WorldWideScience

Sample records for dispersed oil toxicity

  1. Do oil dispersants make spilled oil more toxic to fish?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in the Gulf of Mexico was the world's largest oil spill in terms of duration and volume spilled. Clean-up operations, which involved the continuous and wide-spread use of oil dispersant at the surface and at the seabed discharge point at 1500 metres depth, gave rise to public concern about dispersant toxicity. Reports from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed little difference in acute toxicity to marine fish and invertebrate species among commonly available dispersants and between dispersed and non-dispersed Louisiana Sweet Crude. Technically, the toxicity of waterborne hydrocarbons does not vary with chemical dispersion. However, the EPA omitted any consideration of loading, and misled the public about the risks of dispersant use in oil clean-up. This study examined the chronic toxicity of dispersed oil to fish embryos. The study revealed that toxicity expressed as oil loading increases by a factor of 10 to 1000 times with dispersion, largely because 10 to 1000 times more oil enters the water column. Since the action of dispersant is on the exposure component of the risk equation, not on the potency of the toxic components of oil, then the risk of oil toxicity to fish increases an equivalent amount.

  2. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  3. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published toxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils and aquatic plants. The historical phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for ...

  4. Oil and oil dispersant do not cause synergistic toxicity to fish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julie; Sweezey, Michael; Hodson, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) embryos were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAFs; oil dissolved in water) and chemically enhanced water accommodated fractions (CEWAFs; oil dispersed in water with Corexit 9500A) of Medium South American (MESA) crude oil. The CEWAF was approximately 100-fold more toxic than WAF based on nominal loadings of test solutions (% v/v). In contrast, the ratio of WAF and CEWAF toxicity expressed as measured oil concentrations approximated 1.0, indicating that the higher toxicity of CEWAFs was caused by an increase in exposure to hydrocarbons with chemical dispersion. In a second experiment, the chronic toxicity of Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil 7102 (HFO 7102) to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos was compared to chemically dispersed Nujol, a nontoxic mineral oil. Dispersant alone was toxic, but caused different signs of toxicity than HFO 7102. Nujol at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:20 was nontoxic, suggesting that dispersant was sequestered by oil and not present at toxic concentrations. In contrast, the same nominal loadings of dispersed HFO 7102 caused concentration-dependent increases in toxicity. Both experiments suggest that chemically dispersed oil was more toxic to fish embryos than solutions created by mechanical mixing due to the increased exposure of fish to petroleum hydrocarbons and not to changes in hydrocarbon toxicity. The Nujol control discriminated between the toxicity of oil and chemical dispersant and would be a practical addition to programs of dispersant testing.

  5. Toxic effects of oil and dispersant on marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garr, Amber L; Laramore, Susan; Krebs, William

    2014-12-01

    To better understand the potential impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill on lower trophic level food sources, a series of toxicological laboratory experiments were conducted with two microalgae species. The acute toxicity of oil (tar mat and MC252 crude oil), dispersant (Corexit 9500A), and dispersed oil on growth inhibition (IC50) and motility of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros sp. were determined. There was no impact on cell division (growth) for microalgae exposed to both oil types and mean motility of I. galbana never dropped below 79 %. However, the addition of dispersant inhibited cell division and motility within 24 h, with Chaetoceros sp. being more susceptible to sublethal effects than I. galbana. These results highlight microalgae sensitivity to the use of dispersants in bioremediation processes, which may be a concern for long-term impacts on fisheries recruitment.

  6. Combined toxicity of four toxicants (Cu, Cr, oil, oil dispersant) to Artemia salina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Milliou, E.

    1987-03-01

    In sea waters multicontaminant pollution appears to be the rule rather than the exception. For a realistic approach to pollution effects it is essential to estimate the combined toxicity of two or more chemicals. There is a need to understand the mechanisms of quantify the effects of multiple toxicity in order to provide responsible authorities with rational estimate of the effects of chemical mixtures. Thus the potential toxic effects of mixtures of toxicants has recently become a subject of growing scientific interest. In this paper the authors have tried to estimate the joint toxicity of some pollutants commonly found in nearshore polluted waters: two metals, copper and chromium; an oil (Tunesian crude oil zarzaitine type); and an oil dispersant (Finasol OSR-2).

  7. Toxicity of oil and dispersed oil on juvenile mud crabs, Rhithropanopeus harrisii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie A; Kuhl, Adam J; Anderson, A Nikki

    2014-04-01

    In order to simulate an offshore oil spill event, we assessed the acute toxicity of the non-dispersed and the chemically dispersed water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil using Louisiana sweet crude and Corexit(®) 9500A with juvenile Harris mud crabs (Rhithropanopeus harrisii), an important Gulf of Mexico benthic crustacean. The chemical dispersion of crude oil significantly increased acute toxicity of the WAF in juvenile mud crabs compared to naturally dispersed oil. The majority of the mortality in the chemically dispersed treatments occurred within 24 h. While higher concentrations of chemically dispersed WAF had no survivors, at lower concentrations surviving juvenile crabs displayed no long-term effects. These results suggest that if the juvenile crabs survive initial exposure, acute exposure to dispersed or non-dispersed crude oil may not induce long-term effects.

  8. Relative toxicity of oil dispersants to Mytilus viridis and Macrobrachium idella

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, C.; Row, A.

    There was a great variation in the relative toxicity of different oil dispersants. Dispersant IB 2/80 was most toxic and dispersant IB 11/80 was not lethal at the highest concentration tested. The ranking order of the emulsions (oil dispersant...

  9. Toxicities of oils, dispersants and dispersed oils to algae and aquatic plants: review and database value to resource sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Pryor, Rachel

    2013-09-01

    Phytotoxicity results are reviewed for oils, dispersants and dispersed oils. The phytotoxicity database consists largely of results from a patchwork of reactive research conducted after oil spills to marine waters. Toxicity information is available for at least 41 crude oils and 56 dispersants. As many as 107 response parameters have been monitored for 85 species of unicellular and multicellular algae, 28 wetland plants, 13 mangroves and 9 seagrasses. Effect concentrations have varied by as much as six orders of magnitude due to experimental diversity. This diversity restricts phytotoxicity predictions and identification of sensitive species, life stages and response parameters. As a result, evidence-based risk assessments for most aquatic plants and petrochemicals and dispersants are not supported by the current toxicity database. A proactive and experimentally-consistent approach is recommended to provide threshold toxic effect concentrations for sensitive life stages of aquatic plants inhabiting diverse ecosystems.

  10. Toxicities of Oils, Dispersants and Dispersed Oils to Aquatic Plants: Summary and Database Value to Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the phytotoxicities of crude and dispersed oils is important for near-shore ecosystem management, particularly post-oil spills. One source of information is toxicity data summaries which are scattered and outdated for aquatic plants and petrochemicals. As a resu...

  11. Toxicities of Oils, Dispersants and Dispersed Oils to Aquatic Plants: Summary and Database Value to Resource Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the phytotoxicities of crude and dispersed oils is important for near-shore ecosystem management, particularly post-oil spills. One source of information is toxicity data summaries which are scattered and outdated for aquatic plants and petrochemicals. As a resu...

  12. Evaluation of metabolic responses of Artemia salina to oil and oil dispersant as a potential indicator of toxicant stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verriopoulos, G.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.; Xatzispirou, A.

    1986-03-01

    Oil represents an obvious hazard for the coastal environment and studies on its impact on marine organisms are necessary. Solvent based oil dispersants constitute one of the most important means for removing oil from shores. Although recently new dispersants have been developed, which are much less toxic than the first ones, dispersants still remain toxic substances. Since in the case of oil pollution treatment, oils and detergents are acting in combination, a realistic approach of laboratory studies must also include the combined action of these substances on marine organisms. Although acute toxicity studies are very useful for the determination of the range of animal tolerance, other effects causing physiological alterations may be detrimental to a population's survival. This paper concerns research on the effects of an oil, an oil dispersant and of the mixture of oil and dispersant on a physiological process, the respiration of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

  13. Acute toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to Red sea fishes and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R.

    1975-11-01

    Crude oil from fields in the Persian Gulf and in the Sinai plus a chemical oil dispersant were tested, using static bioassay procedures, for toxicity to adults or juveniles of ten marine species: Heteroxenia fuscescens, a soft coral; Nerita forskali and Drupa granulata, gastropod molluscs; Mytilus variabilis, a mussel; Acanthopleura haddoni, a chiton (mollusc); Echinometra mathaei, sea urchin; Calcinus latens, a hermit crab; Palaemon pacificus, a shrimp; Parupeneus barberinus, goatfish; and Siganus rivulatus, rabbitfish. Concentrations fatal to 50 percent of individual test species in 168 hours, LC-50 (168 h), ranged from 0.74 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Persian Gulf crude, from 14.5 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and from 0.006 to 0.064 ml/liter for the dispersant. In general, fishes and crustaceans were the most sensitive groups assayed and molluscs the most resistant. LC-50 (168 h) values for oil-dispersant mixtures of 10 parts oil to 1 part dispersant (v/v) for selected species ranged from 0.047 to 0.152 ml/liter which appears to reflect the biocidal properties of the dispersant. Some individuals that survived immersion in high concentrations of the test compounds for 168 h were adversely affected during treatment and afterwards.

  14. Toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R. (National Marine Water Quality Lab., Narragansett, RI); Kissil, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Toxicities were determined for two crude oils, one from the Persian Gulf (Iran) and one from the Sinai Peninsula (Gulf of Suez), to rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus, an economically important species of teleost from the Red Sea. Also tested for toxicity were ST 5, a chemical oil dispersant, and oil-ST 5 mixtures in the ratio 10:1 vol/vol. Static tests conducted in small (3-liter) jars at 41 /sup 0///sub 00/ salinity and 23/sup 0/C produced LC/sub 50/ (168 h) values of 0.74 ml/liter for Iranian crude, 14.5 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and 0.010 ml/liter for ST 5; LC/sub 50/ values for oil-ST 5 mixtures reflected biocidal properties of ST 5 alone. Iranian oil became less toxic with increasing time in seawater over a period of 168 hours; the reverse was observed for Sinai crude. ST 5 exhibited a dramatic reduction in lethality after 2 hours in the assay medium. The most toxic component tested of Iranian crude was the lowest-boiling fraction; with Sinai crude it was the highest-boiling fraction; with ST 5 the volatile surfactant component accounted for almost all deaths. Liver enlargement in rabbitfish was linked with exposure to comparatively high concentrations of crude oil. High sublethal levels of ST 5 caused reductions in blood hematocrit. Rabbitfish survival at a given petrochemical concentration was highest at intermediate salinities of 30-50 /sup 0///sub 00/ in the salinity range tested of 20 to 60 /sup 0///sub 00/. Rabbitfish were more resistant to crudes and oil-dispersant mixtures in continuous flow bioassays conducted in large tanks than in static jar bioassays. Tank tests also suggested that mortalities were higher among toxicant-stressed fish confined 0.2 to 1.0 meters from the surface than among fish held 1.0 to 1.8 m from the surface. (auth)

  15. Methods for estimating cleaning effectiveness, dispersion, and toxicity of shoreline cleaning agents at oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stransky, B.C.; Clayton, J.R. Jr.; Schwartz, M.J.; Snyder, B.J.; Lees, D.C.; Adkins, A.C.; Reilly, T.J. [Ogden Environmental, San Diego, CA (United States); Michel, J. [Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Chemical shoreline cleaning agents (SCAs) are designed to enhance removal of stranded oil from shoreline surfaces. However, difficulties associated with estimating cleaning effectiveness and toxicity of SCAs for site-specific conditions make it desirable to perform measurements in the field with onsite oil, substrates, and resident or otherwise appropriate test organisms. Information for onsite testing should address the following questions: (1) does use of an SCA promote removal of oil from substate surfaces; (2) does use of an SCA increase the amount of dispersed oil in the water column; (3) does toxicity for resident organisms indicate a likelihood for adverse effects; (4) does toxicity with a portable test organism indicate a likelihood for adverse effects? Methodologies are described for use in a portable kit to estimate quantitative and qualitative information for cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field. Toxicity methodologies for resident organisms include echinoderm fertilization, byssal thread attachment for mussels, and righting/water-escaping ability for periwinkle snails. Microtox{trademark} is used for toxicity measurements as a portable test organism/assay. Use of portable methodologies for assessing cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field can assist onsite evaluations for cleaning performance and relative risk to biological resources, which are important for supporting use-no use decisions for SCAs.

  16. Fuel oil and dispersant toxicity to the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Frances J; King, Catherine K; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Harrison, Peter L

    2016-11-04

    The risk of a major marine fuel spill in Antarctic waters is increasing, yet there are currently no standard or suitable response methods under extreme Antarctic conditions. Fuel dispersants may present a possible solution; however, little data exist on the toxicity of dispersants or fuels to Antarctic species, thereby preventing informed management decisions. Larval development toxicity tests using 3 life history stages of the Antarctic sea urchin (Sterechinus neumayeri) were completed to assess the toxicity of physically dispersed, chemically dispersed, and dispersant-only water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of an intermediate fuel oil (IFO 180, BP) and the chemical dispersant Slickgone NS (Dasic International). Despite much lower total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations, physically dispersed fuels contained higher proportions of low-to-intermediate weight carbon compounds and were generally at least an order of magnitude more toxic than chemically dispersed fuels. Based on concentrations that caused 50% abnormality (EC50) values, the embryonic unhatched blastula life stage was the least affected by fuels and dispersants, whereas the larval 4-armed pluteus stage was the most sensitive. The present study is the first to investigate the possible implications of the use of fuel dispersants for fuel spill response in Antarctica. The results indicate that the use of a fuel dispersant did not increase the hydrocarbon toxicity of IFO 180 to the early life stages of Antarctic sea urchins, relative to physical dispersal. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-9. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Effects of Salinity on Oil Spill Dispersant Toxicity in Estuarine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical dispersants can be a useful tool to mitigate oil spills, but the potential risks to sensitive estuarine species should be carefully considered. To improve the decision making process, more information is needed regarding the effects of oil spill dispersants on the health of coastal ecosystems under variable environmental conditions such as salinity. The two oil dispersants used in this study were Corexit ® 9500 and Finasol ® OSR 52. Corexit ® 9500 was the primary dispersant used during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event, while Finasol® OSR 52 is another dispersant approved for oil spill response in the U.S., yet considerably less is known regarding its toxicity to estuarine species. The grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was used as a model estuarine species. It is a euryhaline species that tolerates salinities from brackish to full strength seawater. Adult and larval life stages were tested with each dispersant at three salinities, 5ppt, 20ppt, and 30ppt. Median acute lethal toxicity thresholds were calculated. Lipid peroxidation assays were conducted on surviving shrimp to investigate sublethal effects. The toxicity of both dispersants was significantly influenced by salinity, with greatest toxicity observed at the lowest salinity tested. Larval shrimp were significantly more sensitive than adult shrimp to both dispersants, and both life stages were significantly more sensitive to Finasol than to Corexit. Furthermore, significant sublethal effects were seen at higher concentrations of both dispersants compared to the control. These data will enable environmental managers to make informed decisions regarding dispersant use in future oil spills.

  18. Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea. PMID:25923774

  19. Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

    1994-08-01

    Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

  20. Toxicity testing with constant or decreasing concentrations of chemically dispersed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiesser, S.L.; Fleishmann, M.L.; McQuerry, D.L.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-10-01

    An exposure system and method of quantitating toxicity have been developed to provide an estimate of the effects of dispersed oil on marine organisms under a variety of exposure conditions. Results of constant concentration exposures (for hours or days) can be compared to those of diluting exposures (decreasing to zero in 8 or 24 h) on a basis of the ''toxicity index.'' This index is equal to the total exposure when time in hours or days is multiplied by the concentration at each hour (ppm h or ppm days). Tests have been conducted with shrimp (Pandalus danae), two oils (Prudhoe Bay crude and a light Arabian crude), and two dispersants. There is a seasonal pattern to the tolerance of the shrimp. Tests in the colder months (fall/winter) produce toxicity indices approximately three times higher than summer/spring values. During tests in summer, there was also little difference observed when the toxicity of the light Arabian oil was compared to that of Prudhoe Bay crude (2.3 and 3.4 ppm days, respectively). The usefulness of our methods is that in addition to the comparisons already noted, it is possible to predict the outcome of dispersant application under varying environmental conditions.

  1. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E.; Connelly, Tara L

    2016-01-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil...... in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models...

  2. Acute toxicity of current and alternative oil spill chemical dispersants to early life stage blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pie, Hannah V; Mitchelmore, Carys L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute toxicity of five oil spill chemical dispersants on the ecologically and economically important coastal and estuarine species, blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Static, non-renewal 48 h acute toxicity tests were performed on stage-II blue crab zoea. The median lethal concentration (LC50) was calculated for each dispersant at 24 h and 48 h using nominal concentrations for each dispersant tested. The 48 h LC50 values from the most to the least toxic ranged from 10.1 mg L(-1) for Dispersit SPC 1000 to 76.5 mg L(-1) for Orca. For all dispersants, the swimming activity and mobility of larvae decreased with increasing dispersant concentration within 24h of exposure and reached relative immobility at concentrations below LC50 values. These results show that the dispersants examined in this study are only slightly toxic after 48 h exposure to the earliest life stage of blue crabs that might likely be exposed to dispersants in the environment, with the exception of Dispersit SPC 1000 that bordered between slightly and moderately toxic. Although the dispersants themselves appear to not cause substantial acute toxicity, sublethal and potentially delayed impacts, such as, reduced mobility or food source availability could indirectly remove larvae from the population and need to be further examined, as do larval responses in standard chronic toxicity tests. Furthermore, dispersants are not released into the environment in isolation and so the impact of dispersed-oil using these dispersant formulations also needs to be investigated to translate into real-world situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute toxicity of dispersed crude oil on the cold-water copepod Calanus finmarchicus: Elusive implications of lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Jager, Tjalling; Altin, Dag; Øverjordet, Ida B; Olsen, Anders J; Salaberria, Iurgi; Nordtug, Trond

    2016-01-01

    In this investigation, acute toxicity data were used from two previously reported studies where cold-water copepods were exposed to mechanically dispersed (MD) and chemically (CD) dispersed oil. In one of these studies, concentration-dependent mortality was observed, whereas no apparent relationship between exposure concentration and mortality was found in the other. The only marked difference between the studies is that copepods in the first experiment displayed a lower lipid sac volume (on average) than in the second one. In this study additional biometric data on lipid content were utilized and observed effects and toxicokinetics modeling applied in order to investigate whether differences in sensitivity between copepod cohorts might be explained by differences in lipid content. Results suggest that although a considerable lipid sac might retard toxicokinetics, the observed differences in lipid volume are not sufficient to explain differences in toxicity. Further, there are no apparent indications that acute toxic stress leads to lipid depletion, or that acute increased mortality rate selectively affects lipid-poor individuals. It is conceivable that other potential explanations exist, but the causal relationship between lipid content and increased mortality frequency remains elusive.

  4. Choice of test organisms for determination of oil dispersant toxicity in marine waters. Auswahl von Testorganismen zur Bestimmung der Toxizitaet von Dispergatoren bei der Oelbekaempfung in marinen Gewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    Several marine organisms were investigated regarding their qualification for oil dispersant toxicity determination. Appropriate organisms were chosen for two different test procedures: Using mortality as a test criterion an acute toxicity test can be carried out very easy with larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia sp. The sensitivity for different dispersants ranges over several orders of magnitude. Another test indicator is the cell multiplication-inhibition test, conducted with the microalga Scrippsiella trochoidea, a representative of phytoplankton. The sensitivity for a common dispersant ranges a hundredfold higher than the acute toxicity test. Both test procedures are also practicable for other water-soluble substances, as well. One oil-spill dispersant efficiency test is proposed provisionally. (orig.) With 62 refs., 20 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. Bioaccumulation and subacute toxicity of mechanically and chemically dispersed heavy fuel oil in sea urchin (Glyptocidaris crenulari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailin Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have a disastrous ecological impact on ecosystems but few data are available for the effects of dispersed oil on benthic marine organisms. In order to provide information for assessment, we analysed the hydrocarbon compositions of the mechanically dispersed water accommodated fraction (MDWAF and the chemically dispersed water accommodated fraction (CDWAF of No. 120 fuel oil, their bioaccumulation, and DNA damage related to oil exposure, using the sea urchin as a sentinel organism. The results show that the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the tissues of sea urchin exposed to the CDWAF is higher than that of those exposed to the MDWAF. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay results also indicated higher DNA damage from exposure to the CDWAF of oil. Thus, dispersants should be applied with caution in oil spill accidents.

  6. Acute Toxicity of Water-Accommodated Fraction and Chemically Enhanced WAF of Bunker C Oil and Dispersant to a Microalga Tetraselmis tetrathele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-Avanceña, Sheryll S; Sadaba, Resurreccion B; Taberna, Hilario S; Tayo, Gilma T; Koyama, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of bunker C oil and dispersant (DISP) to a microalga, Tetraselmis tetrathele. The 72-h median effective concentration (72-h EC50) of CEWAF and DISP were determined at 3.30% and 2.40%, respectively. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of CEWAF to T. tetrathele was at 2.0% and lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was at 3.0% while NOEC and LOEC of DISP to T. tetrathele were determined at 1.0% and 2.0%, respectively. The addition of dispersant to oil increased the amount of total PAH present in the CEWAF test solutions. DISP alone was highly toxic, and the toxicity of CEWAF was primarily caused by the presence of dispersant.

  7. Comparison of the relative sensitivity of Arctic species to dispersed oil using total petroleum and PAH measures of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extended periods of open water have expanded the potential opportunities for petroleum and gas exploration and production in the Arctic, increasing the focus on understanding the potential impacts of released oil on aquatic organisms. However, information regarding the toxicity o...

  8. The effects of weathering and chemical dispersion on Deepwater Horizon crude oil toxicity to mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; Hoenig, Ronald; Brown, Tanya L; French, Barbara L; Linbo, Tiffany L; Lay, Claire; Forth, Heather; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Incardona, John P; Morris, Jeffrey M; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the impact of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident on commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species, a mahi-mahi spawning program was developed to assess the effect of embryonic exposure to DWH crude oil with particular emphasis on the effects of weathering and dispersant on the magnitude of toxicity. Acute lethality (96 h LC50) ranged from 45.8 (28.4-63.1) μg l(-1) ΣPAH for wellhead (source) oil to 8.8 (7.4-10.3) μg l(-1) ΣPAH for samples collected from the surface slick, reinforcing previous work that weathered oil is more toxic on a ΣPAH basis. Differences in toxicity appear related to the amount of dissolved 3 ringed PAHs. The dispersant Corexit 9500 did not influence acute lethality of oil preparations. Embryonic oil exposure resulted in cardiotoxicity after 48 h, as evident from pericardial edema and reduced atrial contractility. Whereas pericardial edema appeared to correlate well with acute lethality at 96 h, atrial contractility did not. However, sub-lethal cardiotoxicity may impact long-term performance and survival. Dispersant did not affect the occurrence of pericardial edema; however, there was an apparent reduction in atrial contractility at 48 h of exposure. Pericardial edema at 48 h and lethality at 96 h were equally sensitive endpoints in mahi-mahi.

  9. Toxicity of Deepwater Horizon source oil and the chemical dispersant, Corexit® 9500, to coral larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Goodbody-Gringley

    Full Text Available Acute catastrophic events can cause significant damage to marine environments in a short time period and may have devastating long-term impacts. In April 2010 the BP-operated Deepwater Horizon (DWH offshore oil rig exploded, releasing an estimated 760 million liters of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This study examines the potential effects of oil spill exposure on coral larvae of the Florida Keys. Larvae of the brooding coral, Porites astreoides, and the broadcast spawning coral, Montastraea faveolata, were exposed to multiple concentrations of BP Horizon source oil (crude, weathered and WAF, oil in combination with the dispersant Corexit® 9500 (CEWAF, and dispersant alone, and analyzed for behavior, settlement, and survival. Settlement and survival of P. astreoides and M. faveolata larvae decreased with increasing concentrations of WAF, CEWAF and Corexit® 9500, however the degree of the response varied by species and solution. P. astreoides larvae experienced decreased settlement and survival following exposure to 0.62 ppm source oil, while M. faveolata larvae were negatively impacted by 0.65, 1.34 and 1.5 ppm, suggesting that P. astreoides larvae may be more tolerant to WAF exposure than M. faveolata larvae. Exposure to medium and high concentrations of CEWAF (4.28/18.56 and 30.99/35.76 ppm and dispersant Corexit® 9500 (50 and 100 ppm, significantly decreased larval settlement and survival for both species. Furthermore, exposure to Corexit® 9500 resulted in settlement failure and complete larval mortality after exposure to 50 and 100 ppm for M. faveolata and 100 ppm for P. astreoides. These results indicate that exposure of coral larvae to oil spill related contaminants, particularly the dispersant Corexit® 9500, has the potential to negatively impact coral settlement and survival, thereby affecting the resilience and recovery of coral reefs following exposure to oil and dispersants.

  10. Selection of potential cold water marine species for testing of oil dispersants, and chemically dispersed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R.A. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A study regarding marine species for toxicity testing for Alaska conditions was presented and the potential adverse impacts of a large marine oil spill in cold water were discussed with the objective to determine if the spill should be treated by the use of oil dispersants. Without dispersion, the oil can pollute marine epifauna and can deposit on beaches. The decision to apply dispersants to a marine oil spill requires knowledge of the toxicity of the undispersed oil to pelagic marine life occurring via natural dispersion as opposed to the toxicity of the oil-dispersant mixture. Most standard toxicity tests apply to warm water species. This paper discussed the need to have a standard test species relevant to Alaska waters for toxicity testing. In this study, toxicity testing was done according to the methods of the Chemical Response to Oil Spills : Ecological Effects Research Forum (CROSERF). The testing included capturing adult species in the winter and holding them until larval hatching. Toxicity testing was completed in a narrow time frame before hatching ceased. Many chemical samples were tested. Topsmelt, urchins, shellfish, mysids, copepods, pink salmon fry, and tidepool sculpin were considered by the author to be the most useful for certain types of toxicity testing. 29 refs.

  11. Aquatic toxicity of petroleum products and dispersant agents determined under the U.S. EPA Oil Spill Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development has developed baseline data on the ecotoxicity of selected petroleum products and several chemical dispersants as part of its oil spills research program. Two diluted bitumens (dilbits) from the Alberta Tar Sands were tested for acu...

  12. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.milinkovitch01@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Godefroy, Joachim [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Theron, Michael, E-mail: michael.theron@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire ORPHY EA4324, Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 Avenue le Gorgeu, CS 93837, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Thomas-Guyon, Helene, E-mail: helene.thomas@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas. - Highlights: > This study simulates and evaluates the toxicity of dispersant use in nearshore area. > Dispersant use toxicity is assessed through biomarkers measurement in a fish species. > Chemical dispersion of an oil slick increases the petroleum toxicity. > Dispersant use does not enhance the toxicity of a mechanically dispersed oil slick. > This work leads to conclusions concerning dispersant use policies in nearshore area. - When the meteorological conditions induce the dispersion of the oil slick (e.g. wave), the application of dispersant does not increase the toxicity of petroleum.

  13. Toxicity of dispersant application: Biomarkers responses in gills of juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Godefroy, Joachim; Théron, Michaël; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-10-01

    Dispersant use in nearshore areas is likely to increase the exposure of aquatic organisms to petroleum. To measure the toxicity of this controversial response technique, golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) were exposed to mechanically dispersed oil, chemically dispersed oil, dispersant alone in seawater, water-soluble fraction of oil and to seawater as a control treatment. Several biomarkers were assessed in the gills (enzymatic antioxidant activities, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation) and in the gallbladder (polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites). The significant differences between chemically dispersed oil and water soluble fraction of oil highlight the environmental risk to disperse an oil slick when containment and recovery can be conducted. The lack of significance between chemically and mechanically dispersed oil suggests that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion of the oil slick. The results of this study are of interest in order to establish dispersant use policies in nearshore areas.

  14. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Lumley, T.C.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2007-07-01

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  15. Assessment on acute toxicity of oil spill dispersant and crude oil dispersed on marine microalgae%溢油分散剂及其乳化原油对海洋微藻的急性毒性效应评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐会; 宋丹丹; 周爱华; 曲良; 梁生康

    2013-01-01

    The acute toxicity of three kinds of oil spill dispersant ( OSD) , water accommodated fraction ( WAF) and dispersed water accommodated fraction (DWAF) plus OSD on the marine microalgae was compared by the calculating 96 h half lethal concentration (96 h-EC50). The data showed that the acute toxicity of ODS named as RSA-11 and ZHY-2 was less toxic than that of ODS named as RSS-6. On the other hand, the toxicity of ODS named as RSA-11 was more toxic than that of its each surfactant ingredient. It also showed that mixture of surfactant had a synergistic toxicity effect. Similarly, the toxicity of each DWAF was more toxic than not only that of each OSD,but also that of WAF,and also showed that addition of OSD to oil spill could enhance the toxicity to the marine microalgae.%以96 h半致死效应浓度(96 h-EC50)为指标,比较测定了3种溢油分散剂(oil spill dispersant,OSD)、原油的水溶性成分(water accommodated fraction,WAF)以及OSD乳化作用下原油的水溶性成分(dispersed water accommodated fraction,DWAF)对海洋微藻的急性毒性效应.结果表明:所测试3种OSD中,RSA-11型和ZHY-2型的毒性明显低于RSS-6型的毒性;而RSA-11型OSD的毒性高于组成该OSD单一表面活性剂的毒性,呈现明显的协同作用;同时,OSD与原油共存时的DWAF的毒性既高于OSD单独存在时,也高于原油单独存在时WAF的毒性,表明溢油时加入OSD会增强原油对海洋微藻的毒性.

  16. Effect of dispersed crude oil exposure upon the aerobic metabolic scope in juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Lucas, Julie; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Lefrançois, Christel

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of dispersant application which is, in nearshore area, a controversial response technique to oil spill. Through an experimental approach with juveniles of Liza aurata, the toxicity of five exposure conditions was evaluated: (i) a chemically dispersed oil simulating dispersant application; (ii) a single dispersant as an internal control of chemically dispersed oil; (iii) a mechanically dispersed oil simulating natural dispersion of oil; (iv) a water soluble fraction of oil simulating an undispersed and untreated oil slick and (v) uncontaminated seawater as a control exposure condition. The relative concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) biliary metabolites showed that the incorporation of these toxic compounds was increased if the oil was dispersed, whether mechanically or chemically. However, toxicity was not observed at the organism level since the aerobic metabolic scope and the critical swimming speed of exposed fish were not impaired.

  17. Effect of dispersants on the growth of indigenous bacterial population and biodegradation of crude oil

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Row, A.

    of the dispersants were toxic, except IB 2/80, to the bacterial population. All of the dispersants, when used alone, or in combination with the crude oil, supported good growth of bacteria. The Saudi Arabian crude oil by itself was toxic to the bacteria, and when...

  18. Toxicological effects of crude oil and oil dispersant: biomarkers in the heart of the juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Imbert, Nathalie; Sanchez, Wilfried; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2013-02-01

    Dispersant use is a controversial oil spill response technique in coastal areas. Using an experimental approach, this study evaluated the toxicity of dispersant use upon juveniles of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata). Fish were exposed for 48 h to either dispersant only, chemically dispersed oil, mechanically dispersed oil, the water soluble fraction of oil or to control conditions. Following exposure and a depuration period, biomarkers were assessed in fish hearts, namely the total glutathione content and the activity of four enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides). Comparing biomarker responses between the different treatments, this study revealed that 48 h exposure to dispersed oil (whether mechanically or chemically dispersed) resulted in a toxicity that was still detectable after a 14 days depuration period. Comparing biomarkers responses after an exposure to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil, this study suggests that chemical dispersion of the oil slick would not be more toxic than its natural dispersion under certain turbulent meteorological conditions (e.g. waves). Furthermore, the results indicated that the heart could be a target organ of interest in further studies investigating the toxicity of hydrocarbons. This study, which has been integrated into the DISCOBIOL project (Dispersant et techniques de lutte en milieu côtier: effets biologiques et apport à la réglementation), presents information of interest when attempting to provide a framework for dispersant applications in coastal areas.

  19. Laboratory effectiveness testing of oil spill dispersants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.F.; Kyle, D.A.; Wang, Z.; Handfield, D.; Ianuzzi, D.; Ackerman, F. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    Dispersant effectiveness tests are reviewed. Studies have been conducted of the variances among several standard regulatory tests. Three main causes of differences have been identified, oil-to-water ratio, settling time and energy. Energy can be partially compensated for in high energy tests by correcting for natural dispersion. With this correction and with high oil-to-water ratios and a settling time of at least 10 minutes, five apparatuses yield very similar results for a variety of oils and dispersants. Recent studies into the energy variation of dispersant tests show that the energy level varies in many apparatuses. The repeatability of energy levels in apparatus is largely responsible for the variation in dispersant effectiveness values in certain apparatus. Studies of analytical procedures show that traditional extraction and analysis methods cause a bias to results. Methods to overcome these difficulties are presented.

  20. Sensitivity of the deep-sea amphipod Eurythenes gryllus to chemically dispersed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gro Harlaug; Coquillé, Nathalie; Le Floch, Stephane; Geraudie, Perrine; Dussauze, Matthieu; Lemaire, Philippe; Camus, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    In the context of an oil spill accident and the following oil spill response, much attention is given to the use of dispersants. Dispersants are used to disperse an oil slick from the sea surface into the water column generating a cloud of dispersed oil droplets. The main consequence is an increasing of the sea water-oil interface which induces an increase of the oil biodegradation. Hence, the use of dispersants can be effective in preventing oiling of sensitive coastal environments. Also, in case of an oil blowout from the seabed, subsea injection of dispersants may offer some benefits compared to containment and recovery of the oil or in situ burning operation at the sea surface. However, biological effects of dispersed oil are poorly understood for deep-sea species. Most effects studies on dispersed oil and also other oil-related compounds have been focusing on more shallow water species. This is the first approach to assess the sensitivity of a macro-benthic deep-sea organism to dispersed oil. This paper describes a toxicity test which was performed on the macro-benthic deep-sea amphipod (Eurythenes gryllus) to determine the concentration causing lethality to 50% of test individuals (LC50) after an exposure to dispersed Brut Arabian Light (BAL) oil. The LC50 (24 h) was 101 and 24 mg L(-1) after 72 h and 12 mg L(-1) at 96 h. Based on EPA scale of toxicity categories to aquatic organisms, an LC50 (96 h) of 12 mg L(-1) indicates that the dispersed oil was slightly to moderately toxic to E. gryllus. As an attempt to compare our results to others, a literature study was performed. Due to limited amount of data available for dispersed oil and amphipods, information on other crustacean species and other oil-related compounds was also collected. Only one study on dispersed oil and amphipods was found, the LC50 value in this study was similar to the LC50 value of E. gryllus in our study. Since toxicity data are important input to risk assessment and net environmental

  1. Modelling and Simulation of Crude Oil Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai JIMOH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out to develop a model equation for the dispersion of crude oil in water. Seven different crude oils (Bonny Light, Antan Terminal, Bonny Medium, Qua Iboe Light, Brass Light Mbede, Forcados Blend and Heavy H were used as the subject crude oils. The developed model equation in this project which is given as...It was developed starting from the equation for the oil dispersion rate in water which is given as...The developed equation was then simulated with the aid of MathCAD 2000 Professional software. The experimental and model results obtained from the simulation of the model equation were plotted on the same axis against time of dispersion. The model results revealed close fittings between the experimental and the model results because the correlation coefficients and the r-square values calculated using Spreadsheet Program were both found to be unity (1.00.

  2. Toxicity to freshwater organisms from oils and oil spill chemical treatments in laboratory microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Klerks, P.L.; Nyman, J.A

    2003-04-01

    Toxicity of oil and diesel fuel to freshwater biota may be increased by use of oil spill cleaning agents. - Toxicity and temporal changes in toxicity of freshwater-marsh-microcosms containing South Louisiana Crude (SLC) or diesel fuel and treated with a cleaner or dispersant, were investigated using Chironomus tentans, Daphnia pulex, and Oryzias latipes. Bioassays used microcosm water (for D. pulex and O. latipes) or soil slurry (for C. tentans) taken 1,7, 31, and 186 days after treatment. SLC was less toxic than diesel, chemical additives enhanced oil toxicity, the dispersant was more toxic than the cleaner, and toxicities were greatly reduced by day 186. Toxicities were higher in the bioassay with the benthic species than in those with the two water-column species. A separate experiment showed that C. tentans' sensitivity was intermediate to that of Tubifex tubifex and Hyallela azteca. Freshwater organisms, especially benthic invertebrates, thus appear seriously effected by oil under the worst-case-scenario of our microcosms. Moreover, the cleaner and dispersant tested were poor response options under those conditions.

  3. Boron toxicity in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajaratnam, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Potted oil palms were treated with fertilizer of borate-46 at several concentrations and the plants were observed for boron toxicity effects. Toxicity symptoms were apparent at high rates but not at rates equivalent to typical Malaysian soils.

  4. Role of dispersion in fuel oil bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderhorst, J.R.; Gibson, C.I.; Moore, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Three methods of oil-seawater contact were used to measure aqueous phase concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil and the resulting mortality of shrimp, PANDALUS DANAE. Oil--water entry methods included: (1) separate inflow below the water surface, (2) mixture inflow above the water surface, and (3) separate inflow above the water surface. The importance of standardizing the conditions under which oil and water are mixed prior to use in bioassay studies and the amount of dispersion that occurs during the exposure period was noted. Under the three sets of mixing conditions, identical volumes of oil and water resulted in significant differences in observed mortality and measured amounts of oil in the water column, as either total or soluble oil.

  5. Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Exhibit a Species-Specific Response to Dispersed Oil while Moderating Ecotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Will A.; Marks, Kala P.; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David J.; Snell, Terry W.

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon blowout in April 2010 represented the largest accidental marine oil spill and the largest release of chemical dispersants into the environment to date. While dispersant application may provide numerous benefits to oil spill response efforts, the impacts of dispersants and potential synergistic effects with crude oil on individual hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are poorly understood. In this study, two environmentally relevant species of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were utilized to quantify the response to Macondo crude oil and Corexit 9500A-dispersed oil in terms of bacterial growth and oil degradation potential. In addition, specific hydrocarbon compounds were quantified in the dissolved phase of the medium and linked to ecotoxicity using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved rotifer assay. Bacterial treatment significantly and drastically reduced the toxicity associated with dispersed oil (increasing the 50% lethal concentration [LC50] by 215%). The growth and crude oil degradation potential of Acinetobacter were inhibited by Corexit by 34% and 40%, respectively; conversely, Corexit significantly enhanced the growth of Alcanivorax by 10% relative to that in undispersed oil. Furthermore, both bacterial strains were shown to grow with Corexit as the sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial species demonstrate a unique response to dispersed oil compared to their response to crude oil, with potentially opposing effects on toxicity. While some species have the potential to enhance the toxicity of crude oil by producing biosurfactants, the same bacteria may reduce the toxicity associated with dispersed oil through degradation or sequestration. PMID:26546426

  6. Optimisation of Oil Spill Dispersants on Weathered Oils. A New Approach Using Experimental Design and Multivariate Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandvik, Per Johan

    1997-12-31

    This thesis describes how laboratory experiments combined with numerical modelling were used to predict weathering of an oil slick at different environmental conditions (temperature, wind etc.). It also applies laboratory test methods to screen dispersant effectiveness under different temperatures and salinities. A new approach is developed for dispersant optimization based on statistical design and multivariate analysis; this resulted in a new dispersant with low toxicity and high effectiveness on a broad selection of oil types. The thesis illustrates the potential of dispersant used as an operational response method on oil spills by discussing three different oil spill scenarios and compares the effect of using dispersants to using mechanical recovery and to doing nothing. Some recommendations that may increase the effectiveness of the Norwegian oil spill contingency are also given. 172 refs., 65 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea.

  8. Use of passive samplers for improving oil toxicity and spill effects assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letinski, Daniel; Parkerton, Thomas; Redman, Aaron; Manning, Ryan; Bragin, Gail; Febbo, Eric; Palandro, David; Nedwed, Tim

    2014-09-15

    Methods that quantify dissolved hydrocarbons are needed to link oil exposures to toxicity. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers can serve this purpose. If fibers are equilibrated with oiled water, dissolved hydrocarbons partition to and are concentrated on the fiber. The absorbed concentration (Cpolymer) can be quantified by thermal desorption using GC/FID. Further, given that the site of toxic action is hypothesized as biota lipid and partitioning of hydrocarbons to lipid and fibers is well correlated, Cpolymer is hypothesized to be a surrogate for toxicity prediction. To test this method, toxicity data for physically and chemically dispersed oils were generated for shrimp, Americamysis bahia, and compared to test exposures characterized by Cpolymer. Results indicated that Cpolymer reliably predicted toxicity across oils and dispersions. To illustrate field application, SPME results are reported for oil spills at the Ohmsett facility. SPME fibers provide a practical tool to improve characterization of oil exposures and predict effects in future lab and field studies.

  9. Oil Dispersion with Abamectin as Active Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Gašić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abamectin was developed as an insecticide, nematocide and acaricide for use on a varietyof agricultural and horticultural crops. The products with this active ingredient can befound on the market mostly formulated as emulsifiable concentrate (EC. Usually producersrecommend using the EC formulation of abamectin together with some kind of adjuvants(natural oils to improve efficacy of the active ingredient. To overcome the efficacy problemwe tried to formulate the active ingredient abamectin as oil dispersion (OD. Oil dispersion,preferably based on naturally derived oils could improve pesticide efficacy. This type of pesticideformulation contains oil instead of water as in classical suspension concentrate andtypically has better retention and coverage. In the case of abamectin, in this investigationsoybean oil was used with the mixture of different nonionic emulsifiers. Content of abamecetinin formulation was 1.8 %. The developed formulation was tested for few importantparameters. The obtained physicochemical properties for the above mentioned formulationhave shown that it is stable and could be used in plant protection.

  10. Effects of dispersants on microbial growth and biodegradation of crude oils

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Four oil spill dispersants when used along (0.1% V/V) or in combination with Saudi Arabian Crude (0.5% V/V) were non-toxic to Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis. At a higher concentration of 0.6% (V/V) only D2 was found to be toxic to both...

  11. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  12. The NET effect of dispersants - a critical review of testing and modelling of surface oil dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Application of chemical dispersants or mechanical dispersion on surface oil is a trade-off between surface effects (impact of floating oil) and sub-surface effects (impact of suspended oil). Making an informed decision regarding such response, requires insight in the induced change in fate and tr

  13. The NET effect of dispersants - a critical review of testing and modelling of surface oil dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke; Koops, Wierd; Murk, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Application of chemical dispersants or mechanical dispersion on surface oil is a trade-off between surface effects (impact of floating oil) and sub-surface effects (impact of suspended oil). Making an informed decision regarding such response, requires insight in the induced change in fate and

  14. A role for analytical chemistry in advancing our understanding of the occurrence, fate, and effects of Corexit Oil Dispersants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Ben; Anderson, Brian; Mekebri, Abdou; Furlong, Edward T.; Gray, James L.; Tjeerdema, Ron; Field, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    On April 24, 2010, the sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig resulted in the release of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. As of July 19, 2010, the federal government's Deepwater Horizon Incident Joint Information Center estimates the cumulative range of oil released is 3,067,000 to 5,258,000 barrels, with a relief well to be completed in early August. By comparison, the Exxon Valdez oil spill released a total of 260,000 barrels of crude oil into the environment. As of June 9, BP has used over 1 million gallons of Corexit oil dispersants to solubilize oil and help prevent the development of a surface oil slick. Oil dispersants are mixtures containing solvents and surfactants that can exhibit toxicity toward aquatic life and may enhance the toxicity of components of weathered crude oil. Detailed knowledge of the composition of both Corexit formulations and other dispersants applied in the Gulf will facilitate comprehensive monitoring programs for determining the occurrence, fate, and biological effects of the dispersant chemicals. The lack of information on the potential impacts of oil dispersants has caught industry, federal, and state officials off guard. Until compositions of Corexit 9500 and 9527 were released by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency online, the only information available consisted of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), patent documentation, and a National Research Council report on oil dispersants. Several trade and common names are used for the components of the Corexits. For example, Tween 80 and Tween 85 are oligomeric mixtures.

  15. Liver antioxidant and plasma immune responses in juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) exposed to dispersed crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Ndiaye, Awa; Sanchez, Wilfried; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2011-01-17

    Dispersants are often used after oil spills. To evaluate the environmental cost of this operation in nearshore habitats, the experimental approach conducted in this study exposed juvenile golden grey mullets (Liza aurata) for 48 h to chemically dispersed oil (simulating, in vivo, dispersant application), to dispersant alone in seawater (as an internal control of chemically dispersed oil), to mechanically dispersed oil (simulating, in vivo, natural dispersion), to the water-soluble fraction of oil (simulating, in vivo, an oil slick confinement response technique) and to seawater alone (control condition). Biomarkers such as fluorescence of biliary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites, total glutathione liver content, EROD (7-ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase) activity, liver antioxidant enzyme activities, liver lipid peroxidation and an innate immune parameter (haemolytic activity of the alternative complement pathway) were measured to assess the toxicity of dispersant application. Significant responses of PAH metabolites and total glutathione content of liver to chemically dispersed oil were found, when compared to water-soluble fraction of oil. As was suggested in other studies, these results highlight that priority must be given to oil slick confinement instead of dispersant application. However, since the same patterns of biomarker responses were observed for both chemically and mechanically dispersed oil, the results also suggest that dispersant application is no more toxic than the natural dispersion occurring in nearshore areas (due to, e.g. waves). The results of this study must, nevertheless, be interpreted cautiously since other components of nearshore habitats must be considered to establish a framework for dispersant use in nearshore areas.

  16. Toxicity of three oil spill remediation techniques to the Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A M; Nugegoda, D

    2000-10-01

    Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, were exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil, dispersed crude oil, burnt crude oil, and 4-chlorophenol. The WAF of dispersed crude oil was the most toxic treatment with 96-h LC(50) values of 7. 15% (7.94% upper and 6.42% lower 95% CI) and 7.45% (8.26% upper and 6.71% lower 95% CI). The WAF of crude oil was less toxic, with 96-h LC(50) values of 43.72% (49.21% upper and 38.87% lower 95% CI) and 45.87% (51.51% upper and 40.97% lower 95% CI). The WAF of burnt crude oil was the least toxic treatment with 96-h LC(50) values of 49.81% (63.33% upper and 39.44% lower 95% CI) and 47.28% (59.72% upper and 37.62% lower 95% CI). Sublethal toxicity of the crude oil WAF and burnt crude oil WAF was observed at dilutions seven to eight times less than in the dispersed crude oil WAF.

  17. Toxic effects of chemical dispersant Corexit 9500 on water flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kenji; McNabb, Nicole A; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; Iguchi, Taisen; Kohno, Satomi

    2017-02-01

    In 2010, approximately 2.1 million gallons of chemical dispersants, mainly Corexit 9500, were applied in the Gulf of Mexico to prevent the oil slick from reaching shorelines and to accelerate biodegradation of oil during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Recent studies have revealed toxic effects of Corexit 9500 on marine microzooplankton that play important roles in food chains in marine ecosystems. However, there is still little known about the toxic effects of Corexit 9500 on freshwater zooplankton, even though oil spills do occur in freshwater and chemical dispersants may be used in response to these spills. The cladoceran crustacean, water flea Daphnia magna, is a well-established model species for various toxicological tests, including detection of juvenile hormone-like activity in test compounds. In this study, we conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of Corexit 9500 using D. magna. The acute toxicity test was conducted according to OECD TG202 and the 48 h EC50 was 1.31 ppm (CIs 0.99-1.64 ppm). The reproductive chronic toxicity test was performed following OECD TG211 ANNEX 7 and 21 days LOEC and NOEC values were 4.0 and 2.0 ppm, respectively. These results indicate that Corexit 9500 has toxic effects on daphnids, particularly during the neonatal developmental stage, which is consistent with marine zooplankton results, whereas juvenile hormone-like activity was not identified. Therefore, our findings of the adverse effects of Corexit 9500 on daphnids suggest that application of this type of chemical dispersant may have catastrophic impacts on freshwater ecosystems by disrupting the key food chain network. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of methods for assessing toxicity of oil spill treating agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, T.C.; Hollebone, B.P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Harrison, S. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The first counter-measure considered during an oil spill is the mechanical removal of the spilled oil, but this rarely collects more than 20 per cent of the spilled oil. When mechanical means are insufficient, it is advisable to use spill treating agents (STAs). The potential impact of STAs on the environment is estimated by assessing their in-vitro toxicity to sensitive or sentinel organisms. The typical endpoint in animal exposure models is acute lethality LC{sub 50}, which is the concentration that will be fatal to 50 per cent of the test population. The range of STAs include dispersants; shoreline washing agents; de-emulsifiers or emulsion inhibitors; herding agents; recovery agents; solidifiers or gelling agents; biodegradation agents; and, sinking agents. However, a thorough understanding of the overall toxicity of the agent to the environment must be determined along with the net environmental benefit. The agents must undergo rigorous toxicity evaluations to meet the requirements of the New Substances Notification or Significant New Activity Notification sections of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1999. Environment Canada's guidelines for the use and acceptability of dispersants also address toxicity issues. In particular, emphasis has been on evaluating toxicity by the 96-hour rainbow trout lethality test. This paper presented challenges to the current test protocols and recommended that Environment Canada's guidelines for the use of oil STAs should be modified to include a broader definition of toxicity. The toxicity of a dispersant should be less than the toxicity of the water soluble fraction of an oil slick. However, sublethal effects of dispersant exposure, such as endocrine disruption, organ toxicity, mutagenicity and geotoxicity must be better understood. It was argued that testing on one fish species in an enclosed system does not adequately address a diverse marine environment. It was recommended that testing procedures

  19. Oil spill dispersants. Risk assessment for Swedish waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, C.; Lager, H.; Fejes, J.

    2001-12-01

    IVL has compiled a list of the international usage of oil spill dispersants and presents the technical limitations with the use of such agents as well as the biological effects of these chemical products. IVL, has also conducted an analysis of the pros and cons to using dispersants against oil spills in waters and has applied this with a risk assessment of chemical methods to combat oil spills in the Kattegat and Skagerrak and the Baltic Sea.

  20. Toxicity of the dispersant Corexit 9500 to early life stages of blue crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson Lively, Julie A; McKenzie, Jon

    2014-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon well released 4.4 million barrels of light crude oil offshore of Louisiana into one of the world's largest and most productive blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) fisheries. The objectives of this paper were to determine the toxicity of the dispersant Corexit(®) 9500A used in the 2010 oil spill on juvenile and larval blue crabs, and the long-term effects of sublethal acute exposure. Only the highest treatment levels of dispersant significantly increased mortality in larval and juvenile blue crabs (100 mg/L and 1,000 mg/L, respectively). This correlated to concentrations well above levels found in the Gulf of Mexico following the spill. Smaller and younger crabs showed higher mortality than older and larger crabs. This research indicates direct application of dispersants on crab larvae could cause acute mortality, but dilution through diffusion and natural weathering processes would minimize long-term effects.

