WorldWideScience

Sample records for disparities progress review

  1. Philanthropy and disparities: progress, challenges, and unfinished business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Faith; Sessions, Kathryn

    2011-10-01

    Philanthropy has invested millions of dollars to reduce disparities in health care and improve minority health. Grants to strengthen providers' cultural competence, diversify health professions, and collect data have improved understanding of and spurred action on disparities. The persistence of disparities in spite of these advances has shifted philanthropic attention toward strategies to change social, economic, and environmental conditions. We argue that these evolving perspectives, along with earlier groundwork, present new opportunities for funders, especially in combination with progress toward universal health coverage. This article looks at how philanthropy has addressed health disparities over the past decade, with a focus on accomplishments, the work remaining to be done, and how funders can help advance the disparities agenda.

  2. Racial disparities in pediatric asthma: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tanisha D; Graham, LeRoy M; Divgi, Varada

    2011-02-01

    The burden of asthma disproportionately affects children living in economically disadvantaged urban communities. The relationships between ethnicity, genetic differences, lower socioeconomic status, poor medication adherence, greater exposure to environmental triggers, and absence of regular asthma care all contribute to this disparity. This review aims to identify and discuss recent studies on additional factors that may also impact to pediatric asthma disparity. The body of work examined in this review suggests that these disparities are the result of gene-environment interactions, vitamin D metabolism, socioeconomic status, urban environment, healthcare setting, and associated health beliefs.

  3. LGBT healthcare disparities: What progress have we made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Kathleen A

    2017-06-10

    Nearly fifteen years have passed since this author's publication which examined the depth of education and training for medical students and practicing physicians specific to clinical competence in the care of lesbian and gay patients in the United States. Since then, there has been an explosion of research gains which have shed a steady light on the needs and disparities of lesbian and gay healthcare. This rich literature base has expanded to include bisexual and transgender (LGBT) healthcare in peer-reviewed journals. Despite these research gains underscoring a call for action, there continues to be a dearth of cultural competency education and training for healthcare professionals focused on clinical assessment and treatment of LGBT patients. This article will focus exclusively on the current status of medical and nursing education and training specific to clinical competence for LGBT healthcare. We are long overdue in closing the clinical competency gap in medical and nursing education to reduce the healthcare disparities within the LGBT community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Can Restorative Practices Help to Reduce Disparities in School Discipline Data? A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Dana M. Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in school discipline data is a national concern. Schools across the nation are working to eliminate these disparities. This literature review considers one response to the disproportionate data, restorative practices. This article examines why exclusionary approaches to discipline are ineffective, contribute to imbalanced discipline…

  5. Racial and ethnic disparities in the VA health care system: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somnath; Freeman, Michele; Toure, Joahd; Tippens, Kimberly M; Weeks, Christine; Ibrahim, Said

    2008-05-01

    To better understand the causes of racial disparities in health care, we reviewed and synthesized existing evidence related to disparities in the "equal access" Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. We systematically reviewed and synthesized evidence from studies comparing health care utilization and quality by race within the VA. Racial disparities in the VA exist across a wide range of clinical areas and service types. Disparities appear most prevalent for medication adherence and surgery and other invasive procedures, processes that are likely to be affected by the quantity and quality of patient-provider communication, shared decision making, and patient participation. Studies indicate a variety of likely root causes of disparities including: racial differences in patients' medical knowledge and information sources, trust and skepticism, levels of participation in health care interactions and decisions, and social support and resources; clinician judgment/bias; the racial/cultural milieu of health care settings; and differences in the quality of care at facilities attended by different racial groups. Existing evidence from the VA indicates several promising targets for interventions to reduce racial disparities in the quality of health care.

  6. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Review: Increasing Awareness and Education on Health Disparities for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Shawna; Palomarez, Rigo Estevan

    2016-04-21

    The focus of this review is to highlight health care disparities and trends in several common diseases in selected populations while offering evidence-based approaches to mitigating health care disparities. Health care disparities cross many barriers and affect multiple populations and diseases. Ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those of lower socioeconomic status (SES) are more at-risk than others. However, many low SES Whites and higher SES racial minorities have poorer health than their racial or SES peers. Also, recent immigrant groups and Hispanics, in particular, maintain high health ratings. The so-called Hispanic Paradox provides an example of how culture and social background can be used to improve health outcomes. These groups have unique determinants of disparity that are based on a wide range of cultural and societal factors. Providing improved access to care and reducing the social determinants of disparity is crucial to improving public health. At the same time, for providers, increasing an understanding of the social determinants promotes better models of individualized care to encourage more equitable care. These approaches include increasing provider education on disparities encountered by different populations, practicing active listening skills, and utilizing a patient's cultural background to promote healthy behaviors.

  8. The Current Scope of Health Disparities in the U.S.: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Michele L.; Nienhaus, Alyson R.

    2010-01-01

    This review of literature examines leading contributors and mediators of health disparities in the United States. Specifically, poverty, education, and health are addressed. Special emphasis is placed on implications of health risk behaviors and health education for select populations and settings. Existing and suggested strategies for addressing…

  9. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues.

  10. Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening in women with mental illness: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Arpita; Pandurangi, Ananda; Smith, Wally

    2013-04-01

    Breast and cervical cancer screening rates have improved substantially in the U.S. during the past decade. Cancer screening and other health outcomes in patients with mental illnesses, such as major depression and schizophrenia, remain suboptimal. Understanding the prevalence and root causes of these disparities is an essential first step toward developing effective interventions. This paper presents a systematic literature review of current evidence on breast and cervical cancer screening disparities in women with mental illness. A systematic PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO search completed in May 2012 retrieved articles pertaining to cancer screening and mentally ill patients using pertinent search terms. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were appraised critically for evidence quality related to screening disparities using defined criteria. Articles that reported cancer screening rates in patients with mental illness were reviewed to determine whether any barriers to screening or factors that promote screening were identified. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Many articles contributed to more than one of the identified areas of interest (i.e., screening utilization, barriers to screening, and factors that encourage screening). Substantial evidence in the current literature confirms disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening rates among women with mental illness. However, the mentally ill population is more complex and diverse than many studies imply. Using a global functional indicator that measures the overall impact of mental illness may yield a more useful categorization of influences on cancer screening. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Race-specific trends in HPV vaccinations and provider recommendations: persistent disparities or social progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Amy M; Webb, Noah S; Hill, Terrence D; Jokinen-Gordon, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Although racial and ethnic differences in HPV vaccination initiation are well established, it is unclear whether these disparities have changed over time. The role of health provider recommendations in reducing any racial and ethnic inequalities is also uncertain. This study addresses these gaps in the literature. Repeated cross-sectional design. Using data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (2008-2013), we estimated a series of binary logistic regressions to model race-specific trends in (1) provider recommendations to vaccinate against HPV and (2) HPV vaccine initiation for males (n = 56,632) and females (n = 77,389). Provider recommendations to vaccinate and HPV vaccination uptake have increased over time for adolescent males and females and across all racial and ethnic groups. Among girls, minority youths have seen a sharper increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccination uptake than their White counterparts. Among boys, minority teens maintain higher overall rates of HPV vaccine uptake, however, Hispanics have lagged behind non-Hispanic Whites in the rate of increase in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations. Our results suggest that racial and ethnic disparities in provider recommendations and HPV vaccinations have waned over time among males and females. While these trends are welcomed, additional interventions are warranted to increase overall rates of vaccination across race, ethnicity, and gender. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disparities in epilepsy: Report of a systematic review by the North American Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burneo, Jorge G.; Jette, Nathalie; Theodore, William; Begley, Charles; Parko, Karen; Thurman, David J.; Wiebe, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose We undertook a systematic review of the evidence on disparities in epilepsy with a focus on North American data (Canada, United States, and the English-speaking Caribbean). Methods We identified and evaluated: access to and outcomes following medical and surgical treatment, disability, incidence and prevalence, and knowledge and attitudes. An exhaustive search (1965–2007) was done, including: (1) disparities by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, age, or education of subgroups of the epilepsy population; or (2) disparities between people with epilepsy (PWE) and healthy people or with other chronic illnesses. Results From 1,455 citations, 278 eligible abstracts were identified and 44 articles were reviewed. Comparative research data were scarce in all areas. PWE have been shown to have lower education and employment status; among PWE, differences in access to surgery have been shown by racial/ethnic groups. Aboriginals, women, and children have been shown to differ in use of health resources. Poor compliance has been shown to be associated with lower SES, insufficient insurance, poor relationship with treating clinicians, and not having regular responsibilities. Discussion Comprehensive, comparative research on all aspects of disparities in epilepsy is needed to understand the causes of disparities and the development of any policies aimed at addressing health disparities and minimizing their impact. PMID:19732134

  13. Conceptualizing the Pathways and Processes Between Language Barriers and Health Disparities: Review, Synthesis, and Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terui, Sachiko

    2017-02-01

    While many may view language barriers in healthcare settings (LBHS) as a simple, practical problem, they present unique challenges to theoretical development and practice implications in healthcare delivery, especially when one considers the implications and impacts of specific contextual factors. By exploring the differences of contextual factors in the US and Japan, this review explores and highlights how such differences may entail different impacts on patients' quality of care and require different solutions. I conduct narrative review through library database, Google Scholar, and CiNii (a Japanese library database) with multiple search terms, including language barriers, healthcare, medical interpreter, and immigrant. I first present a diagram to show the pathways and process between language barriers and health disparities, using the literature reported in the US. Then, I examined the literature reported in Japan and discuss the needs for re-conceptualizing LBHS. The implications for future research will be discussed.

  14. Health Care Disparities Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Hudaisa; Zeshan, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad A; Jahan, Nusrat; Naveed, Sadiq

    2017-04-20

    About 3.5% Americans identify themselves as lesbian, gay, or bisexual while 0.3% identify themselves as transgender. The LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) community belongs to almost every race, ethnicity, religion, age, and socioeconomic group. The LGBT youth are at a higher risk for substance use, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), cancers, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, bullying, isolation, rejection, anxiety, depression, and suicide as compared to the general population. LGBT youth receive poor quality of care due to stigma, lack of healthcare providers' awareness, and insensitivity to the unique needs of this community. The main objective of this literature review is to highlight the challenges faced by the LGBT youth and to enhance the awareness among physicians about the existing disparities in order to provide a more comprehensive, evidence-based, and humane medical care to this community.

  15. Disparities in Physical Health Conditions Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women: A Systematic Review of Population-Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Jane M; Smith, Laramie; Oost, Kathryn M; Lehavot, Keren; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to assess evidence for disparities for lesbian and bisexual women (i.e., sexual minority women [SMW]) in comparison with heterosexual women across a range of nine physical health conditions. Among the k = 11 studies meeting eligibility criteria, almost every comparison (i.e., heterosexual vs. (a) lesbian, (b) bisexual, or (c) both lesbian and bisexual women) was in a direction indicating SMW disparities. Despite limited power due to small samples of SMW, we found evidence of disparities as indicated by a statistically significant adjusted odds ratios for asthma (5 of 7 comparisons), obesity (8 of 12), arthritis (2 of 3), global ratings of physical health (4 of 7), and cardiovascular disease (1 of 1). Evidence was lacking for cancer (1 of 4), diabetes and hypertension (both 1 of 5), and high cholesterol (0 of 3). Future work should confirm findings in more diverse, larger samples and should examine potential explanatory factors.

  16. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Depression in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumyadeep; Trepka, Mary Jo; Pierre-Victor, Dudith; Bahelah, Raed; Avent, Tenesha

    2016-09-01

    Objectives More than 10 % of pregnant women in the United States (U.S.) suffer from depression, which has far-reaching consequences on maternal and fetal well-being. There is conflicting evidence regarding the prevalence of antenatal depression among different race and ethnic groups. This systematic review aimed to summarize the existing literature concerning racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence and correlates of antenatal depression in the U.S. Methods PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched online for research studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals until March 2015, using a pre-designed search strategy. Eligibility was determined using pre-specified criteria; and quality was assessed. Results Forty-one (41) articles met the criteria; 13 were cross-sectional, and 21 were longitudinal studies. Overall, the prevalence of antenatal depression was 10-30 %; it was higher among non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) and Hispanics, compared to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). Few studies looked at the correlates of depression by race/ethnicity. Among employed women, higher depression scores were observed among NHBs, compared to NHWs; while there was no racial difference among unemployed women. Racial difference and race-employment interaction disappeared once discrimination was accounted for. In another study, higher parity, higher stress, and lower self-esteem were significant correlates of depression among NHBs, while less satisfaction with social support, and higher stress predicted higher depression scores among NHWs and Hispanics respectively. Conclusions The findings of our review suggest that not only is antenatal depression a major public health issue that needs to be addressed, but different racial/ethnic groups seem to differ in their vulnerability and risk factors.

  17. Systematic review of health disparities for cardiovascular diseases and associated factors among American Indian and Alaska Native populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Newlin Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: American Indians and Alaska Native (AI/AN populations experience significant health disparities compared to non-Hispanic white populations. Cardiovascular disease and related risk factors are increasingly recognized as growing indicators of global health disparities. However, comparative reports on disparities among this constellation of diseases for AI/AN populations have not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: We performed a literature review on the prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease; and associated morbidity and mortality among AI/AN. DATA SOURCES: A total of 203 articles were reviewed, of which 31 met study criteria for inclusion. Searches were performed on PUBMED, MEDLINE, the CDC MMWR, and the Indian Health Services. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Published literature that were published within the last fifteen years and provided direct comparisons between AI/AN to non-AI/AN populations were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: We abstracted data on study design, data source, AI/AN population, comparison group, and. outcome measures. A descriptive synthesis of primary findings is included. RESULTS: Rates of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome are clearly higher for AI/AN populations. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia differences are more equivocal. Our analysis also revealed that there are likely regional and gender differences in the degree of disparities observed. LIMITATIONS: Studies using BRFSS telephone surveys administered in English may underestimate disparities. Many AI/AN do not have telephones and/or speak English. Regional variability makes national surveys difficult to interpret. Finally, studies using self-reported data may not be accurate. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: Profound health disparities in cardiovascular diseases and associated risk factors for AI/AN populations persist

  18. Trends and Progress in Reducing Teen Birth Rates and the Persisting Challenge of Eliminating Racial/Ethnic Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Emmanuel M; Greer, Danielle M; Bridgewater, Farrin D; Salm Ward, Trina C; Cisler, Ron A

    2017-08-01

    We examined progress made by the Milwaukee community toward achieving the Milwaukee Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative's aggressive 2008 goal of reducing the teen birth rate to 30 live births/1000 females aged 15-17 years by 2015. We further examined differential teen birth rates in disparate racial and ethnic groups. We analyzed teen birth count data from the Wisconsin Interactive Statistics on Health system and demographic data from the US Census Bureau. We computed annual 2003-2014 teen birth rates for the city and four racial/ethnic groups within the city (white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, Hispanic/Latina, Asian non-Hispanic). To compare birth rates from before (2003-2008) and after (2009-2014) goal setting, we used a single-system design to employ two time series analysis approaches, celeration line, and three standard deviation (3SD) bands. Milwaukee's teen birth rate dropped 54 % from 54.3 in 2003 to 23.7 births/1000 females in 2014, surpassing the goal of 30 births/1000 females 3 years ahead of schedule. Rate reduction following goal setting was statistically significant, as five of the six post-goal data points were located below the celeration line and points for six consecutive years (2010-2014) fell below the 3SD band. All racial/ethnic groups demonstrated significant reductions through at least one of the two time series approaches. The gap between white and both black and Hispanic/Latina teens widened. Significant reduction has occurred in the overall teen birth rate of Milwaukee. Achieving an aggressive reduction in teen births highlights the importance of collaborative community partnerships in setting and tracking public health goals.

  19. 77 FR 38840 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: Child Health Disparities Substudy for the National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    .... Need and Use of Information Collection: The Children's Health Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-310) states: (a... environment, genetics on child health and development. The Study defines ``environment'' broadly, taking a..., and quality) contribute to health disparities. Additionally, aspects of the social environment such as...

  20. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  1. Geographic disparities in prostate cancer outcomes--review of international patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Peter D; Yu, Xue Qin; Smith, David P; Dunn, Jeff; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2015-01-01

    This study reviewed the published evidence as to how prostate cancer outcomes vary across geographical remoteness and area level disadvantage. A review of the literature published from January 1998 to January 2014 was undertaken: Medline and CINAHL databases were searched in February to May 2014. The search terms included terms of 'Prostate cancer' and 'prostatic neoplasms' coupled with 'rural health', 'urban health', 'geographic inequalities', 'spatial', 'socioeconomic', 'disadvantage', 'health literacy' or 'health service accessibility'. Outcome specific terms were 'incidence', 'mortality', 'prevalence', 'survival', 'disease progression', 'PSA testing' or 'PSA screening', 'treatment', 'treatment complications' and 'recurrence'. A further search through internet search engines was conducted to identify any additional relevant published reports. 91 papers were included in the review. While patterns were sometimes contrasting, the predominate patterns were for PSA testing to be more common in urban (5 studies out of 6) and affluent areas (2 of 2), higher prostate cancer incidence in urban (12 of 22) and affluent (18 of 20), greater risk of advanced stage prostate cancer in rural (7 of 11) and disadvantaged (8 of 9), higher survival in urban (8 of 13) and affluent (16 of 18), greater access or use of definitive treatment services in urban (6 of 9) and affluent (7 of 7), and higher prostate mortality in rural (10 of 20) and disadvantaged (8 of 16) areas. Future studies may need to utilise a mixed methods approach, in which the quantifiable attributes of the individuals living within areas are measured along with the characteristics of the areas themselves, but importantly include a qualitative examination of the lived experience of people within those areas. These studies should be conducted across a range of international countries using consistent measures and incorporate dialogue between clinicians, epidemiologists, policy advocates and disease control specialists.

  2. An official American Thoracic Society systematic review: insurance status and disparities in lung cancer practices and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatore, Christopher G; Au, David H; Gould, Michael K

    2010-11-01

    Insurance coverage is an important determinant of access to care and is one potential cause of disparities in lung cancer care outcomes. We performed a systematic review of the available literature to examine the association between insurance status and lung cancer practices and outcomes. We searched multiple electronic databases through November 6, 2008 for studies that examined the association between lung cancer outcomes and insurance status. Two reviewers independently selected studies. One investigator evaluated their quality according to predetermined criteria, and abstracted data about study design, patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, and outcome measures. Of 3,798 potentially relevant studies, 23 met eligibility criteria and were included. Studies reported heterogeneous outcomes among heterogeneous samples of patients that precluded a quantitative synthesis. In general, compared with patients with private or Medicare insurance, patients with Medicaid or no insurance had poorer lung cancer outcomes, including higher incidence rates, later stage at diagnosis, and poorer survival. Overall, patients with Medicaid or no insurance were less likely to undergo curative procedures, but patients without insurance were more likely to receive guideline-concordant care. Patients with Medicaid or no insurance consistently had worse outcomes than other patients with lung cancer. Some of the disparities may be secondary to residual confounding from smoking and other health behaviors, but available data suggest that patients with lung cancer without insurance do poorly because access to care is limited and/or they present with more advanced disease that is less amenable to treatment.

  3. Revisiting the evidence on health and health care disparities among the Roma: a systematic review 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Valentine, Anne; Lessios, Anna; Yeh, Ethan

    2013-12-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the epidemiological and health service utilization literature related to the Roma population between 2003 and 2012. Systematic review of empirical research related to Roma health and health care utilization published between 2003 and 2012 identified through electronic databases (PsycInfo, Medline, Google Scholar). Methodological rigor was evaluated using a six-point set of design criteria. We found evidence for lower self-reported health and significantly higher mortality risk for Roma compared to non-Roma, and greater prevalence of health risk factors for Roma children, including environmental risks, low birth weight, and lower vaccination coverage. Studies of non-communicable and infectious disease remain insufficient to make firm conclusions on disparities. Barriers to care include lack of documentation and affordability of care, though more studies on health care utilization are needed. Roma youth and adults are in need of programs that reduce health disparities and their increased mortality risk. Reducing exposure to risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and poor living conditions may be a target for interventions. More intervention studies and rigorous evaluations are needed.

  4. Beneath the numbers: A review of gender disparities in undergraduate education across science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Sarah L.; Brownell, Sara E.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This focused collection explores inequalities in the experiences of women in physics. Yet, it is important for researchers to also be aware of and draw insights from common patterns in the experiences of women across science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Here, we review studies on gender disparities across college STEM on measures that have been correlated with retention. These include disparities in academic performance, engagement, self-efficacy, belonging, and identity. We argue that observable factors such as persistence, performance, and engagement can inform researchers about what populations are disadvantaged in a STEM classroom or program, but we need to measure underlying mechanisms to understand how these inequalities arise. We present a framework that helps connect larger sociocultural factors, including stereotypes and gendered socialization, to student affect and observable behaviors in STEM contexts. We highlight four mechanisms that demonstrate how sociocultural factors could impact women in STEM classrooms and majors. We end with a set of recommendations for how we can more holistically evaluate the experiences of women in STEM to help mitigate the underlying inequities instead of applying a quick fix.

  5. Learning Progressions and Teaching Sequences: A Review and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschl, Richard; Maeng, Seungho; Sezen, Asli

    2011-01-01

    Our paper is an analytical review of the design, development and reporting of learning progressions and teaching sequences. Research questions are: (1) what criteria are being used to propose a "hypothetical learning progression/trajectory" and (2) what measurements/evidence are being used to empirically define and refine a "hypothetical learning…

  6. Reviewing methodologically disparate data: a practical guide for the patient safety research field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katrina F; Long, Susannah J; Athanasiou, Thanos; Vincent, Charles A; Kroll, J Simon; Sevdalis, Nick

    2012-02-01

    This article addresses key questions frequently asked by researchers conducting systematic reviews in patient safety. This discipline is relatively young, and asks complex questions about complex aspects of health care delivery and experience, therefore its studies are typically methodologically heterogeneous, non-randomized and complex; but content rich and highly relevant to practice. Systematic reviews are increasingly necessary to drive forward practice and research in this area, but the data do not always lend themselves to 'standard' review methodologies. This accessible 'how-to' article demonstrates that data diversity need not preclude high-quality systematic reviews. It draws together information from published guidelines and experience within our multidisciplinary patient safety research group to provide entry-level advice for the clinician-researcher new to systematic reviewing, to non-biomedical research data or to both. It offers entry-level advice, illustrated with detailed practical examples, on defining a research question, creating a comprehensive search strategy, selecting articles for inclusion, assessing study quality, extracting data, synthesizing data and evaluating the impact of your review. The article concludes with a comment on the vital role of robust systematic reviews in the continuing advancement of the patient safety field. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Progress and challenges of disaster health management in China: a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of an effective health system response to various disasters, relevant research is still in its infancy, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Objective This paper provides an overview of the status of disaster health management in China, with its aim to promote the effectiveness of the health response for reducing disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Design A scoping review method was used to address the recent progress of and challenges to disaster health management in China. Major health electronic databases were searched to identify English and Chinese literature that were relevant to the research aims. Results The review found that since 2003 considerable progress has been achieved in the health disaster response system in China. However, there remain challenges that hinder effective health disaster responses, including low standards of disaster-resistant infrastructure safety, the lack of specific disaster plans, poor emergency coordination between hospitals, lack of portable diagnostic equipment and underdeveloped triage skills, surge capacity, and psychological interventions. Additional challenges include the fragmentation of the emergency health service system, a lack of specific legislation for emergencies, disparities in the distribution of funding, and inadequate cost-effective considerations for disaster rescue. Conclusions One solution identified to address these challenges appears to be through corresponding policy strategies at multiple levels (e.g. community, hospital, and healthcare system level). PMID:25215910

  8. Progress and challenges of disaster health management in China: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the importance of an effective health system response to various disasters, relevant research is still in its infancy, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Objective: This paper provides an overview of the status of disaster health management in China, with its aim to promote the effectiveness of the health response for reducing disaster-related mortality and morbidity. Design: A scoping review method was used to address the recent progress of and challenges to disaster health management in China. Major health electronic databases were searched to identify English and Chinese literature that were relevant to the research aims. Results: The review found that since 2003 considerable progress has been achieved in the health disaster response system in China. However, there remain challenges that hinder effective health disaster responses, including low standards of disaster-resistant infrastructure safety, the lack of specific disaster plans, poor emergency coordination between hospitals, lack of portable diagnostic equipment and underdeveloped triage skills, surge capacity, and psychological interventions. Additional challenges include the fragmentation of the emergency health service system, a lack of specific legislation for emergencies, disparities in the distribution of funding, and inadequate cost-effective considerations for disaster rescue. Conclusions: One solution identified to address these challenges appears to be through corresponding policy strategies at multiple levels (e.g. community, hospital, and healthcare system level.

  9. Progress and challenges of disaster health management in China: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of an effective health system response to various disasters, relevant research is still in its infancy, especially in middle- and low-income countries. This paper provides an overview of the status of disaster health management in China, with its aim to promote the effectiveness of the health response for reducing disaster-related mortality and morbidity. A scoping review method was used to address the recent progress of and challenges to disaster health management in China. Major health electronic databases were searched to identify English and Chinese literature that were relevant to the research aims. The review found that since 2003 considerable progress has been achieved in the health disaster response system in China. However, there remain challenges that hinder effective health disaster responses, including low standards of disaster-resistant infrastructure safety, the lack of specific disaster plans, poor emergency coordination between hospitals, lack of portable diagnostic equipment and underdeveloped triage skills, surge capacity, and psychological interventions. Additional challenges include the fragmentation of the emergency health service system, a lack of specific legislation for emergencies, disparities in the distribution of funding, and inadequate cost-effective considerations for disaster rescue. One solution identified to address these challenges appears to be through corresponding policy strategies at multiple levels (e.g. community, hospital, and healthcare system level).

  10. Droplet lasers: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGloin, D.

    2017-05-01

    It is perhaps surprising that something as fragile as a microscopic droplet could possibly form a laser. In this article we will review some of the underpinning physics as to how this might be possible, and then examine the state of the art in the field. The technology to create and manipulate droplets will be examined, as will the different classes of droplet lasers. We discuss the rapidly developing fields of droplet biolasers, liquid crystal laser droplets and explore how droplet lasers could give rise to new bio and chemical sensing and analysis. The challenges that droplet lasers face in becoming robust devices, either as sensors or as photonic components in the lab on chip devices, is assessed.

  11. Twin screw granulation - review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M R

    2015-01-01

    Twin screw granulation (TSG) is a new process of interest to the pharmaceutical community that can continuously wet granulate powders, doing so at lower liquid concentrations and with better product consistency than found by a high shear batch mixer. A considerable body of research has evolved over the short time since this process was introduced but generally with little comparison of results. A certain degree of confidence has been developed through these studies related to how process variables and many attributes of machinery configuration will affect granulation but some major challenges still lay ahead related to scalability, variations in the processing regimes related to degree of channel fill and the impact of wetting and granulation of complex powder formulations. This review examines the current literature for wet granulation processes studied in twin screw extrusion machinery, summarizing the influences of operational and system parameters affecting granule properties as well as strives to provide some practical observations to newly interested users of the technique.

  12. Review of progress in quantitative nondestructive evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Chimenti, Dale

    1999-01-01

    This series provides a comprehensive review of the latest research results in quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE). Leading investigators working in government agencies, major industries, and universities present a broad spectrum of work extending from basic research to early engineering applications. An international assembly of noted authorities in NDE thoroughly cover such topics as: elastic waves, guided waves, and eddy-current detection, inversion, and modeling; radiography and computed tomography, thermal techniques, and acoustic emission; laser ultrasonics, optical methods, and microwaves; signal processing and image analysis and reconstruction, with an emphasis on interpretation for defect detection; and NDE sensors and fields, both ultrasonic and electromagnetic; engineered materials and composites, bonded joints, pipes, tubing, and biomedical materials; linear and nonlinear properties, ultrasonic backscatter and microstructure, coatings and layers, residual stress and texture, and constructi...

  13. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengwu Wang; Xiaoyi Zhang; Jiwei Hu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension (γ) of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies o...

  14. Disparities in Gynecological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna eChatterjee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health disparities and inequalities in access to care among different socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups have been well documented in the U.S. healthcare system. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of barriers to care contributing to health disparities in gynecological oncology management and to describe site-specific disparities in gynecologic care for endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. Methods: We performed a literature review of peer-reviewed academic and governmental publications focusing on disparities in gynecological care in the United States by searching PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. Results: There are multiple important underlying issues that may contribute to the disparities in gynecological oncology management in the United States, namely geographic access and hospital based-discrepancies, research-based discrepancies, influence of socioeconomic and health insurance status, and finally the influence of race and biological factors. Despite the reduction in overall cancer-related deaths since the 1990s, the 5-year survival for Black women is significantly lower than for White women for each gynecologic cancer type and each stage of diagnosis. For ovarian and endometrial cancer, black patients are less likely to receive treatment consistent with evidence-based guidelines and have worse survival outcomes even after accounting for stage and comorbidities. For cervical and endometrial cancer, the mortality rate for black women remains twice that of White women. Conclusions: Health care disparities in the incidence and outcome of gynecologic cancers are complex and involve biologic factors as well as racial, socioeconomic and geographic barriers that influence treatment and survival. These barriers must be addressed to provide optimal care to women in the U.S. with gynecologic cancer.

  15. Review of Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Tai Kong

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduced the structure and the principle of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The latest results about the critical technology and the industrialization research on dye-sensitized solar cells were reviewed. The development of key components, including nanoporous semiconductor films, dye sensitizers, redox electrolyte, counter electrode, and conducting substrate in dye-sensitized solar cells was reviewed in detail. The developing progress and prospect of dye-sensitized solar cells from small cells in the laboratory to industrialization large-scale production were reviewed. At last, the future development of DSC was prospective for the tendency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

  16. Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Endocrine Therapy Adherence in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    We examined the current literature to understand factors that influence endocrine therapy (ET) adherence among racial/ethnic and socioeconomic subpopulations of breast cancer patients. We searched PubMed and PsycINFO databases for studies from January 1, 1978, to June 20, 2014, and January 1, 1991, to June 20, 2014, respectively, and hand-searched articles from relevant literature reviews. We abstracted and synthesized results within a social ecological framework. Fourteen articles met all inclusion criteria. The majority of included articles reported significant underuse of ET among minority and low-income women. Modifiable intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community-level factors are associated with ET use, and these factors vary across subgroups. Both race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status are associated with ET use in most settings. Variation in factors associated with ET use across subgroups indicates the need for more nuanced research and targeted interventions among breast cancer patients. PMID:25905855

  17. Systematic review of risk factors for progressive ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Yang; Fanyi Kong; Ming Liu; Zilong Hao

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for progressive ischemic stroke, and to prevent onset and make a prognosis of disease, the present study systemically evaluated 19 cohort studies and 10 case-controlled studies of progressive ischemic stroke.SEARCH STRATEGY: A computer-based, online, literature search of PubMed (1966/2007), China Biological Medicine Database (CBM-disc, 1979/2007) and CNKI (www.cnki.net, 1979/2007) was performed to screen for related studies.DATA SELECTION: Cohort or case-controlled studies that focused on risk factors of progressive ischemic stroke were selected for review.Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality according to Cochrane Collaboration guidelines.Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan software.MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: Risk factors for progressive ischemic stroke.RESULTS: Using the inclusion criteria, 29/781 studies published in English and Chinese were initially reviewed, including 19 cohort studies and 10 case-control studies.Despite variations in determination of progressive ischemic stroke and the intervals between 2 evaluations, all studies described the diagnostic criteria for progressive ischemic stroke.Logistic analysis was employed in 20 of the studies.Meta-analysis of primary data in the related studies determined that the following factors that significantly correlated with progressive ischemic stroke: fever[risk ratio (RR)=2.26,95% confidence interval (Cl):1.20-4.26, P = 0.01;odds ratio (OR)=2.85,95% Cl: 1.64-4.98, P<0.01)1; diabetes (RR= 1.38, 95% Cl: 1.18-1.61,P < 0.01;OR= 2.48, 95% CI: 1.93-3.19, P < 0.01);coronary heart disease (RR= 1.22, 95% Cl: 1.08-1.38, P< 0.01); neuroimaging transformation (RR=1.55, 95%Cl: 1.34-1.80, P < 0.01; OR=2.29,95% Cl: 1.47-.58, P<0.01); and hyperglycemia (RR=2.62, 95% Cl: 1.86-3.68, P<0.01;OR=3.49,95% Cl: 1.92-6.35, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Fever, diabetes, coronary heart disease, neuroimaging transformation, and hyperglycemia are

  18. A Review on Progress in QSPR Studies for Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwu Wang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on recent progress in quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR studies of surfactants and applications of various molecular descriptors. QSPR studies on critical micelle concentration (cmc and surface tension (γ of surfactants are introduced. Studies on charge distribution in ionic surfactants by quantum chemical calculations and its effects on the structures and properties of the colloids of surfactants are also reviewed. The trends of QSPR studies on cloud point (for nonionic surfactants, biodegradation potential and some other properties of surfactants are evaluated .

  19. Burden of diabetic foot disorders, guidelines for management and disparities in implementation in Europe: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Acker, Kristien; Léger, Philippe; Hartemann, Agnes; Chawla, Abhineet; Siddiqui, Mohd Kashif

    2014-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the economic and quality of life burden of diabetic foot disorders and to identify disparities in the recommendations from guidelines and the current clinical practice across the EU5 (Spain, Italy, France, UK and Germany) countries. Literature search of electronic databases (MEDLINE®, Embase® and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was undertaken. English language studies investigating economic and resource burden, quality of life and management of diabetic foot disease in the EU5 countries were included. Additionally, websites were screened for guidelines and current management practices in diabetic foot complication in EU5. Diabetic foot complications accounted for a total annual cost of €509m in the UK and €430 per diabetic patient in Germany, during 2001. The cost of diabetic foot complications increased with disease severity, with hospitalizations (41%) and amputation (9%) incurring 50% of the cost. Medical devices (orthopaedic shoes, shoe lifts and walking aids) were the most frequently utilized resources. Patients with diabetic foot complications experienced worsened quality of life, especially in those undergoing amputations and with non-healed ulcers or recurrent ulcers. Although guidelines advocate the use of multidisciplinary foot care teams, the utilization of multidisciplinary foot care teams was suboptimal. We conclude that diabetic foot disorders demonstrated substantial economic burden and have detrimental effect on quality of life, with more impairment in physical domain. Implementation of the guidelines and set-up of multidisciplinary clinics for holistic management of the diabetic foot disorders varies across Europe and remains suboptimal. Hence, guidelines need to be reinforced to prevent diabetic foot complications and to achieve limb salvage if complications are unpreventable.

  20. Progress in carbon dioxide separation and capture: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the progress made in CO2 separation and capture research and engineering. Various technologies, such as absorption, adsorption, and membrane separation, are thoroughly discussed. New concepts such as chemical-looping combustion and hydrate-based separation are also introduced briefly. Future directions are suggested. Sequestration methods, such as forestation, ocean fertilization and mineral carbonation techniques are also covered. Underground injection and direct ocean dump are not covered.

  1. Organisational reviews - requirements, methods and experience. Progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Oedewald, P.; Wahlstroem, B. [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Rollenhagen, C.; Kahlbom, U. [Maelardalen University (FI)

    2007-04-15

    Organisational reviews are important instruments in the continuous quest for improved performance. In the nuclear field there has been an increasing regulatory interest in organisational performance, because incidents and accidents often point to organisational deficiencies as one of the major precursors. Many methods for organisational reviews have been proposed, but they are mostly based on ad hoc approaches to specific problems. The absence of well-established techniques for organisational reviews has already shown to cause discussions and controversies on different levels. The aim of the OrRe project is to collect the experiences from organisational reviews carried out so far and to reflect them in a theoretical model of organisational performance. Furthermore, the project aims to reflect on the criteria for the definition of the scope and content of organisational reviews. Finally, recommendations will be made for guidance for people participating in organisational reviews. This progress report describes regulatory practices in Finland and Sweden together with some case examples of organizational reviews and assessment in both countries. Some issues of concern are raised and an outline for the next year's work is proposed. Issues of concern include the sufficient depth of the assessment, the required competence in assessments, data and criteria problems, definition of the boundaries of the system to be assessed, and the necessary internal support and organisational maturity required for successful assessments. Finally, plans for next year's work are outlined. (au)

  2. Ethnic and Racial Disparities in Education: Psychology's Role in Understanding and Reducing Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Mahgoub, Lana

    2016-01-01

    We review the scope and sources of ethnic and racial disparities in education with a focus on the the implications of psychological theory and research for understanding and redressing these disparities. We identify 3 sources of ethnic and racial disparities including (a) social class differences, (b) differential treatment based on ethnic and…

  3. Predictors of disease progression in HIV infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananworanich Jintanat

    2007-05-01

    as ART becomes increasingly available in resource-limited parts of the world. The influence of these, and other factors, on the clinical progression of HIV infection are reviewed in detail, both preceding and following treatment initiation.

  4. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  5. Improving health literacy in community populations: a review of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutbeam, Don; McGill, Bronwyn; Premkumar, Pav

    2017-03-28

    Governments around the world have adopted national policies and programs to improve health literacy. This paper examines progress in the development of evidence to support these policies from interventions to improve health literacy among community populations. Our review found only a limited number of studies (n=7) that met the criteria for inclusion, with many more influenced by the concept of health literacy but not using it in the design and evaluation. Those included were diverse in setting, population and intended outcomes. All included educational strategies to develop functional health literacy, and a majority designed to improve interactive or critical health literacy skills. Several papers were excluded because they described a protocol for an intervention, but not results, indicating that our review may be early in a cycle of activity in community intervention research. The review methodology may not have captured all relevant studies, but it provides a clear message that the academic interest and attractive rhetoric surrounding health literacy needs to be tested more systematically through intervention experimentation in a wide range of populations using valid and reliable measurement tools. The distinctive influence of the concept of health literacy on the purpose and methodologies of health education and communication is not reflected in many reported interventions at present. Evidence to support the implementation of national policies and programs, and the intervention tools required by community practitioners are not emerging as quickly as needed. This should be addressed as a matter of priority by research funding agencies.

  6. Pictorial review of intrathoracic manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan; Rajiah, Prabhakar; Allen, Carolyn; Koteyar, Shyam Sunder; Khan, Ali Nawaz

    2014-10-01

    Intra-thoracic manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) are not well known particularly the imaging features, which forms the basis of accurate and timely diagnosis. The aim of this study is to familiarize the physicians and radiologists with these features. The diagnosis can remain elusive because of the non-specific nature of symptoms which mimic many common conditions. Thus, the diagnosis of PSS can be missed leading to continuous morbidity if the correct imaging is not pursued. The authors examined the records of rheumatology patient referrals of over a 5 year period. A hundred and seventy patients with systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disorders were chosen for detailed study of the imaging available, which form the basis of this review. The images included conventional chest radiographs, digital radiographs computed radiography (CT) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Where applicable computed pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and radionuclide scans were also interrogated.

  7. Towards Laser Driven Hadron Cancer Radiotherapy: A Review of Progress

    CERN Document Server

    Ledingham, K W D; Shikazono, N; Ma, C-M

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for about sixty years that proton and heavy ion therapy is a very powerful radiation procedure for treating tumours. It has an innate ability to irradiate tumours with greater doses and spatial selectivity compared with electron and photon therapy and hence is a tissue sparing procedure. For more than twenty years powerful lasers have generated high energy beams of protons and heavy ions and hence it has been frequently speculated that lasers could be used as an alternative to RF accelerators to produce the particle beams necessary for cancer therapy. The present paper reviews the progress made towards laser driven hadron cancer therapy and what has still to be accomplished to realise its inherent enormous potential.

  8. Towards Laser Driven Hadron Cancer Radiotherapy: A Review of Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken W. D. Ledingham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for about sixty years that proton and heavy ion therapy is a very powerful radiation procedure for treating tumors. It has an innate ability to irradiate tumors with greater doses and spatial selectivity compared with electron and photon therapy and, hence, is a tissue sparing procedure. For more than twenty years, powerful lasers have generated high energy beams of protons and heavy ions and it has, therefore, frequently been speculated that lasers could be used as an alternative to radiofrequency (RF accelerators to produce the particle beams necessary for cancer therapy. The present paper reviews the progress made towards laser driven hadron cancer therapy and what has still to be accomplished to realize its inherent enormous potential.

  9. Cauda equina syndrome: a review of clinical progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bin; WU Hong; JIA Lian-shun; YUAN Wen; SHI Guo-dong; SHI Jian-gang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review the literature on the clinical progress in cauda equina syndrome (CES), including the epidemic history, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment policy and prognosis.Data sources All reports on CES in the literature were searched in PubMed, Ovid, Springer, Elsevier, and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Disk using the key terms "cauda equina syndrome", "diagnosis", "treatment', "prognosis" and "evidence-based medicine".Study selection Original milestone articles and critical reviews wdtten by major pioneer investigators about the cauda equina syndrome were selected.Results CES is rare, both atraumatically and traumatically. Males and females are equally affected. The incidence of CES is variable, depending on the etiology of the syndrome. The most common cause of CES is herniation of a lumbar intervertebral disc. CES symptoms may have sudden onset and evolve rapidly or sometimes chronic ally. Each type of CES has different typical signs and symptoms. Low back pain may be the most significant symptoms, accompanied by sciatica, lower extremities weakness, saddle or perianal hypoesthesia, sexual impotence, and sphincter dysfunction. MRI is usually the preferred investigation approach. Patients who have had CES are difficult to return to a normal status.Conclusions The diagnosis of CES is primarily based on a careful history inquiry and clinical examination, assisted by elective radiologic investigations. Early diagnosis and early surgical decompression are crucial for a favorable outcome in most CES cases.

  10. Clinicohistological disparity in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumdar S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A healthy elderly man presented with localized isolated erythematous tender, anesthetic, oval plaque with little scaling near the medial angle of right eye, of 3 years′ duration without any obvious nerve thickening, treated irregularly with WHO MDT for 3 months, clinically simulating BT leprosy with downgrading reversal reaction. Histology showed a BL granuloma with plenty of solid staining AFB within the foamy macrophages. Lepromin test was very weakly positive. The case is discussed in the light of clinicohistological disparity in leprosy cases with review of relevant literatures. A stress is laid on the importance of newer MDT in such cases to prevent drug-resistance, relapse and recurrence.

  11. Lossless Compression of Stereo Disparity Maps for 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Efficient compression of disparity data is important for accurate view synthesis purposes in multi-view communication systems based on the “texture plus depth” format, including the stereo case. In this paper a novel technique for lossless compression of stereo disparity images is presented...... disparity maps for stereo pairs and outperforms different standard solutions for lossless still image compression. Moreover, it provides a progressive representation of disparity data as well as a parallelizable structure....

