (oxide dispersion strengthened) steels developed by JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) have superior creep properties compared with conventional heat resistant steels. The ODS steels can enormously contribute to practical applications of fast breeder reactors and more attractive fusion reactors. Key issues are developments of material processing procedures for mass production and creep life prediction methods in present R and D. In this study, formulation of creep constitutive equation was performed against the backdrop. The 9Cr-ODS steel displaying an excellent creep property is a dual phase steel. The ODS steel is strengthened by the δ ferrite which has a finer dispersion of oxide particles and shows a higher hardness than the α' martensite. The δ ferrite functions as a reinforcement in the dual phase 9Cr-ODS steel. Its creep behavior is very unique and cannot be interpreted by conventional theories of heat resistant steels. Alternative qualitative model of creep mechanism was formulated at the start of this study using the results of microstructural observations. Based on the alternative creep mechanism model, a novel creep constitutive equation was formulated using the exponential type creep equation extended by a law of mixture

  10. On the origin of extraordinary cyclic strengthening of the austenitic stainless steel Sanicro 25 during fatigue at 700 °C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heczko, Milan; Esser, B.D.; Smith, T. M.; Beran, Přemysl; Mazánová, Veronika; Kruml, Tomáš; Polák, Jaroslav; Mills, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 23 (2017), s. 4342-4353 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : steel * fatigue * scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics; JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics (UJF-V) OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis; Audio engineering, reliability analysis (UFM-A); Audio engineering, reliability analysis (UJF-V) Impact factor: 1.673, year: 2016

  11. Polycrystalline strengthening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1985-01-01

    for the understanding of polycrystalline strengthening is obtained mainly from surface relief patterns and from bulk structures observed by transmission electron microscopy of thin foils. The results obtained by these methods are discussed and correlations are proposed. A number of features characterizing the deformed...... structure are summarized and the behavior of a number of metals and alloys is reviewed with emphasis on the structural changes in the interior of the grains and in the vicinity of the grain boundaries. The models for strain accommodation during deformation are discussed on the basis of the microstructures...

  12. The effects of oxide evolution on mechanical properties in proton- and neutron-irradiated Fe-9%Cr ODS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, M.J., E-mail: matthewswenson1@u.boisestate.edu [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Dolph, C.K. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Wharry, J.P. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the strengthening mechanisms of a model Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel. The alloy was irradiated with protons or neutrons to a dose of 3 displacements per atoms at 500 °C. Nanoindentation was used to measure strengthening due to irradiation, with neutron irradiation causing a greater increase in yield strength than proton irradiation. The irradiated microstructures were characterized using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography (APT). Cluster analysis reveals solute migration from the Y-Ti-O-rich nanoclusters to the surrounding matrix after both irradiations, though the effect is more pronounced in the neutron-irradiated specimen. Because the dissolved oxygen atoms occupy interstitial sites in the iron matrix, they contribute significantly to solid solution strengthening. The dispersed barrier hardening model relates microstructure evolution to the change in yield strength, but is only accurate if solid solution contributions to strengthening are considered simultaneously.

  13. Material physical properties of 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) wrapper tube materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Tanno, Takashi; Uwaba, Tomoyuki; Koyama, Shinichi

    2012-09-01

    It is necessary to develop core materials for fast reactors in order to achieve high-burnup. Ferritic steels are expected to be good candidate core materials to achieve this objective because of their excellent void swelling resistance. Therefore, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel and 11Cr-ferritic/martensitic steel (PNC-FMS) have been respectively developed for cladding and wrapper tube materials in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. In this study, various physical properties of PNC-FMS wrapper materials were measured and equations and future standard measurement technique of physical properties for the design and evaluation were conducted. (author)

  14. The filler powders laser welding of ODS ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shenyong, E-mail: s_y_liang@126.com; Lei, Yucheng; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-01-15

    Laser welding was performed on Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with the self-designed filler powders. The filler powders were added to weld metal to produce nano-particles (Y–M–O and TiC), submicron particles (Y–M–O) and dislocation rings. The generated particles were evenly distributed in the weld metal and their forming mechanism and behavior were analyzed. The results of the tests showed that the nano-particles, submicron particles and dislocation rings were able to improve the micro-hardness and tensile strength of welded joint, and the filler powders laser welding was an effective welding method of ODS ferritic steel.

  15. Novel dispersed magnetite core-shell nanogel polymers as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in acidic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, Ayman M.; El-Azabawy, Olfat E.; Ismail, H.S.; Hegazy, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Through a one-step thermal reaction, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized, and self-assembled mixed films of modified cross-linked ionic polymer magnetite nanoparticles were prepared on iron surface. → The size distribution and shape of magnetite nanoparticles were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). → The corrosion inhibition efficiency of carbon steel in 1 M HCl by the synthesized Fe 3 O 4 nanogel polymers has been studied using potentiodynamic polarization and EIS. → Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were applied to study the morphology of the carbon steel surface. - Abstract: Novel core-shell preparing poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) (PAMPS) and copolymers with acrylic acid (AA) or acrylamide (AM) magnetic nanogels with controllable particle size produced via free aqueous polymerization at room temperature have been developed for the first time. The crosslinking polymerization was carried out in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker, N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) and potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS) as redox initiator system. The structure and morphology of the magnetic nanogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM). The effectiveness of the synthesized compounds as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 1 M HCl was investigated by various electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed enhancement in inhibition efficiencies with increasing the inhibitor concentrations and temperatures. The results showed the nanogel particles act as mixed inhibitors. Adsorption of nanogel particles was found to fit the Langmuir isotherm and was chemisorption.

  16. Elevated temperature tensile properties of borated 304 stainless steel: Effect of boride dispersion on strength and ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.J.; Sorenson, K.B.; McConnell, P.

    1992-01-01

    Conventional cast and wrought (open-quotes Ingot Metallurgyclose quotes) borated 304 stainless steel has been used for a number of years in spent fuel storage applications where a combination of structural integrity and neutron criticality control are required. Similar requirements apply for materials used in transport cask baskets. However, in the high boron contents (>1.0 wt. %) which are most useful for criticality control, the conventional cast and wrought material suffers from low ductility as well as low impact toughness. The microstructural reason for these poor properties is the relatively coarse size of the boride particles in these alloys, which act as sites for crack initiation. Recently, a open-quotes premiumclose quotes grade of borated 304 stainless steel has been introduced (Strober and Smith, 1988) which is made by a Powder Metallurgy (PM) process. This material has greatly improved ductility and impact properties relative to the conventional cast and wrought product. In addition, an ASTM specification (ATSM A887) has been developed for borated stainless steel, containing 8 different material Types with respect to boron content - with the highest level (Type B7) having permissible range from 1.75 to 2.25 wt. % boron - and each Type contains two different Grades of material based on tensile and impact properties. While the ASTM specification is properties-based and does not require a specific production process for a particular grade of material, the PM material qualifies as open-quotes Grade Aclose quotes material while the conventional Ingot Metallurgy (IM) material generally qualifies as open-quotes Grade Bclose quotes material. This paper presents a comparison of the tensile properties of PM open-quotes Grade Aclose quotes material with that of the conventional IM open-quotes Grade Bclose quotes material for two selected Types (i.e., boron contents) as defined by the ASTM A887 specification: Types 304B5 and 304B7

  17. Mechanical dispersion of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in steel EUROFER 97: process and optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, V. de E-mail: mvcastro@fis.uc3m.es; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.; Amador, D.R.; Torralba, J.M.; Victoria, M

    2003-11-01

    The procedures followed to produce Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-dispersed EUROFER 97 powder ready to be compacted and hot isostatic pressing processed are reported. An attrition mill has been used under controlled conditions. The compositional and microstructural characterization of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/EUROFER powder along the different steps of the milling process has allowed optimising the processing conditions to obtain a nanosized Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion. TEM observations performed on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/EUROFER powder milled under these specific conditions reveal the presence of monoclinic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids having sizes around 10 nm in the ferrite/martensite matrix.

  18. Strengthening method of concrete structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Wewin; Audrey; Nugroho, Sofie; Njo, Helen

    2018-03-01

    Building extension in Indonesia is not favored, and not many people know the advantages of the method because architects and engineers tend to lack the knowledge and experience. The aim of this paper is to explain a method on how to strengthen a concrete building structure that people can use/learn as a better way to cut potential cost and save time. The strengthening method explained in this paper is steel jacketing, providing a case study of this method in the extension of a restaurant located in Medan, Indonesia. In this study, engineers calculated that the tensile stress of the existing RC column and beam is not strong enough to reinforce the building extension applied load. Therefore, the steel jacketing method can be applied to improve the column and beam strength and ductility. The result of the case study proves that this is one of the best methods for building extension applied in Indonesia.

  19. Fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel with dispersed structure and time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Kang, Chang-Yong; Do, Jae-Yoon; Ahn, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Kee

    2001-06-01

    The fatigue crack propagation of super duplex stainless steel was investigated for the effect of various volume fractions of the austenite phase by changing the heat treatment temperature. We also analyzed acoustic emission signals obtained during the fatigue crack propagation by the time-frequency analysis method. As the temperature of the heat treatment increased, the volume fraction of austenite decreased and coarse grain was obtained. The specimen treated at 1200 had a longer fatigue life and slower rate of crack growth. Results of time-frequency analysis of acoustic emission signals during the fatigue test showed the main frequency of 200-300 kHz to have no correlation with heat treatment and crack length, and the 500 kHz signal to be due to dimples and separation of inclusion.

  20. Microstructure and tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe–14Cr–0.3Y2O3 and Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two ODS ferritic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%): Fe–14Cr–0.3Y 2 O 3 and Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 have been produced by mechanical alloying and consolidation by hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure and tensile properties of these materials after being forged and heat-treated at 1123 K have been investigated to clarify the interrelation between composition, microstructure and mechanical properties. The second-phase precipitates in these alloys have been analyzed by high-angle annular dark-field imaging in scanning TEM mode and electron diffraction. Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 exhibits a duplex microstructure consisting of large recrystallized grains, as large as 1.5 μm, and unrecovered regions containing submicron equiaxed grains. In addition, three types of secondary phase particles have been found: large M 23 C 6 particles containing W and Cr, (Cr + Ti) rich spherical particles with diameters between 50 and 500 nm, and fine (Y + Ti) oxide particles with sizes below 30 nm. In contrast, Fe14CrY shows a uniform structure of equiaxed grains, with sizes in the range 0.5–3 μm, containing a fine dispersion of Y oxide particles ( 2 O 3 at temperatures up to 773 K, but the opposite appears to occur beyond this temperature

  1. Controlling the ductile to brittle transition in Fe–9%Cr ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Martino, S.F., E-mail: s.f.di-martino@lboro.ac.uk; Riddle, N.B.; Faulkner, R.G.

    2013-11-15

    Probably the most important range of materials for consideration as the blanket material for the tokamak design for fusion reactors ITER and DEMO is the high alloy Fe–9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels. Ferritic steels possess exceptional thermal conductivity and low thermal expansion and are resistant to void swelling. Their main drawback is high ductile to brittle transition temperatures, particularly in the oxide dispersion strengthened versions. This paper describes attempts to reduce the DBTT in an un-irradiated ferritic steel by a novel heat treatment procedure. New batches of high alloy Fe–9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (Eurofer) ferritic steel have been produced by a powder metallurgy route, and relatively homogeneous material has been produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Mini-Charpy test specimens were made from materials which had been subjected to a matrix of heat treatments with varying solution treatment temperature (ST), cooling rate from the ST temperature, and tempering treatment. The initial DBTT was in the range of 150–200 °C (423–473 K). Downward shifts of up to approximately 200 °C (473 K) have been observed after solution treatment at 1300 °C (1573 K) followed by slow cooling. This paper describes the microstructure of this material, and discussion is made of the likely microstructural factors needed to produce these DBTT downward shifts.

  2. Dispersion and thermal interactions of molten metal fuel settling on a horizontal steel plate through a sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Purviance, R.T.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Spencer, B.W.

    1989-01-01

    Although the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) possesses inherent safety features, an assessment of the consequences of melting of the metal fuel is necessary for risk analysis. As part of this effort an experimental study was conducted to determine the depths of sodium at 600 C required for pour streams of various molten uranium alloys (U, U-5 wt % Zr, U-10 wt % Zr, and U-10 wt % Fe) to break up and solidify. The quenched particulate material, which was in the shape of filaments and sheets, formed coolable beds because of the high voidage (∼0.9) and large particle size (∼10 mm). In a test with a 0.15-m sodium depth, the fragments from a pure uranium pour stream did not completely solidify but formed an agglomerated mass which did not fuse to the base plate. However, the agglomerated fragments of U-10 wt % Fe eutectic fused to the stainless steel base plate. An analysis of the temperature response of a 25-mm thick base plate was made by volume averaging the properties of the sodium and metal particle phases and assuming two semi-infinite solids coming into contact. Good agreement was obtained with the data during the initial 5 to 10 s of the contact period. 16 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  3. High yttria ferritic ODS steels through powder forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Deepak [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, I.I.T-Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Prakash, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujwalfmt@iitr.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, I.I.T-Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Dabhade, Vikram V. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, I.I.T-Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Laha, K.; Sakthivel, T. [Mechanical Metallurgy Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu 603102 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are being developed for future nuclear reactors. ODS Fe-18%Cr-2%W-0.2%Ti steels with 0, 0.35, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (all compositions in weight%) dispersion were fabricated by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The powders were placed in a mild steel can and forged in a stream of hydrogen gas at 1473 K. The steels were forged again to final density. The strength of ODS steel increased with yttria content. Though this was accompanied by a decrease in tensile elongation, all the steels showed significant ductility. The ductility in high yttria alloys may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding between milled powders due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. This may permit development of ODS steels with yttria contents higher than the conventional limit of 0.5%. It is suggested that powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels with high yttria contents and improved ductility. - Highlights: •ODS steels with yttria contents beyond the conventional limit of 0.5 wt% were fabricated by powder forging in a hydrogen atmosphere. •All the alloys exhibited significant ductility. •This may be attributed to improved inter-particle bonding due to reduction of surface oxides by hydrogen. •Strength in excess of 300 MPa was obtained at 973 K for 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% yttria ODS alloys. •Powder forging is a promising route to fabricate ODS steels and permits development of compositions with up to 1.5% yttria.

  4. Elevated temperature tensile properties of borated 304 stainless steel: Effect of boride dispersion on strength and ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, J.J.; Sorenson, K.B.; McConnell, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper has documented the increase in strain to fracture and yield strength obtained with Grade A versions of types 304B5 and 304B7 relative to their respective Grade B, counterparts. The apparent microstructural reason for these property increases is the finer dispersion of boride in the Grade A material, obtained by means of a Powder Metallurgy process, relative to the conventional Grade B material which is produced using an Ingot Metallurgy process. The area size distribution of borides can be well approximated using a log-normal distribution, with the largest boride particles in the Grade B material having areas in the range of 450--600 μm 2 . By comparison, the largest boride particles in the Grade A material have areas nearly an order of magnitude smaller than the largest particles in their Grade B counterparts. A Section III ASME B ampersand PV code case inquiry has been initiated for non-welded versions of 304B4A, 3045A and 3046A ,material

  5. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Mitchell, David R.G. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results.

  6. Evaluation of mechanical properties and nano-meso structures of 9–11%Cr ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Takashi, E-mail: tanno.takashi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Oba, Yojiro; Ohnuma, Masato [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-1195 (Japan); Koyama, Shinichi; Tanaka, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We successfully manufactured 11Cr-ODS steels with residual α-ferrite controlled. • Dispersion conditions of nano oxide particles were quantitatively characterized. • Tungsten solid solution could improve only tensile strength of ODS steels at 973 K. • Oxide dispersion strengthening was dominant in creep strength of ODS steels at 973 K. -- Abstract: This study carried out mechanical tests and microstructural characterizations of several 9Cr and 11Cr-ODS tempered martensitic steels. From those results, the appropriate chemical composition range of 11Cr-ODS tempered martensitic steel was discussed from the viewpoint of high temperature strength improvement. It was shown that the residual α-ferrite fraction in 11Cr-ODS steel was successfully controlled to the same level as the 9Cr-ODS steel, which has excellent high temperature strength, by selecting the chemical compositions on the basis of the multi-component phase diagram. The tensile strength decreased with decreasing W content from 2.0 to 1.4 wt%. On the other hand, creep strength at 973 K did not degrade by the decreasing W content. Both tensile strength and creep strength increased with increasing population of the nano-sized oxide particles. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis revealed that titanium and excess oxygen contents were key parameters in order to improve the dispersion conditions of nano-sized oxide particles.

  7. Effect of microstructure on low cycle fatigue properties of ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubena, Ivo, E-mail: kubena@ipm.cz [IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno (Czech Republic); Fournier, Benjamin [CEA/DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, Bat. 453, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kruml, Tomas [CEITEC IPM, Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three various ODS steels are studied and compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low cycle fatigue data at RT, 650 Degree-Sign C and 750 Degree-Sign C are given. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructural characterization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of strengthening mechanisms. - Abstract: Low cycle fatigue properties at room temperature, 650 Degree-Sign C and 750 Degree-Sign C of three high chromium steels (9%Cr ferritic-martensitic and two 14%Cr ferritic steels) strengthened by oxide dispersion were studied and compared. Cyclic softening/hardening curves, cyclic deformation curves, S-N curves and Coffin-Manson curves are presented together with microstructural observations. Differences in cyclic response, stress level and fatigue life are attributed to differences in the matrix microstructure. The oxide particles stabilize the cyclic response, even if cyclic softening is detected for some experimental conditions. The strength of these steels is discussed in terms of strengthening mechanisms such as grain size effect, particle-dislocations interaction and dislocation density. Comparing three different ODS steels offers an opportunity to tests the contribution of individual mechanisms to the cyclic strength. The reduction of fatigue life in one of the ferritic steels is explained by the presence of large grains, facilitating the fatigue crack nucleation and the early growth.

  8. Influence of Normalizing Temperature on the Microstructure and Hardness of 9Cr-1Mo ODS Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ki Nam; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyu Tae [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened(ODS) steel has superior high-temperature strength and creep properties because fine oxide particles having an excellent stability at high temperatures are uniformly distributed in the matrix. ODS steel has being developed for structure materials of sodium fast cooled reactor(SFR) because of its excellent irradiation resistance and mechanical properties. 9Cr-1Mo ODS steel has better high temperature strength and irradiation resistance than common 9Cr-1Mo steel because Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-sized particles which interrupt dislocation movement and grain boundary slip are uniformly dispersed in the martensite matrix. The mechanical properties of the ODS steels are mainly determined by their microstructures, and the microstructure is considerably decided by the heat-treatment conditions. This study focused on the effect of normalizing temperature on microstructure and hardness of 9Cr-1Mo martensitic ODS steel so as to optimize the heat-treatment condition. In this study, the effect of normalizing temperature on mechanical property and microstructures of 9Cr-1Mo martensitic ODS steel was investigated. It was shown that the microhardness was steadily increased with increasing of the normalizing temperature. According to TEM observation, mechanical property of 9Cr-1Mo ODS steel was significantly affected by lath width. These observations, could be useful to understand the relationship between normalizing temperature and microstructure.

  9. Behavior of the elements in the mechanically alloyed and cast ferritic steels and a type 316 stainless steel in a flowing sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Mutoh, I.