  1. Regulatory policies for using oil dispersants in the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Belkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of dispersants requires assessment of which environmental values are at stake. In the Barents Sea this issue is of high concern as large oil spills can cause transboundary pollution, affecting the interests of two neighbouring countries. The Joint Contingency Plan in the Barents Sea does not set any specific requirements for use of dispersants and lets Norway and Russia follow their national procedures. The Plan emphasizes that in case of transboundary pollution the decision to use dispersants shall only be undertaken upon common agreement. The paper presents a comparison of the national regulatory approaches of Norway and Russia to using dispersants. The research is based on the analysis of legislative documents and interviews with oil companies, oil spill responders and relevant national authorities. The research reveals that in both countries use of dispersants requires preliminary authorization of the national agencies. In Norway the pre-approval procedure and the algorithm of dispersants involvement in response to a real accident are clearly documented and are regularly tested. This has made the process of approval for using dispersants more efficient. In Russia the lack of practical experience in using dispersants and well-established approval procedures can result in a long and unclear permitting process for each oil spill case. This could seriously hinder the use of dispersants to combat transboundary pollution in the Barents Sea, even if it is considered to be beneficial. We conclude that the development of a harmonized approach for dispersants use in the Barents Sea should be thoroughly assessed.

  2. Dispersed oil disrupts microbial pathways in pelagic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, Alice C; Anders, Jennifer; Shelton, Naomi; Gong, Limin; Moss, Anthony G; Condon, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    Most of the studies of microbial processes in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill focused on the deep water plume, and not on the surface communities. The effects of the crude oil and the application of dispersants on the coastal microbial food web in the northern Gulf of Mexico have not been well characterized even though these regions support much of the fisheries production in the Gulf. A mesocosm experiment was carried out to determine how the microbial community off the coast of Alabama may have responded to the influx of surface oil and dispersants. While the addition of glucose or oil alone resulted in an increase in the biomass of ciliates, suggesting transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels was likely; a different effect was seen in the presence of dispersant. The addition of dispersant or dispersed oil resulted in an increase in the biomass of heterotrophic prokaryotes, but a significant inhibition of ciliates, suggesting a reduction in grazing and decrease in transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels. Similar patterns were observed in two separate experiments with different starting nutrient regimes and microbial communities suggesting that the addition of dispersant and dispersed oil to the northern Gulf of Mexico waters in 2010 may have reduced the flow of carbon to higher trophic levels, leading to a decrease in the production of zooplankton and fish on the Alabama shelf.

  3. Dispersed oil disrupts microbial pathways in pelagic food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice C Ortmann

    Full Text Available Most of the studies of microbial processes in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill focused on the deep water plume, and not on the surface communities. The effects of the crude oil and the application of dispersants on the coastal microbial food web in the northern Gulf of Mexico have not been well characterized even though these regions support much of the fisheries production in the Gulf. A mesocosm experiment was carried out to determine how the microbial community off the coast of Alabama may have responded to the influx of surface oil and dispersants. While the addition of glucose or oil alone resulted in an increase in the biomass of ciliates, suggesting transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels was likely; a different effect was seen in the presence of dispersant. The addition of dispersant or dispersed oil resulted in an increase in the biomass of heterotrophic prokaryotes, but a significant inhibition of ciliates, suggesting a reduction in grazing and decrease in transfer of carbon to higher trophic levels. Similar patterns were observed in two separate experiments with different starting nutrient regimes and microbial communities suggesting that the addition of dispersant and dispersed oil to the northern Gulf of Mexico waters in 2010 may have reduced the flow of carbon to higher trophic levels, leading to a decrease in the production of zooplankton and fish on the Alabama shelf.

  4. Toxicity of corexit 9527 and Nigerian crude oil in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, S.; Nelson, G.; Brooks, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    When oil is spilled into aquatic systems, chemical dispersants frequently are applied to enhance emulsification and biological availability. In this study, toxicity of Corexit 9527 (Cx), a widely used dispersant, was evaluated with oil both in vivo and in vitro. Initially, both Cx and oil were bioassayed in a micro-suspension modification of the Salmonella reversion bioassay. Next, rats were dosed 5 weeks with oil, Cx or Cx/oil. Body and tissue weights, urine mutagenicity, and effect on intestinal enzymes and microbiota were determined. Cx (1:1000 dilution) was toxic in the bioassay and oil was negative (TA98 & TA100 +/-S9). Similar results were observed for urinary metabolites. Body and tissue weights were unaffected, but a significant reduction in small intestinal azo reductase (AR) and/or {beta}-glucuronidase (BG) was observed in animals that received Cx, oil, or Cx/oil. Effects on cecal AR were observed in the 3 treatment groups. One week nitroreductase (NR) activity was elevated, and 3 and 5 week BG activities were significantly different from controls. This correspond to an elimination of enterobacteria and enterococci in oil-treated rats and enterobacteria fluctuations in Cx- and Cx/oil-treated animals. Even though treatment of rats with Cx has no direct effect on the production of mutagenic urine metabolites from oil-treated animals, significant changes are observed in intestinal microbiota and their enzymes responsible for promutagen and procarcinogen activation.

  5. An effective dispersant for oil spills based on food-grade amphiphiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athas, Jasmin C; Jun, Kelly; McCafferty, Caitlyn; Owoseni, Olasehinde; John, Vijay T; Raghavan, Srinivasa R

    2014-08-12

    Synthetic dispersants such as Corexit 9500A were used in large quantities (∼2 million gallons) to disperse the oil spilled in the ocean during the recent Deepwater Horizon event. These dispersant formulations contain a blend of surfactants in a base of organic solvent. Some concerns have been raised regarding the aquatic toxicity and environmental impact of these formulations. In an effort to create a safer dispersant, we have examined the ability of food-grade amphiphiles to disperse (emulsify) crude oil in seawater. Our studies show that an effective emulsifier is obtained by combining two such amphiphiles: lecithin (L), a phospholipid extracted from soybeans, and Tween 80 (T), a surfactant used in many food products including ice cream. Interestingly, we find that L/T blends show a synergistic effect, i.e., their combination is an effective emulsifier, but neither L or T is effective on its own. This synergy is maximized at a 60/40 weight ratio of L/T and is attributed to the following reasons: (i) L and T pack closely at the oil-water interface; (ii) L has a low tendency to desorb, which fortifies the interfacial film; and (iii) the large headgroup of T provides steric repulsions between the oil droplets and prevents their coalescence. A comparison of L/T with Corexit 9500A shows that the former leads to smaller oil droplets that remain stable to coalescence for a much longer time. The smaller size and stability of crude oil droplets are believed to be important to their dispersion and eventual microbial degradation in the ocean. Our findings suggest that L/T blends could potentially be a viable alternative for the dispersion of oil spills.

  6. Chemical dispersants used in the Gulf of Mexico oil crisis are cytotoxic and genotoxic to sperm whale skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Catherine F; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Thompson, W Douglas; Wise, John Pierce; Wise, John Pierce

    2014-07-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico drew attention to the need for toxicological studies of chemical dispersants. We are still learning the effects these spills had on wildlife. Little is known about the toxicity of these substances in marine mammals. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of the two dispersants (Corexit 9500 and 9527). Corexit 9500 and 9527 were both cytotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts. Corexit 9527 was less cytotoxic than 9500. S9 mediated metabolism did not alter cytotoxicity of either dispersant. Both dispersants were genotoxic to sperm whale skin fibroblasts; S9 mediated metabolism increased Corexit 9527 genotoxicity.

  7. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  8. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  9. Surface roughness effects with solid lubricants dispersed in mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, C.; Goglia, P. R.; Sliney, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The lubricating effectiveness of solid-lubricant dispersions are investigated in both point and line contacts using surfaces with both random and directional roughness characteristics. Friction and wear data obtained at relatively low speeds and at room temperature, indicate that the existence of solid lubricants such as graphite, MoS2, and PTFE in a plain mineral oil generally will not improve the effectiveness of the oil as a lubricant for such surfaces. Under boundary lubrication conditions, the friction force, as a function of time, initially depends upon the directional roughness properties of the contacting surfaces irrespective of whether the base oil or dispersions are used as lubricants.

  10. The Logistics of Oil Spill Dispersant Application. Volume I. Logistics-Related Properties of Oil Spill Dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    IN FRESH AND SEAWATER(I) (3)Product Mean Minimum Dispersant-to-Oil Ratio Name on Venezuelan Lago Medio Crude Oil (4) 0C in Fresh Water in Salt Water...higher terminal velocity, adding to the mixing energy. Orienting the nozzles aft can be expected to reduce the relative velocity of the drops, and result

  11. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  12. Synergistic vascular toxicity and fatty acid anilides in the toxic oil syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor, P J; Khan, M F; Kaphalia, B S; Jerrells, T R; Ansari, G A

    1991-12-01

    The underlying etiology of the toxic oil syndrome may be related to any of several toxic contaminants. The hypothesis is made that two or more toxic compounds may act synergistically to cause vascular damage in the toxic oil syndrome. To support this hypothesis, previous studies are reviewed concerning the remarkable synergistic toxic action of allylamine and beta-aminopropionitrile on the media of blood vessels. Although these toxins are not directly related to the toxic oil syndrome, this previous experimental work emphasizes the possibility that unexplored synergistic actions may be important. Furthermore, the hypothesis that contaminating fatty acid anilides in toxic oil undergo alterations during cooking is supported by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis. The theoretic metabolism of fatty acid anilides is discussed. Recent data concerning the toxic actions of the anilides of oleic and linoleic acid are given. These data suggest that these anilides induce immunologic alterations that may be similar to those seen in the toxic oil syndrome. In addition, the heated anilides appear to have increased toxicity, supporting the concept that the use of toxic oil in cooking may increase its toxicity.

  13. Biodegradation of crude oil dispersions by marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Gabriel; Fernandez, Vicente; Stocker, Roman

    2016-11-01

    Dispersants are used to break up marine oil slicks and increase the available surface area for bacteria to degrade oil hydrocarbons. However, this common view neglects key elements of the microscale interactions between bacteria and oil droplets, namely encounters and growth. Utilizing experimental observations of bacteria colonizing oil droplets, we model the interactions affecting hydrocarbon consumption between a collection of oil droplets with varying sizes and a single bacterial pool. The results show that degradation time is minimized for intermediate droplet sizes and that reducing droplet size too much can lead to years in increased degradation time. This mechanical model provides a baseline for understanding oil biodegradation and mitigation strategies in open marine systems.

  14. Experimental investigation of two oil dispersion pathways by breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Katz, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    This experimental study focuses on generation and size distribution of airborne and subsurface oil droplets as breaking surface waves interact with a crude oil slick (MC252 surrogate). Experiments in a specialized wave tank investigate the effects of wave height and wave properties (e.g. spilling vs. plunging), as well as drastically reducing the oil-water interfacial tension by orders of magnitude by introducing dispersant (Coexist 9500-A). This dispersant is applied at varying dispersant-to-oil ratios either by premixing or surface spraying, the latter consistent with typical application. The data include high-speed visualizations of processes affecting the entrainment of subsurface oil and bubbles as well as airborne aerosols. High-speed digital holographic cinematography is employed to track the droplet trajectories, and quantify the droplet size distributions above and below the surface. Introduction of dispersants drastically reduces the size of subsurface droplets to micron and even submicron levels. Ahead of the wave, the 25 μm (our present resolution limit) to 2 mm airborne droplet trajectories are aligned with the wave direction. Behind the wave, these droplets reverse their direction, presumably due to the airflow above the wave. Supported by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  15. Effects of experimental releases of oil and dispersed oil on Arctic nearshore macrobenthos. 1. Infauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, W.E.; Thomson, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental subsurface release of chemically dispersed oil at Cape Hatt, northern Baffin Island, resulted in short-term, relatively high oil concentrations in the waters of two adjacent bays, whereas untreated oil released onto the surface of a third bay could not be detected in the water below a depth of 1 m. Observations revealed no apparent short-term effects of untreated oil on shallow water infauna, whereas market acute effects on infauna, including emergence from the substrate and narcosis, were apparent in the dipsersed oil bays within 24 h of the release. Analysis of systematic samples at depths of 3 and 7 m showed that most affected animals recovered. Neither type of oil release caused any large-scale mortality of benthic infauna. Multivariate analyses showed no significant change in infaunal community structure, and effects attributable to oil were found in only 3 of 72 univariate analyses of density, biomass or size data for individual taxa. A progressive decrease in the condition of the filter-feeding bivalve Serripes groenlandicus in the reference bay was apparently the result of exposure to dilute dispersed oil for several days. A similar effect on condition in the surface deposit-feeding bivalve Mocoma calcarea was apparently caused by relatively low oil concentrations in the sediments of the dispersed and surface oil release bays. There were no apparent effects on recruitment in bivalve species with plantonic larvae, but density changes in the polychaete Spio indicated that oil in the sediments of the surface oil release and dispersed oil release bays affected reproductive processes. Effects on the condition of the bivalves were still evident two years post-spill in 1983, the last year of sampling. 75 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  17. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  18. Dispersion of oil into water using lecithin-Tween 80 blends: The role of spontaneous emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehm, David A; Rokke, David J; Paul, Prakash G; Lee, Han Seung; Vizanko, Brent S; McCormick, Alon V

    2017-02-01

    Lecithin-rich mixtures of the nontoxic surfactants lecithin and Tween 80 are effective marine oil spill dispersants, but produce much higher oil-water interfacial tension than other, comparably effective dispersants. This suggests interfacial phenomena other than interfacial tension influence lecithin-Tween 80 dispersants' effectiveness. The interface between seawater and dispersant-crude oil mixtures was studied using light microscopy, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, and droplet coalescence tests. Lecithin:Tween 80 ratio was varied from 100:0 to 0:100 and wt% dispersant in the oil was varied from 1.25 to 10wt%. Tween 80-rich dispersants cause oil-into-water spontaneous emulsification, while lecithin-rich dispersants primarily cause water-into-oil spontaneous emulsification. Possible mechanisms for this spontaneous emulsification are discussed, in light of images of spontaneously emulsifying interfaces showing no bursting microstructures, interfacial gel, or phase inversion, and negligible interfacial turbulence. Dispersant loss into seawater due to oil-into-water spontaneous emulsification may explain why Tween 80-rich dispersants are less effective than lecithin-rich dispersants with comparable interfacial tension, although longer droplet coalescence times observed for Tween 80-rich, self-emulsifying dispersant-oil mixtures may mitigate the effects of dispersant leaching. Conversely, surfactant retention in oil via lecithin-rich dispersants' water-into-oil emulsification may explain why lecithin-Tween 80 dispersants are as effective as dispersants containing other surfactant blends which produce lower interfacial tension.

  19. Chemical dispersion of oil with mineral fines in a low temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weizhi; Zheng, Ying; Lee, Kenneth

    2013-07-15

    The increasing risks of potential oil spills in the arctic regions, which are characterized by low temperatures, are a big challenge. The traditional dispersant method has shown limited effectiveness in oil cleanup. This work studied the role of mineral fines in the formation of oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) at low temperature (0-4 °C) environment. The loading amount of minerals and dispersant with different dispersant and oil types were investigated under a full factorial design. The shapes and sizes of OMAs were analyzed. Results showed that the behavior of OMA formation differs when dispersant and mineral fines are used individually or together. Both the experimental and microscopic results also showed the existence of optimal dispersant to oil ratios and mineral to oil ratios. In general, poor oil removal performance was observed for more viscous oil. Corexit 9500 performed better than Corexit 9527 with various oils, in terms of oil dispersion and OMA formation.

  20. Toxicity assessment of unrefined crude oil fractions in soil ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudey, J.S.; Wilson, J.J. [HydroQual Lab. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Chu, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The chemical and physical differences amongst crude oils and bioavailability (toxicity) of crude oil constituents are not addressed with existing numerical criteria for remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The constituents of crude oil include short chain hydrocarbons, such as light ends or gasoline, and long chain hydrocarbons (saturates), aromatic and polar compounds and heavier asphaltenes. Natural weathering and biodegradation take care of the lighter compounds. Less biodegradable are the heavier compounds which tend to be immobile. A range of questions concerning these immobile substances need to be answered to determine their effect on the bioavailability, hence toxicity, when solutes become solvents, etc. In this study, different crude oils and crude oil fractions were assessed as to their effect on the bioavailability (as toxicity) to microbes, plants and invertebrates. Five fractions with boiling point distillation were obtained from the separation of each of three base crude oils for a total of fifteen fractions. This practical approach to fractionating hydrocarbon represents the standard method for crude characterization. Ecological relevance, volume requirements, and availability of standard methods formed the basis for the selection of the tests and test species. The relative amounts of the different compounds (aromatics, saturates, polars, and asphaltenes) were different for each crude. Worm survival and lettuce seeding emergence tests were conducted on the spiked soils, and the extracts were tested with bacterial luminescence and lettuce root elongation. The results obtained for the three crude oils were similar. It was found that the heavier fractions were not toxic. Aging decreased the toxicity of aqueous extracts of spiked soils. Methanol extracts showed no loss of toxicity. The toxicity of whole crude was compared to the toxicity recovered in the fractions. The aqueous extracts of the naphthenic crude and the methanol extract of the

  1. An innovative dispersant with very low toxicity and bio-accumulation, the experiment at the Ayia Napa fishing shelter in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Paraskevas

    2016-04-01

    The application of chemical dispersants can be an effective mean for oil spill response strategy. The dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants accelerates evaporation and disperse the oil into the water column, where it is broken down by natural processes resulting to the reduction of environmental and economic impacts of the spilled oil, especially at near coastal resources. However, as with other response techniques, dispersants have also their limitations and account must be taken of the characteristics of the oil being treated (efficiency), water and weather conditions and environmental sensitivities (toxicity and bioaccumulation). The MSL dispersant is an innovative new and its composition is mainly based on natural constituents. MSL dispersant has a number of advantages compared to other dispersants: -Efficiency is more than 80% when using the Arabian crude oil. -Toxicity is in the range of 200 -600ppm, depending on the species used for testing. -Very high biodegradation rate. Due to the above characteristics MSL dispersant can be used also for the cleaning and to maintain the good environmental condition of harbor, ports, rivers, canals contaminated from Petroleum Hydrocarbons. The MSL dispersant has been tested during a period of 2 months in the fishing shelter of Ayia Napa in Cyprus with excellent results. Water samples taken in the fishing shelter before the experiment shown high concentration for 6 chemical parameters (BOD5, COD, FOG, TKN, TP, TPH), while after the use of the and MSL dispersant their concentration was reduced drastically, for some of the parameters down to the limits of the chemical analysis. The experiment was repeated every 2 weeks for a period of 2 weeks.

  2. Studies of the developmental toxicity of polycarboxylate dispersing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, G A; Monroe, A; Hassall, C D; Iavicoli, J; Jamieson, R A; Daston, G P

    1989-06-01

    Three linear polycarboxylate compounds, two linear polyacrylates (90,000 MW and 4,500 MW) and one linear polyacrylate-maleate copolymer (12,000 MW), were tested for their teratogenic potential in female Sprague Dawley rats. These polymers, which were tested as sodium salts, are used as dispersing agents in detergent formulations at levels of 1-5%. All compounds were administered by gavage during organogenesis (days 6-15 of pregnancy). No adverse effects on development were seen with any of the three compounds at any of the doses tested. The highest dose, and therefore the minimum no-effect dose, for the three linear polymers was 1125 mg/kg/day for the 90,000 MW polyacrylate, 3000 mg/kg/day for the 4,500 MW polyacrylate, and 6670 mg/kg/day for the polyacrylate-maleate copolymer. Based on these data, these compounds are not developmentally toxic, even at very high dose levels.

  3. SURFACE MODIFICATION AND DISPERSION OF NANODIAMOND IN CLEAN OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongwei Zhu; Xiangyang Xu; Baichun Wang; Zhijing Feng

    2004-01-01

    The effect of different kinds of surfactants on the size distribution of nanodiamond particles in clean oil was studied. Results show that the dispersing stability of nanodiamond modified with surfactants YS-1 and SB-18 simultaneously is much better than those modified with either of them because of synergism of the surfactants. And the particle size distribution in the system can be improved remarkably after the adoption of hyperdispersants such as SA-E and SA-F. Anchoring groups of those hyperdispersants can be bonded with the particle surface by chemical and/or hydrogen bonding and their soluble chains are well compatible with the dispersion media. As a result, the particles are uniformly distributed in the system owing to the steric stabilization. A very stable clean-oil based nanodiamond suspension with an average particle size of around 53.2 nm was prepared.

  4. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment.

  5. Oil slick fate in 3D : predicting the influence of (natural and chemical) dispersion on oil slick fate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra-Helfrich, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    In certain conditions, (part of) an oil spill can disappear from the water surface through a process called natural dispersion. One available oil spill response option is to enhance this process by addition of dispersants (chemical dispersion). An informed decision for such response requires insight

  6. Dispersion Properties of NMR Relaxation for Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ranhong; Xiao Lizhi

    2007-01-01

    Special requirements for design of tools used for wireline NMR logging and NMR logging while drilling and for interpretation model are demanded due to the dispersion properties of NMR relaxation for crude oil.NMR longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and transverse relaxation time (T2) of the dead oil samples with different viscosities were measured by NMR spectrometers with a Larmor frequency of 2 MHz and 23 MHz at five different temperatures respectively.The results showed that T1 was obviously dependent on the Larmor frequency of NMR spectrometer.The degree of T1 dispersion became stronger with the increasing crude oil viscosity,Larmor frequency and the viscosity/temperature ratio.T2 was independent of NMR spectrometer measuring frequency.It is suggested that the resonance frequency should be selected lower than 2 MHz when measuring T1 in logging while-drilling and that T1 dispersion should be corrected when Larmor frequency is higher than 2 MHz.

  7. Effects of chemical dispersants on oil spill drift paths in the German Bight—probabilistic assessment based on numerical ensemble simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Fabian; Callies, Ulrich; Groll, Nikolaus; Maßmann, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Oil dispersed in the water column remains sheltered from wind forcing, so that an altered drift path is a key consequence of using chemical dispersants. In this study, ensemble simulations were conducted based on 7 years of simulated atmospheric and marine conditions, evaluating 2,190 hypothetical spills from each of 636 cells of a regular grid covering the inner German Bight (SE North Sea). Each simulation compares two idealized setups assuming either undispersed or fully dispersed oil. Differences are summarized in a spatial map of probabilities that chemical dispersant applications would help prevent oil pollution from entering intertidal coastal areas of the Wadden Sea. High probabilities of success overlap strongly with coastal regions between 10 m and 20 m water depth, where the use of chemical dispersants for oil spill response is a particularly contentious topic. The present study prepares the ground for a more detailed net environmental benefit analysis (NEBA) accounting also for toxic effects.

  8. Lethal and sub-lethal effects of Deepwater Horizon slick oil and dispersant on oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignier, J; Soudant, P; Chu, F L E; Morris, J M; Carney, M W; Lay, C R; Krasnec, M O; Robert, R; Volety, A K

    2016-09-01

    In April 2010, crude oil was spilled from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil platform for 87 days, coincident with the spawning season and recruitment of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in the Gulf of Mexico. Impacts of acute exposures to surface-collected DWH oil (HEWAF), dispersed oil (CEWAF) and dispersant alone (Corexit 9500A(®)) on planktonic larval stages of C. virginica (veliger, umbo and pediveliger) were tested in the laboratory. Exposures to HEWAF, CEWAF and dispersant were toxic to larvae impairing growth, settlement success and ultimately survival. Larval growth and settlement were reduced at concentrations of tPAH50 ranging from 1.7 to 106 μg L(-1) for HEWAF and 1.1-35 μg L(-1) for CEWAF, concentrations well within the range of water sampled during the DWH oil spill. Sublethal effects induced by oil and dispersant could have significant ecological implications on oyster populations and on the whole estuarine ecosystem.

  9. Environmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: focus on effects on fish and effects of dispersants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trannum, H.; Bakke, T.

    2012-07-01

    NIVA has conducted a literature study on environmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon accident for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association, and the present report summarizes this work with particular focus on fish and dispersants. The report also briefly discusses relevance for Norwegian waters. In the literature, negative effects on the population level of fish have not been reported, although there is evidence of effects on the cellular level of fish. Several exploited species were even characterized by notably higher catch rates during 2010. Despite this, the economic losses for the fishing industry were huge due to an extensive closure of fisheries and effects in the marked. Following the oil spill, large amounts of dispersants were used, mainly Corexit, and for the first time, the dispersants were added under the sea surface. It is not clear whether the dispersants were successful in reducing the overall impacts of the oil. Furthermore, there are indications that the dispersants had the potential to inhibit the natural degradation of oil. Although the use of Corexit was criticized, laboratory studies have shown that Corexit generally tends to be less toxic than several other dispersants. (Author)

  10. Research on Dispersed Oil Droplets Breakage and Emulsification in the Dynamic Oil and Water Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Guo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and water dynamic hydrocyclone is one type of facilities that separate two phases or multiple phases applied widely in the fields such as food processing, environmental protection, biological pharmacy, petroleum and chemistry. The dispersed oil droplets in the dynamic oil and water hydrocyclone were often broken into small drops by shear force, which decreased the separation efficiency of dynamic oil-water hydrocyclone greatly. To avoid the breakage of the oil droplets, the turbulence field and the velocity field of the dynamic hydrocyclone were studied by the software of Fluent to analyze the main reason that led to breakage of oil droplets. Results indicated that the deformation of oil droplets was caused by the viscous shear force; the breakage of oil droplets was caused by the Reynolds shear stress and the local pressure fluctuations. The main area that the drops were prone to breakup of the dynamic hydrocyclone is that the rotating grating nearby, the wall boundary layer of the drum and center axis of the drum. Finally, the breakage of oil droplets and emulsification of oil and water in the dynamic hydrocyclone were verified by the experiments.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 3A. SIMULATION OF OIL SPILLS AND DISPERSANTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the request of the US EPA Oil Program Center, ERD is developing an oil spill model that focuses on fate and transport of oil components under various response scenarios. This model includes various simulation options, including the use of chemical dispersing agents on oil sli...

  12. A surface tension based method for measuring oil dispersant concentration in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhengqing; Gong, Yanyan; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie; O'Reilly, S E; Hao, Xiaodi; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-08-15

    This work developed a new method to determine concentration of Corexit EC9500A, and likely other oil dispersants, in seawater. Based on the principle that oil dispersants decrease surface tension, a linear correlation was established between the dispersant concentration and surface tension. Thus, the dispersant concentration can be determined by measuring surface tension. The method can accurately analyze Corexit EC9500A in the concentration range of 0.5-23.5mg/L. Minor changes in solution salinity (oil dispersants in water/seawater, which has been desired by the oil spill research community and industries.

  13. A review of oil, dispersed oil and sediment interactions in the aquatic environment: influence on the fate, transport and remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiao; Cai, Zhengqing; O'Reilly, S E; Hao, Xiaodi; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-02-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill has spurred significant amounts of researches on fate, transport, and environmental impacts of oil and oil dispersants. This review critically summarizes what is understood to date about the interactions between oil, oil dispersants and sediments, their roles in developing oil spill countermeasures, and how these interactions may change in deepwater environments. Effects of controlling parameters, such as sediment particle size and concentration, organic matter content, oil properties, and salinity on oil-sediment interactions are described in detail. Special attention is placed to the application and effects of oil dispersants on the rate and extent of the interactions between oil and sediment or suspended particulate materials. Various analytical methods are discussed for characterization of oil-sediment interactions. Current knowledge gaps are identified and further research needs are proposed to facilitate sounder assessment of fate and impacts of oil spills in the marine environment.

  14. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in three dimensions and its relation to dispersivity: Chapter D in Ground-water contamination by crude oil at the Bemidji, Minnesota, research site; US Geological Survey Toxic Waste--ground-water contamination study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Recent investigations suggest that dispersion in aquifers is scale dependent and a function of the heterogeneity of aquifer materials. Theoretical stochastic studies indicate that determining hydraulic-conductivity variability in three dimensions is important in analyzing the dispersion process. Even though field methods are available to approximate hydraulic conductivity in three dimensions, the methods are not generally used because of high cost of field equipment and because measurement and analysis techniques are cumbersome and time consuming. The hypothesis of this study is that field-determined values of dispersivity are scale dependent and that they may be described as a function of hydraulic conductivity in three dimensions. The objectives of the study at the Bemidji research site are to (1) determine hydraulic conductivity of the porous media in three dimensions, (2) determine field values of dispersivity and its scale dependence on hydraulic conductivity, and (3) develop and apply a computerized data-collection, storage, and analysis system for field use in comprehensive determination of hydraulic conductivity and dispersivity. Plans for this investigation involve a variety of methods of analysis. Hydraulic conductivity will be determined separately in the horizontal and vertical planes of the hydraulic-conductivity ellipsoid. Field values of dispersivity will be determined by single-well and doublet-well injection or withdrawal tests with tracers. A computerized data-collection, storage, and analysis system to measure pressure, flow rate, tracer concentrations, and temperature will be designed for field testing. Real-time computer programs will be used to analyze field data. The initial methods of analysis will be utilized to meet the objectives of the study. Preliminary field data indicate the aquifer underlying the Bemidji site is vertically heterogeneous, cross-bedded outwash. Preliminary analysis of the flow field around a hypothetical doublet

  15. Salicylate toxicity from ingestion of traditional massage oil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A 16-month-old child developed a brief generalised tonic–clonic fitting episode and vomiting at home, after accidental ingestion of traditional massage oil. As the patient presented with clinical features of salicylate toxicity, appropriate management was instituted. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for multiorgan support. The child was discharged well 1 week after the incident. Methyl-salicylate is a common component of massage oils which are used for topical treatment of joint and...

  16. Toxic oil syndrome: the perspective after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada de la Paz, M; Philen, R M; Borda, A I

    2001-01-01

    Toxic oil syndrome burst upon the scene in Spain in May of 1981, draining the resources of a newly evolving political and social medicine system. The vehicle of the causative toxic agent was identified as an illicit oil that had been diverted from industrial use and refined in order to remove the aniline denaturant, and that was sold in unlabeled 5-liter containers by itinerant salesmen. Over 20,000 people were ultimately affected, and over 1,200 deaths from all causes have been recorded in the affected cohort. The epidemiologic investigation of toxic oil syndrome involved all facets of investigative and analytical work; from visits to factories and interviewing workers, to sophisticated chemical and statistical analytical techniques. This investigation serves as a further illustration that data and information of all types, and from a wide range of fields, need to be systematically collected and evaluated in order to best resolve an epidemiologic mystery. Astute clinical observation of the patients, however, led to the hypothesis that toxic oil syndrome was a result of a toxic exposure. In this and other epidemics of unknown etiology, clinical observation and the intense scrutiny of patients' histories, signs, and symptoms by treating clinicians have often led to hypotheses that could be tested epidemiologically. When there are medical unknowns, the role of the astute clinician continues to be crucial. The toxic oil syndrome epidemic is an example of how even a developed country can be affected by a massive epidemic of environmental origin if failures occur in the systems that control and regulate the food supply or other consumer products. However, such failures could occur anywhere that large commercial networks operate on the regulatory edge, and if these business lack an in depth knowledge of the consequences of alterations in manufacturing conditions. Such was the case with eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome as well, when apparently minor alterations in

  17. The toxicity of oil-contaminated muskeg following biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farwell, A.; Kelly-Hooper, F.; McAlear, J.; Sinnesael, K.; Dixon, D. [Waterloo Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The current environmental criteria for the maximum allowable levels of hydrocarbons resulting from an oil spill assume that all detectable hydrocarbons are petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and do not account for naturally-occurring biogenic hydrocarbons (BHC). As such, some soils may be wrongfully assessed as being PHC contaminated. A false identification could lead to unnecessary and costly bioremediation that is potentially disruptive to functioning ecosystems. This study is part of a larger project to differentiate between natural and petroleum F3 hydrocarbons in muskeg material that has been impacted by an oil spill. The toxicity of oil-contaminated muskeg was examined following biodegradation in laboratory microcosms. Preliminary acute toxicity tests using locally purchased Sphagnum peat moss contaminated with Federated Crude oil had no effect on the survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei), but springtails (Orthonychiurus folsomi) were more sensitive. Earthworm and springtail reproduction bioassays and a Northern wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus) growth bioassay was used to test the crude-oil-contaminated peat. All 3 test species will be used to test for reduced toxicity following biodegradation of Federated Crude oil-contaminated muskeg from northern Alberta under simulated conditions.

  18. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils to Reticulitermes flavipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2008-01-01

    Subterranean termite infestations occur in every state in the contiguous United States and are responsible for damage to wooden structures in excess of two billion dollars (U.S.) annually. Essential oils have historically been used to repel insects. They have relatively low toxicity and some of them are exempt from regulation by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and...

  19. Predicting changes in aquatic toxicity of chemicals resulting from solvent or dispersant use as vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Mikio; Nakagawa, Masamitsu; Tone, Suguru; Saito, Hotaka; Niino, Tatsuhiro; Nagasawa, Natsumi; Sawai, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The influence of two vehicles (N,N-dimethylformamide [DMF] as solvent and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil [HCO-40] as a dispersant) on the acute toxicity of eight hydrophobic chemicals with a non-specific mode of action to Daphnia magna was investigated according to the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, No. 202. An increased 48-h EC50 value for D. magna or reduced toxicity resulting from the addition of HCO-40 to the test medium was observed for five of the eight chemicals examined. Each of eight chemicals was dissolved in water at a concentration of either 10 mg/L or 1.0 mg/L, with or without DMF or HCO-40. Silicone film as a model of a biological membrane was then immersed in each solution, and the concentration of each chemical in the water was monitored until equilibrium was reached for each test substance, after which the adsorbed amount of each chemical was determined. The amounts of p-pentylphenol and four other substances with log Pow (1-octanol/water partition coefficient) values greater than 3.4 adsorbed onto the silicone film decreased with increasing concentrations of HCO-40. However, 3-chloro-4-fluoronitrobenzene and two other substances with log Pow values less than 2.6 demonstrated no changes in adsorption with either increasing HCO-40 concentration or the addition of DMF. The reduced adsorption in the presence of a vehicle on the silicone film correlated closely with changes in toxicity. These results indicate that the methodology developed in this study enables the prediction of changes in toxicity resulting from the addition of vehicles to a test system.

  20. Effects of Exposure of Pink Shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, Larvae to Macondo Canyon 252 Crude Oil and the Corexit Dispersant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Laramore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The release of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM during the Deepwater Horizon event coincided with the white and pink shrimp spawning season. To determine the potential impact on shrimp larvae a series of static acute (24–96 h toxicity studies with water accommodated fractions (WAFs of Macondo Canyon (MC 252 crude oil, the Corexit 9500A dispersant, and chemically enhanced WAFS (CEWAFs were conducted with nauplii, zoea, mysid, and postlarval Farfantepenaeus duorarum. Median lethal concentrations (LC50 were calculated and behavior responses (swimming, molting, light sensitivity evaluated. Impacts were life stage dependent with zoea being the most sensitive. Behavioral responses for all stages, except postlarvae, occurred at below LC50 values. Dispersants had the greatest negative impact while WAFs had the least. No short-term effects (survival, growth were noted for nauplii exposed to sub-lethal CEWAFs 39 days post-exposure. This study points to the importance of evaluating multiple life stages to assess population effects following contaminant exposure and further, that the use of dispersants as a method of oil removal increases oil toxicity.

  1. Effects of weathering on the dispersion of crude oil through oil-mineral aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustitus, Sarah A; John, Gerald F; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2017-02-08

    Crude oil that is inadvertently spilled in the marine environment can interact with suspended sediment to form oil-mineral aggregates (OMA). Researchers have identified OMA formation as a natural method of oil dispersion, and have sought ways to enhance this process for oil spill remediation. Currently there is a lack of understanding of how the weathering of oil will affect the formation of OMA due to a lack of published data on this relationship. Based on literature, we identified two conflicting hypotheses: OMA formation 1) increases with weathering as a result of increased asphaltene and polar compound content; or 2) decreases with weathering as a result of increased viscosity. While it is indeed true that the viscosity and the relative amount of polar compounds will increase with weathering, their net effects on OMA formation is unclear. Controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to systematically test these two conflicting hypotheses. Experimental results using light, intermediate, and heavy crude oils, each at five weathering stages, show a decrease in OMA formation as oil weathers.

  2. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Biodegradable polyoxyethylenated pentaerythritol quaternary esters as oil spill dispersants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Abdel-Raouf, Manar [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt). Petroleum Application Dept.

    2012-03-15

    Four polyoxyethylenated pentaerythritol (PE) ester surfactants have been synthesized. The molecular weights of these surfactants were calculated and evaluated experimentally by GPC and confirmed by calculations based on {sup 1}H-NMR. Also, their HLB values were calculated by Griffin formula. The surface tension and thermodynamic properties of the surfactants were obtained from surface tension measurements at different temperatures (298-318 K). It was found that the minimum area/surfactant molecule (A{sub min}) for the investigated surfactants increased with increasing the molecular weight of the incorporated ethylene oxide. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization ({delta}G{sub mic,} {delta}H{sub mic} and {delta}S{sub mic}) and that for adsorption ({delta}G{sub ad,} {delta}H{sub ad} and {delta}S{sub ad}) were also calculated. The more negative Gibbs free energy of adsorption values than those of micellization suggest that these surfactants favor adsorption than micellization. This finding is utilized for monitoring their dispersancy power. It was found that the water solubility of the prepared surfactants is correlated to their HLB values. Furthermore, the biodegradability of the prepared compounds was studied at different conditions in order to investigate their usability as oil spill dispersants. The data revealed that PE200-C12 had maximum dispersion efficiency and it was completely biodegraded after 8 days. (orig.)

  4. How the dispersant Corexit impacts the formation of sinking marine oil snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, Uta; Sweet, Julia; Quigg, Antonietta

    2017-08-11

    The vertical transport of sinking marine oil snow (MOS) and oil-sediment aggregations (OSA) during the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) spill contributed appreciably to the unexpected, and exceptional accumulation of oil on the seafloor. However, the role of the dispersant Corexit in mediating oil-sedimentation is still controversial. Here we demonstrate that the formation of diatom MOS is enhanced by chemically undispersed oil, but inhibited by Corexit-dispersed oil. Nevertheless, the sedimentation rate of oil may at times be enhanced by Corexit application, because of an elevated oil content per aggregate when Corexit is used. A conceptual framework explains the seemingly contradictory effects of Corexit application on the sedimentation of oil and marine particles. The redistribution of oil has central ecological implications, and future decisions on mediating measures or damage assessment will have to take the formation of sinking, oil-laden, marine snow into account. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. How toxic is oil? Investigating specific receptor-mediated toxic effects of crude and refined oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrabie, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crude oils and refined oil products are major pollutants of the environment. Large oil spills, such as the recent blowout of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico, raise concerns about the long term health effects of petroleum hydrocarbon exposure on wildlife and humans. In the environmental r

  6. Initial community and environment determine the response of bacterial communities to dispersant and oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, Alice C; Lu, YueHan

    2015-01-15

    Bioremediation of seawater by natural bacterial communities is one potential response to coastal oil spills, but the success of the approach may vary, depending on geographical location, oil composition and the timing of spill. The short term response of coastal bacteria to dispersant, oil and dispersed oil was characterized using 16S rRNA gene tags in two mesocosm experiments conducted two months apart. Despite differences in the amount of oil-derived alkanes across the treatments and experiments, increases in the contributions of hydrocarbon degrading taxa and decreases in common estuarine bacteria were observed in response to dispersant and/or oil. Between the two experiments, the direction and rates of changes in particulate alkane concentrations differed, as did the magnitude of the bacterial response to oil and/or dispersant. Together, our data underscore large variability in bacterial responses to hydrocarbon pollutants, implying that bioremediation success varies with starting biological and environmental conditions.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF VASELINE OIL AND GLYCELAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary therapeutic approaches offer a wide range of laxative agents, which are often used without a control, exceeding the regime recommended. Therefore, the comparative study for subchronic toxicity of both drugs from this group (Vaseline oil and Glycelax appears interesting.The aim of the study was the comparison of a toxic influence of 14-days application of the drugs under study.Methods. The drugs were studied in two doses: higher therapeutic, and toxic, which 10 times exceeds therapeutic dose. We used “Polispektr-8/B” electrocardiograph, BC 2800vet (Mindray hematologic veterinary analyzer, BS-380 (Mindray biochemical analyzer, CL-50 urine analyzer. After the animals autopsy we determined organs’ coefficient (heart, lungs, spleen, liver, stomach, kidneys, adrenals.Results. While studying the ECG of female rats, amplitude of R wave increased after they got Glycelax in both doses. Female rats who got Vaseline oil this index decreased at minimum dose and increased at maximum dose. After Glycelax application, male rats had an increased activity of alanine aminotransferase. After Vaseline oil application at maximum dose, female rats had alkaline phosphatase activity lowered. Female rats, which got a maximum dose of Vaseline oil had a total protein lowered. Glycelax at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin and its fractions in male and female rats, while Vaseline oil application at maximum dose increased the content of bilirubin in female rats. Male rats which got Glycelax had hemoglobin and hematocrit level increased.Conclusion. At long-term application of Vaseline oil, animals of both genders had heart disorders with possible development of arrhythmia, hepatotoxic effect, lipid exchange dysfunction. After excessive use of Glycelax the above mentioned is added with possible hemoglobin and rheological blood properties level decrease.

  8. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open...

  9. Dynamics of Heterocapsa sp. and the associated attached and free-living bacteria under the influence of dispersed and undispersed crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, T; Bacosa, H P; Sato, A; Erdner, D L

    2016-12-01

    While many studies have examined the impact of oil on phytoplankton or bacteria, very few considered the effects on the biological complex formed by phytoplankton and their associated phytoplankton-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) bacteria. However, associated bacteria can affect the physiology of phytoplankton and influence their stress responses. In this study, we monitored the growth of Heterocapsa sp., an armoured dinoflagellate, exposed to crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both. Growth of Heterocapsa sp. is unaffected by crude oil up to 25 ppm, a concentration similar to the lower range measured on Florida beaches after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The PA bacteria community was resistant to exposure, whereas the FL community shifted towards oil degraders; both responses could contribute to Heterocapsa sp. oil resistance. The growth rate of Heterocapsa sp. decreased significantly only when exposed to dispersed oil at 25 ppm, indicating a synergistic effect of dispersant on oil toxicity in this organism. For the first time, we demonstrated the decoupling of the responses of the PA and FL bacteria communities after exposure to an environmental stress, in this case oil and dispersant. Our findings suggest new directions to explore in the understanding of interactions between unicellular eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

  10. Soybean oil-isosorbide-based waterborne polyurethane-urea dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ying; Larock, Richard C

    2011-03-21

    A series of soybean oil-based amide diol-isosorbide waterborne polyurethane-urea (PUU) dispersions have been successfully prepared, with amounts of isosorbide ranging from 0 to 20 wt % of the total diol content. The thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting PUU films have been characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and mechanical testing. The results reveal that the glass transition temperature is increased with increased amounts of isosorbide, and the mechanical properties are improved significantly with the incorporation of isosorbide. For example, the Young's modulus increases from 2.3 to 63 MPa and the ultimate tensile strength increases from 0.7 to 8.2 MPa when the isosorbide amount is increased from 0 to 20 wt %. The thermal stability decreases slightly with the incorporation of isosorbide. This work provides a new way of utilizing biorenewable materials, such as isosorbide and a soybean oil-based amide diol, for the preparation of high-performance polyurethane-urea coatings.

  11. Differential toxicity of Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Red 13 in the Ames test, HepG2 cytotoxicity assay, and Daphnia acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, E R A; Umbuzeiro, G A; de-Almeida, G; Caloto-Oliveira, A; Chequer, F M D; Zanoni, M V B; Dorta, D J; Oliveira, D P

    2011-10-01

    Azo dyes are of environmental concern due to their degradation products, widespread use, and low-removal rate during conventional treatment. Their toxic properties are related to the nature and position of the substituents with respect to the aromatic rings and amino nitrogen atom. The dyes Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Red 13 were tested for Salmonella mutagenicity, cell viability by annexin V, and propidium iodide in HepG2 and by aquatic toxicity assays using daphnids. Both dyes tested positive in the Salmonella assay, and the suggestion was made that these compounds induce mainly frame-shift mutations and that the enzymes nitroreductase and O-acetyltransferase play an important role in the observed effect. In addition, it was shown that the presence of the chlorine substituent in Disperse Red 13 decreased the mutagenicity about 14 times when compared with Disperse Red 1, which shows the same structure as Disperse Red 13, but without the chlorine substituent. The presence of this substituent did not cause cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, but toxicity to the water flea Daphnia similis increased in the presence of the chlorine substituent. These data suggest that the insertion of a chlorine substituent could be an alternative in the design of dyes with low-mutagenic potency, although the ecotoxicity should be carefully evaluated.

  12. Materials balance on a chemically-dispersed oil and a whole oil exposed to an experimental beach front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, C.; Sumner, P.; Autenrieth, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Civil Engineering Dept., College Station, TX (United States); Bonner, J.; McDonald, T. [Texas A and M Univ., The Conrad Blucher Inst., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A ten-day experiment simulating an oil spill and investigating the fate of both dispersed and whole oil in a near-shore environment was carried out at a wave tank facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. At one end of each tank, a sandy beach was configured and influent water was pumped from nearby Laguna Madre. The influent water flow was varied to simulate high and low tides, while the effluent rate was held constant. After oil application, time-dependent sediment and water column samples were taken throughout the ten-day experimental period, and materials balance on the oil was determined for both oil treatments using total petroleum hydrocarbon results from gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis. Results showed that after 10 days nearly half of the applied oil in the oiled treatment remained in the tank, either sorbed to sediments, tank surfaces or other available surfaces within the tanks. The remaining oil was removed via the effluent. In the case of the dispersed oil all of the oil was flushed from the tanks with no detectable oil remaining on the sediments, suggesting that in an environmental context the use of dispersants can reduce the accumulation of residual oil on a sandy beach. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Materials balance on a chemically-dispersed oil and a whole oil exposed to an experimental beach front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, C.; Sumner, P.; Autenrieth, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Civil Engineering Dept., College Station, TX (United States); Bonner, J.; McDonald, T. [Texas A and M Univ., The Conrad Blucher Inst., Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1999-08-01

    A ten-day experiment simulating an oil spill and investigating the fate of both dispersed and whole oil in a near-shore environment was carried out at a wave tank facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. At one end of each tank, a sandy beach was configured and influent water was pumped from nearby Laguna Madre. The influent water flow was varied to simulate high and low tides, while the effluent rate was held constant. After oil application, time-dependent sediment and water column samples were taken throughout the ten-day experimental period, and materials balance on the oil was determined for both oil treatments using total petroleum hydrocarbon results from gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis. Results showed that after 10 days nearly half of the applied oil in the oiled treatment remained in the tank, either sorbed to sediments, tank surfaces or other available surfaces within the tanks. The remaining oil was removed via the effluent. In the case of the dispersed oil all of the oil was flushed from the tanks with no detectable oil remaining on the sediments, suggesting that in an environmental context the use of dispersants can reduce the accumulation of residual oil on a sandy beach. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Standoff characterization of high-molecular components of oil disperse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganeeva, Y. M.; Yusupova, T. N.; Romanov, G. V.; Bashkirtseva, N. Y.; Rafailov, Michael K.

    2012-06-01

    Here we report work done toward standoff characterization of high-molecular components responsible for forming nano-structures in oil disperse system. Complex physical and chemical studies have been conducted specifically on bitumen extracted from rich and poor grade oil sand from Canada. Standoff characterization of oil disperse system highmolecular components is discussed here based on prospective of ultra-fast broadband tunable MWIR laser absorption spectroscopy.

  16. Response of the bacterial community in oil-contaminated marine water to the addition of chemical and biological dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Camila Rattes de Almeida; Jurelevicius, Diogo de Azevedo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2016-12-15

    The use of dispersants in different stages of the oil production chain and for the remediation of water and soil is a well established practice. However, the choice for a chemical or biological dispersant is still a controversial subject. Chemical surfactants that persist long in the environment may pose problems of toxicity themselves; therefore, biosurfactants are considered to constitute an environmentally friendly and effective alternative. Nevertheless, the putative effects of such agents on the microbiomes of oil-contaminated and uncontaminated marine environments have not been sufficiently evaluated. Here, we studied the effects of the surfactant Ultrasperse II(®) and the surfactin (biosurfactant) produced by Bacillus sp. H2O-1 on the bacterial communities of marine water. Specifically, we used quantitative PCR and genetic fingerprint analyses to study the abundance and structure of the bacterial communities in marine water collected from two regions with contrasting climatic conditions. The addition of either chemical surfactant or biosurfactant influenced the structure and abundance of total and oil-degrading bacterial communities of oil-contaminated and uncontaminated marine waters. Remarkably, the bacterial communities responded similarly to the addition of oil and/or either the surfactant or the biosurfactant in both set of microcosms. After 30 days of incubation, the addition of surfactin enhanced the oil-degrading bacteria more than the chemical surfactant. However, no increase of hydrocarbon biodegradation values was observed, irrespective of the dispersant used. These data contribute to an increased understanding of the impact of novel dispersants on marine bacteriomes before commercial release into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Submersible optical sensors exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil: wave tank simulations for improved oil spill monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N; Coble, Paula G; Farr, James; Wood, A Michelle; Lee, Kenneth; Pegau, W Scott; Walsh, Ian D; Koch, Corey R; Abercrombie, Mary I; Miles, M Scott; Lewis, Marlon R; Ryan, Scott A; Robinson, Brian J; King, Thomas L; Kelble, Christopher R; Lacoste, Jordanna

    2014-01-01

    In situ fluorometers were deployed during the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Gulf of Mexico oil spill to track the subsea oil plume. Uncertainties regarding instrument specifications and capabilities necessitated performance testing of sensors exposed to simulated, dispersed oil plumes. Dynamic ranges of the Chelsea Technologies Group AQUAtracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, Satlantic SUNA and WET Labs, Inc. ECO, exposed to fresh and artificially weathered crude oil, were determined. Sensors were standardized against known oil volumes and total petroleum hydrocarbons and benzene-toluene-ethylbenzene-xylene measurements-both collected during spills, providing oil estimates during wave tank dilution experiments. All sensors estimated oil concentrations down to 300 ppb oil, refuting previous reports. Sensor performance results assist interpretation of DWH oil spill data and formulating future protocols.