  12. Vision health disparities in blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: A review of the Nigerian National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinna F. Akano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blindness and visual impairment have become public health problems with prevalence increasing year after year. Nigeria, the most populated country in Africa, is also very diverse in terms of geographical location, ethnicity and culture. This study looks at and considers the vision health disparities in blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria using socio-demographic factors such as gender, geopolitical zones, place of residence and literacy.Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar databases from May 2014 to May 2015. The search included articles from 2001 to May 2015 as well as a review of the Nigerian National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey.Results: The male dominance culture and lower literacy levels among women in Nigeria have led to a higher prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among women compared to men. In Nigeria, eye diseases that lead to blindness and visual impairment occur more in certain geopolitical zones and ecological regions than others. More Nigerians live in remote rural areas, with little or no access to health care, rather than in urban areas where there are more eye care practitioners and better facilities for care.Conclusion: Differences in gender, geopolitical zones, place of residence and literacy are responsible for existing vision health disparities in blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria.

  13. Quality of Care and Disparities in Obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Growing attention is being paid to obstetric quality of care as patients are pressing the health care system to measure and improve quality. There is also an increasing recognition of persistent racial and ethnic disparities prevalent in obstetric outcomes. Yet few studies have linked obstetric quality of care with racial and ethnic disparities. This article reviews definitions of quality of care, health disparities, and health equity as they relate to obstetric care and outcomes; describes current efforts and challenges in obstetric quality measurement; and proposes 3 steps in an effort to develop, track, and improve quality and reduce disparities in obstetrics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Entropy noise: A review of theory, progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee S Morgans

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion noise comprises two components: direct combustion noise and indirect combustion noise. The latter is the lesser studied, with entropy noise believed to be its main component. Entropy noise is generated via a sequence involving diverse flow physics. It has enjoyed a resurgence of interest over recent years, because of its increasing importance to aero-engine exhaust noise and a recognition that it can affect gas turbine combustion instabilities. Entropy noise occurs when unsteady heat release rate generates temperature fluctuations (entropy waves, and these subsequently undergo acceleration. Five stages of flow physics have been identified as being important, these being (a generation of entropy waves by unsteady heat release rate; (b advection of entropy waves through the combustor; (c acceleration of entropy waves through either a nozzle or blade row, to generate entropy noise; (d passage of entropy noise through a succession of turbine blade rows to appear at the turbine exit; and (e reflection of entropy noise back into the combustor, where it may further perturb the flame, influencing the combustor thermoacoustics. This article reviews the underlying theory, recent progress and outstanding challenges pertaining to each of these stages.

  15. The role of exosomes in tumor progression and metastasis (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchorska, Wiktoria M; Lach, Michal S

    2016-03-01

    Tumor cells have developed various mechanisms in defense against applied treatment, which prevent their total elimination from an organism. One of the underestimated mechanisms of defense is secretion of highly specialized double-membrane structures called exosomes. They play a crucial role in the control of the local microenvironment and intracellular communication. It has been shown that the exosomes can be carriers of various proteins, lipids, miRNAs and mRNAs. There are extensive data concerning the influence and participation by exosomes in metastasis and cancer progression. It has been demonstrated that exosomes are involved in multidrug resistance mechanisms, radiation-induced bystander effect and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, exosomes are able to form a premetastatic niche and enable the escape of cancer cells from recognition by host immune cells. Moreover, exosomes are responsible for the formation of vessels. This indicates the significance of secreted extracellular vesicles in the development and prognosis of cancer. The aim of the present review is to briefly describe the role of exosomes in tumor biology.

  16. Diabetic nephropathy: Time to withhold development and progression - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama A.A. Sharaf El Din

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent discoveries in the fields of pathogenesis and management of diabetic nephropathy have revolutionized the knowledge about this disease. Little was added to the management of diabetic nephropathy after the introduction of renin angiotensin system blockers. The ineffective role of the renin- angiotensin system blockers in primary prevention of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus necessitated the search for other early therapeutic interventions that target alternative pathogenic mechanisms. Among the different classes of oral hypoglycemic agents, recent studies highlighted the distinguished mechanisms of sodium glucose transporter 2 blockers and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors that settle their renoprotective actions beyond the hypoglycemic effects. The introduction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents to this field had also added wealth of knowledge. However, many of these agents are still waiting well-designed clinical studies in order to prove their beneficial therapeutic role. The aim of this review of literature is to highlight the recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, the established and the potential renoprotective therapeutic agents that would prevent the development or the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  17. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in a patient with renal amyloidosis: Case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama, Y. J.; Vankalakunti, M.

    2012-01-01

    Renal amyloidosis is characterized by progressive deposition of extracellular material, most commonly in the glomeruli. Most often, patients present with nephrotic range proteinuria and the disease progresses gradually to renal failure. Rapid worsening of renal functions is rare. We report a case of crescentic glomerulonephritis superimposed on amyloidosis, clinically presenting as rapidly progressive renal failure, and present a review of the literature.

  18. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  19. Frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirshner HS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Howard S KirshnerDepartment of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Frontotemporal dementias are neurodegenerative diseases in which symptoms of frontal and/or temporal lobe disease are the first signs of the illness, and as the diseases progress, they resemble a focal left hemisphere process such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, even more than a neurodegenerative disease. Over time, some patients develop a more generalized dementia. Four clinical subtypes characterize the predominant presentations of this illness: behavioral or frontal variant FTD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic primary progressive aphasia. These clinical variants correlate with regional patterns of atrophy on brain imaging studies such as MRI and PET scanning, as well as with biochemical and molecular genetic variants of the disorder. The treatment is as yet only symptomatic, but advances in molecular genetics promise new therapies.Keywords: FTD, behavior variant or frontal variant FTD, pick's disease, PPA, progressive nonfluent aphasia

  20. A Progress Review of Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This study reviews the literature related to regional entrepreneurship. It identifies the main topical perspectives, advancements and shortcomings, discusses several research gaps and proposes ways forward. The literature review is based on 170 peer-reviewed articles in the leading journals of en...

  1. Systematic Review of Disparities in Health Care for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregnago, Megan K.; Cheak-Zamora, Nancy C.

    2012-01-01

    Authors conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine whether differences exist for children with ASD versus children without ASD in the utilization, accessibility, and cost of their health care services. Population and outcome variables of interest were used to search for articles in Medline and PsycInfo databases. Thirteen studies…

  2. Do men need empowering too? A systematic review of entrepreneurial education and microenterprise development on health disparities among inner-city black male youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa

    2014-10-01

    Economic strengthening through entrepreneurial and microenterprise development has been shown to mitigate poverty-based health disparities in developing countries. Yet, little is known regarding the impact of similar approaches on disadvantaged U.S. populations, particularly inner-city African-American male youth disproportionately affected by poverty, unemployment, and adverse health outcomes. A systematic literature review was conducted to guide programming and research in this area. Eligible studies were those published in English from 2003 to 2014 which evaluated an entrepreneurial and microenterprise initiative targeting inner-city youth, aged 15 to 24, and which did not exclude male participants. Peer-reviewed publications were identified from two electronic bibliographic databases. A manual search was conducted among web-based gray literature and registered trials not yet published. Among the 26 papers retrieved for review, six met the inclusion criteria and were retained for analysis. None of the 16 registered microenterprise trials were being conducted among disadvantaged populations in the U.S. The available literature suggests that entrepreneurial and microenterprise programs can positively impact youth's economic and psychosocial functioning and result in healthier decision-making. Young black men specifically benefited from increased autonomy, engagement, and risk avoidance. However, such programs are vastly underutilized among U.S. minority youth, and the current evidence is insufficiently descriptive or rigorous to draw definitive conclusions. Many programs described challenges in securing adequate resources, recruiting minority male youth, and sustaining community buy-in. There is an urgent need to increase implementation and evaluation efforts, using innovative and rigorous designs, to improve the low status of greater numbers of African-American male youth.

  3. 77 FR 19287 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Progress Payments (SF-1443)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Register at 76 FR 81942, on December 29, 2011. No comments were received. Public comments are particularly... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Progress Payments (SF-1443) AGENCY: Department of Defense...

  4. Research Progress on Furfural Residues Recycling : A Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Chun'ai; Liu, Bo; Girisuta, B.; Heeres, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Millions of tons of furfural residues from the furfural industry are produced every year in China. Proper recycling of these residues is highly desirable as it may reduce associated environmental problems and increase the economic viability of the furfural industry. Research progress on furfural res

  5. Risk factor assessment tools for the prevention of periodontitis progression a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Niklaus P.; Suvan, Jean E; Tonetti, Maurizio S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES (i) To identify characteristics of currently published patient-based tools used to assess levels of risk for periodontitis progression and (ii) systematically review the evidence documenting the use of patient-based risk assessment tools for predicting periodontitis progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS A systematic review was prepared on the basis of an electronic search of the literature supplemented with manually searching the relevant journals of the latest 5 years. Prospective ...

  6. Review on development progress of automatic manual transmissions control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI Amir Ibrahim; QIN Da-tong; ATTIA Nabil Abdulla

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, the sustainable development of automatic manual transmissions (AMTs) control in vehicles is conspicuous. The control applications have grown fast and steadily due to the tremendous progress in power electronics components and the control software that enhance the requirements for delivering higher vehicles performance. AMTs control strategies achieve a reduction in the driveline dynamic oscillations behavior during gear shifting and clutch starting up processes.AMTs future expectations are an increase of torque capacity, more speed ratios and the development of advanced and efficient electronic control systems. This paper concerns with the progressing view of AMTs in the past, today and future, gives an overview of the potential dynamic problems concerned with AMTs and some control strategies used to solve those problems.

  7. From Disparity to Harmonisation of Construction Industry Payment Legislation in Australia: A Proposal for a Dual Process of Adjudication based upon Size of Progress Payment Claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Coggins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the Building and Construction Industry Security of Payment Act into New South Wales in 1999, construction industry payment legislation has progressively been enacted on a jurisdiction-by-jurisdiction basis throughout Australia. Of the eight Australian Acts, two distinct legislative models can be discerned – what have been termed the ‘East Coast’ and ‘West Coast’ models. This article compares the two models with respect to their payment systems and adjudication schemes, procedural justice afforded, incursion upon freedom of contract, uptake rates and efficiency. From this comparison, the strengths and weaknesses of the two models are identified. Finally, a dual process of adjudication based on progress payment claim size is proposed for a harmonised model, developed from previous proposals put forward by other authors, which aims to combine the strengths of the two existing models.

  8. Measuring disparities in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Karen; Bohm, Michele; Keppel, Kenneth

    2008-12-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines a health disparity as a "[health] difference that occurs by gender, race or ethnicity, education or income, disability, geographic location, or sexual orientation." Health equity is achieved by eliminating health disparities or inequalities. Measuring health disparities is a critical first step toward reducing differences in health outcomes. To determine the methods to be used in measuring a health disparity, several decisions must be made, which include: (1) selecting a reference group for the comparison of 2 or more groups; (2) determining whether a disparity should be measured in absolute or in relative terms; (3) opting to measure health outcomes or health indicators expressed as adverse or favorable events; (4) selecting a method to monitor a disparity over time; and (5) choosing to measure a disparity as a pair-wise comparison between 2 groups or in terms of a summary measure of disparity among all groups for a particular characteristic. Different choices may lead to different conclusions about the size and direction of health disparities at a point in time and changes in disparities over time.The objective of this article is to review the methods for measuring health disparities, provide examples of their use, and make specific recommendations for measuring disparities in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).

  9. Disparity estimation and disparity-coherent watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Faridul, Hasan; Doërr, Gwenaël.; Baudry, Séverine

    2015-03-01

    In the context of stereo video, disparity-coherent watermarking has been introduced to provide superior robustness against virtual view synthesis, as well as to improve perceived fidelity. Still, a number of practical considerations have been overlooked and in particular the role of the underlying depth estimation tool on performances. In this article, we explore the interplay between various stereo video processing primitives and highlight a few take away lessons that should be accounted for to improve performances of future disparity-coherent watermarking systems. In particular, we highlight how lost correspondences during the stereo warping process impact watermark detection, thereby calling for innovative designs.

  10. 48 CFR 32.503-3 - Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... payments and review of accounting system. 32.503-3 Section 32.503-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... on Costs 32.503-3 Initiation of progress payments and review of accounting system. (a) For..., (2) possessed of an adequate accounting system and controls, and (3) in sound financial...

  11. Progressive Pedagogies and Teacher Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Geoff; Miller, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Few studies take up the question of how to teach pre-service or current teachers to practice integrated, interdisciplinary, and inquiry-based methodologies. In this literature review, scholarly research is explored to examine approaches to teacher education based in progressivism. Place- and community-based education is considered as an important…

  12. Quantum discord and its allies: a review of recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Anindita; Das, Tamoghna; Sadhukhan, Debasis; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2017-08-21

    We review concepts and methods associated with quantum discord and related topics. We also describe their possible connections with other aspects of quantum information and beyond, including quantum communication, quantum computation, many-body physics, and open quantum dynamics. Quantum discord in the multiparty regime and its applications are also discussed. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Progress in electrical energy storage system:A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Chen; Thang Ngoc Cong; Wei Yang; Chunqing Tan; Yongliang Li; Yulong Ding

    2009-01-01

    Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed.Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage,compressed air energy storage,battery,flow battery,fuel cell,solar fuel,superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor,and thermal energy torage.Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteris-tics,applications and deployment status.

  14. Treatment of secondary burn wound progression in contact burns-a systematic review of experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmauss, Daniel; Rezaeian, Farid; Finck, Tom; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Wettstein, Reto; Harder, Yves

    2015-01-01

    After a burn injury, superficial partial-thickness burn wounds may progress to deep partial-thickness or full-thickness burn wounds, if kept untreated. This phenomenon is called secondary burn wound progression or conversion. Burn wound depth is an important determinant of patient morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reduction or even the prevention of secondary burn wound progression is one goal of the acute care of burned patients. The objective of this study was to review preclinical approaches evaluating therapies to reduce burn wound progression. A systematic review of experimental approaches in animals that aim at reducing or preventing secondary burn wound progression was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. The selected references consist of all the peer-reviewed studies performed in vivo in animals and review articles published in English, German, Italian, Spanish, or French language relevant to the topic of secondary burn wound progression. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar including all the articles published from the beginning of notations to the present. The search was conducted between May 3, 2012 and December 26, 2013. We included 29 experimental studies in this review, investigating agents that maintain or increase local perfusion conditions, as well as agents that exhibit an anti-coagulatory, an anti-inflammatory, or an anti-apoptotic property. Warm water, simvastatin, EPO, or cerium nitrate may represent particularly promising approaches for the translation into clinical use in the near future. This review demonstrates promising experimental approaches that might reduce secondary burn wound progression. Nevertheless, a translation into clinical application needs to confirm the results compiled in experimental animal studies.

  15. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  16. High-temperature liquid-metal technology review. A Bimonthly Technical Progress Review, Volume 7, Number 2, April 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1969-04-01

    The purpose of the High-Temperature Liquid-Metal Technology Review is to provide up-to-date information on the various research and development programs in the United States in the field of high-temperature liquid-metal technology. The method is to publish reviews prepared by members of the Department of Applied Science of the Brookhaven National Laboratory on current topical and progress reports submitted by contracting organizations. When results and conclusions are reported, it is intended that the individual reviews become both summaries and critiques. Thirteen reviews are presented in this issue.

  17. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Chi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Design. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012 for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions

  18. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January--March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E. G. [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  19. Review on the recent progress of laser frontiers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; ZunQi; CHEN; WeiBiao; LOU; QiHong; FAN; Wei; XIANG; ShiQing; XUE; HuiBin

    2013-01-01

    The discussion on laser science and technology during the "Laser Frontier" forum on 20 to 21 October 2012 in Beijing provided a global overview of laser development status and trends. Several frontiers in the application and industrial development of laser science and technology in China are reviewed. Suggestions on several aspects of China’s laser technology and industry development, especially on a number of laser technology fields and their applications that are closely related to the national economy and industry, are proposed.

  20. Recent progress on quantum dot solar cells: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Tomah; Shen, Qing; Yamaguchi, Koichi

    2016-10-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have a potential to increase the power conversion efficiency in photovoltaic operation because of the enhancement of photoexcitation. Recent advances in self-assembled QD solar cells (QDSCs) and colloidal QDSCs are reviewed, with a focus on understanding carrier dynamics. For intermediate-band solar cells using self-assembled QDs, suppression of a reduction of open circuit voltage presents challenges for further efficiency improvement. This reduction mechanism is discussed based on recent reports. In QD sensitized cells and QD heterojunction cells using colloidal QDs well-controlled heterointerface and surface passivation are key issues for enhancement of photovoltaic performances. The improved performances of colloidal QDSCs are presented.

  1. Nuclear Safety: Volume 29, No. 3: Technical progress review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-07-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant development in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope included the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. Nulcear Safety: Technical progress review, October--December 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Safety is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  3. Health Disparities in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M; Amutah-Onukagha, Ndidiamaka; Bryan, Alicia; Skidmore Edwards, Elizabeth; Madzima, Takudzwa; Massey, Kelly; May, Linda; Robinson, Leah E

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND SCOPE Clinical Medicine Insights: Women’s Health is an international, open-access, peer-reviewed journal which considers manuscripts on all aspects of the diagnosis, management, and prevention of disorders specific to women, in addition to related genetic, pathophysiological, and epidemiological topics. Clinical Medicine Insights: Women’s Health aims to provide researchers working in this complex, quickly developing field with online, open access to highly relevant scholarly articles by leading international researchers. In a field where the literature is ever-expanding, researchers increasingly need access to up-to-date, high-quality scholarly articles on areas of specific contemporary interest. This supplement is on Health Disparities in Women. This supplement aims to address this by presenting high-quality articles that allow readers to distinguish the signal from the noise. The editor in chief hopes that through this effort, practitioners and researchers will be aided in finding answers to some of the most complex and pressing issues of our time. PMID:28579867

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW: Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Nagai, Kotobu; Yin, Fuxing

    2008-04-01

    Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB), as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described. Corrections were made to the abstract and conclusion of this article on 18 June 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  5. A review of current progress in acquired cholesteatoma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chin-Lung; Liao, Wen-Huei; Shiao, An-Suey

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to review recent advances in the management of acquired cholesteatoma. All papers referring to acquired cholesteatoma management were identified in Medline via OVID (1948 to December 2013), PubMed (to December 2013), and Cochrane Library (to December 2013). A total of 86 papers were included in the review. Cholesteatoma surgery can be approached using either a canal wall up (CWU) or canal wall down (CWD) mastoidectomy with or without reconstruction of the middle ear cleft. In recent decades, a variety of surgical modifications have been developed including various "synthesis" techniques that combine the merits of CWU and CWD. The application of transcanal endoscopy has also recently gained popularity; however, difficulties associated with this approach remain, such as the need for one-handed surgery, the inability to provide continuous irrigation/suction, and limitations regarding endoscopic accessibility to the mastoid cavity. Additionally, several recent studies have reported successes in the application of laser-assisted cholesteatoma surgery, which overcomes the conflicting goals of eradicating disease and the preservation of hearing. Nevertheless, the risk of residual disease remains a challenge. Each of the techniques examined in this study presents pros and cons regarding final outcomes, such that any pronouncements regarding the superiority of one technique over another cannot yet be made. Flexibility in the selection of surgical methods according to the context of individual cases is essential in optimizing the outcomes.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW Progress in cold roll bonding of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li, Kotobu Nagai and Fuxing Yin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Layered composite materials have become an increasingly interesting topic in industrial development. Cold roll bonding (CRB, as a solid phase method of bonding same or different metals by rolling at room temperature, has been widely used in manufacturing large layered composite sheets and foils. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of a technology using layered composite materials produced by CRB and discuss the suitability of this technology in the fabrication of layered composite materials. The effects of process parameters on bonding, mainly including process and surface preparation conditions, have been analyzed. Bonding between two sheets can be realized when deformation reduction reaches a threshold value. However, it is essential to remove surface contamination layers to produce a satisfactory bond in CRB. It has been suggested that the degreasing and then scratch brushing of surfaces create a strong bonding between the layers. Bonding mechanisms, in which the film theory is expressed as the major mechanism in CRB, as well as bonding theoretical models, have also been reviewed. It has also been showed that it is easy for fcc structure metals to bond compared with bcc and hcp structure metals. In addition, hardness on bonding same metals plays an important part in CRB. Applications of composites produced by CRB in industrial fields are briefly reviewed and possible developments of CRB in the future are also described.

  7. Optically pumped VECSELs: review of technology and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guina, M.; Rantamäki, A.; Härkönen, A.

    2017-09-01

    Vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs) are the most versatile laser sources, combining unique features such as wide spectral coverage, ultrashort pulse operation, low noise properties, high output power, high brightness and compact form-factor. This paper reviews the recent technological developments of VECSELs in connection with the new milestones that continue to pave the way towards their use in numerous applications. Significant attention is devoted to the fabrication of VECSEL gain mirrors in challenging wavelength regions, especially at the yellow and red wavelengths. The reviewed fabrication approaches address wafer-bonded VECSEL structures as well as the use of hybrid mirror structures. Moreover, a comprehensive summary of VECSEL characterization methods is presented; the discussion covers different stages of VECSEL development and different operation regimes, pointing out specific characterization techniques for each of them. Finally, several emerging applications are discussed, with emphasis on the unique application objectives that VECSELs render possible, for example in atom and molecular physics, dermatology and spectroscopy.

  8. gender disparity in prevalence of depression among patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    KEYWORDS: Gender disparity, depression, systematic review ... set point for usual vicissitudes of life and are overwhelmed by anxiety and ... old or older regardless of country of residence, ... quality and were excluded from the review.

  9. Modern conceptions about mechanisms of progression process of hip dysplasia in children (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertakova А.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the literature review of modern data concerning mechanisms of formation and progression process of hip dysplasia in children is represented. The questions concerning classification, processes of morphological and functional (biochemical change of osteocartilaginous components of hip in children with connective tissue dysplasia, changes of content of remodeling and skeletal system degradation markers, angiogenesis in the process of progression of pathological changes in joint are taken up

  10. Examining the asymptote in safety progress: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Sidney; Pitzer, Corrie

    2016-01-01

    Many industries are confronted by plateauing safety performance as measured by the absence of negative events--particularly lower-consequence incidents or injuries. At the same time, these industries are sometimes surprised by large fatal accidents that seem to have no connection with their understanding of the risks they faced; or with how they were measuring safety. This article reviews the safety literature to examine how both these surprises and the asymptote are linked to the very structures and practices organizations have in place to manage safety. The article finds that safety practices associated with compliance, control and quantification could be partly responsible. These can create a sense of invulnerability through safety performance close to zero; organizational resources can get deflected into unproductive or counterproductive initiatives; obsolete practices for keeping human performance within a pre-specified bandwidth are sustained; and accountability relationships can encourage suppression of the 'bad news' necessary to learn and improve.

  11. Platelet Function Tests: A Review of Progresses in Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Lim Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major goal of traditional platelet function tests has been to screen and diagnose patients who present with bleeding problems. However, as the central role of platelets implicated in the etiology of arterial thrombotic diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke became widely known, platelet function tests are now being promoted to monitor the efficacy of antiplatelet drugs and also to potentially identify patients at increased risk of thrombosis. Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, are mediators of inflammation, and have immunomodulatory activity. As new potential biomarkers and technologies arrive at the horizon, platelet functions testing appears to take on a new aspect. This review article discusses currently available clinical application of platelet function tests, placing emphasis on essential characteristics.

  12. Review on the progress of ultra-precision machining technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Julong; Lyu, Binghai; Hang, Wei; Deng, Qianfa

    2017-06-01

    Ultra-precision machining technologies are the essential methods, to obtain the highest form accuracy and surface quality. As more research findings are published, such technologies now involve complicated systems engineering and been widely used in the production of components in various aerospace, national defense, optics, mechanics, electronics, and other high-tech applications. The conception, applications and history of ultra-precision machining are introduced in this article, and the developments of ultra-precision machining technologies, especially ultra-precision grinding, ultra-precision cutting and polishing are also reviewed. The current state and problems of this field in China are analyzed. Finally, the development trends of this field and the coping strategies employed in China to keep up with the trends are discussed.

  13. Common comorbidity of epilepsy: a review of new progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of medical and neurologic disorders occurs more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population and constitutes somatic comorbidity. Common examples include migraine, depression, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, sleep disorder, cognitive damage, developmental abnormality and so on. There are more interesting clinical features in some special types of patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECT, temporal epilepsy and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. The association between epilepsy and other conditions can be due to a variety of interacting genetic, biologic structural, functional, pharmacological and environmental factors. Co-existence of other disorders in a person with epilepsy can complicate diagnosis, induce adverse prognostic implications and attenuate health?related quality of life. Therefore, recognition and management of comorbidity of epilepsy may facilitate the treatment of epilepsy. In this article, we review recent pathophysiologic and clinical studies to elucidate the etiology, mechanisms, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment of common comorbidity of epilepsy.

  14. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, a Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Hummelen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use.

  15. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, a Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Ruben; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Reid, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use. PMID:22254046

  16. Progress in chemical luminescence-based biosensors: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Aldo; Mirasoli, Mara; Michelini, Elisa; Di Fusco, Massimo; Zangheri, Martina; Cevenini, Luca; Roda, Barbara; Simoni, Patrizia

    2016-02-15

    Biosensors are a very active research field. They have the potential to lead to low-cost, rapid, sensitive, reproducible, and miniaturized bioanalytical devices, which exploit the high binding avidity and selectivity of biospecific binding molecules together with highly sensitive detection principles. Of the optical biosensors, those based on chemical luminescence detection (including chemiluminescence, bioluminescence, electrogenerated chemiluminescence, and thermochemiluminescence) are particularly attractive, due to their high-to-signal ratio and the simplicity of the required measurement equipment. Several biosensors based on chemical luminescence have been described for quantitative, and in some cases multiplex, analysis of organic molecules (such as hormones, drugs, pollutants), proteins, and nucleic acids. These exploit a variety of miniaturized analytical formats, such as microfluidics, microarrays, paper-based analytical devices, and whole-cell biosensors. Nevertheless, despite the high analytical performances described in the literature, the field of chemical luminescence biosensors has yet to demonstrate commercial success. This review presents the main recent advances in the field and discusses the approaches, challenges, and open issues, with the aim of stimulating a broader interest in developing chemical luminescence biosensors and improving their commercial exploitation.

  17. [Progress in developing and applying Streptomyces chassis - A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liping; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2016-03-04

    Natural products and their derivatives play an important role in modern healthcare. Their diversity in bioactivity and chemical structure inspires scientists to discover new drug entities for clinical use. However, chemical synthesis of natural compounds has insurmountable difficulties in technology and cost. Also, many original-producing bacteria have disadvantages of needing harsh cultivation conditions, having low productivity and other shortcomings. In addition, some gene clusters responsible for secondary metabolite biosynthesis are silence in the original strains. Therefore, it is of great significance to exploit strategy for the heterologous expression of natural products guided by synthetic biology. Recently, researchers pay more attention on using actinomycetes that are the main source of many secondary metabolites, such as antibiotics, anticancer agents, and immunosuppressive drugs. Especially, with huge development of genome sequencing, abundant resources of natural product biosynthesis in Streptomyces have been discovered, which highlight the special advantages on developing Streptomyces as the heterologous expression chassis cells. This review begins with the significance of the development of Streptomyces chassis, focusing on the strategies and the status in developing Streptomyces chassis cells, followed by examples to illustrate the practical applications of a variety of Streptomyces chassis.

  18. The absolute disparity anomaly and the mechanism of relative disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Adrien; Levi, Dennis; Knill, David; Bavelier, Daphne

    2016-06-01

    There has been a long-standing debate about the mechanisms underlying the perception of stereoscopic depth and the computation of the relative disparities that it relies on. Relative disparities between visual objects could be computed in two ways: (a) using the difference in the object's absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1) or (b) using relative disparities based on the differences in the monocular separations between objects (Hypothesis 2). To differentiate between these hypotheses, we measured stereoscopic discrimination thresholds for lines with different absolute and relative disparities. Participants were asked to judge the depth of two lines presented at the same distance from the fixation plane (absolute disparity) or the depth between two lines presented at different distances (relative disparity). We used a single stimulus method involving a unique memory component for both conditions, and no extraneous references were available. We also measured vergence noise using Nonius lines. Stereo thresholds were substantially worse for absolute disparities than for relative disparities, and the difference could not be explained by vergence noise. We attribute this difference to an absence of conscious readout of absolute disparities, termed the absolute disparity anomaly. We further show that the pattern of correlations between vergence noise and absolute and relative disparity acuities can be explained jointly by the existence of the absolute disparity anomaly and by the assumption that relative disparity information is computed from absolute disparities (Hypothesis 1).

  19. Rogue waves in the ocean - review and progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Kharif, Christian; Slunyaev, Alexey

    2010-05-01

    Rogue waves in the ocean and physical mechanisms of their appearance are discussed. Theyse waves are among waves naturally observed by people on the sea surface that represent inseparable feature of the Ocean. Rogue waves appear from nowhere, cause danger and disappear at once. They may occur at the surface of a relatively calm sea, reach not very high amplitudes, but be fatal for ships and crew due to their unexpectedness and abnormal features. The billows appear suddenly exceeding the surrounding waves twice and more, and obtained many names: abnormal, exceptional, extreme, giant, huge, sudden, episodic, freak, monster, rogue, vicious, killer, mad- or rabid-dog waves; cape rollers, holes in the sea, walls of water, three sisters… Freak monsters, though living for seconds, were able to arouse superstitious fear of the crew, cause damage, death of heedless sailors or the whole ship. All these epithets are full of human fear and feebleness. The serious studies of the phenomenon started about 20-30 years ago and have been intensified during the recent decade. The research is being conducted in different fields: in physics (search of physical mechanisms and adequate models of wave enhancement and statistics), in geoscience (determining the regions and weather conditions when rogue waves are most probable), and in ocean and coastal engineering (estimations of the wave loads on fixed and drifting floating structures). Thus, scientists and engineers specializing in different subject areas are involved in the solution of the problem. The state-of-art of the rogue wave study is summarized in our book [Kharif, Ch., Pelinovsky, E., and Slunyaev, A. Rogue Waves in the Ocean. Springer, 2009] and presented in given review. Firstly, we start with a brief introduction to the problem of freak waves aiming at formulating what is understood as rogue or freak waves, what consequences their existence imply in our life, why people are so worried about them. Then we discuss existing

  20. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical t

  1. Wolsong 2, 3 and 4 quarterly progress review report on NSSS design and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sung Hoon; Kim, Sun Kee; Park, Tae Keu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-01

    This is the Quarterly Progress Review Report for Wolsong NPP 2, 3 and 4 NSSS Design and Engineering which evaluates the performance of the project and describes the project highlight, manpower loading status, design and engineering and project related meetings by quarterly basis. 26 figs., 13 tabs. (Author).

  2. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical t

  3. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical t

  4. The Somalia Country Case Study. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennaars, Gerard A.; Seif, Huda A.; Mwangi, Doris

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines the situation in Somalia, where civil war has completely destroyed the infrastructure of education. Part 1 summarizes Somalia's…

  5. Constant and Progressive Time Delay Procedures for Teaching Children with Autism: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    A review of 22 empirical studies examining the use of constant (CTD) and progressive (PTD) time delay procedures employed with children with autism frames an indirect analysis of the demographic, procedural, methodological, and outcome parameters of existing research. None of the previous manuscripts compared the two response prompting procedures.…

  6. [Recent progress in treatment of aquaculture wastewater based on microalgae--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanping; Gong, Yanyan; Ma, Dongdong

    2009-06-01

    Microalgae enables aquaculture wastewater recycling through a biological conversion. Recently, many studies have been reported on microalgae cultivation and wastewater treatment, including developing various wastewater treatment technologies such as algae pond, activated algae, immobilized algae and algae photo-bioreactor. In this review, we address the mechanisms, progress and application in the purification of aquaculture wastewater, as well as some research perspectives.

  7. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  8. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  9. Review of technical program and progress. LBL geothermal exploration technology development program, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives, method of approach, main program elements, and progress through FY 1982 for Geothermal Exploration Technology Program at LBL are reviewed. Current tasks include controlled-source electromagnetic research, seismological research, magnetotelluric research, and electromagnetic technique evaluation and numerical modeling.

  10. Spin-polarized supercurrents for spintronics: a review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschrig, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    During the past 15 years a new field has emerged, which combines superconductivity and spintronics, with the goal to pave a way for new types of devices for applications combining the virtues of both by offering the possibility of long-range spin-polarized supercurrents. Such supercurrents constitute a fruitful basis for the study of fundamental physics as they combine macroscopic quantum coherence with microscopic exchange interactions, spin selectivity, and spin transport. This report follows recent developments in the controlled creation of long-range equal-spin triplet supercurrents in ferromagnets and its contribution to spintronics. The mutual proximity-induced modification of order in superconductor-ferromagnet hybrid structures introduces in a natural way such evasive phenomena as triplet superconductivity, odd-frequency pairing, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, long-range equal-spin supercurrents, [Formula: see text]-Josephson junctions, as well as long-range magnetic proximity effects. All these effects were rather exotic before 2000, when improvements in nanofabrication and materials control allowed for a new quality of hybrid structures. Guided by pioneering theoretical studies, experimental progress evolved rapidly, and since 2010 triplet supercurrents are routinely produced and observed. We have entered a new stage of studying new phases of matter previously out of our reach, and of merging the hitherto disparate fields of superconductivity and spintronics to a new research direction: super-spintronics.

  11. Rates of progression in diabetic retinopathy during different time periods: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Tien Y; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Klein, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviews rates of progression of diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and/or severe visual loss (SVL) and temporal trends.......This meta-analysis reviews rates of progression of diabetic retinopathy to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and/or severe visual loss (SVL) and temporal trends....

  12. Changing EDSS Progression in Placebo Cohorts in Relapsing MS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Röver

    Full Text Available Recent systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS revealed a decrease in placebo annualized relapse rates (ARR over the past two decades. Furthermore, regression to the mean effects were observed in ARR and MRI lesion counts. It is unclear whether disease progression measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS exhibits similar features.A systematic review of RCTs in RMS was conducted extracting data on EDSS and baseline characteristics. The logarithmic odds of disease progression were modelled to investigate time trends. Random-effects models were used to account for between-study variability; all investigated models included trial duration as a predictor to correct for unequal study durations. Meta-regressions were conducted to assess the prognostic value of a number of study-level baseline variables.The systematic literature search identified 39 studies, including a total of 19,714 patients. The proportion of patients in placebo controls experiencing a disease progression decreased over the years (p<0.001. Meta-regression identified associated covariates including the size of the study and its duration that in part explained the time trend. Progression probabilities tended to be lower in the second year of a study compared to the first year with a reduction of 28% in progression odds from year 1 to year 2 (p = 0.017.EDSS disease progression exhibits similar behaviour over time as the ARR and point to changes in trial characteristics over the years. This needs to be considered in comparisons between historical and recent trials.

  13. Changing EDSS Progression in Placebo Cohorts in Relapsing MS: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röver, Christian; Nicholas, Richard; Straube, Sebastian; Friede, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Recent systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) revealed a decrease in placebo annualized relapse rates (ARR) over the past two decades. Furthermore, regression to the mean effects were observed in ARR and MRI lesion counts. It is unclear whether disease progression measured by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) exhibits similar features. A systematic review of RCTs in RMS was conducted extracting data on EDSS and baseline characteristics. The logarithmic odds of disease progression were modelled to investigate time trends. Random-effects models were used to account for between-study variability; all investigated models included trial duration as a predictor to correct for unequal study durations. Meta-regressions were conducted to assess the prognostic value of a number of study-level baseline variables. The systematic literature search identified 39 studies, including a total of 19,714 patients. The proportion of patients in placebo controls experiencing a disease progression decreased over the years (pEDSS disease progression exhibits similar behaviour over time as the ARR and point to changes in trial characteristics over the years. This needs to be considered in comparisons between historical and recent trials.

  14. Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Benefits and Progress of Nutrition Education Interventions- Narrative Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    PEM, Dhandevi; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases and body weight management but the exact mechanism is unknown. The World Health Organisation and Food and Agriculture of the United Nation reports recommend adults to consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day excluding starchy vegetables. This review focuses on the importance of fruits and vegetables as well as the benefits and progress of nutrition educatio...

  15. Defining Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Pain Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mossey, Jana M

    2011-01-01

    ... the disparities.Scientific literature was selectively reviewed addressing pain epidemiology, differences in pain management of non-Hispanic whites versus racial/ethnic minority groups, and patient and physician...

  16. Cancer Disparities: Unmet Challenges in the Elimination of Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah; Colditz, Graham A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The first 20 years of publication of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention occurred during a period of increased attention to health disparities and advances in knowledge about their determinants. Yet, despite clear documentation of disparities and advanced understanding of determinants, we have made little headway in reducing disparities at the population level. Multilevel models, such as one produced by the Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD), hold promise for understanding the complex determinants of cancer disparities and their interactions as well as translating scientific discoveries into solutions. The CPHHD model maps across a range of scientific disciplines, from the biological to the social, each with its own disciplinary language and methods. The ability to work effectively across disciplinary boundaries is essential to framing comprehensive solutions. Methods After briefly characterizing the current state of knowledge about health disparities, we outline three major challenges faced by disparities researchers and practitioners and offer suggestions for addressing these challenges. Results These challenges are how to consider race and ethnicity in disparities research, how best to translate discoveries into public health solutions to cancer disparities, and how to create a research environment that supports the successful execution of multilevel research. Conclusions Attention to all three of the challenges outlined above is urgently needed to advance our efforts to eliminate cancer disparities. Impact Addressing the challenges outlined above will help to eliminate disparities in the future. PMID:21784956

  17. Widening Disparity and its Suppression in a Stochastic Replicator Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu

    2016-01-01

    Winner-take-all phenomena are observed in various competitive systems. We find similar phenomena in replicator models with randomly fluctuating growth rates. The disparity between winners and losers increases indefinitely, even if all elements are statistically equivalent. A lognormal distribution describes well the nonstationary time evolution. If a nonlinear load corresponding to progressive taxation is introduced, a stationary distribution is obtained and disparity widening is suppressed.

  18. microRNA in Prostate Cancer Racial Disparities and Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    related miRNAs and PCa aggressiveness, and 3) determine the associations between genetic polymorphisms in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and plasma levels...final analyses. 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostate cancer, microRNA, racial disparities, African American, genetic polymorphisms, biochemical recurrence...is to identify novel genetic and epigenetic factors that might contribute significantly to racial/ethnic disparity in PCa risk and progression. We

  19. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in systemic lupus erythematosus-an unusual presentation of acute tenosynovitis and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sian Yik; Kijsirichareanchai, Kunut; Winn, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis is a disease where Histoplasma capsulatum affects multiple organs due to the inability of host cellular immunity to control the infection. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis mainly involves the bone marrow, liver, and lungs. We report an unusual initial presentation of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis presenting as acute tenosynovitis in a systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patient. This report highlights the point that H. capsulatum may present as focal lesions and a high level of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis, especially in SLE patients. We specifically reviewed reported cases of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in SLE patients, and a review of the literature is presented.

  20. Progressive Resistance Exercise and Parkinson's Disease: A Review of Potential Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian J. David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of progressive resistance exercise (PRE on Parkinson's disease (PD. First, this paper discusses the rationale for PRE in PD. Within the first section, the review discusses the central mechanisms that underlie bradykinesia and muscle weakness, highlights findings related to the central changes that accompany PRE in healthy individuals, and extends these findings to individuals with PD. It then illustrates the hypothesized positive effects of PRE on nigro-striatal-thalamo-cortical activation and connectivity. Second, it reviews recent findings of the use of PRE in individuals with PD. Finally, knowledge gaps of using PRE on individuals with PD are discussed along with suggestions for future research.

  1. A comprehensive review on host genetic susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection and progression to cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Chattopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. This is caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Although large numbers of young sexually active women get HPV-infected, only a small fraction develop cervical cancer. This points to different co-factors for regression of HPV infection or progression to cervical cancer. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases such as cervical cancer and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. The aim of this review is to compile the advances in the field of host genetics of cervical cancer. MEDLINE database was searched using the terms, ′HPV′, ′cervical′, ′CIN′, ′polymorphism(s′, ′cervical′ + FNx01the name of the geneFNx01 and ′HPV′ + FNx01the name of the geneFNx01. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to cervical cancer in HPV infected individuals.

  2. Review on progressive microforming of bulk metal parts directly using sheet metals (Keynote Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the ubiquitous trend of product miniaturization, energy saving and weight reduction, micro/meso-scale parts have been widely used in many industrial clusters. Micromanufacturing processes for production of such micro/meso-scale parts are thus critically needed. Microforming, as one of these micro manufacturing processes, is a promising process and thus got many explorations and researches. Compared with the research on size effect affected deformation behaviours, less attention has been paid to the process development for mass production of micro-parts. The product quality and fabrication productivity of micro-parts depend on the involved process chain. To address the difficulty in handling and transporting of the micro-sized workpiece, development of a progressive microforming process for directly fabricating bulk micro-parts using sheet metals seems quite promising as it avoids or facilitates billet handling, transportation, positioning, and ejection in the process chain. In this paper, an intensive review on the latest development of progressive microforming technologies is presented. First of all, the paper summarizes the characteristic of progressive microforming directly using sheet metal. The size effect-affected deformation behaviour and the dimensional accuracy, deformation load, ductile fracture, and the surface finish of the microformed parts by progressive microforming using sheet metals are then presented. Finally, some research issues from the implementation of mass production perspective are also discussed.

  3. Validity of biomarkers predicting onset or progression of nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellemons, M. E.; Kerschbaum, J.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Neuwirt, H.; Mayer, B.; Mayer, G.; de Zeeuw, D.; Lambers Heerspink, H. J.; Rudnicki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Novel biomarkers predicting onset or progression of nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes have been recently identified. We performed a systematic review to assess the validity of biomarkers predicting onset or progression of nephropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes in longitudinal studie

  4. Progress in centralised ethics review processes: Implications for multi-site health evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Brenton; Davey, Rachel; Gibson, Diane

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly, public sector programmes respond to complex social problems that intersect specific fields and individual disciplines. Such responses result in multi-site initiatives that can span nations, jurisdictions, sectors and organisations. The rigorous evaluation of public sector programmes is now a baseline expectation. For evaluations of large and complex multi-site programme initiatives, the processes of ethics review can present a significant challenge. However in recent years, there have been new developments in centralised ethics review processes in many nations. This paper provides the case study of an evaluation of a national, inter-jurisdictional, cross-sector, aged care health initiative and its encounters with Australian centralised ethics review processes. Specifically, the paper considers progress against the key themes of a previous five-year, five nation study (Fitzgerald and Phillips, 2006), which found that centralised ethics review processes would save time, money and effort, as well as contribute to more equitable workloads for researchers and evaluators. The paper concludes with insights for those charged with refining centralised ethics review processes, as well as recommendations for future evaluators of complex multi-site programme initiatives.