    1988-01-01

    Sodium corrosion behavior of a mechanically alloyed ferritic steel, dispersion-strengthened with addition of Y 2 0 3 and Ti, two kinds of melted/cast ferritic steels and a Type 316 stainless steel was examined by using a non-isothermal sodium loop system, constructed of another Type 316 stainless steel, with a direct resistance electrical heater. The sodium conditions were 675 0 C, 4.0 m/s in velocity and 1-2 ppm oxygen concentration and a cumulative exposure time of the specimens was about 3000 h. The absorption of Ni and selective dissolution of Cr played an important role in the corrosion of the mechanically alloyed ferritic steel as in the case of the cast ferritic steels. However, the region of Ni absorption and Cr diminution was deeper than that of the cast ferritic steels. Peculiar finding for the mechanically alloyed ferritic steel was the corroded surface with irregularly shaped protuberance, that might be related with formation of sodium titanate, and the absorption of carbon and nitrogen to form carbide and nitride of titanium. It seems that these facts resulted in the irregular weight loss of the specimens, which depended on the downstream position and the cumulative exposure time. However, the tensile properties of the mechanically alloyed ferritic steel did not noticeably change by the sodium exposure

  10. Positron and nanoindentation study of helium implanted high chromium ODS steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veternikova, Jana Simeg; Fides, Martin; Degmova, Jarmila; Sojak, Stanislav; Petriska, Martin; Slugen, Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Three oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels with different chromium content (MA 956, MA 957 and ODM 751) were studied as candidate materials for new nuclear reactors in term of their radiation stability. The radiation damage was experimentally simulated by helium ion implantation with energy of ions up to 500 keV. The study was focused on surface and sub-surface structural change due to the ion implantation observed by mostly non-destructive techniques: positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The applied techniques demonstrated the best radiation stability of the steel ODM 751. Blistering effect occurred due to high implantation dose (mostly in MA 956) was studied in details.

  11. Austenite strengthening and softening during hot deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushinskij, L.I.; Vlasov, V.S.; Kazimirova, I.E.; Tokarev, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    Processes of formation of austenite structure of 20 and 12Kh18N10T steels during hot deformation and postdeformation isothermal holdings have been investigated by the methods of analysis of curves of hot deformation, high-temperature metallography and light microscopy. Deformation has been exercised by extention in vacuum with average 4x10 -2 s -1 rate. Deformation temperatures of steel 20 are 930 and 1000 deg C, of steel 12Kh18N10T - 1100 deg C. It is stated that dynamic recrystallization takes place in both investigated steels during hot deformation. In the carbonic steel it is developed by shifting sections of high-angular boundaries, flow stress in this case remains constant. Recrystallization is developed by subgrain coalescence in austenite steel, that brings about preservation of increased defect density in recrystallized volumes. As a result strengthening of steel is continued up to fracture during the increase of the deformation degree. Postdeformation weakening of 12Kh18N10T steel is slowed down as compared with weakening of carbonic steel [ru

  12. Mechanism of mechanical property enhancement in nitrogen and titanium implanted 321 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ming; Li Liuhe; Liu Youming; Cai Xun; Chen Qiulong; Chu, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    Ion implantation is a well-known method to modify surface mechanical properties. The improvement of the mechanical properties can usually be attributed to the formation of new strengthening phases, solution strengthening, dislocation strengthening, or grain refinement. However, in many cases, the roles of individual factors are not clear. In this study, we implanted nitrogen and titanium into 321 stainless steel samples to investigate the enhancement mechanism of the mechanical properties. Nano-indentation experiments were conducted to measure the hardness under various loadings. The N and Ti implanted 321 stainless steel samples were found to behave differently in the hardness (GPa) versus depth (nm) diagram. The effects of the radiation damage, solution strengthening, and dispersion strengthening phase were analyzed. Characterization of the modified layers was performed using techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction were also applied to reveal the structure of the untreated 321 stainless steel

  13. Water corrosion resistance of ODS ferritic-martensitic steel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasuji

    2008-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels have superior radiation resistance; it is possible to achieve a service temperature of up to around 973 K because of their superior creep strength. These advantages of ODS steels facilities their application to long-life cladding tubes in advanced fast reactor fuel elements. In addition to neutron radiation resistance, sufficient general corrosion resistance to maintain the strength of the cladding, and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance for spent-fuel-pool cooling systems and high-temperature oxidation for the fuel-clad chemical interaction (FCCI) of ODS ferritic steel are required. Although the addition of Cr to ODS is effective in preventing water corrosion and high-temperature oxidation, an excessively high amount of Cr leads to embrittlement due to the formation of a Cr-rich α' precipitate. The Cr content in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite, the ODS steels developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), is controlled. In a previous paper, it has been demonstrated that the resistances of 9Cr- and 12Cr-ODS ferritic-martensitic steels for high-temperature oxidation are superior to those of conventional 12Cr ferritic steel. However, the water corrosion data of ODS ferritic-martensitic steels are very limited. In this study, a water corrosion test was conducted on ODS steels in consideration of the spent-fuel-pool cooling condition, and the results were compared with those of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. (author)

  14. Improving the engineering strength of heat strengthened glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, YM

    2016-01-01

    Although glass is increasingly used as a structural material, glass is not produced to strength standards, like steel and concrete. Of the three types of glass: annealed, heat strengthened and fully tempered, only heat strengthened glass has the properties to function as a safe structural material.

  15. Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Y., E-mail: yano.yasuhide@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Tanno, T.; Oka, H.; Ohtsuka, S.; Inoue, T.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, T.; Uwaba, T.; Kaito, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan); Ukai, S.; Oono, N. [Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628 (Japan); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hayashi, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Torimaru, T. [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., 2163, Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki, 311-1313 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were performed to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions with temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1400 °C which is close to the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at ultra-high temperatures of 900–1200 °C, but there was significant degradation in the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200 °C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with γ/δ transformation, which is associated with reduced ductility. By contrast, the tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 °C, unlike the other tested materials.

  16. Ultra-high temperature tensile properties of ODS steel claddings under severe accident conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Y.; Tanno, T.; Oka, H.; Ohtsuka, S.; Inoue, T.; Kato, S.; Furukawa, T.; Uwaba, T.; Kaito, T.; Ukai, S.; Oono, N.; Kimura, A.; Hayashi, S.; Torimaru, T.

    2017-04-01

    Ultra-high temperature ring tensile tests were performed to investigate the tensile behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings and wrapper materials under severe accident conditions with temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1400 °C which is close to the melting point of core materials. The experimental results showed that the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings was highest in the core materials at ultra-high temperatures of 900-1200 °C, but there was significant degradation in the tensile strength of 9Cr-ODS steel claddings above 1200 °C. This degradation was attributed to grain boundary sliding deformation with γ/δ transformation, which is associated with reduced ductility. By contrast, the tensile strength of recrystallized 12Cr-ODS and FeCrAl-ODS steel claddings retained its high value above 1200 °C, unlike the other tested materials.

  17. Self-ion Irradiation Damage of F/M and ODS steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Chun, Young-Bum; Noh, Sanghoon; Jang, Jinsung; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are potential high-temperature materials that are stabilized by dispersed particles at elevated temperatures. These dispersed particles improve the tensile strength and creep rupture strength, they are expected to increase the operation temperature up to approximately 650 .deg. C and also enhance the energy efficiency of the fusion reactor. Some reports described that the nano-clusters are strongly resistant to coarsening by annealing up to 1000 .deg. C, and nanoclusters do not change after ion irradiation up to 0.7 dpa at 300 .deg. C. ODS steels will be inevitably exposed to neutron irradiation condition; the irradiation damages, creep and swelling are always great concern. The dispersed oxide particles are believed to determine the performance of the steel, even the radiation resistance. In this study, F/M and ODS model alloys of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were irradiated by Fe 3+ self-ion to emulate the neutron irradiation effect. In this study, Fe 3+ self-ion irradiation is used as means of introducing radiation damage in F/M steel and ODS steel. The ion accelerator named DuET (in Kyoto University, Japan) was used for irradiation of Fe 3+ ion by 6.4 MeV at 300 .deg. C. The maximum damage rate in F/M and ODS steels were estimated roughly 6 dpa. After radiation, point or line defects were dominantly observed in F/M steel, on the other hands, small circular cavities were typically observed in ODS steel. Nanoindentation is a useful tool to determine the irradiationinduced hardness change in the damage layer of ionirradiated iron base alloys

  18. Plasticity of alloys strengthened with nano-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praud, M.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the development of the new generation of nuclear power plant, especially sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered as potential candidates for cladding materials. Their main advantages are their excellent dimensional stability under irradiation, thanks to their body centered cubic structure, and their high thermal creep resistance due to the nano-particles. The aim of this work is to understand the plasticity of such materials through a multiscale approach. First, the microstructure of 9% and 14% Cr ODS steels has been finely characterized. Then, their mechanical behavior has been studied through tensile tests and creep tests. In addition, in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy straining experiments have been carried out to observe the dynamic behavior at a finer scale. This work emphasizes an evolution of the deformation and damage mechanisms with temperature. At room temperature, a mechanism with a strong intragranular contribution is noticed. At high temperature, an increase in the intergranular component has been pointed out. Consequently, it leads to more severe damage. Finally, the hardening role of the precipitates on the mechanical properties and the plasticity has been evaluated thanks to a 'model' material, without precipitate. (author) [fr

  19. Friction stir welding of F/M ODS steel plug and F/M steel tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon, E-mail: shkang77@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Vasudevan, M. [Materials Technology Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Noh, Sanghoon; Jin, Hyun Ju; Jang, Jinsung; Kim, Tae Kyu [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. • The curvature and smaller thickness of tube was the major limitation for applying FSW method, it was solved using specially designed jig. • Considerable hardening occurs in the joint because the cooling rate was sufficient to reproduce a martensitic microstructure. • The measured hoop strength of the FSWed joint was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. The dimensions of the tube included outer diameter of 7 mm, wall thickness of 0.5 mm. The objective was to find suitable process variables for gaining enough frictional heat from those thin and curved pieces. A specially designed jig was used for stabilization and slow rotation of tube during FSW. Additionally, the plug was designed to overlap the tube. Inconel 718 was used as FSW tool, the diameter was 3.5 mm. The adequate rotation speed of the tool and jig were 1200 rpm and 1.5 rpm, respectively. The joining was successfully accomplished using above combination, showing a good possibility. The hoop stress tests of joint were conducted by blowing Ar gas into the tube, the flow rate of gas was 10 MPa/min. The measured hoop stress was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube.

  20. Friction stir welding of F/M ODS steel plug and F/M steel tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Vasudevan, M.; Noh, Sanghoon; Jin, Hyun Ju; Jang, Jinsung; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. • The curvature and smaller thickness of tube was the major limitation for applying FSW method, it was solved using specially designed jig. • Considerable hardening occurs in the joint because the cooling rate was sufficient to reproduce a martensitic microstructure. • The measured hoop strength of the FSWed joint was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) was used for joining of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel plug and F/M steel tube. The dimensions of the tube included outer diameter of 7 mm, wall thickness of 0.5 mm. The objective was to find suitable process variables for gaining enough frictional heat from those thin and curved pieces. A specially designed jig was used for stabilization and slow rotation of tube during FSW. Additionally, the plug was designed to overlap the tube. Inconel 718 was used as FSW tool, the diameter was 3.5 mm. The adequate rotation speed of the tool and jig were 1200 rpm and 1.5 rpm, respectively. The joining was successfully accomplished using above combination, showing a good possibility. The hoop stress tests of joint were conducted by blowing Ar gas into the tube, the flow rate of gas was 10 MPa/min. The measured hoop stress was 70–90 MPa, the value was at around 70% of the tube.

  1. A comparative study of the mechanical properties and the behavior of carbon and boron in stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by PM HIP and traditional technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    The ring tensile test method was optimized and successfully used to obtain precise data for specimens of the cladding tubes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steels and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. The positive modifications in the tensile properties of the stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by powder metallurgy and hot isostatic pressing of melt atomized powders (PM HIP) when compared with the cladding tubes produced by traditional technology were found. Presently, PM HIP is also used in the fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic steels. The high degree of homogeneity of the distribution of carbon and boron as well the high dispersivity of the phase-structure elements in the specimens manufactured via PM HIP were determined by direct autoradiography methods. These results correlate well with the increase of the tensile properties of the specimens produced by PM HIP technology.

  2. Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloys. 14/20% chromium: effects of processing on deformation texture, recrystallization and tensile properties; Alliages ferritiques 14/20% de chrome renforces par dispersion d`oxydes. Effets des procedes de mise en forme sur les textures de deformation, la recristallisation et les proprietes de traction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regle, H

    1994-12-31

    The ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are promising candidates for high temperature application materials, in particular for long life core components of advanced nuclear reactors. The aim of this work is to control the microstructure, in order to optimise the mechanical properties. The two ferritic alloys examined here, MA956 and MA957, are obtained by Mechanical Alloying techniques. They are characterised by quite anisotropic microstructure and mechanical properties. We have investigated the influence of hot and cold working processes (hot extrusion, swaging and cold-drawing) and recrystallization heat treatments on deformation textures, microstructures and tensile properties. The aim was to control the size of the grains and their anisotropic shape, using recrystallization heat treatments. After consolidation and hot extrusion, as-received materials present a extremely fine microstructure with elongated grains and a very strong (110) deformation texture with single-crystal character. At that stage of processing, recrystallization temperature are very high (1450 degrees C for MA957 alloy and 1350 degrees C for MA956 alloy) and materials develop millimetric recrystallized grains. Additional hot extrusion induce a fibre texture. Cold-drawing maintains a fibre texture, but the intensity decreases with increasing cold-work level. For both materials, the decrease of texture intensities correspond to a decrease of the recrystallization temperatures (from 1350 degrees C for a low cold-work level to 750 degrees C for 60 % cold-deformation, case of MA956 alloy) and a refinement of the grain size (from a millimetric size to less than an hundred of micrometer). Swaging develop a cyclic component where the intensity increases with increasing deformation in this case, the recrystallization temperature remains always very high and the millimetric grain size is slightly modified, even though cold-work level increases. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. Accelerated development of advanced steels for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.; Zinkle, S.

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the operational performance and radiation resistance of ferritic-martensitic steels during the past few decades. Conventional high temperature steels, such as HT-9 and 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo have evolved into super Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels through successive optimization to meet strict performance and radiation-resistance constraints. Such evolution was possible through a combination of experimentation, modeling and empirical information. Further development and optimization of structural steels in nuclear applications will require full utilization of the available array of sophisticated experimental techniques and multiscale computational modeling, in addition to empirical data. We present here a systematic approach to the process of optimum steel development, by linking material fabrication to thermo-mechanical properties through a physical understanding of microstructure evolution. The optimization process is based on the application of design constraints (e.g. low activation, low DBTT, low swelling, creep resistance, and weldability) to describe the required microstructures, which in turn, can be controlled through material processing techniques. Prospects for future design of optimum structural steels in nuclear applications by utilization of the hierarchy of multiscale experimental and computational strategies will be described. (author)

  4. Microstructure and Property of Mn-Nb-B Low Carbon Bainite High Strength Steel Under Ultra-fast Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Bing-xing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the Mn-Nb-B low carbon bainite high strength steel with the reducing production technology as the research target, the deformation behavior and phase transformation behavior were studied by the thermal simulation testing machine. Combining with the characteristics of the medium and heavy plate production line, the controlled rolling and controlled cooling technology based on ultra-fast cooling were designed to produce low cost high strength construction machinery steel with superior comprehensive mechanical properties. The strengthening mechanisms such as grain refinement strengthening, precipitation strengthening are effective to produce the Mn-Nb-B low carbon bainite high strength steel. The yield strength and tensile strength of the product reach to 678MPa and 756 MPa respectively, the elongation A50 is 33% and the impact energy at -20℃ is 261J. The microstructure of the steel is composed of granular bainite, acicular ferrite and lath bainite. A large number of fine, point, granular M/A constituents and dislocation structures dispersively distributed inside the matrix, and also tiny and dispersed (Nb,Ti (C,N precipitates are observed by transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...... of the response, results in the ability to determine and characterize the two-way crack propagation, i.e. the relationship between tensile cracking in the concrete and interface debonding between strengthening and concrete. Using the load-crack opening relationship from the strengthened concrete tension member...

  6. Effects of manufacturing process on impact properties and microstructures of ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Takashi, E-mail: tanno.takashi@jaea.go.jp; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Yano, Yasuhide; Kaito, Takeji; Tanaka, Kenya

    2014-12-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are notable advanced alloys with durability to a high-temperature and high-dose neutron irradiation environment because of their good swelling resistance and mechanical properties under neutron irradiation. 9–12Cr-ODS martensite steels have been developed in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency as the primary candidate material for the fast reactor fuel cladding tubes. They would also be good candidates for the fusion reactor blanket material which is exposed to high-dose neutron irradiation. In this work, modification of the manufacturing process of 11Cr-ODS steel was carried out to improve its impact property. Two types of 11Cr-ODS steels were manufactured: pre-mix and full pre-alloy ODS steels. Miniature Charpy impact tests and metallurgical observations were carried out on these steels. The impact properties of full pre-alloy ODS steels were shown to be superior to those of pre-mix ODS steels. It was demonstrated that the full pre-alloy process noticeably improved the microstructure homogeneity (i.e. reduction of inclusions and pores)

  7. Effect of zirconium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS ferritic steels containing aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, R.; Zhang, T.; Wang, X.P.; Fang, Q.F.; Liu, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    The oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels with nominal composition of Fe–16Cr–2W–0.5Ti–0.4Y 2 O 3 –4Al–1Zr (16Cr–4Al–Zr–ODS) were fabricated by a sol–gel method combining with mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique, and the 16Cr–ODS and 16Cr–4Al–ODS steels were prepared for comparison in the same way. Microstructure characterization reveals that in the 16Cr–4Al–ODS steel coarse Y–Al–O particles were formed while in the 16Cr–4Al–Zr–ODS steel finer Y–Zr–O particles were formed. The mean size and number density of the nano-oxide particles in the 16Cr–4Al–Zr–ODS steel are about 25 nm and 2.6 × 10 21 /m 3 , respectively. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the 16Cr–ODS steel is about 1045 MPa, but UTS of the 16Cr–4Al–ODS steel decreases to 974 MPa. However, UTS of the 16Cr–4Al–Zr–ODS steel increases to 1180 MPa while keeping a large uniform elongation up to 23%, indicating the enhancement of mechanical properties by Zr addition

  8. Application of a powder sintering-extrusion process to the fabrication of U-Al and UO{sub 2}-stainless steel dispersed fuel elements; Application de frittage-filage de poudres a la fabrication d'elements combustibles disperses U-Al et UO{sub 2} inox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meny, L.; Buffet, J.; Sauve, Ch.