  18. Biological uptake analysis of organisms exposed to oil and chemically dispersed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, G. M.; Aurand, D. V. [Ecosystem Management and Associates Inc., Purcellville, VA (United States); Wright, D. A. [Maryland Univ., Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, MD (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary evaluation of tissue samples that were archived from a full-scale biological study of water column, inter-tidal and benthic organisms exposed to weathered Arabian crude oil or to the same oil that was chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. At various intervals during the experiment, fish, oysters and polychaetes were removed from the mesocosm tanks, and the tissue was analyzed for 40 individual PAHs using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was found that it is possible to track PAH body burden in test animal tissues, even if the water column exposure period is very short, therefore inclusion of this type of analysis in future studies would be useful in evaluating effects of thresholds for various profiles, in both mesocosm and laboratory studies. 16 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  19. Biological uptake analysis of organisms exposed to oil and chemically dispersed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, G. M.; Aurand, D. V. [Ecosystem Management and Associates Inc., Purcellville, VA (United States); Wright, D. A. [Maryland Univ., Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons, MD (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary evaluation of tissue samples that were archived from a full-scale biological study of water column, inter-tidal and benthic organisms exposed to weathered Arabian crude oil or to the same oil that was chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. At various intervals during the experiment, fish, oysters and polychaetes were removed from the mesocosm tanks, and the tissue was analyzed for 40 individual PAHs using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was found that it is possible to track PAH body burden in test animal tissues, even if the water column exposure period is very short, therefore inclusion of this type of analysis in future studies would be useful in evaluating effects of thresholds for various profiles, in both mesocosm and laboratory studies. 16 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  20. Effects of oil dispersants on settling of marine sediment particles and particle-facilitated distribution and transport of oil components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhengqing; Fu, Jie; Liu, Wen; Fu, Kunming; O'Reilly, S E; Zhao, Dongye

    2017-01-15

    This work investigated effects of three model oil dispersants (Corexit EC9527A, Corexit EC9500A and SPC1000) on settling of fine sediment particles and particle-facilitated distribution and transport of oil components in sediment-seawater systems. All three dispersants enhanced settling of sediment particles. The nonionic surfactants (Tween 80 and Tween 85) play key roles in promoting particle aggregation. Yet, the effects varied with environmental factors (pH, salinity, DOM, and temperature). Strongest dispersant effect was observed at neutral or alkaline pH and in salinity range of 0-3.5wt%. The presence of water accommodated oil and dispersed oil accelerated settling of the particles. Total petroleum hydrocarbons in the sediment phase were increased from 6.9% to 90.1% in the presence of Corexit EC9527A, and from 11.4% to 86.7% for PAHs. The information is useful for understanding roles of oil dispersants in formation of oil-sediment aggregates and in sediment-facilitated transport of oil and PAHs in marine eco-systems.

  1. Incorporating different vegetable oils into an aqueous dispersion of hybrid organic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samyn, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Samyn@fobawi.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Luedwigs-University Freiburg, Institute for Forest Utilization (Germany); Schoukens, Gustaaf [Ghent University, Department of Textiles (Belgium); Stanssens, Dirk; Vonck, Leo; Van den Abbeele, Henk [Topchim N.V. (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    Different vegetable oils including soy oil, high-oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, castor oil (CO), rapeseed oil, and hydrogenated CO were added to the imidization reaction of poly(styrene-maleic anhydride) or SMA, with ammonium hydroxide in aqueous medium. The oils favorably reduce viscosity during ammonolysis of the anhydride moieties and increase the maximum solid content of the dispersed imidized SMA to at least 50 wt%, compared to a maximum of 35 wt% for pure imidized SMA. The viscosity of imidized SMA with polyunsaturated oils was generally larger than for monosaturated oils, but it was highest for COs due to high contents of hydroxyl groups. Depending on the oil reactivity, homogeneous or core-shell nanoparticles with 20-60 nm diameters formed. The interactions of oil and organic phase were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating qualitative variances between different oils, the fraction imidized SMA and remaining fraction of ammonolyzed SMA without leakage of oil upon diluting the dispersion and precipitation at low pH. A quantitative analysis with calculation of imide contents, amounts of reacted oil and chemical interactions was made by Fourier-transform-Raman spectroscopy suggesting that most interactions take place around the unsaturated oil moieties and ammonolyzed anhydride.

  2. Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) seed oil toxicity against Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E C; Santos, D Y A C

    2013-04-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are the main herbivores in the New World tropics. Although the toxicity of seed oils against these ants has been poorly investigated, previous results revealed that seed oils exert considerable toxic activity against these insects. This paper analyzes the toxic action and deterrent properties of castor oil, Ricinus communis L., and physic nut oil, Jatropha curcas L., against workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa reared in laboratory. Toxic effect was analyzed by feeding insects artificial diets supplemented with different oil concentrations and direct contact with the two oils. Deterrent activity was assessed by measuring the frequency of attendance to diets during the first 48 h of the ingestion bioassay. Castor oil at 10 and 30 mg/ml and physic nut oil at 5, 10, and 30 mg/ml were toxic by ingestion. In the direct contact bioassay, toxicity was observed for physic nut oil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml, whereas castor oil exerted toxic effects only when the highest concentration was applied. Also, castor oil had a more pronounced deterrent effect against the leaf-cutting ant, compared with physic nut oil. Methods to apply these oils to control these insects are discussed.

  3. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  4. Particle size analysis of dispersed oil and oil-mineral aggregates with an automated ultraviolet epi-fluorescence microscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Cogswell, A; Li, Z; Lee, K

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes recent advances in microscopic analysis for quantitative measurement of oil droplets. Integration of a microscope with bright-field and ultraviolet epi-fluorescence illumination (excitation wavelengths 340-380 nm; emission wavelengths 400-430 nm) fitted with a computer-controlled motorized stage, a high resolution digital camera, and new image-analysis software, enables automatic acquisition of multiple images and facilitates efficient counting and sizing of oil droplets. Laboratory experiments were conducted with this system to investigate the size distribution of chemically dispersed oil droplets and oil-mineral aggregates in baffled flasks that have been developed for testing chemical dispersant effectiveness. Image acquisition and data processing methods were developed to illustrate the size distribution of chemically dispersed oil droplets, as a function of energy dissipation rate in the baffled flasks, and the time-dependent change of the morphology and size distribution of oil-mineral aggregates. As a quantitative analytical tool, epifluorescence microscopy shows promise for application in research on oil spill response technologies, such as evaluating the effectiveness of chemical dispersant and characterizing the natural interaction between oil and mineral fines and other suspended particulate matters.

  5. Determining The Dispersibility Of South Louisiana Crude Oil By Eight Oil Dispersant Products Listed On The NCP Product Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    We recently conducted a laboratory study to measure the dispersion effectiveness of eight dispersants currently listed on the National Contingency Plan Product Schedule. Results are useful in determining how many commercial dispersant products would have been effective for use o...

  6. Identification of compounds in heavy fuel oil that are chronically toxic to rainbow trout embryos by effects-driven chemical fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julie; Bornstein, Jason M; Munno, Keenan; Hollebone, Bruce; King, Thomas; Brown, R Stephen; Hodson, Peter V

    2014-04-01

    The present study isolated and identified compounds in heavy fuel oil 7102 (HFO 7102) that are bioavailable and chronically toxic to rainbow trout embryos (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An effects-driven chemical fractionation combined the chemical separation of oil with toxicity testing and chemical analyses of each fraction to identify the major classes of compounds associated with embryo toxicity. Toxicity was assessed with 2 exposure methods, a high-energy chemical dispersion of oil in water, which included oil droplets in test solutions, and water accommodated fractions which were produced by oiled gravel desorption columns, and which did not contain visible oil droplets. Fractions of HFO with high concentrations of naphthalenes, alkanes, asphaltenes, and resins were nontoxic to embryos over the range of concentrations tested. In contrast, fractions enriched with 3- to 4-ringed alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were embryotoxic, consistent with published studies of crude oils and individual alkyl PAHs. The rank order of fraction toxicity did not vary between the exposure methods and was consistent with their PAH content; fractions with higher-molecular weight alkyl PAHs were the most toxic. Exposure of juvenile trout to most fractions of HFO induced higher activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes, with a rank order of potency that varied with exposure method and differed somewhat from that of embryotoxicity. Induction reflected the bioavailability of PAHs but did not accurately predict embryotoxicity.

  7. Assessment of the use of dispersants on oil spills in California marine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, K.; Ross, S.; Belore, R. [S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Buffington, S. [U.S. Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States); Ogawa, C.; Panzer, D. [U.S. Minerals Management Service, Camarillo, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The technical issues regarding the use of dispersants to clean up oil spills from offshore production sources and transportation sources in California were assessed in this study which examined both operational and environmental issues. The operational issues included the dispersibility of produced and imported oils, along with the capabilities of California response resources to deal with typical spills and limiting environmental impacts to offshore environments. The environmental issues include the risks associated with typical spills and potential net environmental benefit of chemically dispersing oil spills. Most crude oils produced offshore California are heavy and border on the undispersable range, but the imported crudes are somewhat lighter. Modeling has shown that most produced oils and some imported oils emulsify quickly and weather more quickly to the point where they are no longer dispersible. There is a very narrow window of time for chemical dispersions to be used effectively. The net environmental benefit analysis demonstrates that the use of dispersants lessens the total environmental impact of spill scenarios. It was emphasized that it is necessary to act quickly if chemical dispersion is to be effective. Rapid response strategies are needed, including locally based vessel and helicopter spraying systems. 19 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. The influence of temperature on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersed in mineral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolek, R. J.; Cusano, C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of oil viscosity, base oil temperature, and surface-active agents naturally present in mineral oils on the lubricating effectiveness of MoS2 dispersions under boundary lubrication conditions are investigated. Friction and wear data are obtained from tests conducted under a wide range of oil viscosities and operating temperatures. The dispersion temperature at which the friction dropped below that obtained with the base oils, depended upon the base oil viscosity and the concentration of surface-active agents present in the oil. White oils showed reductions in friction before mineral oils of like viscosity, and lower viscosity oils showed reductions in friction before heavier viscosity oils. The results show that for a given base oil, wear increases as temperature increases, while the wear obtained from a MoS2 dispersion made from the base oil remains approximately constant as temperature is increased.

  9. Toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodiesel fuels derived from castor oil, palm oil, and waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Maria Bernadete Neiva Lemos; de Araújo, Milena Maria Sampaio; Nascimento, Iracema Andrade; da Cruz, Andrea Cristina Santos; Pereira, Solange Andrade; do Nascimento, Núbia Costa

    2011-04-01

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  10. Effects of oil dispersants on photodegradation of pyrene in marine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yanyan [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Fu, Jie [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); O’Reilly, S.E. [U.S. Department of the Interior, Gulf of Mexico OCS, Office of Environment, New Orleans, LA 70123 (United States); Zhao, Dongye, E-mail: zhaodon@auburn.edu [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Oil dispersant enhances pyrene photodegradation in seawater. • Oil dispersant increases formation of superoxide radicals. • Pyrene photodegradation shows a two-stage kinetics and follows first-order rate law. • Pyrene is degraded mainly through electron transfer from excited pyrene to oxygen. • Higher ionic strength and temperature and lower HA favor pyrene photodegradation. - Abstract: This work investigated effects of a popular oil dispersant (Corexit EC9500A) on UV- or sunlight-mediated photodegradation of pyrene (a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) in seawater. The presence of 18 and 180 mg/L of the dispersant increased the first-order photodegradation rate by 5.5% and 16.7%, respectively, and reduced or ceased pyrene volatilization. By combining individual first-order rate laws for volatilization and photodegradation, we proposed an integrated kinetic model that can adequately predict the overall dissipation of pyrene from seawater. Mechanistic studies indicated that superoxide radicals played a predominant role in pyrene photodegradation, and the dispersant enhanced formation of superoxide radicals. 1-Hydroxypyrene was the main intermediate regardless of the dispersant, suggesting that electrons were transferred from excited pyrene to oxygen. In the presence of 18 mg/L of the dispersant, the photodegradation rate increased with increasing ionic strength and temperature, but decreased with increasing HA concentration, and remained independent of solution pH. The results are important in understanding roles of oil dispersants on environmental fate of persistent oil components in natural and engineered systems.

  11. Neem oil poisoning: Case report of an adult with toxic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Dave, Nikhil

    2013-09-01

    Neem oil has widespread use in Indian subcontinent due to its many bioactive properties. Azadirachtin, an active ingredient, is implicated in causing the effects seen in neem oil poisoning. Neem oil poisoning is rare in adults. This report highlights the toxicity associated with neem oil poisoning in an elderly male. The patient presented with vomiting, seizures, metabolic acidosis, and toxic encephalopathy. The patient recovered completely with symptomatic treatment.

  12. Neem oil poisoning: Case report of an adult with toxic encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Ajay; Dave, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Neem oil has widespread use in Indian subcontinent due to its many bioactive properties. Azadirachtin, an active ingredient, is implicated in causing the effects seen in neem oil poisoning. Neem oil poisoning is rare in adults. This report highlights the toxicity associated with neem oil poisoning in an elderly male. The patient presented with vomiting, seizures, metabolic acidosis, and toxic encephalopathy. The patient recovered completely with symptomatic treatment.

  13. TOXIC ANTERIOR SEGMENT SYNDROME (TASS WITH SEVERE PIGMENT DISPERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sudhakar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To clinically analyze the cases of TASS with severe pigment dispersion following uncomplicated cataract surgery in a tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2011 to January 2013. DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of all eyes developing TASS with severe pigment dispersion following uncomplicated Cataract surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes including visual acuity, intraocular pressure and complications were recorded at 1st post-operative day, 7th post-operative day and after six weeks of follow up visits. RESULTS: TASS with severe pigment dis pension was recorded in five out of 1060 patients. All cases were females. Phacoemulsification with foldable IOL was done in 2 patients and Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with in bag posterior chamber IOL was done in three patients. All patients had pain which was less severe when compared to the amount of inflammation. Visual acuity ranged from 6/36 to perception of light. All the five patients had rim to rim corneal edema which was seen from the first post-operative day and persisted at six weeks follow up. Pupils were dilated and fixed in all patients. Intraocular pressure was raised in four out of five patients who poorly responded to medical treatment. Dense pigment clumps were seen in the corneal endothelium and on the surgical wound site after one week in three out of five patients and increased at 6 weeks of follow up. Visual acuity did not improve in any of the patient even with treatment. The reduced visual acuity was due to worsening corneal edema and dense pigment clumping in corneal endothelium. CONCLUSION: TASS with severe pigment dispersion has more complication than routine TASS. The complication are due to dense pigment clumping in cornea and angle of anterior chamber causing corneal endothelial de-compensation and raised Intraocular pressure, which persisted even after the inflammation subsided. Although the

  14. TOXICITY COMPARISON OF BIOSURFACTANTS AND SYNTHETIC SURFACTANTS USED IN OIL SPILL REMEDIATION TO TWO ESTUARINE SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative environmental toxicities of synthetic and biogenic surfactants used in oil spill remediation efforts are not well understood. Acute and chronic toxicities of three synthetic surfactants and three microbially produced surfactants were determined and compared in this s...

  15. In-situ production of biosurfactants: An alternative method for dispersing and bioremediating marine oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josefsen, K.; Sveum, P.; Ramstad, S.; Markussen, S.; Folkvord, K.; Krigsvoll, S.; Aune, R.; Storroe, I. [SINTEF, Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-12-31

    A study of surfactant producing bacteria for the dispersion of oil spills was conducted. Isolation procedures, shoreline experiments, flume basin experiments, and simulated open sea meso-scale experiments and results were described. Bacteria strains were obtained from several locations world-wide, though more success was experienced with strains from colder regions. Two strains were used in the meso-scale experiment. A rapid reduction in the aliphatic fraction of the dispersed oil was observed. Most strains were found to be capable of dispersing crude oils with differing compositions. Efforts to emulsify oil-in-water on an artificial shoreline with biosurfactants producing bacteria showed only limited success in mobilizing the oil. 8 figs., 2 tabs., 14 refs.

  16. Reynolds number scaling to predict droplet size distribution in dispersed and undispersed subsurface oil releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Weng, Linlu; Niu, Haibo; Robinson, Brian; King, Thomas; Conmy, Robyn; Lee, Kenneth; Liu, Lei

    2016-12-15

    This study was aimed at testing the applicability of modified Weber number scaling with Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil, and developing a Reynolds number scaling approach for oil droplet size prediction for high viscosity oils. Dispersant to oil ratio and empirical coefficients were also quantified. Finally, a two-step Rosin-Rammler scheme was introduced for the determination of droplet size distribution. This new approach appeared more advantageous in avoiding the inconsistency in interfacial tension measurements, and consequently delivered concise droplet size prediction. Calculated and observed data correlated well based on Reynolds number scaling. The relation indicated that chemical dispersant played an important role in reducing the droplet size of ANS under different seasonal conditions. The proposed Reynolds number scaling and two-step Rosin-Rammler approaches provide a concise, reliable way to predict droplet size distribution, supporting decision making in chemical dispersant application during an offshore oil spill.

  17. Comparative Toxicity of Different Crude Oils on the Cardiac Function of Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effect of different crude oils (heavy crude oil and bonny light crude oil on embryos of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma was measured and evaluated by exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF in the present study. The cardiac function of medaka embryos was used as target organ of ecotoxicological effect induced by oil exposure. Results showed that the developing marine medaka heart was a sensitive target organ to crude oil exposure the heavy crude oil WAF was more toxic to cardiac function of medaka embryos than bonny light cured oil one. Cardiac function of medaka embryos was clearly affected by exposure to heavy crude oil WAF after 24 hours exposure and showed a dose-dependent slowing of heart rate. Furthermore, swelled and enlarged heart morphology, lowered blood circulation and accumulation of blood cells around the heart area were found. However, the toxic effect of bonny light crude oil on cardiac function of medaka embryos was comparatively low. Statistical results showed that the cardiac function was only affected by highest bonny light crude oil WAF (9.8 mg/L exposure treatment. These findings indicated that cardiac function of marine medaka embryo was a good toxicity model for oil pollution and could be used to compare and evaluate the toxicity of different crude oils. The heart rate was an appropriate endpoint in the acute toxicity test.

  18. Role of dispersants of oil on copepods in high arctic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Kim; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Møller, Eva Friis;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to increase the knowledge on the effects of using dispersants on oil spills in high arctic areas: more precisely, to investigate accumulation in and effects on high arctic copepods. Such knowledge is crucial for performing a robust net environmental benefit analysis...... prior to making a decision as to whether or not dispersant may be allowed as an operational oil spill response in high arctic sea areas....

  19. The granulometric composition of solid dispersions of secondary water and oil emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashev, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the chemical and granulometric composition of solid dispersions in stratum waters and intermediate emulsion layers from settlers for commercial preparation of oil. The probable sources of the solid dispersions and their role in the destabilization of the modes for preparing conditioned oil are indicated, along with the need to consider factors which cause the manifestation of a high content of mechanical admixtures, development of technical and technological measures for their complete are partial prevention in well production.

  20. A dynamic approach for the impact of a toxic gas dispersion hazard considering human behaviour and dispersion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovreglio, Ruggiero; Ronchi, Enrico; Maragkos, Georgios; Beji, Tarek; Merci, Bart

    2016-11-15

    The release of toxic gases due to natural/industrial accidents or terrorist attacks in populated areas can have tragic consequences. To prevent and evaluate the effects of these disasters different approaches and modelling tools have been introduced in the literature. These instruments are valuable tools for risk managers doing risk assessment of threatened areas. Despite the significant improvements in hazard assessment in case of toxic gas dispersion, these analyses do not generally include the impact of human behaviour and people movement during emergencies. This work aims at providing an approach which considers both modelling of gas dispersion and evacuation movement in order to improve the accuracy of risk assessment for disasters involving toxic gases. The approach is applied to a hypothetical scenario including a ship releasing Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on a crowd attending a music festival. The difference between the results obtained with existing static methods (people do not move) and a dynamic approach (people move away from the danger) which considers people movement with different degrees of sophistication (either a simple linear path or more complex behavioural modelling) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous oil-in-water emulsification induced by charge-stabilized dispersions of various inorganic colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacanna, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311471676; Kegel, W.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113729464; Philipse, A.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073532894

    2007-01-01

    Charge-stabilized dispersions of inorganic colloids are shown to induce spontaneous emulsification of hydrophobic (TPM) molecules to stable oil-in-water emulsions, with monodisperse, mesoscopic oil droplet diameters in the range of 30-150 nm, irrespective of the polydispersity of the starting

  2. Dispersant Effectiveness Of Heavy Fuel Oils Using The Baffled Flask Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispersants have been widely used as a primary response measure for marine oil spills around the world. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed an improved laboratory dispersant testing protocol, called the Baffled Flask Test (BFT). The BFT protocol w...

  3. Weathering of hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments: testing the effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.A.; Codi, S.; Pratt, C. [Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland (Australia); Duke, N.C. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). Dept. of Botany

    1999-07-01

    This field study was a combined chemical and biological investigation of the relative effects of using dispersants to treat oil spills impacting mangrove habitats. The aim of the chemistry was to determine whether dispersant affected the short- or long-term composition of a medium range crude oil (Gippsland) stranded in a tropical mangrove environment in Queensland, Australia. Sediment cores from three replicate plots of each treatment (oil only and oil plus dispersant) were analyzed for total hydrocarbons and for individual molecular markers (alkanes, aromatics, triterpanes, and steranes). Sediments were collected at 2 days, then 1, 7, 13 and 22 months post-spill. Over this time, oil in the six treated plots decreased exponentially from 36.6 {+-} 16.5 to 1.2 {+-} 0.8 mg/g dry wt. There was no statistical difference in initial oil concentrations, penetration of oil to depth, or in the rates of oil dissipation between oiled or dispersed oil plots. At 13 months, alkanes were > 50% degraded, aromatics were {approx}30% degraded based upon ratios of labile to resistant markers. However, there was no change in the triterpane or sterane biomarker signatures of the retained oil. This is of general forensic interest for pollution events. The predominant removal processes were evaporation ({<=}27%) and dissolution ({>=}56%), with a lag-phase of 1 month before the start of significant microbial degradation ({<=}17%). The most resistant fraction of the oil that remained after 7 months (the higher molecular weight hydrocarbons) correlated with the initial total organic carbon content of the soil. Removal rate in the Queensland mangroves was significantly faster than that observed in the Caribbean and was related to tidal flushing. (author)

  4. Induction of heat shock protein (hsp)60 in Isochrysis galbana exposed to sublethal preparations of dispersant and Prudhoe Bay crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, M.F.; Olsen, H.E.; Gasuad, K.A.; Tjeerdema, R.S. [University of California, Santa Cruz (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Sowby, M.L. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Sacramento (United States). Office of Spill Prevention and Response

    1999-11-01

    Adaptation to sublethal exposure to crude oil by phytoplankton is poorly understood. Use of chemical dispersants for oil spill remediation increases petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in water, while exposing marine organisms to potentially toxic concentrations of dispersant. Heat shock proteins (hsps) have been found to serve as an adaptive and protective mechanism against environmental stresses. The objective of this project was to examine the induction of hsps in Isochrysis galbana, a golden-brown algae, following exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) and PBCO chemically dispersed with Corexit 9527 (dispersed oil: DO). Initial experiments using {sup 35}S-labelled amino acids and 2-dimensional electrophoresis with subsequent western blotting identified and confirmed hsp60, a member of the chaperonin family of stress proteins, as being efficiently induced by heat shock in this species. One-dimensional SDS PAGE and western blotting, with hsp60 antibodies and chemiluminescence detection, were used to quantitate hsp60 following exposure to a range of environmental temperatures and concentrations of WAF and DO preparations. Results of this study are consistent with previous studies in other species documenting increases in hsp60 levels with exposure to xenobiotics. Further studies are investigating the protective function of hsp60 against the toxic effects of exposure to WAF and DO preparations. (author)

  5. Light Penetration in Seawater Polluted by Dispersed Oil: Results of Radiative Transfer Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, K.; Darecki, M.; Toczek, H.

    2015-11-01

    The downwelling light in seawater is shaped by natural seawater constituents as well as by some external substances which can occur locally and temporally. In this study we focused on dispersed oil droplets which can be found in seawater after an oil spill or in the consequence of intensive shipping, oil extraction and transportation. We applied our modified radiative transfer model based on Monte Carlo code to evaluate the magnitude of potential influence of dispersed oil droplets on the downwelling irradiance and the depth of the euphotic zone. Our model was validated on the basis of in situ measurements for natural (unpolluted) seawater in the Southern Baltic Sea, resulting in less than 5% uncertainty. The optical properties of dispersed Petrobaltic crude oil were calculated on the basis of Mie theory and involved into radiative transfer model. We found that the changes in downwelling light caused by dispersed oil depend on several factors such as oil droplet concentration, size distribution, and the penetration depth (i.e. vertical range of oil droplets occurrence below sea surface). Petrobaltic oil droplets of submicron sizes and penetration depth of 5 m showed a potentially detectable reduction in the depth of the euphotic zone of 5.5% at the concentration of only 10 ppb. Micrometer-sized droplets needed 10 times higher concentration to give a similar effect. Our radiative transfer model provided data to analyse and discuss the influence of each factor separately. This study contributes to the understanding of the change in visible light penetration in seawater affected by dispersed oil.

  6. Dispersion of T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in crude oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph J; Hürlimann, Martin; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Freed, Denise; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2014-09-15

    Crude oils, which are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, can be characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion and relaxation methods to yield physical properties and chemical compositions. In particular, the field dependence, or dispersion, of T1 relaxation can be used to investigate the presence and dynamics of asphaltenes, the large molecules primarily responsible for the high viscosity in heavy crudes. However, the T2 relaxation dispersion of crude oils, which provides additional insight when measured alongside T1, has yet to be investigated systematically. Here we present the field dependence of T1-T2 correlations of several crude oils with disparate densities. While asphaltene and resin-containing crude oils exhibit significant T1 dispersion, minimal T2 dispersion is seen in all oils. This contrasting behavior between T1 and T2 cannot result from random molecular motions, and thus, we attribute our dispersion results to highly correlated molecular dynamics in asphaltene-containing crude oils. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Depletion and biodegradation of hydrocarbons in dispersions and emulsions of the Macondo 252 oil generated in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Daling, Per S; Faksness, Liv-G; Almås, Inger K; Vang, Siv-H; Syslak, Line; Leirvik, Frode

    2014-07-15

    Physically and chemically (Corexit 9500) generated Macondo 252 oil dispersions, or emulsions (no Corexit), were prepared in an oil-on-seawater mesocosm flume basin at 30-32 °C, and studies of oil compound depletion performed for up to 15 days. The use of Corexit 9500 resulted in smaller median droplet size than in a physically generated dispersion. Rapid evaporation of low boiling point oil compounds (C⩽15) appeared in all the experiments. Biodegradation appeared to be an important depletion process for compounds with higher boiling points in the dispersions, but was negligible in the surface emulsions. While n-alkane biodegradation was faster in chemically than in physically dispersed oil no such differences were determined for 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds. In the oil dispersions prepared by Corexit 9500, increased cell concentrations, reduction in bacterial diversity, and a temporary abundance of bacteria containing an alkB gene were associated with oil biodegradation.

  8. The oil-dispersion bath in anthroposophic medicine – an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornhöft Gudrun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthroposophic medicine offers a variety of treatments, among others the oil-dispersion bath, developed in the 1930s by Werner Junge. Based on the phenomenon that oil and water do not mix and on recommendations of Rudolf Steiner, Junge developed a vortex mechanism which churns water and essential oils into a fine mist. The oil-covered droplets empty into a tub, where the patient immerses for 15–30 minutes. We review the current literature on oil-dispersion baths. Methods The following databases were searched: Medline, Pubmed, Embase, AMED and CAMbase. The search terms were 'oil-dispersion bath' and 'oil bath', and their translations in German and French. An Internet search was also performed using Google Scholar, adding the search terms 'study' and 'case report' to the search terms above. Finally, we asked several experts for gray literature not listed in the above-mentioned databases. We included only articles which met the criterion of a clinical study or case report, and excluded theoretical contributions. Results Among several articles found in books, journals and other publications, we identified 1 prospective clinical study, 3 experimental studies (enrolling healthy individuals, 5 case reports, and 3 field-reports. In almost all cases, the studies described beneficial effects – although the methodological quality of most studies was weak. Main indications were internal/metabolic diseases and psychiatric/neurological disorders. Conclusion Beyond the obvious beneficial effects of warm bathes on the subjective well-being, it remains to be clarified what the unique contribution of the distinct essential oils dispersed in the water can be. There is a lack of clinical studies exploring the efficacy of oil-dispersion baths. Such studies are recommended for the future.

  9. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: cehamidi@eng.usm.my [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-01-30

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  10. Development of methods for avian oil toxicity studies using the double crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Fred; Dean, Karen; Hanson-Dorr, Katie; Harr, Kendal; Healy, Kate; Horak, Katherine; Link, Jane; Shriner, Susan; Bursian, Steven; Dorr, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Oral and external dosing methods replicating field exposure were developed using the double crested cormorant (DCCO) to test the toxicity of artificially weathered Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 oil. The majority of previous oil dosing studies conducted on wild-caught birds used gavage methods to dose birds with oil and determine toxicity. However, rapid gut transit time of gavaged oil likely reduces oil absorption. In the present studies, dosing relied on injection of oil into live feeder fish for oral dosing of these piscivorous birds, or applying oil to body contour feathers resulting in transdermal oil exposure and oral exposure through preening. Both oral and external oil dosing studies identified oil-related toxicity endpoints associated with oxidative stress such as hemolytic anemia, liver and kidney damage, and immuno-modulation or compromise. External oil application allowed for controlled study of thermoregulatory stress as well. Infrared thermal images indicated significantly greater surface temperatures and heat loss in treated birds following external oil applications; however, measurements collected by coelomically implanted temperature transmitters showed that internal body temperatures were stable over the course of the study period. Birds exposed to oil externally consumed more fish than control birds, indicating metabolic compensation for thermal stress. Conversely, birds orally dosed with oil experienced hypothermia and consumed less fish compared to control birds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Effects of the toxicity of mineral oil and solvent emulsifier upon sea fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Koichiro; Masuda, Nobuto

    1982-01-01

    The solvent emulsifier does not solely exist in the sea water but in a state necessarily mixed with spilt oil. In the present experiment, therefore, we are going to discuse the effects of toxicity, respectively with fish and with mineral oil, through the observations of the fishes bred in the sea water containing mineral oils and solvent emulsifier.

  12. Developmental toxicity of Clarified Slurry Oil applied dermally to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Kerstetter, S.L.; Singer, E.J.; Mehlman, M.A. (Mobil Oil Corporation, Princeton, NJ (USA))

    1989-05-01

    Clarified Slurry Oil (CSO), the heavy residual fraction from the fluidized catalytic cracker, was applied to the shaven backs of groups of 10 pregnant rats at doses of 0, 4, 8, 30, 125, and 250 mg/kg/day. All groups received the test material on gestation days 0-19. CSO was applied undiluted and left uncovered on the skin; collars were placed on the rats to minimize ingestion of the test material. Signs of maternal toxicity, some of which were seen at dose levels as low as 8 mg/kg/day, included vaginal bleeding, decreased body weight gain, reduced food consumption, death, increased relative liver weights, atrophy of the thymus, and aberrant serum chemistry. The number of fetal resorptions/deaths was markedly increased and the number of viable offspring decreased by CSO at dosages of 30 mg/kg/day and above. The group receiving 250 mg/kg/day carried no viable offspring. Fetuses from pregnant females exposed to CSO at dose levels in excess of 8 mg/kg/day were smaller than those from control and 4 mg/kg/day groups, and their skeletons showed decreased ossification. Abnormal external development and visceral development were observed in living and dead fetuses exposed in utero to CSO at dose levels as low as 8 mg/kg/day. Based on these data, 4 mg/kg/day represents the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level for both maternal and developmental toxicity.

  13. Three-dimensional oil dispersion model in the Campos Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bernardo Lopes Almeida de; Netto, Theodoro Antoun; Assad, Luiz Paulo de Freitas

    2017-03-09

    This paper presents the physical and mathematical formulation of a three-dimensional oil dispersion model that calculates the trajectory from the seafloor to the sea surface, its assumptions and constraints. It was developed by researchers who are familiar with oil spill dispersion and mathematical analysis. Oil dispersion is calculated through two computational routines. The first calculates the vertical dispersion along the water column and resamples the droplets when the oil reaches the surface. The second calculates the surface displacement of the spill. This model is based on the Eulerian approach, and it uses numerical solution schemes in time and in space to solve the equation for advective-diffusive transport. A case study based on an actual accident that happened in the Campos Basin, in Rio de Janeiro state, considering the instant spill of 1000 m(3) was used to evaluate the proposed model. After calculating the vertical transport, it was estimated that the area covered by the oil spill on the surface was about 35,685 m². After calculating the dispersion at the surface, the plume area was estimated as 20% of the initial area, resulting in a final area of 28,548 m².

  14. The effect of dispersed Petrobaltic oil droplet size on photosynthetically active radiation in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, Kamila; Freda, Włodzimierz

    2016-04-01

    Oil pollution in seawater, primarily visible on sea surface, becomes dispersed as an effect of wave mixing as well as chemical dispersant treatment, and forms spherical oil droplets. In this study, we examined the influence of oil droplet size of highly dispersed Petrobaltic crude on the underwater visible light flux and the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater, including absorption, scattering, backscattering and attenuation coefficients. On the basis of measured data and Mie theory, we calculated the IOPs of dispersed Petrobaltic crude oil in constant concentration, but different log-normal size distributions. We also performed a radiative transfer analysis, in order to evaluate the influence on the downwelling irradiance Ed, remote sensing reflectance Rrs and diffuse reflectance R, using in situ data from the Baltic Sea. We found that during dispersion, there occurs a boundary size distribution characterized by a peak diameter d0  = 0.3 μm causing a maximum E d increase of 40% within 0.5-m depth, and the maximum Ed decrease of 100% at depths below 5 m. Moreover, we showed that the impact of size distribution on the "blue to green" ratios of Rrs and R varies from 24% increase to 27% decrease at the same crude oil concentration.

  15. The influence of diffusion and dispersion on heavy oil recovery by VAPEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkindi, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Muggeridge, A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, London (United Kingdom)]|[Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Al-Wahaibi, Y. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)]|[Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman)

    2008-10-15

    Heavy oil recovery using vapour extraction (VAPEX) is a promising improved oil recovery technique. However, field application of this process has been limited due to concerns that favourable laboratory recoveries may not scale up to the field level. Previous laboratory studies of VAPEX in porous media have obtained much higher production rates than predicted either by analytic models derived from Hele-Shaw experiments or numerical simulation. The difference between experimental and simulation models has been explained by assuming greater mixing between vapour and oil than would be expected from molecular diffusion. Convective dispersion is a plausible justification for this increase. This paper investigated the role of convective dispersion on oil recovery by VAPEX using a combination of well characterized laboratory experiments and numerical simulation. So that all mechanisms contributing to increased-mixing apart from convective dispersion were eliminated, a first contact miscible fluid system was used. Longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients were experimentally measured as a function of flow-rate and viscosity ratio. VAPEX drainage experiments were then conducted over a range of injection rates. The paper also discussed the comparison of laboratory measurements of oil drainage rates with those predicted by the Butler-Mokrys analytical model and numerical simulation using either molecular diffusion or convective dispersion. Last, the paper discussed the use of the numerical model in investigating the impact of rate, well separation, and reservoir geometry on recovery. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  16. Dual effects of a dispersant and nutrient supplementation on weathered Endicott oil biodegradation in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves R. Personna

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the biodegradation of physically (WAF and chemically dispersed (CEWAF Endicott oil in seawater (salinity: 29.1‰ from Prince William Sound, Alaska, under low nutrient (LN (background seawater and high nutrient (HN (addition of 100 mg NO3-N/L and 10 mg PO4-P/L to background seawater at 15 ± 0.5 °C for 42 days. The dispersant was Corexit 9500. The dispersed oil concentration of the WAF (0.019 g/L ± 0.002 was an order of magnitude lower than that in the CEWAF (0.363 g/L ± 0.038. While remaining negligible in the WAF, the total oil removal in the CEWAF was 26% and 44% in LN and HN treatments, respectively. Nutrient supplementation significantly accelerated the rate of oil biodegradation as confirmed by ANOVA coupled with Tukey’s test at 95% confidence intervals (α = 0.05. GC/MS analyses revealed that biodegradation affected mainly alkane compounds. In the CEWAF, O2 consumption, CO2 production and biomass were much larger in HN than in LN treatments, which suggests that chemical dispersion of oil coupled with high nutrient concentration could be very useful in terms of remediation strategies and effective responses to oil spill at sea.

  17. Improved dispersion method of multi-wall carbon nanotube for inhalation toxicity studies of experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquahashi, Yuhji; Ogawa, Yukio; Takagi, Atsuya; Tsuji, Masaki; Morita, Koichi; Kanno, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) product Mitsui MWNT-7 is a mixture of dispersed single fibers and their agglomerates/aggregates. In rodents, installation of such mixture induces inflammatory lesions triggered predominantly by the aggregates/agglomerates at the level of terminal bronchiole of the lungs. In human, however, pulmonary toxicity induced by dispersed single fibers that reached the lung alveoli is most important to assess. Therefore, a method to generate aerosol predominantly consisting of dispersed single fibers without changing their length and width is needed for inhalation studies. Here, we report a method (designated as Taquann method) to effectively remove the aggregate/agglomerates and enrich the well-dispersed singler fibers in dry state without dispersant and without changing the length and width distribution of the single fibers. This method is base on two major concept; liquid-phase fine filtration and critical point drying to avoid re-aggregation by surface tension. MWNT-7 was suspended in Tert-butyl alcohol, freeze-and-thawed, filtered by a vibrating 25 µm mesh Metallic Sieve, snap-frozen by liquid nitrogen, and vacuum-sublimated (an alternative method to carbon dioxide critical point drying). A newly designed direct injection system generated well-dispersed aerosol in an inhalation chamber. The lung of mice exposed to the aerosol contained single fibers with a length distribution similar to the original and the Taquann-treated sample. Taquann method utilizes inexpensive materials and equipments mostly found in common biological laboratories, and prepares dry powder ready to make well-dispersed aerosol. This method and the chamber with direct injection system would facilitate the inhalation toxicity studies more relevant to human exposure.

  18. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  19. Oil spill dispersants induce formation of marine snow by phytoplankton-associated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eenennaam, Justine S; Wei, Yuzhu; Grolle, Katja C F; Foekema, Edwin M; Murk, AlberTinka J

    2016-03-15

    Unusually large amounts of marine snow, including Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS), were formed during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The marine snow settled with oil and clay minerals as an oily sludge layer on the deep sea floor. This study tested the hypothesis that the unprecedented amount of chemical dispersants applied during high phytoplankton densities in the Gulf of Mexico induced high EPS formation. Two marine phytoplankton species (Dunaliella tertiolecta and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) produced EPS within days when exposed to the dispersant Corexit 9500. Phytoplankton-associated bacteria were shown to be responsible for the formation. The EPS consisted of proteins and to lesser extent polysaccharides. This study reveals an unexpected consequence of the presence of phytoplankton. This emphasizes the need to test the action of dispersants under realistic field conditions, which may seriously alter the fate of oil in the environment via increased marine snow formation.

  20. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  1. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  2. Environmental interactions with the toxicity of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    The toxicity of a range of plant essential oils to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens throughout Europe and elsewhere, was assessed in the laboratory. Dermanyssus gallinae may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and, in extreme cases, death of hens. With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides are needed to manage this pest. Fifty plant essential oils were selected for their toxicity to arthropods reported in the literature. Twenty-four of these essential oils were found to kill > 75% of adult D. gallinae in contact toxicity tests over a 24-h period at a rate of 0.21 mg/cm(2). Subsequent testing at lower rates showed that the essential oils of cade, manuka and thyme were especially toxic to adult D. gallinae. The toxicity of the seven most acaricidal essential oils was found to be stable at different temperatures likely to be encountered in commercial poultry housing (15 degrees C, 22 degrees C and 29 degrees C), although results suggest that humidity and dust might influence the toxicity of some of the oils tested. The toxicity of clove bud essential oil to D. gallinae, for example, was increased at high humidity and dust levels compared with ambient levels. The results suggest that certain essential oils may make effective botanical pesticides for use against D. gallinae, although it is likely that issues relating to the consistency of the toxic effect of some oils will determine which oils will be most effective in practice.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPILLED OILS, FUELS, AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS: 2A. DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS DATA FOR A SUITE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS - THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE, VOLATILIZATION, AND ENERGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical dispersants are used in oil spill response operations to enhance the dispersion of oil slicks at sea as small oil droplets in the water column. To assess the impacts of dispersant usage on oil spills, US EPA is developing a simulation model called the EPA Research Object...

  4. Synthesis and membrane performance characterization of self-emulsified waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Xiuxia; Zhao, Qingxiao, E-mail: 934481965@qq.com; Zhang, Dan; Dong, Wei

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was synthesized successfully. • It is a kind of environment-friendly coatings, in which volatile organic content (VOC) is near zero. • Castor oil used as an internal crosslinking agent for WNC improved the properties of the coating. • When the mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants is 7%, emulsion and the coating are of the best comprehensive performance. - Abstract: Waterborne nitrocellulose dispersion modified with castor oil (CWNC) was designed and successfully synthesized by self emulsification and reaction among isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) trimer, dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), nitrocellulose (NC) and castor oil (C.O.). The CWNC was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), etc. The particle size of CWNC increased with the increase of mass fraction of castor oil to total reactants, ω (C.O.). The morphology of particles is an approximate core–shell structure indicated by TEM. FTIR confirmed that the reactions (i.e. IPDI trimer and castor oil, IPDI trimer and NC) occurred, the NCO groups of IPDI trimer were consumed totally and the backbone of NC was retained. The water contact angle measurements confirmed that introduced castor oil increased hydrophobicity of the film, thereby increasing the contact angle. TGA revealed that the CWNC film had better thermal resistance.

  5. Biological effects of mechanically and chemically dispersed oil on the Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Marianne; Regoli, Francesco; Ambrose, William G; Nahrgang, Jasmine; Geraudie, Perrine; Benedetti, Maura; Locke, William L; Camus, Lionel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to simulate conditions in which dispersant (Dasic NS) might be used to combat an oil spill in coastal sub-Arctic water of limited depth and water exchange in order to produce input data for Net Environmental Benefit Analysis (NEBA) of Arctic and sub-Arctic coastal areas. Concentration dependent differences in acute responses and long-term effects of a 48h acute exposure to dispersed oil, with and without the application of a chemical dispersant, were assessed on the Arctic filter feeding bivalve Chlamys islandica. Icelandic scallops were exposed for 48h to a range of spiked concentrations of mechanically and chemically dispersed oil. Short-term effects were assessed in terms of lysosomal membrane stability, superoxide dismutase, catalase, gluthatione S-transferases, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione reductase, glutathione, total oxyradical scavenging capacity, lipid peroxidation and peroxisomal proliferation. Post-exposure survival, growth and reproductive investment were followed for 2 months to evaluate any long-term consequence. Generally, similar effects were observed in scallops exposed to mechanically and chemically dispersed oil. Limited short-term effects were observed after 48h, suggesting that a different timing would be required for measuring the possible onset of such effects. There was a concentration dependent increase in cumulative post-exposure mortality, but long-term effects on gonadosomatic index, somatic growth/condition factor did not differ among treatments.

  6. OIL SPILL DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS PROTOCOL. I: IMPACT OF OPERATIONAL VARIABLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol for testing the effectiveness of dispersants, the swirling flask test, has been found to give widely varying results in the hands of different testing laboratories. The sources of the ambiguities in the test were determin...

  7. Utilization of acetic acid-rich pyrolytic bio-oil by microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: reducing bio-oil toxicity and enhancing algal toxicity tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert; Jarboe, Laura; Wen, Zhiyou

    2013-04-01

    This work was to utilize acetic acid contained in bio-oil for growth and lipid production of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The acetic acid-rich bio-oil fraction derived from fast pyrolysis of softwood contained 26% (w/w) acetic acid, formic acid, methanol, furfural, acetol, and phenolics as identified compounds, and 13% (w/w) unidentified compounds. Among those identified compounds, phenolics were most inhibitory to algal growth, followed by furfural and acetol. To enhance the fermentability of the bio-oil fraction, activated carbon was used to reduce the toxicity of the bio-oil, while metabolic evolution was used to enhance the toxicity tolerance of the microalgae. Combining activated carbon treatment and using evolved algal strain resulted in significant algal growth improvement. The results collectively showed that fast pyrolysis-fermentation process was a viable approach for converting biomass into fuels and chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contact Toxicity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Acantholimon scorpius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Abbas Delazar, Farriba Hesmati Afshar, Dena Parsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plumbaginaceae plants family is a valuable natural insecticidal compound. This research focused on contact toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil obtained from Acantholimon scorpus. Methods: The essential oil from the aerial parts of A. scorpius was extracted by hydrodistillation method and tested for their toxicity against Oryzeaphilus mercator (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenerbrionidae. Chemical compounds of the essential oil was analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Results: The essential oil showed toxic effect on tested insects. This oil showed 90.0% mortality of O. mercator and 85.2% mortality of T. castaneum at a dose of 12 μl /l air after 48h of exposure. The constituents of this oil were identified, representing more than 82.9% of the total essential oil composition. Hexadecanoic acid, tetrahydrogeranyl acetone and oleic acid were the main compounds of the essential oil. Conclusion: According to the result the essential oil of A. scorpius showed a noticeable insecticidal activity in contact toxicity model.

  9. Are there toxic interactions between salinity and naphthenic acids in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Pasloski, A.; Lanser, B.; Alm, K.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Large volumes of water are used to extract oil from the oil sands in the Athabasca deposit. The resulting oil sands process water (OSPW) has been proposed for use in future reclamation landscapes. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates in order to develop environmentally acceptable OSPW reclamation plans. The OSPW generally contains high concentrations of salts and naphthenic acids (NAs), but low levels of other contaminants such as PAHs and metals. This study investigated the combined toxic effect of NAs and salinity on freshwater invertebrates. Laboratory cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were used initially to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The pond waters that generated a toxic response had elevated levels of NAs and salinity, but the concentrations of salinity ions varied considerably among ponds. Results suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Subsequent bioassays were performed with single salts and with mixtures representing major ion combinations present in the OSPW, such as carbonate, sulphate, chloride and sodium. The interaction between NAs and salinity was evaluated by exposing Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia pulex to mixtures of NAs extracted from OSPW and relevant major ions chosen according to the salt toxicity test results.

  10. Comparative toxicity of water soluble fractions of four oils on the growth of a Microalga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Phatarpekar, P.V.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Toxic effects of water soluble fractions (WSF) of four different fuel oils on a microalga. Tetraselmis gracilis, were examined and compared. On applying different concentrations of WSF, a decrease in cell population was observed. Depending...

  11. Effectiveness and potential ecological effects of offshore surface dispersant use during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: a retrospective analysis of monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Levine, Edwin; Mearns, Alan J

    2013-12-01

    The Special Monitoring of Applied Response Technologies (SMART) program was used during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill as a strategy to monitor the effectiveness of sea surface dispersant use. Although SMART was implemented during aerial and vessel dispersant applications, this analysis centers on the effort of a special dispersant missions onboard the M/V International Peace, which evaluated the effectiveness of surface dispersant applications by vessel only. Water samples (n = 120) were collected from background sites, and under naturally and chemically dispersed oil slicks, and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and a chemical marker of Corexit (dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether, DPnB). Water chemistry results were analyzed relative to SMART field assessments of dispersant effectiveness ("not effective," "effective," and "very effective"), based on in situ fluorometry. Chemistry data were also used to indirectly determine if the use of dispersants increased the risk of acute effects to water column biota, by comparison to toxicity benchmarks. TPAH and TPH concentrations in background, and naturally and chemically dispersed samples were extremely variable, and differences were not statistically detected across sample types. Ratios of TPAH and TPH between chemically and naturally dispersed samples provided a quantitative measure of dispersant effectiveness over natural oil dispersion alone, and were in reasonable agreement with SMART field assessments of dispersant effectiveness. Samples from "effective" and "very effective" dispersant applications had ratios of TPAH and TPH up to 35 and 64, respectively. In two samples from an "effective" dispersant application, TPHs and TPAHs exceeded acute benchmarks (0.81 mg/L and 8 μg/L, respectively), while none exceeded DPnB's chronic value (1,000 μg/L). Although the primary goal of the SMART program is to provide near real-time effectiveness data to the

  12. Role of dispersants of oil on copepods in high arctic areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavson, Kim; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Møller, Eva Friis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to increase the knowledge on the effects of using dispersants on oil spills in high arctic areas: more precisely, to investigate accumulation in and effects on high arctic copepods. Such knowledge is crucial for performing a robust net environmental benefit analysis...

  13. Determining Which Dispersants Will Be Effective In Future Deepwater Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepwater spills result in oil distributed from deep in the water column to the water surface. The objective of this study was to test eight of the available dispersants (including Corexit 9500A, which was used extensively on the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Spill) on South Louisiana C...

  14. OIL SPILL DISPERSANT EFFECTIVENESS PROTOCOL. II: PERFORMANCE OF THE REVISED PROTOCOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocol for testing the effectiveness of dispersants for use in treating oil spills on the open water, the swirling flask test (SFT), has been found to give widely varying results in the hands of different testing laborator...

  15. Application of fluorescence and PARAFAC to assess vertical distribution of subsurface hydrocarbons and dispersant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Wilson G; Riemer, Daniel D; Zika, Rod G

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the use of excitation and emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factorial analysis (PARAFAC) modeling techniques for monitoring crude oil components in the water column. Four of the seven derived PARAFAC loadings were associated with the Macondo crude oil components. The other three components were associated with the dispersant, an unresolved component and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The fluorescence of the associated benzene and naphthalene-like components of crude oil exhibited a maximum at ∼1200 m. The maximum fluorescence of the component associated with the dispersant (i.e., Corexit EC9500A) was observed at the same depth. The plume observed at this depth was attributed to the dispersed crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Results demonstrate the application of EEM and PARAFAC to simultaneously monitor selected PAH, dispersant-containing and humic-like fluorescence components in the oil spill region in the Gulf of Mexico.

  16. Web-Based Toxic Gas Dispersion Model for Shuttle Launch Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2004-01-01

    During the launch of the Space Shuttle vehicle, the burning of liquid hydrogen fuel with liquid oxygen at extreme high temperatures inside the three space shuttle main engines, and the burning of the solid propellant mixture of ammonium perchlorate oxidizer, aluminum fuel, iron oxide catalyst, polymer binder, and epoxy curing agent in the two solid rocket boosters result in the formation of a large cloud of hot, buoyant toxic exhaust gases near the ground level which subsequently rises and entrains into ambient air until the temperature and density of the cloud reaches an approximate equilibrium with ambient conditions. In this paper, toxic gas dispersion for various gases are simulated over the web for varying environmental conditions which is provided by rawinsonde data. The model simulates chemical concentration at ground level up to 10 miles (1 KM grids) in downrange up to an hour after launch. The ambient concentration of the gas dispersion and the deposition of toxic particles are used as inputs for a human health risk assessment model. The advantage of the present model is the accessibility and dissemination of model results to other NASA centers over the web. The model can be remotely operated and various scenarios can be analyzed.

  17. Research on Synthesizing Disperser with Fraction of Anthracene Oil for Coal Water Slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guo-guang; GUO Zhao-bing; WU Jian-jun; XIE Qiang; WANG Xiao-chun

    2003-01-01

    Experiment of synthesizing a disperser for coal water slurry (CWS) by using fractions of anthracene oil from high-temperature coal tar was performed. The orthogonal test was used to investigate the influence of temperature, time, quantity of sulfonation agent and condensation agent and the interaction of these factors on properties of the disperser. The result shows that the influence of temperature, time, quantity of sulfonation agent and condensation agent, and the interaction of sulfonation time and sulfonation agent has a significant influence on the properties of disperser. The optimal condition of synthesis is that in 150g of the fractions of anthracene oil, 40 mL of sulfonation agent is added and sulfonated for 3 h at 130℃, then, 10 mL of condensing agent is added and condensated for 1.5 h at 115 ℃.

  18. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji Young Oh; Min Ah Park; Young Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    .... This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO...