  5. [Rapidly progressive puberty in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome: a case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Wei, H; Yu, X; Huang, W; Luo, X P

    2017-02-02

    Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics of diagnosis and treatment in patients with Turner syndrome and rapidly progressive puberty. Method: A rare case of rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome with a mosaic karyotype of 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21)(80%/20%)was diagnosed at Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January. 2015. Clinical characteristics and the related literature were reviewed. Original papers on precocious puberty or rapidly progressive puberty in Turner syndrome, published until Apr. 2016 were retrieved at PubMed and CNKI databases by the use of the key words "Turner syndrome" , "precocious puberty" and "rapidly progressive puberty" . Result: The patient was born at term with birth weight of 2 450 g and was diagnosed with SGA at 3 years of age for the first evaluating of growth and development. Then recombined human growth hormone (rhGH )was given at 4 years of age due to short stature (heightcases have been reported in the literature. Six of them showing mosaic TS, three karyotypes with structural abnormality of short arm of X chromosome, one with the karyotype 45, X. Conclusion: It is the first time that rapidly progressive puberty in a 45, X/46, X, del(X)(p21) mosaic Turner syndrome is reported. Although short stature and ovarian dysgenesis are common in TS, precocious puberty may occur in TS, which is liable to cause delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Careful examination is recommended for patients with unusual growth pattern, even though girls have normal height in accord with standard growth curve or spontaneous puberty. Evaluation for TS and subsequent investigation should be prompted.

  6. Review of the recent progress in photoresponsive molecularly imprinted polymers containing azobenzene chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-bo; Tang, Qian; Gong, Cheng-bin; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah

    2015-11-05

    Photoresponsive molecularly imprinted polymers (PMIPs) containing azobenzene have received wide research attention in recent years and made notable achievements. This article reviews the recent developments on PMIPs containing azobenzene. Topics include the following: (i) brief introduction of azobenzene, molecularly imprinted polymers, and PMIPs containing azobenzene; (ii) progress in functional monomers, cross-linkers, and polymerization conditions; (iii) preparation methods, properties, applications, as well as advantages and disadvantages of conventional PMIPs; (iv) substrate, preparation method, and applications of photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymers; and (v) some perspectives for further development of PMIPs containing azobenzene.

  7. Follow-up review: recent progress in the development of super-resolution optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Katsumasa

    2016-08-01

    The advent of super-resolution microscopy brought a huge impact to various research fields ranging from the fundamental science to medical and industrial applications. The technological development is still ongoing with involving different scientific disciplines and often changing the standard of optical imaging. In this review, I would like to introduce the recent research progress in super-resolution microscopy as a follow-up for the featured issue in Microscopy (Vol. 64, No. 4, 2015) with discussions especially on the current trends and new directions in the technological development.

  8. A review of research progress in air-to-water sound transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Ling-Shan

    2016-12-01

    International and domestic research progress in theory and experiment and applications of the air-to-water sound transmission are presented in this paper. Four classical numerical methods of calculating the underwater sound field generated by an airborne source, i.e., the ray theory, the wave solution, the normal-mode theory and the wavenumber integration approach, are introduced. Effects of two special conditions, i.e., the moving airborne source or medium and the rough air-water interface, on the air-to-water sound transmission are reviewed. In experimental studies, the depth and range distributions of the underwater sound field created by different kinds of airborne sources in near-field and far-field, the longitudinal horizontal correlation of underwater sound field and application methods for inverse problems are reviewed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 11674349).

  9. Garlic as an anti-diabetic agent: recent progress and patent reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padiya, Raju; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews recent literature on the usage and relevance of garlic and its bioactive components in controlling diabetes and diabetes-associated pathologies; and also updates recent patents on the subject. Antidiabetic effect of garlic is well documented even in ancient medical literature. Garlic and its active ingredients have been extensively studied for their antidiabetic efficacies in either experimentally induced or genetic animal models of diabetes. Human studies are also available where hypoglycemic effect of garlic was reported. The beneficial effects of garlic are mainly attributed to the presence of volatile sulfur compounds like alliin, allicin, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulfide, S-allyl cysteine, ajoene and allyl mercaptan. Garlic and garlic extracts have been shown to be effective in reducing insulin resistance. Therefore, considering the importance of garlic in controlling diabetic complications, several preparations and food processes containing garlic have been patented. This review discusses some of the recent progresses made in this field and consolidates the results.

  10. Physiotherapy Rehabilitation for People With Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Evan; Coulter, Elaine H; Mattison, Paul G; Miller, Linda; McFadyen, Angus; Paul, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of physiotherapy interventions, including exercise therapy, for the rehabilitation of people with progressive multiple sclerosis. Five databases (Cochrane Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database [PEDro], Web of Science Core Collections, MEDLINE, Embase) and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. Randomized experimental trials, including participants with progressive multiple sclerosis and investigating a physiotherapy intervention or an intervention containing a physiotherapy element, were included. Data were independently extracted using a standardized form, and methodologic quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies (described by 15 articles) were identified and scored between 5 and 9 out of 10 on the PEDro scale. Eight interventions were assessed: exercise therapy, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, functional electrical stimulation, botulinum toxin type A injections and manual stretches, inspiratory muscle training, therapeutic standing, acupuncture, and body weight-supported treadmill training. All studies, apart from 1, produced positive results in at least 1 outcome measure; however, only 1 article used a power calculation to determine the sample size and because of dropouts the results were subsequently underpowered. This review suggests that physiotherapy may be effective for the rehabilitation of people with progressive multiple sclerosis. However, further appropriately powered studies are required. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Do CSF Biomarkers Predict Progression to Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's disease patients? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Katherine; Poston, Kathleen L

    2015-12-01

    Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) will develop cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional studies have shown that certain protein levels are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PD patients with dementia and are thought to represent potential biomarkers of underlying pathogenesis. Recent studies suggest that CSF biomarker levels may be predictive of future risk of cognitive decline in non-demented PD patients. However, the strength of this evidence and difference between specific CSF biomarkers is not well delineated. We therefore performed a systematic review to assess if levels of specific CSF protein biomarkers are predictive of progression to cognitive impairment. Nine articles were identified that met inclusion criteria for the review. Findings from the review suggest a convergence of evidence that a low baseline Aβ42 in the CSF of non-demented PD patients predicts development of cognitive impairment over time. Conversely, there is limited evidence that CSF levels of tau, either total tau or phosphorylated tau, is a useful predictive biomarker. There are mixed results for other CSF biomarkers such as α-synuclein, Neurofilament light chain, and Heart fatty acid-binding protein. Overall the results of this review show that certain CSF biomarkers have better predictive ability to identify PD patients who are at risk for developing cognitive impairment. Given the interest in developing disease-modifying therapies, identifying this group will be important for clinical trials as initiation of therapy prior to the onset of cognitive decline is likely to be more efficacious.

  12. Brain training in progress: a review of trainability in healthy seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika I. V. Buitenweg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive deterioration associated with aging is accompanied by structural alterations and loss of functionality of the frontostriatal dopamine system. The question arises how such deleterious cognitive effects could be countered. Brain training, currently highly popular among young and old alike, promises that users will improve on certain neurocognitive skills, and this has indeed been confirmed in a number of studies. Based on these results, it seems reasonable to expect beneficial effects of brain training in the elderly as well. A selective review of the existing literature suggests, however, that the results are neither robust nor consistent, and that transfer and sustained effects thus far appear limited. Based on this review, we argue for a series of elements that hold potential for progress in successful types of brain training: (i including flexibility and novelty as features of the training, (ii focusing on a number of promising, yet largely unexplored domains, such as decision-making and memory strategy training, and (iii tailoring the training adaptively to the level and progress of the individual. We also emphasize the need for covariance-based MRI methods in linking structural and functional changes in the aging brain to individual differences in neurocognitive efficiency and trainability in order to further uncover the underlying mechanisms.

  13. Disparities in health, poverty, incarceration, and social justice among racial groups in the United States: a critical review of evidence of close links with neoliberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Agbanu, Samuel Kwami; Miller, Reuben Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Problems of poverty, poor health, and incarceration are unevenly distributed among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. We argue that this is due, in part, to the ascendance of United States-style neoliberalism, a prevailing political and economic doctrine that shapes social policy, including public health and anti-poverty intervention strategies. Public health research most often associates inequalities in health outcomes, poverty, and incarceration with individual and cultural risk factors. Contextual links to structural inequality and the neoliberal doctrine animating state-sanctioned interventions are given less attention. The interrelationships among these are not clear in the extant literature. Less is known about public health and incarceration. Thus, the authors describe the linkages between neoliberalism, public health, and criminal justice outcomes. We suggest that neoliberalism exacerbates racial disparities in health, poverty, and incarceration in the United States. We conclude by calling for a new direction in public health research that advances a pro-poor public health agenda to improve the general well-being of disadvantaged groups.

  14. A Review on Researches of Active Tectonics——History, Progress and Suggestions1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Qidong; Wen Xueze

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and progress of research on active tectonics in China and overseas. By giving a brief introduction on the history of active tectonic research in China and other countries, the paper sums up the process and development of quantitative investigation of active tectonics since the 1980s. The focus is on the main efforts and progress made in China on certain aspects of research, such as basic surveys and applied investigation of active tectonics, the study of theories related to regional active tectonics and their kinematics and geodynamics, surveys on coupling relations between deep and shallow structures, active fault surveys and prospecting and seismic hazard assessment in urban areas, as well as the efforts made using Quaternary geochronology. Furthermore, the paper looks back on Chinese quantitative investigation of active tectonics in China and sums up cognitions derived from studies on the determination of several basic and measurable parameters of active tectonics. These parameters include the length of fault and fault segmentation, coseismic slip and cumulative slip, fault slip rate, the sequence of paleoearthquake events and the time elapsed since the most recent event. At the same time, efforts and progress made in China on assessing the long-term seismic potential for active faults and evaluating the risk from potential active fault movement have been reviewed by summarizing research on developing theories, models, methods and the application of time-dependent seismic potential to prohabilistic assessment, magnitude estimation for potential earthquakes on active faults, and the forecast of potential risk caused by active fault movement. Finally, in consideration of the realities and problems in the research of active tectonics in China, the authors put forward several suggestions for issues worthy of more attention for further investigation in the future.

  15. Racial disparity in colorectal cancer: Gut microbiome and cancer stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sachin; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Farhana, Lulu; Yu, Yingjie; Majumdar, Adhip PN

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been remarkable progress in cancer diagnosis, treatment and screening. The basic mechanisms leading to pathogenesis of various types of cancers are also understood better and some patients, if diagnosed at a particular stage go on to lead a normal pre-diagnosis life. Despite these achievements, racial disparity in some cancers remains a mystery. The higher incidence, aggressiveness and mortality of breast, prostate and colorectal cancers (CRCs) in African-Americans as compared to Caucasian-Americans are now well documented. The polyp-carcinoma sequence in CRC and easy access to colonic epithelia or colonic epithelial cells through colonoscopy/colonic effluent provides the opportunity to study colonic stem cells early in course of natural history of the disease. With the advent of metagenomic sequencing, uncultivable organisms can now be identified in stool and their numbers correlated with the effects on colonic epithelia. It would be expected that these techniques would revolutionize our understanding of the racial disparity in CRC and pave a way for the same in other cancers as well. Unfortunately, this has not happened. Our understanding of the underlying factors responsible in African-Americans for higher incidence and mortality from colorectal carcinoma remains minimal. In this review, we aim to summarize the available data on role of microbiome and cancer stem cells in racial disparity in CRC. This will provide a platform for further research on this topic. PMID:27679684

  16. Terahertz-wave emission from Bi2212 intrinsic Josephson junctions: a review on recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Itsuhiro; Wang, Huabing

    2016-07-01

    Emission of terahertz (THz) electromagnetic (EM) waves from a high critical temperature (T c) superconductor intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) is a new and promising candidate for practical applications of superconducting devices. From the engineering viewpoint, the IJJ THz source is competitive against the present semiconducting THz sources such as quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and resonance tunnelling diode oscillators because of its broad tunable frequency range and ease of the fabrication process for the device. The emitted EM waves are considered to be coherent because the emission is yielded by synchronisation of thousand stacked IJJs consisting of the mesa device. This synchronisation is peculiar: the resonant frequency of each IJJ is distributed because the cross section of the mesa device is trapezoidal in shape. One of the key features of the synchronisation mechanism is the temperature inhomogeneity of the emitting device. In this topical review, we describe the recent progress in studies of IJJ THz sources with particular emphasis on the relevance of the temperature inhomogeneity to the synchronisation and the emission intensity. This review is of specific interest because the IJJ THz source shows the rich variety of functions due to self-heating which has always been a detrimental feature in the present superconducting devices. Moreover, the thermal managements used for IJJ THz sources will be common with those of other semiconducting devices such as QCLs. In addition, this review is to invite the readers into related research through the detailed descriptions of experimental procedures.

  17. Review on recent progress of nanostructured anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Goriparti, Subrahmanyam

    2014-07-01

    This review highlights the recent research advances in active nanostructured anode materials for the next generation of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In fact, in order to address both energy and power demands of secondary LIBs for future energy storage applications, it is required the development of innovative kinds of electrodes. Nanostructured materials based on carbon, metal/semiconductor, metal oxides and metal phosphides/nitrides/sulfides show a variety of admirable properties for LIBs applications such as high surface area, low diffusion distance, high electrical and ionic conductivity. Therefore, nanosized active materials are extremely promising for bridging the gap towards the realization of the next generation of LIBs with high reversible capacities, increased power capability, long cycling stability and free from safety concerns. In this review, anode materials are classified, depending on their electrochemical reaction with lithium, into three groups: intercalation/de-intercalation, alloy/de-alloy and conversion materials. Furthermore, the effect of nanoscale size and morphology on the electrochemical performance is presented. Synthesis of the nanostructures, lithium battery performance and electrode reaction mechanisms are also discussed. To conclude, the main aim of this review is to provide an organic outline of the wide range of recent research progresses and perspectives on nanosized active anode materials for future LIBs.

  18. State disparities in colorectal cancer rates: Contributions of risk factors, screening, and survival differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); S.L. Goede (S. Lucas); J. Ma (Jiemin); W. Xiau-Cheng (Wu); K. Pawlish (Karen); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND Northeastern states of the United States have shown more progress in reducing colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates than Southern states, and this has resulted in considerable disparities. This study quantified how the disparities in CRC rates between Louisiana

  19. An unusual case of rapidly progressive contractures: Case report and brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subasree R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old boy, diagnosed as cervical dystonia, was referred to our tertiary center. After a trivial trauma he had developed painful lumps in the axial region, which was followed by restricted movements of neck, shoulder, and abdominal muscles over 4 months. He had kyphoscoliosis, torticollis, rigid abdomen, and multiple muscle contractures. He also had short great toes. A detailed skeletal survey showed calcification in the soft tissues surrounding the shoulder anterior chest wall, thorax, and paraspinal muscles; there was also beaking of vertebrae, which was confirmed by CT thorax. This report showcases the diagnostic challenge posed by myositis ossificans progressiva, which can rarely cause rapidly progressing muscle contractures. A brief review of literature is also presented.

  20. Improving Introductory Astronomy Education in American Colleges and Universities: A Review of Recent Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, William H.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2011-11-01

    Over the past 15 years, professional astronomers, their societies, and associated funding agencies have collaborated to improve astronomy teaching and learning at the introductory undergraduate level. Many nonscience majors and preservice teachers enroll in these introductory astronomy courses, thus meriting the focused attention. In this review of recent developments, issues, approaches, and resources, we describe and document key instructional assets that have been made available to college and university faculty who wish to enhance their teaching of introductory astronomy. We find that although faculty support has progressed intermittently, there exist numerous programs and resources that faculty can access to increase student engagement and learning in astronomy. As funding support for these various instructional assets have waxed and waned, the professional societies have served as vital anchors and agents for advancing the profession of astronomy education at the introductory undergraduate level. Our findings, though focused on astronomy education, can be applied to the practice of introductory undergraduate education throughout the Earth and space sciences.

  1. A Progress Review on Soot Experiments and Modeling in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN)

    KAUST Repository

    Skeen, Scott A.

    2016-04-05

    The 4th Workshop of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) was held September 5-6, 2015 in Kyoto, Japan. This manuscript presents a summary of the progress in experiments and modeling among ECN contributors leading to a better understanding of soot formation under the ECN “Spray A” configuration and some parametric variants. Relevant published and unpublished work from prior ECN workshops is reviewed. Experiments measuring soot particle size and morphology, soot volume fraction (fv), and transient soot mass have been conducted at various international institutions providing target data for improvements to computational models. Multiple modeling contributions using both the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) Equations approach and the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach have been submitted. Among these, various chemical mechanisms, soot models, and turbulence-chemistry interaction (TCI) methodologies have been considered.

  2. Compression of Morbidity 1980–2011: A Focused Review of Paradigms and Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Fries

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Compression of Morbidity hypothesis—positing that the age of onset of chronic illness may be postponed more than the age at death and squeezing most of the morbidity in life into a shorter period with less lifetime disability—was introduced by our group in 1980. This paper is focused upon the evolution of the concept, the controversies and responses, the supportive multidisciplinary science, and the evolving lines of evidence that establish proof of concept. We summarize data from 20-year prospective longitudinal studies of lifestyle progression of disability, national population studies of trends in disability, and randomized controlled trials of risk factor reduction with life-style-based “healthy aging” interventions. From the perspective of this influential and broadly cited paradigm, we review its current history, the development of a theoretical structure for healthy aging, and the challenges to develop coherent health policies directed at reduction in morbidity.

  3. Advanced Separators for Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: A Review of Recent Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yinyu; Li, Junsheng; Lei, Jiaheng; Liu, Dan; Xie, Zhizhong; Qu, Deyu; Li, Ke; Deng, Tengfei; Tang, Haolin

    2016-11-09

    Li-ion and Li-S batteries find enormous applications in different fields, such as electric vehicles and portable electronics. A separator is an indispensable part of the battery design, which functions as a physical barrier for the electrode as well as an electrolyte reservoir for ionic transport. The properties of the separators directly influence the performance of the batteries. Traditional polyolefin separators showed low thermal stability, poor wettability toward the electrolyte, and inadequate barrier properties to polysulfides. To improve the performance and durability of Li-ion and Li-S batteries, development of advanced separators is required. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the fabrication and application of novel separators, including the functionalized polyolefin separator, polymeric separator, and ceramic separator, for Li-ion and Li-S batteries. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of these separators are discussed. A brief outlook for the future directions of the research in the separators is also provided.

  4. Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

  5. [Review of progress in application visible/near-infrared spectroscopy in liquid food detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Hai-Yan; Ying, Yi-Bin

    2008-02-01

    As a rapid, non-destructive new testing technology, Vis/near-infrared spectroscopy is increasingly widely used in agriculture products and food quality evaluation research The United States, Japan and many European countries have made a great deal of progress in the Vis/near-infrared spectroscopy for agriculture products and food quality evaluation. Although our country has got some fruits in this area, in comparison with foreign countries, there is still a lot of work to strengthen. In the present paper, from aspects of alcohol, dairy products, fruit juices and edible oil, the authors reviewed the latest research progress in Vis/ near-infrared spectroscopy in the quality evaluation of liquid food with the emphasis on the recent 5 years, analyzed the advantages of this technique's application to the quality evaluation of liquid foods. Finally, problems existing in the applications were analyzed and solutions to them were proposed. Based on a study of the issue, this article outlined the further study and made a number of recommendations.

  6. Urban planning for healthy cities. A review of the progress of the European Healthy Cities Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Hugh; Grant, Marcus

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the progress made by European cities in relation to Healthy Urban Planning (HUP) during Phase IV of the World Health Organization's Healthy Cities programme (2003-2008). The introduction sets out the general principle of HUP, identifying three levels or phases of health and planning integration. This leads on to a more specific analysis of the processes and substance of HUP, which provide criteria for assessment of progress. The assessment itself relies on two sources of data provided by the municipalities: the Annual Review Templates (ARTs) 2008 and the response to the Phase IV General Evaluation Questionnaire. The findings indicate that the evidence from different sources and questions in different sections are encouragingly consistent. The number of cities achieving a good level of understanding and activity in HUP has risen very substantially over the period. In particular, those achieving effective strategic integration of health and planning have increased. A key challenge for the future will be to develop planning frameworks which advance public health concerns in a spatial policy context driven often by market forces. A health in all policies approach could be valuable.

  7. Eliminating Disparities in School Discipline: A Framework for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anne; Skiba, Russell J.; Mediratta, Kavitha

    2017-01-01

    Race and gender disparities in school discipline and associated harms have been well documented for decades. Suspension from school can reduce instructional time and impede academic progress for students who may already be lagging in their achievement. This chapter offers a research-based framework for increasing equity in school discipline. The…

  8. Effectiveness of allied health therapy in the symptomatic management of progressive supranuclear palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Erica; McLoughlin, James; Koblar, Simon A; Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Stern, Cindy; White, Sarahlouise; Peters, Micah D J

    2016-06-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an adult onset neurodegenerative condition associated with mobility, balance, speech, swallowing, vision and cognitive changes. The condition is diagnosed using the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and the Society of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (SPSP) criteria. Therapeutic interventions for PSP are important, and a healthcare team should include a physiotherapist, occupational therapist and speech therapist. Mobility, speech and swallowing problems are commonly experienced, and aspiration pneumonia is the leading cause of death. A preliminary search of the literature has indicated that beyond small case series, there is very little evidence to guide specific allied health therapies in PSP. Many strategies for optimizing independence and function for PSP predominately rely on data extrapolated from the study of Parkinson's disease. The objective of this review was to examine the effectiveness of physical, occupational and speech therapy interventions in the symptomatic management of PSP. This review included participants with PSP as per the NINDS and the SPSP criteria, aged over 40 years of age from all community and clinical settings. This review included studies evaluating any allied health therapy that addressed mobility, vision, swallowing, communication or cognitive/neuropsychiatric difficulties experienced by patients with PSP. Studies examining interventions within the current scope of practice, and emerging interventions (non-invasive brain stimulation therapy) were eligible for inclusion. The effectiveness of interventions of interest was compared with usual care and/or baseline measurements. Outcomes of interest included the degree of change, or no change, in the symptoms experienced by patients with PSP relevant to allied health. These included difficulties with mobility, vision, swallowing, communication and cognition. All types of quantitative study designs published in English

  9. A literature review of the progress of the psychiatric nurse-patient relationship as described by Peplau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann, Cherill

    2005-11-01

    Knowledge is limited with regard to the progress of the nurse and patient through the phases of the psychiatric nurse-patient relationship (PNPR). Relationship progress is indicative of patient progress in the healing and recovery process. Hildegard Peplau described the phases of the therapeutic relationship in her Interpersonal Relations Theory (IRT). This review of literature describes the state of nursing science using IRT as the theoretical framework. Research conducted on the progress of the PNPR has generated evidence of the relevance of IRT to clinical practice, the importance of the PNPR to the patients themselves, and the importance of nursing knowledge regarding the progress of the orientation phase of the PNPR to patient care. However, all studies were done in Canada, and additional studies are needed. Knowledge of the relationship established between psychiatric nurses and patients is essential to the nursing process in psychiatric mental health settings.

  10. Racial disparities in pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnitz, Mary Scott; Lodish, Maya B

    2013-09-01

    The question of whether or not children, particularly girls, are entering puberty earlier than they did in the past has been a concern in both the medical community and the general population. A secular trend analysis of the current data on pubertal timing in boys and girls is limited by variations in the study design, the population assessed, and the methods used to determine pubertal development. These differences present a challenge when interpreting the available data, especially when comparing multiple studies. The influence of race on pubertal timing and development had not been assessed before the 1970s. The purpose of this article is to review the reported variations in pubertal timing among different racial/ethnic groups. Data suggest African American girls enter puberty earlier and reach menarche earlier than Caucasian and Hispanic girls. In addition, the trend toward earlier timing of puberty seems to be occurring faster in African American girls compared with Caucasian girls over the past 25 years. While the mechanism and understanding of the cause of racial disparities in pubertal development remain to be discerned, genetic and/or environmental factors may play a role and require further investigation.

  11. A review and synthesis of late Pleistocene extinction modeling: progress delayed by mismatches between ecological realism, interpretation, and methodological transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Jeffrey V; Fournier, Robert J; Jensen, Christopher X J; Yang, Jinyan

    2014-06-01

    Late Pleistocene extinctions occurred globally over a period of about 50,000 years, primarily affecting mammals of > or = 44 kg body mass (i.e., megafauna) first in Australia, continuing in Eurasia and, finally, in the Americas. Polarized debate about the cause(s) of the extinctions centers on the role of climate change and anthropogenic factors (especially hunting). Since the late 1960s, investigators have developed mathematical models to simulate the ecological interactions that might have contributed to the extinctions. Here, we provide an overview of the various methodologies used and conclusions reached in the modeling literature, addressing both the strengths and weaknesses of modeling as an explanatory tool. Although late Pleistocene extinction models now provide a solid foundation for viable future work, we conclude, first, that single models offer less compelling support for their respective explanatory hypotheses than many realize; second, that disparities in methodology (both in terms of model parameterization and design) prevent meaningful comparison between models and, more generally, progress from model to model in increasing our understanding of these extinctions; and third, that recent models have been presented and possibly developed without sufficient regard for the transparency of design that facilitates scientific progress.

  12. Transdisciplinary cardiovascular and cancer health disparities training: experiences of the centers for population health and health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Ferketich, Amy; Boyington, Josephine; Dugan, Sheila; Garroutte, Eva; Kaufmann, Peter G; Krok, Jessica; Kuo, Alice; Ortega, Alexander N; Purnell, Tanjala; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2015-07-01

    The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities program promotes multilevel and multifactorial health equity research and the building of research teams that are transdisciplinary. We summarized 5 areas of scientific training for empowering the next generation of health disparities investigators with research methods and skills that are needed to solve disparities and inequalities in cancer and cardiovascular disease. These areas include social epidemiology, multilevel modeling, health care systems or health care delivery, community-based participatory research, and implementation science. We reviewed the acquisition of the skill sets described in the training components; these skill sets will position trainees to become leaders capable of effecting significant change because they provide tools that can be used to address the complexities of issues that promote health disparities.

  13. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.

  14. Application of Nanoparticles in Enhanced Oil Recovery: A Critical Review of Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Sun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The injected fluids in secondary processes supplement the natural energy present in the reservoir to displace oil. The recovery efficiency mainly depends on the mechanism of pressure maintenance. However, the injected fluids in tertiary or enhanced oil recovery (EOR processes interact with the reservoir rock/oil system. Thus, EOR techniques are receiving substantial attention worldwide as the available oil resources are declining. However, some challenges, such as low sweep efficiency, high costs and potential formation damage, still hinder the further application of these EOR technologies. Current studies on nanoparticles are seen as potential solutions to most of the challenges associated with these traditional EOR techniques. This paper provides an overview of the latest studies about the use of nanoparticles to enhance oil recovery and paves the way for researchers who are interested in the integration of these progresses. The first part of this paper addresses studies about the major EOR mechanisms of nanoparticles used in the forms of nanofluids, nanoemulsions and nanocatalysts, including disjoining pressure, viscosity increase of injection fluids, preventing asphaltene precipitation, wettability alteration and interfacial tension reduction. This part is followed by a review of the most important research regarding various novel nano-assisted EOR methods where nanoparticles are used to target various existing thermal, chemical and gas methods. Finally, this review identifies the challenges and opportunities for future study regarding application of nanoparticles in EOR processes.

  15. Understanding harmful algae in stratified systems: Review of progress and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdalet, E.; McManus, M. A.; Ross, O. N.; Burchard, H.; Chavez, F. P.; Jaffe, J. S.; Jenkinson, I. R.; Kudela, R.; Lips, I.; Lips, U.; Lucas, A.; Rivas, D.; Ruiz-de la Torre, M. C.; Ryan, J.; Sullivan, J. M.; Yamazaki, H.

    2014-03-01

    The Global Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (GEOHAB) program of the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, was created in 1999 to foster research on the ecological and oceanographic mechanisms underlying the population dynamics of harmful algal blooms (HABs). The ultimate goal of this research is to develop observational systems and models that will eventually enable the prediction of HABs and thereby minimize their impact on marine ecosystems, human health and economic activities. In August of 2012, a workshop was held under the umbrella of the GEOHAB program at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). The over arching goal of this workshop was to review the current understanding of the processes governing the structure and dynamics of HABs in stratified systems, and to identify how best to couple physical/chemical and biological measurements at appropriate spatial and temporal scales to quantify the dynamics of HABs in these systems, paying particular attention to thin layers. This contribution provides a review of recent progress in the field of HAB research in stratified systems including thin layers, and identifies the gaps in knowledge that our scientific community should strive to understand in the next decade.

  16. Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Benefits and Progress of Nutrition Education Interventions- Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhandevi PEM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases and body weight management but the exact mechanism is unknown. The World Health Organisation and Food and Agriculture of the United Nation reports recommend adults to consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day excluding starchy vegetables. This review focuses on the importance of fruits and vegetables as well as the benefits and progress of nutrition education in improving intake.Methods: For this narrative review, more than 100 relevant scientific articles were considered from various databases (e.g Science Direct, Pub Med and Google Scholar using the keywords Fruit and vegetable, Nutrition education, Body weight, Obesity, Benefits and challenges.Results: Existing data suggests that despite the protective effects of fruits and vegetables, their intakes are still inadequate in many countries, especially developing ones. Consequently enhancing strategies to promote fruit and vegetable intake are essential for health promotion among population. A number of reviews confirm that a well planned and behaviour focused nutrition education intervention can significantly improve behaviour and health indicators.Conclusion: Despite challenges in nutrition education intervention programs, they are considered as a good investment in terms of cost benefit ratio. Rapid improvement in trends of nutrition education can be seen in many countries and majority of interventions has been successful in increasing fruits and vegetables intake. It is recommended that health professionals use multiple interventions to deliver information in several smaller doses over time to ensure improved outcomes. Keywords: Fruit and vegetable, Nutrition education intervention, Body weight, Obesity, Benefit and challenges.

  17. Progress and outcomes of health systems reform in the United Arab Emirates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Erik; Robben, Paul; Blair, Iain

    2017-09-20

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government aspires to build a world class health system to improve the quality of healthcare and the health outcomes for its population. To achieve this it has implemented extensive health system reforms in the past 10 years. The nature, extent and success of these reforms has not recently been comprehensively reviewed. In this paper we review the progress and outcomes of health systems reform in the UAE. We searched relevant databases and other sources to identify published and unpublished studies and other data available between 01 January 2002 and 31 March 2016. Eligible studies were appraised and data were descriptively and narratively synthesized. Seventeen studies were included covering the following themes: the UAE health system, population health, the burden of disease, healthcare financing, healthcare workforce and the impact of reforms. Few, if any, studies prospectively set out to define and measure outcomes. A central part of the reforms has been the introduction of mandatory private health insurance, the development of the private sector and the separation of planning and regulatory responsibilities from provider functions. The review confirmed the commitment of the UAE to build a world class health system but amongst researchers and commentators opinion is divided on whether the reforms have been successful although patient satisfaction with services appears high and there are some positive indications including increasing coverage of hospital accreditation. The UAE has a rapidly growing population with a unique age and sex distribution, there have been notable successes in improving child and maternal mortality and extending life expectancy but there are high levels of chronic diseases. The relevance of the reforms for public health and their impact on the determinants of chronic diseases have been questioned. From the existing research literature it is not possible to conclude whether UAE health system reforms are

  18. Progressive muscle relaxation as a supportive intervention for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekasis, Panagiotis; Matsouka, Ifigeneia; Koumarianou, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Many cancer patients use a wide variety of techniques to improve their physical and mental well-being, including relaxation therapy and, specifically, Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR). However, there is no strong evidence that supports the efficacy of this technique. Our aim was to review the evidence regarding the use of PMR as a supportive intervention for cancer patients undergoing chemotherapeutic treatment. Six databases were electronically searched: AMED, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Scopus, and the Web of Science. After removing duplicates, 700 publications were screened and 57 identified as potentially relevant. The flow of information from record identification to study inclusion was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Original articles published in peer-reviewed journals that studied the use of PMR as an intervention, were randomized or included a matched control group, and that included patients receiving chemotherapy were included. Studies that combined PMR with other interventions were excluded. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Jadad Scale and the CONSORT guidelines. A total of 5 of the 57 papers fulfilled the preset criteria and were included in our systematic review. Our findings indicate that PMR might improve comfort and reduce the anxiety levels and side effects caused by chemotherapy, with the exception of vomiting. Nonetheless, the quality of all the included studies was extremely low. There is evidence that PMR might have a few benefits for patients undergoing chemotherapy. Still, the small number of studies included and their poor quality limit the significance of our results. Despite the fact that pharmaceutical approaches for controlling side effects might be reaching their full potential and that there might be further usefulness for such integrative treatments as PMR, the need to run more high-quality trials testing the efficacy of this technique is warranted before

  19. Disparities in women's cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean C; Pettey, Christina M; Souder, Elaine; Rhoads, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women, and disparities affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of CVD for women. Biology, genetics, and race contribute to these disparities. Obstetric-gynecologic health care providers routinely encounter women who are at risk for developing CVD and are uniquely positioned as a point of access to intervene to improve/prevent CVD by assessing for risks and discussing healthy lifestyle changes during routine visits.

  20. How to communicate with patients about future illness progression and end of life: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Ruth; Land, Victoria; Seymour, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Conversation and discourse analytic research has yielded important evidence about skills needed for effective, sensitive communication with patients about illness progression and end of life. Objectives To: ▸ Locate and synthesise observational evidence about how people communicate about sensitive future matters; ▸ Inform practice and policy on how to provide opportunities for talk about these matters; ▸ Identify evidence gaps. Design Systematic review of conversation/discourse analytic studies of recorded interactions in English, using a bespoke appraisal approach and aggregative synthesis. Results 19 publications met the inclusion criteria. We summarised findings in terms of eight practices: ‘fishing questions’—open questions seeking patients’ perspectives (5/19); indirect references to difficult topics (6/19); linking to what a patient has already said—or noticeably not said (7/19); hypothetical questions (12/19); framing difficult matters as universal or general (4/19); conveying sensitivity via means other than words, for example, hesitancy, touch (4/19); encouraging further talk using means other than words, for example, long silences (2/19); and steering talk from difficult/negative to more optimistic aspects (3/19). Conclusions Practices vary in how strongly they encourage patients to engage in talk about matters such as illness progression and dying. Fishing questions and indirect talk make it particularly easy to avoid engaging—this may be appropriate in some circumstances. Hypothetical questions are more effective in encouraging on-topic talk, as is linking questions to patients’ cues. Shifting towards more ‘optimistic’ aspects helps maintain hope but closes off further talk about difficulties: practitioners may want to delay doing so. There are substantial gaps in evidence. PMID:25344494

  1. Recent publications from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: Reviewing progress toward improved AD clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Michael W; Veitch, Dallas P; Aisen, Paul S; Beckett, Laurel A; Cairns, Nigel J; Green, Robert C; Harvey, Danielle; Jack, Clifford R; Jagust, William; Morris, John C; Petersen, Ronald C; Saykin, Andrew J; Shaw, Leslie M; Toga, Arthur W; Trojanowski, John Q

    2017-04-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the over 400 publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses. Models of prion-like spreading of Aβ pathology along WM tracts predict known patterns of cortical Aβ deposition and declines in glucose metabolism; (7) New AD risk and protective gene loci have been identified using biologically informed approaches; (8) Cognitively normal and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are heterogeneous and include groups typified not only by "classic" AD pathology but also by normal biomarkers, accelerated decline, and suspected non-Alzheimer's pathology; (9) Selection of subjects at risk of imminent decline on the basis of one or more pathologies improves the power of clinical trials; (10) Sensitivity of cognitive outcome measures to early changes in cognition has been improved and

  2. Disseminated Mycobacterium chelonae Infection Presenting as Progressive Multifocal Osteomyelitis: Report of Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Oelberg

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Two long term hospitalized patients developed disseminated infections caused by Mycobacterium chelonae, subspecies chelonae, over an eight-month period. In both cases, the disease was characterized by cutaneous and osseous involvement. The infections were indolent and marked by progressive bony destruction. These cases and a review of the literature are presented.

  3. Risk factors for emergence and progression of scoliosis in children with severe cerebral palsy : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeters, Marianne J. B.; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim Scoliosis is a frequently occurring and serious complication of severe cerebral palsy (CP). This systematic review aims to the assess the risk factors associated with the emergence and progression of scoliosis in children with CP functioning at level IV or V of the Gross Motor Function Classific

  4. 75 FR 25032 - Biennial Review of the Progress of Cooperation Under the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Biennial Review of the Progress of Cooperation Under the United States-Singapore Memorandum of Intent on Cooperation in Environmental Matters and Suggestions for 2011-2012 U.S.-Singapore Plan of Action for... under the U.S.-Singapore Memorandum of Intent on Cooperation on Environmental Matters and...

  5. What do we need for a superhydrophobic surface? A review on the recent progress in the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Reinhoudt, David; Crego Calama, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have drawn a lot of interest both in academia and in industry because of the self-cleaning properties. This critical review focuses on the recent progress (within the last three years) in the preparation, theoretical modeling, and applications of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  6. Less Than Proficient A Review of the Draft Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    The mission of this review is to appraise the new draft NAEP science framework and to determine whether it is up to snuff. This is an evaluation of the September 30, 2005, draft document, Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (Framework), developed for the National Assessment Governing Board. The criteria is…

  7. Salt Reduction Initiatives around the World – A Systematic Review of Progress towards the Global Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Kathy; Neal, Bruce; Hawkes, Corinna; Dunford, Elizabeth; Campbell, Norm; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Legetic, Branka; McLaren, Lindsay; Barberio, Amanda; Webster, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify progress with the initiation of salt reduction strategies around the world in the context of the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. Methods A systematic review of the published and grey literature was supplemented by questionnaires sent to country program leaders. Core characteristics of strategies were extracted and categorised according to a pre-defined framework. Results A total of 75 countries now have a national salt reduction strategy, more than double the number reported in a similar review done in 2010. The majority of programs are multifaceted and include industry engagement to reformulate products (n = 61), establishment of sodium content targets for foods (39), consumer education (71), front-of-pack labelling schemes (31), taxation on high-salt foods (3) and interventions in public institutions (54). Legislative action related to salt reduction such as mandatory targets, front of pack labelling, food procurement policies and taxation have been implemented in 33 countries. 12 countries have reported reductions in population salt intake, 19 reduced salt content in foods and 6 improvements in consumer knowledge, attitudes or behaviours relating to salt. Conclusion The large and increasing number of countries with salt reduction strategies in place is encouraging although activity remains limited in low- and middle-income regions. The absence of a consistent approach to implementation highlights uncertainty about the elements most important to success. Rigorous evaluation of ongoing programs and initiation of salt reduction programs, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, will be vital to achieving the targeted 30% reduction in salt intake. PMID:26201031

  8. Salt Reduction Initiatives around the World - A Systematic Review of Progress towards the Global Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieu, Kathy; Neal, Bruce; Hawkes, Corinna; Dunford, Elizabeth; Campbell, Norm; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Rodrigo; Legetic, Branka; McLaren, Lindsay; Barberio, Amanda; Webster, Jacqui

    2015-01-01

    To quantify progress with the initiation of salt reduction strategies around the world in the context of the global target to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. A systematic review of the published and grey literature was supplemented by questionnaires sent to country program leaders. Core characteristics of strategies were extracted and categorised according to a pre-defined framework. A total of 75 countries now have a national salt reduction strategy, more than double the number reported in a similar review done in 2010. The majority of programs are multifaceted and include industry engagement to reformulate products (n = 61), establishment of sodium content targets for foods (39), consumer education (71), front-of-pack labelling schemes (31), taxation on high-salt foods (3) and interventions in public institutions (54). Legislative action related to salt reduction such as mandatory targets, front of pack labelling, food procurement policies and taxation have been implemented in 33 countries. 12 countries have reported reductions in population salt intake, 19 reduced salt content in foods and 6 improvements in consumer knowledge, attitudes or behaviours relating to salt. The large and increasing number of countries with salt reduction strategies in place is encouraging although activity remains limited in low- and middle-income regions. The absence of a consistent approach to implementation highlights uncertainty about the elements most important to success. Rigorous evaluation of ongoing programs and initiation of salt reduction programs, particularly in low- and middle- income countries, will be vital to achieving the targeted 30% reduction in salt intake.

  9. Genetic Biomarkers of Barrett's Esophagus Susceptibility and Progression to Dysplasia and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, John M; Middleton, Mark R; Tomlinson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a common and important precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). A third of patients with BE are asymptomatic, and our ability to predict the risk of progression of metaplasia to dysplasia and EAC (and therefore guide management) is limited. There is an urgent need for clinically useful biomarkers of susceptibility to both BE and risk of subsequent progression. This study aims to systematically identify, review, and meta-analyze genetic biomarkers reported to predict both. A systematic review of the PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed in May 2014. Study and evidence quality were appraised using the revised American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines, and modified Recommendations for Tumor Marker Scores. Meta-analysis was performed for all markers assessed by more than one study. A total of 251 full-text articles were reviewed; 52 were included. A total of 33 germline markers of susceptibility were identified (level of evidence II-III); 17 were included. Five somatic markers of progression were identified; meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations for chromosomal instability (level of evidence II). One somatic marker of progression/relapse following photodynamic therapy was identified. However, a number of failings of methodology and reporting were identified. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate genetic biomarkers of BE susceptibility and risk of progression. While a number of limitations of study quality temper the utility of those markers identified, some-in particular, those identified by genome-wide association studies, and chromosomal instability for progression-appear plausible, although robust validation is required.

  10. Prostate cancer disparities in Black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among Black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reams R Renee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American men have the highest prostate cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the US. Although the overall incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer has been declining in White men since 1991, the decline in African American men lags behind White men. Of particular concern is the growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry in the Caribbean Islands, United Kingdom and West Africa. This higher incidence of prostate cancer observed in populations of African descent may be attributed to the fact that these populations share ancestral genetic factors. To better understand the burden of prostate cancer among men of West African Ancestry, we conducted a review of the literature on prostate cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in the countries connected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Results Several published studies indicate high prostate cancer burden in Nigeria and Ghana. There was no published literature for the countries Benin, Gambia and Senegal that met our review criteria. Prostate cancer morbidity and/or mortality data from the Caribbean Islands and the United Kingdom also provided comparable or worse prostate cancer burden to that of US Blacks. Conclusion The growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry follows the path of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. To better understand and address the global prostate cancer disparities seen in Black men of West African ancestry, future studies should explore the genetic and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer among this group.