    1962-07-01

    Within the scope of an investigation of dispersion-type fuel elements, the fabrication by extrusion and sintering of cladded bars and tubes with core of either uranium-aluminum or uranium oxide-stainless steel fuel was investigated. The powder mixtures are first pre-densified in a 'pot', whereupon the sheathed compact is degassed and sealed in a vacuum by electron-beam welding. The subsequent co-extrusion is performed at low temperature and with slow pressure application in the case of U-Al dispersions; and at high temperature with rapid pressure application, using the Ugine-Sejournet process, in the case of UO{sub 2}-stainless steel dispersions. The procedure permits the production of practically fully dense bars and tubes more than 1 m. in length and 10-30 mm in diameter, the wall thickness of the tubes ranging from 2-5 mm. The physical and mechanical characteristics of the dispersion, as well as the mechanical characteristics of the cladded elements, were investigated as a function of the uranium content and the temperature. (authors) [French] Dans le cadre de l'etude des elements combustibles disperses, nous avons etudie la fabrication par frittage-filage de barreaux et de tubes gaines renfermant un noyau combustible soit en uranium-aluminium, soit en UO{sub 2}-inox. Les melanges de poudres sont comprimes dans un 'pot'. La billette composite ainsi obtenue est degazee, fermee et soudee sous vide par bombardement electronique. Le cofilage est ensuite effectue, a basse temperature et sur presse lente pour les disperses U-Al, a haute temperature et sur presse rapide par le procede Ugine-Sejournet pour les disperses UO{sub 2}-inox. Nous avons ainsi obtenu des barres et des tubes de porosite pratiquement nulle de plus de 1 metre de longueur et de 10 a 30 mm de diametre; les epaisseurs des tubes sont comprises entre 2 et 5 mm. Les proprietes physiques et mecaniques des disperses ainsi que les proprietes mecaniques des ensembles gaines, ont ete etudiees en fonction de

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 9Cr ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Hyoung Kee; Kang, Suk Hoon; Noh, Sanghoon; Lee, Jung Gu; Jang, Jinsung; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the welding of ODS steel with a conventional melting.solidification process is not adequate to reserve nano-oxide particles in the matrix homogeneously. To reserve nano-oxide particles in the matrix homogeneously, friction stir welding (FSW) is the most promising technique to join ODS alloys. In this study, the effects of FSW on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a ODS steel were studied to apply the FSW process to 9Cr ODS steels. Microstructures were observed by means of optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A tensile test and hardness test were carried out to the investigate mechanical properties. FSW could successfully produce defect-free welds on ODS plates. FSW produced a fine grain structure consisting of ferrite and martensite. Tensile strengths and elongations of the SZs were excellent at 298 K, compared to those of the BM. This study suggests that FSW might be an appropriate welding method of ODS steels. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic-martensitic (FM) steel containing 9 wt%Cr is a promising candidate material for high temperature components operating in aggressive environments such as nuclear fusion and fission systems because of the excellent elevated temperature strength, corrosion and radiation resistance. These characteristics come from microstructures consisting of fine grains and nano-oxide particles dispersed in high number density. However, for more applications of ODS steel in nuclear systems, its weldability is the one of the barrier to be solved

  10. Structural improvement of strengthened deck panels with externally bonded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Jongsung; Oh, Hongseob

    2005-01-01

    Concrete bridge decks require eventual replacement and rehabilitation due to decreasing load-carrying capacity. This paper compares different strengthening design procedures that improve the usability and structural performance of bridge decks. The failure characteristics of bridge decks strengthened with various materials such as carbon fiber sheet, glass fiber sheet, steel plate, and grid CFRP and GFRP are analyzed, and the theoretical load-carrying capacities are evaluated using traditional beam and yield line theory, and punching shear analysis. The strengthening materials increase the punching shear strength of the deck and change the failure mode of the strengthened panel

  11. Effect of horizontal reinforcement in strengthening of masonry members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, S.H.; Ilyas, M.; Ggaffar, A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental research program was undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of a new technique for strengthening masonry wall panels using steel strips on compressive and shear strength enhancement. The experimental work includes eight wall panels, four each for compressive and shear strength evaluation. This work was the phase I of extensive research project which include testing of strengthened masonry wall panels under monotonic load (Phase-I), static cyclic load (Phase-2) and dynamic load (Phase-3). The wall panels were strengthened with different steel strip arrangements, which consist of single/double face application of coarse and fine steel strip mesh with reduced spacing of horizontal strips. This paper investigates only the effectiveness of horizontal steel strips on strength enhancement. Four masonry wall panels are considered in two groups and in each group, one wall was retrofitted with coarse steel mesh on single face and on second wall fine steel mesh was applied on one side. Furthermore, test results of strengthened specimens are also compared with the un-strengthened specimen (REFE). The mechanisms by which load was carried were observed, varying from the initial, uncracked state, and the final, fully cracked state. The results demonstrate a quite significant increase in the compressive and shear capacity of strengthened panels as compared to REFE-panel. However, increase in the compressive strength of fine mesh above that of coarse mesh is negligible. The technique/approach is found quite viable for strengthening of masonry walls, for rehabilitation of old deteriorated buildings and unreinforced masonry structures in seismic zones. (author)

  12. Long-term thermal stability of nanoclusters in ODS-Eurofer steel: An atom probe tomography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilnyk, K. D.; Pradeep, K. G.; Choi, P.; Sandim, H. R. Z.; Raabe, D.

    2017-08-01

    Oxide-dispersion strengthened materials are important candidates for several high-temperature structural applications in advanced nuclear power plants. Most of the desirable mechanical properties presented by these materials are due to the dispersion of stable nanoparticles in the matrix. Samples of ODS-Eurofer steel were annealed for 4320 h (6 months) at 800 °C. The material was characterized using atom probe tomography in both conditions (prior and after heat treatment). The particles number density, size distribution, and chemical compositions were determined. No significant changes were observed between the two conditions indicating a high thermal stability of the Y-rich nanoparticles at 800 °C.

  13. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  14. Current status of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels R and D for fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steels have been considered to be the prime candidate for the fusion blanket structural material. The irradiation data obtained up to now indicates rather high feasibility of the steels for application to fusion reactors because of their high resistance to degradation of material performance caused by both the irradiation-induced displacement damage and transmutation helium atoms. The martensitic structure of RAF/M steels consists of a large number of lattice defects before the irradiation, which strongly retards the formation of displacement damage through absorption and annihilation of the point defects generated by irradiation. Transmutation helium can be also trapped at those defects in the martensitic structure so that the growth of helium bubbles at grain boundaries is suppressed. The major properties of the steels are well within our knowledge, and processing technologies are mostly developed for fusion application. RAF/M steels are now certainly ready to proceed to the next stage, that is, the construction of International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor Test Blanket Modules (ITER-TBM). Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) steels have been developed for higher thermal efficiency of fusion power plants. Recent irradiation experiments indicated that the steels were quite highly resistant to neutron irradiation embrittlement, showing hardening accompanied by no loss of ductility. High-Cr ODS steels whose chromium concentration was in the range from 14 to 19 mass% showed high resistance to corrosion in supercritical pressurized water. It is shown that the 14Cr-ODS steel is susceptible to neither hydrogen nor helium embrittlement. A combined utilization of ODS steels with RAF/M steels will be effective to realize fusion power early at a reasonable thermal efficiency. (author)

  15. Microstructural characterization of ODS ferritic steels at different processing stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, E., E-mail: egil@ceit.es; Ordás, N.; García-Rosales, C.; Iturriza, I., E-mail: iiturriza@ceit.es

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ODS ferritic stainless steel produced by new route without mechanical alloying. • Fully dense ferritic stainless steels containing Y and Ti were obtained by HIPping. • Y and Ti-rich precipitates prevent grain growth during heat treatment up to 1320 °C. • HIPping at 1220 °C dissolves the metastable oxides on PPBs. - Abstract: Nanostructured Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Reduced Activation Ferritic Stainless Steels (ODS RAF) are promising structural materials for fusion reactors, due to their ultrafine microstructure and the presence of a dispersion of Y–Ti–O nanoclusters that provide excellent creep strength at high temperatures (up to 750 °C). The traditional powder metallurgical route to produce these steels is based on Gas Atomization (GA) + Mechanical Alloying (MA) + HIP + ThermoMechanical Treatments (TMTs). Recently, alternative methods have arisen to avoid the MA step. In line with this new approach, ferritic stainless steel powders were produced by gas atomization and HIPped, after adjusting their oxygen, Y and Ti contents to form Y–Ti–O nanoclusters during subsequent heat treatments. The microstructure of as-HIPped steels mainly consists of ferrite grains, Y–Ti precipitates, carbides and oxides on Prior Particle Boundaries (PPBs). Post-HIP heat treatments performed at high temperatures (1270 and 1300 °C) evaluated the feasibility of achieving a complete dissolution of the oxides on PPBs and a precipitation of ultrafine Ti- and Y-rich oxides in the Fe14Cr2W matrix. FEG-SEM with extensive EDS analysis was used to characterize the microstructure of the atomized powders and the ODS-RAF specimens after HIP consolidation and post-HIP heat treatments. A deeper characterization of atomized powder was carried out by TEM.

  16. Metallurgical comparison between the experimental ED-ODS and commercial ODS steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.; Serrano, M.; Lapena, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Recently, reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steels have been identified as potential structural material candidates for first wall and blanket structures of fusion devices. These steels allow to increase the operation temperature of the fusion reactor, around of 100 deg. C or even more, because of their excellent thermal creep resistance. ODS steels are being developed and investigated for nuclear fission and fusion applications in Japan, Europe and the United States. Commercial ODS products, such as MA956 and PM2000 are available and are being used for high temperature applications. Since no reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are commercially available at present, the European Materials Fusion Programme has considered in the last years initiate adequate research activities to produce and characterize these materials to evaluate the feasibility of their use in the different blanket designs. Nowadays, the ODS steel that are being extensively investigated in Europe is the denominated EU-ODS. This alloy has the basic composition of the Eurofer'97 with 0.3% of Y 2 O 3 particles. In this paper, the metallurgical properties (microstructural, Charpy, etc) of the newly developed EU-ODS steel are presented and discussed together with the properties of the commercial MA956 and PM2000 ODS steels, also studied in this work, in order to show the differences and similarities between these ODS alloys. (authors)

  17. Mechanical properties and fracture behaviour of ODS steel friction stir welds at variable temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, H., E-mail: huwdawson@gmail.com [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Serrano, M.; Hernandez, R. [Structural Materials Division, Technology Department, CIEMAT, Avda de la Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cater, S. [Friction and Forge Processes Department, Joining Technologies Group, TWI Technology Centre (Yorkshire), Advanced Manufacturing Park, Wallis Way, Catcliffe, Rotherham S60 5TZ (United Kingdom); Jimenez-Melero, E. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-02

    We have assessed the microstructure and the temperature-dependent mechanical behaviour of five bead-on-plate friction stir welds of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steel, produced using systematic changes to the tool rotation and traverse speed. Friction stir welding can potentially retain the fine dispersion of nanoparticles, and therefore also the high-temperature strength and radiation damage resistance of these materials. Tensile testing was carried out on the MA956 base material at a range of temperatures, from room temperature up to 750 °C. The mechanical properties of the welds were investigated via tensile testing at room temperature and at 500 °C, together with micro-hardness testing. The welds exhibited similar strength and ductility to the base material at both testing temperatures as welding caused a partial loss of particle strengthening, alongside an increase in grain boundary strengthening due to a greatly refined grain size in the stir zones. The micro-hardness data revealed a trend of increasing hardness with increasing tool traverse speed or decreasing rotation speed. This was attributed to the smaller grain size and lower nanoparticle number density in the welds created with these parameters. At 500 °C, the yield stress and ultimate tensile stress of the base material and the welds decreased, due to a progressive reduction in both the Orowan-type particle strengthening and the grain boundary strengthening.

  18. Irradiation response of ODS Eurofer97 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzginova, N.V., E-mail: luzginova@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands); Nolles, H.S.; Pierick, P. ten; Bakker, T.; Mutnuru, R.K.; Jong, M.; Blagoeva, D.T. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Eurofer97 steel (EU batch, 0.3 wt.% of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles), produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot rolling, is irradiated in the High Flux Reactor in Petten, The Netherlands at three different irradiation temperatures (300, 450 and 550 Degree-Sign C) up to nominal doses of 1 dpa and 3 dpa. The effect of neutron irradiation on the mechanical properties of ODS Eurofer97 material is investigated. It is shown that the irradiation hardening of ODS Eurofer97 steel occurs at 300 Degree-Sign C, whereas during irradiation at 450 and 550 Degree-Sign C no changes in mechanical properties are observed compared to the unirradiated material. This effect is possibly a result of the annealing of the irradiation damage at temperatures higher than 300 Degree-Sign C. The observed shifts in the Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperatures due to irradiation at different temperatures are discussed and compared with non-ODS Eurofer97 steel.

  19. Preloading Effect on Strengthening Efficiency of RC Beams Strengthened with Non- and Pretensioned NSM Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kotynia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The near surface mounted (NSM technique has been shown to be one of the most promising methods for upgrading reinforced concrete (RC structures. Many tests carried out on RC members strengthened in flexure with NSM fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP systems have demonstrated greater strengthening efficiency than the use of externally-bonded (EB FRP laminates. Strengthening with simultaneous pretensioning of the FRP results in improvements in the serviceability limit state (SLS conditions, including the increased cracking moment and decreased deflections. The objective of the reported experimental program, which consisted of two series of RC beams strengthened in flexure with NSM CFRP strips, was to investigate the influence of a number of parameters on the strengthening efficiency. The test program focused on an analysis of the effects of preloading on the strengthening efficiency which has been investigated very rarely despite being one of the most important parameters to be taken into account in strengthening design. Two preloading levels were considered: the beam self-weight only, which corresponded to stresses on the internal longitudinal reinforcement of 25% and 14% of the yield stress (depending on a steel reinforcement ratio, and the self-weight with the additional superimposed load, corresponding to 60% of the yield strength of the unstrengthened beam and a deflection equal to the allowable deflection at the SLS. The influence of the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio was also considered in this study. To reflect the variability seen in existing structures, test specimens were varied by using different steel bar diameters. Finally, the impact of the composite reinforcement ratio and the number of pretensioned FRP strips was considered. Specimens were divided into two series based on their strengthening configuration: series “A” were strengthened with one pretensioned and two non-pretensioned carbon FRP (CFRP strips, while series

  20. The Microstructure and Properties of Super Martensitic Stainless Steel Microalloyed with Tungsten and Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong; Li, Jun; Liu, Yu-Rong; Yong, Qi-Long; Su, Jie; Cao, Jian-Chun; Tao, Jing-Mei; Zhao, Kun-Yu

    2011-06-01

    The microstructure and properties of super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) microalloyed with tungsten and copper were studied by means of optical microscopy, dilatometer, X-ray diffraction, and tensile tests. The results showed that the microstructure of SMSS, after quenching and tempering, was a typical biphase structure with tempered martensite and reversed austenite dispersedly distributed in the martensite matrix. W and Cu were added into the SMSS to reduce the transformation temperature (Ms) and improve the strength and hardness of the matrix by grain refining and solid solution strengthening. Thermocalc calculations confirmed that M23C6 compound and Laves phase were precipitated during tempering in the investigated steel. Compared with the traditional SMSS, the steel microalloyed with W and Cu performed better mechanical properties.

  1. Short Communication on “Coarsening of Y-rich oxide particles in 9%Cr-ODS Eurofer steel annealed at 1350 °C”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandim, M.J.R.; Souza Filho, I.R.; Bredda, E.H. [Lorena School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, 12602-810, Lorena (Brazil); Kostka, A.; Raabe, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, D-40237, Düsseldorf (Germany); Sandim, H.R.Z., E-mail: hsandim@demar.eel.usp.br [Lorena School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, 12602-810, Lorena (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    Oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) Eurofer steel is targeted for structural applications in future fusion nuclear reactors. Samples were cold rolled down to 80% reduction in thickness and annealed at 1350 °C up to 8 h. The microstructural characterization was performed using Vickers microhardness testing, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopies. Experimental results provide evidence of coarsening of the Y-rich oxide particles in ODS-Eurofer steel annealed at 1350 °C within delta ferrite phase field.

  2. Influence of Zr addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of 14Cr ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liye [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin key Lab of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yu, Liming, E-mail: lmyu@tju.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin key Lab of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Yongchang; Liu, Chenxi; Li, Huijun [State Key Lab of Hydraulic Engineering Simulation and Safety, Tianjin key Lab of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wu, Jiefeng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-05-17

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel is one of the most promising candidate structural materials for the high-temperature nuclear reactor application. In this study, two compositions of ODS steels (14Cr-ODS and 14Cr-Zr-ODS) were prepared to investigate the influence of Zr addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of ODS steels. The microstructures, including dispersion morphology and crystal structures of oxide particles, particle-matrix interface coherency and particle-dislocation interactions, were characterized using TEM, HRTEM, and SEM, and the mechanical properties at room and high temperatures were measured using uniaxial tensile tests. Results show that Zr addition leads to the formation of finer precipitated particles, which was identified as rhombohedral Y{sub 4}Zr{sub 3}O{sub 12}, with denser dispersion in the matrix. The calculation results reveal that the lattice misfit, δ, at the interface between particle and matrix increases as the particle size increases. In addition, the strength and elongation of ODS steels are improved with Zr addition due to the stronger interface bonding force between fine particles and matrix as well as the larger pinning effect of small particles to dislocation movements.

  3. Bonding techniques for flexural strengthening of R.C. beams using CFRP laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Morsy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of an alternative method of attaching FRP laminates to reinforced concrete beams by the way of fasting steel rivets through the FRP laminate and concrete substrate. Five full scale R.C. beams were casted and strengthened in flexural using FRP laminate bonded with conventional epoxy and compared with other beams strengthened with FRP laminate and bonded with fastener “steel rivets” of 50 mm length and 10 mm diameter. Based on experimental evidence the beam strengthened with conventional bonding methods failed due to de-bonding with about 13% increase over the un-strengthened beam. On the other hand, the beams strengthened with FRP laminate and bonded by four steel fastener rivets only failed by de-bonding also but at higher flexural capacity with increase 19% over the un-strengthened beam.

  4. Effect of Cu addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of 15%Cr super martensitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Dong; Li, Jun; Jiang, Wen; Su, Jie; Zhao, Kunyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cu contributes to refine the grains. ► Cu solutes in matrix under quenching and precipitates as ε-Cu during tempering. ► Cu promotes the kinetics of reversed austenite formation. ► Mechanical properties are significantly influenced by austenite amount. ► Cu alloyed super martensitic stainless steel exhibits greatly improved mechanical properties. -- Abstract: The effect of adding different content of Cu (0 wt.%, 1.5 wt.% and 3 wt.%) to the 15%Cr super martensitic stainless steel (SMSS) was investigated using optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Its consequence on mechanical properties was examined to clarify the role of Cu in the tested steels. The experimental results indicate that the microstructures of three tested steels are tempered martensite, retained austenite and reversed austenite; two kinds of austenites are dispersedly distributed among martensite matrix. Cu can solute in matrix under quenching condition and can precipitate as Cu-rich nanometer phase (ε-Cu) during tempering. Cu is helpful for the grain refinement and to promote the formation of reversed austenite during tempering. The maximum volume fraction of austenite is 55.9% in the steel with 3 wt.% Cu, which is responsible for the improvement of ductility. The results of the mechanical properties tests reveal that the mechanical properties are significantly influenced by the volume fraction of austenite. Cu can cause solid solution strengthening, precipitation strengthening and grain refinement strengthening in SMSS. Cu alloyed super martensitic stainless steel exhibits greatly improved mechanical properties.

  5. High Cr ODS steels R and D for high burnup fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Kasada, R.; Kishimoto, H.; Iwata, N.; Cho, H.-S.; Toda, N.; Yutani, K.; Ukai, S.; Fujiwara, M.

    2007-01-01

    High-performance cladding materials is essential to realize highly efficient and high-burnup operation over 150 GWd/t of so called Generation IV nuclear energy systems, such as supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) and lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR). Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) ferritic/ martensitic steels, which contain 9-12%Cr, show rather high resistance to neutron irradiation embrittlement and high strength at elevated temperatures. However, their corrosion resistance is not good enough in SCW and in lead at high temperatures. High-Cr ODS steels have been developed to improve corrosion resistance. An increase in Cr content an addition resulted in a drastic improvement of corrosion resistance in SCW and in lead. On the contrary, high-Cr steels often show an enhancement of aging embrittlement as well as irradiation embrittlement. Anisotropy in tensile properties is another issue. In order to overwhelm these issues, surveillance tests of the material performance have been performed for high Cr-ODS steels produced by new processing technologies. It is demonstrated that the dispersion of nono-sized oxide particles in high density is effective to attain high-performance and high-Cr ODS steels have a high potential as fuel cladding materials for SCWR and LFR with high efficiency and high burnup. (authors)

  6. Strengthening of a railway bridge with NSMR and CFRP tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders; Danielsson, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of structures with CFRP is today considered an accepted method to upgrade concrete structures. In this paper two different CFRP strengthening systems are combined to give extended service life to a Swedish double-trough-double-track railway bridge, constructed in concrete with a 10 ....... Sensors on bars and tubes display proofs of utilization of the CFRP while displacement sensors and strain gauges on the steel reinforcement due to the small loads in the service limit state show minor effect....