  19. Single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in aqueous media via non-covalent functionalization: effect of dispersant on the stability, cytotoxicity, and epigenetic toxicity of nanotube suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpatova, Alla L; Shan, Wenqian; Babica, Pavel; Upham, Brad L; Rogensues, Adam R; Masten, Susan J; Drown, Edward; Mohanty, Amar K; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Tarabara, Volodymyr V

    2010-01-01

    As the range of applications for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) rapidly expands, understanding the effect of CNTs on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems has become an important research priority, especially in light of recent reports of the facile dispersion of CNTs in a variety of aqueous systems including natural water. In this study, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were dispersed in water using a range of natural (gum arabic, amylose, Suwannee River natural organic matter) and synthetic (polyvinyl pyrrolidone, Triton X-100) dispersing agents (dispersants) that attach to the CNT surface non-covalently via different physiosorption mechanisms. The charge and the average effective hydrodynamic diameter of suspended SWCNTs as well as the concentration of exfoliated SWCNTs in the dispersion were found to remain relatively stable over a period of 4 weeks. The cytotoxicity of suspended SWCNTs was assessed as a function of dispersant type and exposure time (up to 48 h) using general viability bioassay with Escherichia coli and using neutral red dye uptake (NDU) bioassay with WB-F344 rat liver epithelia cells. In the E. coli viability bioassays, three types of growth media with different organic loadings and salt contents were evaluated. When the dispersant itself was non-toxic, no losses of E. coli and WB-F344 viability were observed. The cell viability was affected only by SWCNTs dispersed using Triton X-100, which was cytotoxic in SWCNT-free (control) solution. The epigenetic toxicity of dispersed CNTs was evaluated using gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) bioassay applied to WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. With all SWCNT suspensions except those where SWCNTs were dispersed using Triton X-100 (wherein GJIC could not be measured because the sample was cytotoxic), no inhibition of GJIC in the presence of SWCNTs was observed. These results suggest a strong dependence of the toxicity of SWCNT suspensions on the toxicity of the dispersant and point to

  20. Toxicity of some essential oils and plant extracts against Sitophilus oryzea, Aconthocelides obtectus and Rhizoperta dominica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Yaman, Cennet; Yarımoǧlu, Berkan; Yılmaz, Ayşegül

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Myrtus sp plants for adult Aconthocelides obtectus, Sitophilus oryzea and Rhizoperta dominica in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oil were compared. Myrtus sp essential oil showed the highest fumigant toxicity on A. obtectus (46.66%). The lowest fumigant toxicity on S. oryzea (8.88%). The contact toxicity plant extracts (Prangos ferulacea, Alkanna orientalis, Myrtus communis) were tested against S. oryzea under laboratory conditions. Single dose contact toxicity effects of plant extracts were tested on S. oryzea adults via applying 1 µl extract suspension (10% w/v) to individual insect. The greatest contact toxicity to S. oryzea adults was observed with M. communis (43.33%) and A. orientalis (41.11%) extracts. P. ferulacea (34.44%) extracts produced moderate toxicity to S. oryzea adults.

  1. Assessment of freshwater sediment toxicity from enhanced anaerobic vegetable oil degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; King, T.; Cobanli, S.E. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography; Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Conservation Branch; Wrenn, B.A.; Li, Z. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Venosa, A. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This study addressed some of the concerns associated with a proposed vegetable oil spill remediation method for use in aquatic environments. The method involves the addition of clay to mediate the transport of oil to the sediment where anaerobic microorganisms decompose it. There is concern that oleic acid and metabolic by products in the oil may be toxic. This study monitored the biodegradation and toxicity of canola oil within anaerobic sediments in replicate test chambers using Microtox{sup R} and amphipods bioassays. Anaerobic degradation was confirmed through gravimetric analysis of the residual oil and measurements of methane production. The Microtox{sup R} Solid-Phase Test indicated a trend towards the depression of EC50 values with higher oil concentrations at T=0. Both the oiled treatments had elevated toxicity levels after 2 weeks, but the sediments were found to recover to control levels after 2 months. Monitoring of survival and growth patterns of the amphipods assays showed similar trends. The results indicate that concerns are unfounded regarding the production of free fatty acids and other toxic metabolites from anaerobic hydrolysis of vegetable oil triglycerides in the proposed spill countermeasure.

  2. One-generation reproductive toxicity study of DHA-rich oil in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, R.; Kiy, T.; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.; Wong, A.W.; Roberts, A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets

  3. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  4. Combined toxicity of three essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils are potential alternatives to synthetic insecticides because they have low mammalian toxicity, degrade rapidly in the environment, and possess complex mixtures of bioactive constituents with multi-modal activity against the target insect populations. Twenty one essential oils were ini...

  5. One-generation reproductive toxicity study of DHA-rich oil in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, R.; Kiy, T.; Waalkens-Berendsen, I.; Wong, A.W.; Roberts, A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets cont

  6. Toxicity of twenty-two plant essential oils against pathogenic bacteria of vegetables and mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorović, Biljana; Potočnik, Ivana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Kostić, Miroslav; Ristić, Mihajlo; Milijašević-Marčić, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    ASBTRACT Toxicity of twenty-two essential oils to three bacterial pathogens in different horticultural systems: Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (causing blight of bean), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (bacterial wilt and canker of tomato), and Pseudomonas tolaasii (causal agent of bacterial brown blotch on cultivated mushrooms) was tested. Control of bacterial diseases is very difficult due to antibiotic resistance and ineffectiveness of chemical products, to that essential oils offer a promising alternative. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations are determined by applying a single drop of oil onto the inner side of each plate cover in macrodilution assays. Among all tested substances, the strongest and broadest activity was shown by the oils of wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus. Carvacrol (64.0-75.8%) was the dominant component of oregano oils, while geranial (40.7%) and neral (26.7%) were the major constituents of lemongrass oil. Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was the most sensitive to plant essential oils, being susceptible to 19 oils, while 11 oils were bactericidal to the pathogen. Sixteen oils inhibited the growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and seven oils showed bactericidal effects to the pathogen. The least sensitive species was Pseudomonas tolaasii as five oils inhibited bacterial growth and two oils were bactericidal. Wintergreen, oregano, and lemongrass oils should be formulated as potential biochemical bactericides against different horticultural pathogens.

  7. Hybrid palm-oil/styrene-maleimide nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous dispersion under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samyn, Pieter; Van Nieuwkerke, Dieter; Schoukens, Gustaaf; Stanssens, Dirk; Vonck, Leo; Van den Abbeele, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) was imidized with ammonium hydroxide and palm oil, resulting in an aqueous dispersion of hybrid nanoparticles with diameters 85-180 nm (dispersed) or 20-50 nm (dried). The reaction conditions were optimized for different precursors by evaluating the relative amount ammonium hydroxide and maximizing the incorporated palm oil up to 70 wt.%. The interactions between palm oil and polymer phase have been studied by TEM, IR, Raman spectroscopy and thermal analysis (TGA, [TM] DSC). From Raman spectra, the amount of imide and reacted oil were quantified. Through concurring effects of imidization and coupling of fatty acids, the imidization needs a slight excess of NH3 relatively to maleic anhydride. The oxidative stability highly depends on oxidative crosslinking of free or non-reacted oil. Comparing the imide content from spectroscopic and thermal analysis suggests that a complex rigid imide phase without strong relaxation behavior has formed in combination with oil.

  8. Acute effects of non-weathered and weathered crude oil and dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident on the development of marine bivalve and echinoderm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Emily S; Langdon, Chris J; Pargee, Suzanne M; Blunt, Susanna M; Gage, Susan J; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-08-01

    Acute toxicity tests (48-96-h duration) were conducted with larvae of 2 echinoderm species (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Dendraster excentricus) and 4 bivalve mollusk species (Crassostrea virginica, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Mercenaria mercenaria). Developing larvae were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) and chemically enhanced water-accommodated fractions (CEWAFs) of fresh and weathered oils collected from the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon incident. The WAFs (oils alone), CEWAFs (oils plus Corexit 9500A dispersant), and WAFs of Corexit alone were prepared using low-energy mixing. The WAFs of weathered oils had no effect on survival and development of echinoderm and bivalve larvae, whereas WAFs of fresh oils showed adverse effects on larval development. Similar toxicities were observed for weathered oil CEWAFs and WAFs prepared with Corexit alone for oyster (C. gigas and C. virginica) larvae, which were the most sensitive of the tested invertebrate species to Corexit. Mean 10% effective concentration values for total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (a marker for Corexit) in the present study were higher than all concentrations reported in nearshore field samples collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident. The results suggest that water-soluble fractions of weathered oils and Corexit dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident had limited, if any, acute impacts on nearshore larvae of eastern oysters and clams, as well as other organisms with similar sensitivities to those of test species in the present study; however, exposure to sediments and long-term effects were not evaluated. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2016-2028. © 2016 SETAC.

  9. Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a seminatur

  10. Weathering and toxicity of marine sediments contaminated with oils and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many sediments are contaminated with mixtures of oil residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but little is known about the toxicity of such mixtures to sediment-dwelling organisms and the change in toxicity on weathering. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a

  11. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  12. Effects of rainfall on oil droplet size and the dispersion of spilled oil with application to Douglas Channel, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongsheng; Hannah, Charles G; Thupaki, Pramod; Mo, Ruping; Law, Brent

    2017-01-15

    Raindrops falling on the sea surface produce turbulence. The present study examined the influence of rain-induced turbulence on oil droplet size and dispersion of oil spills in Douglas Channel in British Columbia, Canada using hourly atmospheric data in 2011-2013. We examined three types of oils: a light oil (Cold Lake Diluent - CLD), and two heavy oils (Cold Lake Blend - CLB and Access Western Blend - AWB). We found that the turbulent energy dissipation rate produced by rainfalls is comparable to what is produced by wind-induced wave breaking in our study area. With the use of chemical dispersants, our results indicate that a heavy rainfall (rain rate>20mmh(-1)) can produce the maximum droplet size of 300μm for light oil and 1000μm for heavy oils, and it can disperse the light oil with fraction of 22-45% and the heavy oils of 8-13%, respectively. Heavy rainfalls could be a factor for the fate of oil spills in Douglas Channel, especially for a spill of light oil and the use of chemical dispersants.

  13. Effect of synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) on the toxicity of some essential oils against mosquito larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S; Mittal, P K; Saxena, P N; Singh, R K

    2009-03-01

    Effect of a known synergist piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of steam distillate essential oils of Jamarosa (Cymbopogan nardus), Pacholli (Pogostemon pacholli), Basil (Ocimum basilicum), and Peppermint (Mentha pipreta) plant species against Anopheles stephensi larvae were evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to identify the insecticidal potential of these oils against mosquito larvae. The Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) was used to enhance the activity of these oils with the aim of developing essential oil based formulations. The bioassays of these oils with and without PBO were performed against late 3rd instar larvae of An. stephensi. The LC50 values against An. stephensi were 44.19 ppm for Ocimum basilicum oil, followed by, Mentha pipreta, Cymbopogan nardus, and Pogostemon pacholli oil which gave LC50 values above 250 ppm. Thus in the present study the Ocimum basilicum oil was found to be most effective, whereas Pogostemon pacholli oil was found to least effective against mosquitoes for larvicidal action. The effect of synergist PBO led to the enhancement of toxicity of oils, the LC50 value for Ocimum basilicum were reduced from 44.19 ppm to 23.87 ppm. Similarly the oil of Pogostemon pacholli showed most significant results where the LC50 value was > 250 ppm it was reduced to 50 ppm with PBO.

  14. Non Dispersive Chemical Deacidification of Crude Palm Oil in Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiar Purwasasmita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance of chemical deacidification of crude palm oil (CPO using aqueous NaOH solution in a polysulfone hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane was investigated. The effects of operating temperature, NaOH concentration and flow rates on percentage of free fatty acids (FFA removal, oil loss, soap entrainment and overall mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. Overall mass transfer coefficients, soap content in oil and neutral oil loss all increased when the temperature was increased from 60 to 70°C due to an increase of the FFA distribution value. A minimum 0.25 N of NaOH or a NaOH to FFA molar ratio of about 7.62 was required to facilitate the expected extraction efficiency. The increased oil flowrate slightly enhanced the solute transport kinetics, while the aqueous phase flowrate did not significantly influence deacidification efficiency or mass transfer coefficient. About 97% of FFA removal was achieved within 4 hours. The maximum oil loss observed was 11% and the highest soap content in the oil without separation step was 3150 ppm. The values of the overall mass transfer coefficient varied from 2.97×10-7 to 7.71×10-7 m/s. These results show the potential of using the non dispersive membrane contacting process for chemical deacidification of CPO as well as other vegetable oils.

  15. Rapid screening of water soluble arsenic species in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Ignacio; Briceño, Marisol; Vicente-Martínez, Yesica; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2015-01-15

    A methodology for the non-chromatographic screening of the main arsenic species present in edible oils is discussed. Reverse dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was used to extract water soluble arsenic compounds (inorganic arsenic, methylarsonate, dimethylarsinate and arsenobetaine) from the edible oils into a slightly acidic aqueous medium. The total arsenic content was measured in the extracts by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using palladium as the chemical modifier. By repeating the measurement using cerium instead of palladium, the sum of inorganic arsenic and methylarsonate was obtained. The detection limit was 0.03 ng As per gram of oil. Data for the total and water-soluble arsenic levels of 29 samples of different origin are presented. Inorganic arsenic was not found in any of the samples marketed as edible oils.

  16. Ecological considerations for the use of dispersants in oil spill response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt-Siva, J.; Albers, P.H.; Fucik, K.W.; Maynard, N.G.; Allen, Tom E.

    1984-01-01

    A multidisciplinary task force with membership from government agencies, academia, and industry is developing ecologically based guidelines for dispersant use in marine and estuarine environments. The guidelines are organized by habitat type (e.g., coral reefs, rocky shores, bird habitats) and consider dispersant use to protect the habitats from impact, to mitigate impacts, and to clean the habitats after a spill. Each guideline contains a description of the habitat type covered, recommendations for dispersant use, and a background section reviewing the relevant literature. The goal is to minimize the ecological impacts of oil spills. Aesthetic, socioeconomic, and political factors are not considered, although it is recognized that these are important concerns during spill response. Use of dispersants is considered along with other appropriate countermeasures and compared with the “no cleanup” alternative.

  17. Freshwater dispersion stability of PAA-stabilised cerium oxide nanoparticles and toxicity towards Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Andy, E-mail: andy.booth@sintef.no [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim N-7465 (Norway); Størseth, Trond [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim N-7465 (Norway); Altin, Dag [BioTrix, Trondheim N-7022 (Norway); Fornara, Andrea; Ahniyaz, Anwar [German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Product Safety, Berlin (Germany); Jungnickel, Harald; Laux, Peter; Luch, Andreas [SP Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, Drottning Kristinas vag 45, SE-11686 Stockholm (Sweden); Sørensen, Lisbet [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim N-7465 (Norway)

    2015-02-01

    An aqueous dispersion of poly (acrylic acid)-stabilised cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (PAA-CeO{sub 2}) was evaluated for its stability in a range of freshwater ecotoxicity media (MHRW, TG 201 and M7), with and without natural organic matter (NOM). In a 15 day dispersion stability study, PAA-CeO{sub 2} did not undergo significant aggregation in any media type. Zeta potential varied between media types and was influenced by PAA-CeO{sub 2} concentration, but remained constant over 15 days. NOM had no influence on PAA-CeO{sub 2} aggregation or zeta potential. The ecotoxicity of the PAA-CeO{sub 2} dispersion was investigated in 72 h algal growth inhibition tests using the freshwater microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. PAA-CeO{sub 2} EC{sub 50} values for growth inhibition (GI; 0.024 mg/L) were 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than pristine CeO{sub 2} EC{sub 50} values reported in the literature. The concentration of dissolved cerium (Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}) in PAA-CeO{sub 2} exposure suspensions was very low, ranging between 0.5 and 5.6 μg/L. Free PAA concentration in the exposure solutions (0.0096–0.0384 mg/L) was significantly lower than the EC{sub 10} growth inhibition (47.7 mg/L) value of pure PAA, indicating that free PAA did not contribute to the observed toxicity. Elemental analysis indicated that up to 38% of the total Cerium becomes directly associated with the algal cells during the 72 h exposure. TOF-SIMS analysis of algal cell wall compounds indicated three different modes of action, including a significant oxidative stress response to PAA-CeO{sub 2} exposure. In contrast to pristine CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles, which rapidly aggregate in standard ecotoxicity media, PAA-stabilised CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles remain dispersed and available to water column species. Interaction of PAA with cell wall components, which could be responsible for the observed biomarker alterations, could not be excluded. This study indicates that the increased

  18. Photo-induced toxicity of Deepwater Horizon slick oil to blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Matthew M; Boube, Idrissa; Griffitt, Robert J; Oris, James T; Roberts, Aaron P

    2015-09-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of approximately 700 million L of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity after co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Blue crab are an important commercial and ecological resource in the Gulf of Mexico, and their largely transparent larvae may make them sensitive to PAH photo-induced toxicity. The goal of the present study was to examine the sensitivity of early lifestage blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) zoea to slick oil collected during the Deepwater Horizon spill. Blue crab zoea were exposed to 1 of several dilutions of water accommodated fractions from 1 of 2 sources of oil and gradations of natural sunlight in a factorial design. Two 7-h solar exposures were carried out with a recovery period (dark) in between. Survival was found to be UV- and PAH-dependent. Toxicity was observed within the range of surface PAH concentrations reported in the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon spill. These findings indicate that early lifestage blue crab are sensitive to photo-induced toxicity from Deepwater Horizon slick oil. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. FY16/Q2 status report on initial dispersion calculations for tight crude oils project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to assess dispersion distances of a vapor mixture of species released from a railcar containing a tight crude oil. Tight crude oils can have higher levels of light ends as compared to conventional crude oils [1], which if released and dispersed could pose a potential hazard with regards to a flash fire, explosion, and/or asphyxiation. A historical accident involving rail transport in Viareggio, Italy illustrates how the spillage of LPG can lead to severe damage as a result of a propagating vapor cloud [2]. One of 14 railcars was punctured after derailment, releasing about 110 m3 of LPG into a densely populated area (2000 persons/km2 ). The resulting vapor cloud propagated and infiltrated nearby buildings and houses which were an average of 10 m in height. Ignition of the cloud occurred approximately 100 to 300 seconds after the start of the spill. A flash fire and explosions resulted, killing 31 people. Evidence suggests that most deaths occurred due to the asphyxiation and thermal hazards from the flash fire. Thus, the motivation for this work is to assess if significant vapors can develop from a railcar carrying a tight crude oil and if this cloud could disperse potentially to nearby populations.

  20. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  1. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control.

  2. Toxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Lithuanian Wormwood (Artemisiaabsinthium L. Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Judzentiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity tests of wild wormwood essential oils were performed using the brine shrimp (Artemia sp. test. N auplii lethality (LC 50 ranged 15.7-31.9 µg/mL, depending on oil composition. The most toxic A. absinthium oils were found to be those containing appreciable amount of trans-sabinyl acetate (45.2% and (cis+trans thujones (12.3%, while other samples with equivalent amounts of sabinyl acetate, but without thujones were determined to be notably less toxic. Herb material for the tests was collected in Lithuania, the volatile oils were obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant organs (inflorescences and leaves and analysed by GC-MS.

  3. A review of the toxicity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V; Nielsen, J B

    2006-05-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, also known as tea tree or melaleuca oil, is widely available and has been investigated as an alternative antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. While these properties are increasingly well characterised, relatively limited data are available on the safety and toxicity of the oil. Anecdotal evidence from almost 80 years of use suggests that the topical use of the oil is relatively safe, and that adverse events are minor, self-limiting and occasional. Published data indicate that TTO is toxic if ingested in higher doses and can also cause skin irritation at higher concentrations. Allergic reactions to TTO occur in predisposed individuals and may be due to the various oxidation products that are formed by exposure of the oil to light and/or air. Adverse reactions may be minimised by avoiding ingestion, applying only diluted oil topically and using oil that has been stored correctly. Data from individual components suggest that TTO has the potential to be developmentally toxic if ingested at higher doses, however, TTO and its components are not genotoxic. The limited ecotoxicity data available indicate that TTO is toxic to some insect species but more studies are required.

  4. Ozonation of oil sands process water removes naphthenic acids and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angela C; Zubot, Warren; MacKinnon, Michael D; Smith, Daniel W; Fedorak, Phillip M

    2008-03-01

    Naphthenic acids are naturally-occurring, aliphatic or alicyclic carboxylic acids found in petroleum. Water used to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands becomes toxic to various organisms due to the presence of naphthenic acids released from the bitumen. Natural biodegradation was expected to be the most cost-effective method for reducing the toxicity of the oil sands process water (OSPW). However, naphthenic acids are poorly biodegraded in the holding ponds located on properties leased by the oil sands companies. In the present study, chemical oxidation using ozone was investigated as an option for mitigation of this toxicity. Ozonation of sediment-free OSPW was conducted using proprietary technology manufactured by Seair Diffusion Systems Inc. Ozonation for 50min generated a non-toxic effluent (based on the Microtox bioassay) and decreased the naphthenic acids concentration by approximately 70%. After 130min of ozonation, the residual naphthenic acids concentration was 2mgl(-1): or = 22).

  5. Biodegradation of dispersed Macondo crude oil by indigenous Gulf of Mexico microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sandoval, Kathia; Ding, Yan; Stoeckel, Donald; Minard-Smith, Angela; Andersen, Gary; Dubinsky, Eric A; Atlas, Ronald; Gardinali, Piero

    2016-07-01

    Because of the extreme conditions of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) release (turbulent flow at 1500m depth and 5°C water temperature) and the sub-surface application of dispersant, small but neutrally buoyant oil droplets <70μm were formed, remained in the water column and were subjected to in-situ biodegradation processes. In order to investigate the biodegradation of Macondo oil components during the release, we designed and performed an experiment to evaluate the interactions of the indigenous microbial communities present in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) with oil droplets of two representative sizes (10μm and 30μm median volume diameter) created with Macondo source oil in the presence of Corexit 9500 using natural seawater collected at the depth of 1100-1300m in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead. The evolution of the oil was followed in the dark and at 5°C for 64days by collecting sacrificial water samples at fixed intervals and analyzing them for a wide range of chemical and biological parameters including volatile components, saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, dispersant markers, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, microbial cell counts and microbial population dynamics. A one phase exponential decay from a plateau model was used to calculate degradation rates and lag times for more than 150 individual oil components. Calculations were normalized to a conserved petroleum biomarker (30αβ-hopane). Half-lives ranged from about 3days for easily degradable compounds to about 60days for higher molecular weight aromatics. Rapid degradation was observed for BTEX, 2-3 ring PAHs, and n-alkanes below n-C23. The results in this experimental study showed good agreement with the n-alkane (n-C13 to n-C26) half-lives (0.6-9.5days) previously reported for the Deepwater Horizon plume samples and other laboratory studies with chemically dispersed Macondo oil conducted at low temperatures (<8°C). The responses of the microbial populations also were consistent with

  6. Self-dispersed crumpled graphene balls in oil for friction and wear reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xuan; Koltonow, Andrew R.; He, Xingliang; Jang, Hee Dong; Wang, Qian; Chung, Yip-Wah; Huang, Jiaxing

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles are often used as lubricant additives because they are capable of entering tribological contacts to reduce friction and protect surfaces from wear. They tend to be more stable than molecular additives under high thermal and mechanical stresses during rubbing. It is highly desirable for these particles to remain well dispersed in oil without relying on molecular ligands. Borrowing from the analogy that pieces of paper that are crumpled do not readily stick to each other (unlike flat sheets), we expect that ultrafine particles resembling miniaturized crumpled paper balls should self-disperse in oil and could act like nanoscale ball bearings to reduce friction and wear. Here we report the use of crumpled graphene balls as a high-performance additive that can significantly improve the lubrication properties of polyalphaolefin base oil. The tribological performance of crumpled graphene balls is only weakly dependent on their concentration in oil and readily exceeds that of other carbon additives such as graphite, reduced graphene oxide, and carbon black. Notably, polyalphaolefin base oil with only 0.01–0.1 wt % of crumpled graphene balls outperforms a fully formulated commercial lubricant in terms of friction and wear reduction. PMID:26811466

  7. Toxicity of Prudhoe Bay crude oil to mallard duck (Anas Platyrhynchos) embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusimbo, W.S.

    1999-09-30

    This thesis examined the rates and timing of mortality and hatchability of mallard duck embryos that have been exposed to Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO). The objective was to identify any pathological abnormalities that may suggest that the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a target organ of toxicity. The study involved the external application of PBCO to the eggshell to mimic the natural route of exposure. Embryo mortality was then determined at different days of incubation and the most sensitive age of incubation to oil was established. On the basis of initial results, the following 3 hypothesis were formulated: (1) the CAM is a target organ of oil toxicity, (2) injury to the CAM compromises its physiological role of calcium mobilization from the eggshell, and (3) oil exposure causes anemia and damage to red blood cells of mallard embryos. Data was compared with data reported in chicken embryos exposed to the same type of petroleum oil. It was shown that the toxic effects of PBCO to mallard duck embryos were similar to those found in chicken embryos. Oil-exposed embryos exhibited high mortality and reduced growth. Pathological changes in liver, kidneys and bursa of Fabricius, in oil-exposed mallard embryos were also similar to those of exposed chicken embryos. It was noted that this is the first study to recognize and describe pathological changes in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of avian embryos exposed to petroleum oil. Lesions in the CAM were found in areas right beneath the oil on the egg shell and in areas distant from any such direct contact, suggesting that direct contact with the oil was not the main cause of injury to the CAM. The occurrence of lesions in CAM were highest immediately following exposure to PBCO. The lesions observed suggest two different kids of toxic effects, lethal injury to cells in various tissues, and alteration in the timing of organ development. The author notes that more remains to be learned regarding the toxic effects of

  8. The repellent and persistent toxic effects of essential oils against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechita, I S; Poirel, M T; Cozma, V; Zenner, L

    2015-12-15

    The economic impact of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, the lack of new acaricides, the occurrence of resistance and tighter legislation have all led to the need to find new ways to control this pest. One promising alternative method of control focuses on employing repellent and/or toxic effects of selected plant essential oils against D. gallinae. Ten essential oils (basil, thyme, coriander, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, fir tree, oregano, mint, and juniper) were tested for the persistence of toxic and repellent effects. In filter-paper toxicity bioassays against D. gallinae, the best results were observed for lavender (more than 97% mortality after 48 and 72 h) and thyme (84% at 72 h) at a dose of 0.12 mg/cm(2). In addition, two oils showed significant persistent toxic effects 15 and 30 days post application to filter papers. Thyme was the most effective (100% mortality at 72 h), followed by lavender (nearly 80% mortality after 72 h). Out of the ten oils tested for their repellent effect, thyme was the strongest, with nearly 80% of the tested area avoided by mites; oregano caused a 60% avoidance and lavender exhibited an effect close to 40%. All other oils exhibited a repellent effect of less than 30%. None of the experiments showed a repellent effect for HM (commercial alimentary oil) or negative controls. We found that the thyme and lavender essential oils exhibited promising results when tested in vitro for toxic and repellent effects against D. gallinae; thus, we suggest that future experiments focus on in vivo tests using these oils in farm units.

  9. The effects of oil and oil dispersant on gametes of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Short-term, static exposure toxicity tests were conducted in the New Jersey Field Office laboratory to evaluate the potential for the water accommodated fractions of...

  10. Cellulose gel dispersion: From pure hydrogel suspensions to encapsulated oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napso, Sofia; Rein, Dmitry M; Khalfin, Rafail; Kleinerman, Olga; Cohen, Yachin

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose hydrogel particles were fabricated from molecularly-dissolved cellulose/IL solutions. The characteristics of the formed hydrogels (cellulose content, particles' size and porosity) were determined as a function of cellulose concentration in the precursor solutions. There is a significant change in the hydrogel structure when the initial cellulose solution concentration increases above about 7-9%wt. These changes include increase of the cellulose content in the hydrogel, and decrease in its pore size. The finest cellulose particle dispersions can be obtained using low concentration cellulose/IL solutions (cellulose concentration in dispersion less than 2%wt.) or hydrogels (concentration less than 1%wt.) in a dispersing medium consisting of IL with no more than 20%wt. water. Stable paraffin oil-in-water emulsions are achieved by mixing oil and water with cellulose/IL solutions. The optimal conditions for obtaining the finest particles (about 20μm in diameter) are attained using cellulose solutions of concentration between 0.7 and 4%wt. at temperature of 70°C and oil/cellulose mass ratios between 1 and 1.5.

  11. Genotoxicity test and subchronic toxicity study with Superba™ krill oil in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Robertson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of krill oil was assessed in a subchronic toxicity study and in a genotoxicity test. In a 13-week study, rats were fed krill oil or control diets. There were no differences noted in body weight, food consumption or in the functional observation battery parameters in either gender. Differences in both haematology and clinical chemistry values were noted in the krill oil-treated groups. However these findings were of no toxicological significance. Significant decreases in absolute and covariant heart weight in some krill oil-treated animals were noted although no corresponding histological changes were observed. In addition, periportal microvesicular hepatocyte vacuolation was noted histologically in males fed 5% krill oil. This finding was not associated with other indications of hepatic dysfunction. Given that the effects of the 13-week toxicity study were non-toxic in nature, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for the conditions of this study was considered to be 5% krill oil. The genotoxicity experiments documented no mutagenicity of krill oil in bacteria.

  12. Protective effect of some plant oils on diazinon induced hepatorenal toxicity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and exposure to environmental pollutants are still some of the major global health issues. Pesticides have been linked to a wide range of health hazards. The toxicity of pesticides depends on several factors such as its chemical properties, doses, exposure period, exposure methods, gender, genetics, age, nutritional status and physiological case of exposed individuals. Medicinal plants, natural products and nutrition continue to play a central role in the healthcare system of large proportions of the world’s population. Alternative medicine plays an important role in health services around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of olive, sesame and black seed oils on hepatorenal toxicity induced by diazinon (DZN in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. The first group served as control. The second group was exposed to DZN. The third group was treated with olive oil and DZN. Rats of the fourth group were subjected to sesame oil and DZN. Rats of the fifth group were exposed to black seed oil and DZN. The sixth, seventh and eighth groups were supplemented with olive, sesame and black seed oils respectively. Rats of the ninth group were treated with corn oil. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, total bilirubin, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde were significantly increased in rats exposed to DZN. Moreover, levels of serum glutathione and superoxide dismutase were significantly decreased. Several histopathological changes were observed in the structures of liver and kidney due to DZN exposure. This study showed that these oils attenuated the physiological disturbances and histopathological alterations induced by DZN intoxication. Moreover, the antioxidant properties of these oils support the bioactive roles of its protective effects on DZN toxicity. This study therefore

  13. Phase and sedimentation behavior of oil (octane) dispersions in the presence of model mineral aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anju; Sender, Maximilian; Fields, Sarah; Bothun, Geoffrey D

    2014-10-15

    Adsorption of suspended particles to the interface of surfactant-dispersed oil droplets can alter emulsion phase and sedimentation behavior. This work examines the effects of model mineral aggregates (silica nanoparticle aggregates or SNAs) on the behavior of oil (octane)-water emulsions prepared using sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (DOSS). Experiments were conducted at different SNA hydrophobicities in deionized and synthetic seawater (SSW), and at 0.5mM and 2.5mM DOSS. SNAs were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the emulsions were examined by optical and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. In deionized water, oil-in-water emulsions were formed with DOSS and the SNAs did not adhere to the droplets or alter emulsion behavior. In SSW, water-in-oil emulsions were formed with DOSS and SNA-DOSS binding through cation bridging led to phase inversion to oil-in-water emulsions. Droplet oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) were observed for hydrophilic SNAs, while hydrophobic SNAs yielded quickly sedimenting agglomerated OMAs.

  14. Non-Dispersive Infrared Sensor for Online Condition Monitoring of Gearbox Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Markus S; Tremmel, Anton J; Schardt, Michael; Koch, Alexander W

    2017-02-18

    The condition of lubricating oil used in automotive and industrial gearboxes must be controlled in order to guarantee optimum performance and prevent damage to machinery parts. In normal practice, this is done by regular oil change intervals and routine laboratory analysis, both of which involve considerable operating costs. In this paper, we present a compact and robust optical sensor that can be installed in the lubrication circuit to provide quasi-continuous information about the condition of the oil. The measuring principle is based on non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy. The implemented sensor setup consists of an optical measurement cell, two thin-film infrared emitters, and two four-channel pyroelectric detectors equipped with optical bandpass filters. We present a method based on multivariate partial least squares regression to select appropriate optical bandpass filters for monitoring the oxidation, water content, and acid number of the oil. We perform a ray tracing analysis to analyze and correct the influence of the light path in the optical setup on the optical parameters of the bandpass filters. The measurement values acquired with the sensor for three different gearbox oil types show high correlation with laboratory reference data for the oxidation, water content, and acid number. The presented sensor can thus be a useful supplementary tool for the online condition monitoring of lubricants when integrated into a gearbox oil circuit.

  15. Non-Dispersive Infrared Sensor for Online Condition Monitoring of Gearbox Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus S. Rauscher

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition of lubricating oil used in automotive and industrial gearboxes must be controlled in order to guarantee optimum performance and prevent damage to machinery parts. In normal practice, this is done by regular oil change intervals and routine laboratory analysis, both of which involve considerable operating costs. In this paper, we present a compact and robust optical sensor that can be installed in the lubrication circuit to provide quasi-continuous information about the condition of the oil. The measuring principle is based on non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy. The implemented sensor setup consists of an optical measurement cell, two thin-film infrared emitters, and two four-channel pyroelectric detectors equipped with optical bandpass filters. We present a method based on multivariate partial least squares regression to select appropriate optical bandpass filters for monitoring the oxidation, water content, and acid number of the oil. We perform a ray tracing analysis to analyze and correct the influence of the light path in the optical setup on the optical parameters of the bandpass filters. The measurement values acquired with the sensor for three different gearbox oil types show high correlation with laboratory reference data for the oxidation, water content, and acid number. The presented sensor can thus be a useful supplementary tool for the online condition monitoring of lubricants when integrated into a gearbox oil circuit.

  16. Non-Dispersive Infrared Sensor for Online Condition Monitoring of Gearbox Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Markus S.; Tremmel, Anton J.; Schardt, Michael; Koch, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    The condition of lubricating oil used in automotive and industrial gearboxes must be controlled in order to guarantee optimum performance and prevent damage to machinery parts. In normal practice, this is done by regular oil change intervals and routine laboratory analysis, both of which involve considerable operating costs. In this paper, we present a compact and robust optical sensor that can be installed in the lubrication circuit to provide quasi-continuous information about the condition of the oil. The measuring principle is based on non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy. The implemented sensor setup consists of an optical measurement cell, two thin-film infrared emitters, and two four-channel pyroelectric detectors equipped with optical bandpass filters. We present a method based on multivariate partial least squares regression to select appropriate optical bandpass filters for monitoring the oxidation, water content, and acid number of the oil. We perform a ray tracing analysis to analyze and correct the influence of the light path in the optical setup on the optical parameters of the bandpass filters. The measurement values acquired with the sensor for three different gearbox oil types show high correlation with laboratory reference data for the oxidation, water content, and acid number. The presented sensor can thus be a useful supplementary tool for the online condition monitoring of lubricants when integrated into a gearbox oil circuit. PMID:28218701

  17. Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity studies of DHA-rich oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, René; Kiy, Thomas; Tanaka, Satohiro; Wong, Andrea W; Roberts, Ashley

    2007-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the non-toxigenic and non-pathogenic marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The safety of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a subchronic toxicity study and in genotoxicity studies. In a 90-day study, rats were orally administered water or DHA-algal oil at concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg in combination with 2000, 1500, 1000 or 0 mg/kg DHA-containing fish oil, respectively. Additional animals were administered water, 2000 mg/kg DHA-algal oil, or 2000 mg/kg fish oil for 90 days, followed by a 4-week recovery phase. No treatment-related effects were observed in clinical observations, food and water consumption, mortality, gross pathology, and histopathology. Increased body weights and liver weights in oil-treated groups were attributed to the large lipid load and were not regarded as toxicologically significant. Furthermore, no treatment-related differences in the measured parameters between the DHA-algal oil and fish oil groups were detected. In genotoxicity experiments, DHA-algal oil exerted no mutagenic activity in various bacterial strains, nor did it induce chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster fibroblast cells. These results support the safety of DHA-algal oil as a dietary source of DHA.

  18. Surface dynamics of crude and weathered oil in the presence of dispersants: Laboratory experiment and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Alexander V.; Haus, Brian. K.; McGauley, Michael G.; Dean, Cayla W.; Ortiz-Suslow, David G.; Laxague, Nathan J. M.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.

    2016-05-01

    Marine oil spills can have dire consequences for the environment. Research on their dynamics is important for the well-being of coastal communities and their economies. Propagation of oil spills is a very complex physical-chemical process. As seen during the Deepwater Horizon event in the Gulf of Mexico during 2010, one of the critical problems remaining for prediction of oil transport and dispersion in the marine environment is the small-scale structure and dynamics of surface oil spills. The laboratory experiments conducted in this work were focused on understanding the differences between the dynamics of crude and weathered oil spills and the effect of dispersants. After deposition on the still water surface, a drop of crude oil quickly spread into a thin slick; while at the same time, a drop of machine (proxy for weathered) oil did not show significant evolution. Subsequent application of dispersant to the crude oil slick resulted in a quick contraction or fragmentation of the slick into narrow wedges and tiny drops. Notably, the slick of machine oil did not show significant change in size or topology after spraying dispersant. An advanced multi-phase, volume of fluid computational fluid dynamics model, incorporating capillary forces, was able to explain some of the features observed in the laboratory experiment. As a result of the laboratory and modeling experiments, the new interpretation of the effect of dispersant on the oil dispersion process including capillary effects has been proposed, which is expected to lead to improved oil spill models and response strategies.

  19. Predicting the formation and the dispersion of toxic combustion products from the fires of dangerous substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevrlý, V.; Bitala, P.; Danihelka, P.; Dobeš, P.; Dlabka, J.; Hejzlar, T.; Baudišová, B.; Míček, D.; Zelinger, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Natural events, such as wildfires, lightning or earthquakes represent a frequent trigger of industrial fires involving dangerous substances. Dispersion of smoke plume from such fires and the effects of toxic combustion products are one of the reference scenarios expected in the framework of major accident prevention. Nowadays, tools for impact assessment of these events are rather missing. Detailed knowledge of burning material composition, atmospheric conditions, and other factors are required in order to describe quantitatively the source term of toxic fire products and to evaluate the parameters of smoke plume. Nevertheless, an assessment of toxic emissions from large scale fires involves a high degree of uncertainty, because of the complex character of physical and chemical processes in the harsh environment of uncontrolled flame. Among the others, soot particle formation can be mentioned as still being one of the unresolved problems in combustion chemistry, as well as decomposition pathways of chemical substances. Therefore, simplified approach for estimating the emission factors from outdoor fires of dangerous chemicals, utilizable for major accident prevention and preparedness, was developed and the case study illustrating the application of the proposed method was performed. ALOFT-FT software tool based on large eddy simulation of buoyant fire plumes was employed for predicting the local toxic contamination in the down-wind vicinity of the fire. The database of model input parameters can be effectively modified enabling the simulation of the smoke plume from pool fires or jet fires of arbitrary flammable (or combustible) gas, liquid or solid. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic via the project LD11012 (in the frame of the COST CM0901 Action) and the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (project no. SPII 1a10 45/70).

  20. Effects of short-term exposure to dispersed oil in Arctic invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mageau, C.; Englehardt, F.R.; Gilfillan, E.S.; Boehm, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    A series of experimental studies was carried out as part of the Baffin Island Oil Spill (BIOS) Project to define the behavioural, physiological and biochemical reactions of three arctic marine benthic invertebrate species exposed to chemically dispersed crude oil. Behavioural responses and patterns of hydrocarbon accumulation and release observed in the bivalves and the urchin during the 1981 field spill were similar to those observed during the laboratory simulations. Ostial closure, loss of responsiveness to mechanical stimuli and narcosis were characteristic of the bivalves. Exposed urchins displayed a functional loss of tube foot and spine behaviour. Detailed hydrocarbon analysis indicated different uptake dynamics among the species. The effects of dispersed oil were immediate and short lived and resulted in temporary accumulation of hydrocarbons. Depuration of these stored hydrocarbons occurred during the experimental recovery period. In vivo biodegradation of hydrocarbons was indicated in the bivalves. Physiological parameters measured in bivalves exposed to oil included elements of scope for growth, activity of aspartate aminotransferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Dose-response relationships between physiological rates and hydrocarbon body burden were apparent.

  1. Simulating oil droplet dispersal from the Deepwater Horizon spill with a Lagrangian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Elizabeth W.; Schlag, Zachary; Adams, E. Eric; Sherwood, Christopher R.; He, Ruoying; Hyun, Hoon; Socolofsky, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    An analytical multiphase plume model, combined with time-varying flow and hydrographic fields generated by the 3-D South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico model (SABGOM) hydrodynamic model, were used as input to a Lagrangian transport model (LTRANS), to simulate transport of oil droplets dispersed at depth from the recent Deepwater Horizon MC 252 oil spill. The plume model predicts a stratification-dominated near field, in which small oil droplets detrain from the central plume containing faster rising large oil droplets and gas bubbles and become trapped by density stratification. Simulated intrusion (trap) heights of ∼ 310–370 m agree well with the midrange of conductivity-temperature-depth observations, though the simulated variation in trap height was lower than observed, presumably in part due to unresolved variability in source composition (percentage oil versus gas) and location (multiple leaks during first half of spill). Simulated droplet trajectories by the SABGOM-LTRANS modeling system showed that droplets with diameters between 10 and 50 μm formed a distinct subsurface plume, which was transported horizontally and remained in the subsurface for >1 month. In contrast, droplets with diameters ≥90 μm rose rapidly to the surface. Simulated trajectories of droplets ≤50 μm in diameter were found to be consistent with field observations of a southwest-tending subsurface plume in late June 2010 reported by Camilli et al. [2010]. Model results suggest that the subsurface plume looped around to the east, with potential subsurface oil transport to the northeast and southeast. Ongoing work is focusing on adding degradation processes to the model to constrain droplet dispersal.

  2. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  3. Impact of PCB-118 and transformer oil toxicity on anaerobic digestion of sludge: anaerobic toxicity assay results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Devrim; Imamoglu, Ipek; Dilek Sanin, F

    2013-08-01

    In this study, possible toxicity of increasing doses of PCB-118 and transformer oil (TO) on anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated. For this purpose, five different sets of reactors were prepared in which four different PCB-118 concentration (1, 10, 20, and 30mgL(-1)) and three different TO concentration (0.38, 0.76, and 1.52gL(-1)) were applied. Throughout the study, biogas production and composition, pH, TS, VS, and COD as well as PCB concentration were monitored. Toxicity was investigated by anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) evaluating the reduction in methane production. A notable inhibition was observed mostly in 30mgL(-1) PCB reactors. A negative influence of PCB-118 and TO was observed on COD and solids removal. A maximum of 26.5% PCB-118 removal was attained.

  4. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides Essential Oil and Its Constituent Compounds towards Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhi Liu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The screening of several Chinese medicinal plants for insecticidal principles showed that essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides flowering aerial parts possessed significant toxicity against maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. A total of 37 components were identified in the essential oil and the main constituents of the essential oil were 4-phenyl-2-butanone (27.22%, nerolidol (8.08%, 1,4-cineole (7.85%, caryophyllene (7.63% and γ-elemene (6.10%, followed by α-farnesene (4.40% and spathulenol (4.19%. Repeated bioactivity-directed chromatographic separation on silica gel columns led us to isolate three compounds, namely 4-phenyl-2-butanone, 1,4-cineole, and nerolidol. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone shows pronounced contact toxicity against S. zeamais (LD50 = 6.98 mg/adult and was more toxic than either 1,4-cineole or nerolidol (LD50 = 50.86 mg/adult and 29.30 mg/adult, respectively against the maize weevils, while the crude essential oil had a LD50 value of 11.67 mg/adult. 4-Phenyl-2-butanone and 1,4-cineole also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against the adults of S. zeamais (LC50 = 3.80 mg/L and 21.43 mg/L while the crude essential oil had a LC50 value of 9.66 mg/L.

  5. Mineral oil and aliphatic alcohols: toxicity and analysis of synergistic effects on German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, S R; O'Brien, T E

    2011-10-01

    Two mineral oils and 12 linear primary alcohols were studied, alone and in combination, to determine their contact toxicity to adult German cockroaches, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). The more toxic oil, PD23 (LD50 = 1.45 mg per cockroach) was used for combination studies. Alcohols with carbon chain lengths of C3 and C8 through C12 were the most toxic, with LD50 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 mg. C1 (methanol) and C14 (1-tetradecanol) were least toxic, with LD50 values of 2.35 and 1.75 mg, respectively. Eight of the 12 combinations of a nonlethal dose of PD23 oil with an LD10 dose of alcohol produced significantly greater mortality than predicted under the assumption of additive effects. A sample of five synergistic oil + alcohol combinations, covering most of the alcohol carbon chain length range over which synergy occurred, was further studied by calculating LD50 values for three fixed mixture ratios (80:20, 50:50, and 20:80) of each combination. Results were analyzed using both graphical techniques (isobole analysis) and by nonlinear regression. At least one, but not necessarily all, of the three fixed ratio combinations of each oil + alcohol pairing indicated synergy. The conclusions drawn from the isobole and regression analyses were consistent.

  6. Nanocapsules Containing Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Oil: Development, Characterization, And Toxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquoto-Stigliani, Tatiane; Campos, Estefânia V R; Oliveira, Jhones L; Silva, Camila M G; Bilesky-José, Natalia; Guilger, Mariana; Troost, Johann; Oliveira, Halley C; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo F; de Lima, Renata

    2017-07-19

    In this study, we prepared, characterized, and performed toxicity analyses of poly(ε-caprolactone) nanocapsules loaded with neem oil. Three formulations were prepared by the emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The nanocapsules showed a mean size distribution around 400 nm, with polydispersity below 0.2 and were stable for 120 days. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity results showed an increase in toxicity of the oleic acid + neem formulations according to the amount of oleic acid used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations demonstrated that all the formulations containing neem oil were active. The nanocapsules containing neem oil did not affect the soil microbiota during 300 days of exposure compared to the control. Phytotoxicity studies indicated that NC_20 (200 mg of neem oil) did not affect the net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of maize plants, whereas use of NC_10 (100:100 of neem:oleic acid) and NC_15 (150:50 of neem:oleic acid) led to negative effects on these physiological parameters. Hence, the use of oleic acid as a complement in the nanocapsules was not a good strategy, since the nanocapsules that only contained neem oil showed lower toxicity. These results demonstrate that evaluation of the toxicity of nanopesticides is essential for the development of environmentally friendly formulations intended for applications in agriculture.

  7. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed titanium dioxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Yukiko, E-mail: y-yoshiura@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Oyabu, Takako [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Hashiba, Masayoshi; Kambara, Tatsunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Mizuguchi, Yohei; Lee, Byeong Woo; Okada, Takami [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Tomonaga, Taisuke [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan); Myojo, Toshihiko [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Horie, Masanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Health Research Institute (HRI) (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Morimoto, Yasuo [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Department of Occupational Pneumology, Institute of Industrial Ecological Science (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    In order to investigate the pulmonary toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles, we performed an intratracheal instillation study with rats of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and examined the pulmonary inflammation and histopathological changes in the lung. Wistar Hannover rats were intratracheally administered 0.2 mg (0.66 mg/kg) and 1.0 mg (3.3 mg/kg) of well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (P90; diameter of agglomerates: 25 nm), then the pulmonary inflammation responses were examined from 3 days to 6 months after the instillation, and the pathological features were examined up to 24 months. Transient inflammation and the upregulation of chemokines in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid were observed for 1 month. No respiratory tumors or severe fibrosis were observed during the recovery time. These data suggest that transient inflammation induced by TiO{sub 2} may not lead to chronic, irreversible legions in the lung, and that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles may not have a high potential for lung disorder.

  8. Toxicity and antitumor efficacy of Croton polyandrus oil against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah R.P. Meireles

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The essential oil from Croton polyandrus Spreng., Euphorbiaceae, leaves was tested for the toxicity and antitumor activity. The concentration producing 50% hemolysis was 141 µg/ml on mice erythrocytes. In the acute toxicological study, the estimated LD50 was 447.18 mg/kg. The essential oil did not induce increase in number of micronucleated erythrocytes, suggesting low genotoxicity. Essential oil (100 or 150 mg/kg showed significant antitumor activity in Ehrlich ascitic carcinoma model. We observed that essential oil induces cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, and increases the sub-G1 peak, which represents a marker of cell death by apoptosis. Survival also increased for the treated animals. The toxicological analyses revealed reduction in body weight, increased aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activity, hematological changes, and a thymus index reduction. These data suggest gastrointestinal and liver toxicity, anemia, leukopenia/lymphocytopenia, and immunosuppressive effects. Histopathological analysis revealed the weak hepatotoxicity of essential oil. In summary, essential oil of C. polyandrus displays in vivo antitumor activity and moderate toxicity.

  9. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  10. Comparative Laboratory-Scale Testing of Dispersant Effectiveness of 23 Crude Oils Using Four Different Testing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled laboratory study was conducted to measure the dispersion effectiveness of Corexit 9500 on 20 different crude oils. This study was a part of a larger project initiated by the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) testing 20 oils to compare the predict...

  11. Response of the bacterial community in oil-contaminated marine water to the addition of chemical and biological dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Almeida Couto, Camila Rattes; Jurelevicius, Diogo de Azevedo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    The use of dispersants in different stages of the oil production chain and for the remediation of water and soil is a well established practice. However, the choice for a chemical or biological dispersant is still a controversial subject. Chemical surfactants that persist long in the environment may

  12. Neurologic outcomes of toxic oil syndrome patients 18 years after the epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Paz, Manuel Posada; Philen, Rossanne M; Gerr, Fredric; Letz, Richard; Ferrari Arroyo, Maria José; Vela, Lydia; Izquierdo, Maravillas; Arribas, Concepción Martín; Borda, Ignacio Abaitua; Ramos, Alejandro; Mora, Cristina; Matesanz, Gloria; Roldán, Maria Teresa; Pareja, Juan

    2003-08-01

    Toxic oil syndrome (TOS) resulted from consumption of rapeseed oil denatured with 2% aniline and affected more than 20,000 persons. Eighteen years after the epidemic, many patients continue to report neurologic symptoms that are difficult to evaluate using conventional techniques. We conducted an epidemiologic study to determine whether an exposure to toxic oil 18 years ago was associated with current adverse neurobehavioral effects. We studied a case group of 80 adults exposed to toxic oil 18 years ago and a referent group of 79 adult age- and sex-frequency-matched unexposed subjects. We interviewed subjects for demographics, health status, exposures to neurotoxicants, and responses to the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT), Programa Integrado de Exploracion Neuropsicologica (PIEN), and Goldberg depression questionnaires and administered quantitative neurobehavioral and neurophysiologic tests by computer or trained nurses. The groups did not differ with respect to educational background or other critical variables. We examined associations between case and referent groups and the neurobehavioral and neurophysiologic outcomes of interest. Decreased distal strength of the dominant and nondominant hands and increased vibrotactile thresholds of the fingers and toes were significantly associated with exposure to toxic oil. Finger tapping, simple reaction time latency, sequence B latency, symbol digit latency, and auditory digit span were also significantly associated with exposure. Case subjects also had statistically significantly more neuropsychologic symptoms compared with referents. Using quantitative neurologic tests, we found significant adverse central and peripheral neurologic effects in a group of TOS patients 18 years after exposure to toxic oil when compared with a nonexposed referent group. These effects were not documented by standard clinical examination and were found more frequently in women.