  11. A descriptive model of the molten salt reactor experiment after shutdown: Review of FY 1995 progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.; Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    During FY 1995 considerable progress was made toward gaining a better understanding of the chemistry and transport processes that continue to govern the behavior of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). As measurements in the MSRE proceed, laboratory studies continue, and better analyses are available, our understanding of the state of the MSRE and the best path toward remediation improves. Because of the immediate concern about the deposit in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), laboratory studies in the past year focused on carbon-fluorine chemistry. Secondary efforts were directed toward investigation of gas generation from MSRE salts by both radiolytic and nonradiolytic pathways. In addition to the laboratory studies, field measurements at the MSRE provided the basis for estimating the inventory of uranium and fluorine in the ACB. Analysis of both temperature and radiation measurements provided independent and consistent estimates of about 2.6 kg of uranium deposited in the top of the ACB. Further analysis efforts included a refinement in the estimates of the fuel- salt source term, the deposited decay energy, and the projected rate of radiolytic gas generation. This report also provides the background material necessary to explain new developments and to review areas of particular interest. The detailed history of the MSRE is extensively documented and is cited where appropriate. This work is also intended to update and complement the more recent MSRE assessment reports.

  12. Progress in burns research: a review of advances in burn pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewo, P I; Fadeyibi, I O

    2015-06-30

    Severe burns trigger a wide range of responses in the victim. Initial vascular changes are followed by hypermetabolic, inflammatory and immunologic changes. The prolonged hypermetabolic response is associated with an elevated resting rate of energy consumption, tissue wasting and altered substrate kinetics. There is increased blood glucose though insulin levels are above normal. The cortisol level is raised and, together with catecholamine, drives the metabolic response. The immune system is typically weakened. There is elevation in blood levels of a wide range of cytokines from activated cells. These agents drive a prolonged inflammatory response which can lead to tissue damage and multiple organ failure. Dynamic fluid resuscitation regimens have cut down mortality from shock in the early post-burn period. However, unbalanced activity of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines can leave patients in an immuno-suppressed state that affects outcomes. So far, many treatments, such as propranolol, a cardio-protector, and anabolic agents, such as oxandrolone and growth hormone, have been tried with mixed results. This review focuses on research that elucidated burn pathophysiology. Some clinical areas in which treatment centred on correcting altered physiology were also included. We have highlighted both the challenges and significant findings. Finally, this paper draws attention to the gaps between progress in basic research and clinical application and suggests areas where further research and funding could be focused.

  13. History, Present, and Progress of Frontotemporal Dementia in China: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Jing Ren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to provide an overview of clinical and demographical features and neuropathological research on frontotemporal dementia (FTD from China over the past decade. We reviewed the demographic features, clinical presentations, and neuropathology of the FTD-spectrum disorders from the 49 cases in China published since 1998. On the basis of these findings, we retrospect the history and speculate on future progress in terms of FTD in China. We found that most published papers comprise case reports with a few retrospective studies with small sample sizes. Behavior variant FTD (bvFTD was the most common diagnostic subtype, of which 35% were associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Parkinsonian syndrome. More than 47% patients with FTD had age onset before 65. There were no differences in age of onset and sex distribution between diagnostic subtypes. The spectrum of neuropathological diagnosis of bvFTD was frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD with tau protein or ubiquitin-immunopositive inclusions, and FTLD without intracellular inclusions. Median survival in bvFTD was 14 years. This paper provides an overview of the current status and pointers for future research directions of FTD in China.

  14. On the progress of four decades of radio beacon studies in India - a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Rao, Paluri V. S.

    Forty years of progress in the Radio Beacon research of the ionosphere carried out in India using the signals from both orbiting as well as geostationary satellites by various researchers has been briefly reviewed. Several features in the typical equatorial and low latitude characteristics on the occurrence and morphological behaviour of the Total Electron Content (TEC) and the ionospheric scintillations with particular reference to the Pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drifts and the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) are presented. The need for the measurement of absolute TEC, its real time prediction as well as the prediction in the onset of scintillations, their amplitudes and durations, in the context of the possible application of these space weather phenomena in the satellite based communication and navigation systems, with reference to the effective implementation of the programmes such as GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) are discussed. Also, the local time dependant response of equatorial ionosphere to geomagnetic storms has been discussed in the context development/inhibition of ESF.

  15. A Review of Major Progresses in Mesoscale Dynamic Research in China since 1999

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓平; 陆汉城; 倪允琪; 谈哲敏

    2004-01-01

    Mesoscale research conducted by Chinese meteorologists during the past four years is reviewed.Advances in theoretical studies include (a) mesoscale quasi-balanced and semi-balanced dynamics, derived through scale analysis and the perturbation method which are suitable for describing mesoscale vortices;(b) subcritical instability and vortex-sheet instability; (c) frontal adjustment mechanism and the effect of topography on frontgenesis; and (d) slantwise vorticity development theories, the slantwise vortex equation,and moist potential vorticity (MPV) anomalies with precipitation-related heat and mass sinks and MPV impermeability theorem. From the MPV conservation viewpoint, the transformation mechanism between different scale weather systems is analyzed. Based on the data analysis, a new dew-point front near the periphery of the West Pacific subtropical high is identified. In the light of MPV theory and Q-vector theory, some events associated with torrential rain systems and severe storms are analyzed and diagnosed.Progress in mesoscale numerical simulation has been made in the development of meso-?, meso-? vortices,meso-??-scale downbursts and precipitation produced by deep convective systems with MM5 and other mesoscale models.

  16. Progress in Significant Soil Science Fields of China over the Last Three Decades: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qi-Guo; HE Ji-Zheng; YAN Xiao-Yuan; ZHANG Bin; ZHANG Gan-Lin; CAI Zu-Cong

    2011-01-01

    Due to continuous decreases in arable land area and continuous population increases, Chinese soil scientists face great challenges in meeting food demands, mitigating adverse environmental impacts, and sustaining or enhancing soil productivity under intensive agriculture.With the aim of promoting the application of soil science knowledge, this paper reviews the achievements of Chinese scientists in soil resource use and management, soil fertility, global change mitigation and soil biology over the last 30 years.During this period, soil resource science has provided essential support for the use and exploitation of Chinese soil resources, and has itself developed through introduction of new theories such as Soil Taxonomy and new technologies such us remote sensing.Soil fertility science has contributed to the alleviation and elimination of impeding physical and chemical factors that constrain availability of essential nutrients and water in soils, the understanding of nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and the increase in nutrient use efficiency for sustainable crop production.Chinese soil scientists have contributed to the understanding of the cropland's role in global change, particularly to the understanding of methane and nitrous oxide emission from rice fields and the effect of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on rice-wheat system.Soil biology research has progressed in biological N fixation, distribution of fauna in Chinese soils, and bioremediation of polluted soils.A new generation of soil scientists has arisen in the last three decades.The gaps between research and application in these soil science fields are also discussed.

  17. Haematuria as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease progression in glomerular diseases: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Juan Antonio; Yuste, Claudia; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Sevillano, Ángel M; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Amaro-Villalobos, Juan Manuel; Praga, Manuel; Egido, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Haematuria has long been considered to be a benign condition associated with glomerular diseases. However, new evidences suggest that haematuria has a pathogenic role in promoting kidney disease progression. An increased risk for end-stage renal disease has been reported in adolescents and young adults with persistent microscopic haematuria. A persistent impairment of renal function has been also reported following macroscopic haematuria-associated acute kidney injury in immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Haematuria-induced renal damage has been related to oxidant, cytotoxic and inflammatory effects induced by haemoglobin or haem released from red blood cells. The pathophysiological origin of haematuria may be due to a more fragile and easily ruptured glomerular filtration barrier, as reported in several glomerular diseases. In this review we describe a number of the key issues associated with the epidemiology and pathogenesis of haematuria-associated diseases, provide an update of recent knowledge on the role of haematuria on renal function outcome and discuss specific therapeutic approaches in this setting. KEY SUMMARY POINTS: 1. Glomerular haematuria is a common observation in a number of renal diseases that may lead to persistent renal injury. 2. Haematuria in children differs from that in adults in specific aspects, particularly in the frequency of glomerular diseases and renal disease outcome. 3. Regular follow-up of renal function in children with isolated microhaematuria may be recommended.

  18. [Periodontitis determining the onset and progression of Huntington's disease: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Coyago, María Lourdes; Sánchez Temiño, Victoria Emilia

    2015-10-27

    Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a CAG triplet in the huntingtin gene. It presents with physical, cognitive and psychiatric impairment at different ages in the adult, and has a fatal prognosis. Other than the number of triplet repetitions, there seem to be other factors that explain the onset of this disease at an earlier age. It is well known that neuroinflammation has a key role in neurodegenerative disorders; Huntington's disease is not an exception to that rule. Neuroinflammation exacerbates neuronal damage produced by mutation, by initiating aberrant activation of microglia cell, as well as astrocyte and dendritic cell dysfunction; also compromising the blood-brain barrier and activating the complement cascade. The latter as a direct and indirect effect of the mutation and other stimuli such as chronic infections. In this study, periodontitis is presented as a model of chronic oral infection and a systemic inflammation source. We hypothesize the potential role of periodontitis in Huntington's disease, and the mechanisms by which it contributes to the early onset and progress of the disease. We considered experimental studies, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, published in both Spanish and English, obtained from the PubMed and SciELO databases. There are various mechanisms that generate brain inflammation in these patients; mechanisms of innate immunity being especially prominent. Chronic oral-dental infections, such as periodontal disease, may be an exacerbating factor that adds to the neuroinflammation of Huntington'’s disease.

  19. Progress in the development of semiconducting metal oxide gas sensors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    2017-08-01

    Since the first suggestion, during the 1950s, that high-surface-area metal oxides could be used as conductometric gas sensors enormous efforts have been made to enhance both the selectivity and the sensitivity of such devices, and to reduce their operational power requirements. This development has involved the exploration of response mechanisms, the selection of the most appropriate oxide compositions, the fabrication of two-phase ‘hetero-structures’, the addition of metallic catalyst particles and the optimisation of the manner in which the materials are presented to the gas—the structure and the nanostructure of the sensing elements. Far more of the scientific literature has been devoted to seeking such improvements in metal oxide gas sensors than has been directed at all other solid-state gas sensors together. Recent progress in the research and development of metal oxide gas sensor technology is surveyed in this invited review. The advances that have been made are quite spectacular and the results of individual pieces of work are drawn together here so that trends can be seen. Emerging features include: the significance of n-type/p-type switching, the enhancement of sensing performance of materials through the incorporation of secondary components and the advantages of interrogating sensors with alternating current rather than direct current.

  20. A descriptive model of the molten salt reactor experiment after shutdown: Review of FY 1995 progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.; Del Cul, G.D.; Toth, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    During FY 1995 considerable progress was made toward gaining a better understanding of the chemistry and transport processes that continue to govern the behavior of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE). As measurements in the MSRE proceed, laboratory studies continue, and better analyses are available, our understanding of the state of the MSRE and the best path toward remediation improves. Because of the immediate concern about the deposit in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB), laboratory studies in the past year focused on carbon-fluorine chemistry. Secondary efforts were directed toward investigation of gas generation from MSRE salts by both radiolytic and nonradiolytic pathways. In addition to the laboratory studies, field measurements at the MSRE provided the basis for estimating the inventory of uranium and fluorine in the ACB. Analysis of both temperature and radiation measurements provided independent and consistent estimates of about 2.6 kg of uranium deposited in the top of the ACB. Further analysis efforts included a refinement in the estimates of the fuel- salt source term, the deposited decay energy, and the projected rate of radiolytic gas generation. This report also provides the background material necessary to explain new developments and to review areas of particular interest. The detailed history of the MSRE is extensively documented and is cited where appropriate. This work is also intended to update and complement the more recent MSRE assessment reports.

  1. Recent Progress in Electrochemical HbA1c Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhen Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent progress made in the development of electrochemical glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c sensors for the diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus. Electrochemical HbA1c sensors are divided into two categories based on the detection protocol of the sensors. The first type of sensor directly detects HbA1c by binding HbA1c on the surface of an electrode through bio-affinity of antibody and boronic acids, followed by an appropriate mode of signal transduction. In the second type of sensor, HbA1c is indirectly determined by detecting a digestion product of HbA1c, fructosyl valine (FV. Thus, the former sensors rely on the selective binding of HbA1c to the surface of the electrodes followed by electrochemical signaling in amperometric, voltammetric, impedometric, or potentiometric mode. Redox active markers, such as ferrocene derivatives and ferricyanide/ferrocyanide ions, are often used for electrochemical signaling. For the latter sensors, HbA1c must be digested in advance by proteolytic enzymes to produce the FV fragment. FV is electrochemically detected through catalytic oxidation by fructosyl amine oxidase or by selective binding to imprinted polymers. The performance characteristics of HbA1c sensors are discussed in relation to their use in the diagnosis and control of diabetic mellitus.

  2. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Recent Advances and a Neuro-Ophthalmological Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, Padmaja; Bachman, David M; Mark, Alexander S; Berger, Joseph R; Kedar, Sachin

    2015-09-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe often fatal opportunistic infection of the central nervous system caused by reactivation of a ubiquitous polyoma virus, JC virus. Although typically characterized by multifocal asymmetric subcortical white matter lesions, it may be monofocal and affect the cortical gray matter. Among the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that occurs with PML, visual complaints are common. Combination of representative personally observed cases of PML and comprehensive review of case series of PML from 1958 through 2014. Neuro-ophthalmic signs and symptoms were reported in approximately 20%-50% of patients with PML and can be the presenting manifestation in half of these. A majority of these presentations occur from damage to cerebral visual pathways resulting in visual field defects, cortical blindness, and other disorders of visual association. Given the decreased frequency of infratentorial and cerebellar involvement, ocular motility disorders are less common. Visual complaints occur in patients with PML and are often the presenting sign. Awareness of this condition is helpful in avoiding unnecessary delays in the diagnosis of PML and management of the underlying condition. Recent guidelines have established criteria for diagnosis of PML in the high-risk patient population and strategies to mitigate the risk in these populations.

  3. Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: a review of policy, people, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Chon; Nishihara, Eitaro; Akiyama, Miki

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare reform as part of the economic recovery plan in Japan is placing emphasis on the use of healthcare information technology (HIT). This research mainly focuses on the HIT efforts in Japan with reference to the US for context. The purpose is to: (a) provide detail on governmental policy impacting promotion of HIT adoption to provide services to the people of Japan, (b) describe the outcomes of past and present policy impacting progress based on a case study of HIT use in the Kyoto Yamashina area, and (c) discuss issues for refinement of current policy. The method is case study, and data collection techniques include: (a) interviews of people involved in policy making for HIT in Japan (Japanese healthcare professionals, government officials, and academics involved in HIT research in Japan) and use in the medical community of HIT in the Kyoto Yamashina area, (b) archived document analysis of reports regarding government policy for HIT policy and user assessment for HIT mainly in the case study site, and (c) the literature review about HIT progression and effectiveness assessments to explore and describe issues concerning the transformation with HIT in Japan. This study reveals the aspects of governmental policy that have been effective in promoting successful HIT initiatives as well as some that have been detriments in Japan to help solve pressing social issues regarding healthcare delivery. For example, Japan has stipulated some standardized protocols and formats for HIT but does not mandate exactly how to engage in inter-organizational or intra-organizational health information exchange. This provides some desired autonomy for healthcare organizations and or governments in medical communities and allows for more advanced organizations to leverage current resources while providing a basis for lesser equipped organizations to use in planning the initiative. The insights gained from the Kyoto Yamashina area initiative reflect the success of past governmental

  4. Gender Disparities in Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alswat, Khaled A.

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a growing health concern worldwide and its complications are as prevalent as other common chronic disease complications such as hypertension and diabetes. In this review, we will discuss the role of gender in osteoporosis, especially related to peak bone mass and maturation, rate of annual bone loss, screening, prevalence of osteoporosis and its related fractures, mortality after osteoporosis-related fracture, fracture risk predication using different technologies and the impact of gender on osteoporosis management.

  5. The effect of progressive resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients - A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon

    2014-01-01

    resistance training on lean body mass in post-treatment cancer patients. A comprehensive literature search was conducted and ultimately 12 studies were included. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale and the effect of progressive resistance training was reported......Loss of lean body mass is a common problem in many post-treatment cancer patients and may negatively affect physical capacity in terms of maximal muscle strength and functional performance. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific evidence on the effect of progressive...... as the range of mean changes among RCTs and non-RCTs. Six RCTs and six non-RCTs were included in the study. In the RCTs the change in lean body mass in the progressive resistance training groups relative to control groups ranged from -0.4% to 3.9%, and in four of six trials the training effect...

  6. Partnering health disparities research with quality improvement science in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, K Casey; Raphael, Jean L

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in pediatric health care quality are well described in the literature, yet practical approaches to decreasing them remain elusive. Quality improvement (QI) approaches are appealing for addressing disparities because they offer a set of strategies by which to target modifiable aspects of care delivery and a method for tailoring or changing an intervention over time based on data monitoring. However, few examples in the literature exist of QI interventions successfully decreasing disparities, particularly in pediatrics, due to well-described challenges in developing, implementing, and studying QI with vulnerable populations or in underresourced settings. In addition, QI interventions aimed at improving quality overall may not improve disparities, and in some cases, may worsen them if there is greater uptake or effectiveness of the intervention among the population with better outcomes at baseline. In this article, the authors review some of the challenges faced by researchers and frontline clinicians seeking to use QI to address health disparities and propose an agenda for moving the field forward. Specifically, they propose that those designing and implementing disparities-focused QI interventions reconsider comparator groups, use more rigorous evaluation methods, carefully consider the evidence for particular interventions and the context in which they were developed, directly engage the social determinants of health, and leverage community resources to build collaborative networks and engage community members. Ultimately, new partnerships between communities, providers serving vulnerable populations, and QI researchers will be required for QI interventions to achieve their potential related to health care disparity reduction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Defining gender disparities in pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leresche, Linda

    2011-07-01

    Prevalence rates of most musculoskeletal pain conditions are higher among women than men. Reasons for these prevalence disparities likely include sex differences in basic pain mechanisms and gender differences in psychosocial factors. The purposes of this review were to (1) identify reasons for differences in pain prevalence between men and women, (2) assess whether musculoskeletal pain conditions are differently treated in men and women, and (3) identify reasons for sex/gender disparities in pain treatment. A MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms "pain" or "musculoskeletal pain" and "gender differences" or "sex differences" with "health care," "health services," and "physician, attitude." Articles judged relevant were selected for inclusion. WHERE ARE WE NOW?: Higher pain prevalence in women is consistently observed but not well understood. The relative contributions of sex differences in pain mechanisms and gender differences in psychosocial factors (eg, coping, social roles) to explaining differences in prevalence are not yet clear. Gender disparities in the amount of healthcare use for pain may be partially explained by the experience of higher-intensity pain in women. Pain intensity also seems to be a major factor influencing treatment, especially the prescription of medications for acute pain. However, clinicians' gender stereotypes, as well as the clinician's own gender, appear to influence diagnostic and treatment decisions for more persistent pain problems. WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: The ultimate goal is optimal pain control for each individual, with gender being one difference between individuals. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: Further research is needed to address all three major purposes, with particular attention to whether gender-specific pain treatment may sometimes be warranted.

  8. A review of the evidence for dietary interventions in preventing or slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, J. R.; Lawrenson, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To summarise the results of recent Cochrane systematic reviews that have investigated whether nutritional supplements prevent or slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).\\ud \\ud Recent findings: There is no good evidence from randomised controlled trials that the general population should be taking antioxidant vitamin supplements to reduce their risk of developing AMD later on in life. By contrast, there is moderate quality evidence that people with AMD may expe...

  9. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease: potential role in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaza, Jorge N; Contreras, Sandra; Garcia, Leah A; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Gibbons, Gary; Shohet, Ralph; Martins, David; Norris, Keith C

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes coronary artery disease and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality in the nation. Excess CVD morbidity and premature mortality in the African American community is one of the most striking examples of racial/ ethnic disparities in health outcomes. African Americans also suffer from increased rates of hypovitaminosis D, which has emerged as an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. This overview examines the potential role of hypovitaminosis D as a contributor to racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We review the epidemiology of vitamin D and CVD in African Americans and the emerging biological roles of vitamin D in key CVD signaling pathways that may contribute to the epidemiological findings and provide the foundation for future therapeutic strategies for reducing health disparities.

  10. Eliminating Disparities in School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in suspension rates for White, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian students are more often a result of inequitable disciplinary actions than differences in behavior. Exclusionary discipline undermines students' academic achievement by weakening their connection with school and removing them from the classroom. Students who experience…

  11. Progress in Earthquake Science and Technology in China: Review and Prospects (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhangli

    2001-01-01

    In the article the author looks back the hard development course and great progress in earth quake science and technology in China during the last near a half of century and expounds the following 3 aspects: (1) The strong desire of the whole society to mitigate seismic disasters and reduce the effect of earthquakes on social-economic live is a great driving force to push forward the development of earthquake science and technology in China; (2) To better ensure people' s life and property, sustainable economic development, and social stability is an essential purpose to drive the development of earthquake science and technology in China; and (3) To insist on the dialectical connection of setup of technical system for seismic monitoring with the scientific research of earthquakes and to better handle the relation between crucial task, current scientif ic level, and the feasibility are the important principles to advance the earthquake science and technology in China. Some success and many setbacks in earthquake disaster mitigation consistently enrich our knowledge regarding the complexity of the conditions for earthquake occurrence and the process of earthquake preparation, promote the reconstruction and modernization of technical system for earthquake monitoring, and deepen the scientific research of earthquakes. During the last 5 years, the improvement and modernization of technical system for earthquake monitoring have clearly provided the technical support to study and practice of earthquake prediction and pre caution, give prominence to key problems and broaden the field of scientific research of earth quakes. These have enabled us to get some new recognition of the conditions for earthquake oc currence and process of earthquake preparation, characteristics of seismic disaster, and mecha nism for earthquake generation in China's continent. The progress we have made not only en courages us to enhance the effectiveness of earthquake disaster mitigation, but also

  12. The Use of Microperimetry to Detect Functional Progression in Non-Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Evan N; Chew, Avenell L; Morgan, William H; Patel, Praveen J; Chen, Fred K

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed the current literature on the ability of microperimetry to detect non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) disease progression. The index test was retinal sensitivity measurement assessed by microperimetry and comparators were other functional measures (best-corrected and low-luminance visual acuities, and fixation stability) and structural parameters [retinal thickness, choroidal thickness, and area of geographic atrophy (GA) determined by color fundus photographs, short-wave or near-infrared fundus autofluorescence]. The reference standard was area of GA. The literature search was conducted in January 2016 and included MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Biosis, Science Citation Index, ProQuest Health and Medicine, CINAHL, and Highwire Press. We included 6 studies that enrolled 41 eyes with intermediate AMD (from a single study) and 80 eyes with GA secondary to AMD. Retinal sensitivity measured by microperimetry was the only functional measure that consistently detected progression in each cohort. Insufficient reported data precluded meta-analysis. Various microperimetry parameters were used to assess cohort-level change in retinal sensitivity, but the methods of analysis have yet to mature in complexity in comparison with established glaucoma field progression analysis. Microperimetry-assessed retinal sensitivity measurement may be more sensitive in detecting progression than other functional measures in non-neovascular AMD. However, the lack of standardized testing protocol and methods of progression analysis hindered comparison. Harmonization of testing protocol and development of more robust methods of analyzing raw microperimetric data will facilitate clinical implementation of this valuable retinal assessment tool.

  13. Current concepts on burn wound conversion-A review of recent advances in understanding the secondary progressions of burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salibian, Ara A; Rosario, Angelica Tan Del; Severo, Lucio De Almeida Moura; Nguyen, Long; Banyard, Derek A; Toranto, Jason D; Evans, Gregory R D; Widgerow, Alan D

    2016-08-01

    Burn wound conversion describes the process by which superficial partial thickness burns convert into deeper burns necessitating surgical intervention. Fully understanding and thus controlling this phenomenon continues to defy burn surgeons. However, potentially guiding burn wound progression so as to obviate the need for surgery while still bringing about healing with limited scarring is the major unmet challenge. Comprehending the pathophysiologic background contributing to deeper progression of these burns is an essential prerequisite to planning any intervention. In this study, a review of articles examining burn wound progression over the last five years was conducted to analyze trends in recent burn progression research, determine changes in understanding of the pathogenesis of burn conversion, and subsequently examine the direction for future research in developing therapies. The majority of recent research focuses on applying therapies from other disease processes to common underlying pathogenic mechanisms in burn conversion. While ischemia, inflammation, and free oxygen radicals continue to demonstrate a critical role in secondary necrosis, novel mechanisms such as autophagy have also been shown to contribute affect significantly burn progression significantly. Further research will have to determine whether multiple mechanisms should be targeted when developing clinical therapies.

  14. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, I; Bird, J P

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  15. A review of progress in the physics of open quantum systems: theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, I.; Bird, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    This report on progress explores recent advances in our theoretical and experimental understanding of the physics of open quantum systems (OQSs). The study of such systems represents a core problem in modern physics that has evolved to assume an unprecedented interdisciplinary character. OQSs consist of some localized, microscopic, region that is coupled to an external environment by means of an appropriate interaction. Examples of such systems may be found in numerous areas of physics, including atomic and nuclear physics, photonics, biophysics, and mesoscopic physics. It is the latter area that provides the main focus of this review, an emphasis that is driven by the capacity that exists to subject mesoscopic devices to unprecedented control. We thus provide a detailed discussion of the behavior of mesoscopic devices (and other OQSs) in terms of the projection-operator formalism, according to which the system under study is considered to be comprised of a localized region (Q), embedded into a well-defined environment (P) of scattering wavefunctions (with Q   +   P   =   1). The Q subspace must be treated using the concepts of non-Hermitian physics, and of particular interest here is: the capacity of the environment to mediate a coupling between the different states of Q; the role played by the presence of exceptional points (EPs) in the spectra of OQSs; the influence of EPs on the rigidity of the wavefunction phases, and; the ability of EPs to initiate a dynamical phase transition (DPT). EPs are singular points in the continuum, at which two resonance states coalesce, that is where they exhibit a non-avoided crossing. DPTs occur when the quantum dynamics of the open system causes transitions between non-analytically connected states, as a function of some external control parameter. Much like conventional phase transitions, the behavior of the system on one side of the DPT does not serve as a reliable indicator of that on the other. In

  16. Repeated Intrathecal Triamcinolone Acetonide Administration in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Abu-Mugheisib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, or immunosuppressive treatments of multiple sclerosis (MS are mainly effective in the early phases of the disease but are of less advantage in progressive phases. Current therapeutic strategies of both primary and secondary progressive MS are rare. One alternative may be intrathecal application of triamcinolone acetonide (TCA. Number of papers deal with advantages and disadvantages of intrathecal administration in MS. Former trials lacked detailed selection of MS patients, with small sample sizes, low steroid dosages, and only a small number of intrathecal administration of short acting steroids. The present paper summarizes recent trials performed following a different treatment regime. They were conducted in patients with progressive MS suffering mainly from spinal symptoms and documented a significant improvement of EDSS and walking distance (WD. Intrathecal TCA administration is a proposal to take into account as one therapy option in patients with a progressive clinical course and predominantly spinal symptoms.

  17. Association between progression-free survival and health-related quality of life in oncology: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovic, Bruno; Guyatt, Gordon; Brundage, Michael; Thabane, Lehana; Bhatnagar, Neera; Xie, Feng

    2016-09-02

    There is an increasing number of new oncology drugs being studied, approved and put into clinical practice based on improvement in progression-free survival, when no overall survival benefits exist. In oncology, the association between progression-free survival and health-related quality of life is currently unknown, despite its importance for patients with cancer, and the unverified assumption that longer progression-free survival indicates improved health-related quality of life. Thus far, only 1 study has investigated this association, providing insufficient evidence and inconclusive results. The objective of this study protocol is to provide increased transparency in supporting a systematic summary of the evidence bearing on this association in oncology. Using the OVID platform in MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases, we will conduct a systematic review of randomised controlled human trials addressing oncology issues published starting in 2000. A team of reviewers will, in pairs, independently screen and abstract data using standardised, pilot-tested forms. We will employ numerical integration to calculate mean incremental area under the curve between treatment groups in studies for health-related quality of life, along with total related error estimates, and a 95% CI around incremental area. To describe the progression-free survival to health-related quality of life association, we will construct a scatterplot for incremental health-related quality of life versus incremental progression-free survival. To estimate the association, we will use a weighted simple regression approach, comparing mean incremental health-related quality of life with either median incremental progression-free survival time or the progression-free survival HR, in the absence of overall survival benefit. Identifying direction and magnitude of association between progression-free survival and health-related quality of life is critically important in interpreting results of oncology

  18. Review on the Progress for Mutual Fund Performance Dynamic Evaluation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhongqiuZhao

    2004-01-01

    The progress of performance dynamic evaluation theory for mutual fund from different points is summarized. The theories include conditional performance evaluation model, stochastic discount factors model, dynamic selecting and timing ability, portfolio change measure and so on. Meanwhile, this paper also summarized the progress of Performance Persistence and Survlvorshlp Bias. Then the analysis of the development tendency for the performance evaluation of portfolio is made.

  19. 29 CFR 1607.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disparate treatment. 1607.11 Section 1607.11 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.11 Disparate treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of validation. A selection...

  20. EVOLUTION THE CONCEPTS OF ROLE OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN GLAUCOMA PROGRESSION (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Kurysheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in the progression of glaucoma optical neuropathy has emphasized repeatedly. The question about the role of elevated IOP as the underlying cause of glaucoma arose in the early 1960s. However, epidemiological studies have questioned the role of IOP as a diagnostic criterion for glaucoma, due to the relatively rare detection the disease among those with ocular hypertension and frequent detection of glaucoma with normal IOP. Multicenter studies determining the role of antihypertensive therapy in the treatment of glaucoma, have shown the importance of reducing IOP: decricing IOP at 1 mm Hg reduced the risk of developing glaucoma on 10-19%. In addition, it was found that the rate of glaucoma progression is very variable. It depends not only on the form of glaucoma, but also on other factors such as the stage of disease and therapy. Swedish study shown normal-tension glaucoma often progressed among the patients with more aggressive treatment such as argon laser trabeculoplasty or trabeculectomies. According to the study’s data, age is the most important risk factor for the progression of normal-tension glaucoma. Such questions as fluctuations in IOP, reduction of retrobulbar blood flow, antihypertensive treatment on the progression of glaucoma are still discussed. Despite the fact that the latter UKGTS multicenter study (2014 showed a decrease in the rate of progression of glaucoma in patients treated with latanoprost, a high percentage of non-treated patients didn’t have disease’s progression. In this regard, the role of IOP as main starting factor in glaucoma pathogenesis is still open.

  1. Health Disparity and Cancer Health Disparity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Jiao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    China is one of the largest and most populated countries in the world. It has undergone rapid economic growth in recent years. However, the development is not equitable, and the distribution of wealth significantly varies among the regions in China. Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities, together with the lack of an equitable national social support system, cause the high variance of health outcomes among the regions. Furthermore, the fast growth of the economy has evoked many environmental challenges and puts much pressure on the population. The severe environmental deterioration, especially of the atmosphere and water bodies, has affected the health of the people living in China. As a result, cancer has become a major public health issue, and an alarming increase in incidence and mortality has been reported. However, cancer incidence and mortality vary in different areas in China. Cancer and cancer treatment disparities have existed for years. This article will discuss the existing health and cancer disparities associated with the risk factors and how these disparities are managed in China. PMID:28083550

  2. Health disparity and cancer health disparity in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the largest and most populated countries in the world. It has undergone rapid economic growth in recent years. However, the development is not equitable, and the distribution of wealth significantly varies among the regions in China. Geographical and socioeconomic inequalities, together with the lack of an equitable national social support system, cause the high variance of health outcomes among the regions. Furthermore, the fast growth of the economy has evoked many environmental challenges and puts much pressure on the population. The severe environmental deterioration, especially of the atmosphere and water bodies, has affected the health of the people living in China. As a result, cancer has become a major public health issue, and an alarming increase in incidence and mortality has been reported. However, cancer incidence and mortality vary in different areas in China. Cancer and cancer treatment disparities have existed for years. This article will discuss the existing health and cancer disparities associated with the risk factors and how these disparities are managed in China.

  3. Pregnancy and HIV disease progression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Clara; Ronsmans, Carine

    2015-02-01

    To assess whether pregnancy accelerates HIV disease progression. Studies comparing progression to HIV-related illness, low CD4 count, AIDS-defining illness, HIV-related death, or any death in HIV-infected pregnant and non-pregnant women were included. Relative risks (RR) for each outcome were combined using random effects meta-analysis and were stratified by antiretroviral therapy (ART) availability. 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Pregnancy was not associated with progression to HIV-related illness [summary RR: 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66-2.61], AIDS-defining illness (summary RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.74-1.25) or mortality (summary RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.62-1.53), but there was an association with low CD4 counts (summary RR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.99-2.02) and HIV-related death (summary RR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.06-2.57). In settings where ART was available, there was no evidence that pregnancy accelerated progress to HIV/AIDS-defining illnesses, death and drop in CD4 count. In settings without ART availability, effect estimates were consistent with pregnancy increasing the risk of progression to HIV/AIDS-defining illnesses and HIV-related or all-cause mortality, but there were too few studies to draw meaningful conclusions. In the absence of ART, pregnancy is associated with small but appreciable increases in the risk of several negative HIV outcomes, but the evidence is too weak to draw firm conclusions. When ART is available, the effects of pregnancy on HIV disease progression are attenuated and there is little reason to discourage healthy HIV-infected women who desire to become pregnant from doing so. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Defining cultural competence: a practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, Joseph R.; Green, Alexander R.; Carrillo, J. Emilio; Ananeh-Firempong, Owusu

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Racial/ethnic disparities in health in the U.S. have been well described. The field of "cultural competence" has emerged as one strategy to address these disparities. Based on a review of the relevant literature, the authors develop a definition of cultural competence, identify key components for intervention, and describe a practical framework for implementation of measures to address racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. METHODS: The authors conducted a literature...

  5. Regional Development Disparities In Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana - Craciun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Regional economic integration provides both, developing countries and the least developed, the ability to enjoy the benefits of a larger „European “market, whether it is their home or their adoptive home. This issue gains a larger dimension in the context of economic crisis and euro zone. The argument for this statement is that regional development disparities may negatively affect economic cohesion from European space. There were identified two obstacles of the efficient use of European resources. The first one is the geographic barrier: the inability to make labor division due to barrier restrictions. The second one is the lack of an entrepreneurial culture. The entrepreneurial culture provides the flexibility of economy - in particular, the structural flexibility to cope with changes in the division of labor. These disparities can be gradual changed, and they are primarily result from autonomous technological innovations made ​​in response to depletion of resources or affected environment. Analyzing regional development disparities there were applied well known research methods: analytical and statistical method. The analysis consists on selecting and describing a set of indicators “measures” for regional competitiveness, able to show the situation of the region in metric terms, but also from economic point of view.

  6. Outcomes and disparities in liver transplantation will be improved by redistricting-cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David Seth; Karp, Seth

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 2 years, the liver transplant community has been debating a proposal to redraw the maps of organ distribution. The basis for these proposed changes is reported disparities in severity of illness at transplantation across the USA - however, this is based on the allocation model for end-stage liver disease score. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the redistribution proposal, its flaws and how it may worsen outcomes and exacerbate disparities in liver transplantation. The main findings we highlight are data questioning the disparity metric used to justify the redistribution. We also review data published in recent articles and presented at public forums questioning whether there truly are disparities in access to transplant care among the broader population with liver disease, and whether disparities even getting to the waitlist are important and not to be ignored. This review article highlights major methodological and policy flaws with the current redistribution proposal. We demonstrate how the waitlist disparities that the proposal is intended to fix are not as they seem. Furthermore, if this proposal is passed, outcomes of liver transplantation nationally may worsen, and disparities for those with limited access to healthcare will worsen.

  7. Moving Toward Paradigm-Shifting Research in Health Disparities Through Translational, Transformational, and Transdisciplinary Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyu B.; Stoff, David M.; Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Sy, Francisco S.; Stinson, Nathaniel; Ruffin, John

    2010-01-01

    Translational, transdisciplinary, and transformational research stands to become a paradigm-shifting mantra for research in health disparities. A windfall of research discoveries using these 3 approaches has increased our understanding of the health disparities in racial, ethnic, and low socioeconomic status groups. These distinct but related research spheres possess unique environments, which, when integrated, can lead to innovation in health disparities science. In this article, we review these approaches and propose integrating them to advance health disparities research through a change in philosophical position and an increased emphasis on community engagement. We argue that a balanced combination of these research approaches is needed to inform evidence-based practice, social action, and effective policy change to improve health in disparity communities. PMID:20147662

  8. Risk Factors Associated with the Onset of Relapsing-Remitting and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla A. McKay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic central nervous system disease with a highly heterogeneous course. The aetiology of MS is not well understood but is likely a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Approximately 85% of patients present with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, while 10–15% present with primary progressive MS (PPMS. PPMS is associated with an older onset age, a different sex ratio, and a considerably more rapid disease progression relative to RRMS. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify modifiable risk factors that may be associated with these different clinical courses. We performed a search of six databases and integrated twenty observational studies into a descriptive review. Exposure to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV appeared to increase the risk of RRMS, but its association with PPMS was less clear. Other infections, such as human herpesvirus-6 and chlamydia pneumoniae, were not consistently associated with a specific disease course nor was cigarette smoking. Despite the vast literature examining risk factors for the development of MS, relatively few studies reported findings by disease course. This review exposes a gap in our understanding of the risk factors associated with the onset of PPMS, our current knowledge being predominated by relapsing-onset MS.

  9. Clinicopathologic analysis of progressive non-fluent aphasia and corticobasal degeneration:Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Brito-Marques

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To investigate progressive non-fluent aphasia and histopathologically-proven corticobasal degeneration. Methods: We evaluated symptoms, signs, neuropsychological deficits, and radiology data longitudinally, in a patient with autopsy-proven corticobasal degeneration and correlated these observations directly to the neuroanatomic distribution of the disease. Results: At presentation, a specific pattern of cognitive impairment was evident with an extreme extrapyramidal motor abnormality. Follow-up examination revealed persistent impairment of praxis and executive functioning, progressive worsening of language performance, and moderately preserved memory. The motor disorder manifested and worsened as the condition progressed. Many of the residual nerve cells were ballooned and achromatic with eccentric nuclei. Tau-immunoreactive pathology was significantly more prominent in neurons in the frontal and parietal cortices and dentate nuclei than in temporal neocortex, hippocampi and brainstem. Conclusion: The clinical diagnosis of progressive non-fluent aphasia secondary to corticobasal degeneration hinged on a specific pattern of impaired cognition as well as an extrapyramidal motor disorder, reflecting the neuroanatomic distribution of the disease in frontal and anterior temporal cortices and the dentate nuclei.

  10. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Approximately 30 research projects are summarized in this report. Title of the project, contract number, company or university, award amount, principal investigators, objectives, and summary of technical progress are given for each project. Enhanced oil recovery projects include chemical flooding, gas displacement, and thermal recovery. Most of the research projects though are related to geoscience technology and reservoir characterization.

  11. Prognostic factors of progression of osteoarthritis of the knee : A systematic review of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo, J. N.; Berger, M. Y.; Reijman, M.; Koes, B. W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    objective. To provide an overview of prognostic factors of knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Methods. We searched Medline and Embase up to December 2003 according to a specified search strategy (keywords for disease, location, and study design). Studies that fulfilled predefined criteria were as

  12. Prognostic factors of progression of osteoarthritis of the knee : A systematic review of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo, J. N.; Berger, M. Y.; Reijman, M.; Koes, B. W.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    objective. To provide an overview of prognostic factors of knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Methods. We searched Medline and Embase up to December 2003 according to a specified search strategy (keywords for disease, location, and study design). Studies that fulfilled predefined criteria were

  13. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    Summaries are presented for the DOE contracts related to supported research for thermal recovery of petroleum, geoscience technology, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Data included for each project are: title, contract number, principal investigator, research organization, beginning date, expected completion date, amount of award, objectives of the research, and summary of technical progress.

  14. Trends in Mortality Disparities by Area-Based Poverty in New York City, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toprani, Amita; Li, Wenhui; Hadler, James L

    2016-06-01

    Residing in a high-poverty area has consistently been associated with higher mortality rates, but the association between poverty and mortality can change over time. We examine the association between neighborhood poverty and mortality in New York City (NYC) during 1990-2010 to document mortality disparity changes over time and determine causes of death for which disparities are greatest. We used NYC and New York state mortality data for years 1990, 2000, and 2010 to calculate all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted death rates (AADRs) by census tract poverty (CTP), which is the proportion of persons in a census tract living below the federal poverty threshold. We calculated mortality disparities, measured as the difference in AADR between the lowest and highest CTP groups, within and across race/ethnicity, nativity, and sex categories by year. We observed higher all-cause AADRs with higher CTP for each year for all race/ethnicities, both sexes, and US-born persons. Mortality disparities decreased progressively during 1990-2010 for the NYC population overall, for each race/ethnic group, and for the majority of causes of death. The overall mortality disparity between the highest and lowest CTP groups during 2010 was 2.55 deaths/1000 population. The largest contributors to mortality disparities were heart disease (51.52 deaths/100,000 population), human immunodeficiency virus (19.96/100,000 population), and diabetes (19.59/100,000 population). We show that progress was made in narrowing socioeconomic disparities in mortality during 1990-2010, but substantial disparities remain. Future efforts toward achieving health equity in NYC mortality should focus on areas contributing most to disparities.

  15. Intraspinal Pathology Associated With Pediatric Scoliosis: A Ten-year Review Analyzing the Effect of Neurosurgery on Scoliosis Curve Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Pawel P; Bastrom, Tracey; Ciacci, Joseph D; Yaszay, Burt; Levy, Michael L; Newton, Peter O

    2016-10-15

    This was a retrospective study of patients with Chiari I (CM I) and Chiari II (CM II) malformations, tethered cord syndrome, and syringomyelia examining the effect of neurosurgery on scoliosis. The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting spinal deformity progression in patients with diseases of the neural axis following neurosurgical management. There have been attempts to explain which factors influence the spinal deformity in diseases of the neural axis with varying results. Debate still exists as to the effectiveness of neurosurgery in curve stabilization. The medical records for patients treated over the past 10 years were reviewed. The spinal deformity surgical group consisted of patients who received surgery or progressed to surgical range (50°) and the nonsurgical group those who did not undergo fusion. Fifteen patients (eight females and seven males) with scoliosis who underwent neurosurgical intervention were identified. Ten had tethered cord, six CM II, four CM I, and 11 syrinx. Average age at the time of neurosurgery was 7 ± 4 years (range 0.7-14 yrs). Following neurosurgery, no patients experienced improvement in their curves (defined as >10° decrease in Cobb angle), eight patients experienced stabilization (10° increase). The group that went on to spinal deformity surgery possessed larger curves before neurosurgery (mean 42°, range 20°-63°) than the nonsurgical group (19°, range 15°-26°; P = 0.004). CM II patients had the greatest magnitude of curve progression, mean of 49°, compared with patients with CM I (6°) or tether cord without CM I or II (11°, P = 0.01). Neurosurgical intervention may prevent curve progression in patients with scoliosis and Cobb angles < 30° if they do not have a complex CM II malformation. Patients with CM II are at a higher risk of curve progression and undergoing spinal fusion than patients with CM I, tethered cord syndrome, or syringomyelia. 4.