  7. Effects of Mn addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr ODS ferritic/martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferritic/martensitic (FM) steels are very attractive for the structural materials of fast fission reactors such as a sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) owing to their excellent irradiation resistance to a void swelling, but are known to reveal an abrupt loss of their creep and tensile strengths at temperatures above 600 .deg. C. Accordingly, high temperature strength should be considerably improved for an application of the FM steel to the structural materials of SFR. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FM steels are considered to be promising candidate materials for high- temperature components operating in severe environments such as nuclear fusion and fission systems due to their excellent high temperature strength and radiation resistance stemming from the addition of extremely thermally stable oxide particles dispersed in the ferritic/martensitic matrix.. To develop an advanced ODS steel for core structural materials for next generation nuclear reactor system applications, it is important to optimize its compositions to improve the high temperature strength and radiation resistance. This study investigates effects of Mn addition on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr ODS FM steel. For this, two 10 Cr ODS FM steels were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and hot rolling process. Tensile tests were carried out at room temperature and 700 .deg. C to evaluate the influences of the Mn element on the mechanical properties. The microstructures were observed using SEM, electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). In the present study, the effects of Mn addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS FM steels were investigated. The ODS FM steels were manufactured by the MA, HIP and hot-rolling processes

  8. Microstructural Evolution of Thor™ 115 Creep-Strength Enhanced Ferritic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolani, Matteo; D'Incau, Mirco; Ciancio, Regina; Scardi, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    A new ferritic steel branded as Thor™ 115 has been developed to enhance high-temperature resistance. The steel design combines an improved oxidation resistance with long-term microstructural stability. The new alloy, cast to different product forms such as plates and tubes, was extensively tested to assess the high-temperature time-dependent mechanical behavior (creep). The main strengthening mechanism is precipitation hardening by finely dispersed carbide and nitride phases. Information on the evolution of secondary phases and time-temperature-precipitation behavior of the alloy, essential to ensure long-term property stability, was obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and by X-ray Powder Diffraction on specimens aged up to 50,000 hours. A thermodynamic modeling supports presentation and evaluation of the experimental results. The evolution of precipitates in the new alloy confirms the retention of the strengthening by secondary phases, even after long-term exposure at high temperature. The deleterious conversion of nitrides into Z phase is shown to be in line with, or even slower than that of the comparable ASME grade 91 steel.

  9. Effect of yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS RAF steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Tarcísio-Costa, J.; Monge, M.A.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2014-01-01

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.24Y (wt.%) was produced by mechanical alloying using elemental powders, and subsequent hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure of the material and characteristics of the oxide particle dispersion were investigated by electron microscopy. The effect of heat treatments on the microhardness and tensile properties at room temperature was also studied. The results show that a fine dispersion of Y–O-rich nanoparticles is achieved, together with larger (Cr, Ti)-rich precipitates. The absence of Ti is apparent in the majority of these nanoparticles, in contrast with reported results for ODS Ti-modified steels processed with Y 2 O 3 addition

  10. Effect of yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS RAF steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.A., E-mail: maria.auger@materials.ox.ac.uk [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Tarcísio-Costa, J.; Monge, M.A.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.24Y (wt.%) was produced by mechanical alloying using elemental powders, and subsequent hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure of the material and characteristics of the oxide particle dispersion were investigated by electron microscopy. The effect of heat treatments on the microhardness and tensile properties at room temperature was also studied. The results show that a fine dispersion of Y–O-rich nanoparticles is achieved, together with larger (Cr, Ti)-rich precipitates. The absence of Ti is apparent in the majority of these nanoparticles, in contrast with reported results for ODS Ti-modified steels processed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition.

  11. Influence of the fabrication process parameters on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr-1Mo ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Ki Baik; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Noh, Sang Hoon; Kim, Ga Eon; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FM steels have been developed as the most promising core structural material for high- temperature components operating in severe environments such as nuclear fusion and fission systems owing to its excellent elevated temperature strength and radiation resistance stemming from the addition of extremely thermally stable oxide particles dispersed in a ferritic/martensitic matrix. To realize the structural components such as plates, sheets and tubes in SFR, the development of manufacturing processes is an essential issue for the ODS FM steel. While the ODS steel has superior radiation resistance and high temperature strength, in comparison with the existing commercial steels, it is difficult for the ODS steel to obtain sufficient workability for the fabrication due to high hardness and low ductility at room temperature, meaning that the manufacturing of the ODS plate including cladding tube can be complicated by the low cold workability. In order to prevent the ODS steel from any damage during the manufacturing process, thus, the introduction of intermediate heat treatments between cold rolling processes is necessary. This study investigates effects of the fabrication process parameters such as the cold working ratio, the intermediate and final heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 10Cr-1Mo ODS steel. In an effort to optimize the manufacturing route of the ODS FM steel, the microstructural and mechanical evolutions for the ODS plate manufactured by a control of the fabrication process parameters were evaluated in the present study. In the present study, the effect of a cold rolling and intermediate heat treatments on microstructures and mechanical properties of 10Cr-1Mo FM ODS steel were investigated. During the manufacturing route the hardness measurements remained below the critical value of 400 Hv. Intermediate heat treatment with slow cooling led to a softened ferritic structures which can be further

  12. Modification of the Strength Anisotropy in an Austenitic ODS Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. K.; Jang, J.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, C. B.; Bae, C. S.; Kim, D. H.

    2007-01-01

    Among many candidate alloys for Gen IV reactors, the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy is widely considered as a good candidate material for the in-reactor component, like cladding tube. The ODS alloy is well known due to its good high temperature strength, and excellent irradiation resistance. For the previous two decades in the nuclear community, the ODS alloy developments have been mostly focused on the ferritic martensitic (F-M) steel-based ones. On the other hand, the austenitic stainless steels (e.g. 316L or 316LN) have been used as a structural material due to its good high temperature strength and a good compatibility with a media. However, the austenitic stainless steel showed unfavorable characteristics in the dimensional stability under neutron irradiation and cracking behavior with the media. It is thus expected that the austenitic ODS steels restrain the dimension stability under neutron irradiation. However, the ODS alloys usually reveal the anisotropic characteristic in mechanical strength in the hoop and longitudinal directions, which is attributed to the grain morphology strongly developed parallel to the rolling direction with a high aspect ratio. This study focuses on a modification of the strength anisotropy of an austenitic ODS alloy by a recrystallization heat treatment

  13. Fractal characteristics of fracture morphology of steels irradiated with high-energy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Yongqiang; Liu, Juan [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Chonghong, E-mail: c.h.zhang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Chen, Jiachao [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Yang, Yitao; Zhang, Liqing; Song, Yin [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Fractal dimensions of fracture surfaces of steels before and after irradiation were calculated. • Fractal dimension can effectively describe change of fracture surfaces induced by irradiation. • Correlation of change of fractal dimension with embrittlement of irradiated steels is discussed. - Abstract: A fractal analysis of fracture surfaces of steels (a ferritic/martensitic steel and an oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic steel) before and after the irradiation with high-energy ions is presented. Fracture surfaces were acquired from a tensile test and a small-ball punch test (SP). Digital images of the fracture surfaces obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) by using the pixel covering method. Boundary of binary image and fractal dimension were determined with a MATLAB program. The results indicate that fractal dimension can be an effective parameter to describe the characteristics of fracture surfaces before and after irradiation. The rougher the fracture surface, the larger the fractal dimension. Correlation of the change of fractal dimension with the embrittlement of the irradiated steels is discussed.

  14. Tensile properties and deformation mechanisms of a 14Cr ODS ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckmeyer, A., E-mail: antonin.steckmeyer@cea.f [Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Praud, M.; Fournier, B.; Malaplate, J.; Garnier, J.; Bechade, J.L.; Tournie, I.; Tancray, A.; Bougault, A. [Service de Recherches Metallurgiques Appliquees, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bonnaillie, P. [Service de Recherche en Metallurgie Physique, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-10-15

    The search for a new cladding material is part of the research studies carried out at CEA to develop a sodium-cooled fast reactor meeting the expectations of the Generation IV International Forum. In this study, the tensile properties of a ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened steel produced by hot extrusion at CEA have been evaluated. They prove the studied alloy to be as resistant as and more ductile than the other nano-reinforced alloys of literature. The effects of the strain rate and temperature on the total plastic strain of the material remind of diffusion phenomena. Intergranular damage and intergranular decohesion are clearly highlighted.

  15. Development of next generation tempered and ODS reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Boutard, J. L.; Hoelzer, D. T.; Kimura, A.; Lindau, R.; Odette, G. R.; Rieth, M.; Tan, L.; Tanigawa, H.

    2017-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels are currently the most technologically mature option for the structural material of proposed fusion energy reactors. Advanced next-generation higher performance steels offer the opportunity for improvements in fusion reactor operational lifetime and reliability, superior neutron radiation damage resistance, higher thermodynamic efficiency, and reduced construction costs. The two main strategies for developing improved steels for fusion energy applications are based on (1) an evolutionary pathway using computational thermodynamics modelling and modified thermomechanical treatments (TMT) to produce higher performance reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels and (2) a higher risk, potentially higher payoff approach based on powder metallurgy techniques to produce very high strength oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels capable of operation to very high temperatures and with potentially very high resistance to fusion neutron-induced property degradation. The current development status of these next-generation high performance steels is summarized, and research and development challenges for the successful development of these materials are outlined. Material properties including temperature-dependent uniaxial yield strengths, tensile elongations, high-temperature thermal creep, Charpy impact ductile to brittle transient temperature (DBTT) and fracture toughness behaviour, and neutron irradiation-induced low-temperature hardening and embrittlement and intermediate-temperature volumetric void swelling (including effects associated with fusion-relevant helium and hydrogen generation) are described for research heats of the new steels.

  16. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  17. Effect of activation cross-section uncertainties in selecting steels for the HYLIFE-II chamber to successful waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Cabellos, O.; Reyes, S.

    2005-01-01

    We perform the waste management assessment of the different types of steels proposed as structural material for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) HYLIFE-II concept. Both recycling options, hands-on (HoR) and remote (RR), are unacceptable. Regarding shallow land burial (SLB), 304SS has a very good performance, and both Cr-W ferritic steels (FS) and oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) FS are very likely to be acceptable. The only two impurity elements that question the possibility of obtaining reduced activation (RA) steels for SLB are niobium and molybdenum. The effect of activation cross-section uncertainties on SLB assessments is proved to be important. The necessary improvement of some tungsten and niobium cross-sections is justified

  18. CFRP strengthened openings in two-way concrete slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enochsson, O.; Lundqvist, J.; Täljsten, Björn

    2006-01-01

    are very suitable, not only because of their strength, but also due to that they are easy to apply in comparison to traditional steel girders or other lintel systems. Even though many benefits have been shown by strengthening openings with FRPs not much research have been presented in the literature...

  19. Diffusion bonding of 9Cr ODS ferritic/martensitic steel with a phase transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon, E-mail: shnoh@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Kim, Tae Kyu [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion bonding was employed to join 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel under uniaxial hydrostatic pressure, and the microstructure and tensile properties of the joints were investigated. • ODS steel was successfully diffusion bonded at an austenization temperature to migrate a residual diffusion bonding interface. • The tensile properties of the joint region were comparable with that of the base metal with a ductile fracture occurred far from the bonding interface. • It is considered that diffusion bonding with a phase transformation can be a very useful joining method for fabricating components in next-generation nuclear systems using 9Cr ODS ferritic/martensitic steel. - Abstract: Diffusion bonding was employed to join oxide-dispersion-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel under uniaxial hydrostatic pressure using a high vacuum hot press, and the microstructure and tensile properties of the joints were investigated. 9Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel was successfully diffusion bonded at 1150 °C for 1 h to migrate a residual bonding interface. Following heat treatment, including normalising at 1050 °C and tempering at 800 °C for 1 h, comparable results without inclusions or micro-voids at the bonding interface, or degradation in the base metal were achieved. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed that the nano-oxide particles in the bonding region were uniformly distributed in the matrix. At room temperature, the joint had nearly the same tensile properties with that of the base metal. The tensile strength of the joint region at elevated temperatures was comparable with that of the base metal. The total elongation of the joint region decreased slightly, but reached 80% of the base metal at 700 °C, and a ductile fracture occurred far from the bonding interface. Therefore, it is considered that diffusion bonding with a phase transformation can be a very useful joining method for

  20. Cable strengthened arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerling, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    The structural efficiency of arches, subjected to several variable loads, can be increased by strengthening these arches with cables. For these structures it can be necessary, especially in case the permanent load is small, to post-tension the cables to avoid any compression acting on the cables. A

  1. Cracking of Beams Strengthened with Externally Bonded SRP Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywoń, Rafał

    2017-10-01

    Paper discusses strengthening efficiency of relatively new kind of SRP composite based on high strength steel wires. They are made of ultra-high strength steel primarily used in cords of car tires. Through advanced treatment, the mechanical properties of SRP steel are similar to other high carbon cold drawn steels used in construction industry. Strength significantly exceed 2000 MPa, there is no perfect plasticity at yield stress level. Almost linear stress-strain relationship makes SRP steel mechanical properties similar to carbon fibers. Also flexibility and weight ratio of the composite overlay is slightly worse than CFRP strip. Despite these advantages SRP is not as popular as other composites reinforced with fibers of high strength. This is due to the small number of studies of SRP behavior and applicability. Paper shows selected results of the laboratory test of beams strengthened with use of SRP and CFRP externally bonded overlays. Attention has been focused primarily on the phenomenon of cracking. Comparison include the cracking moment, crack width and spacing, coverage of crack zone. Despite the somewhat lower rigidity of SRP tapes, they have a much better adhesion to concrete, so that the crack width is comparable in almost the whole load range. The paper also includes an assessment of the common methods of checking the condition of cracking in relation to the tested SRP strengthening. The paper presents actual calculation procedures to determine the crack spacing and crack width. The discussed formulas are verified with results of provided laboratory tests.

  2. High-strength maraging steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grachev, S.V.; Shejn, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of data on technological and operation properties of maraging steels on Fe-Cr-Ni, Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr-Co-Mo bases is given. Their advantages and drawbacks are pointed out. The scheme of strengthening heat treatment is considered. The fields of the most effective application of maraging steels for instance, for products operating under conditions of low-cycle and shock cyclic loading are mentioned

  3. Experimental Investigation on Strengthening of Bolted Connections in Transmission/Communication Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, R.; Prasad Rao, N.; Rokade, R. P.; Umesha, P. K.

    2018-02-01

    Due to increase in demand for power supply and increase in bandwidth for communication industry, the existing transmission line (TL) and communication towers needs to be strengthened. The strengthening of existing tower is economical rather than installation of new towers due to constraints in acquisition of land. The size of conductors have to be increased or additional number of antenna needs to be installed in existing TL/communication tower respectively. The compression and tension capacity of members in the existing towers have to be increased to sustain the additional loads due to wind and self-weight of these components. The tension capacity enhancement of existing angle sections in live line condition without power shut-down is a challenging task. In the present study, the use of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) plate/angle sections is explored to strengthen existing bolted connections in TL/communication towers. Experimental investigation conducted at component level on strengthening of existing two types of single cover steel butt joint, one made of steel plate and another joint made of steel angle sections respectively. First series of experiment conducted on strengthening the connection using GFRP plate/cleat angle sections. The second series of strengthening experiment is conducted using steel plate/angle sections to replace GFRP sections. The load sharing behaviour of strengthened GFRP and steel section is compared and suitable recommendations are given.

  4. Experimental Investigation on Strengthening of Bolted Connections in Transmission/Communication Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, R.; Prasad Rao, N.; Rokade, R. P.; Umesha, P. K.

    2018-06-01

    Due to increase in demand for power supply and increase in bandwidth for communication industry, the existing transmission line (TL) and communication towers needs to be strengthened. The strengthening of existing tower is economical rather than installation of new towers due to constraints in acquisition of land. The size of conductors have to be increased or additional number of antenna needs to be installed in existing TL/communication tower respectively. The compression and tension capacity of members in the existing towers have to be increased to sustain the additional loads due to wind and self-weight of these components. The tension capacity enhancement of existing angle sections in live line condition without power shut-down is a challenging task. In the present study, the use of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) plate/angle sections is explored to strengthen existing bolted connections in TL/communication towers. Experimental investigation conducted at component level on strengthening of existing two types of single cover steel butt joint, one made of steel plate and another joint made of steel angle sections respectively. First series of experiment conducted on strengthening the connection using GFRP plate/cleat angle sections. The second series of strengthening experiment is conducted using steel plate/angle sections to replace GFRP sections. The load sharing behaviour of strengthened GFRP and steel section is compared and suitable recommendations are given.

  5. RC T beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Spagnolo JR

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental data of the behavior of reinforced concrete beams strengthened to shear with carbon fiber composites. The tests were composed of eight T beams, b w=15 cm, h=40 cm, flange width 40 cm, flange height 8 cm, and length 300 cm, divided into two series with the same longitudinal steel reinforcement and a reference beam without strengthening in each series. The beams had two types of arrangement of internal steel stirrups. The test variables were the internal and external geometric ratio of the transverse reinforcement and the mechanical ratio of carbon fiber composites stirrups. All the beams were loaded at two points. The strengthened beams were submitted to a preloading and the strengthening was applied to the cracked beam. All the beams were designed in order to guarantee shear failure, and the ultimate load of the strengthened beams was 36% to 54% greater than the reference beams. The Cracking Sliding Model applied to the strengthened beams was evaluated and showed good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Resistance Upset Welding of ODS Steel Fuel Claddings—Evaluation of a Process Parameter Range Based on Metallurgical Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Corpace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistance upset welding is successfully applied to Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS steel fuel cladding. Due to the strong correlation between the mechanical properties and the microstructure of the ODS steel, this study focuses on the consequences of the welding process on the metallurgical state of the PM2000 ODS steel. A range of process parameters is identified to achieve operative welding. Characterizations of the microstructure are correlated to measurements recorded during the welding process. The thinness of the clad is responsible for a thermal unbalance, leading to a higher temperature reached. Its deformation is important and may lead to a lack of joining between the faying surfaces located on the outer part of the join which can be avoided by increasing the dissipated energy or by limiting the clad stick-out. The deformation and the temperature reached trigger a recrystallization phenomenon in the welded area, usually combined with a modification of the yttrium dispersion, i.e., oxide dispersion, which can damage the long-life resistance of the fuel cladding. The process parameters are optimized to limit the deformation of the clad, preventing the compactness defect and the modification of the nanoscale oxide dispersion.

  7. Activation volume of martensitic ODS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Noh, S.; Kim, T. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Apparent activation volume as a function of temperature is 86b{sup 3}-42b{sup 3}. Activation volume decreases with increasing temperature. Activation volume changes scarcely with decreasing strain rate. Strain rate sensitivity increases with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Nano-sized oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel has a high strength, low thermal expansion coefficient, high thermal conductivity, and a good swelling resistance. Martensitic ODS steel is a candidate material for fuel cladding of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor (SFR). The plastic flow stress is determined through the interaction of dislocations with the obstacles encountered inside lattice. Dislocation movement through the lattice or past an obstacle requires surmounting of the energy barrier by a combination of applied stress and thermal activation. The plastic deformation of materials is a thermally activated process dependent upon time, temperature, and strain rate. Characterization of the rate controlling mechanism for plastic deformation due to dislocation motion in crystalline materials is done by the assessment of activation volume based on thermal activation analysis.

  8. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  9. Crack Propagation on ESE(T) Specimens Strengthened with CFRP Sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Jensen, Peter Holmstrøm; Dyrelund, Jens

    2009-01-01

    In this paper fatigue tests on side notched steel test specimens strengthened with adhesive bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets are presented. The specimens are subject to crack growth both in the steel and bond line. Influence of the load ratio and initial crack length on the overall...