  13. Effects of crude oil and oil/dispersant mixture on growth and expression of vitellogenin and heat shock protein 90 in blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Susan C; Taylor, Caz M

    2017-06-30

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) resulted in over 780million liters of crude oil spilling into Gulf waters. In an effort to disperse the oil, nearly 7.6million liters of dispersant was applied. Many commercially and recreationally important species reside in or near the area of the spill. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, is common in the NGOM and is both economically and ecologically important in this region. In this study, after exposing juvenile blue crabs to oil or a mixture of oil and dispersant we tested for relative expression of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and vitellogenin (vtg) by measuring their corresponding mRNA expression. We also monitored crabs over two molts to test for effects on growth. Expression of hsp90 was significantly downregulated, and we did not detect any effects of exposure to oil or oil/dispersant mixture on growth or vtg expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contact toxicity and repellency of the essential oil from Mentha haplocalyx Briq. against Lasioderma serricorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Su, Yang; Wang, Ying; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Mentha haplocalyx was investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In sum, 23 components, representing 92.88% of the total oil composition, were identified, and the main compounds were found to be menthol (59.71%), menthyl acetate (7.83%), limonene (6.98%), and menthone (4.44%). By bioassay-guided fractionation (contact toxicity), three compounds were obtained from the essential oil and identified as menthol, menthyl acetate, and limonene. The essential oil and the three isolated compounds exhibited potent contact toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults, with LD50 values of 16.5, 7.91, 5.96, and 13.7 μg/adult, respectively. Moreover, the oil and its isolated compounds also exhibited strong repellency against L. serricorne adults. At the lower concentrations tested and at 2 h after exposure, menthol showed even significantly stronger repellency than the positive control DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components, which indicates that the M. haplocalyx oil and its isolated compounds have potential for the development as natural insecticides and/or repellents to control insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  15. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  16. Biodegradation of dispersed Macondo crude oil by indigenous Gulf of Mexico microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian; Sandoval, Kathia; Ding, Yan [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Stoeckel, Donald; Minard-Smith, Angela [Battelle 505 King Ave, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States); Andersen, Gary; Dubinsky, Eric A. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Atlas, Ronald [Department of Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Gardinali, Piero, E-mail: gardinal@fiu.edu [Southeaest Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, North Miami Beach, FL 33181 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Because of the extreme conditions of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) release (turbulent flow at 1500 m depth and 5 °C water temperature) and the sub-surface application of dispersant, small but neutrally buoyant oil droplets < 70 μm were formed, remained in the water column and were subjected to in-situ biodegradation processes. In order to investigate the biodegradation of Macondo oil components during the release, we designed and performed an experiment to evaluate the interactions of the indigenous microbial communities present in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) with oil droplets of two representative sizes (10 μm and 30 μm median volume diameter) created with Macondo source oil in the presence of Corexit 9500 using natural seawater collected at the depth of 1100–1300 m in the vicinity of the DWH wellhead. The evolution of the oil was followed in the dark and at 5 °C for 64 days by collecting sacrificial water samples at fixed intervals and analyzing them for a wide range of chemical and biological parameters including volatile components, saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, dispersant markers, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, microbial cell counts and microbial population dynamics. A one phase exponential decay from a plateau model was used to calculate degradation rates and lag times for more than 150 individual oil components. Calculations were normalized to a conserved petroleum biomarker (30αβ-hopane). Half-lives ranged from about 3 days for easily degradable compounds to about 60 days for higher molecular weight aromatics. Rapid degradation was observed for BTEX, 2–3 ring PAHs, and n-alkanes below n-C23. The results in this experimental study showed good agreement with the n-alkane (n-C13 to n-C26) half-lives (0.6–9.5 days) previously reported for the Deepwater Horizon plume samples and other laboratory studies with chemically dispersed Macondo oil conducted at low temperatures (< 8 °C). The responses of the microbial populations also

  17. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes.

  18. Genotoxic potential and heart rate disorders in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to Superdispersant-25 and dispersed diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinović, Rajko; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Kostić, Jovana; Marković, Sandra; Gačić, Zoran; Kljajić, Zoran; Vuković-Gačić, Branka

    2015-07-01

    The effects of ex situ exposure of Mytilus galloprovincialis to Superdispersant-25 (S-25), diesel oil and dispersed diesel oil mixtures were studied by the impact on level of DNA damage in haemocytes (comet assay) and the cardiac activity patterns of mussels. Specimens were exposed for 72 h in a static system to diesel oil (100 μL/L and 1 mL/L), S-25 (5 and 50 μL/L), and dispersed diesel oil mixtures M1 (diesel oil 100 μL/L + S-25 5 μL/L) and M2 (diesel oil 1 mL/L + S-25 50 μL/L). For positive control 40 μM CdCl2 was used. The comet assay results indicated genotoxic potential of S-25 while the effects of diesel oil alone were not observed. The highest response was detected for M1 while the effects of M2 were not detected. The heart rate disorders were recorded for the diesel oil (1 mL/L), S-25 (50 μL/L) and both dispersed diesel oil mixtures.

  19. Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clobert, J.; Danchin, E.; Dhondt, A.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of species to migrate and disperse is a trait that has interested ecologists for many years. Now that so many species and ecosystems face major environmental threats from habitat fragmentation and global climate change, the ability of species to adapt to these changes by dispersing, migrating, or moving between patches of habitat can be crucial to ensuring their survival. This book provides a timely and wide-ranging overview of the study of dispersal and incorporates much of the latest research. The causes, mechanisms, and consequences of dispersal at the individual, population, species and community levels are considered. The potential of new techniques and models for studying dispersal, drawn from molecular biology and demography, is also explored. Perspectives and insights are offered from the fields of evolution, conservation biology and genetics. Throughout the book, theoretical approaches are combined with empirical data, and care has been taken to include examples from as wide a range of species as possible.

  20. Chronic effects of non-weathered and weathered crude oil and dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident on development of larvae of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Chris J; Stefansson, Emily S; Pargee, Suzanne M; Blunt, Susanna M; Gage, Susan J; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of chronic exposure of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) larvae to the water-accommodated fractions of fresh and weathered oils collected from the Deepwater Horizon incident, with and without additions of the dispersant Corexit 9500A, as well as to solutions of Corexit alone. Both shell growth of larvae exposed to test materials for a period of 10 d and larval settlement after 28 d of exposure were the most sensitive endpoints, with the 10-d growth endpoint being less variable among replicates. Growth and settlement endpoints were more sensitive than larval survival and normal development after 10 d and 28 d. Acute-to-chronic ratios calculated in the present study suggest that acute toxicities of oils and dispersant for oysters are not predictive of chronic effect levels for growth and settlement; therefore, chronic bioassays are necessary to assess these sublethal effects, in addition to standard 48-h acute toxicity tests. Comparison of 10% effective concentration (EC10) values for chronic 10-d growth and 28-d settlement endpoints with concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (a marker for Corexit) in seawater samples, collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, indicated it was unlikely that elevated concentrations of water-soluble fractions of oil and dispersant in the nearshore environment had significant adverse effects on the growth and settlement of eastern oyster larvae. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2029-2040. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Stanzer, K.; Stenzel, S.

    2009-04-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. Uncertainties in the meteorological input together with incorrect estimates of the source play a critical role for the model results. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program at the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. This presentation gives a short introduction to the project and presents the results of task 1 (meteorological input). The results of task 2 are presented by Stenzel and Baumann-Stanzer in this session. For the aim of this project, the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) was used. INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis) data were calculated with 1 km horizontal resolution and

  2. [Toxic mustard plaster dematitis and phototoxic dematitis after application of bergamot oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenseel, P; Woitalla, S

    2005-12-15

    Two cases that illustrate the risks attendant on the therapeutic use of natural medications by laypersons are reported. In the first case, the application of a mustard plaster triggered toxic dermatitis. In the second case, a session in a solarium after the external application of bergamot oil resulted in a phototoxic reaction.

  3. Deterrency and Toxicity of Essential Oils to Argentine and Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory assays were conducted to evaluate deterrency and contact toxicity of six essential oils to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In choice tests, both Argentine ants and fire ants crossed barriers treated with multiple rates...

  4. Peppermint Oil Promotes Hair Growth without Toxic Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Young; Park, Min Ah; Kim, Young Chul

    2014-12-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. This plant also has been used in cosmetic formulations as a fragrance component and skin conditioning agent. This study investigated the effect of peppermint oil on hair growth in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were randomized into 4 groups based on different topical applications: saline (SA), jojoba oil (JO), 3% minoxidil (MXD), and 3% peppermint oil (PEO). The hair growth effects of the 4-week topical applications were evaluated in terms of hair growth, histological analysis, enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), known bio-markers for the enhanced hair growth. Of the 4 experimental groups, PEO group showed the most prominent hair growth effects; a significant increase in dermal thickness, follicle number, and follicle depth. ALP activity and IGF-1 expression also significantly increased in PEO group. Body weight gain and food efficiency were not significantly different between groups. These results suggest that PEO induces a rapid anagen stage and could be used for a practical agent for hair growth without change of body weight gain and food efficiency.

  5. Preparation of low toxicity pitches by thermal oxidative condensation of anthracene oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Patricia; Granda, Marcos; Sutil, Juan; Santamaría, Ricardo; Blanco, Clara; Menéndez, Rosa; José Fernández, Juan; Viña, José Antonio

    2009-11-01

    This article describes a novel industrial procedure for producing new pitches of low toxicity from anthracene oil, a byproduct of coal tar distillation. The procedure involves oxidative treatment in order to polymerize and condense the anthracene oil components followed by thermal treatment and distillation in order to obtain a pitch with the desired parameters. This sequence (oxidative treatment/thermal treatment/distillation) was repeated four times under reaction conditions of increasing severity in four cycles of anthracene oil processing to obtain the four pitches. The pitches had similar characteristics to those of standard binder coal tar pitches (e.g., softening point and wetting capacity). Because of the inherent composition of the parent anthracene oil, the pitches were found to be totally free of solid particles, i.e., primary quinoline insolubles and metals. The gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy results revealed a consecutive decrease in toxicity with successive cycles of anthracene oil processing. Thus, the benzo[a]pyrene content decreased from 11.2 mg/g for the pitch in cycle one to 1.5 mg/g for the pitch with four processing cycles. The carcinogenicity of the pitches, evaluated on the basis of benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalency factors, also followed the same tendency. The final carcinogenity values are nearly all lower than those of standard binder coal tar pitches.

  6. Nitrogen-based copolymers as wax dispersants for paraffinic gas oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gamal, I.M.; Khidr, T.T.; Ghuiba, F.M. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    1998-04-01

    n-Alkyl acrylates and n-alkyl methacrylates were prepared by esterification of acrylic and methacrylic acids with two linear long chain alcohol blends NAFOL 1822 and NAFOL 1822C. The four synthesized monomers were characterized and copolymerized with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio individually. The prepared copolymers were subjected to partial amidation with n-hexadecylamine. The amidated copolymers were purified, characterized, and then evaluated as wax dispersant flow improvers for improving the cold flow properties of a highly paraffinic gas oil G1 through cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and pour point (PP) tests. NAFOL 1822C methacrylate-n-hexadecylamine maleamic acid copolymer has achieved the highest CFPP and PP depression. Consequently, NAFOL 1822C methacrylate monomer was selected for further copolymerization with maleic anhydride in a molar ratio 1:4, respectively. The prepared copolymers were then submitted to partial and complete amidation with n-hexadecylamine, ditallowamine, tetraethylenepentamine and morpholine successively. In addition, combined esterification and amidation of the copolymer with NAFOL 1822C and morpholine, respectively, was carried out. Evaluation of the synthesized products as WDFIs in a less paraffinic gas oil G2 revealed that nitrogen and/or oxygen based functional groups of the copolymers are controlling parameters judging their dispersing effect and that NAFOL 1822C methacrylate-n-morpholine amide of NAFOL 1822C maleate copolymer has attained the optimum performance. Results also showed that no correlation is found between gas oil flowability improvements ({Delta}PP) and filterability amelioration ({Delta}CFPP). Stability of performance of the prepared additives as wax dispersants lasted for four weeks while for two weeks only as flow improvers. 18 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Carcinogenic effects of oil dispersants: A KEGG pathway-based RNA-seq study of human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Zhong; Zhang, Lei; Roy-Engel, Astrid M; Saito, Shigeki; Lasky, Joseph A; Wang, Guangdi; Wang, He

    2017-02-20

    The health impacts of the BP oil spill are yet to be further revealed as the toxicological effects of oil products and dispersants on human respiratory system may be latent and complex, and hence difficult to study and follow up. Here we performed RNA-seq analyses of a system of human airway epithelial cells treated with the BP crude oil and/or dispersants Corexit 9500 and Corexit 9527 that were used to help break up the oil spill. Based on the RNA-seq data, we then systemically analyzed the transcriptomic perturbations of the cells at the KEGG pathway level using two pathway-based analysis tools, GAGE (generally applicable gene set enrichment) and GSNCA (Gene Sets Net Correlations Analysis). Our results suggested a pattern of change towards carcinogenesis for the treated cells marked by upregulation of ribosomal biosynthesis (hsa03008) (p=1.97E-13), protein processing (hsa04141) (p=4.09E-7), Wnt signaling (hsa04310) (p=6.76E-3), neurotrophin signaling (hsa04722) (p=7.73E-3) and insulin signaling (hsa04910) (p=1.16E-2) pathways under the dispersant Corexit 9527 treatment, as identified by GAGE analysis. Furthermore, through GSNCA analysis, we identified gene co-expression changes for several KEGG cancer pathways, including small cell lung cancer pathway (hsa05222, p=9.99E-5), under various treatments of oil/dispersant, especially the mixture of oil and Corexit 9527. Overall, our results suggested carcinogenic effects of dispersants (in particular Corexit 9527) and their mixtures with the BP crude oil, and provided further support for more stringent safety precautions and regulations for operations involving long-term respiratory exposure to oil and dispersants.

  8. RELATIVE TOXICITY OF MUSTARD ESSENTIAL OIL TO INSECT-PESTS OF STORED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADALBERTO HIPÓLITO SOUSA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative toxicity of the mustard (Brassica rapa L. essential oil (MEO on young and old larvae, pupae, and adults of Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus was determined using concen- tration-response bioassays. The respiration rate of adults was measured to determine its influence on its toxic- ity. Different developmental stages of both species differed significantly in their response to MEO, with the adults being much more susceptible than the immature stages. Although adult mortality did not differ between species, the adult respiration rate of C. maculatus was significantly higher than that of S. zeamais. Thus, the toxicity oil for adults was not influenced by natural respiration rate of species investigated.

  9. Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2009-05-26

    With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides to manage the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) in laying hen flocks are increasingly needed. These mites may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and even death of hens. It may be possible to use plant-derived products as D. gallinae repellents, especially if such products have a minimal impact on non-target organisms. An experiment was conducted with D. gallinae to assess the repellence of a range of plant essential oils, previously found to be of varying toxicity (relatively highly toxic to non-toxic) to this pest. Experiments were also undertaken to assess the toxicity of these products to mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor L.), a non-target invertebrate typical of poultry production systems. Results showed that all seven essential oils tested (manuka, thyme, palmarosa, caraway, spearmint, black pepper and juniper leaf) were repellent to D. gallinae at 0.14mg oil/cm(3) (initial concentration) during the first 2 days of study. Thyme essential oil appeared to be the most effective, where repellence lasted until the end of the study period (13 days). At the same concentration toxicity to T. molitor differed, with essential oils of palmarosa and manuka being no more toxic to adult beetles than the control. There was neither a significant association between the rank toxicity and repellence of oils to D. gallinae, nor the toxicity of oils to D. gallinae (as previously determined) and T. molitor.

  10. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Masran SITINOR AIN; Baharuddin OMAR; Izatus Shima TAIB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache,fever,and stomach ulcer,and has also been used as an insect repellent.The acute and subacute toxicities of L.el/iptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats.For the acute toxicity study,L.e//iptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose),and in the subacute toxicity test,the following doses were used:125,250,and 500 mg/kg,for 28 consecutive days.In the acute toxicity study,L.elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality.The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg.The subacute toxicity study of L.elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight,and food and water consumptions.The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined,except for the hemoglobin,mean cell hemoglobin concentration,mean cell volume,mean cell hemoglobin,serum albumin,and serum sodium.However,these differences were still within the normal range.No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver,pancreatic islet of Langerhans,and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups.In conclusion,L.el/iptica essential oil can be classified in the U group,which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

  11. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - utility for the fire brigades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-09-01

    Several air dispersion models are available for prediction and simulation of the hazard areas associated with accidental releases of toxic gases. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for effective presentation of results. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios”), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Viennese fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and Synex Ries & Greßlehner GmbH. RETOMOD was funded by the KIRAS safety research program of the Austrian Ministry of Transport, Innovation and Technology (www.kiras.at). The main tasks of this project were 1. Sensitivity study and optimization of the meteorological input for modeling of the hazard areas (human exposure) during the accidental toxic releases. 2. Comparison of several model packages (based on reference scenarios) in order to estimate the utility for the fire brigades. For the purpose of our study the following models were tested and compared: ALOHA (Areal Location of Hazardous atmosphere, EPA), MEMPLEX (Keudel av-Technik GmbH), Trace (Safer System), Breeze (Trinity Consulting), SAM (Engineering office Lohmeyer). A set of reference scenarios for Chlorine, Ammoniac, Butane and Petrol were proceed, with the models above, in order to predict and estimate the human exposure during the event. Furthermore, the application of the observation-based analysis and forecasting system INCA, developed in the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in case of toxic release was

  12. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  13. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  14. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  15. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda.

  16. Modeling dispersion from toxic gas released after a train collision in Graniteville, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Robert L; Hunter, Charles H; Addis, Robert P; Parker, Matthew J

    2007-03-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Weather Information and Display System was used to provide meteorological and atmospheric modeling/consequence assessment support to state and local agencies after the collision of two Norfolk Southern freight trains on the morning of January 6, 2005. This collision resulted in the release of several toxic chemicals to the environment, including chlorine. The dense and highly toxic cloud of chlorine gas that formed in the vicinity of the accident was responsible for 9 fatalities and caused injuries to more than 500 others. Transport model results depicting the forecast path of the ongoing release were made available to emergency managers in the county's Unified Command Center shortly after SRNL received a request for assistance. Support continued over the ensuing 2 days of the active response. The SRNL also provided weather briefings and transport/consequence assessment model results to responders from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, the Savannah River Site (SRS) Emergency Operations Center, Department of Energy headquarters, and hazard material teams dispatched from the SRS. Operational model-generated forecast winds used in consequence assessments conducted during the incident were provided at 2-km horizontal grid spacing during the accident response. High-resolution Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, version 4.3.0) simulation was later performed to examine potential influences of local topography on plume migration in greater detail. The detailed RAMS simulation was used to determine meteorology using multiple grids with an innermost grid spacing of 125 m. Results from the two simulations are shown to generally agree with meteorological observations at the time; consequently, local topography did not significantly affect wind in the area. Use of a dense gas dispersion model to simulate localized plume behavior using the higher-resolution winds indicated agreement with

  17. Gamma radiation process for destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (Pcbs) in transformer oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Nayak, Poonam; Niyogi, U K; Khandal, R K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals commercially used worldwide in many applications. PCBs were used in oils because of their excellent properties such as good thermal stability, flame resistance, dielectric constant, high break down voltage, high boiling point and low volatility. However, because of their adverse affects on environment and human health, the use of PCBs has been banned now. PCBs are today considered among the widespread pollutants in the global system. PCBs sources still exist in various industrial products and in waste streams such as capacitor oils, lubricating oils, transformer oils, hydraulic oils, paints, rubbers, cables, etc. Several such materials containing PCBs emanating from various sources need to be detoxified before their reuse or before going to landfill for final disposal. Various remedial technologies have been developed in the world to destroy toxic PCBs. The radiolysis has been investigated as an environment-friendly process for waste oil treatment contaminated with PCBs, which may be a better alternative to the globally most widely accepted incineration method. A study was undertaken to detoxify PCBs in transformer oil by gamma radiation using Cobalt 60 source. Analysis of PCBs in transformer oils before and after radiation was carried out by GC-MS instrument. The effect of radiation dose and destruction of PCBs in transformer oils are discussed in details in the present paper. The method used was found to be highly effective and destruction was as high as 79 %. Further, the transformer oil samples were also evaluated before and after radiation to check their quality. The properties of oils were not significantly altered by gamma radiation treatment as evident from the results given in the paper.

  18. Predicting the Toxicity of Oil-shale Industry Wastewater by its Phenolic Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, A; Põllumaa, L; Reiman, R; Rätsep, A

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition and toxicity of five phenolic wastewater samples collected from the Kohtla-Järve (Estonia) oil-shale industry region were analysed. The total phenolic contents (HPLC data) of these samples ranged from 0.7mg/l to 195mg/l. A total of 11 phenolic compounds were found in the wastewater samples, the most abundant being phenol (up to 84mg/l) and p-cresol (up to 74mg/l). Artificial phenolic mixtures were also composed, to mimic the content of phenolic compounds in the wastewater samples. The theoretical toxicities of these artificial mixtures were calculated by using the toxicities of the individual phenolic constituents to photobacteria (the BioTox™ test) and were assumed to have an additive mode of action. From the BioTox data, the additive toxic effects of phenolic compounds in the artificial mixtures were confirmed to be highly probable. The toxicities of the wastewater samples and their artificial phenolic analogues (mixtures) were studied by using a battery of Toxkit microbiotests (Daphtoxkit F™ magna, Thamnotoxkit F™, Protoxkit F™ and Rotoxkit F™) and three photobacterial tests (Microtox™, BioTox™ and Vibrio fischeri 1500). The wastewaters were classified as toxic (two samples), very toxic (two samples) and extremely toxic (one sample). Comparison of the test battery responses showed that the industrial wastewaters were 2-28-fold more toxic than the respective artificial phenolic mixtures. The photobacterial tests proved to be the most appropriate for screening purposes. This was the first attempt to use a test battery approach in the toxicity testing of Estonian wastewaters. The study showed that the toxicity of oil-shale industry wastewaters could not be predicted solely on the basis of their phenolic composition, since only 7-50% of their toxicity was shown to be due to phenolic compounds. It is true, to a certain extent, that the majority of environmental samples are usually very complex and contain various types of

  19. Quantifying oil degradation processes by flow, microbes and dispersant using digital holographic interferometry and micro-bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jian; Jalali, Maryam; Brock, Larry

    2016-11-01

    The unceasing demand of hydrocarbons has led and will lead to the future events of releasing crude into marine environment like Deep Horizon oil spill. The burning question to scientific community after the spill was the fate of oil spill especially with high concentration of dispersant. It is found that various physical processes such as wind, wave, turbulence, compounded with dispersants, break oil into suspension of micro-droplets. It is widely accepted that dispersant reduces interfacial tension and results in increased surface to volume ratio and subsequently improve biodegradation. Due to complexity of oil composition, key mechanisms differ substantially from well-studied laboratory system, especially in the presence of other environmental factors such as flow shear and microbes. To investigate these mechanisms at oil water interface qualitatively, we have developed a micro-bioassay consisting of microfluidics with a substrate printed with oil droplet array and a digital holographic interferometer (DHI). The degradation of micro-droplets is evaluated with the change of shape and volume measured in real time by DHI at a 2-minute interval over 100 hours. Time resolved experiments are performed to study effects of droplet size, dispersant concentrations, flow shear, and different bacteria species on the rate of degradation. The details on the rate and mechanisms will be provided in the talk.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 300 - Swirling Flask Dispersant Effectiveness Test, Revised Standard Dispersant Toxicity Test, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). Method blanks are analyzed with a frequency of at least 1 for every 12 experimental swirling flask... Table 14Pairwise Protected LSD Mean Separation 1.0Introduction 1.1Scope and Application. The methods... used for testing bioremediation agents only. 1.2Definitions. The definitions of dispersants,...

  1. Toxic effects of carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole from essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides on mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Stamberg, Werner; Staniek, Katrin; Gille, Lars

    2009-11-01

    Chenopodium ambrosioides have been used for centuries in the Americas as a popular remedy for parasitic diseases. The essential oil of this plant possesses anthelmintic activity and is still used in some regions to treat parasitosis and leishmaniasis. However, the Chenopodium oil caused also some fatalities, leading to its commercial disuse. In this work, we studied the mechanism of toxicity of the essential oil and its major pure ingredients (carvacrol, caryophyllene oxide, and ascaridole, which was synthesized from alpha-terpinene) with respect to mammalian cells and mitochondria. We observed that all products, but especially caryophyllene oxide, inhibited the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This effect for carvacrol and caryophyllene oxide was mediated via direct complex I inhibition. Without Fe2+, ascaridole was less toxic to mammalian mitochondria than other major ingredients. However, evidence on the formation of carbon-centered radicals in the presence of Fe2+ was obtained by ESR spin-trapping. Furthermore, it was shown that Fe2+ potentiated the toxicity of ascaridole on oxidative phosphorylation of rat liver mitochondria. The increase of the alpha-tocopherol quinone/alpha-tocopherol ratio under these conditions indicated the initiation of lipid peroxidation by Fe2+-mediated ascaridole cleavage. Further ESR spin-trapping experiments demonstrated that in addition to Fe2+, reduced hemin, but not mitochondrial cytochrome c can activate ascaridole, explaining why ascaridole in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice exhibited a higher toxicity than in isolated mitochondria.

  2. One-generation reproductive toxicity study of DHA-rich oil in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, René; Kiy, Thomas; Waalkens-Berendsen, Ine; Wong, Andrea W; Roberts, Ashley

    2007-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are natural constituents of the human diet. DHA-algal oil is produced through the use of the marine protist, Ulkenia sp. The reproductive toxicity of DHA-algal oil was assessed in a one-generation study. Rats were provided diets containing DHA-algal oil at concentrations of 1.5, 3.0, or 7.5%, and the control group received a diet containing 7.5% corn oil. Males and females were treated for 10 weeks prior to mating and during mating. Females continued to receive test diets during gestation and lactation. In parental animals, clinical observations, mortality, fertility, and reproductive performance were unaffected by treatment. Differences in food consumption, body weight, and liver weight in the treated groups were not considered to be due to an adverse effect of DHA-algal oil. Spleen weight increases in treated animals were associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis. Yellow discoloration of abdominal adipose tissue was observed in rats from the high-dose group, and histological examination revealed steatitis in all treated parental groups. Exposure to DHA-algal oil did not influence the physical development of F(1) animals. These results demonstrate that DHA-algal oil at dietary concentrations of up to 7.5% in rats does not affect reproductive capacity or pup development.

  3. Dispersion and toxicity of selected manufactured nanomaterials in natural river water samples: effects of water chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Youn, Sejin; Hovsepyan, Anna; Llaneza, Veronica L; Wang, Yu; Bitton, Gabriel; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2009-05-01

    Experimental conditions that mimic likely scenarios of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) introduction to aquatic systems were used to assessthe effect of nanoparticle dispersion/solubility and water chemical composition on MN-toxicity. Aqueous suspensions of fullerenes (C60), nanosilver (nAg), and nanocopper (nCu) were prepared in both deionized water and filtered (0.45 microm) natural river water samples collected from the Suwannee River basin, to emphasize differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and solution ionic strengths (I). Two toxicity tests, the Ceriodaphnia dubia and MetPLATE bioassays were used. Results obtained from exposure studies show that water chemistry affects the suspension/solubility of MNs as well as the particle size distribution, resulting in a wide range of biological responses depending on the type of toxicity test used. Under experimental conditions used in this study, C60 exhibited no toxicity even when suspended concentrations exceeded 3 mg L(-1). MetPLATE results showed that the toxicity of aqueous suspensions of nCu tends to increase with increasing DOC concentrations, while increasing I reduces nCu toxicity. The use of the aquatic invertebrate C. dubia on the other hand showed a tendency for decreased mortality with increasing DOC and I. MetPLATE results for nAg showed decreasing trends in toxicity with increasing DOC concentrations and I. However, C. dubia exhibited contrasting biological responses, in that increasing DOC concentrations reduced toxicity, while the latter increased with increasing I. Overall, our results show that laboratory experiments that use DI-water and drastic MN-suspension methods may not be realistic as MN-dispersion and suspension in natural waters vary significantly with water chemistry and the reactivity of MNs.

  4. Toxicity of neem oil to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C.B Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.-derived pesticides have been used against a wide range of agricultural pests including tetranychid mites. Approaches combining lethal and sublethal toxicity studies of neem pesticides towards tetranychid mites are necessary to a comprehensive evaluation of such products. Here, we evaluated the lethal and sublethal toxicity of the neem oil Bioneem to the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar by integrating lethal concentration (LC with population growth and biological parameter studies. According to Probit analyses the concentration of neem oil Bioneem which kills 50% of the population (LC50 of M. tanajoa was 3.28 ¼L cm-2, which is roughly twice the field concentration recommended of this biopesticide to control pest mites (1.7 ¼L cm-2. The growth rate of the cassava green mite steadily decreased with dosages of neem oil. Furthermore, sublethal concentrations of the neem oil corresponding to the LC50 reduced the periods of the immature stages of M. tanajoa resulting in a shorter developmental time. Similarly, the number of eggs per day and the number of eggs per female per day, a proxy for fecundity, were drastically reduced in M. tanajoa females exposed to the LC50 of neem oil. Based on our comprehensive approach we conclude that the neem oil showed lethal as well as sublethal toxicity on growth rate and biological parameters such as duration of immature stages and fecundity of the cassava green mite M. tanajoa and it could be used as an ecological alternative for the management of this pest.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ upgrading : coupled enhanced oil recovery with in situ upgrading : ultra dispersed catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almao, P.P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Schulich School of Engineering]|[Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presented a research program that demonstrates the use of ultra dispersed (UD) catalysts as a means of improving the economics of oil sands processing. An outline of current processing techniques was provided. In situ upgrading options included the use of solvents, thermal methods, radiation methods, bio-upgrading, and thermo-catalytic methods. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is often combined with in situ upgrading to increase the efficiency of energy use in reservoirs where thermal methods are used. The use of diluents often reduces water usage as well as problems related to contamination and emissions. Recent studies have suggested that vis-breaking (VB) is the lowest investment residual conversion process currently available for in situ processing. UD catalyst formulations can be commercially prepared using nano-particle techniques, and can be used in portable configurations. UD catalysts are known to outperform conventional fixed bed types for both hydrogenation, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Research is currently being conducted at the Alberta Ingenuity Centre for In Situ Energy to examine issues related to particles recycling, deactivation and losses. Permeability studies are also being conducted to examine permeability rates of emulsions and nanoparticles through oil sands porous media. The short term financial rewards of various in situ upgrading technologies were also considered. refs., tabs, figs.

  7. Antidiarrheal activity and acute oral toxicity of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae is an annual herb that is used in the Iranian traditional medicine for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of M. longifolia on experimental diarrhea in a rat model. Materials and Methods: The antidiarrheal activity of essential oil of M. longifolia (20-80 mg/kg was investigated against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats using loperamide as the standard reference drug. In acute toxicity evaluation, rats were orally administrated with single dose of EOML at doses ranging from 10 to 1000 mg/kg. Results: EOML caused a significant (p

  8. FUMIGATION TOXICITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST Rhyzopertha dominica (F. IN STORED MAIZE GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDEANY NÚBIA DE SOUZA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae is a primary pest of stored grains in many regions of the world. In this work we evaluated the fumigant activity of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Citrus aurantium L., Mentha spicata L. and Croton pulegiodorus Baill on adult R. dominica in stored maize. Tests were conducted to determine lethals concentrations (CL50 and CL100 and mortality (fumigation.The fumigation test was done in containers made of glass containing 10 individuals of R. dominica, where essential oils were applied at different concentrations: O. basilicum and M. spicata (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40μL/L of air, C. aurantium (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60μL/L of air and C. pulegiodorus (0, 20, 30, 50, 70 and 90μL/L of air. After 48 hours of exposure to the oils the percentage of insect mortality was evaluated. According to LC50 and LC100 the toxicity of essential oils decreased in the following order: O. basilicum> M. spicata> C. pulegiodorus> C. aurantium. The essential oil of O. basilicum exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against R. dominica adults, with a LC50 value of 17.67 μL/L air and LC100 value of 27.15 μL/ L air. The C. aurantium essential oil required higher concentrations than O. basilicum, M. spicata and C. pulegiodorus to kill insects. However, all oils evaluated presented fumigating property to promote the control of R. dominica and demonstrated potential use in the management of this coleoptera.

  9. Toxicity of essential oil of Satureja khuzistanica: in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-microbial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefzadi, Morteza; Riahi-Madvar, Ali; Hadian, Javad; Rezaee, Fatemeh; Rafiee, Roya; Biniaz, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of the plants by exerting anti-bacterial, -viral, -fungal, -oxidative, -genotoxic, and free radical scavenging properties, as well as in some cases acting as insecticides. Several Satureja species are used in traditional medicine due to recognized therapeutic properties, namely anti-microbial and cytotoxic activities. The purpose of the present work was to determine the biologic activity of the essential oil of S. khuzistanica Jamzad (Lamiaceae) against four human cancer cell lines, as well as its inhibitory effects against a wide array (i.e. n = 11) of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The essential oil was isolated by hydro-distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Carvacrol (92.87%) and limonene (1.2%) were found to be the main components of the isolated oil. Anti-microbial activity of the essential oil was assessed using a disc diffusion method; an MTT cytotoxicity assay was employed to test effects of the oil on each cancer cell line. The oil exhibited considerable anti-microbial activity against the majority of the tested bacteria and fungi. The test oil also significantly reduced cell viability of Vero, SW480, MCF7, and JET 3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with the IC50 values calculated for each cell type being, respectively, 31.2, 62.5, 125, and 125 μg/ml. Based on the findings, it is concluded that the essential oil of S. khuzistanica and its major constituents have a potential for further use in anti-bacterial and anti-cancer applications, pending far more extensive testing of toxicities in normal (i.e. primary) cells.

  10. Virgin coconut oil supplementation ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced systemic toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S S; Manalil, J J; Ramavarma, S K; Suseela, I M; Thekkepatt, A; Raghavamenon, A C

    2016-02-01

    Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is an unrefined kernal oil, prepared from Cocos nucifera L., having substantial nutritional and medicinal value. Experimental studies have suggested its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and hypolipidemic effects. The present study assesses its effect on formalin-induced chronic inflammation and cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced systemic toxicity in murine models. Oral administration of VCO effectively reduced formalin-induced paw oedema in mice with more or less similar efficacy as that of diclofenac. The CTX-induced hike in blood urea, creatinine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and liver marker enzymes in mice was marginally decreased by VCO (8 g/kg body weight) ingestion orally. The liver and kidney catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, together with cellular glutathione and TBARS levels, were found to be improved in these animals. Overall the study reveals the protective efficacy of VCO against secondary toxicity induced by CTX possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail: adrianomariano@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-15

    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  12. Corresponding morphological and molecular indicators of crude oil toxicity to the developing hearts of mahi mahi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Gill, J. A.; Baldwin, David H.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; French, Barbara L.; Brown, Tanya L.; Esbaugh, Andrew J.; Mager, Edward M.; Stieglitz, John; Hoenig, Ron; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Incardona, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Crude oils from distinct geological sources worldwide are toxic to developing fish hearts. When oil spills occur in fish spawning habitats, natural resource injury assessments often rely on conventional morphometric analyses of heart form and function. The extent to which visible indicators correspond to molecular markers for cardiovascular stress is unknown for pelagic predators from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we exposed mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos to field-collected crude oil samples from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. We compared visible heart defects (edema, abnormal looping, reduced contractility) to changes in expression of cardiac-specific genes that are diagnostic of heart failure in humans or associated with loss-of-function zebrafish cardiac mutants. Mahi exposed to crude oil during embryogenesis displayed typical symptoms of cardiogenic syndrome as larvae. Contractility, looping, and circulatory defects were evident, but larval mahi did not exhibit downstream craniofacial and body axis abnormalities. A gradation of oil exposures yielded concentration-responsive changes in morphometric and molecular responses, with relative sensitivity being influenced by age. Our findings suggest that 1) morphometric analyses of cardiac function are more sensitive to proximal effects of crude oil-derived chemicals on the developing heart, and 2) molecular indicators reveal a longer-term adverse shift in cardiogenesis trajectory.

  13. Toxicologic evaluation of DHA-rich algal oil: Genotoxicity, acute and subchronic toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D; Tran, N; Peach, J; Bauter, M; Marone, P

    2012-10-01

    DHA-rich algal oil ONC-T18, tested in a battery of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests, did not show mutagenic or genotoxic potential. The acute oral LD50 in rats has been estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of body weight. In a 90-day subchronic dietary study, administration of DHA-rich algal oil at concentrations of 0, 10,000, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm in the diet for 13 weeks did not produce any significant toxicologic manifestations. The algal oil test article was well tolerated as evidenced by the absence of major treatment-related changes in the general condition and appearance of the rats, neurobehavioral endpoints, growth, feed and water intake, ophthalmoscopic examinations, routine hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, urinalysis, or necropsy findings. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was the highest level fed of 50,000 ppm which is equivalent to 3,305 and 3,679 mg/kg bw/day, for male and female rats, respectively. The studies were conducted as part of an investigation to examine the safety of DHA-rich algal oil. The results confirm that it possesses a toxicity profile similar to other currently marketed algal oils and support the safety of DHA-rich algal oil for its proposed use in food.

  14. Studies on the life span, reproduction, tissue biochemistry and diesel oil toxicity in the estuarine cladocera Diaphanosoma celebensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhuKonkar, S.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    , neonate production, tissue biochemistry and toxicity of diesel oil have been described in the paper. Variations were observed in the life span and rate of neonate production between individuals of the 1 st and 2 nd generations. Both were found...

  15. Coconut oil protects cortical neurons from amyloid beta toxicity by enhancing signaling of cell survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafar, F; Clarke, J P; Mearow, K M

    2017-01-23

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that has links with other conditions that can often be modified by dietary and life-style interventions. In particular, coconut oil has received attention as having potentially having benefits in lessening the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. In a recent report, we showed that neuron survival in cultures co-treated with coconut oil and Aβ was rescued compared to cultures exposed only to Aβ. Here we investigated treatment with Aβ for 1, 6 or 24 h followed by addition of coconut oil for a further 24 h, or treatment with coconut oil for 24 h followed by Aβ exposure for various periods. Neuronal survival and several cellular parameters (cleaved caspase 3, synaptophysin labeling and ROS) were assessed. In addition, the influence of these treatments on relevant signaling pathways was investigated with Western blotting. In terms of the treatment timing, our data indicated that coconut oil rescues cells pre-exposed to Aβ for 1 or 6 h, but is less effective when the pre-exposure has been 24 h. However, pretreatment with coconut oil prior to Aβ exposure showed the best outcomes. Treatment with octanoic or lauric acid also provided protection against Aβ, but was not as effective as the complete oil. The coconut oil treatment reduced the number of cells with cleaved caspase and ROS labeling, as well as rescuing the loss of synaptophysin labeling observed with Aβ treatment. Treatment with coconut oil, as well as octanoic, decanoic and lauric acids, resulted in a modest increase in ketone bodies compared to controls. The biochemical data suggest that Akt and ERK activation may contribute to the survival promoting influence of coconut oil. This was supported by observations that a PI3-Kinase inhibitor blocked the rescue effect of CoOil on Aβ amyloid toxicity. Further studies into the mechanisms of action of coconut oil and its constituent medium chain fatty acids are warranted.

  16. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Kautzman, M.; Wojnarowicz, P.; Cutter, J.; Bird, E.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  17. Effect of Dispersion Method on Stability and Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oil-Based TiO2 Nanofluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yu-Zhen; Li, Chao; Sun, Qian; Huang, Meng; Li, Cheng-Rong; Qi, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Dispersion stability of nanoparticles in the liquid media is of great importance to the utilization in practice. This study aims to investigate the effects of mechanical dispersion method on the dispersibility of functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles in the transformer oil. Dispersion methods, including stirring, ultrasonic bath, and probe processes, were systematically tested to verify their versatility for preparing stable nanofluid. The test results reveal that the combination of ultrasonic bath process and stirring method has the best dispersion efficiency and the obtained nanofluid possesses the highest AC breakdown strength. Specifically, after aging for 168 h, the size of nanoparticles in the nanofluid prepared by the combination method has no obvious change, while those obtained by the other three paths are increased obviously.

  18. Effect of Dispersion Method on Stability and Dielectric Strength of Transformer Oil-Based TiO2 Nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yu-zhen; Li, Chao; Sun, Qian; Huang, Meng; Li, Cheng-rong; Qi, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Dispersion stability of nanoparticles in the liquid media is of great importance to the utilization in practice. This study aims to investigate the effects of mechanical dispersion method on the dispersibility of functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles in the transformer oil. Dispersion methods, including stirring, ultrasonic bath, and probe processes, were systematically tested to verify their versatility for preparing stable nanofluid. The test results reveal that the combination of ultrasonic bath process and stirring method has the best dispersion efficiency and the obtained nanofluid possesses the highest AC breakdown strength. Specifically, after aging for 168 h, the size of nanoparticles in the nanofluid prepared by the combination method has no obvious change, while those obtained by the other three paths are increased obviously.

  19. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  20. Mode of action and variability in efficacy of plant essential oils showing toxicity against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Shiel, R S; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2009-05-12

    This paper describes a series of experiments to examine the mode of action and toxicity of three plant essential oils (thyme, manuka and pennyroyal) to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens. All three oils were found to be toxic to D. gallinae in laboratory tests with LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values below 0.05, 0.20 and 0.30mg/cm(3), respectively, suggesting that these products may make for effective acaricides against this pest. Further experiments demonstrated that when mites were exposed to only the vapour phase of the essential oil without contact with the oil itself, mortality was consistently higher in closed arenas than in arenas open to the surrounding environment, or in control arenas. This suggests that all three essential oils were toxic to D. gallinae by fumigant action. In addition, in an experiment where mites were allowed contact with the essential oil in either open or closed arenas, mortality was always reduced in the open arenas where this was comparable to control mortality for thyme and pennyroyal essential oil treatments. This supports the findings of the previous experiment and also suggests that, with the possible exception of manuka, the selected essential oils were not toxic to D. gallinae on contact. Statistical comparisons were made between the toxicity of the selected essential oils to D. gallinae in the current work and in a previous study conducted in the same laboratory. The results demonstrated considerable variation in LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values. Since both the essential oils and the mites were obtained from identical sources in the two studies, it is hypothesized that this variation resulted from the use of different 'batches' of essential oil, which could have varied in chemistry and hence acaricidal activity.

  1. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Sunil; Lewandowski, Paul

    2010-02-02

    It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP) and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  2. Fabrication of Magnetite Nanoparticles Dispersed in Olive Oil and Their Structural and Magnetic Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq, A.; Saputro, R. E.; Sunaryono; Hidayat, N.; Hidayat, A.; Mufti, N.; Diantoro, M.; Patriati, A.; Mujamilah; Putra, E. G. R.; Nur, H.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the iron sand taken from Wedi Ireng Beach in Banyuwangi, Indonesia, was employed as the main precursor in fabricating magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite nanoparticles were then functionalized in preparing magnetic fluids coated by oleic acid as a surfactant and dispersed in olive oil as a liquid carrier. The phase purity, crystallite size and crystal structure of the dried magnetic fluids were characterized by using X-Ray Diffractometer. Meanwhile, the functional groups of the magnetic fluids were investigated by means of Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The particle size and morphology of the magnetite particles were also investigated by using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The magnetic behaviors of the magnetic fluids were determined by using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). Based on the XRD data analysis, the magnetite particles crystallized in the spinel structure without the presence of any other phases. The FTIR spectra showed that the functional groups of the magnetic fluids were referring to the magnetite, oleic acid, and olive oil. The TEM image presented that the magnetite particle was formed in a nanometric size. Finally, the saturation magnetization of the magnetic fluids varied in the mass composition and particle size of the magnetite nanoparticles.

  3. Science-based decision-making on the use of dispersants in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the DWH incident, most (if not all) existing oil spill response knowledgewas based on surface spills and surface applications of dispersant. The behavior ofdispersants subsea was (and still is) less understood, and previous research had notfocused on the duration or quan...

  4. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of essential oil constituents encapsulated in zein nanoparticles prepared by liquid-liquid dispersion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thymol and carvacrol, two isomeric terpenoids found in the essential oil of thyme, were encapsulated in nanoparticles of the corn protein zein using a liquid-liquid dispersion method. The morphology, antioxidant properties, and antimicrobial activity were determined for nanaparticles formed under ac...

  5. Investigating contact toxicity of Geranium and Artemisia essential oils on Bemisia tabaci Gen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Yarahmadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gen. (B. tabaci, is one of the most important pests of various greenhouse crops in Iran. Nowadays, chemical insecticides are broadly used for control of the pests that causes risk to consumer's health. For the first time, contact toxicity of Pelargonium roseum Andrews and Artemisia sieberi Besser essential oils on B. tabaci and its possible application against the whitefly was evaluated in 2012. Materials and Methods: Essential oil with concentrations of 2500, 1250, 125, and 12 ppm were used. Infested leaves of greenhouse cucumber were treated by mentioned concentrations. After 24 hours, mortality of B. tabaci was recorded and compared after correcting by Abbot's formula. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of the essential oil could significantly reduce population of B. tabaci compared with the control treatment. Phytotoxicity of the treated leaves were recorded after 24, 48, and 72 hours and compared with the control. Concentrations of 2500, 1250, and 125 ppm caused severe phytotoxicity on greenhouse cucumber leaves and therefore are not suitable for greenhouse application. Phytotoxicity of 12 ppm was relatively low. Conclusions: This data implicated suitable protective effects of the essential oils to the pest infestation. Therefore, essential oils distillated from Geranium and Artemisia could be applied to control B. tabaci in greenhouse cucumber at V/V 12 ppm.

  6. Antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Bruna V; Morais, Selene M; dos Santos Fontenelle, Raquel Oliveira; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Vila-Nova, Nadja S; Pereira, Christiana M C; Brito, Edy S; Neto, Manoel A S; Brito, Erika H S; Cavalcante, Carolina S P; Castelo-Branco, Débora S C M; Rocha, Marcos F G

    2012-07-11

    The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%). The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC₅₀ value of 23 μg/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 μg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 μg/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  7. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Biology Dept.; Bidwell, J.R. [Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia). School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  8. Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

  9. Are PAHS the Right Metric for Assessing Toxicity Related to Oils, Tars, Creosote and Similar Contaminants in Sediments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oils, tars, and other non-aqueous phase hydrocarbon liquids (NAPLs) are common sources of contamination in aquatic sediments, and the toxicity of such contamination has generally been attributed to component chemicals, particularly PAHs. While there is no doubt PAHs can be toxic ...

  10. Searching for novel modes of toxic actions of oil spill using E. coli live cell array reporter system - A Hebei Spirit oil spill study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dawoon; Guan, Miao; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Shin, Hyesoo; Hong, Seongjin; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong; Zhang, Xiaowei; Choi, Kyungho

    2017-02-01

    Oil is a complex mixture of numerous compounds. Therefore, oil spills near shore can cause various adverse effects on coastal ecosystems. However, most toxicological assessments conducted on oil spill sites have focused on limited modes of toxic actions. In the present study, we utilized the Escherichia coli (E. coli) live cell array system (LCA) to identify novel modes of toxicities of the oil spill-affected sediments. For this purpose, sediment samples were collected from an area heavily polluted by Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) incident of 2007. A total of 93 E. coli reporter genes were used to study responses to the chemicals in the mixture. E. coli K12 strains were exposed to extracts of oil or the sediment, and changes in gene expression were measured. Exposure to extracts of crude and weathered oil resulted in decreased expression in ∼30% of tested genes. However, changes in expression observed after exposure to sediment extracts varied. Sediment extracts containing large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) caused down-regulation of >70% of the genes, while extracts containing lesser total concentrations of PAHs exhibited different trends: genes involved in drug resistance were generally up-regulated, while genes responsive to DNA damage were up-regulated in only two extracts. Results suggest that oil pollution can modulate several toxic response pathways related to DNA repair and antibiotic responses. Results from LCA obtained from the sediment and oil samples were different from those observed in the H4IIE-luc assay. Toxicological implications of such observations deserve further examination. Overall, LCA is a promising tool for screening samples and identifying potential modes of toxicities of environmental samples associated with oil spills.

  11. Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-Spill Lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijdgeest, A.; Huettel, M.

    2012-01-01

    After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-colu

  12. An Improved Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Chemical Plant Layout Optimization with Novel Non-overlapping and Toxic Gas Dispersion Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuan; WANG Zhenyu; ZHU Qunxiong

    2013-01-01

    New approaches for facility distribution in chemical plants are proposed including an improved non-overlapping constraint based on projection relationships of facilities and a novel toxic gas dispersion constraint.In consideration of the large number of variables in the plant layout model,our new method can significantly reduce the number of variables with their own projection relationships.Also,as toxic gas dispersion is a usual incident in a chemical plant,a simple approach to describe the gas leakage is proposed,which can clearly represent the constraints of potential emission source and sitting facilities.For solving the plant layout model,an improved genetic algorithm (GA) based on infeasible solution fix technique is proposed,which improves the globe search ability of GA.The case study and experiment show that a better layout plan can be obtained with our method,and the safety factors such as gas dispersion and minimum distances can be well handled in the solution.

  13. Development of a bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments to pike (Esox lucius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Pike (Esox lucius) are a commercially sought fish species that inhabit the Athabasca River, which flows through the Athabasca oil sands. The fish are exposed to natural sources of bitumen from the McMurray formation. This study was conducted to design and implement a daily-renewal bioassay to assess the toxicity of oil sands to this fish species and to obtain information regarding the development of pike exposed to bitumen. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild pike captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish, approximately 15 days post-hatch. For the rest of the experiment, brine shrimp were fed to the walleye embryos every day after hatching. The developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length. The research findings indicated that pike is less sensitive than walleye and fathead minnow to the toxicity of oil sands sediments.

  14. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Herrera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (- menthone, R (+ pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was the most toxic ( LC50: 116.6 µl /L air characterized by a high percentage of menthone (40.1% and pulegone (43.7%. All ketones showed insecticidal activity against S. zeamais. However, pulegone (LC50: 11.8 µl/L air, R- carvone (LC50: 17.5 µl/L air, S-carvone (LC50: 28.1 µl/L air and E-Z-ocimenone (LC50: 42.3 µl/L air were the most toxic. These ketones are a,b-unsaturated carbonyl. This feature could play a fundamental role in the increase of insecticidal activity against S. zeamais.