  16. A Review on Bioactivities of Perilla: Progress in Research on the Functions of Perilla as Medicine and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Igarashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perilla is a useful pharmaceutical and food product and is empirically consumed by humans. However, its properties have not been evaluated extensively. In this review, we summarize the progress made in research, focusing on the bioactivities of perilla. There are many in vitro and animal studies on the cytostatic activity and antiallergic effects, respectively, of perilla and its constituents. However, its influence on humans remains unclear. Hence, investigating and clarifying the physiological effects of perilla and its constituents on humans are imperative in the future to adhere to the ideals of evidence-based medicine.

  17. A review on bioactivities of perilla: progress in research on the functions of perilla as medicine and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Miho; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Perilla is a useful pharmaceutical and food product and is empirically consumed by humans. However, its properties have not been evaluated extensively. In this review, we summarize the progress made in research, focusing on the bioactivities of perilla. There are many in vitro and animal studies on the cytostatic activity and antiallergic effects, respectively, of perilla and its constituents. However, its influence on humans remains unclear. Hence, investigating and clarifying the physiological effects of perilla and its constituents on humans are imperative in the future to adhere to the ideals of evidence-based medicine.

  18. Progress of basic research in Parkinson's disease in China: data mini-review from the National Natural Science Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Heqi; Chen, Gang; Dong, Erdan

    2013-08-30

    This review is to analyze the role of National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) on the development of basic research of Parkinson's disease from 1990 to 2012. Data on the total number of projects and funding of NSFC allocated to Parkinson's disease, as well as hotspots in western countries, papers published, awards, personnel training, subject construction were collected, and the role of NSFC on other sources of funding was evaluated. Over the past 23 years, a full range of continuous funding from NSFC has led to fruitful results and a strong impetus to the progress of basic research of Parkinson's disease.

  19. ORD Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) Research Program Mid-Cycle Progress Report and Review - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The principal charge to the BOSC reviewers was to evaluate ORD’s HHRA Program from a program assessment framework relative to program relevance, structure, performance, quality, leadership, communication, and outcomes.

  20. A review of progress towards understanding the transient global mean surface temperature response to radiative perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimori, Masakazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Oka, Akira; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Ohgaito, Rumi; Kamae, Youichi

    2016-12-01

    The correct understanding of the transient response to external radiative perturbation is important for the interpretation of observed climate change, the prediction of near-future climate change, and committed warming under climate stabilization scenarios, as well as the estimation of equilibrium climate sensitivity based on observation data. It has been known for some time that the radiative damping rate per unit of global mean surface temperature increase varies with time, and this inconstancy affects the transient response. Knowledge of the equilibrium response alone is insufficient, but understanding the transient response of the global mean surface temperature has made rapid progress. The recent progress accompanies the relatively new concept of the efficacies of ocean heat uptake and forcing. The ocean heat uptake efficacy associates the temperature response induced by ocean heat uptake with equilibrium temperature response, and the efficacy of forcing compares the temperature response caused by non-CO2 forcing with that by CO2 forcing.

  1. Relating relapse and T2 lesion changes to disability progression in multiple sclerosis: a systematic literature review and regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), the most important therapeutic aim of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) is to prevent or postpone long-term disability. Given the typically slow progression observed in the majority of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, the primary endpoint for most randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is a reduction in relapse rate. It is widely assumed that reducing relapse rate will slow disability progression. Similarly, MRI studies suggest that reducing T2 lesions will be associated with slowing long-term disability in MS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between treatment effects on relapse rates and active T2 lesions to differences in disease progression (as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) in trials evaluating patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), RRMS, and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, and PsycINFO to identify randomized trials published in English from January 1, 1993-June 3, 2013 evaluating DMTs in adult MS patients using keywords for CIS, RRMS, and SPMS combined with keywords for relapse and recurrence. Eligible studies were required to report outcomes of relapse and T2 lesion changes or disease progression in CIS, RRMS, or SPMS patients receiving DMTs and have a follow-up duration of at least 22 months. Ultimately, 40 studies satisfied these criteria for inclusion. Regression analyses were conducted on RCTs to relate differences between the effect of treatments on relapse rates and on active T2 lesions to differences between the effects of treatments on disease progression (as measured by EDSS). Results Regression analysis determined there is a substantive clinically and statistically significant association between concurrent treatment effects in relapse rate and EDSS; p EDSS measures also were found (p < 0.05), with some suggestion that the strength of

  2. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities: A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitades Gebre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus (ZIKAV infection and microcephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barré syndrome. ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos (Aedes species, but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva, blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical presentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  3. Book review: Gendered paradoxes: educating Jordanian women in nation, faith, and progress

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    "Gendered Paradoxes: Educating Jordanian Women in Nation, Faith, and Progress." Fida J. Adely. University of Chicago Press. 2012. --- \\ud In 2005 the World Bank released a gender assessment of the nation of Jordan, a country that like many in the Middle East has undergone dramatic social and gender transformations, in part by encouraging equal access to education for men and women. The resulting demographic picture there—highly educated women who still largely stay at home as mothers and care...

  4. The Ebola virus: a review of progress and development in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitades Gebre

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus was identified in the year 1976 and has caused periodic outbreaks in West African countries. The disease has a case fatality rate up to 90%. Ebola has been classified as a biosafety level four pathogen and there is no currently approved vaccine or treatment for the virus. However, remarkable progress has been demonstrated by researchers in understanding the pathogenicity of the Ebola virus. Several animal models have been cultivated to develop diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutic drugs.

  5. The Ebola virus:a review of progress and development in research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades; Gebre; Teshome; Gebre; Abena; Peters

    2014-01-01

    The Ebola virus was identified in the year 1976 and has caused periodic outbreaks in West African countries.The disease has a case fatality rate up to 90%.Ebola has been classified as a biosafety level four pathogen and there is no currently approved vaccine or treatment for the virus.However,remarkable progress has been demonstrated by researchers in understanding the pathogenicity of the Ebola virus.Several animal models have been cultivated to develop diagnostics,vaccines and therapeutic drugs.

  6. The Ebola virus:a review of progress and development in research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades Gebre; Teshome Gebre; Abena Peters

    2014-01-01

    The Ebola virus was identified in the year 1976 and has caused periodic outbreaks in West African countries. The disease has a case fatality rate up to 90%. Ebola has been classified as a biosafety level four pathogen and there is no currently approved vaccine or treatment for the virus. However, remarkable progress has been demonstrated by researchers in understanding the pathogenicity of the Ebola virus. Several animal models have been cultivated to develop diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutic drugs.

  7. The Role of Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV-1 Progression: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen M. Chun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to shared routes of infection, HIV-infected persons are frequently coinfected with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Studies have demonstrated the bidirectional relationships between HIV and several STIs, including herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2, hepatitis B and C viruses, human papilloma virus, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas. HIV-1 may affect the clinical presentation, treatment outcome, and progression of STIs, such as syphilis, HSV-2, and hepatitis B and C viruses. Likewise, the presence of an STI may increase both genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, enhancing the transmissibility of HIV-1, with important public health implications. Regarding the effect of STIs on HIV-1 progression, the most studied interrelationship has been with HIV-1/HSV-2 coinfection, with recent studies showing that antiherpetic medications slow the time to CD4 <200 cells/µL and antiretroviral therapy among coinfected patients. The impact of other chronic STIs (hepatitis B and C on HIV-1 progression requires further study, but some studies have shown increased mortality rates. Treatable, nonchronic STIs (i.e., syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomonas typically have no or transient impacts on plasma HIV RNA levels that resolve with antimicrobial therapy; no long-term effects on outcomes have been shown. Future studies are advocated to continue investigating the complex interplay between HIV-1 and other STIs.

  8. DISPARE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Piedade, Isabelle; Tang, Man-Hung Eric; Elemento, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    matrix optimization method that is more accurate in distinguishing true transcription factor binding sites from a negative control set. The initial position weight matrix comes from JASPAR, TRANSFAC or other sources. The main new features are the discriminative nature of the method and matrix width...... factor binding sites. CONCLUSION: When the transcription factor is known, it is more appropriate to use a discriminative approach such as the one presented here to derive its transcription factor-DNA binding properties starting with a matrix, as opposed to performing de novo motif discovery. Generating...

  9. Role of Lipids in the Onset, Progression and Treatment of Periodontal Disease. A Systematic Review of Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of different oral problems (root caries, tooth mobility, and tooth loss) can be increased by the presence of periodontal disease, which has also been associated with a growing list of systemic diseases. The presence of some bacteria is the primary etiology of this disease; a susceptible host is also necessary for disease initiation. In this respect, the progression of periodontal disease and healing of the periodontal tissues can be modulated by nutritional status. To clarify the role of lipids in the establishment, progression, and/or treatment of this pathology, a systematic review was conducted of English-written literature in PubMed until May 2016, which included research on the relationship of these dietary components with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. According to publication type, randomized-controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included. Among all the analyzed components, those that have any effect on oxidative stress and/or inflammation seem to be the most interesting according to current evidence. On one hand, there is quite a lot of information in favor of a positive role of n-3 fatty acids, due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. On the other hand, saturated fat-rich diets increase oxidative stress as well the as intensity and duration of inflammatory processes, so they must be avoided. PMID:27463711

  10. Silent cerebral infarcts: a review on a prevalent and progressive cause of neurologic injury in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Michael R; Armstrong, F Daniel; McKinstry, Robert C; Ware, Russell E; Vichinsky, Elliot; Kirkham, Fenella J

    2012-05-17

    Silent cerebral infarct (SCI) is the most common form of neurologic disease in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA). SCI is defined as abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in the setting of a normal neurologic examination without a history or physical findings associated with an overt stroke. SCI occurs in 27% of this population before their sixth, and 37% by their 14th birthdays. In adults with SCA, the clinical history of SCI is poorly defined, although recent evidence suggests that they too may have ongoing risk of progressive injury. Risk factors for SCI include male sex, lower baseline hemoglobin concentration, higher baseline systolic blood pressure, and previous seizures. Specific morbidity associated with SCI includes a decrement in general intellectual abilities, poor academic achievement, progression to overt stroke, and progressive SCI. In addition, children with previous stroke continue to have both overt strokes and new SCI despite receiving regular blood transfusion therapy for secondary stroke prevention. Studies that only include overt stroke as a measure of CNS injury significantly underestimate the total cerebral injury burden in this population. In this review, we describe the epidemiology, natural history, morbidity, medical management, and potential therapeutic options for SCI in SCA.

  11. Role of Lipids in the Onset, Progression and Treatment of Periodontal Disease. A Systematic Review of Studies in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2016-07-25

    The risk of different oral problems (root caries, tooth mobility, and tooth loss) can be increased by the presence of periodontal disease, which has also been associated with a growing list of systemic diseases. The presence of some bacteria is the primary etiology of this disease; a susceptible host is also necessary for disease initiation. In this respect, the progression of periodontal disease and healing of the periodontal tissues can be modulated by nutritional status. To clarify the role of lipids in the establishment, progression, and/or treatment of this pathology, a systematic review was conducted of English-written literature in PubMed until May 2016, which included research on the relationship of these dietary components with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. According to publication type, randomized-controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included. Among all the analyzed components, those that have any effect on oxidative stress and/or inflammation seem to be the most interesting according to current evidence. On one hand, there is quite a lot of information in favor of a positive role of n-3 fatty acids, due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. On the other hand, saturated fat-rich diets increase oxidative stress as well the as intensity and duration of inflammatory processes, so they must be avoided.

  12. Role of Lipids in the Onset, Progression and Treatment of Periodontal Disease. A Systematic Review of Studies in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The risk of different oral problems (root caries, tooth mobility, and tooth loss can be increased by the presence of periodontal disease, which has also been associated with a growing list of systemic diseases. The presence of some bacteria is the primary etiology of this disease; a susceptible host is also necessary for disease initiation. In this respect, the progression of periodontal disease and healing of the periodontal tissues can be modulated by nutritional status. To clarify the role of lipids in the establishment, progression, and/or treatment of this pathology, a systematic review was conducted of English-written literature in PubMed until May 2016, which included research on the relationship of these dietary components with the onset and progression of periodontal disease. According to publication type, randomized-controlled trials, cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies were included. Among all the analyzed components, those that have any effect on oxidative stress and/or inflammation seem to be the most interesting according to current evidence. On one hand, there is quite a lot of information in favor of a positive role of n-3 fatty acids, due to their antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. On the other hand, saturated fat-rich diets increase oxidative stress as well the as intensity and duration of inflammatory processes, so they must be avoided.

  13. A roadmap and best practices for organizations to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Marshall H; Clarke, Amanda R; Nocon, Robert S; Casey, Alicia A; Goddu, Anna P; Keesecker, Nicole M; Cook, Scott C

    2012-08-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have shifted their focus from documenting health care disparities to identifying solutions to close the gap in care. Finding Answers: Disparities Research for Change, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, is charged with identifying promising interventions to reduce disparities. Based on our work conducting systematic reviews of the literature, evaluating promising practices, and providing technical assistance to health care organizations, we present a roadmap for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in care. The roadmap outlines a dynamic process in which individual interventions are just one part. It highlights that organizations and providers need to take responsibility for reducing disparities, establish a general infrastructure and culture to improve quality, and integrate targeted disparities interventions into quality improvement efforts. Additionally, we summarize the major lessons learned through the Finding Answers program. We share best practices for implementing disparities interventions and synthesize cross-cutting themes from 12 systematic reviews of the literature. Our research shows that promising interventions frequently are culturally tailored to meet patients' needs, employ multidisciplinary teams of care providers, and target multiple leverage points along a patient's pathway of care. Health education that uses interactive techniques to deliver skills training appears to be more effective than traditional didactic approaches. Furthermore, patient navigation and engaging family and community members in the health care process may improve outcomes for minority patients. We anticipate that the roadmap and best practices will be useful for organizations, policymakers, and researchers striving to provide high-quality equitable care.

  14. The persistence of American Indian health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David S

    2006-12-01

    Disparities in health status between American Indians and other groups in the United States have persisted throughout the 500 years since Europeans arrived in the Americas. Colonists, traders, missionaries, soldiers, physicians, and government officials have struggled to explain these disparities, invoking a wide range of possible causes. American Indians joined these debates, often suggesting different explanations. Europeans and Americans also struggled to respond to the disparities, sometimes working to relieve them, sometimes taking advantage of the ill health of American Indians. Economic and political interests have always affected both explanations of health disparities and responses to them, influencing which explanations were emphasized and which interventions were pursued. Tensions also appear in ongoing debates about the contributions of genetic and socioeconomic forces to the pervasive health disparities. Understanding how these economic and political forces have operated historically can explain both the persistence of the health disparities and the controversies that surround them.

  15. Empowerment to reduce health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nina

    2002-01-01

    This article articulates the theoretical construct of empowerment and its importance for health-enhancing strategies to reduce health disparities. Powerlessness is explored as a risk factor in the context of social determinants, such as poverty, discrimination, workplace hazards, and income inequities. Empowerment is presented and compared with social capital and community capacity as strategies to strengthen social protective factors. A case study of a youth empowerment and policy project in New Mexico illustrates the usefulness of empowerment strategies in both targeting social determinants, such as public policies which are detrimental to youth, and improving community capacities of youth to be advocates for social change. Challenges for future practice and research are articulated.

  16. The syndrome of progressive posterior cortical dysfunction: A multiple case study and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Areza-Fegyveres

    Full Text Available Abstract Dementia presenting with prominent higher order visual symptoms may be observed in a range of neurodegenerative conditions and is often challenging to diagnose. Objectives: To describe cases of progressive dementia presenting with prominent visual cortical symptoms. Methods: We conducted a retrospective search of cases of progressive dementia with predominant visual symptoms, seen at our dementia unit from 1996 to 2006. Results: Twelve patients (5 men, 7 women were identified, with ages ranging from 49 to 67 years. At the first examination, the duration of the symptoms ranged from one to ten years and the Mini-Mental State Examination scores from 7 to 27. Eleven patients presented with predominant visuospatial symptoms (partial or complete Balint syndrome and one with visuoperceptive impairment. Other reported manifestations were: constructional apraxia in 11 patients, partial or complete Gerstmann syndrome in ten, ideomotor apraxia in nine, hemineglect or extinction in four patients, alien hand phenomenon in three, and prosopagnosia in one patient. Memory loss was reported by ten patients, but was not the main complaint in any of these cases. Insight was relatively preserved in five patients even after a long period following the onset of symptoms. Six patients developed parkinsonism during evolution. Clinical diagnoses were possible or probable AD in seven patients, cortico-basal degeneration in four, and dementia with Lewy body in one. Conclusions: Clinicians should consider this condition especially in presenile patients with slowly progressive higher-order visual symptoms. Although described in association with different conditions, it may also occur in Alzheimer disease.

  17. Research progress of novel adsorption processes in water purification:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As an effective, efficient, and economic approach for water purification, adsorbents and adsorption processes have been widely studied and applied in different aspects for a long time. In the recent years, a lot of novel adsorption processes have been developed for enhancing the efficiency of removing the organic and inorganic contaminants from water. This article reviews some new adsorbents and advanced adsorption methods that specialize in their compositions, structures, functions, and characteristics used in water treatment. The review emphasizes adsorption/catalytic oxidation process, adsorption/catalytic reduction process, adsorption coupled with redox process, biomimetic sorbent and its sorption behaviors of POPs, and modified adsorbents and their water purification efficiency.

  18. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA; progress on the pre-application review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ion, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Langman, V. [AECL Technologies, Gaithersburg, Maryland (United States); Snell, V. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Reid, C. [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, California (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The ACR-700 is an evolutionary reactor design, which incorporates the inherent safety features of the CANDU products, as well as the successful operating experience of the current CANDU 6 reactors. The improvements to the ACR-700 from CANDU 6 result in significant reductions in capital and operating costs as well as enhanced safety. AECL Technologies (AECLT, a wholly owned US subsidiary of Atomic Energy of Canadian Limited) is the proponent for a pre-application review of the ACR-700 with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. This pre-application review will be completed shortly and will support an application to the US NRC for Standard Design Certification (SDC). AECL Technologies' overall objective for the pre-application review of the ACR-700 is to obtain an understanding, from interactions with the USNRC, of the scope, cost, and the schedule to obtain a Standard Design Certification for the ACR-700. The pre-application review will address licensing issues associated with the CANDU reactor technologies in ACR-700 that depart from the light water reactor, pressure-vessel based regulatory framework in the USA. Therefore, during the course of the pre-application review, any major US NRC issues with the ACR-700 design will be identified early and the scope of the work required to address these concerns, along with associated completion schedules, will be formulated and ultimately agreed upon with the US NRC. AECLT has been informed by the NRC staff that the results of their pre-application review will be documented in a Safety Assessment Report (SAR), which will state whether there are any major impediments to licensing the ACR in the United States. In particular, the SAR should provide confirmation of the licensing criteria applicable to the ACR, provide an assessment of the completeness of AECL 's Research and Development (R and D) programs that exist or are planned in support of the ACR, provide an assessment of the

  19. Review: Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xi-ping; WANG Lei; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    Study on the action mechanism of inflammatory mediators generated by the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in multiple organ injury is a hotspot in the surgical field. In clinical practice, the main complicated organ dysfunctions are shock, respiratory failure, renal failure, encephalopathy, with the rate of hepatic diseases being closely next to them. The hepatic injury caused by SAP cannot only aggravate the state of pancreatitis, but also develop into hepatic failure and cause patient death. Its complicated pathogenic mechanism is an obstacle in clinical treatment. Among many pathogenic factors, the changes ofvasoactive substances, participation of inflammatory mediators as well as OFR (oxygen free radical), endotoxin, etc. may play important roles in its progression.

  20. Effects of social, economic, and labor policies on occupational health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Gaydos, Megan; Monforton, Celeste; Slatin, Craig; Borkowski, Liz; Dooley, Peter; Liebman, Amy; Rosenberg, Erica; Shor, Glenn; Keifer, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    This article introduces some key labor, economic, and social policies that historically and currently impact occupational health disparities in the United States. We conducted a broad review of the peer-reviewed and gray literature on the effects of social, economic, and labor policies on occupational health disparities. Many populations such as tipped workers, public employees, immigrant workers, and misclassified workers are not protected by current laws and policies, including worker's compensation or Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement of standards. Local and state initiatives, such as living wage laws and community benefit agreements, as well as multiagency law enforcement contribute to reducing occupational health disparities. There is a need to build coalitions and collaborations to command the resources necessary to identify, and then reduce and eliminate occupational disparities by establishing healthy, safe, and just work for all. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Research-Based Design of Pedagogical Agent Roles: A Review, Progress, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yanghee; Baylor, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we review the contribution of our original work titled "Simulating Instructional Roles Through Pedagogical Agents" published in the "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Education" (Baylor and Kim in "Computers and Human Behavior," 25(2), 450-457, 2005). Our original work operationalized…

  2. Reviewing progress in PJM's capacity market structure via the new reliability pricing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, Adil Caner; Kimball, Stefan

    2007-12-15

    The Reliability Pricing Model introduces significant changes to the capacity market structure of PJM. The main feature of the RPM design is a downward-sloping demand curve, which replaces the highly volatile vertical demand curve. The authors review the latest RPM structure, results of the auctions, and the future course of the implementation process. (author)

  3. A 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns: Have we made progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Palmgreen, Philip; Chabot, Melissa; Dobransky, Nicole; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to conduct a 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns focused on sexual behavior, HIV testing, or both (1998-2007) and to compare the results with the last comprehensive review of such campaigns, conducted by Myhre and Flora (2000). A comprehensive search strategy yielded 38 HIV/AIDS campaign evaluation articles published in peer-reviewed journals, representing 34 distinct campaign efforts conducted in 23 countries. The articles were coded on a variety of campaign design and evaluation dimensions by two independent coders. Results indicated that compared with the previous systematic review (1986-1998 period), campaigns increasingly have employed the following strategies: (1) targeted defined audiences developed through audience segmentation procedures; (2) designed campaign themes around behavior change (rather than knowledge change); (3) used behavioral theories; (4) achieved high message exposure; (5) used stronger research designs for outcome evaluation; and (6) included measures of behavior (or behavioral intentions) in outcome assessments. In addition, an examination of 10 campaign efforts that used more rigorous quasi-experimental designs revealed that the majority (8 of 10) demonstrated effects on behavior change or behavioral intentions. Despite these positive developments, most HIV/AIDS campaigns continue to use weak (i.e., preexperimental) outcome evaluation designs. Implications of these results for improved design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are discussed.

  4. Disparity map estimation using image pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Mikołaj

    2013-10-01

    The task of a short baseline stereo matching algorithm is to calculate the disparity map given two rectified images of one scene. Most algorithms assume that a maximal possible disparity exists and search all disparities in the range from 1 to this maximal disparity. In the case of large images and wide disparity search range this can be very computationally demanding. In this article a simple coarse to fine hierarchical matching method based on the Gaussian pyramid and local stereo matching is investigated. Such an approach allows significant reduction of the number of disparities searched compared to the full search algorithm. Moreover it is shown, that grouping pixels into simple square regions is in most cases sufficient to avoid significant errors that typically appear at disparity map discontinuities when hierarchical schemes are used. Finally, it is presented that in most cases the quality of the disparity map obtained using the investigated algorithm is of comparable quality to a disparity map obtained using full-search local stereo algorithm.

  5. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy complicating untreated chronic lymphatic leukemia: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pauli, Franziska; Berger, Thomas; Walder, Alois; Maier, Hans; Rhomberg, Paul; Uprimny, Christian; Steurer, Michael; Stockhammer, Guenther

    2014-08-01

    A 58-year old female with a four-year history of previously untreated CLL at Binet stage A complained about word finding problems, impaired vision, and gait unsteadiness. Concerning her CLL she was asymptomatic and had never required any specific treatment. Her neurological examination disclosed cognitive alterations, homonyme hemianopia to the right, aphasia, and mild right-sided hemiparesis. Cerebral MRI showed a hyperintense lesion on T2 weighted images without contrast enhancement. CSF examination revealed normal findings, including CSF protein, cell count, cytology and PCR-analysis was negative for the presence of JC virus DNA. On follow-up MRI, performed 2 weeks later, the T2 lesion was further enlarging. Subsequent stereotactic brain biopsy was diagnostic for PML revealing abnormal oligodendrocytes staining positive against antibodies specific for simian vacuolating virus 40. In addition, repeated CSF analyses for JC-Virus DNA in the course of the disease became positive. After confirmation of diagnosis treatment with mirtazapine (30 mg/d) and mefloquine (250 mg/d) was initiated. Rapid clinical progression correlated to further worsening on MRI. Therefore this treatment was terminated after 16 days and the regime was changed to a five-day courses of cytarabine (2 mg/kg/d) combined with intrathecal administration of liposomal cytarabine (50 mg). Due to further clinical progression with global aphasia, blindness and severe right-sided hemiparesia, medication was stopped. The Patient died three and a half months after onset of symptoms.

  6. Linking Diversity and Disparity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadeb Sarkar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The purpose of this paper is to examine links between the diversity measures (Patil and Taillie 1982 and the disparity measures (Lindsay 1994, quantities apparently developed for somewhat different purposes. We demonstrate that numerous diversity measures satisfying all the desirable criteria mentioned by Patil and Taillie can be defined by the generating functions of certain disparities and the associated residual adjustment functions. This provides the statistician and the ecologist a wide class of flexible indices for the statistical measurement of diversity.

  7. A review about the development of fucoidan in antitumor activity: Progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Sun, Jing; Su, Xitong; Yu, Qiuli; Yu, Qiuyang; Zhang, Peng

    2016-12-10

    Fucoidan is composed of l-fucose, sulfate groups and one or more small proportions of d-xylose, d-mannose, d-galactose, l-rhamnose, arabinose, glucose, d-glucuronic acid and acetyl groups in different kinds of brown seaweeds. Many reports have demonstrated that fucoidan has antitumor activities on various cancers. However, until now, few reviews have discussed the antitumor activity of fucoidan and few reports have summarized detailed molecular mechanisms of its actions and antitumor challenges of fucoidan specially. In this review, the antitumor signaling pathway mechanisms related to fucoidan are elucidated as much detail as possible. Besides, the factors affecting the anticancer effects of fucoidan, the structural characteristics of fucoidan with anticancer activities and the challenges for the further development of fucoidan are also summarized and evaluated. The existing similar and different conclusions are summarized in an attempt to provide guidelines to help further research, and finally contribute to go into market as chemotherapeumtics.

  8. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can pr...

  9. A critical review of recent progress in mid-range wireless power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Tesla’s principles of wireless power transfer a century ago, this critical review outlines recent magneto-inductive research activities on wireless power transfer with the transmission distance greater than the transmitter coil dimension. It summarizes the operating principles of a range of wireless power research into (i) the maximum power transfer and (ii) the maximum energy efficiency principles. The differences and the implications of these two approaches are explained in te...

  10. Progress in Enclave Tourism Study of Overseas:A Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Aili; Liu Jiaming; Liu Min

    2007-01-01

    In response to the"isolated island"phenomenon emerging from the development of tourist resorts in China,this paper reviews the study of enclave tourism overseas,which has similar features to the resort"island".Based on the literatures related to enclave tourism from Tourism Management and Annals of Tourism Research,this paper reviews the study of enclave tourism from the following aspects:definition discussion,theoriesused,causation of enclaves,characteristics and impacts of enclave tourism.The understanding of the overseas researches on enclavetourism would provide instructions for the study on the problems of Chinese resorts,such as enclavity and"island effects",and suggest measures for the sustainable development of resorts in China.This paper is divided into three sections.Section 1 briefly introduces the development of enclave tourism in developing countries and the outline of enclave tourism study.Section 2 elaborates on the content of enclave tourism research and givesdeep insights into the study on concepts,characteristics,causations and effects respectively,which is the key part of this paper,Section 3 concludes the review and proposes suggestions for the enclave tourism study in China.

  11. Disparities in the geography of mental health: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher G

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews recent theory and research on geographic disparities in mental health and their implications for social work. It focuses on work emerging from the fields of mental health geography, psychiatric epidemiology, and social work, arguing that a wide range of spatial disparities in mental health are important to understand but that of greatest relevance are inequities, or disparities, that violate fundamental norms of fairness and social justice. Research is reviewed on geographic variations in subjective well-being and mental health, on personality (using the five-factor model), and on psychopathology as well as several studies on the disparate implementation of mental health policy and services. Critical is the need to simultaneously assess, on the one hand, differential patterns of mental health conditions and, on the other, the services and policies designed to address them--the fact that considering only one dimension often leads to unintended consequences. Many of the most outstanding disparities have been found to exist at the local level, between towns and neighborhoods, and are based on socioeconomic conditions. This review concludes by discussing the implications of geographic disparities in mental health for allocation decisions and for social work practice, including decisions about the most efficacious mix of services at both the community and clinical practice levels.

  12. Research Progress of Presbycusis (review)%老年性耳聋的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗艳

    2012-01-01

    随着机体的衰老退化,代谢发生障碍,导致老年性耳聋,老年性耳聋的发生、发展与很多因素有关,目前缺乏有效的药物治疗手段.本文从基础研究及临床治疗康复方面做一综述.%Presbycusis relates to many factors, such as genetic, metabolism, aging. There was no effective treatment at present. This article reviewed the fundamental research and rehabilitation of presbycusis.

  13. Personal Review: Progress and prospect in electro-Fenton process for wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Cheng-chun; ZHANG Jia-fa

    2007-01-01

    As a novel advanced oxidation process (AOP), electro-Fenton process is powerful for degrading most organic compounds including toxic and non-biodegradable ones, and so has attracted great attention. This paper reviews this process in detail including the mechanism, electrolytic bath, electrode materials, aerations and operation parameters. The application of electro-Fenton method in wastewater treatment is evaluated and summarized. Future work in this field is suggested, and three main directions of new electrode exploitation, development of assisted technologies and mechanistic study should be strengthened.

  14. Early infant male circumcision: Systematic review, risk-benefit analysis, and progress in policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Kennedy, Sean E; Wodak, Alex D; Mindel, Adrian; Golovsky, David; Schrieber, Leslie; Lumbers, Eugenie R; Handelsman, David J; Ziegler, John B

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine whether recent evidence-based United States policies on male circumcision (MC) apply to comparable Anglophone countries, Australia and New Zealand. METHODS Articles in 2005 through 2015 were retrieved from PubMed using the keyword “circumcision” together with 36 relevant subtopics. A further PubMed search was performed for articles published in 2016. Searches of the EMBASE and Cochrane databases did not yield additional citable articles. Articles were assessed for quality and those rated 2+ and above according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Grading System were studied further. The most relevant and representative of the topic were included. Bibliographies were examined to retrieve further key references. Randomized controlled trials, recent high quality systematic reviews or meta-analyses (level 1++ or 1+ evidence) were prioritized for inclusion. A risk-benefit analysis of articles rated for quality was performed. For efficiency and reliability, recent randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, high quality systematic reviews and large well-designed studies were used if available. Internet searches were conducted for other relevant information, including policies and Australian data on claims under Medicare for MC. RESULTS Evidence-based policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) support infant and later age male circumcision (MC) as a desirable public health measure. Our systematic review of relevant literature over the past decade yielded 140 journal articles that met our inclusion criteria. Together, these showed that early infant MC confers immediate and lifelong benefits by protecting against urinary tract infections having potential adverse long-term renal effects, phimosis that causes difficult and painful erections and “ballooning” during urination, inflammatory skin conditions, inferior penile hygiene, candidiasis, various sexually transmissible

  15. Review of progress in understanding the fluid geochemistry of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nehring, N.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Janik, C.J.; Coplen, T.B.

    1982-08-10

    Fluid geochemistry has played a major role in the authors present understanding of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have been used to indicate the origin of water, salts, and gases, original subsurface temperature and fluid flow, fluid-production mechanims, and production-induced aquifer boiling and cold-water entry. The extensive geochemical data and interpretation for Cerro Prieto published from 1964 to 1981 are reviewed and discussed. Fluid geochemistry must continue to play an important role in the further development of the Cerro Prieto field.

  16. A review of progress in understanding the fluid geochemistry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Nehring, N.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Janik, C.J.; Coplen, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    Fluid geochemistry has played a major role in our present understanding of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system. Fluid chemical and isotopic compositions have been used to indicate the origin of water, salts and gases, original subsurface temperature and fluid flow, fluid-production mechanisms, and production-induced aquifer boiling and cold-water entry. The extensive geochemical data and interpretations for Cerro Prieto published from 1964 to 1981 are reviewed and discussed. Fluid geochemistry must continue to play an important role in the further development of the Cerro Prieto field. ?? 1984.

  17. Single atom detection in ultracold quantum gases: a review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Herwig

    2016-05-01

    The recent advances in single atom detection and manipulation in experiments with ultracold quantum gases are reviewed. The discussion starts with the basic principles of trapping, cooling and detecting single ions and atoms. The realization of single atom detection in ultracold quantum gases is presented in detail and the employed methods, which are based on light scattering, electron scattering, field ionization and direct neutral particle detection are discussed. The microscopic coherent manipulation of single atoms in a quantum gas is also covered. Various examples are given in order to highlight the power of these approaches to study many-body quantum systems.

  18. Health Psychology special series on health disparities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Kazak; J. Bosch; E.A. Klonoff

    2012-01-01

    With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and anticipat

  19. Role of genomics in eliminating health disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghana V Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education, and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2014 Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts in research, patient care, and community outreach on the "Role of Genomics in Eliminating Health Disparities." Rapid advances in genomics and pharmacogenomics are leading the field of medicine to use genetics and genetic risk to build personalized or individualized medicine strategies. We are at a critical juncture of ensuring such rapid advances benefit diverse populations. Relatively few forums have been organized around the theme of the role of genomics in eliminating health disparities. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing "Gene-Environment Interactions and Health Disparities," "Personalized Medicine and Elimination of Health Disparities," and "Ethics and Public Policy in the Genomic Era." This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates, and public health data presented by the speakers.

  20. Amoebic liver abscess production by Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolabella, Silvio S; Serrano-Luna, Jesús; Navarro-García, Fernando; Cerritos, René; Ximénez, Cecilia; Galván-Moroyoqui, José Manuel; Silva, Edward F; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Shibayama, Mineko

    2012-01-01

    Although Entamoeba dispar displays a similar morphology to Entamoeba histolytica, cellular and molecular studies have revealed significant differences between these two amoebae, including the former being characterized as non-pathogenic and the later as pathogenic. However, recent in vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that E. dispar strains of different origin are capable of causing liver damage and destroying cell culture lines in the presence of common intestinal bacteria. These results suggested that E. dispar may present pathogenic behavior according to the specific E. dispar strain, culture and environmental conditions. To investigate this possibility, we carried out in vivo and in vitro studies using a xenic strain E. dispar (ICB-ADO) isolated from a symptomatic non-dysenteric Brazilian patient. This strain was able to induce liver necrosis in a hamster model that was more severe than that produced by E. histolytica. The ICB-ADO isolate also caused significantly more destruction of cultured MDCK cells and increased loss of transepithelial resistance than did the E. histolytica. Xenic E. dispar exhibited high proteolytic activity, which was partially inhibited by the addition of cysteine-protease inhibitors. Based on our biochemical and molecular characterization of E. dispar (ICB-ADO) xenic culture and its ability to produce liver abscesses, we conclude that this specific strain can indeed produce tissue damage, distinct from the frequently used non- pathogenic E. dispar SAW 760 strain.

  1. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in the HIV population in Europe in the HAART era. Case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, R; Kurtzhals, J; Jouvion, G;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In highly endemic areas, up to 20 % of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons will develop progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH). Europe is not endemic to histoplasmosis, and the disease is mainly found in immigrants often co-infected with HIV. METHODS: We present...... a case of a patient with HIV and PDH highlighting the possible diagnostic difficulties that may arise in a non-endemic area and review the literature of histoplasmosis in the context of HIV infection with special focus on Europe. DISCUSSION: When cellular immunity wanes (usually at CD4 T......, shock, coagulopathy and multi-organ failure, to a more subacute disease with focal organ involvement, pancytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. Mortality rates remain high for untreated patients, but early diagnosis, proper antifungal treatment and early initiation of antiretroviral therapy have improved...

  2. Progress in the Discovery of Treatments for C. difficile Infection: A Clinical and Medicinal Chemistry Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Lissa S.; Owusu, Yaw B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Sun, Dianqing

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance. PMID:24236721

  3. A review of progress in single particle tracking: from methods to biophysical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Carlo; Garcia-Parajo, Maria F

    2015-12-01

    Optical microscopy has for centuries been a key tool to study living cells with minimum invasiveness. The advent of single molecule techniques over the past two decades has revolutionized the field of cell biology by providing a more quantitative picture of the complex and highly dynamic organization of living systems. Amongst these techniques, single particle tracking (SPT) has emerged as a powerful approach to study a variety of dynamic processes in life sciences. SPT provides access to single molecule behavior in the natural context of living cells, thereby allowing a complete statistical characterization of the system under study. In this review we describe the foundations of SPT together with novel optical implementations that nowadays allow the investigation of single molecule dynamic events with increasingly high spatiotemporal resolution using molecular densities closer to physiological expression levels. We outline some of the algorithms for the faithful reconstruction of SPT trajectories as well as data analysis, and highlight biological examples where the technique has provided novel insights into the role of diffusion regulating cellular function. The last part of the review concentrates on different theoretical models that describe anomalous transport behavior and ergodicity breaking observed from SPT studies in living cells.

  4. A review on separators for lithiumsbnd sulfur battery: Progress and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Nanping; Kang, Weimin; Liu, Yanbo; Ju, Jingge; Wu, Dayong; Li, Lei; Hassan, Bukhari Samman; Cheng, Bowen

    2016-11-01

    Lithium-sulfur battery is considered as one of high performance batteries of the new generation owing to its extremely high theoretical capacity, energy density, good environmental protection and low cost. These features make it of great significance to serve as the next-generation battery especially in electric vehicles and portable devices. However, the practical application of lithium-sulfur battery is still hindered due to some obstacles including the low electrical and ionic conductivity of elemental sulfur, the discharge product Li2S and the "shuttle effect" caused by the dissolved polysulfide species. In this review, the current trends, fundamental studies and developments for lithium-sulfur battery separators including some modified functional and novel battery separators with the customized structure designs are presented and reviewed. The effects of different selections and the resulting properties of the separators affecting the overall lithium-sulfur battery performances are discussed as well. The current research directions and challenges associated with the use of battery separator and the future perspectives for this class of the battery separator are concluded as well.

  5. Review of the progress toward achieving heat confinement-the holy grail of photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wangzhong; He, Sha; Seare, William J.; Almutairi, Adah

    2017-08-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) involves the application of normally benign light wavelengths in combination with efficient photothermal (PT) agents that convert the absorbed light to heat to ablate selected cancers. The major challenge in PTT is the ability to confine heating and thus direct cellular death to precisely where PT agents are located. The dominant strategy in the field has been to create large libraries of PT agents with increased absorption capabilities and to enhance their delivery and accumulation to achieve sufficiently high concentrations in the tissue targets of interest. While the challenge of material confinement is important for achieving "heat and lethality confinement," this review article suggests another key prospective strategy to make this goal a reality. In this approach, equal emphasis is placed on selecting parameters of light exposure, including wavelength, duration, power density, and total power supplied, based on the intrinsic properties and geometry of tissue targets that influence heat dissipation, to truly achieve heat confinement. This review highlights significant milestones researchers have achieved, as well as examples that suggest future research directions, in this promising technique, as it becomes more relevant in clinical cancer therapy and other noncancer applications.

  6. A review of progress in identifying and characterizing biocrusts using proximal and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Adamowski, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Biocrusts are critical components of desert ecosystems, significantly modifying the surfaces they occupy. The mixture of biological components and soil particles that form the crust, in conjunction with moisture, determines the biocrusts' spectral signatures. Proximal and remote sensing in complementary spectral regions, namely the reflective region, and the thermal region, have been used to study biocrusts in a non-destructive manner, in the laboratory, in the field, and from space. The objectives of this review paper are to present the spectral characteristics of biocrusts across the optical domain, and to discuss significant developments in the application of proximal and remote sensing for biocrust studies in the last few years. The motivation for using proximal and remote sensing in biocrust studies is discussed. Next, the application of reflectance spectroscopy to the study of biocrusts is presented followed by a review of the emergence of high spectral resolution thermal remote sensing, which facilitates the application of thermal spectroscopy for biocrust studies. Four specific topics at the forefront of proximal and remote sensing of biocrusts are discussed: (1) The use of remote sensing in determining the role of biocrusts in global biogeochemical cycles; (2) Monitoring the inceptive establishment of biocrusts; (3) Identifying and characterizing biocrusts using Longwave infrared spectroscopy; and (4) Diurnal emissivity dynamics of biocrusts in a sand dune environment. The paper concludes by identifying innovative technologies such as low altitude and high resolution imagery that are increasingly used in remote sensing science, and are expected to be used in future biocrusts studies.

  7. Progress made towards enhancement of rheumatology education and practice in Zambia: review of an ILAR-supported project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, James; Njobvu, Panganani; McGill, Paul E; Bucala, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases such as musculoskeletal diseases in the developing world is often overshadowed by the more prevalent infectious diseases. Generally, there is gross underestimation of the burden of rheumatologic disease in the backdrop of scanty or indeed non-existent rheumatology services in these countries. Local studies conducted in the last two decades in Zambia have documented the increasing burden of rheumatologic conditions in the country. There are unfortunately negligible rheumatology services in the country both at tertiary or primary health-care facility levels. There is thus an urgent need to build capacity for these services so as to improve the care and management of rheumatic conditions. Here, we review progress made by an International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR)-supported project that has run for the past 2 years (2012-2013) with the objective of enhancing paediatric and adult rheumatology education and practice so as to stimulate positive change in practice and related care services in Zambia. During this short time of the project, substantial progress has been made in the areas of paediatric and adult rheumatology services enhancement at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka: streamlining of referrals and follow-ups of rheumatology patients, laying foundations for short- and long-term medical education in rheumatology and raising public awareness of rheumatic diseases. The progress made by this grant underscores the suitability of the ILAR mission statement "think global, act local" demonstrating that even with minimum resources and networking, improvement of rheumatology care in developing countries is attainable.