  10. Precipitates and boundaries interaction in ferritic ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallez, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.sallez@simap.grenoble-inp.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hatzoglou, Constantinos [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR CNRS 6634, Normandie Université (France); Delabrouille, Fredéric [EDF–EDF R& D, Les Renardières, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing (France); Sornin, Denis; Chaffron, Laurent [CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches Métallurgiques Appliqué, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Blat-Yrieix, Martine [EDF–EDF R& D, Les Renardières, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing (France); Radiguet, Bertrand; Pareige, Philippe [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR CNRS 6634, Normandie Université (France); Donnadieu, Patricia; Bréchet, Yves [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-04-15

    In the course of a recrystallization study of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels during extrusion, particular interest was paid to the (GB) Grain Boundaries interaction with precipitates. Complementary and corresponding characterization experiments using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) have been carried out on a voluntarily interrupted extrusion or extruded samples. Microscopic observations of Precipitate Free Zones (PFZ) and precipitates alignments suggest precipitate interaction with migrating GB involving dissolution and Oswald ripening of the precipitates. This is consistent with the local chemical information gathered by EDX and APT. This original mechanism for ODS steels is similar to what had been proposed in the late 80s for similar observation made on Ti alloys reinforced by nanosized yttrium oxides: An interaction mechanism between grain boundaries and precipitates involving a diffusion controlled process of precipitates dissolution at grain boundaries. It is believed that this mechanism can be of primary importance to explain the mechanical behaviour of such steels. - Highlights: • To study the microstructural evolution of a ferritic ODS steel during its extrusion, observations have been carried on samples resulting from a voluntarily interrupted extrusion and extruded materials. • A highly heterogeneous precipitate population have been observed. Nanosized coherent precipitates (2–5 nm) on both sides of the grain boundaries despite grain boundary migration after precipitation due to further thermo-mechanical processing as well as coarse precipitates (10–40 nm) alignments are observed on the grain boundaries and within the grains, parallel to the grain boundaries. • Asymmetrical PFZs can be observed around precipitates alignments and grain boundaries. Using TEM with EDX and APT we have been able to ensure that the PFZs are chemically depleted.

  11. Influence of HIP pressure on tensile properties of a 14Cr ODS ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksiuta, Z., E-mail: z.oksiuta@pb.edu.pl [Bialystok Technical University, Mechanical Department, Wiejska 45c, 15-351 Bialystok (Poland); Ozieblo, A.; Perkowski, K.; Osuchowski, M. [Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Postępu 9, 02-676 Warsaw (Poland); Lewandowska, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Woloska 141, 02-504 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • The HIPping parameters of the 14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} ODS steel powder were investigated. • The density and microstructure of the tested specimens after HIPping were studied. • The mechanical properties, high temperature tensile tests, were performed. • Residual porosity was observed in all tested specimens. • HIPping pressure has negligible influence on the strength of the ODS steel however improves material ductility. - Abstract: An oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with a nominal composition of Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in wt.%) was consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1150 °C under various pressures in the range of 185–300 MPa for 3 h. The microstructure, microhardness and high temperature tensile properties of the steel were investigated. With increasing compaction pressure the density of specimens also increased, however OM and SEM observations revealed residual porosity in all tested specimens and similar ferritic microstructure with bimodal-like grains and numerous of large oxide particles, located at the grain boundaries. Mechanical testing revealed that compaction pressure has negligible influence on the hardness and tensile strength of the ODS steel, however improves the material ductility.

  12. Influence of HIP pressure on tensile properties of a 14Cr ODS ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Ozieblo, A.; Perkowski, K.; Osuchowski, M.; Lewandowska, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The HIPping parameters of the 14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 ODS steel powder were investigated. • The density and microstructure of the tested specimens after HIPping were studied. • The mechanical properties, high temperature tensile tests, were performed. • Residual porosity was observed in all tested specimens. • HIPping pressure has negligible influence on the strength of the ODS steel however improves material ductility. - Abstract: An oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with a nominal composition of Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y 2 O 3 (in wt.%) was consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1150 °C under various pressures in the range of 185–300 MPa for 3 h. The microstructure, microhardness and high temperature tensile properties of the steel were investigated. With increasing compaction pressure the density of specimens also increased, however OM and SEM observations revealed residual porosity in all tested specimens and similar ferritic microstructure with bimodal-like grains and numerous of large oxide particles, located at the grain boundaries. Mechanical testing revealed that compaction pressure has negligible influence on the hardness and tensile strength of the ODS steel, however improves the material ductility

  13. Corrosion behavior of ODS steels with several chromium contents in hot nitric acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanno, Takashi; Takeuchi, Masayuki; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji

    2017-10-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel cladding tubes have been developed for fast reactors. Tempered martensitic ODS steels with 9 and 11 wt% of chromium (9Cr-, 11Cr-ODS steel) are the candidate material in research being carried out at JAEA. In this work, fundamental immersion tests and electrochemical tests of 9 to 12Cr-ODS steels were systematically conducted in various nitric acid solutions at 95 °C. The corrosion rate decreased exponentially with effective solute chromium concentration (Creff) and nitric acid concentration. Addition of vanadium (V) and ruthenium (Ru) also decreased the corrosion rate. The combination of low Creff and dilute nitric acid could not avoid the active mass dissolution during active domain at the beginning of immersion, and the corrosion rate was high. Higher Creff decreased the partial anodic current during the active domain and assisted the passivation of the surface of the steel. Concentrated nitric acid and addition of Ru and V increased partial cathodic current and shifted the corrosion potential to noble side. These effects should have prevented the active mass dissolution and decreased the corrosion rate.

  14. Size-dependent characteristics of ultra-fine oxygen-enriched nanoparticles in austenitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yinbin, E-mail: ymiao@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mo, Kun [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Zhou, Zhangjian [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100082 (China); Liu, Xiang; Lan, Kuan-Che [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Zhang, Guangming [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100082 (China); Miller, Michael K.; Powers, Kathy A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Stubbins, James F. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Here, a coordinated investigation of the elemental composition and morphology of ultra-fine-scale nanoparticles as a function of size within a variety of austenitic oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels is reported. Atom probe tomography was utilized to evaluate the elemental composition of these nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the crystal structures and orientation relationships were determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles with sufficient size (>4 nm) to maintain a Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2−x}O{sub 7−2x} stoichiometry were found to have a pyrochlore structure, whereas smaller Y{sub x}Ti{sub y}O{sub z} nanoparticles lacked a well-defined structure. The size-dependent characteristics of the nanoparticles in austenitic ODS steels differ from those in ferritic/martensitic ODS steels. - Highlights: • The structural and chemical characteristics of nanoparticles are revealed. • Nanoparticles' crystal structure and elemental composition are size-dependent. • Characteristics of austenitic ODS steels are compared to that of an F/M ODS steel. • Hypothesis about the formation mechanism of nanoparticles is proposed accordingly.

  15. A New Maraging Stainless Steel with Excellent Strength–Toughness–Corrosion Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Tian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A new maraging stainless steel with superior strength–toughness–corrosion synergy has been developed based on an innovative concept of alloy design. The high strength–toughness combination is achieved by forming dispersive nano-sized intermetallic compounds in the soft lath martensitic matrix with a slight amount of residual austenite. The good corrosion resistance is guaranteed by exactly controlling the Co content based on understanding the synergistic effect between Co and Cr. The fine structure characteristics of two dominant strengthening precipitations including Ni3Ti and Mo-rich phases were finely characterized associated with transmission electron microscope (TEM and atom probe tomography (APT analyses. The relationship among microstructure, strength and toughness is discussed. The precipitation mechanism of different precipitates in the new maraging stainless steel is revealed based on the APT analysis.

  16. A New Maraging Stainless Steel with Excellent Strength-Toughness-Corrosion Synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialong; Wang, Wei; Babar Shahzad, M; Yan, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Jiang, Zhouhua; Yang, Ke

    2017-11-10

    A new maraging stainless steel with superior strength-toughness-corrosion synergy has been developed based on an innovative concept of alloy design. The high strength-toughness combination is achieved by forming dispersive nano-sized intermetallic compounds in the soft lath martensitic matrix with a slight amount of residual austenite. The good corrosion resistance is guaranteed by exactly controlling the Co content based on understanding the synergistic effect between Co and Cr. The fine structure characteristics of two dominant strengthening precipitations including Ni₃Ti and Mo-rich phases were finely characterized associated with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) analyses. The relationship among microstructure, strength and toughness is discussed. The precipitation mechanism of different precipitates in the new maraging stainless steel is revealed based on the APT analysis.

  17. TEM characterization on new 9% Cr advanced steels thermomechanical treated after tempering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P.; Hoffmann, J.; Rieth, M.; Roldán, M.; Gómez-Herrero, A.

    2018-03-01

    Phase transformation on new six reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) was investigated to provide the basis for the design and development of advanced steels to maintain adequate strength and creep resistance above 500 °C. The new alloys are designed to increase the amount of fine MX precipitates and reduce coarse M23C6 carbides through alloy composition refinement and the application of thermomechanical treatments. The microstructural investigations by TEM have shown M23C6, M2X, and MX precipitation after tempering at 700 °C/2h with low dislocation recovery, while at 825 °C/2h the martensite developed to subgrain formation and growth. At this stage, only M23C6 and MX were detected. Preliminary results demonstrate that it is feasible to produce fine MX strengthened particles dispersed in the matrix with further optimization of tempering treatments.

  18. Assessment and comparison of oxides grown on 304l ods steel and 304l ss in water environment in supercritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, M.; Dinu, A.; Fulger, M.; Zhou, Z.; Mihalache, M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to fulfil superior cladding for new reactor generation G IV, the austenitic 3 04 L stainless steel was improved by oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS), using two nano-oxides: titanium and yttrium oxides. The behaviour of the new material resulted, 304 ODS, in water at supercritical temperature of about 550 O C and 25 MPa pressure, was considered. The oxidation kinetics by weigh gain measurements for both materials have been estimated and compared. The weight gain of ODS samples is higher than basic austenitic steel up to 1320 hours. The oxides developed on the ODS samples in SCPW are layered and more uniform than in 304 L SS. The protectively character of oxide films was estimated by different techniques. The morphology of oxide surface, the layering and chemical formula of oxides films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersion X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS), electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) and by Small Angle X-ray Diffraction (SAXD). 1. (authors)

  19. Strengthening of defected beam–column joints using CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC exterior beam–column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP. The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam–column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity.

  20. Strengthening of defected beam-column joints using CFRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed H; Afefy, Hamdy M; Kassem, Nesreen M; Fawzy, Tarek M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study for the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) exterior beam-column joints rehabilitated using carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP). The present experimental program consists of testing 10 half-scale specimens divided into three groups covering three possible defects in addition to an adequately detailed control specimen. The considered defects include the absence of the transverse reinforcement within the joint core, insufficient bond length for the beam main reinforcement and inadequate spliced implanted column on the joint. Three different strengthening schemes were used to rehabilitate the defected beam-column joints including externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets in addition to near surface mounted (NSM) CFRP strips. The failure criteria including ultimate capacity, mode of failure, initial stiffness, ductility and the developed ultimate strain in the reinforcing steel and CFRP were considered and compared for each group for the control and the CFRP-strengthened specimens. The test results showed that the proposed CFRP strengthening configurations represented the best choice for strengthening the first two defects from the viewpoint of the studied failure criteria. On the other hand, the results of the third group showed that strengthening the joint using NSM strip technique enabled the specimen to outperform the structural performance of the control specimen while strengthening the joints using externally bonded CFRP strips and sheets failed to restore the strengthened joints capacity.

  1. Strengthening of RC bridge slabs using CFRP sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy A. Fathelbab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many old structures became structurally insufficient to carry the new loading conditions requirements. Moreover, they suffer from structural degradation, reinforcement steel bars corrosion, bad weather conditions…etc. Many official authorities in several countries had recognized many old bridges and buildings as structurally deficient by today’s standards. Due to these reasons, structural strengthening became an essential requirement and different strengthening techniques appeared in market. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP strengthening techniques established a good position among all other techniques, giving excellent structural results, low time required and moderate cost compared with the other techniques. The main purpose of this research is to study analytically the strengthening of a reinforced concrete bridge slabs due to excessive loads, using externally bonded FRP sheets technique. A commercial finite element program ANSYS was used to perform a structural linear and non-linear analysis for strengthened slab models using several schemes of FRP sheets. A parametric study was performed to evaluate analytically the effect of changing both FRP stiffness and FRP schemes in strengthening RC slabs. Comparing the results with control slab (reinforced concrete slab without strengthening it is obvious that attaching FRP sheets to the RC slab increases its capacity and enhances the ductility/toughness.

  2. Hot rolling and annealing effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS austenitic steel fabricated by electron beam selective melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Ge, Wen-jun; Miao, Shu; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Xian-ping; Fang, Qian-feng

    2016-03-01

    The grain morphology, nano-oxide particles and mechanical properties of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS)-316L austenitic steel synthesized by electron beam selective melting (EBSM) technique with different post-working processes, were explored in this study. The ODS-316L austenitic steel with superfine nano-sized oxide particles of 30-40 nm exhibits good tensile strength (412 MPa) and large total elongation (about 51%) due to the pinning effect of uniform distributed oxide particles on dislocations. After hot rolling, the specimen exhibits a higher tensile strength of 482 MPa, but the elongation decreases to 31.8% owing to the introduction of high-density dislocations. The subsequent heat treatment eliminates the grain defects induced by hot rolling and increases the randomly orientated grains, which further improves the strength and ductility of EBSM ODS-316L steel.

  3. Dispersion-strengthened aluminium powder products for nuclear application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels

    1967-01-01

    Strength, elongation, corrosion resistance, homogeneity, purity, compatibility with fuel, and resistance to irradiation damage, being main properties of SAP of interest for their application in nuclear technology, are discussed in connection with commercial products; effect on tensile and creep...

  4. Aircraft Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-19

    component usage. PH 13-8Mo is a precipitation-hardenable martensitic stainless steel combining excellent corrosion resistance with strength. Custom 465 is...a martensitic , age-hardenable stainless steel capable of about 1,724 MPa (250 ksi) UTS when peak-aged (H900 condition). Especially, this steel can...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Five high strength steels (4340, 300M, AerMet 100, Ferrium S53, and Hy-Tuf) and four stainless steels (High Nitrogen, 13

  5. The effect of the precipitation of coherent and incoherent precipitates on the ductility and toughness of high-strength steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamano, R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the coexistence of coherent and incoherent precipitates, such as M 2 C and NiAl, on the ductility and plane strain fracture toughness of 5 wt pct Ni-2 wt pct Al-based high-strength steels was studied. In order to disperse coherent and incoherent precipitates, the heat treatments were carried out as follows: (a) austenitizing at 1373 K, (b) tempering at 1023 or 923 K for dispersing the incoherent precipitates of M 2 C and NiAl, and then (c) aging at 843 K for 2.4 ks to disperse the coherent precipitate of NiAl into the matrix, which contains incoherent precipitates, such as M 2 C and NiAl. The results were obtained as follows: (a) when the strengthening precipitates consist of coherent ones, such as M 2 C and/or NiAl, the ductility and toughness are extremely low, and (b) when the strengthening precipitates consist of coherent and incoherent precipitates, such as M 2 C and NiAl, the ductility and fracture toughness significantly increase with no loss in strength. It is shown that the coexistence of coherent and incoherent precipitates increases homogeneous deformation, thus preventing local strain concentration and early cleavage cracking. Accordingly, the actions of coherent precipitates in strengthening the matrix and of incoherent precipitates in promoting, homogeneous deformation can be expected to increase both the strength and toughness of the material

  6. Strengthening of the Timber Members Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of structural wood products has become in the last decades an efficient method of improving structural capabilities of load carrying members made of this material. Some important steps in earlier stages of research were focused on using metallic reinforcement, including steel bars, prestressed stranded cables, and bonded steel and aluminum plates. A disadvantage of the metallic reinforcement was the poor compatibility between the wood and the reinforcing materials. In comparison with metallic reinforcement, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP composites are compatible with structural wood products leading to efficient hybrid members. Some interesting strengthening alternatives using FRP applied to wood beams and to wood columns are presented in this paper.

  7. Strengthening regional safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980's and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States

  8. Strengthening nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The international situation after the end of the Cold-War has been quite unstable, due to the occurrence of frequent regional conflicts and domestic wars based on ethnic, religious or racial reasons. Further, threats to the would peace and security by non-state actors, like international terrorist groups, have been recognized after 9.11 terrorist attacks to the World Trade Center buildings and to the Pentagon. Utilization of nuclear energy, which encompasses both peaceful uses and military ones, required an establishment of regulatory system, by which risks associated with the development of nuclear energy can be controlled. Accordingly, nuclear safety control system, and then non-proliferation control system has been developed, both in the international level and notional level. In recognition of the present unstable international situations, it is required to establish, maintain and strengthen a system which control nuclear security aspect, in addition to the present systems. (author)

  9. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  10. Limit analysis on FRP-strengthened RC members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. De Domenico

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC members strengthened with externally bonded fiber-reinforced-polymer (FRP plates are numerically investigated by a plasticity-based limit analysis approach. The key-concept of the present approach is to adopt proper constitutive models for concrete, steel reinforcement bars (re-bars and FRP strengthening plates according to a multi-yield-criteria formulation. This allows the prediction of concrete crushing, steel bars yielding and FRP rupture that may occur at the ultimate limit state. To simulate such limitstate of the analysed elements, two iterative methods performing linear elastic analyses with adaptive elastic parameters and finite elements (FEs description are employed. The peak loads and collapse mechanisms predicted for FRP-plated RC beams are validated by comparison with the corresponding experimental findings.

  11. The influence of Cr content on the mechanical properties of ODS ferritic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaofu; Zhou, Zhangjian; Jang, Jinsung; Wang, Man; Hu, Helong; Sun, Hongying; Zou, Lei; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Liwei

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation aimed at researching the mechanical properties of the oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels with different Cr content, which were fabricated through a consolidation of mechanical alloyed (MA) powders of 0.35 wt.% nano Y2O3 dispersed Fe-12.0Cr-0.5Ti-1.0W (alloy A), Fe-16.0Cr-0.5Ti-1.0W (alloy B), and Fe-18.0Cr-0.5Ti-1.0W (alloy C) alloys (all in wt.%) by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) with 100 MPa pressure at 1150 °C for 3 h. The mechanical properties, including the tensile strength, hardness, and impact fracture toughness were tested by universal testers, while Young's modulus was determined by ultrasonic wave non-destructive tester. It was found that the relationship between Cr content and the strength of ODS ferritic steels was not a proportional relationship. However, too high a Cr content will cause the precipitation of Cr-enriched segregation phase, which is detrimental to the ductility of ODS ferritic steels.

  12. Microstructure and tensile properties of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe–14Cr–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, M.A., E-mail: mauger@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Two ODS ferritic steels with nominal compositions (wt.%): Fe–14Cr–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been produced by mechanical alloying and consolidation by hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure and tensile properties of these materials after being forged and heat-treated at 1123 K have been investigated to clarify the interrelation between composition, microstructure and mechanical properties. The second-phase precipitates in these alloys have been analyzed by high-angle annular dark-field imaging in scanning TEM mode and electron diffraction. Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} exhibits a duplex microstructure consisting of large recrystallized grains, as large as 1.5 μm, and unrecovered regions containing submicron equiaxed grains. In addition, three types of secondary phase particles have been found: large M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles containing W and Cr, (Cr + Ti) rich spherical particles with diameters between 50 and 500 nm, and fine (Y + Ti) oxide particles with sizes below 30 nm. In contrast, Fe14CrY shows a uniform structure of equiaxed grains, with sizes in the range 0.5–3 μm, containing a fine dispersion of Y oxide particles (<30 nm) homogeneously distributed inside the grains, as well as large carbide and oxide particles. Tensile tests performed over the temperature range 273–973 K have revealed that the alloy containing W and Ti has lower yield and tensile strengths than Fe–14Cr–0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} at temperatures up to 773 K, but the opposite appears to occur beyond this temperature.

  13. Atom probe characterization of yttria particles in ODS Eurofer steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.A.; Zaluzhny, A.G.; Nikitin, A.A.; Rogozhkin, S.V.; Iskandarov, N.A.; Vladimirov, P.; Moeslang, A.; Lindau, R.; Klimenkov, M.