  15. Toxic effect of cooking oil fumes in primary fetal pulmonary type II-like epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiyu; Ding, Rui; Wang, Yong; Chen, Daojun; Guo, Dongmei; Liang, Chunmei; Feng, Zhewei; Che, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological studies indicated that there is an increased risk of respiratory tract cancer among cooks and bakers. The cooking oil fumes are believed to conduct this risk, and many studies have focused on evaluating the mutagenicity and finding the mutagenic components in oil fumes. COFs contains two major classes of compounds. One class consists of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. BaP is a known immunosuppressant. It can also alter cell cycle progression, induce inflammation, and impair DNA repair and apoptotic processes leading to aberrant cellular functioning. This study investigates the effect of toxicity of cooking oil fumes (COFs) in primary ICR mice' fetal lung type II-like epithelium cells (AEC II). The cells were cultured in different concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200μg/ml) of COFs for different time periods. The results showed that cell viability decreased in a dose- and time- dependent manner, which is accompanied by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) activities. Moreover, comet assay suggested DNA damage, as well as increased production of DNA adducts induced by PAHs. The present study also shows that COFs may disturb cell cycles even at a very low dose. In summary, the present study indicates that COFs may lead to toxicity in AEC II cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The toxicity of laboratory burned oil to the amphipod Allorchestes compressa and the snail Polinices conicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulec, Ismail; Holdaway, Douglas A. [Oil Spill Research Group, Dept. of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1999-07-01

    Acute 96 h LC50 values of the burned-oil-water-accommodated-fraction (BWAF) and burned-oil-residue-mixture (BRM) were determined in semi-static bioassays with seawater, using the amphipod Allorchestes compressa (Dana). Sublethal bioassays (suppression of burying behaviour over 30 min and 24 h exposure) were also conducted for these toxicants, using the marine sand snail Polinices conicus (Lamarck) as the test organism. The mean (n=4) 96 h LC50 (S.E.) value for BWAF was 80 (4.1)% and for BRM was greater than 100%. No-observed-effect-concentration (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect-concentration (LOEC) for the both toxicants were 40% and 60% respectively. The burying behaviour of the snails after 30 min exposure to both toxicants was not affected with NOEC values greater than 100%. The 24 h EC50 (S.E.) value for BWAF was 60 (2.7)% with 10% NOEC and 20% LOEC values. The respective 24 h EC50 value for BRM was greater than 100% with 40% NOEC and 60% LOEC values. (Author)

  17. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woong Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis, majoram (Origanum majorana, and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  18. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Woong; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Jang, Myeong-Jin; Jung, Chan-Sik; Park, Il-Kwon

    2016-03-16

    To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis), majoram (Origanum majorana), and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  19. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment.

  20. Shoreline clean up during the Sea Empress incident: the role of surf washing (clay-oil flocculation), dispersants and bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunel, T. [AEA Technology, Culham (United Kingdom); Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne; Swannell, R.; Wood, P.; Rusin, J.; Bailey, N.; Halliwell, C.; Davies, L.; Sommerville, M.; Dobie, A.; Mitchell, D.; McDonagh, M. [AEA Technology, Culham (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    An outline of the at sea operations which took place in response to the Sea Empress oil spill, was presented. The grounding of the Sea Empress resulted in the release of 70,000 tonnes of blended crude oil into the environment. A qualitative account of the events which followed the incident were described. The early mobilization of a monitoring team has demonstrated the importance of scientific measurements to identify and maximize the efficiency of various cleanup operations. One of the important responses to this incident was the application of dispersants which by inducing flocculation, thereby reducing contact of oil directly with the substrate, and by reducing adhesion of the oil to the shoreline, contributed greatly to minimizing shoreline impact. 19 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of herbicides in vegetable oil with metal-organic framework MIL-101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Cao, Bocheng; Wang, Zhibing; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Sui, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-03-04

    Dispersive microsolid-phase extraction based on metal-organic framework has been developed and applied to the extraction of triazine and phenylurea herbicides in vegetable oils in this work. The herbicides were directly extracted with MIL-101 from diluted vegetables oils without any further cleanup. The separation and determination of herbicides were carried out on high performance liquid chromatography. The effects of experimental parameters, including volume ratio of n-hexane to oil sample, mass of MIL-101, extraction time, centrifugation time, eluting solvent, and elution time were investigated. The Student's t test was applied to evaluate the selected experimental conditions. The limits of detection for the herbicides ranged from 0.585 to 1.04 μg/L. The recoveries of the herbicides ranged from 87.3 to 107%. Our results showed that the present method is rapid, simple, and effective for extracting herbicides in vegetable oils.

  2. Cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Bouaziz, Mouhamed; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-07-18

    Essential oils from Pinus species have been reported to have various therapeutic properties. This study was undertaken to identify the chemical composition and cytoprotective effects of the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. against aspirin-induced damage in cells in vitro. The cytoprotection of the oil against toxicity of aspirin on the small intestine epithelial cells IEC-6 was tested. The obtained results have shown that 35 different compounds were identified. Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability, and exhibited significant damage to their morphology and an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. However, the co-treatment of aspirin with the essential oil of Pinus induced a significant increase in cell viability and a decrease in SOD and CAT activities. Overall, these finding suggest that the essential oil of Pinus halepensis L. has potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  3. Numerical 3D modelling of oil dispersion in the sea due to different accident scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Roberto; Agate, Giordano; Moia, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study has been the development of a methodology, based on a numerical 3D approach, for the analysis of oil dispersion in the sea, in order to simulate with a high level of accuracy the dynamic behavior of the oil plume and its displacement in the environment. As a matter of fact, the numerical simulation is the only approach currently able to analyse in detail possible accident scenarios, even with an high degree of complexity, of different type and intensity, allowing to follow their evolution both in time and space, and to evaluate the effectiveness of suggested prevention or recovery actions. The software for these calculations is therefore an essential tool in order to simulate the impact effects in the short, medium and long period, able to account for the complexity of the sea system involved in the dispersion process and its dependency on the meteorological, marine and morphological local conditions. This software, generally based on fluid dynamic 3D simulators and modellers, is therefore extremely specialized and requires expertise for an appropriate usage, but at the same time it allows detailed scenario analyses and design verifications. It takes into account different parameters as the sea current field and its turbulence, the wind acting on the sea surface, the salinity and temperature gradients, the local coastal morphology, the seabed bathymetry and the tide. The applied methodology is based on the Integrated Fluid Dynamic Simulation System HyperSuite developed by RSE. This simulation system includes the consideration of all the parameters previously listed, in the frame of a 3D Eulerian finite element fluid dynamic model, which accuracy is guaranteed by a very detailed spatial mesh and by an automatically optimized time step management. In order to assess the methodology features, an area of more than 2500 km2 and depth of 200 m located in the middle Adriatic Sea has been modelled. The information required for the simulation in

  4. Toxic essential oils. Part V: Behaviour modulating and toxic properties of thujones and thujone-containing essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Genčić, Marija S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Stojiljković, Nenad I

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects. The results strongly imply that the toxic and behaviour-modulating activity of the oils (hundreds of constituents) should not be associated exclusively with thujones. The statistical analyses pinpointed to a number of essential-oil constituents other than thujones that demonstrated a clear correlation with either the toxicity, antimicrobial effect or the activity on CNS. Thus, in addition to the thujone content, the amount and toxicity of other constituents should be taken into consideration when making risk assessment and determining the regulatory status of plants in food and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioremediation of the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone and its toxicity effect on microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Yongrui; Xu, Nana; Bao, Mutai; Li, Yiming; Lv, Dong; Sun, Peiyan

    2015-04-01

    Custom-designed devices with 0.6 m (L) × 0.3 m (W) × 0.4 m (H) and a microbial consortium were applied to simulate bioremediation on the oil spill polluted marine intertidal zone. After the bioremediation, the removal efficiency of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon homologues in crude oil evaluated by GC-MS were higher than 58% and 41% respectively. Besides, the acute toxicity effects of crude oil on three microalgae, i.e. Dicrateria sp., Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, varied with concentration. The effects of microbe and surfactant treated water on the three microalgae followed a decreasing order: the microbial consortium plus Tween-80 > the microbial consortium > Tween-80. During 96 h, the cell densities of the three microalgae in treated seawater increased from 4.0 × 10(5), 1.0 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(5) cells per mL to 1.7 × 10(6), 8.5 × 10(5) and 2.5 × 10(6) cells per mL, respectively, which illustrated that the quality of seawater contaminated by crude oil was significantly improved by the bioremediation.

  6. Chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Carum copticum against two stored product beetles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIBI ZAHRA SAHAF; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHAMMAD HADI MESHKATALSADAT

    2007-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or antifeedant activity against insects. Carum copticum C. B. Clarke (Apiaceae) is one of these plants that have medicinal effects on humans. The chemical composition of the essential oil from dry seeds of C. copticum was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymol (41.34%), α-terpinolene (17.46%) and ρ-cymene (11.76%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. In fumigant toxicity tests with the essential oil against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at 27 +-1℃ and 60%+-5% RH, it was observed that S. oryzae (LC50= 0.91 μL/L) were significantly susceptible than T. castaneum (LC50= 33.14 μL/L). The mortalities of the insect species reached 100% at concentrations higher than 185.2 μL/L and 12-h exposure time. The findings indicate the strong insecticidal activity of C. copticum oil and its potential role as a fumigant for storedproduct insects.

  7. Management of toxic and hazardous contents of oil sludge in Siri Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pazoki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sirri Island is one of the most important islands in Iran where contains massive amounts of crude oil reservoirs and is a crude oil exporting and storage spot. Petroleum sludge wastes produced by the refineries are deposited in outdoor 2-ha open pits. 30 sludge samples from different depot locations were conducted in 3-time intervals and mixed with each other to form one homogenized sample. The sample was treated by solvent extraction method using methyl ethyl ketone as an efficient polar solvent in order to recover the valuable hydrocarbon and oil. About 99.8% of the oil was recovered and determined to reach almost the same quality as the exportable crude oil of Sirri Island. The sediments were also tested for size distribution range and titled as fine-grained soil. Toxicity characteristics leaching procedure test was conducted on the residuals to determine whether the waste is categorized as toxic and hazardous. The industrial waste evaluation model used in the current work suggested different leachate concentrations (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of total leachate based on toxicity characteristics leaching procedure for different probable leaching scenarios. The surface and subsurface regional conditions such as depth to underground water table, climate condition, subsurface pH, soil texture and material were defined to the model as well. Then, the model simulated 10000 possible runs considering the leaching procedure, contaminant concentrations, maximum contaminant limits and surface and sub-surface conditions. The final outcomes regarding heavy metals results showed that nickel, chromium and vanadium were protective under composite liner while cobalt and lead were not safe under such liner and need proper treatment before landfilling. As the final step, the size and details of landfill were designed. The landfill was selected as a square with side and depth of 55m and 3m respectively. The composite liner consisted of 1.5mm high density

  8. Silver nanoparticle toxicity in the embryonic zebrafish is governed by particle dispersion and ionic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah; Tanguay, Robert L

    2013-03-22

    The mechanism of action of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is unclear due to the particles' strong tendency to agglomerate. Preventing agglomeration could offer precise control of the physicochemical properties that drive biological response to AgNPs. In an attempt to control agglomeration, we exposed zebrafish embryos to AgNPs of 20 or 110 nm core size, and polypyrrolidone (PVP) or citrate surface coatings in media of varying ionic strength. AgNPs remained unagglomerated in 62.5 μM CaCl2 (CaCl2) and ultrapure water (UP), but not in standard zebrafish embryo medium (EM). Zebrafish embryos developed normally in the low ionic strength environments of CaCl2 and UP. Exposure of embryos to AgNPs suspended in UP and CaCl2 resulted in higher toxicity than suspensions in EM. 20 nm AgNPs were more toxic than 110 nm AgNPs, and the PVP coating was more toxic than the citrate coating at the same particle core size. The silver tissue burden correlated well with observed toxicity but only for those exposures where the AgNPs remained unagglomerated. Our results demonstrate that size- and surface coating-dependent toxicity is a result of AgNPs remaining unagglomerated, and thus a critical-design consideration for experiments to offer meaningful evaluations of AgNP toxicity.

  9. Synergistic effect of some essential oils on toxicity and knockdown effects, against mosquitos, cockroaches and housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idin Zibaee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity and knockdown effect of Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their mixed formulation on Periplaneta Americana (L., Blattella germanica (L., Supella longipalpa, Culex pipiens, Anopheles stephensi and Musca domestica were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments. In all bioassay five different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used by filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods, all essential oils was toxic to cockroaches, mosquitos and housefly species the lowest and the highest LC50 belong to mixed formulation on B. germanica (LC50 6.1 and E. globulus on P. americana (LC50 27.7 respectively. In continuous exposure experiments, Mortality (LT50 values for cockroaches ranged from 1403.3 min with 0.625% E. globulus (for P. americana to 2.2 min with 10% mixed formulation for A. stephensi. The KT50 values ranged from 0.1 to 1090.8 min for 10% and 0.625 for mixed formulation and R. officinalis respectively. The mortality after 24 h for mixed formulation was 100% but for single essential oils ranged from 81.5 to 98.3 for P. americana treated with R. officinalis and A. stephensi treated with E. globulus respectively. Studies on persistence of essential oils on impregnated paper revealed that it has more adulticidal activity for longer period at low storage temperature. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of essential oil showed 14 and 16 peaks for E. globules and R. officinalis respectively. α-Pinene (39.8%, 1, 8-Cineole (13.2%, Camphene (9.1% and Borneol (3.7% were present in major amounts for R. officinalis and 1,8-Cineole (31.4%, α-Pinene (15.3%, d-Limonene (9.7% and α-Terpinolen (5.3% were present in major amounts for E. globulus respectively. Our results showed that two surveyed essential oils has compatible with synergistic effect on various insect species, furthermore it is useful for applying as integrated pest management tool for studied insects management, especially in

  10. Determination of cadmium and lead in edible oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after reverse dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-García, Ignacio; Vicente-Martínez, Yesica; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of edible oils with a low volume of an acidic solution in the presence of isopropyl alcohol allows cadmium and lead to be completely separated into the aqueous phase. After centrifugation, the metals are determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry using a palladium salt for chemical modification in the heating cycle. Using a 10 g oil sample, the enrichment factor is 140, which permits detection limits of 0.6 and 10 ng kg(-1) for cadmium and lead, respectively. The results agree with those obtained after sample mineralization. Data for the cadmium and lead levels for 15 samples of different characteristics are given.

  11. Influence of maltodextrin dextrose equivalent value on rheological and dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Petar P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of dextrose equivalent (DE of maltodextrin present in continuous phase on flow along with dispersion properties of sunflower oil in water emulsions has been investigated. Both, rheological and disperse characteristics of the emulsions were greatly influenced by continuous phase viscosity and thus by the DE value of maltodextrin.. The smaller DE value the greater high shear viscosity and the smaller the droplet size. Irrespective of the amount and DE value of maltodextrin used was, all the emulsions showed a pseudoplastic behaviour.

  12. Essential Oils of Hyptis pectinata Chemotypes: Isolation, Binary Mixtures and Acute Toxicity on Leaf-Cutting Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa-Alcantara, Rosana B; Bacci, Leandro; Blank, Arie F; Alves, Péricles B; Silva, Indira Morgana de A; Soares, Caroline A; Sampaio, Taís S; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de L; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima

    2017-04-12

    Leaf-cutting ants are pests of great economic importance due to the damage they cause to agricultural and forest crops. The use of organosynthetic insecticides is the main form of control of these insects. In order to develop safer technology, the objective of this work was to evaluate the formicidal activity of the essential oils of two Hyptis pectinata genotypes (chemotypes) and their major compounds on the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex balzani Emery and Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel. Bioassays of exposure pathways (contact and fumigation) and binary mixtures of the major compounds were performed. The major compounds identified in the essential oils of H. pectinata were β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide and calamusenone. The essential oils of H. pectinata were toxic to the ants in both exposure pathways. Essential oils were more toxic than their major compounds alone. The chemotype calamusenone was more toxic to A. balzani in both exposure pathways. A. sexdens rubropilosa was more susceptible to the essential oil of the chemotype β-caryophyllene in both exposure pathways. In general, the binary mixtures of the major compounds resulted in additive effect of toxicity. The essential oils of H. pectinata is a raw material of great potential for the development of new insecticides.

  13. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation late in development increases the toxicity of oil to mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Lauren E; Magnuson, Jason; Garner, T Ross; Alloy, Matthew M; Stieglitz, John D; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin; Roberts, Aaron P

    2016-11-16

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010 overlapped with the spawning of many pelagic fish species in the Gulf of Mexico, including mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) released during the spill have been shown to cause photo-induced toxicity under ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In the present study, mahi-mahi embryos were exposed to high-energy water accommodated fractions of source and naturally weathered oils for up to 48 h. The timing of co-exposure with UV radiation varied between an early development exposure for 8 h or a late development exposure for 8 h. The UV co-exposure had a photo-induced toxic effect on hatching success for all oil types and exposure scenarios. A more sensitive developmental window to photo-induced toxicity was observed when UV exposure occurred late in development. Source Oil B was over 6-fold more toxic, and Massachusetts source oil was 1.6-fold more toxic when the embryos were co-exposed to UV light late in development. Furthermore, weathered oil from the surface co-exposure with UV late in development resulted in bradycardia in the mahi-mahi. The present study provides evidence that the developmental window when UV co-exposure occurs has a significant effect on the degree of photo-induced toxicity of oil and that UV co-exposure may exacerbate long-term cardiac effects in developing fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1-7. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Multistage Solvent Extraction for High Yield Oil and Phorbol Esters Removal from Thai Toxic Jatropha curcas Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayakorn NOKKAEW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the possibility for the production of high yield oil and phorbol esters removed from Thai toxic Jatropha curcas meal. Optimum oil recovery by hexane extraction to obtain high oil yield was accomplished in 3 stages of batch extraction, following which the de-oiled meal was further determined for the optimum conditions for removal of phorbol esters (PEs by aqueous ethanol extraction from the first to the third stage of batch extraction with the aim of yielding detoxified de-oiled meal product for use as a raw material in animal feed. The optimum conditions for oil extraction was 3-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (w/v of toxic meal to hexane at 40 °C for 30 min. This condition gave 100 % de-oiling efficiency compared with the Soxhlet extraction method. The optimum condition for PEs removal from the de-oiled meal involved 2-stage extraction with each stage operated at 1:3 (w/v of de-oiled meal to aqueous ethanol at 50 °C for 30 min. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, was used to confirm the PEs residue in the detoxified de-oiled meal. The confirmation showed that the 2 stages of PEs extraction could remove 100 % of the PEs from the de-oiled meal. The results from our study can provide the basis for the efficient commercial production of both J. curcas oil and detoxified de-oiled meal.

  15. 海上高含硫火炬系统有毒物质扩散研究%Toxic substance dispersion in offshore high sulfur flare tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李豫; 赵喜峰; 潘大新; 张振友; 钟小侠

    2016-01-01

    本文针对海上高含硫火炬系统进行了有毒物质扩散方面的研究,根据不同区域确定了有毒气体浓度的扩散限值,且首次采用混合气体有毒组分跟踪法进行了有毒气体扩散计算研究。%This article describes the toxic substance dispersion in offshore high sulfur flare tower. The dispersion limits of the toxic gas concentration are determined according to various area. Toxic-tracing in gas mixture is firstly used to study the toxic gas dis-persion.

  16. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface.

  17. A comparison of fresh and used aircraft oil for the identification of toxic substances linked to aerotoxic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megson, David; Ortiz, Xavier; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Mulder, Michel F A; Balouet, Jean-Christophe

    2016-09-01

    Fresh and used aircraft engine lubricants (Mobil Jet Oil II) were analysed using a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICRMS) and comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). The composition of the fresh oil was established, with special focus to its tricresyl phosphate (TCP) content as this has formed the focus for most investigations into aerotoxic syndrome. The results showed that only four TCP isomers were present at detectable levels in the fresh oil: mmm-TCP, mmp-TCP, ppm-TCP and ppp-TCP. The results indicate that the formulation of Mobile Jet Oil II does not contain the more toxic ortho substituted TCP isomers at concentrations above 0.0005%. The temperatures of jet engines during operation are greater than 200 °C which creates the potential to alter the composition of the original oil and create other toxic compounds. The results show there may be a significant risk from alkylated cresyl phosphates, which were identified in the used oils at concentrations calculated in the range of 0.13-0.69%. w/w. Several xylenyl and ethylphenyl phosphates have been shown to exhibit a similar toxicity to ortho substituted TCP isomers which makes there discovery in used oil significant. These compounds should be included in future aircraft air quality studies and when assessing the risks and causes of aerotoxic syndrome.

  18. Toxicity of essential oils of Piper marginatum Jacq. against Tetranychus urticae Koch and Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae is an economically important pest of agricultural and ornamental crops worldwide. It has been shown that many of natural plant-based pesticides have fewer side effects compared with synthetic chemicals. The essential oils of plants have been broadly studied for pest-control, including toxic and repellent effects, antifeedant, ovicidal, and other properties. Essential oils from stems, flowers, and leaves of Piper marginatum Jacq. were evaluated in the laboratory regarding their acaricidal potential against the two-spotted spider mite (T. urticae and the results were compared with eugenol as a positive control. The oils were also evaluated with regard to the susceptibility of the natural enemy of T. urticae (Neoseiulus californicus McGregor. Based on LC50 estimates, oils from stems and flowers exhibited the same toxicity and differed significantly from the leaf oil with LC50 0.37, 0.56, and 3.77 μL L-1, respectively. None of the oils tested exhibited toxicity greater than or equal to that of the positive control. The oil mortality rate was significantly lower for N. californicus (50% to 70% than for T. urticae (> 95%. The P. marginatum oils also deterred oviposition. Among the chemical constituents tested, sesquiterpenes were more toxic with an LC50 of 2.89 μL L-1 than phenylpropanoids Z-asarone and E-asarone with LC50 6.64 and 8.51 μL L-1, respectively. The acaricidal properties, oviposition deterrence and selectivity make these oils strong candidates for use as the active ingredient in a plant-based acaricidal agent.

  19. Analysis of four toxic metals in a single rice seed by matrix solid phase dispersion -inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiufen; Chen, Lixia; Chen, Xin; Yu, Huamei; Peng, Lixu; Han, Bingjun

    2016-12-01

    Toxic metals in rice pose great risks to human health. Metal bioaccumulation in rice grains is a criterion of breeding. Rice breeding requires a sensitive method to determine metal content in single rice grains to assist the variety selection. In the present study, four toxic metals of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a single rice grain were determined by a simple and rapid method. The developed method is based on matrix solid phase dispersion using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as dispersing agent and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental parameters were systematically investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) were 5.0, 0.6, 10 and 2.1 ng g‑1 for As, Cd, Cr, and Pb, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of microwave digestion. The amount of sample required was reduced approximately 100 fold in comparison with the microwave digestion. The method has a high application potential for other sample matrices and elements with high sensitivity and sample throughput.

  20. Elucidating mechanisms of toxic action of dissolved organic chemicals in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Garrett D; Wiseman, Steve B; Guan, Miao; Zhang, Xiaowei W; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

    2017-08-08

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated during extraction of bitumen in the surface-mining oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada, and is acutely and chronically toxic to aquatic organisms. It is known that dissolved organic compounds in OSPW are responsible for most toxic effects, but knowledge of the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity, is limited. Using bioassay-based effects-directed analysis, the dissolved organic fraction of OSPW has previously been fractionated, ultimately producing refined samples of dissolved organic chemicals in OSPW, each with distinct chemical profiles. Using the Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655 gene reporter live cell array, the present study investigated relationships between toxic potencies of each fraction, expression of genes and characterization of chemicals in each of five acutely toxic and one non-toxic extract of OSPW derived by use of effects-directed analysis. Effects on expressions of genes related to response to oxidative stress, protein stress and DNA damage were indicative of exposure to acutely toxic extracts of OSPW. Additionally, six genes were uniquely responsive to acutely toxic extracts of OSPW. Evidence presented supports a role for sulphur- and nitrogen-containing chemical classes in the toxicity of extracts of OSPW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Surface-Engineered Nanoparticle-Based Dispersants for Marine Oil Spills on the Model Organism Artemia franciscana

    OpenAIRE

    Rodd, April L.; Creighton, Megan A.; Vaslet, Charles A.; Rangel-Mendez, J. Rene; Hurt, Robert H.; Kane, Agnes B.

    2014-01-01

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was chara...

  2. Fatty acid anilides: in vivo formation and relevance to toxic oil syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaphalia, B S; Khan, M F; Ansari, G A

    1999-01-01

    Toxic oil syndrome (TOS), a multisystemic epidemic outbreak in 1981 in Spain, was caused by the ingestion of a cooking oil mixture containing rapeseed oil denatured with aniline. The mechanisms and causative agents responsible for the TOS are still not known. Although primary lesions observed in TOS patients could not be reproduced experimentally, the levels of fatty acid anilides (FAAs) and aniline in TOS-related cooking oil were considered proximate markers of TOS. Aniline, available from free aniline and FAAs ingested with TOS-related cooking oil, and its reconjugation with endogenous fatty acids could be an early event leading to TOS. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the formation of FAAs following an oral dose of 2 mmol/kg aniline hydrochloride (AH) via gavage in rats. Here, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, 18:3, and 20:4 FAAs were analyzed in the whole blood, brown fat, liver, and pancreas at 0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Generally, 16:0 and 18:1 FAAs were detected in the whole blood, brown fat, and liver of AH-treated rats with highest mean levels at 0.25 or 0.5 hour, except 3 hours for the whole blood. Only 16:0 FAA was detectable in the pancreas of AH-treated animals. The 18:0 FAA was also detected frequently in the liver while other FAAs were either in trace amounts or not detectable in the tissues analyzed in the present study. Overall, highest formation of the 16:0 FAA was found in the liver followed by pancreas and of 18:1 FAA in the whole blood and brown fat. These results indicate a rapid formation and further metabolism and disposition of FAAs in rat model and support our previous findings that 18:1 and 16:0 fatty acids are better substrates for the conjugation with aniline. Surprisingly, a small or trace amount of a few FAAs also detected in the tissues of control rats indicates their endogenous biosynthesis and/or presence. Results of 18:1 fatty acid incubation and aniline in the presence of fatty acid ethyl

  3. Chemical Composition and Toxicity against Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum of the Essential Oil of Murraya exotica Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs, Murraya exotica was found to possess insecticidal activity against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. The essential oil of aerial parts of M. exotica was obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. exotica essential oil were spathulenol (17.7%, a-pinene (13.3%, caryophyllene oxide (8.6%, and a-caryophyllene (7.3%. Essential oil of M. exotica possessed fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LC50 values of 8.29 and 6.84 mg/L, respectively. The essential oils also show contact toxicity against S. zeamais and T. castaneum adults with LD50 values of 11.41 and 20.94 mg/adult, respectively.

  4. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankeviandccaron;ius, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Material/Methods The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. Results The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. Conclusions The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity. PMID:28132065

  5. Protective effects of dietary glycine and glutamic acid toward the toxic effects of oxidized mustard oil in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Alam; Rahman, Saleem Ur

    2017-01-25

    The protective role of glycine and glutamic acid against the toxic effects of oxidized oil was studied for the first time. Mustard seed oil was thermally oxidized and characterized for quality characteristics and polyphenolic composition using reversed phase HPLC-DAD. Significant changes in the quality characteristics occurred with thermal oxidation. Fourteen polyphenolic compounds were identified and quantified in oils. Quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-feruloylsophoroside, catechin, quercetin-3-rutinoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, sinapic acid and vanillic acid hexoside were the major compounds in the fresh and oxidized oil. Oxidized, un-oxidized mustard oils, glycine and glutamic acid were given to rabbits alone or in combination. The biochemical responses were studied in terms of haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathology. It has been observed that biochemical and haematological parameters were adversely affected by the oxidized oil, while supplementation of both amino acids was beneficial in normalizing these parameters. Both amino acids alone have no significant effects, however, oxidized oil affected the liver by enhancing fat accumulation, causing hepatitis, reactive Kupffer cells and necrosis. The co-administration of oxidized oils with glycine or glutamic acid revealed significant recovery of the liver structure and function. In conclusion, glycine or glutamic acid is beneficial and protective against food toxicity and can be considered as an ameliorative food supplement.

  6. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2017-01-29

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. MATERIAL AND METHODS The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. RESULTS The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. CONCLUSIONS The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity.

  7. Exposure to crude oil micro-droplets causes reduced food uptake in copepods associated with alteration in their metabolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Øverjordet, Ida Beathe; Olsen, Anders J; Krause, Dan; Størdal, Ingvild; Størseth, Trond R

    2017-03-01

    Acute oil spills and produced water discharges may cause exposure of filter-feeding pelagic organisms to micron-sized dispersed oil droplets. The dissolved oil components are expected to be the main driver for oil dispersion toxicity; however, very few studies have investigated the specific contribution of oil droplets to toxicity. In the present work, the contribution of oil micro-droplet toxicity in dispersions was isolated by comparing exposures to oil dispersions (water soluble fraction with droplets) to concurrent exposure to filtered dispersions (water-soluble fractions without droplets). Physical (coloration) and behavioral (feeding activity) as well as molecular (metabolite profiling) responses to oil exposures in the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were studied. At high dispersion concentrations (4.1-5.6mg oil/L), copepods displayed carapace discoloration and reduced swimming activity. Reduced feeding activity, measured as algae uptake, gut filling and fecal pellet production, was evident also for lower concentrations (0.08mg oil/L). Alterations in metabolic profiles were also observed following exposure to oil dispersions. The pattern of responses were similar between two comparable experiments with different oil types, suggesting responses to be non-oil type specific. Furthermore, oil micro-droplets appear to contribute to some of the observed effects triggering a starvation-type response, manifested as a reduction in metabolite (homarine, acetylcholine, creatine and lactate) concentrations in copepods. Our work clearly displays a relationship between crude oil micro-droplet exposure and reduced uptake of algae in copepods.

  8. Toxicity of Athabasca River and oil sands sediments to larval fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, J.; Turcotte, D.; Headley, J.; Hewitt, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that evaluated oil sands tailings pond sediments and sediments from the Athabasca River for embryo-larval toxicity in fathead minnows and walleye. Following 20 days of exposure to 5 sediments from the Athabasca River at concentrations up to 25 g/L, there were no observed effects in fathead minnow eggs and larvae. However, at concentrations as low as 0.2 to 1 g wet wt/L, two of three tailings pond sediments were toxic to fathead minnows. Larvae growth was reduced in all three tailings pond sediments. Nine of 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) measured in tailing pond sediments were found to be above the Freshwater Sediment Quality Guidelines set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), with phenanthrene being the highest. The values for total dry weight PAHs and total naphthenic acids in tailings pond sediment and river sediment were discussed. The cause for the observed toxicity in fathead minnow larvae could not be determined based on the preliminary study results. As part of the ongoing study, walleye eggs and larvae are being exposed to the sediments to compare their relative sensitivity and to determine possible causative compounds.

  9. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  10. Toxicity and gastric tolerance of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandohan, P; Gnonlonfin, B; Laleye, A; Gbenou, J D; Darboux, R; Moudachirou, M

    2008-07-01

    Oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Ocimum basilicum are widely used for their medicinal properties, and as food flavours and perfumes. Recently in a study in West Africa, these oils have been recommended to combat Fusarium verticillioides and subsequent fumonisin contamination in stored maize, but their toxicological profile was not investigated. The current study was undertaken to provide data on acute and subacute toxicity as well as on gastric tolerance of these oils in rat. For this purpose, the oils were given by gavage to Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days. The animals were observed daily for their general behaviour and survival, and their visceral organs such as stomach and liver were taken after sacrifice for histological analyses. A dose-dependent effect of the tested oils was observed during the study. Applied at doses generally higher than 1500 mg/kg body weight, the oils caused significant functional damages to stomach and liver of rat. Unlike the other oils, administration of O. gratissimum oil did not result in adverse effects in rat liver at the tested doses. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the tested oils has been established. The three tested oils can be considered as safe to human when applied on stored maize at recommended concentrations.

  11. Photoelectrocatalysis based on Ti/TiO2 nanotubes removes toxic properties of the azo dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Red 13 and Disperse Orange 1 from aqueous chloride samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, E R A; Oliveira, G A R; Grando, M D; Lizier, T M; Zanoni, M V B; Oliveira, D P

    2013-07-30

    This work describes the efficiency of photoelectrocatalysis based on Ti/TiO2 nanotubes in the degradation of the azo dyes Disperse Red 1, Disperse Red 13 and Disperse Orange 1 and to remove their toxic properties, as an alternative method for the treatment of effluents and water. For this purpose, the discoloration rate, total organic carbon (TOC) removal, and genotoxic, cytotoxic and mutagenic responses were determined, using the comet, micronucleus and cytotoxicity assays in HepG2 cells and the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. In a previous study it was found that the surfactant Emulsogen could contribute to the low mineralization of the dyes (60% after 4 h of treatment), which, in turn, seems to account for the mutagenicity of the products generated. Thus this surfactant was not added to the chloride medium in order to avoid this interference. The photoelectrocatalytic method presented rapid discoloration and the TOC reduction was ≥87% after 240 min of treatment, showing that photoelectrocatalysis is able to mineralize the dyes tested. The method was also efficient in removing the mutagenic activity and cytotoxic effects of these three dyes. Thus it was concluded that photoelectrocatalysis was a promising method for the treatment of aqueous samples.

  12. Evaluation of nano emulsion containing asphaltenes dispersant additive in dehydration of oil; Avaliacao de nanoemulsoes contendo aditivo dispersante de asfaltenos na desidratacao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Priscila F. de; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: prisfrias@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Due to the problem of the formation of emulsions type water-oil during oil production, new alternatives of the breakdown of these emulsions have been proposed over the years. Several polymers have been used to destabilize these emulsions and among them are those based on polyphenylene ether. The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions type oil / water, where an asphaltenes dispersant additive was dissolved in dispersed phase in order to evaluate them as a new alternative in the breakdown of oil emulsions. The nanoemulsions were prepared in the presence of surfactant based on polyoxide using a high pressure homogenizer (HPH). We obtained stable nanoemulsions for more than 30 days in the presence or absence of additive. These nanoemulsions were effective in water /oil phase separation, and the nanoemulsion containing the dispersant additive provided a faster separation of these phases. (author)

  13. [Oil pollution status expressed as the fraction of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-González, Jenaro; Vargas-Zamora, José A; Gómez-Ramírez, Eddy; García-Céspedes, Jairo

    2004-12-01

    Four coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000-2002). Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moín Bay), and from the Pacific (Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf). On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas estuary were also analysed. In Moín the mean and standard deviation were 0.10 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.18 micro x L(-1), ranging from non detectable (nd) to 0.65 microg x L(-1). For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). In Bahia Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard deviation were 0.04 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.09 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.33 microg x L(-1). Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 microg x L(-1) +/- 0.11 microg x L(-1), from nd to 0.37 microg x L(-1). Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 microg x L(-1), with a mean of 1.21 microg x L(-1) and a standard deviation of +/- 2.10 microg x L(-1). The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 microg x L(-1) limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas estuary reflects the influence of antropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters.

  14. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil biodeg

  15. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  16. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandeh, M.; Koohi, M. K.; Roshani, A.; Shahroziyan, E.; Badri, B.; Pourfallah, A.; Shams, Gh; Hobbenaghi, R.; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G.

    2011-07-01

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3×10-3 - 24×10-3 ml/cm2 and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6×10-3, 23×10-3, 24×10-3 and 16×10-3 ml/cm2 respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most contact with environment and subsequently

  17. Acute toxicity of virgin and used engine oil enriched with copper nano particles in the earthworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodabandeh, M; Koohi, M K; Shahroziyan, E; Badri, B; Pourfallah, A; Shams, Gh; Sadeghi-Hashjin, G [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Roshani, A [Industrial and Environmental Protection Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RRIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hobbenaghi, R, E-mail: gsadeghi@ut.ac.ir [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    In spite of development of nanotechnology and creation of new opportunities for industry, new applications and products initiated by this technology may cause harmful effects on human health and environment. Unfortunately, there is no sufficient information on the harmful effects caused by application of some nano materials; the current knowledge in this field is limited solely to the nano particles but not the final products. Nano cupper particles, as one of the common materials produced in industrial scale is widely used as additives into engine oil to reduce friction and improve lubrication. However, the difference between the effects of virgin and used conventional engine oil (CEO) and the engine oil containing cupper nano particles (NEO) on the environment is not known. Earthworm, as a one of the species which could live and survive in different sorts of earth and has a certain role in protecting the soil structure and fertility, was used in this experiment. In accordance with the recommended method of OECD.1984, Filter Paper test in 24 and 48 h based on 8 concentrations in the range of 3x10{sup -3} - 24x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} and Artificial Soil test in 7 and 14 days based on 7 concentrations in the range of 0.1 mg/kg - 100 g/kg were carried out to study earthworms in terms of lifetime (LC50), morphology and pathology. It was shown that the 48 h LC50 for virgin CEO, virgin NEO, used CEO(8000 km) and used NEO (8000 km) were 6x10{sup -3}, 23x10{sup -3}, 24x10{sup -3} and 16x10{sup -3} ml/cm{sup 2} respectively. Furthermore, 14-day LC50 in artificial soil for all cases were above 100 g/kg. It is concluded that virgin CEO is more toxic than virgin NEO. Meanwhile, the CEO shows significant reduction in toxicity after consumption and the used NEO shows more toxicity in comparison to virgin product. It seems that more investigations on the effects of final products specifically after consumption is necessary because the products after consumption have the most

  18. Effects of dispersant used for oil spill remediation on nitrogen cycling in Louisiana coastal salt marsh soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroski, Jason P; White, John R; DeLaune, Ronald D

    2015-01-01

    On April 20, 2010, the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) offshore oil platform experienced an explosion which triggered the largest marine oil spill in US history. Approximately 7.9 million liters of dispersant, Corexit EC9500A, was used during the spill between May 15th and July 12th. Marsh soil samples were collected from an unimpacted marsh site proximal to coastal areas that suffered light to heavy oiling for a laboratory evaluation to determine the effect of Corexit on the wetland soil microbial biomass as well as N-mineralization and denitrification rates. Microbial biomass nitrogen (N) values were below detection for the 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000 Corexit:wet soil treatments. The potentially mineralizable N (PMN) rate correlated with microbial biomass with significantly lower rates for the 1:10 and 1:100 Corexit:wet soil additions. Potential denitrification rates for Corexit:wet soil ratios after immediate dispersant exposure were below detection for the 1:10 treatment, while the 1:100 was 7.6±2.7% of the control and the 1:1000 was 33±4.3% of the control. The 1:10000 treatment was not significantly different from the control. Denitrification rates measured after 2 weeks exposure to the surfactant found the 1:10 treatment still below detection limit and the 1:100 ratio was 12±2.6% of the control. Results from this lab study suggest that chemical dispersants have the potential to negatively affect the wetland soil microbial biomass and resultant microbial activity. Consequences of exposure led to reductions in several important microbial-regulated ecosystem services including water quality improvement (denitrification) and ecosystem primary productivity (N-mineralization). Future studies should investigate the longer-term impacts of dispersant exposure on the microbial consortia to determine if microbial activity recovers over time.

  19. Toxicity of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) Essential Oil Against Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and Non-Effect on Egg Parasitoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchen, L M; Piton, L P; Dall'Oglio, E L; Butnariu, A R; Pereira, M J B

    2016-10-01

    Plant essential oils have been recognized as significant natural resources for insecticides. Herein, we have assessed the toxicity of the essential oil of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) against Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a key soybean pest in Neotropical America. In addition, we have assessed its effect on the performance of egg parasitoids. The essential oil was obtained from the leaves of P. aduncum via hydrodistillation. Subsequently, bioassays of the concentration response to eggs (contact and immersion methods), nymphs, and adults (topical application) were conducted, to assess the lethal effects on the stink bug. We also evaluated the performance of parasitism and adult emergence of egg parasitoids, when the host eggs were treated with essential oil. In the egg bioassay, both exposure methods were efficient for unviable eggs (immersion LC50 = 15.64 mg mL(-1); contact LC50 = 21.29 mg mL(-1)), with the highlight on the immersion method. The bioassay with nymphs indicated a higher toxicity of essential oil, with lower concentrations (LC50 = 11.37 mg mL(-1)) being required to cause the death of insects. For adults, a reduction in survival of insects was observed, and consequently, there was a reduction in the number of individuals in the next generation. Although the essential oil was toxic to E. heros, it exhibited lower toxicity for egg parasitoids, as there was no effect on parasitism and the emergence of wasps. We discuss likely explanations for such selectivity. In summary, we found that the essential oil was promising for the control of E. heros, because it caused deleterious effects at all development stages of the stink bug and had no effect on parasitism and emergence of the egg parasitoids, which suggested compatibility with biological control.

  20. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and

  1. [Toxic effects of essential oil of Cannabis sativa L. and main constituents on planarian (Dugesia tigrina) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, G; Lenicque, P M; Paris, M R

    1978-11-01

    Regenerating pieces of planarian worms are able to absorbe insoluble substances deposited on the base of the vessels in which they are cultivated. This biological test was used to study the toxic effects of the essential oil of Cannabis sativa L. The hydrocarbons such as pinene (alpha and beta), caryophyllene and so on were not toxic. On the contrary caryophyllene oxide was highly toxic. It was not possible to detect any protection by 5-hydroxytryptamine as it was the case against delta 1-tétrahydro-cannabinol and cannabidiol.

  2. Relative seed and fruit toxicity of the Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica: further evidence for a megafaunal seed dispersal syndrome in cycads, and its possible antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Walter, G H

    2014-08-01

    An apparent contradiction in the ecology of cycad plants is that their seeds are known to be highly poisonous, and yet they seem well adapted for seed dispersal by animals, as shown by their visually conspicuous seed cones and large seeds presented within a brightly colored fleshy "fruit" of sarcotesta. We tested if this sarcotesta could function as a reward for cycad seed dispersal fauna, by establishing if the toxic compound cycasin, known from the seeds, is absent from the sarcotesta. The Australian cycads Macrozamia miquelii and Cycas ophiolitica were tested (N = 10 individuals per species) using gas chromatography / mass spectrometry. Cycasin was detected at 0.34 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of M. miquelii and 0.28 % (fresh weight) in seed endosperm of C. ophiolitica. Cycasin was absent from the sarcotesta of the same propagules (none detected in the case of M. miquelii, and trace quantities detected in sarcotesta of only four of the ten C. ophiolitica propagules). This laboratory finding was supported by field observations of native animals eating the sarcotesta of these cycads but discarding the toxic seed intact. These results suggest cycads are adapted for dispersal fauna capable of swallowing the large, heavy propagules whole, digesting the non-toxic sarcotesta flesh internally, and then voiding the toxic seed intact. Megafauna species such as extant emus or cassowaries, or extinct Pleistocene megafauna such as Genyornis, are plausible candidates for such dispersal. Cycads are an ancient lineage, and the possible antiquity of their megafaunal seed dispersal adaptations are discussed.

  3. Use of a statistical model to predict the potential for repeated dose and developmental toxicity of dermally administered crude oil and relation to reproductive toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Richard H; Nicolich, Mark; Roy, Timothy; White, Russell; Daughtrey, Wayne C

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum (commonly called crude oil) is a complex substance primarily composed of hydrocarbon constituents. Based on the results of previous toxicological studies as well as occupational experience, the principal acute toxicological hazards are those associated with exposure by inhalation to volatile hydrocarbon constituents and hydrogen sulfide, and chronic hazards are associated with inhalation exposure to benzene and dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds. The current assessment was an attempt to characterize the potential for repeated dose and/or developmental effects of crude oils following dermal exposures and to generalize the conclusions across a broad range of crude oils from different sources. Statistical models were used to predict the potential for repeated dose and developmental toxicity from compositional information. The model predictions indicated that the empirical data from previously tested crude oils approximated a "worst case" situation, and that the data from previously tested crude oils could be used as a reasonable basis for characterizing the repeated dose and developmental toxicological hazards of crude oils in general.

  4. Effectiveness of sodium benzoate as a freshwater low toxicity antifoulant when dispersed in solution and entrapped in silicone coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Haroon; Cutright, Teresa J; Newby, Bi-Min Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The traditional solution for preventing organisms from attaching to submerged surfaces is to apply antifouling coatings or biocides. Based on the varied defence mechanisms exhibited by biofilms, the antifoulant needs to prevent bacterial attachment during the early stages of biofilm formation. The potential of benzoic acid and sodium benzoate (NaB) as antifoulants for deterring freshwater bacterial attachment was evaluated with the antifoulants dispersed in solution or entrapped in silicone coatings. Effectiveness was based on the decrease in microbial attachment, limited toxicity, and minimum alteration of the properties of the coatings. The optimal NaB concentration when dispersed in solution, 700 mg l-1, resulted in a biofilm surface coverage of only 3.34% after four weeks. The model silicone, Sylgard 184, demonstrated a better overall performance than the commercial coating, RTV11. Sylgard 184 containing sodium benzoate had 41-52% less biofilm in comparison to the control Sylgard 184, whereas both the control and NaB-entrapped RTV11 coatings had significant biofilm coverage.

  5. An intensive dispersion and synchronous assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a surfactant-oil-water association system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Dechun; Wu, Lin; Zhou, Liang; Du, Yanan; Wang, Meng; Li, Ying

    2016-04-28

    This paper reports a novel approach for achieving an intensive dispersion and synchronous assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) using a surfactant-oil-water association system as medium. A kind of nonionic surfactant N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)dodecanamide (DDA) which could form a bi-continuous network structure not only in water but also in dodecane was used. The SWNTs were infiltrated into the dodecane-DDA mixture instead of DDA aqueous solution, and the attractive van der Waals forces between the pristine SWNT agglomerates were decreased in the first place; the thorough dispersion of the SWNTs was completed in the subsequent phase transformation by adjusting the oil/water ratio, along with mild sonication stirring. The individual SWNTs with different chiralities, such as (6,5), (7,5), (7,6), and (9,4), are all separated well after mild centrifugation treatment, which was confirmed by the well-resolved UV-Vis-NIR absorption and sharp fluorescence spectra. In particular, the self-assembly of DDA drove the separated individual SWNTs forming a large scale spatial network architecture. We believe that the SOW-SWNT suspension has high potential in constructing new functional materials by introducing diverse desirable components through the oil phase and also the water phase medium.

  6. Emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae in reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands region of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, K.; Ciborowski, J. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Concerns over the environmental impacts of oil sands extraction in northeastern Alberta has increased as the industry continues to expand. This study examined if the emergence, growth, and dispersal of Chironomidae differ in reclaimed wetlands constructed with oil sands process materials (OSPM) when compared with growth in reference wetlands. Five floating 30 cm diameter halo traps were deployed in various wetlands for a 24 hour period. Exuviae trapped in the surface water film were then collected, identified, and counted. Chironomids grown in laboratories from egg masses collected from 2 OSPM-affected wetlands and 2 reference wetlands were paired according to geographic proximity under controlled conditions for 1 generation. Chironomid larval growth was quantified in situ in the wetlands by reciprocally transferring second instar, second generation culture larva. The dispersal of the larvae was quantified by tabulating the number of adults caught in sticky insect traps located along 3 radially-arranged transects in each wetland. A preliminary analysis has suggested that fewer chironomids emerged from the OSPM-affected wetlands. No differences in dispersal distance between the OSPM-affected and reference wetlands were observed.

  7. Dispersal and effects of the Antonio Gramsci oil spill in the Stockholm archipelago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notini, M.; Mattsson, J.; Linden, O.

    1980-02-01

    In February 1979 the Russian tanker Antonio Gramsci grounded outside Lettland; 6000 tons of oil were spread in the Baltic. A part of this was passed to the Swedish coast by easterly winds. Effects of the oil have been studied. The greatest effects were observed on organisms living by the seashore, especially crustaceans, which were in direct contact with the oil. The oil had been in the water quite a long time before it reached the Swedish coast. The most poisoning components (volatile aromatics) were not present, and the effects were limited. In some places cleaning caused damages because of the steam used. Fish from the area contained more oil than normal. In mussels there was no excess oil.

  8. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm, 15,

  9. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm,

  10. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm, 15,

  11. Microplastics and potentially toxic elements in coastal sediments of Iran's main oil terminal (Khark Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbarizadeh, Razegheh; Moore, Farid; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moeinpour, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Marine pollutants are becoming a growing concern due to their ecological consequences. This study investigates the potential risk posed by microplastics and toxic elements in coastal sediments of Khark Island, the main oil export hub of Iran. Principal component biplots exhibited a significant positive correlation between microplastic quantities (ranging in shape and color) and concentration of heavy metals with industrial activity. Source identification of the heavy metals indicated both natural and anthropogenic origin. Quality and risk assessment of the sediments revealed low to moderate pollution of Zn, Mo, Pb, Cu, Cd and As in some stations. Results of metal fractionation in sediments demonstrated that Cd, Mn, Zn, As and Pb are capable of posing a serious ecological risk due to potential bioavailability. Microplastics, mostly fragments and fibers, were detected in all sediment samples (ranging from 59 to 217 items/200 g dry sediment). A relatively good significant linear relationship exists between microplastic quantities and potentially toxic element/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in coastal sediments. The results of this study confirmed the key role of microplastics as a "potential contaminant vector" for other types of pollutants.

  12. Towards new botanical pesticides: the toxic effect of Eremanthus goyazensis (Asteraceae leaves essential oil against Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson L. L. Baldin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the chemical characterization of Eremanthusgoyzensis essential oil and its toxic effect over Brevipalpus phoenicis. The essential oil displayed a major composition of sesquiterpenes (61.87% including trans-caryophillene (26.81% and germacrene-D (13.31%. The fumigation test indicated a promising bioactivity over adult B. phoenicis individuals at 24 h (2.03 µL/L of air and 48 h (1.08 µL/L of air of exposition. A brief discussion of essential oils composition and their singular role on the toxic effect over B. phoenicis is provided here. Our results may contribute to a new and profitable use of a species of Brazilian flora on agribusiness.

  13. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation and inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuom@med.uoeh-u.ac.jp; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro [University of Occupational and Environmental Health (Japan); Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru [Hiroshima University (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan); Kitajima, Shinichi [National Sanatorium Hoshizuka Keiaien (Japan); Kuroda, Etsushi [Osaka University, Laboratory of Vaccine Science, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (Japan); Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    We performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles in order to investigate their pulmonary toxicity, and observed pulmonary inflammation not only in the acute and but also in the chronic phases. In the intratracheal instillation study, F344 rats were exposed to 0.2 mg or 1 mg of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to the maximum concentration of inhaled CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles (2, 10 mg/m{sup 3}, respectively) for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of the exposure. The intratracheal instillation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles caused a persistent increase in the total and neutrophil number in BALF and in the concentration of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in BALF during the observation time. The inhalation of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles also induced a persistent influx of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1, CINC-2, and HO-1 in BALF. Pathological features revealed that inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, invaded the alveolar space in both studies. Taken together, the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced not only acute but also chronic inflammation in the lung, suggesting that CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a pulmonary toxicity that can lead to irreversible lesions.

  15. Oil droplet behavior at a pore entrance in the presence of crossflow: Implications for microfiltration of oil-water dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai V

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of an oil droplet pinned at the entrance of a micropore and subject to clossflow-induced shear is investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure required to force the droplet into the pore is in excellent agreement with a theoretical prediction based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing shear rate, the critical pressure of permeation increases, and at sufficiently high shear rates the oil droplet breaks up into two segments. The results of numerical simulations indicate that droplet breakup at the pore entrance is facilitated at lower surface tension, higher oil-to-water viscosity ratio and larger droplet size but is insensitive to the value of the contact angle. Using simple force and torque balance arguments, an estimate for the increase in critical pressure due to crossflow and the breakup capillary number is obtained and validated for different viscosity ratios, surface tension coefficien...