  8. Stimulation of Laccase Biocatalysis in Ionic Liquids: A Review on Recent Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wu, Xing; Sun, Jianliang; Chen, Shicheng

    2016-11-22

    It has been well known that laccases can directly or indirectly catalyze oxidation of a broad species of phenols, amines and many other electron acceptors. However, laccases as biocatalyst in "green" ionic liquids (ILs) media instead of conventional solvents are less known and regarded as an innovative research direction. The presence of ILs can either inhibit or stimulate laccase activity, strongly depending on water-miscibility and kosmotropic natures of ILs. In addition, enzyme source, mediator, pH as well as water content are very important factors which influence laccase activity and stability. Therefore, elucidation of mechanisms underlying the interactions between laccases and ILs will facilitate to screen ILs with excellent laccase compatibility. Strategies based on molecular evolution, enzyme immobilization and/or ILs modification greatly increase the tolerance of laccases against specific ILs. The use of ILs can spread the laccase applications in fields of biosynthesis, biodegradation, biosensor and biofuel cells. This article summarizes the recent progress, trends and problems in this field and focuses, in particular, on the stimulation of laccase activity in aqueous ILs media.

  9. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-10-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions.

  10. Implications of sleep and energy drink use for health disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Knutson, Kristen L; Troxel, Wendy; Hale, Lauren; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Miller, Kathleen E

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of energy drinks has increased rapidly in the past decade. One of the main reasons people use energy drinks is to counteract effects of insufficient sleep or sleepiness. Risks associated with energy drink use, including those related to sleep loss, may be disproportionately borne by racial minorities and those of lower socioeconomic status. In this review, a brief introduction to the issue of health disparities is provided, population-level disparities and inequalities in sleep are described, and the social-ecological model of sleep and health is presented. Social and demographic patterns of energy drink use are then presented, followed by discussion of the potential ways in which energy drink use may contribute to health disparities, including the following: 1) effects of excessive caffeine in energy drinks, 2) effects of energy drinks as sugar-sweetened beverages, 3) association between energy drinks and risk-taking behaviors when mixed with alcohol, 4) association between energy drink use and short sleep duration, and 5) role of energy drinks in cardiometabolic disease. The review concludes with a research agenda of critical unanswered questions. PMID:25293540

  11. Treatments for compulsive buying: A systematic review of the quality, effectiveness and progression of the outcome evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Ben; Hall, Jo; Kellett, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims This review appraises the progression and status of the evidence base for the treatment of compulsive buying disorder (CBD), in order to highlight what currently works and to prompt useful future research. Methods Online databases ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and PubMed via Ovid were searched at two time points. Two quality checklists and an established model of therapy evaluation (hourglass model) evaluated the quality and progression of both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy treatments for CBD. Uncontrolled effect sizes were calculated and meta-regression analyses were performed regarding treatment duration. Results A total of 29 articles met the inclusion criteria, which were divided into psychotherapy (n = 17) and pharmacotherapy treatments (n = 12). Of the 29 studies, only 5 studies have been tested under conditions of high methodological quality. Both forms of treatment had been evaluated in a haphazard manner across the stages of the hourglass model. Although large effects were demonstrated for group psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy, such evidence of effectiveness was undermined by poor study quality and risk of publication bias. Long-term CBD treatment was associated with improved outcome with pharmacotherapy, but not when delivering psychotherapy. Discussion Group psychotherapy currently appears the most promising treatment option for CBD. Poor methodological control and sporadic evaluation of specific treatments have slowed the generation of a convincing evidence base for CBD treatment. Defining the active ingredients of effective CBD treatment is a key research goal.

  12. Progress in studies on the role of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor in convulsion: a short review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xing-fang; LIU Li-qun

    2012-01-01

    Convulsion is the medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly,resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.The impaired inhibition of electrical activity in the brain is one of leading causes of convulsion.y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS).GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and post-synaptic neuronal processes.GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is the most important inhibitory receptor,and is the target receptor of anticonvulsant drugs in the clinic.In this review,we describe GABAergic signaling mediated by GABAAR,the mechanisms of GABAAR and their expression,and the progress being made on understanding the role of GABAAR in convulsion with emphasis on the association between GABAAR mutations or GABAAR subunit expression and convulsion.We also describe progress of anticonvulsant drugs based on the GABAAR.

  13. Disparities in new graduate transition from multiple stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamack, Monica; Rush, Kathy L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand multiple stakeholder perspectives of new graduate (NG) transition programs. It was part of a larger mixed-methods study (2011) designed to provide a comprehensive assessment of new graduate nurse transition best practices, across six British Columbia health authorities. Data collection involved individual interviews with academic nurse educators (n=4) and separate focus groups with new graduate (n=48) and front-line nurse leaders (n=69). Disparity emerged as the overriding theme and described differences between stakeholder group perspectives, between expectations and reality, and within and across programs. Four disparities emerged: entry-level education and practice, perspectives on employment and career planning, transition program elements and support. Despite general satisfaction with undergraduate preparation, theory-practice gaps were identified. New Graduates experienced misalignments between their employment expectations and their realities. The employed student nurse program in which many new graduates had participated did not always yield employment, but when it did, differences in transitional expectations arose between new graduates and leaders. There was considerable variation across and within provincial new graduate programs with respect to orientation, supernumerary time and preceptorship characteristics, including lack of training. Disparities arose in the nature, amount of and access to support and the monitoring of new graduate progress. Findings reinforced organizational complexities and the importance of communication across education and practice sectors. This paper uncovers the tensions between the perspectives of new graduates and nurse leaders about transitional programs and opens the opportunity to collaborate in aligning the perspectives.

  14. The progress in knowledge of physical oceanography of the Gulf of Finland: a review for 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Soomere

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The main findings of studies of the physical oceanography of the Gulf of Finland (GoF during 1997-2007 are reviewed. The aim is to discuss relevant updates published in international peer-reviewed research papers and monographs, bearing in mind that a comprehensive overview of the studies up to the mid-1990s is available (Alenius et al. 1998. We start the discussion with updates on the basic hydrographical and stratification conditions, and progress in the understanding of atmospheric forcing and air-sea interaction. Advances in the knowledge of basin-scale and mesoscale dynamics are summarised next. Progress in circulation and water exchange dynamics has been achieved mostly by means of numerical studies. While the basic properties of circulation patterns in the gulf have been known for a century, new characteristics and tools such as water age, renewal index, and high-resolution simulations have substantially enriched our knowledge of processes in the Gulf of Finland during the last decade. We present the first overview of both status and advances in optical studies in this area. Awareness in this discipline has been significantly improved as a result of in situ measurements. Our understanding of the short- and long-term behaviour of the sea level as well as knowledge of the properties of both naturally and anthropogenically induced surface waves have expanded considerably during these ten years. Developments in understanding the ice conditions of the Gulf of Finland complete the overview, together with a short discussion of the gulf's future, including the response to climate change. Suggestions for future work are outlined.

  15. Socioeconomic and Ethnic Disparities in Periocular Cutaneous Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Talmage; Bingham, Brian; Mawn, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous malignancies make up the majority of periocular tumors diagnosed and treated by ophthalmologists. In this review, we examine literature regarding ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in incidence and clinical outcomes of the three most common cutaneous periocular tumors: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. In all three tumor types, the literature shows an increased incidence among two groups: those with lightly pigmented skin and those of higher socioeconomic status. While incidence is high in these groups, clinical outcomes for these patients tend to be good. Those with lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minorities, on the other hand, have a low incidence but are more likely to have poor clinical outcomes. These disparities are likely the result of both biologic and behavioral differences between patients and could provide opportunities for intervention to change risk perception and improve outcomes.

  16. Disparities in heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Jean; Pettey, Christina; Lefler, Leanne L; Heo, Seongkum

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews literature pertinent to cardiovascular disparities in women, focusing primarily on heart failure (HF). It provides an in-depth look at causes, biological influences, self-management and lack of adherence to HF-treatment guidelines in women. Disparities in treatment of causative factors of HF, such as myocardial infarction and hypertension, contribute to women having poorer HF outcomes than men. This article discusses major contributing reasons for nonadherence to medication regimes for HF in women, including advanced age at time of diagnosis, likelihood of multiple comorbidities, lack of social support and low socioeconomic status. Limited inclusion of women in clinical trials and the scarcity of gender analyses for HF and other cardiovascular diseases continues to limit the applicability of research findings to women.

  17. Integrating life cycle assessment into managing potential EHS risks of engineered nanomaterials: reviewing progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, William C.; Bosso, Christopher J., E-mail: c.bosso@neu.edu [Northeastern University, School of Public Policy and Urban Affairs (United States); Eckelman, Matthew [Northeastern University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States); Isaacs, Jacqueline A. [Northeastern University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (United States); Pourzahedi, Leila [Northeastern University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The 2011 National Nanotechnology Initiative’s Environmental Health and Safety Research Strategy stressed the need for research to integrate life cycle considerations into risk management and, then, to better integrate risk assessment into decisionmaking on environmental, health, and safety (EHS) dimensions of nanomanufacturing. This paper reviews scholarly articles published 2010–2015 that in some way apply life cycle analysis to nanotechnology to assess the extent to which current research reflects the priorities lain out in the NNI report. As the NNI’s focus was primarily on the “responsible development of nanotechnology” we also focus our examination on the ways in which LCA, in concert with other methodologies, can provide utility to decision makers facing the challenge of implementing that broad goal. We explore some of the challenges and opportunities inherent in using LCA, a tool built to optimize manufacturing decisions, as a guide for policy formulation or tool for policy implementation.

  18. Recent Progress in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Phobias: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Álvarez, Javier; Guillén, Verónica; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa

    2017-07-01

    This review is designed to systematically examine the available evidence about virtual reality exposure therapy's (VRET) efficacy for phobias, critically describe some of the most important challenges in the field and discuss possible directions. Evidence reveals that virtual reality (VR) is an effective treatment for phobias and useful for studying specific issues, such as pharmacological compounds and behavioral manipulations, that can enhance treatment outcomes. In addition, some variables, such as sense of presence in virtual environments, have a significant influence on outcomes, but further research is needed to better understand their role in therapeutic outcomes. We conclude that VR is a useful tool to improve exposure therapy and it can be a good option to analyze the processes and mechanisms involved in exposure therapy and the ways this strategy can be enhanced. In the coming years, there will be a significant expansion of VR in routine practice in clinical contexts.

  19. Recent progress in the growth and applications of graphene as a smart material: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim eAissa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Innovative breakthroughs in fundamental research and industrial applications of graphene material have made its mass and low-cost production a necessary step toward its real world applications. This one-atom thick crystal of carbon, gathers a set of unique physico-chemical properties, ranging from its extreme mechanical behavior to its exceptional electrical and thermal conductivities, which are making graphene as a serious alternative to replace many conventional materials for various applications. In this review paper, we highlight the most important experimental results on the synthesis of graphene material, its emerging properties with reference to its smart applications. We discuss the possibility to successfully integrating graphene directly into device, enabling thereby the realization of a wide range of applications, including actuation, photovoltaic, thermoelectricity, shape memory, self-healing, electrorheology and space missions. The future outlook of graphene is also considered and discussed.

  20. Invited review current progress and limitations of spider silk for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhe, Mona; Johansson, Jan; Hedhammar, My; Rising, Anna

    2012-06-01

    Spider silk is a fascinating material combining remarkable mechanical properties with low density and biodegradability. Because of these properties and historical descriptions of medical applications, spider silk has been proposed to be the ideal biomaterial. However, overcoming the obstacles to produce spider silk in sufficient quantities and in a manner that meets regulatory demands has proven to be a difficult task. Also, there are relatively few studies of spider silk in biomedical applications available, and the methods and materials used vary a lot. Herein we summarize cell culture- and in vivo implantation studies of natural and synthetic spider silk, and also review the current status and future challenges in the quest for a large scale production of spider silk for medical applications. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Review of the progress in preparing nano TiO2: an important environmental engineering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; He, Yiming; Lai, Qinghua; Fan, Maohong

    2014-11-01

    TiO2 nanomaterial is promising with its high potential and outstanding performance in photocatalytic environmental applications, such as CO2 conversion, water treatment, and air quality control. For many of these applications, the particle size, crystal structure and phase, porosity, and surface area influence the activity of TiO2 dramatically. TiO2 nanomaterials with special structures and morphologies, such as nanospheres, nanowires, nanotubes, nanorods, and nanoflowers are thus synthesized due to their desired characteristics. With an emphasis on the different morphologies of TiO2 and the influence factors in the synthesis, this review summarizes fourteen TiO2 preparation methods, such as the sol-gel method, solvothermal method, and reverse micelle method. The TiO2 formation mechanisms, the advantages and disadvantages of the preparation methods, and the photocatalytic environmental application examples are proposed as well.

  2. [Research Progress on Notch Signal Pathway in Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease -Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong-Mei; Li, Ban-Ban; Li, Chun-Pu; Teng, Qing-Liang

    2017-02-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system that plays an essential role in many biological processes. Notch signaling regulates multiple aspects of hematopoiesis, especially during T cell develop-ment. Recent data suggest that Notch also regulates mature T cell differentiation and function. The latest data show that Notch also plays an essential role in alloreactive T cells mediating acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), the most severe complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Notch inhibition in donor-derived T cells or blockade of individual Notch ligands and receptors after transplantation can reduce GVHD severity and mortality in mouse models of allo-HSCT, without causing global immunosuppression. These findings indicate Notch in T cells as an attractive therapeutic target to control aGVHD. In this article, the pathophysiology of aGVHD, the Notch signal pathway and aGVHD are reviewed.

  3. Using political science to progress public health nutrition: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton, Katherine; Donnet, Timothy; Lee, Amanda; Gallegos, Danielle

    2016-08-01

    Poor dietary intake is the most important behavioural risk factor affecting health globally. Despite this, there has been little investment in public health nutrition policy actions. Policy process theories from the field of political science can aid understanding why policy decisions have occurred and identify how to influence ongoing or future initiatives. The present review aims to examine public health nutrition policy literature and identify whether a policy process theory has been used to analyse the process. Electronic databases were searched systematically for studies examining policy making in public health nutrition in high-income, democratic countries. International, national, state and local government jurisdictions within high-income, democratic countries. Individuals and organisations involved in the nutrition policy-making process. Sixty-three studies met the eligibility criteria, most were conducted in the USA and a majority focused on obesity. The analysis demonstrates an accelerating trend in the number of nutrition policy papers published annually and an increase in the diversity of nutrition topics examined. The use of policy process theory was observed from 2003; however, it was utilised by only 14 % of the reviewed papers. There is limited research into the nutrition policy process in high-income countries. While there has been a small increase in the use of policy process theory from 2003, an opportunity to expand its use is evident. We suggest that nutrition policy making would benefit from a pragmatic approach that ensures those trying to influence or understand the policy-making process are equipped with basic knowledge around these theories.

  4. Review on recent progress in observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Duan, Feng-Kui; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, PM2.5 (atmospheric fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have received so much attention that the observations, source appointment and countermeasures of it have been widely studied due to its harmful impacts on visibility, mood (mental health), physical health, traffic safety, construction, economy and nature, as well as its complex interaction with climate. A review on the PM2.5 related research is necessary. We start with summary of chemical composition and characteristics of PM2.5 that contains both macro and micro observation results and analysis, wherein the temporal variability of concentrations of PM2.5 and major components in many recent reports is embraced. This is closely followed by an overview of source appointment, including the composition and sources of PM2.5 in different countries in the six inhabitable continents based on the best available results. Besides summarizing PM2.5 pollution countermeasures by policy, planning, technology and ideology, the World Air Day is proposed to be established to inspire and promote the crucial social action in energy-saving and emission-reduction. Some updated knowledge of the important topics (such as formation and evolution mechanisms of hazes, secondary aerosols, aerosol mass spectrometer, organic tracers, radiocarbon, emissions, solutions for air pollution problems, etc.) is also included in the present review by logically synthesizing the studies. In addition, the key research challenges and future directions are put forward. Despite our efforts, our understanding of the recent reported observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5 is limited, and subsequent efforts both of the authors and readers are needed.

  5. Validating predictors of disease progression in a large cohort of primary-progressive multiple sclerosis based on a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Neuhaus, Anneke; Lederer, Christian; Daumer, Martin; Heesen, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    New agents with neuroprotective or neuroregenerative potential might be explored in primary-progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS)--the MS disease course with leading neurodegenerative pathology. Identification of patients with a high short-term risk for progression may minimize study duration and sample size. Cohort studies reported several variables as predictors of EDSS disability progression but findings were partially contradictory. To analyse the impact of published predictors on EDSS disease progression in a large cohort of PPMS patients. A systematic literature research was performed to identify predictors for disease progression in PPMS. Individual case data from the Sylvia Lawry Centre (SLC) and the Hamburg MS patient database (HAPIMS) was pooled for a retrospective validation of these predictors on the annualized EDSS change. The systematic literature analysis revealed heterogeneous data from 3 prospective and 5 retrospective natural history cohort studies. Age at onset, gender, type of first symptoms and early EDSS changes were available for validation. Our pooled cohort of 597 PPMS patients (54% female) had a mean follow-up of 4.4 years and mean change of EDSS of 0.35 per year based on 2503 EDSS assessments. There was no significant association between the investigated variables and the EDSS-change. None of the analysed variables were predictive for the disease progression measured by the annualized EDSS change. Whether PPMS is still unpredictable or our results may be due to limitations of cohort assessments or selection of predictors cannot be answered. Large systematic prospective studies with new endpoints are needed.

  6. Mimicking natural superhydrophobic surfaces and grasping the wetting process: a review on recent progress in preparing superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y Y; Gao, N; Barthlott, W

    2011-12-12

    A typical superhydrophobic (ultrahydrophobic) surface can repel water droplets from wetting itself, and the contact angle of a water droplet resting on a superhydrophobic surface is greater than 150°, which means extremely low wettability is achievable on superhydrophobic surfaces. Many superhydrophobic surfaces (both manmade and natural) normally exhibit micro- or nanosized roughness as well as hierarchical structure, which somehow can influence the surface's water repellence. As the research into superhydrophobic surfaces goes deeper and wider, it is becoming more important to both academic fields and industrial applications. In this work, the most recent progress in preparing manmade superhydrophobic surfaces through a variety of methodologies, particularly within the past several years, and the fundamental theories of wetting phenomena related to superhydrophobic surfaces are reviewed. We also discuss the perspective of natural superhydrophobic surfaces utilized as mimicking models. The discussion focuses on how the superhydrophobic property is promoted on solid surfaces and emphasizes the effect of surface roughness and structure in particular. This review aims to enable researchers to perceive the inner principles of wetting phenomena and employ suitable methods for creation and modification of superhydrophobic surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adipose-derived stems cells and their role in human cancer development, growth, progression, and metastasis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Kyle E; Kokai, Lauren; Edwards, Robert P; Philips, Brian J; Sheikh, M Aamir; Kelley, Joseph; Comerci, John; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Linkov, Faina

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a well recognized risk factor for several types of cancers, many of which occur solely or disproportionately in women. Adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), which have received attention for their role in cancer behavior. The purpose of this systematic review is to present the existing literature on the role of ASCs in the growth, development, progression, and metastasis of cancer, with an emphasis on malignancies that primarily affect women. To accomplish this goal, the bibliographic database PubMed was systematically searched for articles published between 2001 and 2014 that address ASCs' relationship to human cancer. Thirty-seven articles on ASCs' role in human cancer were reviewed. Literature suggests that ASCs exhibit cancer-promoting properties, influence/are influenced by the tumor microenvironment, promote angiogenesis, and may be associated with pathogenic processes through a variety of mechanisms, such as playing a role in hypoxic tumor microenvironment. ASCs appear to be important contributors to tumor behavior, but research in areas specific to women's cancers, specifically endometrial cancer, is scarce. Also, because obesity continues to be a major health concern, it is important to continue research in this area to improve understanding of the impact adiposity has on cancer incidence.

  8. A review of non-agricultural land-use in peri-urbanization area:research progress and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Hong; Liu Aili; Xie Ting

    2008-01-01

    The peri-urbanization area as a kind of rural-urban interface is changing rapidly in physical,economic,and social terms.The land use pattern in such area is shiffting away from the assumptionv of mainstream paradigms to new conceotual landscapes,which leads to a series of problems on economic development and social stabilization.There are many,researches on non-agricultural land-use in peri-urbanization area.In this paper both international and domestic research literature is reviewed by dividing six parts.The first part introduces the conception of peri-urbanization area and its driver factors.Then In the second and the third part,the paper expatiates on the progress in the ram-agricultural land-use in peri-urban area on land-use pattern,evolution,characterislics,problems,etc.The forth part focuses on the reasons that cause the land-use problems in the research area,while the fifih part reviews the integrating ways of non-agricultural land-use.Finally recommendations for further study are draw with specific reference to the current and future position of non-agricultural land-use study in peri-urban area.

  9. Tailored Interactive Multimedia Computer Programs to Reduce Health Disparities: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerant, Anthony; Sohler, Nancy; Fiscella, Kevin; Franks, Becca; Franks, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the theory and research evidence suggesting that tailored interactive multimedia computer programs (IMCPs) aimed at optimizing patient health behaviors could lessen socio-demographic health disparities. Methods Selective critical review of research regarding IMCPs tailored to psychological mediators of behavior and their effects on health behavior and outcomes among socio-demographically disadvantaged patients. Results Tailored IMCPs can address patient factors (e.g. language barriers, low self-efficacy) and buffer provider (e.g. cognitive bias) and health system (e.g. office visit time constraints) factors that contribute to poor provider-patient communication and, thereby, suboptimal health behaviors. Research indicates disadvantaged individuals' interactions with providers are disproportionately affected by such factors, and that their behaviors respond favorably to tailored information, thus suggesting tailored IMCPs could mitigate disparities. However, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have examined this question. The optimal design and deployment of tailored IMCPs for disadvantaged patients also requires further study. Conclusion Preliminary research suggests tailored IMCPs have the potential to reduce health disparities. RCTs designed expressly to examine this issue are warranted. Practice Implications Many socio-demographic health disparities exist, and there is a dearth of proven disparity-reducing interventions. Thus, if tailored IMCPs were shown to lessen disparities, the public health implications would be considerable. PMID:21146950

  10. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chrology, permuted title, and author, Volume 11(1) through Volume 20(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W B; Passiakos, M

    1980-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review, covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume II, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 1979). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 600 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last ten years are listed in this index.

  11. Expanding research on the racial disparity in medical treatment with ideas from sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malat, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    While hundreds of studies document racial differences in the use of medical procedures in the United States, by comparison little is known about the causes of these differences. This gap in knowledge should serve as a call to sociologists who, drawing on their disciplinary tradition of studying inequality, could improve understanding of the disparity. This article offers suggestions about how medical sociologists in the USA might bring sociology to the study of racial disparities in medical treatment. The article begins by reviewing the existing approaches to understanding the racial disparity in medical treatment. After considering the extant research and its limits, the article goes on to describe how a few specific concepts from sociology - cultural capital, social networks, self-presentation and social distance, all framed in a race critical framework - and more diverse methodological approaches can advance studies of the racial disparity in medical treatment.

  12. Review: Contribution of GnIH Research to the Progress of Reproductive Neuroendocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH in mammals at the beginning of the 1970’s, it was generally accepted that GnRH is the only hypothalamic neuropeptide regulating gonadotropin release in mammals and other vertebrates. In 2000, however, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH, a novel hypothalamic neuropeptide that actively inhibits gonadotropin release, was discovered in quail. Numerous studies over the past decade and a half have demonstrated that GnIH serves as a key player regulating reproduction across vertebrates, acting on the brain and pituitary to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior. In the latter case, recent evidence indicates that GnIH can regulate reproductive behavior through changes in neurosteroid, such as neuroestrogen, biosynthesis in the brain. This review summarizes the discovery of GnIH and the contributions to GnIH research focused on its mode of action, regulation of biosynthesis, and how these findings advance our understanding of reproductive neuroendocrinology.

  13. Concise review: mesoangioblast and mesenchymal stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophy: progress, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Suzanne E

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and mesoangioblasts (MABs) are multipotent cells that differentiate into specialized cells of mesodermal origin, including skeletal muscle cells. Because of their potential to differentiate into the skeletal muscle lineage, these multipotent cells have been tested for their capacity to participate in regeneration of damaged skeletal muscle in animal models of muscular dystrophy. MSCs and MABs infiltrate dystrophic muscle from the circulation, engraft into host fibers, and bring with them proteins that replace the functions of those missing or truncated. The potential for systemic delivery of these cells increases the feasibility of stem cell therapy for the large numbers of affected skeletal muscles in patients with muscular dystrophy. The present review focused on the results of preclinical studies with MSCs and MABs in animal models of muscular dystrophy. The goals of the present report were to (a) summarize recent results, (b) compare the efficacy of MSCs and MABs derived from different tissues in restoration of protein expression and/or improvement in muscle function, and (c) discuss future directions for translating these discoveries to the clinic. In addition, although systemic delivery of MABs and MSCs is of great importance for reaching dystrophic muscles, the potential concerns related to this method of stem cell transplantation are discussed.

  14. Breather mobility and the PN potential: Brief review and recent progress

    CERN Document Server

    Johansson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The question whether a nonlinear localized mode (discrete soliton/breather) can be mobile in a lattice has a standard interpretation in terms of the Peierls-Nabarro (PN) potential barrier. For the most commonly studied cases, the PN barrier for strongly localized solutions becomes large, rendering these essentially immobile. Several ways to improve the mobility by reducing the PN-barrier have been proposed during the last decade, and the first part gives a brief review of such scenarios in 1D and 2D. We then proceed to discuss two recently discovered novel mobility scenarios. The first example is the 2D Kagome lattice, where the existence of a highly degenerate, flat linear band allows for a very small PN-barrier and mobility of highly localized modes in a small-power regime. The second example is a 1D waveguide array in an active medium with intrinsic (saturable) gain and damping, where exponentially localized, travelling discrete dissipative solitons may exist as stable attractors. Finally, using the framew...

  15. Bilateral movement training and stroke motor recovery progress: a structured review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauraugh, James H; Lodha, Neha; Naik, Sagar K; Summers, Jeffery J

    2010-10-01

    The purpose was to conduct a structured review and meta-analysis to determine the cumulative effect of bilateral arm training on motor capabilities post stroke. Forty-eight stroke studies were selected from three databases with 25 comparisons qualifying for inclusion in our meta-analysis. We identified and coded four types of bilateral arm interventions with 366 stroke patients. A random effects model using the standardized mean difference technique determined a large and significant effect size (0.734; SE=0.125), high fail-safe N (532), and medium variability in the studies (I(2)=63%). Moderator variable analysis on the type of bilateral training revealed two large and significant effects: (a) BATRAC (0.842; SE=0.155) and (b) coupled bilateral and EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation (1.142; SE=0.176). These novel findings provide strong evidence supporting bilateral arm training with the caveat that two coupled protocols, rhythmic alternating movements and active stimulation, are most effective.

  16. Review paper: progress in the field of conducting polymers for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendrea, Anca-Dana; Cianga, Luminita; Cianga, Ioan

    2011-07-01

    This review focuses on one of the most exciting applications area of conjugated conducting polymers, which is tissue engineering. Strategies used for the biocompatibility improvement of this class of polymers (including biomolecules' entrapment or covalent grafting) and also the integrated novel technologies for smart scaffolds generation such as micropatterning, electrospinning, self-assembling are emphasized. These processing alternatives afford the electroconducting polymers nanostructures, the most appropriate forms of the materials that closely mimic the critical features of the natural extracellular matrix. Due to their capability to electronically control a range of physical and chemical properties, conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene and/or their derivatives and composites provide compatible substrates which promote cell growth, adhesion, and proliferation at the polymer-tissue interface through electrical stimulation. The activities of different types of cells on these materials are also presented in detail. Specific cell responses depend on polymers surface characteristics like roughness, surface free energy, topography, chemistry, charge, and other properties as electrical conductivity or mechanical actuation, which depend on the employed synthesis conditions. The biological functions of cells can be dramatically enhanced by biomaterials with controlled organizations at the nanometer scale and in the case of conducting polymers, by the electrical stimulation. The advantages of using biocompatible nanostructures of conducting polymers (nanofibers, nanotubes, nanoparticles, and nanofilaments) in tissue engineering are also highlighted.

  17. A review on progress of heavy metal removal using adsorbents of microbial and plant origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Mondal, M K

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metals released into the water bodies and on land surfaces by industries are highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. These heavy metals create serious threats to all the flora and fauna due to their bioaccumulatory and biomagnifying nature at various levels of food chain. Existing conventional technologies for heavy metal removal are witnessing a downfall due to high operational cost and generation of huge quantity of chemical sludge. Adsorption by various adsorbents appears to be a potential alternative of conventional technologies. Its low cost, high efficiency, and possibility of adsorbent regeneration for reuse and recovery of metal ions for various purposes have allured the scientists to work on this technique. The present review compiles the exhaustive information available on the utilization of bacteria, algae, fungi, endophytes, aquatic plants, and agrowastes as source of adsorbent in adsorption process for removal of heavy metals from aquatic medium. During the last few years, a lot of work has been conducted on development of adsorbents after modification with various chemical and physical techniques. Adsorption of heavy metal ions is a complex process affected by operating conditions. As evident from the literature, Langmuir and Freundlich are the most widely used isotherm models, while pseudo first and second order are popularly studied kinetic models. Further, more researches are required in continuous column system and its practical application in wastewater treatment.

  18. Progress of new label-free techniques for biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Shengbo; Wang, Yajun; Feng, Qiliang; Wei, Ye; Ji, Jianlong; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    The detection techniques used in biosensors can be broadly classified into label-based and label-free. Label-based detection relies on the specific properties of labels for detecting a particular target. In contrast, label-free detection is suitable for the target molecules that are not labeled or the screening of analytes which are not easy to tag. Also, more types of label-free biosensors have emerged with developments in biotechnology. The latest developed techniques in label-free biosensors, such as field-effect transistors-based biosensors including carbon nanotube field-effect transistor biosensors, graphene field-effect transistor biosensors and silicon nanowire field-effect transistor biosensors, magnetoelastic biosensors, optical-based biosensors, surface stress-based biosensors and other type of biosensors based on the nanotechnology are discussed. The sensing principles, configurations, sensing performance, applications, advantages and restriction of different label-free based biosensors are considered and discussed in this review. Most concepts included in this survey could certainly be applied to the development of this kind of biosensor in the future.

  19. A Novel Approach for Transdermal Drug Delivery as a Liposomes their Progress and Limitations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Gautam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained great interest of pharmaceutical research, as it circumvents number of problems associated with oral route of drug administration. The uniqueness of this type of drug carrier system lies in the fact that it can accommodate hydrophilic, lipophilic as well as amphiphilic drugs. These drugs find place in different places in the vesicle before they get delivered beneath the skin. Liposomes are micro particulate lipoidal vesicles which are under extensive investigation as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents. Due to new developments in liposome technology, several liposome based drug formulations are currently in clinical trial, and recently some of them have been approved for clinical use. Reformulation of drugs in liposomes has provided an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic indices of various agents mainly through alteration in their bio distribution. This review discusses the potential applications of liposomes in drug delivery with examples of formulations approved for clinical use, and the problems associated with further exploitation of this drug delivery system.

  20. Progress on lead-free metal halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefler, Sebastian F; Trimmel, Gregor; Rath, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Metal halide perovskites have revolutionized the field of solution-processable photovoltaics. Within just a few years, the power conversion efficiencies of perovskite-based solar cells have been improved significantly to over 20%, which makes them now already comparably efficient to silicon-based photovoltaics. This breakthrough in solution-based photovoltaics, however, has the drawback that these high efficiencies can only be obtained with lead-based perovskites and this will arguably be a substantial hurdle for various applications of perovskite-based photovoltaics and their acceptance in society, even though the amounts of lead in the solar cells are low. This fact opened up a new research field on lead-free metal halide perovskites, which is currently remarkably vivid. We took this as incentive to review this emerging research field and discuss possible alternative elements to replace lead in metal halide perovskites and the properties of the corresponding perovskite materials based on recent theoretical and experimental studies. Up to now, tin-based perovskites turned out to be most promising in terms of power conversion efficiency; however, also the toxicity of these tin-based perovskites is argued. In the focus of the research community are other elements as well including germanium, copper, antimony, or bismuth, and the corresponding perovskite compounds are already showing promising properties.

  1. Evaluating the progress of the UK's Material Recycling Facilities: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad; Courtenay, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Over the last 15 years, the UK has made great strides in reducing the amount of waste being sent to landfill while also increasing the amount of waste being recycled. The key drivers for this change are the European Union Landfill Directive (1999/31/EC) and the UK Landfill Tax. However, also playing their part are the growing numbers of Material Recycling Facilities (MRFs), which process recyclables. This mini review evaluates the current state of MRFs in the UK, through extensive secondary research, and detailed primary data analysis focussing on MRFs located in South-East England, UK. This study also explores technologies that aim to generate energy from waste, including Waste-to-Energy (WtE) and Refuse-derived Fuel (RDF) facilities. These facilities can have a huge appetite for waste, which can be detrimental to recycling efforts as some of the waste being sent there should be recycled. It was found that the waste sent to a typical UK MRF would recycle around 92% of materials while 6% was sent to energy recovery and the remaining 2% ended up in landfill. Therefore, the total estimated rejected or non-compliance materials from MRFs are around 8%. A key recommendation from this study is to adopt a strategy to combine MRFs with a form of energy generation, such as WtE or RDF. This integrated approach would ensure any residual waste arising from the recycling process can be used as a sustainable fuel, while also increasing the recycling rates.

  2. Implementation of fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy by "early adopter" Mohs surgeons: a review of recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manu; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Nehal, Kishwer

    2016-03-01

    Confocal mosaicing microscopy (CMM) enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue ex vivo without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. When performed with fluorescence mode using acridine orange (nuclear specific dye) it enhances nuclei-to-dermis contrast that enables detection of all types of BCCs including thin strands of infiltrative basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Thus far, this technique has been mostly validated in research setting for the analysis of BCC tumor margins. Recently, CMM has been adopted and implemented in real clinical settings by some surgeons as an alternative tool to frozen section (FS) during Mohs surgery. In this review article we summarize the development of CMM guided imaging of ex vivo tissues from bench to bedside. We also present its current state of application in routine clinical workflow not only for the assessment of BCC margin but also for other skin cancers such as melanoma, SCC, and some infectious diseases where FS is not routinely performed. Lastly, we also discuss the potential limitations of this technology as well as future developments. As this technology advances further, it may serve as an adjunct to standard histology and enable rapid surgical pathology of skin cancers at the bedside.

  3. Effective drifts in dynamical systems with multiplicative noise: a review of recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Giovanni; Wehr, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Noisy dynamical models are employed to describe a wide range of phenomena. Since exact modeling of these phenomena requires access to their microscopic dynamics, whose time scales are typically much shorter than the observable time scales, there is often need to resort to effective mathematical models such as stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In particular, here we consider effective SDEs describing the behavior of systems in the limits when natural time scales become very small. In the presence of multiplicative noise (i.e. noise whose intensity depends upon the system’s state), an additional drift term, called noise-induced drift or effective drift, appears. The nature of this noise-induced drift has been recently the subject of a growing number of theoretical and experimental studies. Here, we provide an extensive review of the state of the art in this field. After an introduction, we discuss a minimal model of how multiplicative noise affects the evolution of a system. Next, we consider several case studies with a focus on recent experiments: the Brownian motion of a microscopic particle in thermal equilibrium with a heat bath in the presence of a diffusion gradient; the limiting behavior of a system driven by a colored noise modulated by a multiplicative feedback; and the behavior of an autonomous agent subject to sensorial delay in a noisy environment. This allows us to present the experimental results, as well as mathematical methods and numerical techniques, that can be employed to study a wide range of systems. At the end we give an application-oriented overview of future projects involving noise-induced drifts, including both theory and experiment.

  4. A retrospective review of the progression of pediatric vocal fold nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Heather C; Recko, Thomas; Huang, Lin; Nuss, Roger C

    2014-03-01

    To our knowledge, the rate of change in the size of pediatric vocal fold nodules (VFNs) has not been investigated. Improved understanding of the factors that affect change in VFN size may help to better guide treatment decisions and counselling of families. To characterize the rate of change in the size of pediatric VFNs over time and to identify which factors affect increased rates of improvement. Retrospective review of 67 children evaluated in a voice clinic between 2002 and 2011 with a primary diagnosis of VFNs. No treatment or behavioral modification only (n = 19) vs targeted voice therapy with or without the treatment of associated conditions (gastroesophageal reflux and allergic rhinitis) (n = 45) vs surgical intervention (n = 3). Change in VFN grade (graded according to a previously validated scale based on size) over time. Sixty-seven patients with a median (range) age of 6.0 (3.8-20.6) years were analyzed. Median (range) follow-up was 25 (1-119) months. The rate of change in VFN grade over time was significantly associated with large baseline VFN size (P therapy with or without the management of associated conditions or surgery (P = .01); the association with postpubescent age was not significant (P = .09). The rate of change in VFN grade was not significantly different at 1 and 3 years postbaseline (P = .33). Baseline VFN size, treatment, and patient age are important in predicting the rate of improvement in nodule size over time. Rate of change in VFN size is a gradual decrease that is steady over time. This information can be used to help guide treatment decisions and counsel families of children with VFNs regarding expectations for improvement. Additional study is needed to evaluate whether the same factors that influence nodule size similarly influence parental perception of voice and expert perceptual voice analysis.

  5. Gender disparities in psychological distress and quality of life among patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; van den Broek, Krista C; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    disparities in psychological distress and QoL in ICD patients by means of a systematic review, and (2) provide recommendations for future research and clinical implications. A systematic search of the literature identified 18 studies with a sample size ≥ 100 that examined gender disparities in anxiety......A subset of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) reports psychological distress and poor quality of life (QoL). Gender is one of the factors that has been proposed to explain individual differences in these outcomes. In this viewpoint, we (1) review the evidence for gender....../depression and QoL in ICD patients (mean prevalence of women = 21%; mean age = 62 years). Our review shows that there is insufficient evidence to conclude that gender per se is a major autonomous predictor for disparities in psychological distress and QoL in ICD patients. Women had a higher prevalence of anxiety...

  6. Global health disparities: crisis in the diaspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Raymond L

    2004-04-01

    The United States spends more than the rest of the world on healthcare. In 2000, the U.S. health bill was 1.3 trillion dollars, 14.5% of its gross domestic product. Yet, according to the WHO World Health Report 2000, the United States ranked 37th of 191 member nations in overall health system performance. Racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes are the most obvious examples of an unbalanced healthcare system. This presentation will examine health disparities in the United States and reveal how health disparities among and within countries affect the health and well-being of the African Diaspora.

  7. Validating predictors of disease progression in a large cohort of primary-progressive multiple sclerosis based on a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Patrick Stellmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New agents with neuroprotective or neuroregenerative potential might be explored in primary-progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS--the MS disease course with leading neurodegenerative pathology. Identification of patients with a high short-term risk for progression may minimize study duration and sample size. Cohort studies reported several variables as predictors of EDSS disability progression but findings were partially contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact of published predictors on EDSS disease progression in a large cohort of PPMS patients. METHODS: A systematic literature research was performed to identify predictors for disease progression in PPMS. Individual case data from the Sylvia Lawry Centre (SLC and the Hamburg MS patient database (HAPIMS was pooled for a retrospective validation of these predictors on the annualized EDSS change. RESULTS: The systematic literature analysis revealed heterogeneous data from 3 prospective and 5 retrospective natural history cohort studies. Age at onset, gender, type of first symptoms and early EDSS changes were available for validation. Our pooled cohort of 597 PPMS patients (54% female had a mean follow-up of 4.4 years and mean change of EDSS of 0.35 per year based on 2503 EDSS assessments. There was no significant association between the investigated variables and the EDSS-change. CONCLUSION: None of the analysed variables were predictive for the disease progression measured by the annualized EDSS change. Whether PPMS is still unpredictable or our results may be due to limitations of cohort assessments or selection of predictors cannot be answered. Large systematic prospective studies with new endpoints are needed.

  8. Disparity changes in 370 Ma Devonian fossils: the signature of ecological dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Girard

    Full Text Available Early periods in Earth's history have seen a progressive increase in complexity of the ecosystems, but also dramatic crises decimating the biosphere. Such patterns are usually considered as large-scale changes among supra-specific groups, including morphological novelties, radiation, and extinctions. Nevertheless, in the same time, each species evolved by the way of micro-evolutionary processes, extended over millions of years into the evolution of lineages. How these two evolutionary scales interacted is a challenging issue because this requires bridging a gap between scales of observation and processes. The present study aims at transferring a typical macro-evolutionary approach, namely disparity analysis, to the study of fine-scale evolutionary variations in order to decipher what processes actually drove the dynamics of diversity at a micro-evolutionary level. The Late Frasnian to Late Famennian period was selected because it is punctuated by two major macro-evolutionary crises, as well as a progressive diversification of marine ecosystem. Disparity was estimated through this period on conodonts, tooth-like fossil remains of small eel-like predators that were part of the nektonic fauna. The study was focused on the emblematic genus of the period, Palmatolepis. Strikingly, both crises affected an already impoverished Palmatolepis disparity, increasing risks of random extinction. The major disparity signal rather emerged as a cycle of increase and decrease in disparity during the inter-crises period. The diversification shortly followed the first crisis and might correspond to an opportunistic occupation of empty ecological niche. The subsequent oriented shrinking in the morphospace occupation suggests that the ecological space available to Palmatolepis decreased through time, due to a combination of factors: deteriorating climate, expansion of competitors and predators. Disparity changes of Palmatolepis thus reflect changes in the structure

  9. Comparison of fixation disparity curve parameters obtained with the Wesson and Saladin fixation disparity cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan, Janice; Goss, David A; Despirito, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This study compared fixation curve parameters with two commercially available fixation disparity cards, one that has been available for several years, the Wesson card, and a new one, the Saladin card. Fixation disparity curves were measured on 50 subjects with the Wesson fixation disparity card and the Saladin fixation disparity card. The x intercepts were on average more in the base-in direction with the Wesson card than with the Saladin card. The y intercepts were shifted in the exo direction with the Wesson card compared with the Saladin card. The slope with the Wesson card was steeper than the slope obtained with the Saladin card. The distribution of curve types was also different with the two different instruments. Fixation disparity curves measured with these two instruments are different, and separate norms should be used for each fixation disparity measurement method.