    2009-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened steels exhibit higher temperature and radiation resistance than conventionally produced ferritic/martensitic steels. Such behaviour, as believed, is mainly caused by presence of highly dispersed and extremely stable oxide particles with sizes of few nanometers. It was shown that the most promising oxide additive was yttria (Y 2 O 3 ) and as mechanical parameters were strongly depended on size and number density of formed peculiarities it is required to reduce their dimensions to few nanometers and drastically increase their number. At present, considerable effort is focused on investigation of behaviour and properties of such particles. Recent studies of Eurofer ODS steel (9%-CrWVTa) by SANS and PoAS revealed the presence of high number density structural peculiarities with size approximately one nanometer. At the same time, previous studies by TEM identified only high number of small (5-10 nm) Y 2 O 3 particles. So, the purpose of this work was to look into this material by means of tomographic atom probe and find out the chemistry and origin of peculiarities with sizes less than 5 nm. These investigations revealed fine (∼ 2 nm) particles that were enriched not only in yttrium and oxygen but also in vanadium and nitrogen. Concentration of vanadium in them is approximately at the same level as yttrium. Moreover, some particles were found to be enriched in only three or even two elements mentioned above. However, total concentration of chemical elements in these particles is considerably less than that of iron. Estimated number density for detected particles is (1 / 5) x 10 23 m -3 . (author)

  14. Strengthening safeguards information evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, J.; Hudson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The strengthening of safeguards should not be limited to the verification of explicit declarations made by the States. Additional information should guide the IAEA to set priorities for further investigations. Not only all aspects of the State's nuclear programme, including the application of safe, secure and transparent nuclear management, but also the level of compliance with other verifiable treaties, political motivation, economic capabilities, international relations and ties, co-operative attitude to safeguards, and general openness and transparency should be included. The evaluation of the diverse forms of information from different sources requires new reliable processes that will result in a high credibility and detection probability. The IAEA uses the physical model for the evaluation of the technical information, and proposed also Fuzzy Logic, or Calculation with Words, to handle the information. But for the evaluation it is questioned whether fuzziness could lead to a crisp judgement. In this paper an objective method of information evaluation is proposed, which allows to integrate different kinds of information and to include calibration and tests in the establishment of the evaluation process. This method, Delta, uses elicitation of a syndicate of experienced inspectors to integrate obvious indicators together with apparently innocent indicators, into a database that forms the core of the evaluation process. Nominal or ordinal scales could be applied to come to an objective and quantifiable result. Experience with this method can in the course of time result in predictive conclusions. 9 refs

  15. Steel making

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, A K

    2014-01-01

    "Steel Making" is designed to give students a strong grounding in the theory and state-of-the-art practice of production of steels. This book is primarily focused to meet the needs of undergraduate metallurgical students and candidates for associate membership examinations of professional bodies (AMIIM, AMIE). Besides, for all engineering professionals working in steel plants who need to understand the basic principles of steel making, the text provides a sound introduction to the subject.Beginning with a brief introduction to the historical perspective and current status of steel making together with the reasons for obsolescence of Bessemer converter and open hearth processes, the book moves on to: elaborate the physiochemical principles involved in steel making; explain the operational principles and practices of the modern processes of primary steel making (LD converter, Q-BOP process, and electric furnace process); provide a summary of the developments in secondary refining of steels; discuss principles a...

  16. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of ODS Ferritic Steels Using Commercial Alloy Powders for High Temperature Service Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Choi, Byoung-Kwon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) is one of the promising ways to improve the mechanical property at high temperatures. This is mainly attributed to uniformly distributed nano-oxide particle with a high density, which is extremely stable at the high temperature and acts as effective obstacles when the dislocations are moving. In this study, as a preliminary examination to develop the advanced structural materials for high temperature service applications, ODS ferritic steels were fabricated using commercial alloy powders and their microstructural and mechanical properties were investigated. In this study, ODS ferritic steels were fabricated using commercial stainless steel 430L powder and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. Morphology of micro-grains and oxide particles were significantly changed by the addition of minor alloying elements such as Ti, Zr, and Hf. The ODS ferritic steel with Zr and Hf additions showed ultra-fine grains with fine complex oxide particles. The oxide particles were uniformly located in grains and on the grain boundaries. This led to higher hardness than ODS ferritic steel with Ti addition.

  17. Effect of mechanical alloying atmosphere on the microstructure and Charpy impact properties of an ODS ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Baluc, N.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels, with the composition of Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y 2 O 3 (in weight percent), have been produced by mechanically alloying elemental powders of Fe, Cr, W, and Ti with Y 2 O 3 particles either in argon atmosphere or in hydrogen atmosphere, degassing at various temperatures, and compacting the mechanically alloyed powders by hot isostatic pressing. It was found in particular that mechanical alloying in hydrogen yields a significant reduction in oxygen content in the materials, a lower dislocation density, and a strong improvement in the fast fracture properties of the ODS ferritic steels, as measured by Charpy impact tests.

  18. Reduced activation ODS ferritic steel - recent development in high speed hot extrusion processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksiuta, Zbigniew [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Bialystok Technical University (Poland); Lewandowska, Malgorzata; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology (Poland); Baluc, Nadine [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    The paper presents the microstructure and mechanical properties of an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS), reduced activation, ferritic steel, namely the Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti-0.3Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloy, which was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing followed by high speed hydrostatic extrusion (HSHE) and heat treatment HT at 1050 C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed significant differences in the grain size and dislocation density between the as-HIPped and as-HSHE materials. It was also found that the microstructure of the steel is stable after HT. The HSHE process improves significantly the tensile and Charpy impact properties of the as-HIPped steel. The ultimate tensile strength at room temperature increases from 950 up to 1350 MPa, while the upper shelf energy increases from 3.0 up to 6.0 J. However, the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) remains relatively high (about 75 C).These results indicate that HSHE is a promising method for achieving grain refinement and thus improving the mechanical properties of ODS ferritic steels. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  20. Oxidation and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in SCWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Castro, L.; Blazquez, F.

    2008-01-01

    SCWRs are high-temperature, high-pressure, water-cooled reactors that operate above the thermodynamic critical point of water (374 deg C, 22.1 MPa). The SCWR offers many advantages compared to state-of- the-art LWRs including the use of a single phase coolant with high enthalpy, the elimination of components such as steam generators and steam separators and dryers, a low coolant mass inventory resulting in smaller components, and a much higher efficiency ∼ 44% vs. 33% in current LWRs). In these systems high pressure (25 MPa) coolant enters the vessel at 280 deg C which is heated to about 500 deg C and delivered to a power conversion cycle. Supercritical water (SCW) exhibits properties significantly different from those of liquid water below the critical point. Supercritical water acting essentially as a non-polar dense gas with solvation properties approaching those of a low-polarity organic. In this conditions, can dissolve gases like oxygen to complete miscibility. Depending upon what species are present and how much oxygen is present in the solution can becomes a very aggressive oxidising environment. Most of the data on corrosion in supercritical water are from fossil plant or oxidation waste disposal systems. However there is very limited data on corrosion in low conductivity de-aerated SCW and less on stress corrosion cracking behaviour under operating conditions foreseen for SCWR. Candidate materials for structural components are materials for high temperatures and include ferritic-martensitic alloys; oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic/martensitic steels and strengthened steels by precipitation and for lower temperatures the austenitic stainless steels, such as 304 and 316, used in the LWR. Low swelling austenitic steels are also of high interest for areas with high dpa and high temperature. A review of the available information on corrosion and stress corrosion behaviour of different types of stainless steels in supercritical water at high

  1. Shear Strengthening of Concrete Structures with the use of mineral based composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanksvärd, Thomas; Täljsten, Björn; Carolin, Anders

    2009-01-01

    concrete (RC) beams strengthened in shear with the use of cementitious bonding agents and carbon fiber grids, denoted mineral based composites (MBC). In this study it is shown that the MBC system has a strengthening effect corresponding to that of strengthening systems using epoxy bonding agents and carbon...... for rehabilitation. In addition, more traffic and heavier loads lead to the need for upgrading. Existing externally bonded strengthening systems using FRP (fiber reinforced polymers) and epoxy as bonding agents have been proven to be a good approach to repair and strengthen concrete structures. However, the use...... fiber sheets. Different designs and material properties of the MBC system have been tested. An extensive monitoring set-up has been carried out using traditional strain gauges and photometric strain measurements to obtain strains in steel reinforcement, in FRP and strain fields on the strengthened...

  2. Optimization and testing results of Zr-bearing ferritic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yang, Ying [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tyburska-Puschel, Beata [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sridharan, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program is to develop crosscutting technologies for nuclear energy applications. Advanced structural materials with superior performance at elevated temperatures are always desired for nuclear reactors, which can improve reactor economics, safety margins, and design flexibility. They benefit not only new reactors, including advanced light water reactors (LWRs) and fast reactors such as sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) that is primarily designed for management of high-level wastes, but also life extension of the existing fleet when component exchange is needed. Developing and utilizing the modern materials science tools (experimental, theoretical, and computational tools) is an important path to more efficient alloy development and process optimization. Ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels are important structural materials for nuclear reactors due to their advantages over other applicable materials like austenitic stainless steels, notably their resistance to void swelling, low thermal expansion coefficients, and higher thermal conductivity. However, traditional FM steels exhibit a noticeable yield strength reduction at elevated temperatures above ~500°C, which limits their applications in advanced nuclear reactors which target operating temperatures at 650°C or higher. Although oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have shown excellent high-temperature performance, their extremely high cost, limited size and fabricability of products, as well as the great difficulty with welding and joining, have limited or precluded their commercial applications. Zirconium has shown many benefits to Fe-base alloys such as grain refinement, improved phase stability, and reduced radiation-induced segregation. The ultimate goal of this project is, with the aid of computational modeling tools, to accelerate the development of a new generation of Zr-bearing ferritic alloys to be fabricated using conventional

  3. Irradiation and inhomogeneity effects on ductility and toughness of (ODS)-7 -13Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preininger, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The superimposed effect of irradiation defect and structural inhomogeneity formation on tensile ductility and dynamic toughness of ferritic-martensitic 7-13CrW(Mo)VTa(Nb) and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS)-7-13CrWVTa(Ti)- RAFM steels has been examined by work hardening and local stress/strain-induced ductile fracture models. Structural inhomogeneities which strongly promoting plastic instability and localized flow might be formed by the applied fabrication process, high dose irradiation and additionally further during deformation by enhanced local dislocation generation around fine particles or due to slip band formation with localized heating at high impact strain rates ε'. The work hardening model takes into account superimposed dislocation multiplication from stored dislocations, dispersions and also grain boundaries as well as annihilation by cross-slip. Analytical relations have been deduced from the model describing uniform ductility and ductile upper shelf energy (USE) observed from Charpy-impact testes. Especially, the influence of different irradiation defects like atomic clusters, dislocation loops and coherent chromium-rich α'- precipitates have been considered together with effects from strain rate as well as irradiation (TI) and test temperature TT. Strengthening by clusters and more pronounced by dislocation loops formed at higher TI>250 deg. C reduces uniform ductility and also distinctly stronger dynamic toughness USE. A superimposed hardening by the α'- formation in higher Cr containing 9-13Cr steels strongly reduces toughness assisted by a combined grain-boundary embrittlement with reduction of the ductile fracture stress. But that improves work hardening and uniform ductility as observed particularly due to nano-scale Y 2 O 3 - dispersions in ODS-RAFM steels. For ODS- steels additionally the strength-induced reduction of toughness is diminished by a combined microstructural-induced increase of the ductile

  4. Seismic evaluation and strengthening of Bohunice nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, J.G.; Short, S.A.; Grief, T.; Borov, V.; Kuzma, J.

    2001-01-01

    A seismic assessment and strengthening investigation is being performed for selected structures at the Bohunice V1 Nuclear Power Plant in Slovakia. Structures covered in this paper include the reactor building complex and the emergency generator station. The emergency generator station is emphasized in the paper as work is nearly complete while work on the reactor building complex is ongoing at this time. Seismic evaluation and strengthening work is being performed by a cooperative effort of Siemens and EQE along with local contractors. Seismic input is the interim Review Level Earthquake (horizontal peak ground acceleration of 0.3 g). The Bohunice V1 reactor building complex is a WWER 4401230 nuclear power plant that was originally built in the mid-1970s but had extensive seismic upgrades in 1991. Siemens has performed three dimensional dynamic analyses of the reactor building complex to develop seismic demand in structural elements. EQE is assessing seismic capacities of structural elements and developing strengthening schemes, where needed. Based on recent seismic response analyses for the interim Review Level Earthquake which account for soil-structure interaction in a rigorous manner, the 1991 seismic upgrade has been found to be inadequate in both member/connection strength and in providing complete load paths to the foundation. Additional strengthening is being developed. The emergency generator station was built in the 1970s and is a two-story unreinforced brick masonry (URM) shear wall building above grade with a one story reinforced concrete shear wall basement below grade. Seismic analyses and testing of the URM walls has been performed to assess the need for building strengthening. Required structural strengthening for in-plane forces consists of revised and additional vertical steel framing and connections, stiffening of horizontal roof bracing, and steel connections between the roof and supporting walls and pointing of two interior transverse URM

  5. Effects of CFRP Strengthening on Dynamic and Fatigue Responses of Composite Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittisak Kuntiyawichai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of CFRP strengthening on dynamic and fatigue responses of composite bridge using finite element program ABAQUS. Dynamic and fatigue responses of composite bridge due to truck load based on AASHTO standard are investigated. Two types of CFRP strengthening techniques, CFRP sheets and CFRP deck, are applied to both the damaged and undamaged bridges. For the case of damaged bridge, two through-thickness crack sizes, 3 mm and 6 mm in depth, are assumed at midspan of the steel girders. Furthermore, effects of the number of steel girders on the dynamic and fatigue responses are also considered. The results show that the maximum responses of composite bridges occur for dual lane cases. By using CFRP as a strengthening material, the maximum stress and deflection of the steel girders reduce and consequently increase the fatigue life of the girders. After introducing initial crack into the steel girders of the composite bridges, the fatigue life of the bridges is dramatically reduced. However, the overall performance of the damaged composite bridge can be improved by using CFRP, albeit with less effectiveness. Therefore, if cracks are found, steel welding must be performed before strengthening the composite bridge by CFRP.

  6. A comparative study of the mechanical properties and the behavior of carbon and boron in stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by PM HIP and traditional technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulga, A.V., E-mail: avshulga@mephi.ru [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, State University, 31 Kashirskoe Sh., Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► The ring tensile test method was optimized and successfully used. ► The cladding tubes fabricated by PM HIP and traditional technologies were tested. ► Improvement of the cladding tubes properties fabricated by PM HIP was found. ► Correlation of the homogeneity of carbon, boron with the properties was revealed. -- Abstract: The ring tensile test method was optimized and successfully used to obtain precise data for specimens of the cladding tubes of AISI type 316 austenitic stainless steels and ferritic–martensitic stainless steel. The positive modifications in the tensile properties of the stainless steel cladding tubes fabricated by powder metallurgy and hot isostatic pressing of melt atomized powders (PM HIP) when compared with the cladding tubes produced by traditional technology were found. Presently, PM HIP is also used in the fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic–martensitic steels. The high degree of homogeneity of the distribution of carbon and boron as well the high dispersivity of the phase-structure elements in the specimens manufactured via PM HIP were determined by direct autoradiography methods. These results correlate well with the increase of the tensile properties of the specimens produced by PM HIP technology.

  7. Reactive-inspired ball-milling synthesis of an ODS steel: study of the influence of ball-milling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocq, M.

    2010-10-01

    In the context of the development of new ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) steels as core materials in future nuclear reactors, we investigated a new process inspired by reactive ball-milling which consists in using YFe 3 andFe 2 O 3 as starting reactants instead of Y 2 O 3 to produce a dispersion of nano-oxides in a steel matrix and the influence of synthesis conditions on the nano-oxide characteristics were studied. For that aim, ODS steels were prepared by ball-milling and then annealed. Multi-scale characterizations were performed after each synthesis step, using notably atom probe tomography and small angle neutron scattering. The process inspired by reactive ball-milling was shown to be efficient for ODS steel synthesis, but it does not modify the nano-oxide characteristics as compared to those of oxides directly incorporated in the matrix by ball-milling. Broadly speaking, the nature of the starting oxygen bearing reactants has no influence on nano-oxide formation. Moreover, we showed that the nucleation of nano-oxides nucleation can start during milling and continues during annealing with a very fast kinetic. The final characteristics of nano-oxides formed in this way can be monitored through ball-milling parameters (intensity, temperature and atmosphere) and annealing parameters (duration and temperature). (author)

  8. ODS steel fabrication: relationships between process, microstructure and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvrat, M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising candidate materials for generation IV and fusion nuclear energy systems thanks to their excellent thermal stability, high-temperature creep strength and good irradiation resistance. Their superior properties are attributed both to their nano-structured matrix and to a high density of Y-Ti-O nano-scale clusters (NCs). ODS steels are generally prepared by Mechanical Alloying of a pre-alloyed Fe-Cr-W-Ti powder with Y 2 O 3 powder. A fully dense bar or tube is then produced from this nano-structured powder by the mean of hot extrusion. The aim of this work was to determine the main parameters of the process of hot extrusion and to understand the link between the fabrication process, the microstructure and the mechanical properties. The material microstructure was characterized at each step of the process and bars were extruded with varying hot extrusion parameters so as to identify the impact of these parameters. Temperature then appeared to be the main parameter having a great impact on microstructure and mechanical properties of the extruded material. We then proposed a cartography giving the microstructure versus the process parameters. Based on these results, it is possible to control very accurately the obtained material microstructure and mechanical properties setting the extrusion parameters. (author) [fr

  9. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  10. Investigation of the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure in a Fe-9%Cr ODS steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hary Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferritic-martensitic Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS steels are potential materials for fuel pin cladding in Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR and their optimisation is essential for future industrial applications. In this paper, a feasibility study concerning the generation of tensile specimens using a quenching dilatometer is presented. The ODS steel investigated contains 9%Cr and exhibits a phase transformation between ferrite and austenite around 870 °C. The purpose was to generate different microstructures and to evaluate their tensile properties. Specimens were machined from a cladding tube and underwent controlled heat treatments inside the dilatometer. The microstructures were observed using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD and tensile tests were performed at room temperature and at 650 °C. Results show that a tempered martensitic structure is the optimum state for tensile loading at room temperature. At 650 °C, the strengthening mechanisms that are involved differ and the microstructures exhibit more similar yield strengths. It also appeared that decarburisation during heat treatment in the dilatometer induces a decrease in the mechanical properties and heterogeneities in the dual-phase microstructure. This has been addressed by proposing a treatment with a much shorter time in the austenitic domain. Thereafter, the relaxation of macroscopic residual stresses inside the tube during the heat treatment was evaluated. They appear to decrease linearly with increasing temperature and the phase transformation has a limited effect on the relaxation.

  11. Stablization of Nanotwinned Microstructures in Stainless Steels Through Alloying and Microstructural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    Effects of carbon content, deformation, and interfacial energetics on carbide precipitation and corrosion sensitization in 304 stainless steel , Acta...Alumina- Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels Strengthened by LAves Phase and MC Carbide Precipitates , Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A...nano- precipitate engineering---of nanotwinned stainless steels . This preliminary work has provided valuable insight into the mechanisms responsible

  12. TRP 9904 - Constitutive Behavior of High Strength Multiphase Sheel Steel Under High Strain Rate Deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Matlock; John Speer

    2005-03-31

    The focus of the research project was to systematically assess the strain rate dependence of strengthening mechanisms in new advanced high strength sheet steels. Data were obtained on specially designed and produced Duel Phase and TRIP steels and compared to the properties of automotive steels currently in use.