  16. Dispersants as used in response to the MC252-spill lead to higher mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oil-contaminated Gulf of Mexico sand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Zuijdgeest

    Full Text Available After the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, large volumes of crude oil were washed onto and embedded in the sandy beaches and sublittoral sands of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Some of this oil was mechanically or chemically dispersed before reaching the shore. With a set of laboratory-column experiments we show that the addition of chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500A increases the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in saturated permeable sediments by up to two orders of magnitude. Distribution and concentrations of PAHs, measured in the solid phase and effluent water of the columns using GC/MS, revealed that the mobility of the PAHs depended on their hydrophobicity and was species specific also in the presence of dispersant. Deepest penetration was observed for acenaphthylene and phenanthrene. Flushing of the columns with seawater after percolation of the oiled water resulted in enhanced movement by remobilization of retained PAHs. An in-situ benthic chamber experiment demonstrated that aromatic hydrocarbons are transported into permeable sublittoral sediment, emphasizing the relevance of our laboratory column experiments in natural settings. We conclude that the addition of dispersants permits crude oil components to penetrate faster and deeper into permeable saturated sands, where anaerobic conditions may slow degradation of these compounds, thus extending the persistence of potentially harmful PAHs in the marine environment. Application of dispersants in nearshore oil spills should take into account enhanced penetration depths into saturated sands as this may entail potential threats to the groundwater.

  17. Larvicidal activity of Myrtaceae essential oils and their components against Aedes aegypti, acute toxicity on Daphnia magna, and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Byung-Seok; Yang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Gil-Hah; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2011-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of 11 Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents was evaluated against Aedes aegypti L. Of the 11, Melaleuca linariifolia Sm., Melaleuca dissitiflora F. Muell., Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake, and Eucalyptus globulus Labill oils at 0.1 mg/ml exhibited > or = 80% larval mortality. At this same concentration, the individual constituents tested, allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, gamma-terpinene, and (E)-nerolidol, resulted in > or = 95% mortality. We also tested the acute toxicity of these four active oils earlier mentioned and their constituents against Daphnia magna Straus. M. linariifolia and allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic to D. magna. Twodays after treatment, residues of M. dissitiflora, M. linariifolia, M. quinquenervia, and E. globulus oils in water were 55.4, 46.6, 32.4, and 14.8%, respectively. Less than 10% of allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, and gamma-terpinene was detected in the water at 2 d after treatment. Our results indicated that oils and their constituents could easily volatilize in water within a few days after application, thus minimizing their effect on the aqueous ecosystem. Therefore, Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents could be developed as control agents against mosquito larvae.

  18. Assessment of chemical composition and toxicity of the essential oil of leaves and fruits of Jatropha gossypifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciely Moreti dos Reis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves and fruits of Jatropha gossypifolia L. were evaluated for their chemical composition. The essential oil of the leaves, were obtained by hydrodistillation and the fatty material of albumen and seeds were evaluated for chemical composition and toxicity in the Artemia salina assay. The extraction yield of oil was 26.6 % 38.4 % and 0.0365 % for the seeds, leaves and albumen, respectively. The toxicity of the oil obtained from the albumen and seeds against in the Artemia salina were 74.25  0.21 g mL-1 and 78.66  0.25 g mL-1. The saponification and acidity index for the oil albumen was 165.4 mg KOH g-1 and 10%, respectively. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID was used to analyze the fatty acid profile of albumen and seeds. High percentage (35.81 % for heptadecanoic acid (C17:0 was determined for the oil form of the seeds. Twelve compounds were identified in the essential oil obtained from the leaves by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The Kovats Index for compounds were calculated and compared to those of literature.

  19. Investigation of Natural Plant Aegle marmelos Essential Oil Bioactivity on Development and Toxicity of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuwan Bhaskar Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The uncontrolled use of synthetic chemicals is a great hazard for the environment and consumers. Methodology: In the present study, essential oil from leaves of Aegle marmelos was isolated by hydro-distillation and tested their insecticidal activity against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Results: The results showed that the essential oil of A. marmelos have fumigant toxicity, oviposition and developmental inhibitory activity against T. castaneum. The percentage mortality increased with increasing exposure time and concentration. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of A. marmelos essential oil at 48 h was 14.172 and 17.752 FL against larvae and adults of T. castaneum, respectively. The essential oil significantly reduced oviposition (F3,20 = 304.734 in adults and also reduced pupation (F3,20 = 137.442 and adult emergence (F3,20 = 225.619 in larvae when fumigated with sub-lethal concentration. The percent grains infection was reduced 83.66% at 60% of sub-lethal concentration of 24 h LC50. Fumigation of insect with sub-lethal concentration of A. marmelos essential oil inhibited AChE activity. Reduction in AChE activity was 81.48 and 54.32% of the control, after 24 h of fumigation with sub-lethal concentration. Conclusion: In conclusion, this essential oil probably induces toxicity in insect by inhibiting AChE activity.

  20. Contact Toxicity and Repellency of the Essential Oil of Liriope muscari (DECN. Bailey against Three Insect Tobacco Storage Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find and develop new botanical pesticides against tobacco storage pests, bioactivity screening was performed. The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Liriope muscari was investigated by GC/MS and GC/FID. A total of 14 components representing 96.12% of the oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be methyl eugenol (42.15% and safrole (17.15%, followed by myristicin (14.18% and 3,5-dimethoxytoluene (10.60%. After screening, the essential oil exhibit potential insecticidal activity. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil exhibited potent contact toxicity against Tribolium castaneum, Lasioderma serricorne and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults, with LD50 values of 13.36, 11.28 µg/adult and 21.37 µg/cm2, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited strong repellency against the three stored product insects. At the same concentrations, the essential oil was more repellent to T. castaneum than to L. serricorne adults. The results indicate that the essential oil of Liriope muscari has potential to be developed into a natural insecticide or repellent for controlling insects in stored tobacco and traditional Chinese medicinal materials.

  1. Dispersion behaviour of rape oil methyl ester and rape-oil-based hydraulic oils in soils and on soil surfaces with due consideration to the technical performance capabilities of the hydraulic oils. Part-project 1: studies on model ecosystems. Part-project 2: provision of oils with defined degrees of ageing. Final report; Ausbreitungsverhalten von Rapsoelmethylester und Hydraulikoelen auf Rapsoelbasis im Boden und auf Bodenoberflaechen unter Beruecksichtigung der technischen Leistungsfaehigkeit der Hydraulikoele. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen an Modelloekosystemen. Teilvorhaben 2: Bereitstellung definiert gealterter Hydraulikoele. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, W.; Schuett, C.; Roemer, A.; Foelster, N.; Lemke, M.

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of the present cooperative research project is to study the toxicity, the degradation and in particular the dispersion behaviour of biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils and rape oil methyl esters (RME) in soils and waters with a special focus on hydraulic oils. This is to serve as a basis for developing guidelines for action in the event of accidents involving biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic fluids that ensure proper accident reporting and handling. The outcome of the cooperative research project is to permit a first risk assessment for the soil and water compartments in the event of accidents involving hydraulic oils and RME. Another task is to clarify to what extent it is permissible to deviate from the usual measures prescribed for oil accidents involving crude oil when biologically rapidly degradable hydraulic oils or RME are involved instead. [German] Ziel des Verbundvorhabens ist es, die Toxizitaet, den Abbau und insbesondere das Ausbreitungsverhalten von biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen und Rapsoelmethylester (RME) in Boden und Wasser zu untersuchen, wobei der Schwerpunkt der Arbeiten bei den Hydraulikoelen liegt. Damit sollen Verfahrensrichtlinien angegeben werden, die im Falle von Unfaellen mit biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikfluessigkeiten oder Biodiesel eine angemessene Unfallaufnahme und -abwicklung sicherstellen. Als Ergebnis des Verbundvorhabens soll eine erste Risikoabschaetzung fuer die Kompartimente Boden und Wasser bei Unfaellen mit Hydraulikoelen und RME moeglich sein. Darueber hinaus soll geklaert werden, inwieweit Abweichungen von den ueblichen Massnahmen bei Oelunfaellen mit Mineraloelprodukten im Vergleich zu biologisch schnell abbaubaren Hydraulikoelen oder RME moeglich sind. (orig.)

  2. Oil spill dispersants induce formation of marine snow by phytoplankton-associated bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenennaam, van J.S.; Wei, Yuzhu; Grolle, K.C.F.; Foekema, E.M.; Murk, A.T.J.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually large amounts of marine snow, including Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS), were formed during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The marine snow settled with oil and clay minerals as an oily sludge layer on the deep sea floor. This study tested the hypothesis that the unpreced

  3. Oil spill dispersants induce formation of marine snow by phytoplankton-associated bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenennaam, van J.S.; Wei, Yuzhu; Grolle, K.C.F.; Foekema, E.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually large amounts of marine snow, including Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS), were formed during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The marine snow settled with oil and clay minerals as an oily sludge layer on the deep sea floor. This study tested the hypothesis that the

  4. Model description of dibenzothiophene mass transfer in oil/water dispersions with respect to biodesulfurization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, C.L.M.; Leeuwen, van M.; Polderman, H.G.; Janssen, A.J.H.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed in order to describe the mass transfer rate of dibenzothiophene within the oil droplet to the oil/water interface of droplets created in a stirred tank reactor. The mass transfer rate of dibenzothiophene was calculated for various complex hydrocarbon distillates an

  5. Fumigant Toxicity of Petroselinum Crispum L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil on Trialeurodes Vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae Adults Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Leila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of the most harmful, world-wide known pests of greenhouse crops and ornamental plants. This insect feeds on plant sap, produces honeydew, and transmits plant viruses, while causing quantitative and qualitative damage to plants. For controlling this pest in greenhouses, plant essential oils are used as an alternative to chemical insecticidal. So in this study, fumigant toxicity of Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae plant oil on the abovementioned adult pest was investigated. Dry seeds were ground and subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus and the resulting oil contained myristicin (42.65%, β-phellandrene (21.83%, p-1,3,8-menthatriene (9.97%, and β-myrcene (4.25%. All bioassay tests were conducted at 27±2°C, 65±5% relative humidity (RH and at a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (light : dark. This research was performed in a completely randomised design with six treatments (five different concentrations of essential oils plus the control. Each concentration included three replicates and each replicate consisted of 20 adult pests. The results showed that the aforementioned essential oil showed significant mortality of adults 24 h after exposure. The value LC50 of the mentioned plant oil on T. vaporariorum was 2.41 μl/l air. And mortality percentage showed higher sensitivity of T. vaporariorum against the application of the essential oil. The value LT50 estimated for T. vaporariorum in a concentration of 2.41 μl/l air was 8.17 h. The fumigant toxicity of this essential oil had an ordered relationship with the concentration and time exposure. The results of this research showed that the mentioned plant oil had appropriate insecticidal effects on these greenhouse pests. The findings showed that P. crispum oil had a high impact on the above-mentioned pest, and its use is suggested because of its high potential fumigant toxicity. The oil of P. crispum may be

  6. Widespread dispersal and bio-accumulation of toxic microcystins in benthic marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Akira; Takahashi, Tohru; Komorita, Tomohiro; Orita, Ryo; Choi, Jin-Woo; Takenaka, Risa; Mabuchi, Rie; Park, Ho-Dong; Tsutsumi, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater cyanobacteria produce toxic microcystins (MCs), which travel from freshwater areas into the sea. The MCs produced by cyanobacteria in a freshwater reservoir were discharged frequently into the adjacent Isahaya Bay, remained in the surface sediments, and then accumulated in various macrobenthic animals on the seafloor. The MCs were transported further outside of Isahaya Bay (Ariake Bay), and the median values of the MC contents in the sediments were in the same levels in both bays, while their temporal variations were also similar during the study period. Therefore, the fluctuations of the MC contents in the surface sediments were physically controlled by the timing of the discharge from the reservoir. The MC contents in polychaetes and oysters collected in Isahaya Bay increased markedly during winter. The median values of the carbon-based MC contents in the sediments, primary consumers, and secondary consumers in the bay were 87, 160, and 250 ngMC gC(-1), respectively. These results demonstrated bio-accumulation at lower trophic levels in benthic marine ecosystems. An understanding of the processes occurring between sediments and macrobenthic animals is important for clarifying MC dynamics in ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wettability Alteration of Sandstones by Silica Nanoparticle Dispersions with Light and Heavy Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pales, A. R.; Huibers, B. M. J.; Bai, L.; Li, C.; Mu, L.; Ladner, D.; Daigle, H.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    In enhanced oil recovery (EOR), nanoparticles with their unique physico-chemical properties present a promising method for altering wettability. Nanoparticles could create a water-wet surface in a reservoir rather than an oil-wet one which would ease petroleum recovery. This research examines how uncoated silica nanoparticles alter the wettability of two sandstone surfaces, Berea and Boise, by measuring the contact angle and interfacial tension of different systems as an indicator of wettability. The silica nanoparticles were suspended in brine and brine plus a nonionic surfactant at concentrations of 0, 0.001, and 0.01 wt%. The differential impact on heavy and light crude oils was characterized as well. The study showed that surfactants had a greater impact on interfacial tension (IFT). The IFT decreased with the introduction of surfactants by 79% and 54% for light and heavy crude oils respectively. This reduction in IFT translates to less pressure needed for petroleum recovery. For the contact angle, images collected depict the reduction of contact angle with increased nanoparticle concentration across all oil, sandstone, and reservoir types. In addition to the images taken, the contact angles measured significantly decreased when nanoparticles were introduced with reductions reaching up to 93% between 0 and 0.001 wt% nanoparticles with light oil on the Berea sandstone. As nanoparticle concentration increased, the sandstones became increasingly water-wet for both oil types, and the increasing concentration impacted the light crude oil more than the heavy crude oil. The research evinced that nanoparticles can be used with surfactants in light and heavy crude oil systems to increase the hydrophilicity of Berea and Boise sandstones.

  8. Soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions: effects of polyol functionality and hard segment content on properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2008-11-01

    The environmentally friendly vegetable-oil-based waterborne polyurethane dispersions with very promising properties have been successfully synthesized without difficulty from a series of methoxylated soybean oil polyols (MSOLs) with different hydroxyl functionalities ranging from 2.4 to as high as 4.0. The resulting soybean-oil-based waterborne polyurethane (SPU) dispersions exhibit a uniform particle size, which increases from about 12 to 130 nm diameter with an increase in the OH functionality of the MSOL from 2.4 to 4.0 and decreases with increasing content of the hard segments. The structure and thermophysical and mechanical properties of the resulting SPU films, which contain 50-60 wt % MSOL as renewable resources, have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and mechanical testing. The experimental results reveal that the functionality of the MSOLs and the hard segment content play a key role in controlling the structure and the thermophysical and mechanical properties of the SPU films. These novel films exhibit tensile stress-strain behavior ranging from elastomeric polymers to rigid plastics and possess Young's moduli ranging from 8 to 720 MPa, ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 4.2 to 21.5 MPa, and percent elongation at break values ranging from 16 to 280%. This work has addressed concerns regarding gelation and higher cross-linking caused by the high functionality of vegetable-oil-based polyols. This article reports novel environmentally friendly biobased SPU materials with promising applications as decorative and protective coatings.

  9. Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Basil and Spearmint Against Two Major Pyralid Pests of Stored Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Hassiotis, C N; Andreadis, S S; Porichi, A-E E

    2015-04-01

    The fumigant activity of essential oil vapors distilled from sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. and spearmint Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) were tested against two major stored products pests Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Various oil doses (0.5, 2.5, 5, 50, 250, 500, 1,000, and 1,500 µl/liter air), for an exposure period of 24 h, were tested. The essential oils were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed that the major compounds were for spearmint oil carvone (67.1%) and limonene (+1,8 cineole; 14.3%) and for basil oil linalool (45.9%), 1,8 cineole (16.7%) and eugenol (10.3%). Apart from a few exceptions, no significant differences in insecticidal action were observed between basil and spearmint oil. Both oils were highly effective against adult moths, given that notable mortality (>80%) was recorded after exposure to low doses such as 2.5 µl/liter. Noteworthy, egg mortality was also recorded, reaching 73-79% for basil and 56-60% for spearmint. Toxicity data indicated that larvae and pupae were the most tolerant stages in all cases. Larval mortality never exceeded 21 and 18%, for basil and spearmint, respectively, irrespective of moth species. Basil and spearmint oils displayed mortalities as high as 38 and 28% in pupae. Lethal doses (LD50 and LD99) values were estimated via probit analysis. Developmental stage proved to be a significant factor, whereas the effect of oil species on insect mortality was insignificant. With the exception of adult individuals, basil and spearmint oils did not show satisfactory overall insecticidal activity against E. kuehniella and P. interpunctella.

  10. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-09-06

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated.

  11. Toxic effects of the neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation on the stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuncio, José Cola; Mourão, Sheila Abreu; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Ramalho, Francisco S.; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of neem oil on mortality, survival and malformations of the non-target stink bug predator, Podisus nigrispinus. Neurotoxic and growth inhibitor insecticides were used to compare the lethal and sublethal effects from neem oil on this predator. Six concentrations of neem oil were topically applied onto nymphs and adults of this predator. The mortality rates of third, fourth, and fifth instar nymphs increased with increasing neem oil concentrations, suggesting low toxicity to P. nigrispinus nymphs. Mortality of adults was low, but with sublethal effects of neem products on this predator. The developmental rate of P. nigrispinus decreased with increasing neem oil concentrations. Longevity of fourth instar nymphs varied from 3.74 to 3.05 d, fifth instar from 5.94 to 4.07 d and adult from 16.5 and 15.7 d with 0.5 and 50% neem doses. Podisus nigrispinus presented malformations and increase with neem oil concentrations. The main malformations occur in wings, scutellum and legs of this predator. The neem oil at high and sub lethal doses cause mortality, inhibits growth and survival and results in anomalies on wings and legs of the non-traget predator P. nigrispinus indicating that its use associated with biological control should be carefully evaluated. PMID:27596436

  12. Acute toxicity of smoke screen materials to aquatic organisms, white phosphorus-felt, red phosphorus-butyl rubber and SGF No. 2 fog oil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; McFadden, K.M.; Bean, R.M.; Clark, M.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Killand, B.W.; Prohammer, L.A.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The acute toxicity of three obscurants was determined for nine freshwater organisms. The materials tested were white phosphorus-felt smoke, red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP-BR) smoke, and smoke generator fuel (SGF) No. 2 fog oil (bulk and vaporized). The chemistry of WP-F and RP-BR smoke in water and the resulting effects on aquatic organisms are similar. Combustion of these two obscurants and their deposition in water leads to the formation of many complex oxy-phosphoric acids. Rates of hydrolysis of these complex products to ortho-phosphate were inconsistent and unpredictable over time. These products acidify water and produce toxic effects after exhausting the buffering capacity of the water. Acute 96 hr tests using Daphnia magna with neutralized and nonneutralized exposure solutions indicated that the presence of unidentified toxic component(s) acted independently of pH. At pH levels of 6.0 to 7.0, phosphorus combustion products precipitated out of solution leading to a bimodal toxic response in extended 96-hr tests with Daphnia magna. Most components of fog oil had low solubility in water. Saturation was apparent at approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L total oil. Vaporization had no demonstrable effect on the chemistry or toxicity of the fog oil. Neither the bulk fog oil nor the vaporized fog oil was acutely toxic to freshwater animals at concentrations less than 10 mg/L total oil. In oil-water mixes in excess of 1.0 mg/L total oil, fog oil quickly separated and floated to the surface. The primary hazard associated with vaporized and bulk fog oil was the physical effect of oil fouling the organisms. Photolysis increased the concentration of water-soluble components of the fog oil. Acute toxicity was demonstrated in oil-water mixes (approx.10 mg/L total oil) of photolyzed bulk and vaporized fog oil. No difference in toxicity was observed between photolyzed and non-photolyzed dilutions of OWM at comparable levels of total oil.

  13. New test for oil soluble/water dispersible gas pipeline inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmann, D.W.; Asperger, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The wheel test provides good mixing of the condensate and water phases, the coupons are exposed to both phases. Therefore, the wheel test cannot distinguish between inhibitors that need continuous mixing of the these phases to maintain a water dispersion of the inhibitor and inhibitors that will self disperse into the water. This concept becomes important for pipelines in stratified flow where the water can settle out. In these cases with low turbulence, the inhibitor must self disperse into the water to be effective. The paper describes a test method to measure the effectiveness of an inhibitor and its ability to self disperse. The effectiveness of several inhibitors as predicted by the new test method is discussed relative to data from the wheel test and breaker tests. Field performance of these inhibitors in a gas gathering line, with liquids in stratified flow, are cities and compared with the results of the various laboratory tests.

  14. Kaolinite and Silica Dispersions in Low-Salinity Environments: Impact on a Water-in-Crude Oil Emulsion Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alvarado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at providing evidence of particle suspension contributions to emulsion stability, which has been cited as a contributing factor in crude oil recovery by low-salinity waterflooding. Kaolinite and silica particle dispersions were characterized as functions of brine salinity. A reference aqueous phase, representing reservoir brine, was used and then diluted with distilled water to obtain brines at 10 and 100 times lower Total Dissolved Solid (TDS. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and X-ray Diffraction (XRD were used to examine at the morphology and composition of clays. The zeta potential and particle size distribution were also measured. Emulsions were prepared by mixing a crude oil with brine, with and without dispersed particles to investigate emulsion stability. The clay zeta potential as a function of pH was used to investigate the effect of particle charge on emulsion stability. The stability was determined through bottle tests and optical microscopy. Results show that both kaolinite and silica promote emulsion stability. Also, kaolinite, roughly 1 mm in size, stabilizes emulsions better than larger clay particles. Silica particles of larger size (5 µm yielded more stable emulsions than smaller silica particles do. Test results show that clay particles with zero point of charge (ZPC at low pH become less effective at stabilizing emulsions, while silica stabilizes emulsions better at ZPC. These result shed light on emulsion stabilization in low-salinity waterflooding.

  15. A computer-controlled whole-body inhalation exposure system for the oil dispersant COREXIT EC9500A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, William Travis; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Law, Brandon; Bledsoe, Toni; Siegel, Paul; Cumpston, Jared; Frazer, David

    2011-01-01

    An automated whole-body inhalation exposure system capable of exposing 12 individually housed rats was designed to examine the potential adverse health effects of the oil dispersant COREXIT EC9500A, used extensively during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. A computer-controlled syringe pump injected the COREXIT EC9500A into an atomizer where droplets and vapor were formed and mixed with diluent air. The aerosolized COREXIT EC9500A was passed into a customized exposure chamber where a calibrated light-scattering instrument estimated the real-time particle mass concentration of the aerosol in the chamber. Software feedback loops controlled the chamber aerosol concentration and pressure throughout each exposure. The particle size distribution of the dispersant aerosol was measured and shown to have a count median aerodynamic diameter of 285 nm with a geometric standard deviation of 1.7. The total chamber concentration (particulate + vapor) was determined using a modification of the acidified methylene blue spectrophotometric assay for anionic surfactants. Tests were conducted to show the effectiveness of closed loop control of chamber concentration and to verify chamber concentration homogeneity. Five automated 5-h animal exposures were performed that produced controlled and consistent COREXIT EC9500A concentrations (27.1 ± 2.9 mg/m(3), mean ± SD).

  16. Toxicity of Neem Seed Oil against the Larvae of Boophilus decoloratus, A One-Host Tick In Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, M K

    2009-09-01

    The in vitro toxicity of neem seed oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, family: Meliaceae, Dogon yaro in Hausa language in Nigeria) was tested against the larvae of a one-host tick, Boophilus decoloratus (family: Ixodidae or hard tick, commonly known as blue tick) parasitic mainly to cattle generally found in savannas of tropical equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% concentrations of neem seed oil were found to kill all (100% mortality) the larvae after 27, 27, 27, 27 and 24 h respectively.

  17. Degradation and aquatic toxicity of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected waters using simulated wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Navdeep S; Franz, Eric D; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Liber, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) produced during the extraction of bitumen at the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, are toxic to many aquatic organisms. Much of this toxicity is related to a group of dissolved organic acids known as naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are a natural component of bitumen and are released into process water during the separation of bitumen from the oil sand ore by a caustic hot water extraction process. Using laboratory microcosms as an analogue of a proposed constructed wetland reclamation strategy for OSPW, we evaluated the effectiveness of these microcosms in degrading NAs and reducing the aquatic toxicity of OSPW over a 52-week test period. Experimental manipulations included two sources of OSPW (one from Syncrude Canada Ltd. and one from Suncor Energy Inc.), two different hydraulic retention times (HRTs; 40 and 400 d), and increased nutrient availability (added nitrate and phosphate). Microcosms with a longer HRT (for both OSPWs) showed higher reductions in total NAs concentrations (64-74% NAs reduction, p100% v/v) independent of HRT. However, EC20s from separate Microtox® bioassays were relatively unchanged when comparing the input and microcosm waters at both HRTs over the 52-week study period (p>0.05), indicating that some sub-lethal toxicity persisted under these experimental conditions. The present study demonstrated that given sufficiently long HRTs, simulated wetland microcosms containing OSPW significantly reduced total NAs concentrations and acute toxicity, but left behind a persistent component of the NAs mixture that appeared to be associated with residual chronic toxicity.

  18. Retrospective analysis of associations between water quality and toxic blooms of golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) in Texas reservoirs: Implications for understanding dispersal mechanisms and impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Dawson, D.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxic blooms of golden alga (GA, Prymnesium parvum) in Texas typically occur in winter or early spring. In North America, they were first reported in Texas in the 1980s, and a marked range expansion occurred in 2001. Although there is concern about the influence of climate change on the future distribution of GA, factors responsible for past dispersals remain uncertain. To better understand the factors that influence toxic bloom dispersal in reservoirs, this study characterized reservoir water quality associated with toxic GA blooms since 2001, and examined trends in water quality during a 20-year period bracketing the 2001 expansion. Archived data were analyzed for six impacted and six nonimpacted reservoirs from two major Texas basins: Brazos River and Colorado River. Data were simplified for analysis by pooling spatially (across sampling stations) and temporally (winter, December-February) within reservoirs and generating depth-corrected (1 m) monthly values. Classification tree analysis [period of record (POR), 2001-2010] using salinity-associated variables (specific conductance, chloride, sulfate), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, temperature, total hardness, potassium, nitrate+nitrite, and total phosphorus indicated that salinity best predicts the toxic bloom occurrence. Minimum estimated salinities for toxic bloom formation were 0.59 and 1.02 psu in Brazos and Colorado River reservoirs, respectively. Principal component analysis (POR, 2001-2010) indicated that GA habitat is best defined by higher salinity relative to nonimpacted reservoirs, with winter DO and pH also being slightly higher and winter temperature slightly lower in impacted reservoirs. Trend analysis, however, did not reveal monotonic changes in winter water quality of GA-impacted reservoirs during the 20-year period (1991-2010) bracketing the 2001 dispersal. Therefore, whereas minimum levels of salinity are required for GA establishment and toxic blooms in Texas reservoirs, the lack of trends in

  19. DNA polymorphism among Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis populations from oil palm, using a repeated and dispersed sequence "Palm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyna, I; Renard, J L; Brygoo, Y

    1996-07-31

    A worldwide collection, of 76 F. oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis isolates (Foe), and of 21 F. oxysporum isolates from the soil of several palm grove was analysed by RFLP. As a probe, we used a random DNA fragment (probe 46) from a genomic library of a Foe isolate. This probe contains two different types of sequence, one being repeated and dispersed in the genome "Palm", the other being a single-copy sequence. All F. oxysporum isolates from the palm-grove soils were non-pathogenic to oil palm. They all had a simple restriction pattern with one band homologous to the single-copy sequence of probe 46. All Foe isolates were pathogenic to oil palm and they all had complex patterns due to hybridization with "Palm". This repetitive sequence reveals that Foe isolates are distinct from the other F. oxysporum palm-grove soils isolates. The sequence can reliably discriminate pathogenic from non-pathogenic oil palm isolates. Based on DNA fingerprint similarities, Foe populations were divided into ten groups consisting of isolates with the same geographic origin. Isolates from Brazil and Ecuador were an exception to that rule as they had the same restriction pattern as a few isolates from the Ivory Coast, suggesting they may originated from Africa.

  20. Development of a bioassay using walleye (Sander vitreus) to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Yuan, H.; Tumber, V.; Parrott, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Raine, J. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effects of sediments from the Athabasca oil sands area on fish development and survival. Walleye (Sander vitreus) which inhabit the Athabasca River are exposed to natural sources of bitumen eroding from the McMurray formation. This study described the design and implementation of a daily-renewal bioassay to evaluate the potential effects of toxicants on walleye development. Eggs were collected and fertilized with milt from spawning wild walleye captured from Lake Diefenbaker in Saskatchewan. The fertilized eggs were exposed to different concentrations of sediments or culture water only (negative controls) until complete yolk absorption of control fish. The walleye embryos were fed brine shrimp daily after hatching and the developing fish were examined for morphological deformities, survival, hatching success, and changes in weight and length between treatments. Organics concentrations in fish tissues and water were measured when possible. Fathead minnows and northern pikes will also be exposed to the same sediments in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the three species.

  1. Amphiphile grafted membranes for the separation of oil-in-water dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarter, John A; Youngblood, Jeffrey P

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorinated end-capped polyethylene glycol surfactants were covalently attached to fritted glass membranes as a means to improve the separation of oil-in-water emulsions. Hexadecane was used as representative oil for the oil-in-water emulsions; membrane pore size was varied between 10 and 174 microm. Membranes were characterized with respect to contact angle, permeability of bulk fluids, and separation efficiency. Performance was compared to similar metrics applied to unmodified membranes. Modified membranes demonstrated static hexadecane contact angles which were higher than static water contact angles converse to their unmodified counterparts. The relative hydrophilicity and corresponding oleophobicity of the modified membranes resulted in greater water permeability as compared to hexadecane permeability. The presence of the perfluorinated constituent of the amphiphile retarded the flow of hexadecane. For modified membranes, suspended hexadecane coalesced at the membrane surface, was undercut by water, and floated to the surface such that only trace amounts of oil were present in the permeate. Therefore, modified membranes resisted fouling from oil due to the self-cleaning properties of the attached amphiphile.

  2. Monitoring and assessment of toxic metals in Gulf War oil spill contaminated soil using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, T; Gondal, M A

    2008-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied for the detection of toxic metals in oil spill contaminated soil (OSCS). The OSCS samples were collected from Khursania Saudi Arabia along the coast of Persian Gulf exposed to oil spills in 1991 Gulf war. Environmentally important elements like Aluminum Magnesium, Calcium, Chromium, Titanium, Strontium, Iron, Barium, Sodium, potassium, Zirconium and Vanadium from the contaminated soil have been detected. Optimal experimental conditions for analysis were investigated. The LIBS system was calibrated using standard samples containing these trace elements. The results obtained using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) were compared with the results obtained using Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICP). The concentrations of some elements (Ba and Cr) were found higher than permissible safe limits. Health risks associated with exposure to such toxic elements are also discussed.

  3. Co-exposure to sunlight enhances the toxicity of naturally weathered Deepwater Horizon oil to early lifestage red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and speckled seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Matthew; Garner, Thomas Ross; Bridges, Kristin; Mansfield, Charles; Carney, Michael; Forth, Heather; Krasnec, Michelle; Lay, Claire; Takeshita, Ryan; Morris, Jeffrey; Bonnot, Shane; Oris, James; Roberts, Aaron

    2017-03-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill resulted in the accidental release of millions of barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is 1 mechanism by which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from oil spills may exert toxicity. Red drum and speckled seatrout are both important fishery resources in the Gulf of Mexico. They spawn near-shore and produce positively buoyant embryos that hatch into larvae in approximately 24 h. The goal of the present study was to determine whether exposure to UV as natural sunlight enhances the toxicity of crude oil to early lifestage red drum and speckled seatrout. Larval fish were exposed to several dilutions of high-energy water-accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) from 2 different oils collected in the field under chain of custody during the 2010 spill and 3 gradations of natural sunlight in a factorial design. Co-exposure to natural sunlight and oil significantly reduced larval survival compared with exposure to oil alone. Although both species were sensitive at PAH concentrations reported during the Deepwater Horizon spill, speckled seatrout demonstrated a greater sensitivity to photo-induced toxicity than red drum. These data demonstrate that even advanced weathering of slicks does not ameliorate the potential for photo-induced toxicity of oil to these species. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:780-785. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. The toxicity and fate of phenolic pollutants in the contaminated soils associated with the oil-shale industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, Anne; Maloverjan, Alla; Sillak, Helgi; Põllumaa, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols considered major pollutants in the oil-shale semi-coke dump leachates (up to 380 mg phenols/L) that contaminate the surrounding soils and pose a threat to the groundwater in the North-East of Estonia. However; despite high residual concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oil products in these soils, the concentration of phenols (especially their water-extractable fraction) was low, not exceeding 0.7 mg/kg dwt. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of biodegradation and aging on the decrease of hazard caused by phenolic pollution. The extractability of phenols (phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols) and their biodegradability by the microbial population was studied in the 13 soils sampled from the Estonian oil-shale region, territories of former gas stations, and from presumably non-polluted areas. Phenol, 5-methylresorcinol, p-cresol and resorcinol could be considered easily degradable in the soils as the microbial populations from majority of the soils studied were able to grow on mineral medium supplemented with these phenols as a single source of carbon. 2,3- and 2,4- and 3,4-dimethylphenols could be considered less easily biodegradable. The semi-coke dump leachate polluted soil (containing no dibasic phenols, 43 mg of monobasic phenols, 1348 mg of oil products and 35 mg of PAHs per g dwt) was analyzed chemically (HPLC) and toxicologically (Flash-Assay using Vibrio fischeri) for the leaching of phenols during shaking of soil-water slurries for 24 h. Only 5.8% of the total concentration of phenols was water-extractable, whereas about 50% of the leached amount was biodegraded by the soil microorganisms. Phenol and cresols were biodegraded by 80%, but the concentration of dimethylphenols practically did not change. The pollutants (measured as total water-extractable toxicity) were desorbed from the soil particles by the 8th h of extraction, whereas the toxicity of the aqueous

  5. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Dispersed in Palm Oil Using Laser Ablation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Sadrolhosseini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles have more applications in biology, medicine, and industry. In this study, gold nanoparticles were synthesized in pure palm oil using laser ablation technique. Gold nanoparticles were fabricated in different temperature, and the effect of the temperature on the particle size was investigated. Consequently, the tail of the carbonyl band of fatty acids was capped gold nanoparticles, and spherically shaped gold nanoparticles with size range of 8.92 to 19.73 nm were formed in palm oil. The temperature caused the agglomeration of nanoparticles while the particle size increased with an increase in the temperature.

  6. Toxic effects of oil sand naphthenic acids on the biomass accumulation of 21 potential phytoplankton remediation candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Adam P J; Frank, Richard A; McConkey, Brendan J; Müller, Kirsten M

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of northern Alberta, Canada contain an estimated 170 billion barrels of crude oil. Extraction processes produce large amounts of liquid tailings known as oil sand process affected water (OSPW) that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Naphthenic acids (NAs), and their sodium salts, represent a significant contributor to the toxicity of these waters. Due to the recalcitrant nature of these compounds, an effective mode of remediation has yet to be established. This study investigates the suitability of the use of phytoplankton for remediation efforts based on two criteria: the ability of phytoplankton strains to withstand the toxic effects of NAs, and their rate of biomass accumulation. A total of 21 phytoplankton strains were isolated from waters containing NAs, cultured, and maintained under unialgal conditions. These strains were then exposed to NAs in concentrations ranging from 0mg L(-1) to 1000mg L(-1) over a 14 day period. Inhibition of growth was observed at 30mg L(-1) NA (one strain), 100mg L(-1) NA (one strain), 300mg L(-1) NA (six strains), and 1000mg L(-1) NA (six strains). Five strains failed to show any growth inhibition at any test concentration and two strains could not be analysed due to poor growth during the test period. Strains were then ranked based on their suitability for use in remediation efforts.

  7. Acute and subacute oral toxicity assessment of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart ex Spreng. pulp fruit in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Menegati, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei; Santos, Ariany Carvalho Dos; Souza, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho; de Oliveira, Vinícius Soares; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida; Vieira, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., popularly known as "bacuri", is a native plant from the brazilian Cerrado and used in folk medicine as a pulmonary decongestant, an anti-inflammatory for joints and antipyretic. There is an expectation about the use in chronic disease of the Attalea phalerata oil since its composition is high in carotenoids and beneficial fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicological profile of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. pulp (APO). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were performed in male and female Wistar rats according to the OECD - Guidelines 425 and 407. For the acute toxicity, one single dose of the APO (2000mg/kg) was administered by gavage to five female rats. In the subacute toxicity, four different doses (125, 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) of the APO were administered to male and female rats for 28 consecutive days. No deaths or behavioral changes were observed during both experiments as well as no changes in organ weights, hematological, histopathological parameters. The biochemical parameters showed changes in phosphatase alkaline and albumin levels, however these values are within the normal range for the species. A significant reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides was also observed in some of the animals treated with the APO. Therefore, the LD50 is higher than 2000mg/kg and the APO oil can be considered safe at the doses tested in rats. However, further assessments are required in order to proceed to clinical studies in humans.

  8. Toxicity of essential oils from leaves of Piperaceae species in rice stalk stink bug eggs, Tibraca limbativentris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diones Krinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tibraca limbativentris to is an important rice pest and occurs in all rice-growing regions of Latin America. The control this insect is accomplished with synthetic chemical insecticides, however, new approaches are needed to reduce risks to the environment, to the natural enemies and also to avoid the onset of insecticides resistance. This study was designed to assess the toxicity of essential oils (EOs from leaves of Piper aduncum, P. gaudichaudianum, P. malacophyllum, P. marginatum and P. tuberculatum (Piperaceae on rice stalk stink bug eggs, T. limbativentris. Essential oils were extracted with steam distillation and dilutions were made for bioassays at concentrations of 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0%. Essential oils from all species of Piperaceae displayed ovicidal activity. The LC50 values indicated that both younger and older eggs were susceptible to these oils. Ovicidal activity is related to the potential toxicity of several compounds, especially dilapiolle, myristicin, cubebene, α-guaiene, longifolene, prezizane, spathulenol, sabinene and δ-2-carene. Thus, EOs tested showed promising results for use as biorational botanical insecticides.

  9. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  10. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae in Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM. Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice.

  11. Granular activated carbon for simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation of toxic oil sands process-affected water organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinoor; Zhang, Yanyan; McPhedran, Kerry N; Liu, Yang; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) released into oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) during bitumen processing in Northern Alberta are problematic for oil sands industries due to their toxicity in the environment and resistance to degradation during conventional wastewater treatment processes. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has shown to be an effective media in removing biopersistent organics from wastewater using a combination of adsorption and biodegradation removal mechanisms. A simultaneous GAC (0.4 g GAC/L) adsorption and biodegradation (combined treatment) study was used for the treatment of raw and ozonated OSPW. After 28 days of batch treatment, classical and oxidized NAs removals for raw OSPW were 93.3% and 73.7%, and for ozonated OSPW were 96.2% and 77.1%, respectively. Synergetic effects of the combined treatment process were observed in removals of COD, the acid extractable fraction, and oxidized NAs, which indicated enhanced biodegradation and bioregeneration in GAC biofilms. A bacteria copy number >10(8) copies/g GAC on GAC surfaces was found using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction after treatment for both raw and ozonated OSPW. A Microtox(®) acute toxicity test (Vibrio fischeri) showed effective toxicity removal (>95.3%) for the combined treatments. Therefore, the simultaneous GAC adsorption and biodegradation treatment process is a promising technology for the elimination of toxic OSPW NAs.

  12. Contaminants, toxicity and wildlife mortality at oil production sites in western South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chemicals at oil production sites can be hazardous to migratory birds and other wildlife. Oil, grease, and other chemical wastes related to well drilling are...

  13. Using DUSTRAN to Simulate Fog-Oil Dispersion and Its Impacts on Local Insect Populations at Ft. Hood: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rishel, Jeremy P.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2006-12-29

    Smokes and obscurants (S&O) are important screening agents used during military training exercises on many military installations. Although the use of S&O is subject to environmental laws, the fate and effects of S&O on natural habitats are not well documented. One particular concern is the impact S&O may have on local insect populations, which can be important components of terrestrial food chains of endangered species. Fog-oil (FO) is an S&O that is of particular concern. An important part of assessing potential ecosystem impacts is the ability to predict downwind FO concentrations. This report documents the use of the comprehensive atmospheric dispersion modeling system DUST TRANsport (DUSTRAN) to simulate the downwind transport and diffusion of a hypothetical FO release on the U.S. Army installation at Ft. Hood, TX.

  14. Toxicity of plant essential oils to different life stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, and non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    Seven essential oils with potential as acaricides for use against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), were selected for study. These products (essential oils of manuka, cade, pennyroyal, thyme, garlic, clove bud and cinnamon bark) were deployed against different life stages of D. gallinae in laboratory tests at the (lethal concentration) LC(50) level for adult mites. For all essential oils tested, toxicity to D. gallinae juveniles was as high as toxicity to adults, if not higher. However, at the LC(50) level determined for adults, some oils were ineffective in preventing hatching of D. gallinae eggs. The essential oils were also tested under laboratory conditions at their LC(90) levels for D. gallinae adults on two model non-target species, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (L.), and the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (L.). Results showed that not all essential oils were as toxic to A. salina and T. molitor as they were to D. gallinae, suggesting that it may be possible to select certain oils for development as acaricides against D. gallinae that would have minimal impact on non-target organisms. However, the level of toxicity to A. salina and T. molitor was not consistent across the selected essential oils.

  15. Application of Thermal Desorption Unit (TDU) to treat low-toxicity mineral oil base cuttings in Barinas District, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rendon, Ruben [Petroleos de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Luzardo, Janeth; Alcoba, Alcides [M-I SWACO, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The potential environmental impact of oil-based drill cuttings is generating increased scrutiny in the oil and gas industry. If left untreated, oil-based cuttings not only increase the risk of environmental liabilities, but also affect revenue, as drilling generates wastes that in most cases require special treatment before disposal. Consequently, the oil industry is looking for technologies to help minimize environmental liabilities. Accordingly, the Barinas District of PDVSA has started a pilot trial to treat oil-based drilling cuttings by applying thermal desorption technology. The main objective of this technology is recovering trapped hydrocarbons, while minimizing wastes and preparing solids to be disposed of through a mobile treatment plant. This novel technology has been used worldwide to treat organic pollutants in soil. Thermal desorption is a technology based on the application of heat in soils polluted with organic compounds. With this technology, target temperatures vary according to the type and concentration of detected pollutants along with its characterization, in such a way that compounds are disposed of by volatilization. As part of the integral waste management development along with the pilot trial for hydrocarbon-contaminated solid waste treatment, trials on soils were undertaken by applying process-generated ashes in equally-sized bins, with different mixtures (ashes, ashes organic material, ashes-organic material-sand, ashes-land). The resulting process offers an immediate soil remediation and final disposal solution for toxic and dangerous waste. (author)

  16. Antifungal Activity, Toxicity and Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Coriandrum sativum L. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika H. S. Brito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to test the antifungal activity, toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil from C. sativum L. fruits. The essential oil, obtained by hydro-distillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Linalool was the main constituent (58.22%. The oil was considered bioactive, showing an LC50 value of 23 µg/mL in the Artemia salina lethality test. The antifungal activity was evaluated against Microsporum canis and Candida spp. by the agar-well diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were established by the broth microdilution method. The essential oil induced growth inhibition zones of 28 ± 5.42 and 9.25 ± 0.5 for M. canis and Candida spp. respectively. The MICs and MFCs for M. canis strains ranged from 78 to 620 and 150 to 1,250 µg/mL, and the MICs and MFCs for Candida spp strains ranged from 310 to 620 and 620 to 1,250 µg/mL, respectively. C. sativum essential oil is active in vitro against M. canis and Candida spp. demonstrating good antifungal activity.

  17. TIVMETIX OD – A Sulfonylurea-based Herbicide with improved efficacy through novel oil dispersion (OD formulation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimeno, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available TIVMETIX OD is a novel oil dispersion (OD post-emergence herbicide for the spring application (BBCH 13-39 against broad-leafed weeds in all varieties of winter and spring wheat, winter and spring barley, winter rye and triticale. With the new GAT-developed and patented OD technology the sulfonylureas thifensulfuron-methyl (190 g/L and metsulfuron-methyl (19 g/L could be combined in a liquid OD formulation. This guarantees a high level of safety and increased user friendliness and simplified dosing. Dust formation is avoided and problems of electrostatic charging of granulates and powders, or the transportation by wind do not occur. In TIVMETIX OD, the enhancing ingredients as oil, agents and adjuvants constitute part of its formulation. Excellent film forming properties on the leaf surface of the weeds result in their direct and enhanced interaction, thus leading to increased uptake of the active substances. Therefore, the amount of active substance per hectare could be reduced by up to 36 % while efficacy is maintained at a level which is at least equivalent to reference products. Furthermore, TIVMETIX OD can be used in mixture or sequence with a variety of other herbicides and does not show an effect on succeeding crops.

  18. Dual dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of phenylpropenes in oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ju; Li, Jih-Heng; Feng, Chia-Hsien

    2015-09-01

    A novel, simple and quick sample preparation method was developed and used for pre-concentration and extraction of six phenylpropenes, including anethole, estragole, eugenol, methyl eugenol, safrole and myristicin, from oil samples by dual dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for determination and separation of compounds. Several experimental parameters affecting extraction efficiency were evaluated and optimized, including forward-extractant type and volume, surfactant type and concentration, water volume, and back-extractant type and volume. For all analytes (10-1000ng/mL), the limits of detection (S/N≧3) ranged from 1.0 to 3.0ng/mL; the limits of quantification (S/N≧10) ranged from 2.5 to 10.0ng/mL; and enrichment factors ranged from 3.2 to 37.1 times. Within-run and between-run relative standard deviations (n=6) were less than 2.61% and less than 4.33%, respectively. Linearity was excellent with determination coefficients (r(2)) above 0.9977. The experiments showed that the proposed method is a simple, effective, and environmentally friendly method of analyzing phenylpropenes in oil samples.

  19. Genetic impact of the Prestige oil spill in wild populations of a poor dispersal marine snail from intertidal rocky shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeira, Jaime; Quesada, Humberto; Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio; Caballero, Armando

    2008-02-01

    In November 2002, the sinking of the Prestige cargo ship produced an oil spill of 60,000 tons that affected many areas along the Galician coast (in the northwest of Spain). In a number of rocky shore sites, most organisms (particularly marine mollusks) were nearly extinct at a local scale. We tested whether the local bottleneck/extinction that occurred in affected localities caused any detectable reduction of the genetic diversity in the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, an ovoviviparous rocky shore model species characterized by a low dispersal ability, high population density, and wide distribution range. We compared the level of genetic variation and population differentiation between affected (polluted) and control sites located in seven geographical areas (three sites per area, one impacted and two controls, and two replicates per site) one and a half years after the spill. The analysis included molecular marker variation (microsatellite and AFLP loci) and quantitative trait genetic variation for shell variables in embryos extracted from pregnant females. Our results indicate that the affected populations did not show a significant overall reduction in genetic diversity when compared to the controls, suggesting that the species is highly resistant to losing genetic variability as a consequence of a local short-term pollution process in spite of its low dispersal ability and direct development. However, some genetic effects were detected in the polluted populations, particularly for quantitative shell traits and AFLPs, consistent with local adaptations resulting from the fuel contamination.

  20. Toxic and hormetic-like effects of three components of citrus essential oils on adult Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Stella A; Bali, Eleftheria-Maria D; Ioannou, Charalampos S; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Zarpas, Kostas D; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2017-01-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) and a wide range of their individual components are involved in a variety of biological interactions with insect pests including stimulatory, deterrent, toxic and even hormetic effects. Both the beneficial and toxic properties of citrus EOs on the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) have been experimentally evidenced over the last years. However, no information is available regarding the toxic or beneficial effects of the major components of citrus EOs via contact with the adults of the Mediterranean fruit fly. In the present study, we explored the toxicity of limonene, linalool and α-pinene (3 of the main compounds of citrus EOs) against adult medflies and identified the effects of sub-lethal doses of limonene on fitness traits in a relaxed [full diet (yeast and sugar)] and in a stressful (sugar only) feeding environment. Our results demonstrate that all three compounds inferred high toxicity to adult medflies regardless of the diet, with males being more sensitive than females. Sub-lethal doses of limonene (LD20) enhanced the lifespan of adult medflies when they were deprived of protein. Fecundity was positively affected when females were exposed to limonene sub-lethal doses. Therefore, limonene, a major constituent of citrus EOs, induces high mortality at increased doses and positive effects on life history traits of medfly adults through contact at low sub-lethal doses. A hormetic-like effect of limonene to adult medflies and its possible underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  1. Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite.

  2. Therapeutic role of Cuminum cyminum on ethanol and thermally oxidized sunflower oil induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, K; Rukkumani, R; Varma, P Suresh; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-05-01

    Ethanol is one of the most widely used and abused drugs, increasing lipid levels in humans and experimental animals. Heating of oil rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) produces various lipid peroxidative end products that can aggravate the pathological changes produced by ethanol. In the present communication, the effect of Cuminum cyminum was investigated on alcohol and thermally oxidized oil induced hyperlipidaemia. The results showed increased activity of aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids in the plasma of rats given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control group. The levels of tissue (liver and kidney) cholesterol and triglycerides were increased significantly in rats groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control rats. The levels were decreased when cumin was given along with alcohol and thermally oxidized oil. The level of phospholipids decreased significantly in the liver and kidney of groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oridized oil when compared with the normal control rats. The level increased when cumin was administered along with alcohol and thermally oxidized oil. The activity of phospholipase A and C increased significantly in the liver of groups given alcohol, thermally oxidized oil and alcohol+thermally oxidized oil when compared with the normal control rats, whereas the activity was decreased with the cumin treatment. The results obtained indicate that cumin can decrease the lipid levels in alcohol and thermally oxidized oil induced hepatotoxicity.

  3. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  4. Biological assessment (antiviral and antioxidant and acute toxicity of essential oils from Drimys angustifolia and D. brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Drimys presents the widest geographical distribution of the Winteraceae family, which comprises seven genera and about 120 species. In Brazil, the genus is found from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul and occur in two species, Drimys angustifolia Miers, and D. brasiliensis Miers, Winteraceae, popularly known as "casca-de-anta", characterized by the presence of flavonoids and essential oils. It is used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, stimulant, antispasmodic, anti-diarrheal, antipyretic, antibacterial, and against asthma and bronchitis, besides having insecticidal properties. In addition to the known biological activities, it is very important to explore new applications in the treatment of physiological disorders or diseases caused by parasites. Based on this information, in this study we propose to evaluate volatile oils of the species D. brasiliensis and D. angustifolia, as an antioxidant, using the model of the DPPH radical as an antiviral against human herpes virus type 1 (HSV-1 and acute toxicity in vivo. The two species were not able to reduce the DPPH radical and showed interesting antiviral activity, significantly reducing the virus titers in vitro assays. Regarding the in vivo toxicity in female Wistar rats, treatment with the two species showed interesting signs in animals such as salivation, ptosis, tremor, decreased motor activity. In addition the oils of D. brasiliensis to other signs, some animals showed increased urination and diarrhea.