  10. Global disparities in health and human rights: a critical commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatar, S R

    1998-02-01

    Widening disparities in health and human rights at a global level represent the dark side of progress associated with escalation of economic and military exploitation and exponential population growth in the 20th century. Even the most basic universal human rights cannot be achieved for all under these circumstances. The goal of improved population health will be similarly elusive while medical care is commodified and exploited for commercial gain in the marketplace. Recognition of the powerful forces that polarize our world and commitment to reversing them are essential for the achievement of human rights for all, for the improvement of public health, and for the peaceful progress required to protect the "rational self-interest" of the most privileged people on earth against the escalation of war, disease, and other destructive forces arising from widespread poverty and ecological degradation.

  11. Basic Education for Girls in Yemen: Country Case Study and Analysis. Mid-Decade Review of Progress towards Education for All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Sharon

    In 1995, the International Consultative Forum on Education for All (EFA) commissioned case studies in developing countries as part of a mid-decade review of progress in expanding access to basic education. This paper examines provision of basic education (grades 1-9) in Yemen, focusing on obstacles to girls' education in rural areas. The report…

  12. Entamoeba dispar: Could it be pathogenic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FabrÍcio Oliveira; Elisabeth Neumann; Maria Gomes; Marcelo Caliari

    2015-01-01

      Amebiasis is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This ameba can colonize the human intestine and persist as a commensal parasite, similar to Entamoeba dispar, an ameba considered to be non-pathogenic...

  13. The role of the CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 axis in the progression and metastasis of bone sarcomas (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yu-Xin; Zhou, Cheng-Hao; Zeng, Hui; Zuo, Dong-Qing; Wang, Zhuo-Ying; Yin, Fei; Hua, Ying-Qing; Cai, Zheng-Dong

    2013-12-01

    Bone sarcomas, which comprise less than 1% of all human malignancies, are a group of relatively rare mesenchymal-derived tumors. They are mainly composed of osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma. In spite of advances in adjuvant chemotherapy and wide surgical resection, prognosis remains poor due to the high propensity for lung metastasis, which is the leading cause of mortality in patients with bone sarcomas. Chemokines are a superfamily of small pro-inflammatory chemoattractant cytokines which can bind to specific G protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. Chemokine 12 (CXCL12), also designated as stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), is able to bind to its cognate receptors, chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7), with high affinity. The binding of CXCL12 to CXCR4/CXCR7 stimulates the activation of several downstream signaling pathways that regulate tumor progression and metastasis. In this review, the structure and function of CXCL12 and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, as well as many factors affecting their expression are discussed. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are the two most important downstream pathways regulated by the CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 interaction. CXCR4 expression in bone sarcomas, including tumor cells and samples and the correlation between CXCR4/CXCR7 expression and the survival of patients with bone sarcomas are also discussed. In addition, we review the involvement of the CXCL12‑CXCR4/CXCR7 axis in the growth and metastasis of bone sarcomas and the targeting of this axis in preclinical studies.

  14. Disparity biasing in depth from monocular occlusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2011-07-15

    Monocular occlusions have been shown to play an important role in stereopsis. Among other contributions to binocular depth perception, monocular occlusions can create percepts of illusory occluding surfaces. It has been argued that the precise location in depth of these illusory occluders is based on the constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. Tsirlin et al. (2010) proposed that when these constraints are weak, the depth of the illusory occluder can be biased by a neighboring disparity-defined feature. In the present work we test this hypothesis using a variety of stimuli. We show that when monocular occlusions provide only partial constraints on the magnitude of depth of the illusory occluders, the perceived depth of the occluders can be biased by disparity-defined features in the direction unrestricted by the occlusion geometry. Using this disparity bias phenomenon we also show that in illusory occluder stimuli where disparity information is present, but weak, most observers rely on disparity while some use occlusion information instead to specify the depth of the illusory occluder. Taken together our experiments demonstrate that in binocular depth perception disparity and monocular occlusion cues interact in complex ways to resolve perceptual ambiguity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms for similarity matching in disparity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross eGoutcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early neural mechanisms for the measurement of binocular disparity appear to operate in a manner consistent with cross-correlation-like processes. Consequently, cross-correlation, or cross-correlation-like procedures have been used in a range of models of disparity measurement. Using such procedures as the basis for disparity measurement creates a preference for correspondence solutions that maximise the similarity between local left and right eye image regions. Here, we examine how observers’ perception of depth in an ambiguous stereogram is affected by manipulations of luminance and orientation-based image similarity. Results show a strong effect of coarse-scale luminance similarity manipulations, but a relatively weak effect of finer-scale manipulations of orientation similarity. This is in contrast to the measurements of depth obtained from a standard cross-correlation model. This model shows strong effects of orientation similarity manipulations and weaker effects of luminance similarity. In order to account for these discrepancies, the standard cross-correlation approach may be modified to include an initial spatial frequency filtering stage. The performance of this adjusted model most closely matches human psychophysical data when spatial frequency filtering favours coarser scales. This is consistent with the operation of disparity measurement processes where spatial frequency and disparity tuning are correlated, or where disparity measurement operates in a coarse-to-fine manner.

  16. Is there a causal link between knee loading and knee osteoarthritis progression? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and randomised trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Marius; Creaby, Mark W; Lund, Hans; Juhl, Carsten; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Objective We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis and assessed the evidence supporting a causal link between knee joint loading during walking and structural knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Design Systematic review, meta-analysis and application of Bradford Hill's considerations on causation. Data sources We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, AMED, CINAHL and SportsDiscus for prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from 1950 through October 2013. Study eligibility criteria We selected cohort studies and RCTs in which estimates of knee joint loading during walking were used to predict structural knee OA progression assessed by X-ray or MRI. Data analyses Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the combined OR for structural disease progression with higher baseline loading. The likelihood of a causal link between knee joint loading and OA progression was assessed from cohort studies using the Bradford Hill guidelines to derive a 0–4 causation score based on four criteria and examined for confirmation in RCTs. Results Of the 1078 potentially eligible articles, 5 prospective cohort studies were included. The studies included a total of 452 patients relating joint loading to disease progression over 12–72 months. There were very serious limitations associated with the methodological quality of the included studies. The combined OR for disease progression was 1.90 (95% CI 0.85 to 4.25; I2=77%) for each one-unit increment in baseline knee loading. The combined causation score was 0, indicating no causal association between knee loading and knee OA progression. No RCTs were found to confirm or refute the findings from the cohort studies. Conclusions There is very limited and low-quality evidence to support for a causal link between knee joint loading during walking and structural progression of knee OA. Trial registration number CRD42012003253 PMID:25031196

  17. Is there a causal link between knee loading and knee osteoarthritis progression? A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies and randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Marius; Creaby, Mark W; Lund, Hans; Juhl, Carsten; Christensen, Robin

    2014-07-15

    We performed a systematic review, meta-analysis and assessed the evidence supporting a causal link between knee joint loading during walking and structural knee osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Systematic review, meta-analysis and application of Bradford Hill's considerations on causation. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, AMED, CINAHL and SportsDiscus for prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from 1950 through October 2013. We selected cohort studies and RCTs in which estimates of knee joint loading during walking were used to predict structural knee OA progression assessed by X-ray or MRI. Meta-analysis was performed to estimate the combined OR for structural disease progression with higher baseline loading. The likelihood of a causal link between knee joint loading and OA progression was assessed from cohort studies using the Bradford Hill guidelines to derive a 0-4 causation score based on four criteria and examined for confirmation in RCTs. Of the 1078 potentially eligible articles, 5 prospective cohort studies were included. The studies included a total of 452 patients relating joint loading to disease progression over 12-72 months. There were very serious limitations associated with the methodological quality of the included studies. The combined OR for disease progression was 1.90 (95% CI 0.85 to 4.25; I(2)=77%) for each one-unit increment in baseline knee loading. The combined causation score was 0, indicating no causal association between knee loading and knee OA progression. No RCTs were found to confirm or refute the findings from the cohort studies. There is very limited and low-quality evidence to support for a causal link between knee joint loading during walking and structural progression of knee OA. CRD42012003253. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Recent progress in design, synthesis, and applications of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Kumar, Anil; Boughton, Robert I; Liu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    One-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured surface heterostructures (1D TiO2NSHs) have been comprehensively studied during the past two decades because of the possible practical applications in various fields, including photocatalysis, dye-sensitized solar cells, sensors, lithium batteries, biomedicine, catalysis, and supercapacitors. Combining extensive advancements in materials science and nanotechnology, a 1D TiO2NSH material with well-controlled size, morphology, and composition has been designed and synthesized. More importantly, its superior properties, including a high aspect ratio structure, chemical stability, large specific surface area, excellent electronic or ionic charge transfer, and a specific interface effect, have attracted a great deal of interest in improving current performance and exploring new applications. In this tutorial review, we introduce the characteristics of 1D TiO2 nanostructures, the design principles for the fabrication of 1D TiO2NSHs, and we also summarize the recent progress in developing synthesis methods and applications of 1D TiO2NSHs in different fields. The relationship between the secondary phase and the 1D TiO2 nanostructure and between the performance in applications and the excellent physical properties of 1D TiO2NSHs are also discussed.

  19. Neuroengineering tools/applications for bidirectional interfaces, brain-computer interfaces, and neuroprosthetic implants - a review of recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Ryan Mark

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this review is to provide a holistic amalgamated overview of the most recent human in vivo techniques for implementing brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), bidirectional interfaces, and neuroprosthetics. Neuroengineering is providing new methods for tackling current difficulties; however neuroprosthetics have been studied for decades. Recent progresses are permitting the design of better systems with higher accuracies, repeatability, and system robustness. Bidirectional interfaces integrate recording and the relaying of information from and to the brain for the development of BCIs. The concepts of non-invasive and invasive recording of brain activity are introduced. This includes classical and innovative techniques like electroencephalography and near-infrared spectroscopy. Then the problem of gliosis and solutions for (semi-) permanent implant biocompatibility such as innovative implant coatings, materials, and shapes are discussed. Implant power and the transmission of their data through implanted pulse generators and wireless telemetry are taken into account. How sensation can be relayed back to the brain to increase integration of the neuroengineered systems with the body by methods such as micro-stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are then addressed. The neuroprosthetic section discusses some of the various types and how they operate. Visual prosthetics are discussed and the three types, dependant on implant location, are examined. Auditory prosthetics, being cochlear or cortical, are then addressed. Replacement hand and limb prosthetics are then considered. These are followed by sections concentrating on the control of wheelchairs, computers and robotics directly from brain activity as recorded by non-invasive and invasive techniques.

  20. Sequential chemical-biological processes for the treatment of industrial wastewaters: review of recent progresses and critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guieysse, Benoit; Norvill, Zane N

    2014-02-28

    When direct wastewater biological treatment is unfeasible, a cost- and resource-efficient alternative to direct chemical treatment consists of combining biological treatment with a chemical pre-treatment aiming to convert the hazardous pollutants into more biodegradable compounds. Whereas the principles and advantages of sequential treatment have been demonstrated for a broad range of pollutants and process configurations, recent progresses (2011-present) in the field provide the basis for refining assessment of feasibility, costs, and environmental impacts. This paper thus reviews recent real wastewater demonstrations at pilot and full scale as well as new process configurations. It also discusses new insights on the potential impacts of microbial community dynamics on process feasibility, design and operation. Finally, it sheds light on a critical issue that has not yet been properly addressed in the field: integration requires complex and tailored optimization and, of paramount importance to full-scale application, is sensitive to uncertainty and variability in the inputs used for process design and operation. Future research is therefore critically needed to improve process control and better assess the real potential of sequential chemical-biological processes for industrial wastewater treatment.

  1. An Update on Gender Disparities in Coronary Heart Disease Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tina; Palaskas, Nicolas; Ahmed, Ameera

    2016-05-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD), traditionally considered a male disease, causes far more deaths in women than cancer. The prevalence of CHD is lower in women at any age, but with advancing age, this differential decreases. The clinical outcomes including myocardial infarction mortality, all-cause mortality, and reinfarction rates are also worse in women with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than in men. Yet, women appear to be underdiagnosed and undertreated for coronary heart disease. There is still a gap in the knowledge, understanding, and general awareness of CHD in women. This review provides updates in gender disparities in the management of risk factors, treatments, and outcomes of coronary heart disease.

  2. Disparate stakeholder management: the case of elk and bison feeding in southern Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Hoag, Dana; DeLong, Don

    2012-01-01

    For resource decisions to make the most possible progress toward achieving agency mandates, managers must work with stakeholders and may need to at least partially accommodate some of their key underlying interests. To accommodate stakeholder interests, while also substantively working toward fulfilling legal mandates, managers must understand the sociopolitical factors that influence the decision-making process. We coin the phrase disparate stakeholder management (DSM) to describe situations with disparate stakeholders and disparate management solutions. A DSM approach (DSMA) requires decision makers to combine concepts from many sciences, thus releasing them from disciplinary bonds that often constrain innovation and effectiveness. We combined three distinct approaches to develop a DSMA that assisted in developing a comprehensive range of elk and bison management alternatives in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Area. The DSMA illustrated the extent of compromise between meeting legal agency mandates and accommodating the preferences of certain stakeholder groups.

  3. Morphotype disparity in the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachael; Reitner, Joachim; Braiser, Martin; Donoghue, Phil; Schirrmeister, Bettina

    2015-04-01

    Prokaryotes have dominated life on Earth for over 2 billion years. Throughout the Precambrian, prokaryotes acted as the major biological impetus for both large and small scale environmental changes. Yet, very little is known about the composition, diversity and evolution of ancient microbial communities due to poor preservation during the Precambrian period. Previous studies of fossils that date to this period relied mainly on light microscopy to identify microfossil morphology and abundance, with limited success. Here we present novel analyses of the microbial remains found in Precambrian stromatolites using Synchrotron Radiation x-Ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM). Microfossils found in samples of three Precambrian deposits, 3.45 Ga Strelley Pool, Australia, 2.1 Ga Gunflint Chert, Canada, and 650 Ma Rasthof Cap Carbonate, Namibia, have been reconstructed in 3D. Based on four scans from each sample, we estimated size and abundance of spheroidal microfossils within those deposits. Our findings show that while cell abundance decreased towards the end of the Precambrian, the biovolume of microfossils within the host rock remained relatively constant. Additionally, both size and disparity increase through time. Constant biovolumes and yet different sizes for these three deposits, point towards a negative correlation of large cell size and cell abundance. This negative correlation indicates that the systems in which these prokaryotes lived may have been biolimited. Both, gas exchange and nutrient uptake in prokaryotes function via diffusion. Therefore, one would expect bacteria to evolve towards an increasing surface to volume ratio. Increased cell sizes, and hence decreased overall surface to volume ratio observed in our data, suggest the influence of other selective factors. Decreased abundance and increased cell size could potentially be associated to changes in nutrient availability and the occurrence of predation. As cells increased in size, more nutrients would

  4. Experimental amoebic liver abscess in hamsters caused by trophozoites of a Brazilian strain of Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Silva, Maria Angélica; Santos, Helena Lúcia Carneiro; Peralta, Regina Saramago; Peralta, José Mauro; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck

    2013-05-01

    It has been claimed that amoebic molecules such as amoebapore, galactose/N-acetyl galactosamine inhibitable lectin, and cysteine proteases are responsible for host tissue destruction and are present in both pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar. Some reports have provided evidence that after infection with E. dispar, pathological changes may occur in some humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate E. dispar pathogenicity by comparing it to the pathogenicity of E. histolytica through liver abscesses induced in hamsters. Syrian golden hamsters were challenged by intrahepatic inoculation with the 03C E. dispar strain or with two strains of E. histolytica (HM1:IMSS and EGG) to compare their virulence grades. As control groups, we used bacterial flora and Pavlova's modified medium. Lesions were verified at 1, 3 and 6 days after inoculation. Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed to characterize each strain using EdP1/EdP2 and EhP1/EhP2 primers. The EGG and HM1:IMSS E. histolytica strains and 03C E. dispar were able to cause liver lesions. The EGG strain caused extensive hepatic abscesses, and trophozoites were found in the lesions throughout the three periods of study. The HM1:IMSS strain caused smaller abscesses when compared to EGG lesions; however, trophozoites were observed at 1 and 3 days after inoculation. The 03C E. dispar strain caused intermediate abscesses when compared to the others; trophozoites were observed in all periods analyzed. The EGG strain caused progressive evolution of the injury, which differed from the HM1:IMSS and 03C strains. These results strongly suggest that the 03C E. dispar strain is pathogenic in the experimental hamster model. Additional studies are necessary to identify potential factors that regulate the manifestation of virulence of this strain and others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 印度阿育吠陀医学研究概述%Review on the research progress of Ayurvedic medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳敏; 崔蒙; 赵英凯

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍了印度阿育吠陀医学研究进展,主要内容包括国内外阿育吠陀典籍研究、基础理论研究、现代药理学研究、实验及临床研究等进展情况.%This paper reviewed the research progress of Ayurvedic medicine in domestic and abroad.The main contents included:the research progress of ayurvedic ancient records and basic theories,morden pharmacological studies,experimental and clinical studies,etc.

  6. Progression of Hepatic Adenoma to Carcinoma in the Setting of Hepatoportal Sclerosis in HIV Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, M.; Reyes, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of hepatic adenoma progression to carcinoma in the setting of hepatoportal sclerosis in an HIV+ patient and provide a review of the scarce literature regarding hepatoportal sclerosis in HIV patients. We describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, and management. This is the first case report in the literature of progression of hepatic adenoma to carcinoma in hepatoportal sclerosis in an HIV patient. This case also highlights the broad differential diagnosis that should always be included in the study of any liver disease in this patient population, including the performance of invasive and aggressive tests to arrive at the final diagnosis. PMID:27812395

  7. Progress in biomaterials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    "Progress in Biomaterials is a multidisciplinary, English-language publication of original contributions and reviews concerning studies of the preparation, performance and evaluation of biomaterial...

  8. Temporal patterns in disparity and diversity of the Jurassic ammonoids of southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Simon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A morphometric analysis of the characteristic whorl cross-sections of 1,200 Jurassic ammonoid species from southern Germany enabled us to characterise their morphospace. The successive Jurassic ammonoid faunas of southern Germany show characteristic patterns in morphospace occupation. While Early and Middle Jurassic ammonoids occupy limited areas of the morphospace range, the Late Jurassic ammonoids cover the entire spectrum. The ammonoids are characterised by an overall increase of both taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity in the course of the Jurassic. Strong fluctuations occur until the middle Late Jurassic, followed by a diversity decrease in the early Kimmeridgian and a disparity reduction in the early Tithonian. While diversity and disparity show similar progression during most of the Early Jurassic, they diverge subsequently and show only poor correlation until the end of the Jurassic. Particularly in the Middle Jurassic diversity and sea level changes correlate strongly. Neither temporal patterns in diversity nor disparity support the hypothesis of a mass extinction event in the early Toarcian. Significant changes in diversity and disparity in the early Callovian support a putative migration event of Boreal ammonoids into the Tethyan realm. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000016

  9. Differences in cap formation between invasive Entamoeba histolytica and non-invasive Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Castañón, Guadalupe; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2012-07-01

    The rapid redistribution of surface antigen-antibody complexes in trophozoites of the human protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, in a process known as capping, has been considered as a means of the parasite to evade the host immune response. So far, capping has been documented in the invasive E. histolytica, whereas the mobility of surface components in the non-invasive Entamoeba dispar is not known. E. dispar does not induce liver lesions in rodent experimental models, in contrast to the liver abscesses produced by E. histolytica in the same animal model. We have therefore analyzed the mobility of surface receptors to the lectin concanavalin A and of Rab11, a membrane-associated protein, in both species of Entamoebae by confocal fluorescence microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The great majority of E. histolytica trophozoites became morphologically polarized through the formation of well-defined caps at the posterior pole of the parasite. Actin colocalized with the lectin caps. Antibodies against the membrane protein Rab 11 also produced capping. In striking contrast, in E. dispar, the mobility of concanavalin A surface receptors was restricted to the formation of irregular surface patches that did no progress to constitute well-defined caps. Also, anti-Rab 11 antibodies did not result in capping in E. dispar. Whether the failure of E. dispar to efficiently mobilize surface molecules in response to lectin or antibodies as shown in the present results is related to its non-invasive character represents an interesting hypothesis requiring further analysis.

  10. Regional disparities and convergences in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Blížkovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the levels and trends of regional disparity and convergence in the two American macro-regions, NAFTA and MERCOSUR. In the case of NAFTA, 95 micro-regions were analysed (12 in Canada; 32 in Mexico; 51 states in the US. In MERCOSUR, the regions are represented by four countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. The analysis covers the period 2000–2008 (or rather 2000 to 2005 for Mexico. The regional disparities were calculated with the Gini coefficient based on nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita PPS. Convergence analysis was done with the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, σ- convergence and β-convergence. The results of regional disparity were as follows. Based on the nominal GDP, it was at high levels in both macro-regions, with a Gini coefficient above 0.55. With the disparities calculated on GDP per capita, the level of regional disparity in both macro-regions was lower at 0.36 in NAFTA and 0.28 in MERCOSUR in 2000. Based on GDP per capita in PPP, the levels were lower than based on the GDP per capita analysis starting at 0.31 in NAFTA and 0.16 in MERCOSUR. The disparities further decreased by half in NAFTA while slightly increasing in MERSCOSUR. The convergence analysis results based on the DRC analysis showed that neither NAFTA nor MERCOSUR regions converged. The speed of divergence varied significantly. The disparities among the richest and poorest regions in GDP per capita increased 6.26 times more than the average GDP per capita in PPP in NAFTA as a whole. It was only 0.52 in MERCOSUR. The ADRC analysis also resulted in divergence trends for both macro-regions but with lower rates. Convergence calculated with the σ- convergence analysis confirmed that both macro-regions diverged. The divergence rate for NAFTA was 1.41% and for MERCOSUR 0.74. Calculated with the β-convergence analysis, the NAFTA region showed a status quo (convergence of 0.01% and a

  11. In the first 3 months after stroke is progressive resistance training safe and does it improve activity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Karen; Musovic, Amie; F Taylor, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    BACKGROUND Progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve strength and function in people with chronic stroke, but less is known about whether this intervention is safe and beneficial during the first 3 months following stroke. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the evidence about the safety and effectiveness of PRT to improve activity in people within the first 3 months after stroke. METHODS After database searching and selection of studies a risk of bias assessment was conducted. Data for the primary outcome of safety was synthesised descriptively and meta-analyses for other outcomes were conducted using a random effects model. RESULTS The quality of the 5 included studies ranged from good to excellent (mean 24.2, range 20-28). For the trials investigating adverse events, none reported any significant increase in events after PRT. There was high level evidence that PRT had little or no effect on strength (SMD (standardized mean difference) 0.17, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.50, I(2) = 0%). There were no significant benefit for upper limb function (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.41 to 0.63, I(2) = 0%) and mobility (SMD 0.11, 95% CI -0.21 to 0.43, I(2) = 27%) after PRT compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS There was no evidence reported that PRT is unsafe in people within the first 3 months after stroke, although there was a lack of reporting about adverse events. The lack of demonstration of effect in improving muscle strength and activity suggests there is insufficient evidence to recommend the prescription of PRT for people within the first 3 months after stroke.

  12. 冠心病的康复进展%Progress of Cardiac Rehabilitation of Coronary Heart Disease (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佩伟; 马建新

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that comprehensive, long-term cardiac rehabilitation, involving medical evaluation, prescribed exercise, cardiac risk factor modification, education, counseling, and behavioral interventions, provides protection in primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention. However, cardiac rehabilitation programs are greatly underused in patients with coronary heart disease. The benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on the risk factors of coronary heart disease including smoking, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and dysglycemia as well as overall morbidity and mortality, and quantity and quality of life were reviewed. And the related con-cepts, history, core components, current status and progress of cardiac rehabilitation were also discussed.%心脏康复是涉及医学评价、运动处方、心血管危险因素矫正、教育、咨询及行为干预的综合长期服务程序。大量循证医学证据表明,心脏康复在冠心病的一级和二级预防中具有重要地位,基于运动疗法的心脏康复在改善吸烟、肥胖、血脂异常、高血压和糖耐量异常等心血管危险因素,延长生存时间和改善生活质量等方面获益确切。然而,冠心病患者的心脏康复现状却不容乐观。本文主要介绍冠心病心脏康复的相关概念、发展历史、核心构成、获益和发展现状。

  13. Research Progress on Immunocyte Senescence——Review%免疫细胞衰老的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 迟小华; 卢学春; 脱帅; 张峰; 张文英; 脱朝伟; 韩为东; 姚善谦

    2012-01-01

    The function of immune system degenerates in an aging-dependent manner and this results in immunosenescence. Human immune system includes two parts: genetic/innate immunity and adaptive immunity. The former is involved in monocytes, nature killer cells, and dendritic cells, the later is involved in acquired B and T lymphocytes. During the aging of immunity system, the both parts of immunity are damaged to some degree. Generally, innate immunity seems well-retained and the acquired immunity is degenerative seriously with aging. Immunocyte senescence is closely related to the elderly decreased ability to control infectious disease, cancer and to their generally poor response to vaccination. This review summarized the research progress on immunosenescence characteristics in aged phase.%免疫系统随着年龄的增加而功能退化,出现免疫衰老.人的免疫系统可以分为遗传性/先天性和种系新生两大部分.前者以单核细胞、自然杀伤细胞和树突状细胞为代表;后者以获得性免疫(B和T淋巴细胞)为代表.在衰老过程中,这两部分均以不同方式出现损伤,但先天性免疫保留相对完好,而获得性免疫的改变具有较强的年龄依赖性.免疫衰老与老年人群肿瘤多发性、感染的易感性和疫苗的低效性密切相关.本文就免疫系统随年龄衰老的特征进行综述.

  14. Neuroengineering tools/applications for bidirectional interfaces, brain computer interfaces, and neuroprosthetic implants - a review of recent progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Rothschild

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this review is to provide a holistic amalgamated overview of the most recent human in vivo techniques for implementing brain-computer interfaces (BCIs, bidirectional interfaces and neuroprosthetics. Neuroengineering is providing new methods for tackling current difficulties; however neuroprosthetics have been studied for decades. Recent progresses are permitting the design of better systems with higher accuracies, repeatability and system robustness. Bidirectional interfaces integrate recording and the relaying of information from and to the brain for the development of BCIs. The concepts of non-invasive and invasive recording of brain activity are introduced. This includes classical and innovative techniques like electroencephalography (EEG and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Then the problem of gliosis and solutions for (semi- permanent implant biocompatibility such as innovative implant coatings, materials and shapes are discussed. Implant power and the transmission of their data through implanted pulse generators (IPGs and wireless telemetry are taken into account. How sensation can be relayed back to the brain to increase integration of the neuroengineered systems with the body by methods such as micro-stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS are then addressed. The neuroprosthetic section discusses some of the various types and how they operate. Visual prosthetics are discussed and the three types, dependant on implant location, are examined. Auditory prosthetics, being cochlear or cortical, are then addressed. Replacement hand and limb prosthetics are then considered. These are followed by sections concentrating on the control of wheelchairs, computers and robotics directly from brain activity as recorded by non-invasive and invasive techniques.

  15. Gene expression disparity in giant cell tumor of bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua PAN; Shuhua YANG; Deming XIAO; Yong DAI; Lili REN

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the differential gene expression of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) by gene chip technology. Total RNA of 8 fresh GCTB specimens (Jaffe Ⅰ:6 cases, Ⅱ: 1 case, Ⅲ: 1 case; Campanacci Ⅰ:6 cases, Ⅱ:1 case, Ⅲ:1 case; Enneking Staging G0T1-2M0, 5 cases, G1T1-2M0: 2 cases, G1T2M0: 1 case) and 4 normal bony callus specimens (the control group) were extracted and purified to get mRNA and then reverse transcribed to complementary DNA, respectively. Microarray screening with a set of 8064 human cDNA genes was conducted to analyze the difference among the samples and the control. The hybridization signals were scanned. The gene expression disparity between the GCTB samples and normal bony callus was significantly different (P<0.01), and the disparity of over 5-fold was found in 47 genes in the GCTB specimens, with 25 genes up-regulated and 22 down-regulated including the extracellular matrix and transforming-related genes, oncogene and its homolog genes, cytokine and its receptor genes. Specific gene spectrum associated with GCTB can be identified by cDNA microarray, which will be the foundation of progressive etiology elucidation, diagnosis and treatment of GCTB.

  16. Evolution of curriculum systems to improve learning outcomes and reduce disparities in school achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.K. Altinyelken

    2015-01-01

    Based on an extensive review of scholarly literature, this paper seeks to overview curriculum reforms aimed at improving learning outcomes and reduce disparities in school achievement in low and middle income countries in the past 15 years. The paper focuses on four major curriculum areas, including

  17. Motion Parallax is Asymptotic to Binocular Disparity

    CERN Document Server

    Stroyan, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Researchers especially beginning with (Rogers & Graham, 1982) have noticed important psychophysical and experimental similarities between the neurologically different motion parallax and stereopsis cues. Their quantitative analysis relied primarily on the "disparity equivalence" approximation. In this article we show that retinal motion from lateral translation satisfies a strong ("asymptotic") approximation to binocular disparity. This precise mathematical similarity is also practical in the sense that it applies at normal viewing distances. The approximation is an extension to peripheral vision of (Cormac & Fox's 1985) well-known non-trig central vision approximation for binocular disparity. We hope our simple algebraic formula will be useful in analyzing experiments outside central vision where less precise approximations have led to a number of quantitative errors in the vision literature.

  18. Pyrrolidonyl and pyridyl alkaloids in Lymantria dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deml, Reinhold

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence and metabolism of nicotine and related N-containing compounds in body fluids of the gipsy moth were addressed. Thin layer chromatographic studies clearly showed the simultaneous presence of GABA and 2-pyrrolidone but not of GABamide in the larval haemolymph and osmeterial secretion of Lymantria dispar as well as in the corresponding body fluids of the saturniids, Saturnia pavonia and Attacus atlas. Furthermore, feeding and injection experiments using alkylated precursors and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry gave evidence of the transformation of 2-pyrrolidone to nicotine and of nicotinic acid to nicotinamide in caterpillars of L. dispar. Based on these results, on the earlier described variation of the secondary-compound patterns of L. dispar during its development, and on literature data, metabolic pathways for the hitherto detected pyridyl and pyrrolidonyl alkaloids in Lymantriidae (and possibly Saturniidae) are proposed.

  19. Review in The Progress of Treatment of Sudden Deafness%突发性耳聋的治疗进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一凡

    2013-01-01

    The review and analysis of the progress of treatment of sudden deafness, and the discussion of the possibility of curing sudden deafness with Zexie Tang.%对目前治疗突发性耳聋的临床报道做出综述分析,并探讨《金匮》泽泻汤用于治疗突发性耳聋的可能性。

  20. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11, No. 1--Vol. 17, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1977-02-23

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970), through Vol. 17, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1976). The index includes a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by KWIC and Author Indexes. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 350 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  1. Review of progresses on clinical applications of ion selective electrodes for electrolytic ion tests: from conventional ISEs to graphene-based ISEs

    OpenAIRE

    Rongguo Yan; Shuai Qiu; Lei Tong; Yin Qian

    2016-01-01

    There exist several positively and negatively charged electrolytes or ions in human blood, urine, and other body fluids. Tests that measure the concentration of these ions in clinics are performed using a more affordable, portable, and disposable potentiometric sensing method with few sample volumes, which requires the use of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) and reference electrodes. This review summarily descriptively presents progressive developments and applications of ion selective electro...

  2. The Growing Rural-Urban Disparity in India: Some Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dinesh; Pathak, Minakshee

    2012-10-01

    The paper critically examines the understanding, approach and indicators that have been used to measure the degree of disparity. It is fact that disparity exists everywhere. However, this paper highlights on disparities existing between rural and urban areas. In this context, it talks about 'whyí and 'howí disparities exist between rural and urban areas. The study suggests that 'incomeí is not a sufficient indicator to capture the magnitude of disparities at any level. It is, therefore, necessary to develop some indicators representing human resource development and infrastructure facility to understand the growing rural-urban disparity in India.

  3. Quality improvement implementation and disparities: the case of the health disparities collaboratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Marshall H

    2011-12-01

    The Health Disparities Collaboratives (HDCs), a quality improvement (QI) collaborative incorporating rapid QI, a chronic care model, and learning sessions, have been implemented in over 900 community health centers across the country. To determine the HDC's effect on clinical processes and outcomes, their financial impact, and factors important for successful implementation. Systematic review of the literature. The HDCs improve clinical processes of care over short-term period of 1 to 2 years, and clinical processes and outcomes over longer period of 2 to 4 years. Most participants perceive that the HDCs are successful and worth the effort. Analysis of the Diabetes Collaborative reveals that it is societally cost-effective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $33,386 per quality-adjusted life year, but that consistent revenue streams for the initiative do not exist. Common barriers to improvement include lack of resources, time, and staff burnout. Highest ranked priorities for more funding are money for direct patient services, data entry, and staff time for QI. Other common requests for more assistance are help with patient self-management, information systems, and getting providers to follow guidelines. Relatively low-cost ways to increase staff morale and prevent burnout include personal recognition, skills development opportunities, and fair distribution of work. The HDCs have successfully improved quality of care, and the Diabetes Collaborative is societally cost-effective, but policy reforms are necessary to create a sustainable business case for these health centers that serve many uninsured and underinsured populations.

  4. Evaluation of Study and Patient Characteristics of Clinical Studies in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ziemssen

    Full Text Available So far, clinical studies in primary progressive MS (PPMS have failed to meet their primary efficacy endpoints. To some extent this might be attributable to the choice of assessments or to the selection of the study population.The aim of this study was to identify outcome influencing factors by analyzing the design and methods of previous randomized studies in PPMS patients without restriction to intervention or comparator.A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and the COCHRANE Central Register of Controlled Trials (inception to February 2015. Keywords included PPMS, primary progressive multiple sclerosis and chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Randomized, controlled trials of at least one year's duration were selected if they included only patients with PPMS or if they reported sufficient PPMS subgroup data. No restrictions with respect to intervention or comparator were applied. Study quality was assessed by a biometrics expert. Relevant baseline characteristics and outcomes were extracted and compared.Of 52 PPMS studies identified, four were selected. Inclusion criteria were notably different among studies with respect to both the definition of PPMS and the requirements for the presence of disability progression at enrolment. Differences between the study populations included the baseline lesion load, pretreatment status and disease duration. The rate of disease progression may also be an important factor, as all but one of the studies included a large proportion of patients with a low progression rate. In addition, the endpoints specified could not detect progression adequately.Optimal PPMS study methods involve appropriate patient selection, especially regarding the PPMS phenotype and progression rate. Functional composite endpoints might be more sensitive than single endpoints in capturing progression.

  5. Evaluation of Study and Patient Characteristics of Clinical Studies in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemssen, T.; Rauer, S.; Stadelmann, C.; Henze, T.; Koehler, J.; Penner, I.-K.; Lang, M.; Poehlau, D.; Baier-Ebert, M.; Schieb, H.; Meuth, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background So far, clinical studies in primary progressive MS (PPMS) have failed to meet their primary efficacy endpoints. To some extent this might be attributable to the choice of assessments or to the selection of the study population. Objective The aim of this study was to identify outcome influencing factors by analyzing the design and methods of previous randomized studies in PPMS patients without restriction to intervention or comparator. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and the COCHRANE Central Register of Controlled Trials (inception to February 2015). Keywords included PPMS, primary progressive multiple sclerosis and chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Randomized, controlled trials of at least one year’s duration were selected if they included only patients with PPMS or if they reported sufficient PPMS subgroup data. No restrictions with respect to intervention or comparator were applied. Study quality was assessed by a biometrics expert. Relevant baseline characteristics and outcomes were extracted and compared. Results Of 52 PPMS studies identified, four were selected. Inclusion criteria were notably different among studies with respect to both the definition of PPMS and the requirements for the presence of disability progression at enrolment. Differences between the study populations included the baseline lesion load, pretreatment status and disease duration. The rate of disease progression may also be an important factor, as all but one of the studies included a large proportion of patients with a low progression rate. In addition, the endpoints specified could not detect progression adequately. Conclusion Optimal PPMS study methods involve appropriate patient selection, especially regarding the PPMS phenotype and progression rate. Functional composite endpoints might be more sensitive than single endpoints in capturing progression. PMID:26393519

  6. Potential disparities in trauma: the undocumented Latino immigrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Vincent E; Lee, Wayne S; Victorino, Gregory P

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the quality of trauma care undocumented immigrants receive. Documentation status may serve as a risk factor for health disparities. We hypothesized that undocumented Latino immigrants have an increased risk of mortality after trauma compared with Latinos with legal residence. The medical records for Latino trauma patients at our university-based trauma center between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Undocumented status was defined using two criteria: (1) lack of social security number and (2) insurance status as either "county," the local program that covers undocumented immigrants, or "self pay". Regression models were used to estimate the comparable risks of in-hospital mortality. Out of 2441 Latino trauma patients treated at our institution during the study period, 465 were undocumented. Latinos with legal residence and undocumented Latinos did not differ with regard to in-hospital mortality (3.4% versus 3.9%, respectively; P = 0.61). We found no association between documentation status and in-hospital mortality after trauma (odds ratio = 1.12 [0.43, 2.9]; P = 0.81). The independent predictors of in-hospital mortality included age, injury severity score, penetrating mechanism, and lack of private insurance but not documentation status. Undocumented Latino immigrants did not have an increased risk of in-hospital mortality after trauma; however, being uninsured was associated with a higher risk of death after trauma. For Latinos, we found no disparities based on immigration status for mortality after trauma, though disparities based on insurance status continue to persist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Links between obesity, diabetes and ethnic disparities in breast cancer among Hispanic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R; Agullo, P; Lakshmanaswamy, R

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy in women worldwide and is a growing concern due to rising incidence and ongoing ethnic disparities in both incidence and mortality. A number of factors likely contribute to these trends including rising rates of obesity and diabetes across the globe and differences in genetic predisposition. Here, we emphasize Hispanic populations and summarize what is currently known about obesity, diabetes and individual genetic predisposition as they relate to ethnic disparities in breast cancer incidence and mortality. In addition, we discuss potential contributions to breast cancer aetiology from molecular mechanisms associated with obesity and diabetes including dyslipidemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, endocrine dysfunction and inflammation. We propose that unique differences in diet and lifestyle coupled with individual genetic predisposition and endocrine/immune dysfunction explain most of the ethnic disparities seen in breast cancer incidence and mortality. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. The role of social determinants in explaining racial/ethnic disparities in perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Scott A; Enlow, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, there continue to be significant racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth (PTB) rates, infant mortality, and fetal mortality rates. One potential mediator of these disparities is social determinants of health, including individual socioeconomic factors; community factors such as crime, poverty, housing, and the racial/ethnic makeup of the community; and the physical environment. Previous work has identified statistically significant associations between each of these factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there are recent studies that provide new, innovative insights into this subject, including adding social determinant data to population-based datasets; exploring multiple constructs in their analysis; and examining environmental factors. The objective of this review will be to examine this recent research on the association of each of these sets of social determinants on racial/ethnic disparities PTB, infant mortality, and fetal mortality to highlight potential areas for targeted intervention to reduce these differences.

  9. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  10. Reducing Disparities through Culturally Competent Health Care: An Analysis of the Business Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Cindy; Fraser, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Finding ways to deliver high-quality health care to an increasingly diverse population is a major challenge for the American health care system. The persistence of racial and ethnic disparities in health care access, quality, and outcomes has prompted considerable interest in increasing the cultural competence of health care, both as an end in its own right and as a potential means to reduce disparities. This article reviews the potential role of cultural competence in reducing racial and ethnic health disparities, the strength of health care organizations’ current incentives to adopt cultural competence techniques, and the limitations inherent in these incentives that will need to be overcome if cultural competence techniques are to become widely adopted. PMID:12938253

  11. Disparities in endoscopy use for colorectal cancer screening in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawron, Andrew J; Yadlapati, Rena

    2014-03-01

    It is well established that disparities exist for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and death. With screening, death from CRC may be considered a preventable occurrence. Endoscopy (flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy) is the only modality with therapeutic benefit of removal of pre-cancerous polyps. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act mandated that preventive screening services be covered, which includes endoscopy for colon cancer screening. Recent federal rules have eliminated cost sharing for polyp removal during screening colonoscopy in privately insured patients; however, this has not been mandated for Medicare patients. Understanding the current state of disparities in endoscopy use is important, as these policy changes will affect millions of patients. The purpose of this literature review was to summarize the known research on disparities in endoscopy use for colon cancer screening in the United States and highlight areas for future research.

  12. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  13. Yardstick competition, fiscal disparities, and equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    The theory of political yardstick competition states that a comparison of public service levels and tax rates with those in nearby jurisdictions can provide voters with a useful instrument to assess politicians' performance. However, we argue that fiscal disparities bias this yardstick, and that thi

  14. Gender Disparity in Turkish Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findik, Leyla Yilmaz

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has been concerned about gender inequality in education for many years and has implemented various policy instruments. However, gender disparity still seems to prevail today. This study seeks to provide an insight to the gender differences in terms of enrollment rates, level of education, fields of education and number of graduates in…

  15. Yardstick competition, fiscal disparities, and equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allers, Maarten A.

    2012-01-01

    The theory of political yardstick competition states that a comparison of public service levels and tax rates with those in nearby jurisdictions can provide voters with a useful instrument to assess politicians' performance. However, we argue that fiscal disparities bias this yardstick, and that thi

  16. Prostate Cancer Disparities in an Incarcerated Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    long suffered from the impacts of health inequalities, racism and overincarceration. Positive changes from pilot programs ought to be coupled with...lecturer for two different college level courses on health and wellness, cancer, and health disparities. 9. Scientific writing and research

  17. MACRO-REGIONAL DISPARITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA OŢIL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic disparities are disparities between levels of economicdevelopment of the areas or regions within a national economy. If economic literature hasfailed to explain the causes of inequalities in economic development of different regions of theEU, this issue became a priority in EU economic policy, especially after the adhesion ofGreece, Spain and Portugal, countries characterized by a lower level of development fromother EU countries and also marked by significant regional imbalances. European Unionsupports reducing disparities between different regions of Member States so that all regionsand their people to benefit from economic and social advantages of the Union. This paper aimsto highlight disparities between the macro-regions in Romania. Regional demarcation criterionin the NUTS system is the population’s number within a territory. Most pertinent argument isthat the goal of all activities in a society lies in meeting the needs of the individual and of thecommunity. This possibility is ensured by a certain level of economic development in the region.Less developed areas of Romania are located in Northern Moldova and in the South EasternRomanian Plain and the more developed areas include, in addition to Bucharest andConstanta, Transylvania and Banat regions.