  13. Effect of HIP temperature and cooling rate on microstructure and hardness of joints for ODS-RAFM steels and JLF-1 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Haiying; Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo; Kimura, Akihiko; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2016-01-01

    Dissimilar-metal joints between ODS-RAFM (oxide-dispersion-strengthened reduced activation ferritic/martensitic) steels and JLF-1 steel were fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1000 - 1100degC with a cooling rate of 5degC/min. After the HIP, it was always quenched martensite for JLF-1 steel. However, coarse precipitates were found in 9Cr-ODS. Additional annealing experiments to simulate HIP conditions were conducted for 9Cr-ODS with cooling rate ranged from 0.5 to 36degC/min at 800 - 1100degC. The results showed that, to form quenched martensite for 9Cr-ODS, the HIP temperature should be above 1000degC with cooling rate no less than 25dgeC/min. When the cooling rate is increased to 36degC/min, the microstructure of 9Cr-ODS is quenched martensite with precipitate size similar as that before HIP. If the limitation of precipitate size in 9Cr-ODS is 0.2 µm, HIP temperature above 1050degC with cooling rate no less than 30degC/min is needed. In this case, post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) with only tempering is necessary to recover the microstructure of 9Cr-ODS to tempered martensite. For 12Cr-ODS, the HIP temperature and cooling rate has no effect on hardness and precipitate size. PWHT is not necessary for the single-metal joint of 12Cr-ODS from the view point of precipitation control. However, for the dissimilar-metal joints between ODS-RAFM steels and JLF-1 steel, the PWHT condition should be comprehensively determined by considering microstructural evolution of each part in the joints after HIP. (author)

  14. Finite element analysis of FRP-strengthened RC beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeraphot Supaviriyakit

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beam strengthened with externally bonded FRP plates. The finite element modeling of FRP-strengthened beams is demonstrated. Concrete and reinforcing bars are modeled together as 8-node isoparametric 2D RC element. The FRP plate is modeled as 8-node isoparametric 2D elastic element. The glue is modeled as perfect compatibility by directly connecting the nodes of FRP with those of concrete since there is no failure at the glue layer. The key to the analysis is the correct material models of concrete, steel and FRP. Cracks and steel bars are modeled as smeared over the entire element. Stress-strain properties of cracked concrete consist of tensile stress model normal to crack, compressive stress model parallel to crack and shear stress model tangential to crack. Stressstrain property of reinforcement is assumed to be elastic-hardening to account for the bond between concrete and steel bars. FRP is modeled as elastic-brittle material. From the analysis, it is found that FEM can predict the load-displacement relation, ultimate load and failure mode of the beam correctly. It can also capture the cracking process for both shear-flexural peeling and end peeling modes similar to the experiment.

  15. Strategy for Strengthening Farmer Groups by Institutional Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbayu Budi Santoso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector becomes a spotlight because this sector will be full of potential but the welfare of farmers who become the leading actor is not guaranteed and has a poor tendency. The purpose of this study is to formulate strategies to strengthen farmers' groups in order to create the marketing of the agricultural sector that benefit farmers. The method used to achieve this goal is to use a qualitative approach and Analytical Network Process. In addition to the secondary data obtained from several agencies, this study also uses primary data obtained by in-depth interviews and observations. This research results a priority of aspects of the institutional strengthening of farmer groups as well as priority issues and priorities of the solution of each aspect. In addition, the priority of alternative strategies resulted based on the problems and solutions that have been analyzed in order to solve the problems in the institutional strengthening of farmer groups in Demak.

  16. Annealing effect on the microstructure and magnetic properties of 14%Cr-ODS ferritic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, H.L.; Gao, R.; Zhang, T.; Wang, X.P.; Fang, Q.F.; Liu, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM images of microstructure for 14%Cr-ODS ferritic steel annealed for 2 h at different temperatures: (a) 600 °C, (b) 800 °C, (c) 950 °C, and (d) 1150 °C, and the evolution trends of coercivity field (H_C) and Vickers microhardness for samples annealed at above temperatures for 2 h and 50 h. - Highlights: • The thermal stability of annealed 14%Cr-ODS ferritic steel was investigated. • The particle size keeps fairly constant with increasing annealing temperature. • The grain size is still 2–4 μm even after annealing for 50 h at 1150 °C. • The hardness and H_C are almost unchanged after annealing from 800 °C to 1150 °C. - Abstract: The microstructure and magnetic properties of the 14%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel fabricated by sol–gel and HIP method were investigated by annealing in vacuum for 2 h (at 300, 600, 800, 950 and 1150 °C) and 50 h (at 600, 800, 950 and 1150 °C). Microstructure analysis shows that as the annealing temperature increases, the size of oxide nanoparticles becomes smaller and their dispersion in matrix becomes more homogeneous. Grain size remains stable when the annealing temperature is below 800 °C, while above 800 °C, grain size grows with the increasing annealing temperature and time. The Vickers microhardness and coercivity (H_C) display almost similar evolution trend with annealing temperature for 2 h and 50 h. No obvious recrystallization appears after 1150 °C annealing, which indicates the high microstructural stability of 14%Cr-ODS ferritic steel. The possible mechanism for above behaviors is discussed in this paper.

  17. Correlation of microstructure and low cycle fatigue properties for 13.5Cr1.1W0.3Ti ODS steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, P., E-mail: pei.he@kit.edu; Klimenkov, M.; Möslang, A.; Lindau, R.; Seifert, H.J.

    2014-12-15

    Reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are prospective structural materials for the blanket system and first wall components in Tokamak-type fusion reactors. Under the pulsed operation, these components will be predominantly subjected to cyclic thermal–mechanical loading which leads to inevitable fatigue damage. In this work, strain controlled isothermal fatigue tests were conducted for 13.5Cr1.1W0.3Ti ODS steel at 550 °C. The total strain range varied from 0.54% to 0.9%. After thermomechanical processing, 13.5CrWTi–ODS steel exhibits a remarkable lifetime extension with a factor of 10–20 for strain ranges Δε ⩽ 0.7%. 13.5Cr ODS steel shows no cyclic softening at all during the whole testing process irrespective of the strain range. TEM observations reveal ultrastable grain structure and constant dislocation densities around 10{sup 14} m{sup −2}, independent of the number of cycles or the applied strain amplitude. The presence of the stabilized ultrafine Y–Ti–O dispersoids enhances the microstructural stability and therefore leads to outstanding fatigue resistance for 13.5Cr1.1W0.3Ti–ODS steel.

  18. Correlation of microstructure and low cycle fatigue properties for 13.5Cr1.1W0.3Ti ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, P.; Klimenkov, M.; Möslang, A.; Lindau, R.; Seifert, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced activation oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are prospective structural materials for the blanket system and first wall components in Tokamak-type fusion reactors. Under the pulsed operation, these components will be predominantly subjected to cyclic thermal–mechanical loading which leads to inevitable fatigue damage. In this work, strain controlled isothermal fatigue tests were conducted for 13.5Cr1.1W0.3Ti ODS steel at 550 °C. The total strain range varied from 0.54% to 0.9%. After thermomechanical processing, 13.5CrWTi–ODS steel exhibits a remarkable lifetime extension with a factor of 10–20 for strain ranges Δε ⩽ 0.7%. 13.5Cr ODS steel shows no cyclic softening at all during the whole testing process irrespective of the strain range. TEM observations reveal ultrastable grain structure and constant dislocation densities around 10 14 m −2 , independent of the number of cycles or the applied strain amplitude. The presence of the stabilized ultrafine Y–Ti–O dispersoids enhances the microstructural stability and therefore leads to outstanding fatigue resistance for 13.5Cr1.1W0.3Ti–ODS steel

  19. Super ODS steels R and D for fuel cladding of next generation nuclear systems. 4) Mechanical properties at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Inoue, Masaki; Okuda, Takanari; Abe, Fujio; Ohnuki, Somei; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Kimura, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    As fuel cladding material for lead bismuth-cooled fast reactors and supercritical pressurized water-cooled fast reactors, our research group has been developing highly corrosion-resistant oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels with superior high-temperature strength. In this study, the mechanical properties of super ODS steel candidates at elevated temperature have been evaluated. Tensile tests, creep tests and low cycle fatigue tests were carried out for a total of 21 types of super ODS steel candidates which have a basic chemical composition of Fe-16Cr-4Al-0.1Ti- 0.35Y 2 O 3 , with small variations. The testing temperatures were 700degC (for tensile, creep and low cycle fatigue tests) and 450degC (for tensile test). The major alloying parameters of the candidate materials were the compositions of Cr, Al, W and the minor elements such as Hf, Zr and Ce etc. The addition of the minor elements is considered effective in the control of the formation of the Y-Al complex oxides, which improves high-temperature strength. The addition of Al was very effective for the improvement of corrosion resistance. However, the addition also caused a reduction in high-temperature tensile strength. Among the efforts aimed at increasing high-temperature strength, such as the low-temperature hot-extrusion process, solution strengthening by W and the addition of minor elements, a remarkable improvement of strength was observed in ODS steel with a basic chemical composition of 2W-0.6Hf steel (SOC-14) or 2W-0.6Zr steel (SOC-16). The same behavior was also observed in creep tests, and the creep rupture times of SOC-14 and SOC-16 at 700degC - 100MPa were greater than 10,000 h. The strength was similar to that of no-Al ODS steels. No detrimental effect by the additional elements on low-cycle fatigue strength was observed in this study. These results showed that the addition of Hf/Zr to ODS-Al steels was effective in improving high-temperature strength. (author)

  20. Microstructural evolution of ferritic steel powder during mechanical alloying with iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Yuren; Liu, Yong; Liu, Donghua; Tang, Bei [Central South Univ., State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Liu, C.T. [The Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-02-15

    Mechanical alloying of mixed powders is of great importance for preparing oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels. In this study, the microstructural evolution of ferritic steel powder mixed with TiH{sub x}, YH{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the process of mechanical alloying is systematically investigated by using X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and microhardness tests. It is found that titanium, yttrium hydrides and iron oxide are completely dissolved during milling, and homogeneous element distribution can be achieved after milling for 12 h. The disintegration of the composite powder particles occurs at 24 h and reaches the balance of welding and fracturing after 36 h. The oxygen content increases sharply with the disintegration of powder particles due to the absorption of oxygen at the solid/gas interface from the milling atmosphere, which is the main source of extra oxygen in the milled powder. Grain refinement down to nanometer level occurs due to the severe plastic deformation of particles; however, the grain size does not change much with further disintegration of particles. The hardness increases with milling time and then becomes stable during further milling. The study indicates that the addition of iron oxide and hydrides may be more beneficial for the dispersion and homogenization of chemical compositions in the powder mixture, thus shortening the mechanical alloying process. (orig.)

  1. Ion exchange for glass strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gy, Rene

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a short overview of silicate glass strengthening by exchange of alkali ions in a molten salt, below the glass transition temperature (chemical tempering). The physics of alkali inter-diffusion is briefly explained and the main parameters of the process, which control the glass reinforcement, are reviewed. Methods for characterizing the obtained residual stress state and the strengthening are described, along with the simplified modelling of the stress build-up. The fragmentation of chemically tempered glass is discussed. The concept of engineered stress profile glass is presented, and finally, the effect of glass and salt compositions is overviewed

  2. Effect of mechanical alloying and compaction parameters on the mechanical properties and microstructure of EUROFER 97 ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramar, A.; Oksiuta, Z.; Baluc, N.; Schaeublin, R.

    2006-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic / martensitic (F/M) steels appear to be promising candidates for the future fusion reactor. Their inherent properties, good thermal conductivity, swelling resistance and low radiation damage accumulation, deriving from the base material EUROFER 97, are further enhanced by the presence of the fine dispersion of oxide particles. They would allow in principle for a higher operating temperature of the fusion reactor, which improves its thermal efficiency. In effect, their strength remains higher than the base material with increasing temperature. Their creep properties are also improved relatively to the base material. It is the pinning of dislocations at dispersed oxide particles that helps to improve the high temperature mechanical properties. EUROFER97 is a reduced activation F/M steel, whose chemical composition is 8.9 wt. % Cr, 1.1 wt. % W, 0.47 wt. % Mn, 0.2 wt. % V, 0.14 wt. % Ta and 0.11 wt. % C and Fe for the balance. A new ODS F/M steel based on EUROFER 97 is developed with the strengthening material as Y 2 O 3 maintained at 0.3wt% based on our past experience. The ODS powder is produced by a different powder metallurgy route. The Eurofer 97 atomized powder with particle sizes around 45 μm is ball milled in argon atmosphere in a planetary ball mill together with Yttria particles with sizes about 10 to 30 nm. The milled powders are now canned in a steel container. They are degassed at 450 o C for 3 hours under a vacuum of 10-5 mbar. The canned sample is sealed in vacuum and finally compacted by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) in argon atmosphere under a pressure of 180 MPa at 1000 o C for 1 hour. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction observations are done at regular intervals during ball milling to identify changes in the particle and crystallite size and in particular with the solubility of Yttria in the matrix. Further, The microstructure and mechanical properties of final compacted material is assessed. The

  3. Strengthening of Unreinforced Masonry Walls with Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unreinforced masonry (URM is considered one of the oldest construction materials being until the end of XIXth century, the basic material for: foundations, walls, columns, volts, staircases, floor joints, roofs, retaining walls, drainage channels, barrages, etc. Construction with URM elements posses a series of advantages such as: fire resistance, thermal an acoustic insulations between interior and outside spaces, humidity resistance. However the URM elements have some significant inconveniences such as: large self weight (heaviness causes cracks in the other elements of structures, reduced mechanical strengths in comparison with other traditional materials (steel and concrete, low tenacity, great manual labor consumptions, and vulnerability to earthquakes. Various factors cause deteriorations which must be overcome by strengthening solutions. Some strengthening solutions based on fiber reinforced polymers (FRP products applied directly on URM brick walls are presented in the paper.

  4. FRP Composites Strengthening of Concrete Columns under Various Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Parvin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of some of the progress in the area of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP-strengthening of columns for several loading scenarios including impact load. The addition of FRP materials to upgrade deficiencies or to strengthen structural components can save lives by preventing collapse, reduce the damage to infrastructure, and the need for their costly replacement. The retrofit with FRP materials with desirable properties provides an excellent replacement for traditional materials, such as steel jacket, to strengthen the reinforced concrete structural members. Existing studies have shown that the use of FRP materials restore or improve the column original design strength for possible axial, shear, or flexure and in some cases allow the structure to carry more load than it was designed for. The paper further concludes that there is a need for additional research for the columns under impact loading senarios. The compiled information prepares the ground work for further evaluation of FRP-strengthening of columns that are deficient in design or are in serious need for repair due to additional load or deterioration.

  5. Small angle neutron scattering study of nano sized microstructure in Fe-Cr ODS steels for gen IV in-core applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young-Soo; Mao, Xiadong; Jang, Jinsung

    2013-11-01

    The nano-sized microstructures in Fe-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel for Gen IV in-core applications were studied using small angle neutron scattering. The oxide dispersion strengthened steel was manufactured through hot isostatic pressing with various chemical compositions and fabrication conditions. Small angle neutron scattering experiments were performed using a 40 m small angle neutron scattering instrument at HANARO. Nano sized microstructures, namely, yttrium oxides and Cr-oxides were quantitatively analyzed by small angle neutron scattering. The yttrium oxides and Cr-oxides were also observed by transmission electron microscopy. The microstructural analysis results from small angle neutron scattering were compared with those obtained by transmission electron microscopy. The effects of the chemical compositions and fabrication conditions on the microstructure were investigated in relation to the quantitative microstructural analysis results obtained by small angle neutron scattering. The volume fraction of Y-oxide increases after fabrication, and this result is considered to be due to the formation of non-stochiometric Y-Ti-oxides.

  6. Nano-sized precipitation and properties of a low carbon niobium micro-alloyed bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada); Ma, X.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada); Shang, C.J., E-mail: cjshang@ustb.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, X.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Subramanian, S.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2015-08-12

    The present work focuses on microstructure evolution and precipitation strengthening during tempering at region of 550–680 °C to elucidate the structure–property relationship in the steel. The effect of tempering on the development of a 700 MPa grade high strength hot rolled cost-effective bainitic steel was studied for infrastructure applications. Granular bainite with dispersed martenisit–austenite (M–A) constituents in the bainitic ferrite matrix was obtained after hot rolling and air cooling to room temperature. The decomposition of M–A constituents to cementite carbides and the precipitation of nano-sized NbC carbides in bainitic matrix on tempering were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nano-sized precipitates of NbC precipitated during tempering were in average diameter of ~4.1–6.1 nm. There were ~86–173 MPa increases in yield strength after tempering at region of 550–680 °C. It is noticeable that those nano-sized NbC precipitates provide an effective way to significantly increase the strength of the low carbon bainitic steel. High yield strength of 716 MPa with high ductility (uniform elongation of 9.3% and total elongation of 22.4%), low yield to tensile ratio of 0.9 and good low temperature toughness of 47 J (half thickness) at –40 °C was obtained after tempering at 680 °C for 30 min.

  7. Austenitic stainless steels and high strength copper alloys for fusion components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowcliffe, A.F.; Zinkle, S.J.; Alexander, D.J.; Stubbins, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel (316LN), an oxide-dispersion-strengthened copper alloy (GlidCop A125), and a precipitation-hardened copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr) are the primary structural materials for the ITER first wall/blanket and divertor systems. While there is a long experience of operating 316LN stainless steel in nuclear environments, there is no prior experience with the copper alloys in neutron environments. The ITER first wall (FW) consists of a stainless steel shield with a copper alloy heat sink bonded by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The introduction of bi-layer structural material represents a new materials engineering challenge; the behavior of the bi-layer is determined by the properties of the individual components and by the nature of the bond interface. The development of the radiation damage microstructure in both classes of materials is summarized and the effects of radiation on deformation and fracture behavior are considered. The initial data on the mechanical testing of bi-layers indicate that the effectiveness of GlidCop A125 as a FW heat sink material is compromised by its strongly anisotropic fracture toughness and poor resistance to crack growth in a direction parallel to the bi-layer interface. (orig.)

  8. Tensile anisotropy and creep properties of a Fe-14CrWTi ODS ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckmeyer, A., E-mail: antonin.steckmeyer@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Rodrigo, Vargas Hideroa [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gentzbittel, J.M. [CEA Grenoble, DRT/LITEN/DTBH/LCTA, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rabeau, V.; Fournier, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DMN/SRMA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-07-15

    A Fe-14Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel is studied as a potential material for cladding tube application for the next generation of fast-breeder nuclear reactors. Tensile specimens machined out from a hot extruded round bar in three different orientations are used to evaluate the mechanical anisotropy of this steel for temperatures in the range 20-750 Degree-Sign C. Its anisotropy is discussed both in terms of mechanical strength and fracture mode. At high temperatures (HTs), above 500 Degree-Sign C, the longitudinal direction appears to be the most ductile and most resistant direction. Longitudinal creep tests between 650 Degree-Sign C and 900 Degree-Sign C were also carried out. They show this ODS steel has a high HT creep lifetime and a low creep failure strain. Intergranular cracks aligned along the loading axis were observed on fractured creep specimens. They reveal a particular weakness of prior particle boundaries and suggest to modify the elaboration process through mechanical alloying and hot extrusion.

  9. Fracture Resistance of 14Cr ODS Steel Exposed to a High Temperature Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Hojna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact fracture behavior of the 14%Cr Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS steel (ODM401 after high temperature exposures in helium and air in comparison to the as-received state. A steel bar was produced by mechanical alloying and hot-extrusion at 1150 °C. Further, it was cut into small specimens, which were consequently exposed to air or 99.9% helium in a furnace at 720 °C for 500 h. Impact energy transition curves are shifted towards higher temperatures after the gas exposures. The transition temperatures of the exposed states significantly increase in comparison to the as-received steel by about 40 °C in He and 60 °C in the air. Differences are discussed in terms of microstructure, surface and subsurface Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM observations. The embrittlement was explained as temperature and environmental effects resulting in a decrease of dislocation level, slight change of the particle composition and interface/grain boundary segregations, which consequently affected the nucleation of voids leading to the ductile fracture.