  5. A Structure Identification and Toxicity Assessment of the Degradation Products of Aflatoxin B1 in Peanut Oil under UV Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jin; He, Bing; Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely hazardous compounds because of their genotoxicity and carcinogenicity to human and animals, are commonly found in many tropical and subtropical regions. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is proven to be an effective method to reduce or detoxify aflatoxins. However, the degradation products of aflatoxins under UV irradiation and their safety or toxicity have not been clear in practical production such as edible oil industry. In this study, the degradation products of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut oil were analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Thermo Quadrupole Exactive Focus mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQEF-MS/MS). The high-resolution mass spectra reflected that two main products were formed after the modification of a double bond in the terminal furan ring and the fracture of the lactone ring, while the small molecules especially nitrogen-containing compound may have participated in the photochemical reaction. According to the above results, the possible photodegradation pathway of AFB1 in peanut oil is proposed. Moreover, the human embryo hepatocytes viability assay indicated that the cell toxicity of degradation products after UV irradiation was much lower than that of AFB1, which could be attributed to the breakage of toxicological sites. These findings can provide new information for metabolic pathways and the hazard assessment of AFB1 using UV detoxification. PMID:27845743

  6. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and photoenhanced toxicity risks of spilled oil in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Mace G; Vivian, Deborah; Yee, Susan H; Diamond, Steve A

    2008-03-01

    Solar irradiance (W/m2) and downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficients (Kd; 1/m) were determined in several locations in Prince William Sound (AK, USA) between April 2003 and December 2005 to assess temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation and the risks of photo-enhanced toxicity from spilled oil. Weekly irradiance measurements of surface visible light, ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation in Valdez (AK, USA) followed expected trends of maximum solar irradiance at each summer solstice and minimum values at each winter solstice. Variation from weekly maximum expected surface irradiances was attributed to large variations in environmental conditions over the 142-week monitoring period. Season and proximity to glacial meltwater were significant determinants of Kd, with 1% attenuation depths ranging from 0.4 to 15 m (UVB and UVA) and from 0.5 to 28 m (visible light). The probability of photo-enhanced toxicity risks estimated from UVA dosimetry decreased with increasing water depth, with higher risks during spring and summer and lower risks during fall and winter. These results demonstrate substantial temporal and spatial variation in solar radiation in Prince William Sound and the potential for significant season- and location-specific photo-enhanced toxicity risks from spilled oil.

  8. Olive oil hydroxytyrosol reduces toxicity evoked by acrylamide in human Caco-2 cells by preventing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Martín, María Ángeles; Ramos, Sonia; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2011-10-09

    Humans are exposed to dietary acrylamide (AA) during their lifetime, it is therefore necessary to investigate the mechanisms associated with AA-induced toxic effects. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress contributes to AA cytotoxicity, thus, dietary antioxidants might have a protective role in colonic cells against AA toxicity. We have recently reported that hydroxytyrosol (HTy), a natural antioxidant abundant in olive oil, is able to enhance the cellular antioxidant defence capacity, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. In this study, we evaluate the protective role of HTy on alterations of the redox balance induced by AA in Caco-2 intestinal cells. AA cytotoxicity was counteracted by HTy by powerfully reducing ROS generation, recovering the excited enzyme antioxidant defences and decreasing phospho-Jun kinase concentration and caspase-3 activity induced by AA. Therefore, AA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis are closely related to oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells and the olive oil natural dietary antioxidant HTy was able to contain AA toxicity by improving the redox status of Caco-2 cells and by partly restraining the apoptotic pathway activated by AA.

  9. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, J. M.; M.P Zunino; Y Massuh; R.P Pizzollito; J.S Dambolena; N.A Gañan; Zygadlo, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (-) menthone, R (+) pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was th...

  10. The microbiological activity and toxicity of oil-polluted playa solonchaks and filled grounds within the Severnye Buzachi Oil Field (Kazakhstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynybaeva, T. G.; Kostina, N. V.; Terekhov, A. M.; Kurakov, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    The number of colony-forming units of microorganisms, the viable biomass, and also the intensity of the microbiological processes (respiration, nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and cellulose decomposition) in playa solonchaks and sandy-loamy filled grounds in the territory of the Severnye Buzachi Oilfields (Kazakhstan) were much lower than in other soil types attesting to the limited capability of these substrates for selfpurification. Upon pollution by oil at concentrations of 100 600 mg/kg, the number of copiotrophic bacteria increased, whereas the actinomycetal and fungal populations were reduced and the biomass pool, the rates of CO2 emission, the potential nitrogen fixation, and denitrification became higher. The microbial communities of the playa solonchaks were weakly active and consumed few applied substrates. The biotesting with Artemia salina L. showed that some areas belonged to the lands of the 4th danger class, although the majority of the soil and substrate samples were not toxic. The germination of Lepidium sativum L. seeds was suppressed because of the salt toxicity, which is not related to the oil concentration (30 to 600 mg/kg).

  11. Toxic effects of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil on red blood cells of Sprague-Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Izatus Shima TAIB; Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Maseran SITI NOR AIN; Jamaludin MOHAMED; Santhana Raj LOUIS; Srijit DAS; Sulaiman SALLEHUDIN; Nor Fadilah RAJAB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2009-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume leaves have been traditionally used as medicinal herbs because of its antimutagenicity, che-mopreventative and insecticidal properties. In this study, the toxic effects of L. elliptica essential oil against Sprague-Dawley rat's red blood cells (RBCs) were evaluated. L. elliptica essential oil was given by oral gavage 5 times per week for 3 treated groups in the doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/(kg body weight), respectively, and the control group received distilled water. Full blood count, RBC osmotic fragility, RBC morphological changes, and RBC membrane lipid were analyzed 28 d after the treatment. Although L. elliptica essential oil administration had significantly different effects on hemoglobin (Hb), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean cell volume (MCV), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) in the experimental groups as compared to the control group (P0.05). It is concluded that structural changes in the RBC membrane due to L. elliptica essential oil administration did not cause severe membrane damage.

  12. Protective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Hfaiedh, Najla; Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène

    2017-05-01

    Aspirin, one of the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is the most highly consumed pharmaceutical product in the world. However, it has several side effects in cells. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidative activity and cytoprotective effects of essential oil of Citrus limon (EOC) extracted from leaves against aspirin-induced damages in the rat small intestine epithelial cells (IEC-6). Biochemical indicators were used to assess cytotoxicity and oxidative damages caused by aspirin treatment on IEC-6. Our results showed that the chemical characterization of EOC identified 25 compounds representing 98.19% of the total oil. The major compounds from this oil were z-citral (53.21%), neryl acetate (13.06%), geranyl acetate (10.33%), and limonene (4.23%). Aspirin induced a decrease in cell viability as well as an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Contrariwise, the co-exposure of cells to aspirin and EOC alleviated every above syndrome by an increase in cell survival and decrease in SOD and CAT activities. In conclusion, the essential oil of C. limon has a potent cytoprotective effect against aspirin-induced toxicity in IEC-6 cells.

  13. Microalgae based biorefinery: evaluation of oil extraction methods in terms of efficiency, costs, toxicity and energy in lab-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Darío González-Delgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Several alternatives of microalgal metabolites extraction and transformation are being studied for achieving the total utilization of this energy crop of great interest worldwide. Microalgae oil extraction is a key stage in microalgal biodiesel production chains and their efficiency affects significantly the global process efficiency. In this study, a comparison of five oil extraction methods in lab-scale was made taking as additional parameters, besides extraction efficiency, the costs of method performing, energy requirements, and toxicity of solvents used, in order to elucidate the convenience of their incorporation to a microalgae-based topology of biorefinery. Methods analyzed were Solvent extraction assisted with high speed homogenization (SHE, Continuous reflux solvent extraction (CSE, Hexane based extraction (HBE, Cyclohexane based extraction (CBE and Ethanol-hexane extraction (EHE, for this evaluation were used the microalgae strains Nannochloropsis sp., Guinardia sp., Closterium sp., Amphiprora sp. and Navicula sp., obtained from a Colombian microalgae bioprospecting. In addition, morphological response of strains to oil extraction methods was also evaluated by optic microscopy. Results shows that although there is not a unique oil extraction method which excels in all parameters evaluated, CSE, SHE and HBE appears as promising alternatives, while HBE method is shown as the more convenient for using in lab-scale and potentially scalable for implementation in a microalgae based biorefinery

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR TOXICS FROM AN OIL-FIRED FIRETUBE BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests were conducted on a commercially available firetube package boiler running on #2 through #6 oils to determine the emissions levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion of four fuel oils. Flue gas was sampled to determine levels of volatile and semivolatile...

  15. Effects of Croton rhamnifolioides essential oil on Aedes aegypti oviposition, larval toxicity and trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Lira, Camila S; Lima, Bheatriz N; Napoleão, Thiago H; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Maranhão, Claudia A; Brandão, Sofia S F; Navarro, Daniela M A F

    2014-10-14

    Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its effects on oviposition and survival of larvae of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. In addition, we have established a possible mechanism of action for the larvicidal activity of the essential oil. GC-MS analyses revealed marked differences in the composition of oil that had been freshly isolated and that of a sample that had been stored in a sealed amber-glass vial under refrigeration for three years. However, both fresh and stored oil exhibited substantial larvicidal activities with LC50 values of 122.35 and 89.03 ppm, respectively, and oviposition deterrent effects against gravid females at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg·mL-1. These results demonstrate that the larvicidal effect of the essential oil was unchanged during three years of storage even though its chemical composition altered. Hence, the essential oil could be used in the preparation of commercial products. In addition, we observed that the trypsin-like activity of mosquito larvae was inhibited in vitro by the essential oil of C. rhamnifolioides, suggesting that the larvicidal effect may be associated with inhibition of this enzyme.

  16. Repellence and toxicity of plant essential oils to the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.E.; Bruin, de A.; Moskal, J.R.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Several plant essential oils were tested for their effect on behaviour and mortality of M. euphorbiae. Olfactory and contact experiments were performed to study these effects. We found that host plant and formulation of the different oils have a strong influence on repellence and mortality of the

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations, mutagenicity, and Microtox® acute toxicity testing of Peruvian crude oil and oil-contaminated water and sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G; Stewart, Paul M; Whatley, Alicia; Chu-Koo, Fred; Sotero-Solis, Victor E; Merino-Zegarra, Claudia; Vela-Paima, Elías

    2014-04-01

    The oil industry is a major source of contamination in Peru, and wastewater and sediments containing oil include harmful substances that may have acute and chronic effects. This study determined polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations by GC/MS, mutagenicity using TA98 and TA100 bacterial strains with and without metabolic activation in the Muta-ChromoPlate™ test, and Microtox® 5-min EC50 values of Peruvian crude oil, and water and sediment pore water from the vicinity of San José de Saramuro on the Marañón River and Villa Trompeteros on the Corrientes River in Loreto, Peru. The highest total PAH concentration in both areas was found in water (Saramuro = 210.15 μg/ml, Trompeteros = 204.66 μg/ml). Total PAH concentrations in water from San José de Saramuro ranged from 9.90 to 210.15 μg/ml (mean = 66.48 μg/ml), while sediment pore water concentrations ranged from 2.19 to 70.41 μg/ml (mean = 24.33 μg/ml). All water samples tested from Saramuro and Trompeteros sites, and one out of four sediment pore water samples from Trompeteros, were found to be mutagenic (P < 0.001). One sediment pore water sample in Saramuro was determined to have a measurable toxicity (Microtox EC50 = 335.1 mg/l), and in Trompeteros, the EC50 in water and sediment pore water ranged from 25.67 to 133.86 mg/l. Peruvian crude oil was mutagenic using the TA98 strain with metabolic activation, and the EC50 was 17.18 mg/l. The two areas sampled had very high PAH concentrations that were most likely associated with oil activities, but did not lead to acute toxic effects. However, since most of the samples were mutagenic, it is thought that there is a greater potential for chronic effects.

  18. Intracerebral injection of oil cyst content of human craniopharyngioma (oil machinery fluid) as a toxic model in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena-Suck, Martha Lilia; Hernández-Campos, Ma Elena; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Salinas-Lara, Citlaltepetl; Colín-González, Ana Laura; Santamaría, Abel

    2014-04-01

    Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are benign epithelial cystic tumors of the sellar and suprasellar region with a high survival rate and high recurrence in children. CPs contain dense oily fluid, but little is known yet about this content and its contribution to tissue damage and tumoral growth. In this study, we developed a simple experimental model produced by intracortical injection to rats of the cyst fluid content collected from human CPs to explore its possible contribution to brain tissue damage. The cyst fluid of the CPs ("oil machinery fluid") was collected during surgical removal, briefly preserved and further tested in rats through intracortical infusion. The group receiving "oil machinery fluid" presented increased reactive oxygen species formation, oxidative damage to lipids and reactive gliosis accompanied by augmented immunoreactivity to peroxiredoxin and thioredoxin reductase 1 at 15, 30 and 45 days post-injection. Other markers of inflammation and cell damage were stimulated at all post-lesion days tested. There was also a body weight gain. The persistence of tissue damage and oxidative stress suggests that "oil machinery fluid" exerts progressive alterations similar to those observed in patients with CPs, supporting the concept that some components of cyst fluid may contribute to brain tissue damage in these patients.

  19. Microbial response to the MC252 Oil and Corexit 9500 in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy eChakraborty

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Deepwater Horizon spill released over 4.1 million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. In an effort to mitigate large oil slicks, the dispersant Corexit 9500 was sprayed onto surface slicks and injected directly at the wellhead at water depth of 1,500 meters. Several research groups were involved in investigating the fate of the MC-252 oil using newly advanced molecular tools to elucidate microbial interactions with oil, gases and dispersant. Presented here is a comprehensive overview of the ecogenomics of microbial degradation of MC-252 oil and gases in the water column and shorelines and some insight into the fate of the dispersant Corexit 9500 that was added to aid in oil dispersion process. We also present data that show the dispersant was not toxic to the indigenous microbes at concentrations added, and several bacterial species were able to degrade the various components of Corexit 9500.

  20. Evaluation of ensemble atmospheric simulations in oil dispersion models at Itaguai Port region; Avaliacao do uso de resultados numericos de previsao atmosferica por conjunto na modelagem da dispersao de oleo na regiao do Porto de Itaguai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Renato Goncalves dos; Silva, Mariana P.R.; Silva, Ricardo Marcelo da; Torres Junior, Audalio R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem de Processos Marinhos e Atmosfericos (LAMMA); Landau, Luiz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metodos Computacinais em Engenharia (LAMCE); Sa, Reginaldo Ventura de; Hochleitner, Fabio; Correa, Eduardo Barbosa [AQUAMET Meteorologia e Projeto de Sistemas, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work discusses the use of numerical prediction using ensemble as boundary condition in pollutants dispersion models, applied in a hypothetical case of an oil spill occurrence in Itaguai Port. The Princeton Ocean Model (POM) has been used to simulate hydrodynamics and NICOIL Eulerian model to forecast oil spill dispersion, and ensemble wind forecast from Global Forecast System (GFS), aiming to assess the importance of this parameter variability in oil dispersion at sea. The wind scenarios using ensemble members has showed significant dispersion when compared to control simulation, demonstrating that the uncertainty in the atmospheric modeling can generate considerable variations in the placement of the final spot of oil. The region of interest was the Sepetiba Bay, located on the southern coast of the Rio de Janeiro state; because of port operations carried out around the Port of Itaguai where they can, eventually, oil leaks occur. (author)

  1. Evaluation of toxicity of essential oils palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the essential oils (palmarosa, citronella, lemongrass and vetiver) and monoterpenoids (citral and geraniol) in human lymphocytes. Trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT test was used to evaluate cytotoxicity. The genotoxicity studies were carried out by comet and DNA diffusion assays. Apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin/PI double staining. In addition, generation of reactive oxygen species was evaluated by DCFH-DA staining using flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that the four essential oils and citral induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at higher concentrations. The essential oils were found to induce oxidative stress evidenced by the generation of reactive oxygen species. With the exception of geraniol, induction of apoptosis was confirmed at higher concentrations of the test substances. Based on the results, the four essential oils are considered safe for human consumption at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A method to refine crude cottonseed oil using non-toxic polyamine-based cationic polymers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Lin; Tom C Wedegaertner; Xiaoyun Mao; Xudong Jing; Aicardo Roa-Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method to refine crude cottonseed oil is time-consuming and expensive. This study evaluates the effectiveness of coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process using quaternary polyamine-based polymers in refining crude cottonseed oil. Flocculated by four commercial polyamine-based cationic polymers (SL2700, SL3000, SL4500 and SL5000) with varied molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) and followed by co-agulation with sodium hydroxide, crude cottonseed oil can be effectively purified. Free fatty acids, gossypol, pig-ments and trace elements are all effectively and sufficiently removed by the four polymers in a MW-and CD-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the use of polyamine-based cationic polymers may offer an effective and feasible alternative to the traditional method for crude cottonseed oil refining.

  3. Antidiarrheal activity and acute oral toxicity of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin; Massoud Maham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb that is used in the Iranian traditional medicine for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of M. longifolia on experimental diarrhea in a rat model. Materials and Methods: The antidiarrheal activity of essential oil of M. longifolia (20-80 mg/kg) was investigated against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats using loperamide as the standard reference drug. In acut...

  4. Conditions for the formation and atmospheric dispersion of a toxic, heavy gas layer during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits by sill intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Michael; Hankin, Robin K. S.

    2010-05-01

    There is compelling evidence for massive discharge of volatiles, including toxic species, into the atmosphere at the end of the Permian. It has been argued that most of the gases were produced during thermal metamorphism of coal and evaporite deposits in the East Siberia Tunguska basin following sill intrusion (Retallack and Jahren, 2008; Svensen et al., 2009). The release of the volatiles has been proposed as a major cause of environmental and extinction events at the end of the Permian, with venting of carbon gases and halocarbons to the atmosphere leading to global warming and atmospheric ozone depletion (Svensen et al., 2009) Here we consider the conditions required for the formation and dispersion of toxic, heavier than air, gas plumes, made up of a mixture of CO2, CH4, H2S and SO2 and formed during the thermal metamorphism of C- and S- rich sediments. Dispersion models and density considerations within a range of CO2/CH4 ratios and volatile fluxes and temperatures, for gas discharge by both seepage and from vents, allow the possibility that following sill emplacement much of the vast East Siberia Tunguska basin was - at least intermittently - covered by a heavy, toxic gas layer that was unfavorable for life. Dispersion scenarios for a heavy gas layer beyond the Siberian region during end-Permian times will be presented. REFERENCES G. J. Retallack and A. H. Jahren, Methane release from igneous intrusion of coal during Late Permian extinction events, Journal of Geology, volume 116, 1-20, 2008 H. Svensen et al., Siberian gas venting and the end-Permian environmental crisis, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, volume 277, 490-500, 2009

  5. Wear Characterizations of Polyoxymethylene (POM) Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes (POM/CNTs) Using the Paraffin Oil Dispersion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Samy; Visco, A. M.; Galtieri, G.; Njuguna, James

    2016-01-01

    The wear of polyoxymethylene (POM) is considered a key design parameter of polymer gears and some mechanical applications, and it determines the service time span. This work investigates the influence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the specific wear rate of POM/CNT nanocomposites by using a pin-on-disk test rig (sliding only). The CNTs were synthesized with a fully automatic machine via the arc-discharge multi-electrode technique and subsequently dispersed in a POM matrix to manufacture test specimens. The CNT weight percentages were varied within the range 0-0.03 wt.% in three different operating media (air, distilled water, and mineral oil). The wear mechanism was examined by microscopy. The mechanical and thermal properties of POM/CNT were studied by using calorimetric analysis and by mechanical tensile testing. In addition, the thermal and mechanical properties were improved to an optimum CNT ratio of 0.02 wt.% due to the improvement in crystallinity of POM and a decrease in the fusion defects. The crystallinity degree increased by 7%, and the melting temperature also increased. The results further indicate that the specific wear rate (Ws) for POM/CNT containing 0.03 wt.% CNT in air and water media was improved by 73% and 66%, respectively, compared with virgin POM. In addition, the tensile strength of the mechanical properties and Young's modulus increased by 31% and 29%, respectively.

  6. Comparative Toxicities and Pharmacokinetics of Intrathecal Lipid (Amphotericin B Colloidal Dispersion) and Conventional Deoxycholate Formulations of Amphotericin B in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Clemons, Karl V.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Williams, Paul L.; Stevens, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The lipid formulation of amphotericin B, Amphotec (ABCD), has not been used intrathecally. After a single intrathecal dose or after four doses, conventionally formulated deoxycholate amphotericin B (AMB) (Fungizone) resulted in higher levels of amphotericin B in the cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits than did ABCD. Clinically and histologically, ABCD was about threefold less toxic than AMB after a single dose and 3- to 30-fold less toxic after multiple dosing. These data are encouraging for the p...

  7. The influence of 'time since last blood meal' on the toxicity of essential oils to the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2008-08-17

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) is a serious ectoparasitic pest of layer hens that can survive for long periods in the poultry house sub-structure without taking a blood meal from its host. The research undertaken in this study found that 'time since last blood meal' had a notable effect on how toxic a selection of plant essential oils were to D. gallinae under laboratory conditions. In general, the essential oils had a greater toxic effect on D. gallinae if mites had been starved of a blood meal for around 3 weeks, than if they had been more recently fed 3-13 days prior to tests. This result was consistent across the four essential oils used (thyme, palmarosa, caraway and juniper leaf). This suggests that plant essential oils may be of use in management schemes for D. gallinae, particularly if used to sanitise houses between flocks, when mites will have been starved.

  8. Electrorheological properties of silicon oil based fluid dispersing smectite particles; Smectite ryushi wo silicon yuchu ni bunsansaseta ryutai no electrorheology tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, T.; Kogita, H.; Obinata, G. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College; Yoshino, K. [Tokai Rubber Industries, Ltd., Aichi (Japan); Saiki, H. [Co-op Chemical Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-06-25

    Synthesized smectite particles have been dispersed in methylphenyl silicon oil. The prepared fluid is stable in a gravitational field. the viscosity of this fluid under electric field has been investigated by many parameters as follows, smectite content in silicon oil, shear rate, electric field strength, frequency of electric field or DC field, temperature of fluid, frequency on viscoelasticity, response time, stability and durability, and so on. The shear stress and current density have increased almost in proportion to a square of electric field strength. The dynamic modulus and dynamic loss change much more in the fluid dispersing lower smectite concentration by applying electric field. For the durability of fluid the viscosity is almost same for several hours under 2kV/mm. This fluid is expected to use in the damper, actuators and so on. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  9. Oral administration of Moringa oleifera oil but not coconut oil prevents mercury-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarikwu, S O; Benjamin, S; Ebah, S G; Obilor, G; Agbam, G

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of administration of coconut oil (CO) and Moringa oleifera oil (MO) on testicular oxidative stress, sperm quality and steroidogenesis parameters in rats treated with mercury chloride (HgCl2 ). After 15 days of oral administration of CO (2 ml kg(-1) body weight) and MO (2 ml kg(-1) body weight) along with intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HgCl2 (5 mg kg(-1) body weight) alone or in combination, we found that CO treatment did not protect against HgCl2 -induced poor sperm quality (motility, count) as well as decreased testosterone level and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity. Treatment with CO alone decreased glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rat's testis, whereas MO did not change these parameters. Cotreatment with MO prevented HgCl2 -induced testicular catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, poor sperm quality and low testosterone level and also blocks the adverse effect of CO+HgCl2 (2 ml kg(-1) body weight + 5 mg kg(-1) body weight) on the investigated endpoints. In conclusion, MO and not CO decreased the deleterious effects of HgCl2 on sperm quality and steroidogenesis in rats and also strengthen the antioxidant defence of the testes. Therefore, MO is beneficial as an antioxidant in HgCl2 -induced oxidative damage.

  10. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as mutagenic evaluation of essential oil from turmeric (Curcuma longa L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liju, Vijayasteltar B; Jeena, Kottarapat; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the acute, subchronic and genotoxicity of turmeric essential oil (TEO) from Curcuma longa L. Acute administration of TEO was done as single dose up to 5 g of TEO per kg body weight and subchronic toxicity study for thirteen weeks was done by daily oral administration of TEO at doses 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg b.wt. in Wistar rats. There were no mortality, adverse clinical signs or changes in body weight; water and food consumption during acute as well as subchronic toxicity studies. Indicators of hepatic function such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were unchanged in treated animals compared to untreated animals. Oral administration of TEO for 13 weeks did not alter total cholesterol, triglycerides, markers of renal function, serum electrolyte parameters and histopathology of tissues. TEO did not produce any mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, TA-102 and TA-1535 with or without metabolic activation. Administration of TEO to rats (1 g/kg b.wt.) for 14 days did not produce any chromosome aberration or micronuclei in rat bone marrow cells and did not produce any DNA damage as seen by comet assay confirming the non toxicity of TEO.

  11. Short-Term Effects of Oral Administration of Pistacia Lentiscus Oil on Tissue-Specific Toxicity and Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Attoub; Karam, Sherif M.; Abderrahim Nemmar; Kholoud Arafat; Annie John; Wafa Al-Dhaheri; Mahmood Ahmed Al Sultan; Haider Raza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pistacia lentiscus (Anacardiaceae) is a flowering plant traditionally used in the treatment of various skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to assess whether Pistacia lentiscus oil has any short term toxic effects in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Pistacia lentiscus oil (100µl) was administered orally into mice for 5 days. Results: Measurements of body weight did not show any weight loss. Serum concentration of LDH did not show any significant ...

  12. Dietary fiber and fat-derivatives prevent mineral oil toxicity in rats by the same mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, T; Ebihara, K; Kiriyama, S

    1993-09-01

    The inclusion of 8% mineral oil in a fat-free diet causes severe growth retardation in rats. In the present study, this growth retardation was found to be primarily due to the reduction in nutrient intake, but not to the exacerbation of essential fatty acid deficiency. In addition, the growth retardation caused by mineral oil ingestion was prevented by the concurrent inclusion of 10% water-insoluble dietary fiber [gobo fiber prepared from Arctium lappa L. (gobo in Japanese) or cotton cellulose powder] or 5% fatty acids (C12-C18) as well as glycerol monostearate. The prevention of growth retardation by these substances was due to their ability to inhibit mineral oil absorption from the intestinal lumen.

  13. Analysis of principal component of crude oil influenced by dispersant%分散剂对原油影响的主成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧敏; 孙冰; 严志宇; 刘慧; 朱小梅; 于颖

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the mixture samples were obtained by 2 kinds of crude oils and 3 kinds of oil spill dispers-ants (referred to as dispersant). The classification of crude oil based on the diagnostic ratios was analyzed and cal-culated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the assistance of SPSS statistical analysis software, aiming at judging whether the dispersant influenced the crude oil or not. The value of KMO was approximately 0.6 and the probabilityP-value of Bartlett’s test of sphericity was 0, which was suitable for PCA. The eigenvalues of the first two principal components were both greater than 1, and cumulative contribution rate was 81.433%, so more vari-ables can be dropped to 2. Finally, According to mathematical expressions of principal componentF1 and F2, the principal component classification figure with 20 samples were obtained. It was found that 2 kinds of original crude oils were still clearly distinguished and little affected by Fuken-2 dispersant, but the classification of Huabei crude oil was affected more significantly than Bohai crude oil by GM-2, and the two were both influenced significantly by Haiou 4 #. Results showed the PCA is an effective analysis method to oil spill research, which can be used to clas-sify different kinds of crude oils. Studies have also found that some of dispersants have less effect on crude oils, and some others were complex. Therefore, the fingerprint identification of oil spill needs to consider the effect of dis-persants.%以2种原油和3种溢油分散剂的混合物为对象,借助 SPSS统计分析软件,采用主成分分析法研究基于诊断比值的原油分类,旨在判别分散剂对原油的影响。KOM 值近似等于0.6、Bartlett球形度检验对应概率 P 值为0,表明原始数据适合做主成分分析;前两个主成分 F1和 F2的特征值均大于1,累积贡献率为81.433%,多变量可降至2维。根据 F1和 F2表达式得到主成分分类图可知:两种原油中加入不

  14. Monitoring habitat recovery and toxicity reduction in an oiled freshwater wetland to determine remediation success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G.; Cobanli, S.E.; Gauthier, J. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Inst., Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Venosa, A.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada); Lee, L.E.J. [Wilfred Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Suidan, M.T.; Garcia-Blanco, S. [Cincinnati Univ., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Oil spill responders have suggested that there is a need to improve oil spill countermeasures in wetlands. A controlled experiment was performed in a tidal freshwater marsh located along the St. Lawrence River, Canada, in which a weathered light crude oil was spilled on 16 of 20 plots at a rate of 12 litres per plot. The objective was to evaluate the following remediation strategies: (1) natural attenuation, (2) nutrient amendment with granular ammonium nitrate and super triple phosphate, (3) an identical treatment with plants continuously cut back to evaluate the influence of plant growth on remediation, and (4) nutrient amendment with sodium nitrate and super triple phosphate. The remaining four unoiled plots were fertilized with ammonium nitrate and triple super phosphate to determine the effect of nutrient amendments. Sediment samples were recovered on a regular basis for a period of 65 weeks to acquire background data for chemical and toxicological analysis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry revealed that both physical and biological processes removed residual hydrocarbon components. Elevated nutrient levels were sustained within the interstitial porewater by occasional applications of the fertilizer formulations being evaluated. However, biomarkers showed that there was little or no change in the composition of the residual oil due to experimental treatments. The dominant plant species appeared to be tolerant to the oil and its growth was stimulated by the addition of nutrients. A variety of responses, from detrimental effects to enhanced recovery, was observed in a series of biotests with bacteria and invertebrates. It was concluded that the apparent differences may be due to a range of factors including intrinsic variations in species sensitivity, induced tolerance on exposure to contaminant hydrocarbons, changes in bioavailability of the residual oil as a result of vegetative growth, or detrimental effects of the nutrient amendment products used in

  15. Subchronic toxicity of Baltic herring oil and its fractions in the rat I: Fractionation and levels of organohalogen pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, Mattias; Stern, Natalia; Jensen, Sören; Wesén, Clas; Haglund, Peter; Casabona, Helena; Johansson, Niklas; Blomgren, Kajsa; Håkansson, Helen

    2002-11-01

    Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) oil was extracted and fractionated. To examine the contribution to toxicity and biological effects of different halogenated organic pollutants, the herring oil and the fractions were mixed into pelleted food and given to Sprague-Dawley female rats at three levels, corresponding to a human intake of 1.6, 8.2 and 34.4 kg fish per week. Herring oil, its fractions, as well as liver tissues from exposed rats, were analyzed for: eight chlorinated biphenyls, all 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorocyclohexanes, hexachlorobenzene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), DDT-metabolites, three brominated diphenylethers as well as extractable organically bound chlorine and halogenated fatty acids. A bioassay (EROD) was used for measuring the dioxin-like enzyme induction activity. Nordic Sea lodda (Mallotus villosus) oil was used as a nutritionally equivalent control, with much lower levels of halogenated organic pollutants. A full toxicological subchronic examination is reported in the following paper (Stern et al. 2002). In this study, we report that the fractionation procedure resulted in a substantial reduction of most of the pollutants in the triacylglycerol fraction, and a pronounced enrichment of most of the pollutants into the two other fractions. However, all contaminants were present at some levels in all of the fractions. The concentrations of organohalogens found in this study were representative for Baltic herring during the mid-1990s. Rat liver tissue showed similar residue patterns as the diet, with the exception of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners that had a higher liver retention than pesticides, chlorinated biphenyls and brominated diphenylethers.

  16. Comparative toxicities and pharmacokinetics of intrathecal lipid (amphotericin B colloidal dispersion) and conventional deoxycholate formulations of amphotericin B in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, K V; Sobel, R A; Williams, P L; Stevens, D A

    2001-02-01

    The lipid formulation of amphotericin B, Amphotec (ABCD), has not been used intrathecally. After a single intrathecal dose or after four doses, conventionally formulated deoxycholate amphotericin B (AMB) (Fungizone) resulted in higher levels of amphotericin B in the cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits than did ABCD. Clinically and histologically, ABCD was about threefold less toxic than AMB after a single dose and 3- to 30-fold less toxic after multiple dosing. These data are encouraging for the potential use of ABCD as an intrathecal treatment.

  17. SHORT-TERM TOXICITY STUDY IN RATS DOSED WITH PEPPERMINT OIL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, I.; Würtzen, G.; Carstensen, J.

    1983-01-01

    Pulegone and menthol, components of peppermint oil, were investigated in rats. The substances were administered by gavage for 28 days at 0, 20, 80, 160 mg pulegone and 0, 200, 400, 800 mg menthol/kg body wt./day, respectively. At the two highest doses, pulegone induced atonia, decreased blood...

  18. Management of acute skin toxicity with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil during platinum-based concurrent chemo-radiation in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; Rampino, Monica; Ostellino, Oliviero; Schena, Marina; Pecorari, Giancarlo; Garzino Demo, Paolo; Fasolis, Massimo; Arcadipane, Francesca; Martini, Stefania; Cavallin, Chiara; Airoldi, Mario; Ricardi, Umberto

    2017-02-01

    Acute skin toxicity is a frequent finding during combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Its timely and appropriate management is crucial for both oncological results and patient's global quality of life. We herein report clinical data on the use of Hypericum perforatum and neem oil in the treatment of acute skin toxicity during concurrent chemo-radiation for head and neck cancer. A consecutive series of 50 head and neck cancer patients undergoing concomitant radio-chemotherapy with weekly cisplatin was analyzed. Treatment with Hypericum perforatum and neem oil was started in case of G2 acute skin toxicity according to the RTOG/EORTC scoring scale and continued during the whole treatment course and thereafter until complete recovery. The maximum detected acute skin toxicity included Grade 2 events in 62% of cases and G3 in 32% during treatment and G2 and G3 scores in 52 and 8%, respectively, at the end of chemo-radiation. Grade 2 toxicity was mainly observed during weeks 4-5, while G3 during weeks 5-6. Median times spent with G2 or G3 toxicity were 23.5 and 14 days. Patients with G3 toxicity were reconverted to a G2 profile in 80% of cases, while those with a G2 score had a decrease to G1 in 58% of cases. Time between maximum acute skin toxicity and complete skin recovery was 30 days. Mean worst pain score evaluated with the Numerical Rating Scale-11 was 6.9 during treatment and 4.5 at the end of chemo-radiotherapy. Hypericum perforatum and neem oil proved to be a safe and effective option in the management of acute skin toxicity in head and neck cancer patients submitted to chemo-radiation with weekly cisplatin. Further studies with a control group and patient-reported outcomes are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  20. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (oil palm leaf) methanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahmi, Abdul Rani Muhamad; Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kwan, Yuet Ping; Lau, Yee Ling; Shin, Lai Ngit; Chen, Yeng

    2010-11-10

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  1. Modélisation de la combustion de fuels lourds prenant en compte la dispersion des asphaltènes Modeling Heavy Fuel-Oil Combustion (While Considering Or Including Asphaltene Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audibert F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Divers modèles, ayant pour but de prédire le taux d'imbrûlés solides lors de la combustion du fuel lourd, ont été mis au point dans le passé. Les paramètres entrant en ligne de compte sont le plus souvent les teneurs en résidus lourds hydrocarbonés (asphaltènes précipités au pentane ou à l'heptane et carbone Conradson et en métaux : c'est le cas des modèles Exxon et Shell développés respectivement en 1979 et 1981. D'autres modèles tiennent compte, en plus de la composition du fuel, de son mode d'atomisation, de son mode de diffusion dans le foyer et de la cinétique de combustion : on peut citer les travaux du Laboratoire Energie du MIT publiés en 1986. Néanmoins, ces facteurs ne sont pas les seuls à intervenir : l'expérience a montré que l'état de dispersion des asphaltènes peut jouer également un grand rôle, notamment dans le cas d'installations de combustion à injection mécanique, pour lesquelles la dispersion des gouttelettes n'est pas aussi fine que pour des installations munies d'une injection assistée par la vapeur. Cette influence de la dispersion des asphaltènes sur la combustion a été mise en évidence dans le passé par l'utilisation d'additifs dispersants et également par la combustion de fuels lourds constitués par dilution d'asphaltes précipités au pentane avec un gas-oil de cracking catalytique de raffinerie (LCO. Ce sont ces fuels que l'on a considérés dans la présente étude. L'effet de ce facteur dispersion n'a pas été quantifié jusqu'alors, la difficulté étant de définir une grandeur mesurable représentant la répartition des agglomérats d'asphaltènes. Dans cette étude, on a essayé en un premier temps de faire une approche fractale de la répartition des asphaltènes à partir de clichés (préparés par la société Total, cette méthode ayant déjà été utilisée avec succès pour décrire des structures d'aspects comparables. Malheureusement, on s'est heurté à des

  2. In vitro evaluation of the toxic effects and endocrine disrupting potential of oil sands processed water and naphthenic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Wiseman, S.; Higley, E.; Jones, P.D.; Hecker, M.; Giesy, J.P. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Gamel El Din, M.; Martin, J.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are the primary toxic constituents of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW). This presentation reported on a series of in vitro studies that were initiated to evaluate potential endocrine modulating effects of OSPW and their constituent NAs. The H295R steroidogenesis bioassay was used to examine the impact of OSPW and NA on 52 steroidogenesis. In particular, dose-response and time course studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of OSPW and NAs on testosterone and estradiol production. Aromatase activity and transcript abundance of the key 11 steroidogenic enzymes were also quantified to complement analysis of hormone levels. The MVLN trans-activation assay was used to test the estrogenicity/anti-estrogenicity of OSPW and NAs. In vitro cell viability and apoptosis (live-dead) caused by OSPW and NAs was quantified by the MTS reduction and caspase-3/7 activity in H295R and MVLN cells.

  3. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrus, John P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Granite, Evan J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Rupp, Erik C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Stanko, Dennis C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Howard, Bret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Pennline, Henry W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide, but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  4. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Rupp, E.C.; Stanko, D.C.; Howard, B.; Pennline, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide. but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur. resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium.

  5. Effect of palladium dispersion on the capture of toxic components from fuel gas by palladium-alumina sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Baltrus; Evan J. Granite; Erik C. Rupp; Dennis C. Stanko; Bret Howard; Henry W. Pennline [US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The dispersion and location of Pd in alumina-supported sorbents prepared by different methods was found to influence the performance of the sorbents in the removal of mercury, arsine, and hydrogen selenide from a simulated fuel gas. When Pd is well dispersed in the pores of the support, contact interaction with the support is maximized, Pd is less susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, and the sorbent has better long-term activity for adsorption of arsine and hydrogen selenide, but poorer adsorption capacity for Hg. As the contact interaction between Pd and the support is lessened the Pd becomes more susceptible to poisoning by sulfur, resulting in higher capacity for Hg, but poorer long-term performance for adsorption of arsenic and selenium. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  7. Anti-arthritic effects and toxicity of the essential oils of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Janet L; Frye, Jennifer B; Oyarzo, Janice N; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2010-01-27

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Having previously identified potent anti-arthritic effects of the curcuminoids in turmeric extracts in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), studies were undertaken to determine whether the turmeric essential oils (TEO) were also joint protective using the same experimental model. Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO.

  8. Essential Oils May Lead α-Synuclein towards Toxic Fibrils Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedi, Dina; Nasouti, Mahour

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) fibrillation links with Parkinson's disease (PD) and several related syndromes. It is believed that exposure to the factors which promote fibrillation may induce and progress such neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Herein, the effects of some wildly used essential oils including Myrtus communis (M. communis) on α-Syn fibrillation were examined. M. communis particularly increased α-Syn fibrillation in a concentration dependent manner. Given that applications of M. communis are very extensive in Asian societies, especially Zoroastrians, this study was extended towards its role on α-Syn fibrillation/cytotoxicity. By using a unilamellar vesicle, it was shown that the aggregated species with tendency to perturb membrane were increased in the presence of M. communis. In this regard, the cytotoxicity of α-Syn on SH-SH5Y cells was also increased significantly. Inappropriately, the effects of fibrillation inhibitors, baicalein and cuminaldehyde, were modulated in the presence of M. communis. However, major components of M. communis did not induce fibrillation and also the effect of M. communis was limited on other fibrinogenic proteins. Assuming that essential oils have the ability to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB) along with the popular attention on aromatherapy for the incurable ND, these findings suggest an implementation of fibrillation tests for essential oils. PMID:27313947

  9. Essential Oils May Lead α-Synuclein towards Toxic Fibrils Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Morshedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein (α-Syn fibrillation links with Parkinson’s disease (PD and several related syndromes. It is believed that exposure to the factors which promote fibrillation may induce and progress such neurodegenerative diseases (NDs. Herein, the effects of some wildly used essential oils including Myrtus communis (M. communis on α-Syn fibrillation were examined. M. communis particularly increased α-Syn fibrillation in a concentration dependent manner. Given that applications of M. communis are very extensive in Asian societies, especially Zoroastrians, this study was extended towards its role on α-Syn fibrillation/cytotoxicity. By using a unilamellar vesicle, it was shown that the aggregated species with tendency to perturb membrane were increased in the presence of M. communis. In this regard, the cytotoxicity of α-Syn on SH-SH5Y cells was also increased significantly. Inappropriately, the effects of fibrillation inhibitors, baicalein and cuminaldehyde, were modulated in the presence of M. communis. However, major components of M. communis did not induce fibrillation and also the effect of M. communis was limited on other fibrinogenic proteins. Assuming that essential oils have the ability to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB along with the popular attention on aromatherapy for the incurable ND, these findings suggest an implementation of fibrillation tests for essential oils.

  10. Essential oils enhance the toxicity of permethrin against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A D; Norris, E J; Kimber, M J; Bartholomay, L C; Coats, J R

    2017-03-01

    Insecticide resistance and growing public concern over the safety and environmental impacts of some conventional insecticides have resulted in the need to discover alternative control tools. Naturally occurring botanically-based compounds are of increased interest to aid in the management of mosquitoes. Susceptible strains of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles gambiae (Meigen) (Diptera: Culicidae) were treated with permethrin, a common type-I synthetic pyrethroid, using a discriminate dose that resulted in less than 50% mortality. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and 35 essential oils were co-delivered with permethrin at two doses (2 and 10 µg) to determine if they could enhance the 1-h knockdown and the 24-h mortality of permethrin. Several of the tested essential oils enhanced the efficacy of permethrin equally and more effectively than piperonyl butoxide PBO, which is the commercial standard to synergize chemical insecticide like pyrethroids. PBO had a strikingly negative effect on the 1-h knockdown of permethrin against Ae. aegypti, which was not observed in An. gambiae. Botanical essential oils have the capability of increasing the efficacy of permethrin allowing for a natural alternative to classic chemical synergists, like PBO.

  11. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE EMISSIONS FROM A RESIDENTIAL OIL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil and the use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source are available for dispersion, climate, and source-recep...

  12. Nonfouling capture-release substrates based on polymer brushes for separation of water-dispersed oil droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Khooi Y; Hughes, Trevor L; Nagl, Michaela; Huck, Wilhelm T S

    2012-12-01

    We have demonstrated capture and release of underwater-oil droplets based on fouling-resistant surfaces coated with pH-responsive polymer brushes. In response to the change of environmental pH, oil droplets were captured on the polymer brush-modified surfaces in the high adhesion state. As the droplet volume increased upon coalescence with other oil droplets in the aqueous phase, the captured droplets eventually self-released from the surfaces under the influence of buoyancy and rose to the air-water interface. The fact that the polymer brush surfaces were partially oil-wettable (high oil-in-water contact angles) enabled the adhesion but not the spreading of oil droplets. This allowed buoyancy release of oil droplets and led to fouling-resistant surfaces that could be reused for capture-release of more oil droplets. The practicality and versatility of this oil droplet capture-release system was demonstrated using monodisperse and polydisperse hydrocarbon oil compositions in purified water, tap water, and brines in which the salt concentration was as high as that of seawater.

  13. Toxicity assessment of carbon black waste: A by-product from oil refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xu; Ng, Wei Cheng; Fendy; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-05

    In Singapore, approximately 30t/day of carbon-based solid waste are produced from petrochemical processes. This carbon black waste has been shown to possess physical properties that are characteristic of a good adsorbent such as high external surface area. Therefore, there is a growing interest to reutilize and process this carbon black waste into secondary materials such as adsorbents. However, the carbon black waste obtained from petrochemical industries may contain heavy metals that are hazardous to human health and the environment, hence restricting its full potential for re-utilization. Therefore, it is important to examine the possible toxicity effects and toxicity mechanism of carbon black waste on human health. In this study, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis showed that the heavy metals, vanadium (V), molybdenum (Mo) and nickel (Ni), were present in the carbon black waste in high concentrations. Three human cell lines (HepG2 cells, MRC-5 cells and MDA-MB-231 cells) were used to investigate the toxicity of carbon black waste extract in a variety of in vitro assays. Results from MTS assays indicated that carbon black waste extract decreased the viability of all three cell lines in a dose and time-dependent manner. Observations from confocal microscopy further confirmed this phenomenon. Flow cytometry assay also showed that carbon black waste extract induced apoptosis of human cell lines, and the level of apoptosis increased with increasing waste concentration. Results from reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay indicated that carbon black waste extract induced oxidative stress by increasing intracellular ROS generation in these three human cell lines. Moreover, induction of oxidative damage in these cells was also observed through the alteration of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Last but not least, by treating the cells with V-spiked solution of concentration equivalent to that found in the

  14. Development and comparison of two dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction techniques coupled to high performance liquid chromatography for the rapid analysis of bisphenol A in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuhui; Xie, Qilong; Chen, Jie; Sun, Janzhi; He, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2013-06-21

    In this study, two novel sample extraction methods for the analysis of bisphenol A (BPA) in edible oils were developed by using liquid-liquid extraction followed by a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (LLE-DLLME) and reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (RP-DLLME). RP-DLLME showed a superior characteristic over LLE-DLLME and other previously reported procedures because of its easy operation, short extraction time, high sensitivity, low organic solvent consumption and waste generation. The optimized extraction conditions of RP-DLLME for 1.0 g of edible oil diluted in 4 mL of n-hexane were: extractant, 100 μL 0.2 M sodium hydroxide solution (80% methanol, v/v); extraction time, 1 min; centrifugation, 3 min. The determination of BPA was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a DAD detector. The method offered excellent linearity over a range of 0.010-0.5 μg g(-1) with a correlation coefficient of r>0.997. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability values expressed as relative standard deviation were 1.9% and 5.9%, respectively. The quantitation limit and detection limit were 6.3 and 2.5 ng g(-1). The target analyte was detected in 5 out of 16 edible oil samples. The recovery rates in real samples ranged from 89.5 to 99.7%.

  15. Modeling of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of essential oil from Borago officinalis L. by using combination of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Moghaddam, Zahra Safaei; Bohlooli, Mousa; Khajeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography was applied for the extraction and determination of essential oil constituents of the Borago officinalis L. In this study, an experimental data-based artificial neural network (ANN) model was constructed to describe the performance of DLLME method for various operating conditions. The volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction time and salt effect were the input variables of this process, whereas the extraction efficiency was the output. The ANN method was found to be capable of modeling this procedure accurately. The overall agreement between the experimental data and ANN predictions was satisfactory showing a determination coefficient of 0.982. The optimum operating condition was then determined by the genetic algorithm method. The optimal conditions were 248 µL volume of extraction solvent, 260 µL volume of dispersive solvent, 2.5 min extraction time and 0.16 mol L(-1) of salt. The limit of detection and linear dynamic range were 0.15-24.0 and 1.2-1,800 ng mL(-1), respectively. The main components of the essential oil were δ-cadinene (31.02%), carvacrol (24.91%), α-pinene (20.89%) and α-cadinol (16.47%).

  16. Optimized ultrasonic assisted extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography for determination of essential oil of Oliveria decumbens Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereshti, Hassan; Izadmanesh, Yahya; Samadi, Soheila

    2011-07-22

    Ultrasonic assisted extraction-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UAE-DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) was applied for extraction and determination of essential oil constituents of the plant Oliveria decumbens Vent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to see the effect of ultrasonic radiation on the extraction efficiency. By comparison with hydrodistillation, UAE-DLLME is fast, low cost, simple, efficient and consuming small amount of plant materials (∼1.0 g). The effects of various parameters such as temperature, ultrasonication time, volume of disperser and extraction solvents were investigated by a full factorial design to identify significant variables and their interactions. The results demonstrated that temperature and ultrasonication time had no considerable effect on the results. In the next step, a central composite design (CCD) was performed to obtain the optimum levels of significant parameters. The obtained optimal conditions were: 0.45 mL for disperser solvent (acetonitrile) and 94.84 μL for extraction solvent (chlorobenzene). The limits of detection (LODs), linear dynamic range and determination coefficients (R(2)) were 0.2-29 ng mL(-1), 1-2100 ng mL(-1) and 0.995-0.998, respectively. The main components of the essential oil were: thymol (47.06%), carvacrol (23.31%), gamma-terpinene (18.94%), p-cymene (8.71%), limonene (0.76%) and myristicin (0.63%).

  17. TOXIC ACTIVITY AND DELAYED EFFECTS OF FIVE BOTANICAL OILS ON THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER PARENTS TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, N A; El-Kady, M B; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Z M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is carried out to evaluate the toxic efficiency and delayed effects of five botanical oils on the greasy cut worm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), as a trial for the attainment of a possible use of an alternative safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. So as to minimize or prevent the repeated usage of conventional insecticides, then reduce the environmental pollution as well as the occurring hazards to man and domestic animal due to the use of the pesticides alone. Four tested concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5% v/v) from each of camphor, red basil, menthol, rose and anise oils, were bioassayed by treating the offered castor oil bean leaves, to the 4th instar larvae along 48h, under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2 °C and 65±5% R.H. The obtained results showed that the five tested oils were found to have more or less toxic activity and drastic effects on the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated parent generation of the insect, in particular, pupae, emerged adult moths and laid eggs/female. In this respect camphor and red basil oils were highly effective, followed by menthol oil, anise oil and the least effective one was rose oil. Moreover, the assessed unprofitable delayed effects on the going on of the biological performance within the treated insects showed the adverse effects on the fitness components of the consequent generations (fs) post (p) one treatment with each of the bioassyed oils. The prevalence of adverse effects and disturbance in the going on biological performance through the period of (p) generation; which is followed by the distinct failure of insect development in (f1) generation were recorded for each of the tested menthol oil at 0.5 and 1.5% (v/v); camphor oil at 1.5 and 2.5% and red basil oil at 2.5% (v/v). While anise and rose oils were somewhat less efficient causing the distinct failure of the following generations up to the 3rd and/or the 6th ones

  18. Effects of Crude Oil/Dispersant Mixture and Dispersant Components on PPARγ Activity in Vitro and in Vivo: Identification of Dioctyl Sodium Sulfosuccinate (DOSS; CAS #577-11-7) as a Probable Obesogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Alexis M.; Bowers, Robert R.; Magaletta, Margaret E.; Holshouser, Steven; Maggi, Adriana; Ciana, Paolo; Guillette, Louis J.; Bowden, John A.; Kucklick, John R.; Baatz, John E.; Spyropoulos, Demetri D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The obesity pandemic is associated with multiple major health concerns. In addition to diet and lifestyle, there is increasing evidence that environmental exposures to chemicals known as obesogens also may promote obesity. Objectives We investigated the massive environmental contamination resulting from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill, including the use of the oil dispersant COREXIT in remediation efforts, to determine whether obesogens were released into t