  10. Formation of oxides particles in ferritic steel by using gas-atomized powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Fang Jinghua; Liu Donghua; Lu Zhi; Liu Feng; Chen Shiqi; Liu, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Oxides dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel was prepared by using gas-atomized pre-alloyed powder, without the conventional mechanical alloying process. By adjusting the volume content of O 2 in the gas atmosphere Ar, the O level in the ferritic powder can be well controlled. The O dissolves uniformly in the ferritic powder, and a very thin layer of oxides forms on the powder surface. After hot deformation, the primary particle boundaries, which retain after sintering, can be disintegrated and near fully dense materials can be obtained. The oxide layer on the powder surface has a significant effect on the microstructural evolution. It may prevent the diffusion in between the primary particles during sintering, and may dissolve and/or induce the nucleation of new oxides in the ferritic matrix during recrystallization. Two kinds of oxide particles are found in the ferritic steel: large (∼100 nm) Ti-rich and fine (10-20 nm) Y-Ti-rich oxides. The hardness of the ferritic steel increases with increasing annealing temperatures, however, decreases at 1400 deg. C, due to the coarsening of precipitates and the recrystallization microstructure.

  11. Radiation response of ODS ferritic steels with different oxide particles under ion-irradiation at 550 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Morrall, Daniel; Zhang, Zhexian; Yabuuchi, Kiyohiro; Kimura, Akihiko

    2018-04-01

    In order to investigate the effects of oxide particles on radiation response such as hardness change and microstructural evolution, three types of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels (named Y-Ti-ODS, Y-Al-ODS and Y-Al-Zr-ODS), mostly strengthened by Y-Ti-O, Y-Al-O and Y-Zr-O dispersoids, respectively, were simultaneously irradiated with iron and helium ions at 550 °C up to a damage of 30 dpa and a corresponding helium (He) concentration of ∼3500 appm to a depth of 1000-1300 nm. A single iron ion beam irradiation was also performed for reference. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that after the dual ion irradiation helium bubbles of 2.8, 6.6 and 4.5 nm in mean diameter with the corresponding number densities of 1.1 × 1023, 2.7 × 1022 and 3.6 × 1022 m-3 were observed in Y-Ti-ODS, Y-Al-ODS and Y-Al-Zr-ODS, respectively, while no such bubbles were observed after single ion irradiation. About 80% of intragranular He bubbles were adjacent to oxide particles in the ODS ferritic steels. Although the high number density He bubbles were observed in the ODS steels, the void swelling in Y-Ti-ODS, Y-Al-ODS and Y-Al-Zr-ODS was still small and estimated to be 0.13%, 0.53% and 0.20%, respectively. The excellent swelling resistance is dominantly attributed to the high sink strength of oxide particles that depends on the morphology of particle dispersion rather than the crystal structure of the particles. In contrast, no dislocation loops were produced in any of the irradiated steels. Nanoindentation measurements showed that no irradiation hardening but softening was found in the ODS ferritic steels, which was probably due to irradiation induced dislocation recovery. The helium bubbles in high number density never contributed to the irradiation hardening of the ODS steels at these irradiation conditions.

  12. High temperature tensile properties and fracture characteristics of bimodal 12Cr-ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Ankur; Litvinov, Dimitri; Aktaa, Jarir

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the tensile properties and fracture characteristics of a 12Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with unique elongated bimodal grain size distribution. The tensile tests were carried out at four different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 700 °C, at a nominal strain rate of 10"−"3 s"−"1. At room temperature the material exhibits a high tensile strength of 1294 MPa and high yield strength of 1200 MPa. At 700 °C, the material still exhibits relatively high tensile strength of 300 MPa. The total elongation-to-failure exceeds 18% over the whole temperature range and has a maximum value of 29% at 600 °C. This superior ductility is attributed to the material's bimodal grain size distribution. In comparison to other commercial, as well as experimental, ODS steels, the material shows an excellent compromise between strength and ductility. The fracture surface studies reveal a change in fracture behavior from a mixed mode fracture at room temperature to fully ductile fracture at 600 °C. At 700 °C, the fracture path changes from intragranular to intergranular fracture, which is associated with a reduced ductility. - Highlights: • The steel has a unique elongated bimodal grain size distribution. • The steel shows an excellent compromise between strength and ductility. • Superior ductility in comparison to other commercial and experimental ODS steels. • Fracture behavior changes from mixed mode fracture at room temperature to fully ductile fracture at 600 °C. • Fracture path changes from intragranular to intergranular fracture at 700 °C.

  13. Recent progress in reduced activation ferritic steels R and D in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, A.; Kohyama, A.; Sawai, T.; Shiba, K.; Hishinuma, A.; Jitsukawa, S.; Ukai, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese RAFSs R and D road map toward DEMO is shown. Important steps include high-dose irradiation by fission reactors, such as HFIR in ORNL, irradiation tests by 14 MeV neutrons in IFMIF and application to ITER test blanket modules to provide an adequate database of RAFS for the design of DEMO. Current status of RAFS development is also introduced. The major properties of concern are well within our knowledge and process technologies are mostly ready for fusion application. The RAFSs are now certainly ready to proceed to the next stage. Material database is already in hand and further progress is anticipated for the design of ITER test blanket. Oxide Dispersion strengthening (ODS) steels are quite promising for high temperature operation of the blanket system with potential improvements in radiation resistance of mechanical performances and of corrosion. (author)

  14. High resolution SEM characterization of nano-precipitates in ODS steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Iwona; Strojny-Nędza, Agata; Chmielewski, Marcin; Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Kurpaska, Łukasz; Nosewicz, Szymon

    2018-05-01

    The performance of the present-day scanning electron microscopy (SEM) extends far beyond delivering electronic images of the surface topography. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel is on of the most promising materials for the future nuclear fusion reactor because of its good radiation resistance, and higher operation temperature up to 750°C. The microstructure of ODS should not exceed tens of nm, therefore there is a strong need in a fast and reliable technique for their characterization. In this work, the results of low-kV SEM characterization of nanoprecipitates formed in the ODS matrix are presented. Application of highly sensitive photo-diode BSE detector in SEM imaging allowed for the registration of single nm-sized precipitates in the vicinity of the ODS alloys. The composition of the precipitates has been confirmed by TEM-EDS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Study of radiation damage in ODS steels by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartošová, I; Bouhaddane, A; Slugeň, V; Dománková, M; Wall, D; Selim, F A

    2016-01-01

    Microstructure of various oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels with 15% chromium content was studied in term of vacancy defects presence and their accumulation after defined irradiation treatment, respectively. Studied materials originated from Kyoto University and studied via IAEA collaborative project. Samples were characterized “as received” by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and their microstructure was examined by transmission electron microscopy as well. Samples were afterwards irradiated in Washington State University Nuclear Radiation Center via a strong gamma source (6TBq). Damage induced by gamma irradiation was evaluated by positron lifetime measurements in emphasis on defect accumulation in the materials. We have demonstrated strong defect production induced by gamma irradiation which results from positron measurement data. (paper)

  16. Strengthening the sports data infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool

    2012-01-01

    Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available

  17. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with Self-Compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. M. Omar

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of reinforced concrete columns strengthened by addition of a self-compacting concrete overlay at the compressed and at the tensioned face of the member, with and without addition of longitudinal steel bars. Eight columns were submit- ted to loading with an initial eccentricity of 60 mm . These columns had 120 mm x 250 mm of rectangular cross section, 2000 mm in length and four longitudinal reinforcement steel bars with 10 mm in diameter. Reference columns P1 and P2 were tested to failure without any type of rehabilitation. Columns P3 to P8 were loaded to a predefined load (close to the initial yield point of tension reinforce- ment, then unloaded and strengthened for a subsequent test until failure. Results showed that the method of rehabilitation used was effective, increasing the loading capacity of the strengthened pieces by 2 to 5 times the ultimate load of the reference column.

  18. Dispersion effect and auto-reconditioning performance of nanometer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reported on dispersion effect and dispersing techniques of nanometer WS2 particles in the green lubricant concocted by us. And it also researched on auto-reconditioning performance of nanometer WS2 particles to the abrasive surfaces of steel ball from four-ball tribology test and piston ring from engine ...

  19. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  20. Initial Semantics for Strengthened Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hirschowitz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We give a new general definition of arity, yielding the companion notions of signature and associated syntax. This setting is modular in the sense requested by Ghani and Uustalu: merging two extensions of syntax corresponds to building an amalgamated sum. These signatures are too general in the sense that we are not able to prove the existence of an associated syntax in this general context. So we have to select arities and signatures for which there exists the desired initial monad. For this, we follow a track opened by Matthes and Uustalu: we introduce a notion of strengthened arity and prove that the corresponding signatures have initial semantics (i.e. associated syntax. Our strengthened arities admit colimits, which allows the treatment of the λ-calculus with explicit substitution.

  1. Microstructural defect evolution in neutron – Irradiated 12Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel during subsequent isochronous annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, K.V.; Maksimkin, O.P.; Turubarova, L.G.; Rofman, O.V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics NNC RK, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Garner, F.A., E-mail: frank.garner@dslextreme.com [Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements were used to examine changes in microstructure and associated strengthening induced in austenitic stainless steel 12Cr18Ni9Ti irradiated to ∼0.001 and ∼5 dpa in the WWR-K reactor before and after being subjected to post-irradiation isochronal annealing. The relatively low values of irradiation temperature and dpa rate (∼80 °C and ∼1.2 × 10{sup −8} dpa/s) experienced by this steel allowed characterization of defect microstructures over a wide range of defect ensembles, all at constant composition, produced first by irradiation and then by annealing at temperatures between 450 and 1050 °C. It was shown that the dispersed barrier hardening model with commonly accepted physical properties successfully predicted the observed hardening. It was also observed that when TiC precipitates form at higher annealing temperatures, the alloy does not change in hardness, reflecting a balance between precipitate-hardening and matrix-softening due to removal of solute-strengthening elements titanium and carbon. Such matrix-softening is not often considered in other studies, especially where the contribution of precipitates to hardening is a second-order effect.

  2. Microstructural defect evolution in neutron – Irradiated 12Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel during subsequent isochronous annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, K.V.; Maksimkin, O.P.; Turubarova, L.G.; Rofman, O.V.; Garner, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements were used to examine changes in microstructure and associated strengthening induced in austenitic stainless steel 12Cr18Ni9Ti irradiated to ∼0.001 and ∼5 dpa in the WWR-K reactor before and after being subjected to post-irradiation isochronal annealing. The relatively low values of irradiation temperature and dpa rate (∼80 °C and ∼1.2 × 10 −8 dpa/s) experienced by this steel allowed characterization of defect microstructures over a wide range of defect ensembles, all at constant composition, produced first by irradiation and then by annealing at temperatures between 450 and 1050 °C. It was shown that the dispersed barrier hardening model with commonly accepted physical properties successfully predicted the observed hardening. It was also observed that when TiC precipitates form at higher annealing temperatures, the alloy does not change in hardness, reflecting a balance between precipitate-hardening and matrix-softening due to removal of solute-strengthening elements titanium and carbon. Such matrix-softening is not often considered in other studies, especially where the contribution of precipitates to hardening is a second-order effect

  3. Solid-state diffusion bonding of high-Cr ODS ferritic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon, E-mail: sh-noh@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel joined by solid-state diffusion bonding. > Free of precipitates and micro-voids at the bonding interface was existed. > Joints had the same tensile properties with anisotropy of the base material. > USE of joints was fully reserved in L-R bonding orientation. > Cracks did not propagate on the bonding interface at the Charpy impact test. - Abstract: Solid-state diffusion bonding (SSDB) was employed to join high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.2Ti-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) blocks under uniaxial hydrostatic pressure using a high-vacuum hot press, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated. High-Cr ODS ferritic steels were successfully diffusion bonded at 1200 deg. C for 1 h, without precipitates and microvoids at the bonding interface or degradation in the base materials. Transmission electron microscopic observation revealed that the nano-oxide particles near the bonding interface were uniformly distributed in the matrix and that the chemical composition across the bonding interface was virtually constant. At room temperature, the joint had nearly the same tensile properties and exhibited anisotropic behavior similar to that of the base material. The tensile strength of the joint region at elevated temperatures is nearly the same as that of the base material, with necking behavior at several micrometers from the bonding interface. The total elongation of the joint region decreased slightly at 700 {sup o}C, with an exfoliation fracture surface at the bonding interface. Although a small ductile-brittle transition temperature shift was observed in the joints, the upper shelf energy was fully reserved in the case of joints with L-R bonding orientation, for which cracks did not propagate on the bonding interface. Therefore, it is concluded that SSDB can be potentially employed as a joining method for high-Cr ODS ferritic steel owing to

  4. Systems design of transformation toughened blast-resistant naval hull steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arup

    A systems approach to computational materials design has demonstrated a new class of ultratough, weldable secondary hardened plate steels combining new levels of strength and toughness while meeting processability requirements. A first prototype alloy has achieved property goals motivated by projected naval hull applications requiring extreme fracture toughness (Cv > 85 ft-lbs (115 J) corresponding to KId > 200 ksi.in1/2 (220 MPa.m1/2)) at strength levels of 150--180 ksi (1034--1241 MPa) yield strength in weldable, formable plate steels. A theoretical design concept was explored integrating the mechanism of precipitated nickel-stabilized dispersed austenite for transformation toughening in an alloy strengthened by combined precipitation of M2C carbides and BCC copper both at an optimal ˜3nm particle size for efficient strengthening. This concept was adapted to plate steel design by employing a mixed bainitic/martensitic matrix microstructure produced by air-cooling after solution-treatment and constraining the composition to low carbon content for weldability. With optimized levels of copper and M2C carbide formers based on a quantitative strength model, a required alloy nickel content of 6.5 wt% was predicted for optimal austenite stability for transformation toughening at the desired strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa) yield strength. A relatively high Cu level of 3.65 wt% was employed to allow a carbon limit of 0.05 wt% for good weldability. Hardness and tensile tests conducted on the designed prototype confirmed predicted precipitation strengthening behavior in quench and tempered material. Multi-step tempering conditions were employed to achieve the optimal austenite stability resulting in significant increase of impact toughness to 130 ft-lb (176 J) at a strength level of 160 ksi (1100 MPa). Comparison with the baseline toughness-strength combination determined by isochronal tempering studies indicates a transformation toughening increment of 60% in Charpy

  5. Nano-composite stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Blue, Craig A.; Peter, William H.; Chen, Wei; Aprigliano, Louis F.

    2015-07-14

    A composite stainless steel composition is composed essentially of, in terms of wt. % ranges: 25 to 28 Cr; 11 to 13 Ni; 7 to 8 W; 3.5 to 4 Mo; 3 to 3.5 B; 2 to 2.5 Mn; 1 to 1.5 Si; 0.3 to 1.7 C; up to 2 O; balance Fe. The composition has an austenitic matrix phase and a particulate, crystalline dispersed phase.

  6. Strengthening Mechanisms in Microtruss Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Evelyn K.

    Microtrusses are hybrid materials composed of a three-dimensional array of struts capable of efficiently transmitting an externally applied load. The strut connectivity of microtrusses enables them to behave in a stretch-dominated fashion, allowing higher specific strength and stiffness values to be reached than conventional metal foams. While much attention has been given to the optimization of microtruss architectures, little attention has been given to the strengthening mechanisms inside the materials that make up this architecture. This thesis examines strengthening mechanisms in aluminum alloy and copper alloy microtruss systems with and without a reinforcing structural coating. C11000 microtrusses were stretch-bend fabricated for the first time; varying internal truss angles were selected in order to study the accumulating effects of plastic deformation and it was found that the mechanical performance was significantly enhanced in the presence of work hardening with the peak strength increasing by a factor of three. The C11000 microtrusses could also be significantly reinforced with sleeves of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ni-53wt%Fe. It was found that the strength increase from work hardening and electrodeposition were additive over the range of structures considered. The AA2024 system allowed the contribution of work hardening, precipitation hardening, and hard anodizing to be considered as interacting strengthening mechanisms. Because of the lower formability of AA2024 compared to C11000, several different perforation geometries in the starting sheet were considered in order to more effectively distribute the plastic strain during stretch-bend fabrication. A T8 condition was selected over a T6 condition because it was shown that the plastic deformation induced during the final step was sufficient to enhance precipitation kinetics allowing higher strengths to be reached, while at the same time eliminating one annealing treatment. When hard anodizing

  7. Hydrodynamic dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryce, M.H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A dominant mechanism contributing to hydrodynamic dispersion in fluid flow through rocks is variation of travel speeds within the channels carrying the fluid, whether these be interstices between grains, in granular rocks, or cracks in fractured crystalline rocks. The complex interconnections of the channels ensure a mixing of those parts of the fluid which travel more slowly and those which travel faster. On a macroscopic scale this can be treated statistically in terms of the distribution of times taken by a particle of fluid to move from one surface of constant hydraulic potential to another, lower, potential. The distributions in the individual channels are such that very long travel times make a very important contribution. Indeed, while the mean travel time is related to distance by a well-defined transport speed, the mean square is effectively infinite. This results in an asymmetrical plume which differs markedly from a gaussian shape. The distribution of microscopic travel times is related to the distribution of apertures in the interstices, or in the microcracks, which in turn are affected in a complex way by the stresses acting on the rock matrix

  8. Sleep On It: How Snoozing Strengthens Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe April 2013 Print this issue Sleep On It How Snoozing Strengthens Memories Send us ... the best way to remember it is to sleep on it. That’s because sleeping helps strengthen memories ...

  9. Steel alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.E.; Stiegler, J.O.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Leitnaker, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The invention deals with a fuel element for fast breeder reactors. It consits essentially of a uranium oxide, nitride, or carbide or a mixture of these fuels with a plutonium or thorium oxide, nitride, or carbide. The fuel elements are coated with an austenitic stainless steel alloy. Inside the fuel elements, vacancies or small cavities are produced by neutron effects which causes the steel coating to swell. According to the invention, swelling is prevented by a modification of type 304, 316, 321, or 12 K 72HV commercial steels. They consist mainly of Fe, Cr, and Ni in a ratio determined by a temary diagram. They may also contain 1.8 to 2.3% by weight of Mo and a fraction of Si (0.7 to 2% by weight) and Ti(0.10 to 0.5% by weight) to prevent cavity formation. They are structurally modified by cold working. (IHOE) [de

  10. Characterisation of As-deformed microstructure of ODS NI-Base superalloy and ODS ferritic steel prior to directional recrystallisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.M.; Memon, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The materials studied are unusual in the sense that they have been prepared from mechanically alloyed procedures, including compaction and hot extrusion. It was felt necessary to characterise the initial microstructure thoroughly prior to directional recrystallisation of the alloys. Following consolidation by hot extrusion, dispersion strengthened superalloys appear to display a very fine sub-micron grain size consisting of both dislocation free recrystallised material and un- recrystallised regions of high dislocation density. It is found that there is a very fine dislocation cell structure in the ODS (Oxide Dispersion Strengthened) Ferritic stainless Steel prior to recrystallisation treatment, which shows that alloy is in old-deformed condition after mechanical alloying, extrusion I hot-working. This is in contrast to the mechanically alloyed Nickel Base Superalloy, which have consistently been found to be in primary recrystallisation state following extrusion. In order to understand the recrystallisation behaviour of the two mechanically illoyed materials with commercial designations MA6000 and MA956, a measurement of the orientation relationship between adjacent grains in the as- deformed ODS alloys has also been carried out using Transmission Electron microscope. (author)

  11. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CN-12 type stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazias, Philip J.; McGreevy, Tim; Pollard,Michael James; Siebenaler, Chad W.; Swindeman, Robert W.

    2007-08-14

    A cast stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 0.5 wt. % to about 10 wt. % manganese, 0.02 wt. % to 0.50 wt. % N, and less than 0.15 wt. % sulfur provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. Alloys of the present invention also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the pres