  18. Teachers' Voices 2: Teaching Disparate Learner Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Anne, Ed.; Hood, Susan, Ed.

    The collection of papers was written by teacher researchers from an adult migrant English program, and consists of reports and discussions of action research on teaching heterogeneous learner groups. Papers include: "Disparate Groups: Exploring Diversity in Practice through Collaborative Action Research" (Anne Burns, Susan Hood); "A Profile of…

  19. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  20. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outdoor > Air Pollution Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... studies have explored the differences in harm from air pollution to racial or ethnic groups and people who ...

  1. Determinants of health disparities between Italian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Margherita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among European countries, Italy is one of the countries where regional health disparities contribute substantially to socioeconomic health disparities. In this paper, we report on regional differences in self-reported poor health and explore possible determinants at the individual and regional levels in Italy. Methods We use data from the "Indagine Multiscopo sulle Famiglie", a survey of aspects of everyday life in the Italian population, to estimate multilevel logistic regressions that model poor self-reported health as a function of individual and regional socioeconomic factors. Next we use the causal step approach to test if living conditions, healthcare characteristics, social isolation, and health behaviors at the regional level mediate the relationship between regional socioeconomic factors and self-rated health. Results We find that residents living in regions with more poverty, more unemployment, and more income inequality are more likely to report poor health and that poor living conditions and private share of healthcare expenditures at the regional level mediate socioeconomic disparities in self-rated health among Italian regions. Conclusion The implications are that regional contexts matter and that regional policies in Italy have the potential to reduce health disparities by implementing interventions aimed at improving living conditions and access to quality healthcare.

  2. Regional disparities and convergences in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Blížkovský

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the disparity and convergence between the 10 and 11 countries of ASEAN and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS respectively and the 31 sub-national regions (provinces in China.The regional disparity levels and trends were analysed using the Gini coefficient between the regions (nominal GDP, GDP per capita and GDP per capita in Purchasing Parity Power, PPP. The convergence analysis was evaluated using the Disparity Range Coefficient (DRC, the Average Disparity Range Coefficient (ADRC, and the σ- and b-convergence. The time period covered was 2000–2008 (ASEAN and CIS and 2000–2006 (China.The results show a relatively high regional disparity between the Asian macro-regions of ASEAN and CIS and much lower disparities between the China sub-regions. The disparities were highest if based on the nominal GDP and lower if based on the DGP per capita. The GDP per capita was lower, between 0.30 to 0.4 for the CIS and China, and around 0.7 in ASEAN. The convergence analysis showed mixed results. Based on the DRC analysis, none of the Asian macro-regions converged. All three macro-regions diverged 1.4 to 12.68 times quicker than the average macro-regional GDP per capita grew, ASEAN being at the divergence top and China at the bottom. Based on the ADRC analysis, all macro-regions also proved to diverge. However, the divergence rates were much lower. For macro-regions China and CIS, the divergence was slower than macro-regional growth, thus their divergence was moderate. On the other side, if the macro-region was calculated using the σ-convergence analysis, the converging macro-regions were ASEAN and China, with 2.13% and 0.47% respectively. CIS was diverging at the speed of 1.25% per year. Based on b-convergence, ASEAN and China were converging (1.54% and 1.32%, and a slow divergence trend was registered for CIS, 1.01%.

  3. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trends and ongoing variations in health disparities and inequalities for selected social and health indicators. This is important for encouraging ... behavioral risk factors for disease, environmental hazards, and social determinants of ... Disparities & Inequalities Report - United States, 2013 ...

  4. Comparison of fixation disparity curve parameters obtained with the Wesson and Saladin fixation disparity cards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ngan, Janice; Goss, David A; Despirito, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This study compared fixation curve parameters with two commercially available fixation disparity cards, one that has been available for several years, the Wesson card, and a new one, the Saladin card...

  5. The unequal burden of pain: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carmen R; Anderson, Karen O; Baker, Tamara A; Campbell, Lisa C; Decker, Sheila; Fillingim, Roger B; Kalauokalani, Donna A; Kaloukalani, Donna A; Lasch, Kathyrn E; Myers, Cynthia; Tait, Raymond C; Todd, Knox H; Vallerand, April H

    2003-09-01

    Pain has significant socioeconomic, health, and quality-of-life implications. Racial- and ethnic-based differences in the pain care experience have been described. Racial and ethnic minorities tend to be undertreated for pain when compared with non-Hispanic Whites. To provide health care providers, researchers, health care policy analysts, government officials, patients, and the general public with pertinent evidence regarding differences in pain perception, assessment, and treatment for racial and ethnic minorities. Evidence is provided for racial- and ethnic-based differences in pain care across different types of pain (i.e., experimental pain, acute postoperative pain, cancer pain, chronic non-malignant pain) and settings (i.e., emergency department). Pertinent literature on patient, health care provider, and health care system factors that contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in pain treatment are provided. A selective literature review was performed by experts in pain. The experts developed abstracts with relevant citations on racial and ethnic disparities within their specific areas of expertise. Scientific evidence was given precedence over anecdotal experience. The abstracts were compiled for this manuscript. The draft manuscript was made available to the experts for comment and review prior to submission for publication. Consistent with the Institute of Medicine's report on health care disparities, racial and ethnic disparities in pain perception, assessment, and treatment were found in all settings (i.e., postoperative, emergency room) and across all types of pain (i.e., acute, cancer, chronic nonmalignant, and experimental). The literature suggests that the sources of pain disparities among racial and ethnic minorities are complex, involving patient (e.g., patient/health care provider communication, attitudes), health care provider (e.g., decision making), and health care system (e.g., access to pain medication) factors. There is a need for

  6. Ethnic disparities in quality of care for children with asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, J.J.N. van; Stronk, K.; Devillé, W.

    2004-01-01

    Studies from the UK and USA found ethnic disparities in asthma treatment for children. Little is known about ethnic disparities in asthma treatment for chidlren in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to gain insight into ethnic disparities in asthma care for children living in the Nederlands.

  7. 41 CFR 60-3.11 - Disparate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disparate treatment. 60-3... treatment. The principles of disparate or unequal treatment must be distinguished from the concepts of..., or members have not been subjected to that standard. Disparate treatment occurs where members of...

  8. Efficient quality enhancement of disparity maps based on alpha matting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Nicole; Nezveda, Matej; Gelautz, Margrit; Seitner, Florian

    2014-03-01

    We propose an efficient disparity map enhancement method that improves the alignment of disparity edges and color edges even in the presence of mixed pixels and provides alpha values for pixels at disparity edges as a byproduct. In contrast to previous publications, the proposed method addresses mixed pixels at disparity edges and does not introduce mixed disparities that can lead to object deformations in synthesized views. The proposed algorithm computes transparencies by performing alpha matting per disparity-layer. These alpha values indicate the degree of affiliation to a disparity-layer and can hence be used as an indicator for a disparity reassignment that aligns disparity edges with color edges and accounts for mixed pixels. We demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method on various images and corresponding disparity maps, including images that contain fuzzy object borders (e.g., fur). Furthermore, the proposed method is qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using disparity ground truth and compared to previously published disparity post-processing methods.

  9. Content- and disparity-adaptive stereoscopic image retargeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Weiqing; Hou, Chunping; Zhou, Yuan; Xiang, Wei

    2016-02-01

    The paper proposes a content- and disparity-adaptive stereoscopic image retargeting. To simultaneously avoid the saliency content and disparity distortion, firstly, we calculate the image saliency region distortion difference, and conclude the factors causing visual distortion. Then, the proposed method via a convex quadratic programming can simultaneously avoid the distortion of the salient region and adjust disparity to a target area, by considering the relationship of the scaling factor of salient region and the disparity scaling factor. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to successfully adapt the image disparity to the target display screen, while the salient objects remain undistorted in the retargeted stereoscopic image.

  10. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review No. 71, quarter ending June 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; microbial technology; and novel technology. A list of available publication is also provided.

  11. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review quarter ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: chemical flooding--supporting research; gas displacement--supporting research; thermal recovery--supporting research; geoscience technology; resource assessment technology; and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. A list of available publications is also included.

  12. Reducing the health disparities of Indigenous Australians: time to change focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durey Angela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous peoples have worse health than non-Indigenous, are over-represented amongst the poor and disadvantaged, have lower life expectancies, and success in improving disparities is limited. To address this, research usually focuses on disadvantaged and marginalised groups, offering only partial understanding of influences underpinning slow progress. Critical analysis is also required of those with the power to perpetuate or improve health inequities. In this paper, using Australia as a case example, we explore the effects of ‘White’, Anglo-Australian cultural dominance in health service delivery to Indigenous Australians. We address the issue using race as an organising principle, underpinned by relations of power. Methods Interviews with non-Indigenous medical practitioners in Western Australia with extensive experience in Indigenous health encouraged reflection and articulation of their insights into factors promoting or impeding quality health care to Indigenous Australians. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. An inductive, exploratory analysis identified key themes that were reviewed and interrogated in light of existing literature on health care to Indigenous people, race and disadvantage. The researchers’ past experience, knowledge and understanding of health care and Indigenous health assisted with data interpretation. Informal discussions were also held with colleagues working professionally in Indigenous policy, practice and community settings. Results Racism emerged as a key issue, leading us to more deeply interrogate the role ‘Whiteness’ plays in Indigenous health care. While Whiteness can refer to skin colour, it also represents a racialized social structure where Indigenous knowledge, beliefs and values are subjugated to the dominant western biomedical model in policy and practice. Racism towards Indigenous patients in health services was institutional and interpersonal. Internalised

  13. Acute spontaneous cervical disc herniation causing rapidly progressive myelopathy in a patient with comorbid ossified posterior longitudinal ligament: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison J Westwick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL and cervical disc herniation are commonly encountered neurosurgical conditions. Here we present an unusual case of nontraumatic rapidly progressive myelopathy due to cervical disc herniation with comorbid OPLL and conduct a literature review focusing on the frequency and management of disc herniations with OPLL. Case Description: A 52-year-old healthy female presented with a 72-h history of rapid progression of dense quadriparesis with sensory deficits, with a precedent 4-week history of nontraumatic midline neck pain. Clinical examination revealed profound motor deficits below the C5 myotome. Spinal neuroimaging revealed OPLL (computed tomography [CT] and a cervical disc herniation spanning from C4/5 to C5/6 with significant retrovertebral disease (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]. Operative management involved an anterior cervical corpectomy and instrumented fusion, with removal of both the sequestered disc material and the locally compressive OPLL. The patient recovered full motor function and independent ambulation with no residual signs or symptoms of myelopathy at the time of discharge. Conclusion: This unique case of a spontaneous cervical disc herniation in the context of OPLL causing rapidly progressive myelopathy illustrates the complementarity of CT and MRI in diagnosing the underlying cause of a rapidly progressive neurologic deficit in the absence of antecedent trauma. Though the optimal surgical management of such pathology remains uncertain; in this case, the anterior approach was motivated by the significant retrovertebral ventrally compressive sequestrum, and provided for excellent neurologic outcome. This article also reviews the occurrence/management of such acute cervical discs with OPLL.

  14. Bad Jobs, Bad Health? How Work and Working Conditions Contribute to Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgard, Sarah A; Lin, Katherine Y

    2013-08-01

    In this review, we touch on a broad array of ways that work is linked to health and health disparities for individuals and societies. First focusing on the health of individuals, we discuss the health differences between those who do and do not work for pay, and review key positive and negative exposures that can generate health disparities among the employed. These include both psychosocial factors like the benefits of a high status job or the burden of perceived job insecurity, as well as physical exposures to dangerous working conditions like asbestos or rotating shift work. We also provide a discussion of the ways differential exposure to these aspects of work contributes to social disparities in health within and across generations. Analytic complexities in assessing the link between work and health for individuals, such as health selection, are also discussed. We then touch on several contextual level associations between work and the health of populations, discussing the importance of the occupational structure in a given society, the policy environment that prevails there, and the oscillations of the macroeconomy for generating societal disparities in health. We close with a discussion of four areas and associated recommendations that draw on this corpus of knowledge but would push the research on work, health and inequality toward even greater scholarly and policy relevance.

  15. European Union of the Regional Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals to the idea of the necessity of changing EU’s political approach in order to face to the new inside and global challenges. In order to support this idea, the analysis uses four representative indicators: educational attainment level, hospital beds at 100000 inhabitants, employment rate and unemployment rate. The initial analysis was focused on EU’s regions and pointed out great disparities. A distinct part of the analysis covers Romanian regions. The analysis is realized on two levels: macroregions and NUTS 2 regions. Romania is not an exception from the paper’s approach. The main conclusion of the analysis is that EU arrived into critical point and has to change its political and economic approach in order to reduce and to eliminate the regional disparities and to increase its credibility as global actor.

  16. Bilaterally Weighted Patches for Disparity Map Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández Julià

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual correspondence is the key for 3D reconstruction in binocular stereovision. Local methods perform block-matching to compute the disparity, or apparent motion, of pixels between images. The simplest approach computes the distance of patches, usually square windows, and assumes that all pixels in the patch have the same disparity. A prominent artifact of the method is the "foreground fattening effet" near depth discontinuities. In order to find a more appropriate support, Yoon and Kweon introduced the use of weights based on color similarity and spatial distance, analogous to those used in the bilateral filter. This paper presents the theory of this method and the implementation we have developed. Moreover, some variants are discussed and improvements are used in the final implementation. Several examples and tests are presented and the parameters and performance of the method are analyzed.

  17. Socially disparate trends in lifespan variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequality trends in life expectancy are not informative as to changes in social disparity in the age-at-death distribution. The purpose of the study was to investigate social differentials in trends and patterns of adult mortality in Denmark. METHODS: Register data on income...... and mortality from 1986 to 2014 were used to investigate trends in life expectancy, life disparity and the threshold age that separates 'premature' and 'late' deaths. Mortality compression was quantified and compared between income quartiles. RESULTS: Since 1986, male life expectancy increased by 4.2 years...... for the lowest income quartile and by 8.4 years for the highest income quartile. The clear compression of mortality apparent in the highest income quartile did not occur for the lowest income quartile. Premature and late deaths accounted both by 2.1 years of the increase in life expectancy in the lowest income...

  18. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2016-11-22

    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  19. Socioeconomic disparities and health: impacts and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Growing socioeconomic disparity is a global concern, as it could affect population health. The author and colleagues have investigated the health impacts of socioeconomic disparities as well as the pathways that underlie those disparities. Our meta-analysis found that a large population has risks of mortality and poor self-rated health that are attributable to income inequality. The study results also suggested the existence of threshold effects (ie, a threshold of income inequality over which the adverse impacts on health increase), period effects (ie, the potential for larger impacts in later years, specifically after the 1990s), and lag effects between income inequality and health outcomes. Our other studies using Japanese national representative survey data and a large-scale cohort study of Japanese older adults (AGES cohort) support the relative deprivation hypothesis, namely, that invidious social comparisons arising from relative deprivation in an unequal society adversely affect health. A study with a natural experiment design found that the socioeconomic gradient in self-rated health might actually have become shallower after the 1997-98 economic crisis in Japan, due to smaller health improvements among middle-class white-collar workers and middle/upper-income workers. In conclusion, income inequality might have adverse impacts on individual health, and psychosocial stress due to relative deprivation may partially explain those impacts. Any study of the effects of macroeconomic fluctuations on health disparities should also consider multiple potential pathways, including expanding income inequality, changes in the labor market, and erosion of social capital. Further studies are needed to attain a better understanding of the social determinants of health in a rapidly changing society.

  20. Disparity in motorcycle helmet use in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa

    2013-08-30

    The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.

  1. The Effect of Disease Modifying Therapies on Disease Progression in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Tsivgoulis

    Full Text Available A number of officially approved disease-modifying drugs (DMD are currently available for the early intervention in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the effect of DMDs on disability progression in RRMS.We performed a systematic review on MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases to include all available placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs of RRMS patients that reported absolute numbers or percentages of disability progression during each study period. Observational studies, case series, case reports, RCTs without placebo subgroups and studies reporting the use of RRMS therapies that are not still officially approved were excluded. Risk ratios (RRs were calculated in each study protocol to express the comparison of disability progression in RRMS patients treated with a DMD and those RRMS patients receiving placebo. The mixed-effects model was used to calculate both the pooled point estimate in each subgroup and the overall estimates.DMDs for RRMS were found to have a significantly lower risk of disability progression compared to placebo (RR = 0.72, 95%CI: 0.66-0.79; p20% rates of loss to follow-up were reported in many study protocols, while financial and/or other support from pharmaceutical industries with a clear conflict of interest on the study outcomes was documented in all included studies.Available DMD are effective in reducing disability progression in patients with RRMS, independently of the route of administration and their classification as "first" or "second" line therapies. Attrition bias needs to be taken into account in the interpretation of these findings.

  2. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

  3. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol. 11(1)--Vol. 18(6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1978-04-11

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Vol. 11, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Vol. 18, No. 6 (November-December 1977). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 450 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last eight years are listed in this index.

  4. Review of progresses on clinical applications of ion selective electrodes for electrolytic ion tests: from conventional ISEs to graphene-based ISEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongguo Yan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There exist several positively and negatively charged electrolytes or ions in human blood, urine, and other body fluids. Tests that measure the concentration of these ions in clinics are performed using a more affordable, portable, and disposable potentiometric sensing method with few sample volumes, which requires the use of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs and reference electrodes. This review summarily descriptively presents progressive developments and applications of ion selective electrodes in medical laboratory electrolytic ion tests, from conventional ISEs, solid-contact ISEs, carbon nanotube based ISEs, to graphene-based ISEs.

  5. Index to Nuclear Safety. A technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author. Vol 11, No. 1 through Vol. 16, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Klein, A.

    1976-04-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles in Nuclear Safety Vol. 11, No. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1970) through Vol. 16, No. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1975). Included in the index is a chronological list of articles (including abstract) followed by both a KWIC index and an Author Index. Nuclear Safety is a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center and covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. The index lists over 300 technical articles in the last six years of publication.

  6. 神经源性膀胱过度活动症的研究进展%Research Progress of Neurogenic Bladder Overactivity (review)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高轶; 廖利民

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic overactivity bladder is a type of overactive bladder with high incidence. This paper reviewed the research prog-ress of neurogenic overactivity bladder in etiology, pathophysiology and treatment.%神经源性膀胱过度活动症是膀胱过度活动症中较为高发的一种类型。本文从神经源性膀胱过度活动症的病因、病理生理及治疗方面综述神经源性膀胱过度活动症的研究进展。

  7. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  8. Disparities in Obesity, Physical Activity Rates, and Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M E; Magwood, G; Brown, E T; Cannady, K; Gregoski, M; Knight, K D; Peterson, L L; Kramer, R; Evans-Knowell, A; Turner, D P

    2017-01-01

    The significantly higher breast cancer (BCa) mortality rates of African-American (AA) women compared to non-Hispanic (NHW) white women constitute a major US health disparity. Investigations have primarily focused on biological differences in tumors to explain more aggressive forms of BCa in AA women. The biology of tumors cannot be modified, yet lifestyle changes can mitigate their progression and recurrence. AA communities have higher percentages of obesity than NHWs and exhibit inefficient access to care, low socioeconomic status, and reduced education levels. Such factors are associated with limited healthy food options and sedentary activity. AA women have the highest prevalence of obesity than any other racial/ethnic/gender group in the United States. The social ecological model (SEM) is a conceptual framework on which interventions could be developed to reduce obesity. The SEM includes intrapersonal factors, interpersonal factors, organizational relationships, and community/institutional policies that are more effective in behavior modification than isolation from the participants' environmental context. Implementation of SEM-based interventions in AA communities could positively modify lifestyle behaviors, which could also serve as a powerful tool in reducing risk of BCa, BCa progression, and BCa recurrence in populations of AA women. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coagulation Parameters and Risk of Progressive Hemorrhagic Injury after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH after traumatic brain injury (TBI commonly increases in size and coagulopathy has been implicated in such progression. Our aim is to perform a meta-analysis to assess their relationship. Cochrane library, PubMed, and EMBASE were searched for literatures. Pooled effect sizes and 95% confidential intervals (CIs were calculated using random-effects model. We included six studies, involving 1700 participants with 540 progressive hemorrhagic injuries (PHIs. Our findings indicate that PT, D-dimer level, and INR value are positively associated with the risk of PHI. Higher level of PLT and Fg seemed to suggest a lower risk of PHI. Among these parameters, higher D-dimer level and INR value would possess more powerful strength in predicting PHI.

  10. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities:A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades Gebre; Nikkiah Forbes; Teshome Gebre

    2016-01-01

    On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection and micro-cephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barr ´e syndrome. ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos (Aedes species), but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva, blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical pre-sentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  11. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy secondary to rituximab-induced immunosuppression and the presence of John Cunningham virus: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Deirdre; Monaghan, Bernadette; McMahon, Eileen; Watson, Geoffrey; Kavanagh, Eoin; O'Rourke, Killian; McCaffrey, John; Carney, Desmond

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 60-year-old man who developed subacute neurologic changes, in the setting of stage III non-Hodgkin's follicular lymphoma, and was treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by a year of maintenance rituximab. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with gadolinium was pathognomonic for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). He was treated with sequential plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin with clinical improvement. A literature review of the diagnostic workup of rituximab-induced PML was undertaken. This case and the literature review demonstrate the important role of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in diagnosis and follow-up of rituximab-induced PML. Specific radiologic features in combination with cerebrospinal fluid can be diagnostic and avoid the morbidity and mortality of a diagnostic brain biopsy. Plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin have a therapeutic role and demonstrate symptom improvement and disease control. Follow-up imaging in combination with clinical response is important in demonstrating a treatment response.

  12. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 86, quarter ending March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Summaries are presented for 37 enhanced oil recovery contracts being supported by the Department of Energy. The projects are grouped into gas displacement methods, thermal recovery methods, geoscience technology, reservoir characterization, and field demonstrations in high-priority reservoir classes. Each summary includes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress, as well as information on contract dates, size of award, principal investigator, and company or facility doing the research.

  13. Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery. Progress review number 83, quarter ending June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    Summaries of 41 research projects on enhanced recovery are presented under the following sections: (1) chemical flooding; (2) gas displacement; (3) thermal recovery; (4) geoscience technology; (5) resource assessment technology; and (6) reservoir classes. Each presentation gives the title of the project, contract number, research facility, contract date, expected completion data, amount of the award, principal investigator, and DOE program manager, and describes the objectives of the project and a summary of the technical progress.

  14. Health disparities and gaps in school readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The author documents pervasive racial disparities in the health of American children and analyzes how and how much those disparities contribute to racial gaps in school readiness. She explores a broad sample of health problems common to U.S. children, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asthma, and lead poisoning, as well as maternal health problems and health-related behaviors that affect children's behavioral and cognitive readiness for school. If a health problem is to affect the readiness gap, it must affect many children, it must be linked to academic performance or behavior problems, and it must show a racial disparity either in its prevalence or in its effects. The author focuses not only on the black-white gap in health status but also on the poor-nonpoor gap because black children tend to be poorer than white children. The health conditions Currie considers seriously impair cognitive skills and behavior in individual children. But most explain little of the overall racial gap in school readiness. Still, the cumulative effect of health differentials summed over all conditions is significant. Currie's rough calculation is that racial differences in health conditions and in maternal health and behaviors together may account for as much as a quarter of the racial gap in school readiness. Currie scrutinizes several policy steps to lessen racial and socioeconomic disparities in children's health and to begin to close the readiness gap. Increasing poor children's eligibility for Medicaid and state child health insurance is unlikely to be effective because most poor children are already eligible for public insurance. The problem is that many are not enrolled. Even increasing enrollment may not work: socioeconomic disparities in health persist in Canada and the United Kingdom despite universal public health insurance. The author finds more promise in strengthening early childhood programs with a built-in health component, like Head Start; family

  15. [Progress in quantitative methods based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for drug metabolizing enzymes in human liver microsomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanhuan; Lu, Yayao; Peng, Bo; Qian, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yangjun

    2015-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and uridine 5-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes are critical enzymes for drug metabolism. Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines are converted to more readily excreted compounds by drug metabolizing enzymes in human livers. Because of the disparate expression of CYP and UGT enzymes among different individuals, accurate quantification of these enzymes is essential for drug pharmacology, drug-drug interactions and drug clinical applications. The research progress in quantitative methods based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for drug metabolizing enzymes in human liver microsomes in the recent decade is reviewed.

  16. Vertical binocular disparity is encoded implicitly within a model neuronal population tuned to horizontal disparity and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C A Read

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a "cyclopean retina", performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea, the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations.

  17. Vertical Binocular Disparity is Encoded Implicitly within a Model Neuronal Population Tuned to Horizontal Disparity and Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jenny C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Primary visual cortex is often viewed as a “cyclopean retina”, performing the initial encoding of binocular disparities between left and right images. Because the eyes are set apart horizontally in the head, binocular disparities are predominantly horizontal. Yet, especially in the visual periphery, a range of non-zero vertical disparities do occur and can influence perception. It has therefore been assumed that primary visual cortex must contain neurons tuned to a range of vertical disparities. Here, I show that this is not necessarily the case. Many disparity-selective neurons are most sensitive to changes in disparity orthogonal to their preferred orientation. That is, the disparity tuning surfaces, mapping their response to different two-dimensional (2D) disparities, are elongated along the cell's preferred orientation. Because of this, even if a neuron's optimal 2D disparity has zero vertical component, the neuron will still respond best to a non-zero vertical disparity when probed with a sub-optimal horizontal disparity. This property can be used to decode 2D disparity, even allowing for realistic levels of neuronal noise. Even if all V1 neurons at a particular retinotopic location are tuned to the expected vertical disparity there (for example, zero at the fovea), the brain could still decode the magnitude and sign of departures from that expected value. This provides an intriguing counter-example to the common wisdom that, in order for a neuronal population to encode a quantity, its members must be tuned to a range of values of that quantity. It demonstrates that populations of disparity-selective neurons encode much richer information than previously appreciated. It suggests a possible strategy for the brain to extract rarely-occurring stimulus values, while concentrating neuronal resources on the most commonly-occurring situations. PMID:20421992

  18. Integration of water, sanitation and hygiene for the control of neglected tropical diseases: a review of progress and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Robyn C; Velleman, Yael; Woods, Geordie; Chitty, Alexandra; Freeman, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    A WHO roadmap to control, eliminate and eradicate neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) proposes a public health approach integrating diverse prevention and treatment interventions. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) has long been a recognized, yet under-prioritized intervention of global disease control efforts. Through collaboration with the WASH sector, efforts have been made to integrate WASH in NTD control. This article reviews progress made in recent years, explores mechanisms supporting advances, and identifies priorities and next steps for accelerating WASH integration. This paper reveals advances in collaboration between WASH and NTD sectors, resulting in progress made across areas of programming; research; advocacy and policy; training and capacity building; and mapping, data collection and monitoring. Face to face meetings between WASH and NTD sector experts with a clear purpose of informing wider sector discussions, and the development of actionable joint workplans, have been particularly critical in supporting progress. Priority next steps include building capacity for WASH programming among NTD control teams, coordination at the country level, and strengthening the epidemiological evidence and operational learning for joint WASH and NTD interventions. In order to accelerate WASH integration in NTD control through strong collaborations with the WASH sector, the NTD sector could make use of strong data management skills and advocacy opportunities.

  19. POEMS syndrome with Guillan-Barre syndrome-like acute onset: a case report and review of neurological progression in 30 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isose, S; Misawa, S; Kanai, K; Shibuya, K; Sekiguchi, Y; Nasu, S; Fujimaki, Y; Noto, Y; Nakaseko, C; Kuwabara, S

    2011-06-01

    POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes) syndrome is a rare cause of demyelinating neuropathy with monoclonal plasma cell proliferation, and POEMS neuropathy is usually chronically progressive. Herein, the authors report a 34-year-old woman with POEMS syndrome presenting as acute polyneuropathy. Within 2 weeks of disease onset, she became unable to walk with electrodiagnostic features of demyelination and was initially diagnosed as having Guillan-Barré syndrome. Other systemic features (oedema and skin changes) developed later, and an elevated serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor led to the diagnosis of POEMS syndrome. She received high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, resulting in good recovery. The authors also reviewed patterns and speed of progression of neuropathy in the 30 patients with POEMS syndrome; 22 (73%) of them were unable to walk independently with the median period of 9.5 months from POEMS onset (range 0.5-51 months). Whereas the speed of neuropathy progression varies considerably among patients, some POEMS patients can show acute or subacute polyneuropathy. The early diagnosis and treatment could result in rapid improvement as shown in the present patient.

  20. Global observed long-term changes in temperature and precipitation extremes: A review of progress and limitations in IPCC assessments and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa V. Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC first attempted a global assessment of long-term changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in its Third Assessment Report in 2001. While data quality and coverage were limited, the report still concluded that heavy precipitation events had increased and that there had been, very likely, a reduction in the frequency of extreme low temperatures and increases in the frequency of extreme high temperatures. That overall assessment had changed little by the time of the IPCC Special Report on Extremes (SREX in 2012 and the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5 in 2013, but firmer statements could be added and more regional detail was possible. Despite some substantial progress throughout the IPCC Assessments in terms of temperature and precipitation extremes analyses, there remain major gaps particularly regarding data quality and availability, our ability to monitor these events consistently and our ability to apply the complex statistical methods required. Therefore this article focuses on the substantial progress that has taken place in the last decade, in addition to reviewing the new progress since IPCC AR5 while also addressing the challenges that still lie ahead.

  1. Complex-wide review of DOE`s management of low-level radioactive waste - progress to date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letourneau, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2 includes a recommendation that the Department of Energy (DOE) conduct a comprehensive, complex-wide review of the low-level waste issue to establish the dimensions of the low-level waste problem and to identify necessary corrective actions to address the safe disposition of past, present, and future volumes. DOE`s Implementation Plan calls for the conduct of a complex-wide review of low-level radioactive waste treatment, storage, and disposal sites to identify environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities. The complex-wide review focuses on low-level waste disposal facilities through a site evaluation survey, reviews of existing documentation, and onsite observations. Low-level waste treatment and storage facilities will be assessed for their ability to meet waste acceptance criteria for disposal. Results from the complex-wide review will be used to form the basis for an integrated and planned set of actions to correct the identified vulnerabilities and to prompt development of new requirements for managing low-level waste.

  2. Exploring the social determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in prenatal care utilization and maternal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadson, Alexis; Akpovi, Eloho; Mehta, Pooja K

    2017-08-01

    Rates of maternal morbidity and mortality are rising in the United States. Non-Hispanic Black women are at highest risk for these outcomes compared to those of other race/ethnicities. Black women are also more likely to be late to prenatal care or be inadequate users of prenatal care. Prenatal care can engage those at risk and potentially influence perinatal outcomes but further research on the link between prenatal care and maternal outcomes is needed. The objective of this article is to review literature illuminating the relationship between prenatal care utilization, social determinants of health, and racial disparities in maternal outcome. We present a theoretical framework connecting the complex factors that may link race, social context, prenatal care utilization, and maternal morbidity/mortality. Prenatal care innovations showing potential to engage with the social determinants of maternal health and address disparities and priorities for future research are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Anastomosing hemangioma arising from the kidney: a case of slow progression in four years and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Lin; Yu, Wen-Juan; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Hui; Zhuang, Jie; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Li, Yu-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is a renal anastomosing hemangioma which developed slowly in the past four years. A 25-year-old woman was found a mass localized in the upper portion four years ago, and only slow progression in the past four years. She underwent a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy of right kidney and diagnosed as anastomosing hemangioma. On histology the vascular components of the tumor had an anastomosing pattern without well-definite margins. Immunohistochemically, only endothelial markers (CD31, CD34) were expressed on the vascular components of tumor cells. Smooth muscle actin (SMA), cytokeratin (CK), EMA and S-100 and so on were all negative in the epithelioid tumor cells. The patient was alive at 16 months after operation, without any evidence recurrence or metastasis. Anastomosing hemangioma is an extremely rare vascular neoplasm; only 23 cases were previously described until now. Our report of anastomosing hemangioma arising from the kidney with slow progression will improve the knowledge of primary vascular tumors arising in the kidney. PMID:25973131

  4. Efficacy and Acceptability of Orthokeratology for Slowing Myopic Progression in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Daizong; Huang, Jinhai; Chen, Hao; Bao, Fangjun; Savini, Giacomo; Calossi, Antonio; Chen, Haisi; Li, Xuexi; Wang, Qinmei

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of orthokeratology for slowing myopic progression in children with a well conducted evidence-based analysis. Design. Meta-analysis. Participants. Children from previously reported comparative studies were treated by orthokeratology versus control. Methods. A systematic literature retrieval was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The included studies were subjected to meta-analysis using Stata version 10.1. Main Outcome Measures. Axial length change (efficacy) and dropout rates (acceptability) during 2-year follow-up. Results. Eight studies involving 769 subjects were included. At 2-year follow-up, a statistically significant difference was observed in axial length change between the orthokeratology and control groups, with a weighted mean difference (WMD) of −0.25 mm (95% CI, −0.30 to −0.21). The pooled myopic control rate declined with time, with 55, 51, 51, and 41% obtained after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment, respectively. No statistically significant difference was obtained for dropout rates between the orthokeratology and control groups at 2-year follow-up (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.22). Conclusions. Orthokeratology is effective and acceptable for slowing myopic progression in children with careful education and monitoring. PMID:26221539

  5. Efficacy and Acceptability of Orthokeratology for Slowing Myopic Progression in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daizong Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of orthokeratology for slowing myopic progression in children with a well conducted evidence-based analysis. Design. Meta-analysis. Participants. Children from previously reported comparative studies were treated by orthokeratology versus control. Methods. A systematic literature retrieval was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The included studies were subjected to meta-analysis using Stata version 10.1. Main Outcome Measures. Axial length change (efficacy and dropout rates (acceptability during 2-year follow-up. Results. Eight studies involving 769 subjects were included. At 2-year follow-up, a statistically significant difference was observed in axial length change between the orthokeratology and control groups, with a weighted mean difference (WMD of −0.25 mm (95% CI, −0.30 to −0.21. The pooled myopic control rate declined with time, with 55, 51, 51, and 41% obtained after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment, respectively. No statistically significant difference was obtained for dropout rates between the orthokeratology and control groups at 2-year follow-up (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.22. Conclusions. Orthokeratology is effective and acceptable for slowing myopic progression in children with careful education and monitoring.

  6. Physicians and implicit bias: how doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Elizabeth N; Kaatz, Anna; Carnes, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Although the medical profession strives for equal treatment of all patients, disparities in health care are prevalent. Cultural stereotypes may not be consciously endorsed, but their mere existence influences how information about an individual is processed and leads to unintended biases in decision-making, so called "implicit bias". All of society is susceptible to these biases, including physicians. Research suggests that implicit bias may contribute to health care disparities by shaping physician behavior and producing differences in medical treatment along the lines of race, ethnicity, gender or other characteristics. We review the origins of implicit bias, cite research documenting the existence of implicit bias among physicians, and describe studies that demonstrate implicit bias in clinical decision-making. We then present the bias-reducing strategies of consciously taking patients' perspectives and intentionally focusing on individual patients' information apart from their social group. We conclude that the contribution of implicit bias to health care disparities could decrease if all physicians acknowledged their susceptibility to it, and deliberately practiced perspective-taking and individuation when providing patient care. We further conclude that increasing the number of African American/Black physicians could reduce the impact of implicit bias on health care disparities because they exhibit significantly less implicit race bias.

  7. Widening economic & social disparities: implications for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, N J

    2007-10-01

    India is often characterized as an emerging economic super power. The huge demographic dividend, the high quality engineering and management talent, the powerful Indian diaspora and the emerging Indian transnational--kneeling the optimism. In contrast, there is another profile of India which is rather gloomy. This is the country with the largest number of the poor, illiterates and unemployed in the world. High infant mortality, morbidity and widespread anaemia among women and children continue. India suffers from acute economic and social disparities. This article addresses four dimensions of such disparities, viz. regional, rural-urban, social, and gender. There is empirical evidence to indicate that during the last two decades all these disparities have been increasing. As a result of economic reforms, the southern and western States experienced accelerated economic and social development as compared to northern and eastern States. This has led to widening gap in income, poverty and other indicators of development between the two regions. Rural-urban divide also widened in the wake of reforms. While large and medium cities experience unprecedented economic prosperity, the rural areas experience economic stagnation. As a result, there is widespread agrarian distress which results in farmers' suicide and rural unrest. Socially backward sections, especially scheduled castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have gained little from the new prosperity which rewards disproportionately those with assets, skills and higher education. STs have often been victims of development as a result of displacement. The gender gap in social and economic status, traditionally more in India as compared to other societies; has further widened by the economic reforms and globalization. The approach paper to the Eleventh Plan stresses the importance of more inclusive economic growth. It emphasizes the need for bridging the divides discussed in this article. Unless these are achieved in a time

  8. Environmental Factors in an Ontario Community with Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sritharan, Jeavana; Kamaleswaran, Rishikesan; McFarlan, Ken; Lemonde, Manon; George, Clemon; Sanchez, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In Ontario, there are significant geographical disparities in colorectal cancer incidence. In particular, the northern region of Timiskaming has the highest incidence of colorectal cancer in Ontario while the southern region of Peel displays the lowest. We aimed to identify non-nutritional modifiable environmental factors in Timiskaming that may be associated with its diverging colorectal cancer incidence rates when compared to Peel. Methods: We performed a systematic review to ide...

  9. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Presentation and Treatment of Graves' Disease and Thyroid Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargason, Caroline W; Chelnis, James G; Barahimi, Behin I; Mawn, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an inflammatory, autoimmune orbitopathy with multifactorial etiology. Clinical presentation of TED spans a range from mild surface irritation to vision threatening compressive optic neuropathy. Potential vision loss underscores the importance of understanding genetic and environmental factors influencing the severity of TED presentation. This review will describe the classic risk factors for TED, outline treatments for Graves' disease (GD) and TED, and describe newer evidence of socioeconomic disparities in TED presentation.

  10. The coalition to reduce racial and ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease outcomes (credo): why credo matters to cardiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, Clyde W; Wang, Tracy Y; Ventura, Hector O; Piña, Ileana L; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Ferdinand, Keith C; Hall, Laura Lee

    2011-01-18

    This report reviews the rationale for the American College of Cardiology's Coalition to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes (credo) and the tools that will be made available to cardiologists and others treating cardiovascular disease (CVD) to better meet the needs of their diverse patient populations. Even as the patient population with CVD grows increasingly diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, age, and sex, many cardiologists and other health care providers are unaware of the negative influence of disparate care on CVD outcomes and do not have the tools needed to improve care and outcomes for patients from different demographic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Reviewed published reports assessed the need for redressing CVD disparities and the evidence concerning interventions that can assist cardiology care providers in improving care and outcomes for diverse CVD patient populations. Evidence points to the effectiveness of performance measure-based quality improvement, provider cultural competency training, team-based care, and patient education as strategies to promote the elimination of disparate CVD care and in turn might lead to better outcomes. credo has launched several initiatives built on these evidence-based principles and will be expanding these tools along with research. credo will provide the CVD treatment community with greater awareness of disparities and tools to help close the gap in care and outcomes for all patient subpopulations.

  11. Reducing Racial Health Care Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Large health disparities persist between Black and White Americans. The social psychology of intergroup relations suggests some solutions to health care disparities due to racial bias. Three paths can lead from racial bias to poorer health among Black Americans. First is the already well-documented physical and psychological toll of being a target of persistent discrimination. Second, implicit bias can affect physicians’ perceptions and decisions, creating racial disparities in medical treatm...

  12. Entamoeba dispar: genetic diversity of Iranian isolates based on serine-rich Entamoeba dispar protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, A; Rasti, S; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, E; Kazemi, B; Bandehpour, M; Nochi, Z; Hooshyar, H; Rezaian, M

    2008-12-01

    The nucleotide sequences of Serine-Rich Entamoeba histolytica Protein (SREHP) gene have already exhibited stable and significant polymorphism in the gene studies. Serine-rich protein is also present and polymorphic in Entamoeba dispar which called SREDP. The polymorphism of the Serine-Rich Entamoeba dispar Protein (SREDP) gene among 8 isolates obtained from Iranian cyst carriers were analyzed by a nested PCR-RFLP followed by sequencing of the PCR products. From those isolates, six distinct DNA patterns were observed after PCR-RFLP of the nested PCR, whereas sequencing showed 8 different patterns among the isolates. The results demonstrate an extensive genetic variability among Iranian E. dispar isolates. The repeat-containing region of the SREDP was found extensively polymorphic in size, number and order of repeat units. Genetic diversity of Iranian E. dispar isolates based on the SREDP was more polymorphic in comparison of Serine-Rich Entamoeba histolytica Protein (SREHP) of the E. histolytica isolates as well as were different from a few known SREDP genes.

  13. Computer-assisted transoral surgery with flexible robotics and navigation technologies: a review of recent progress and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Lim, Chwee Ming; Wang, Jiaole; Liu, Wei; Song, Shuang; Li, Zheng; Herbert, Geraint; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Tan, Zeqi

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the flexible robotic surgery and navigation technologies that are currently available and under research development, in particular for transoral robotic surgery, in both broad and narrow senses. The clinical background, classifications, associated biomedical robotics applications, and surgical outcomes are illustrated in this new paradigm of minimally invasive surgery. The state-of-the-art robotic and navigation systems for transoral procedures are reviewed by identifying their key properties and considerations. The use of different materials and actuation methods by current robotic systems offers various movements for different purposes, and their characteristics are compared. The future research trends of robotic and navigation systems for transoral procedures are discussed in terms of emerging new material, actuation, and sensing technologies.

  14. Review on δ-Transformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) Steels with Low Density: The Concept and Current Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, H. L.

    2014-09-01

    Novel alloys with high aluminum addition, so-called δ-transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP), have been developed recently for the third generation of advanced high strength steels for automotive applications, which are promising owing to the potential weldability as well as the combination of strength and ductility. In addition, the high aluminum addition results in a density reduction of approximately 5% in these δ-TRIP alloys without sacrificing the Young's modulus in uniaxial tensile tests. The origin of δ-TRIP concept is introduced first with a review of the published work on δ-TRIP alloys. This review will include methodology for retention of δ-ferrite in casting, rolling and welding conditions, microstructure evolution by austempering, as well as microstructures-properties relationship involving the roles of blocky and lath retained austenite. In addition, currently unresolved problems will be discussed regarding the fundamentals of materials design, automotive application, and industrial manufacturing.

  15. System and Method for Aiding Pilot Preview, Rehearsal, Review, and Real-Time Visual Acquisition of Flight Mission Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, III, Lawrence J. (Inventor); Pope, Alan T. (Inventor); Williams, Steven P. (Inventor); Bailey, Randall E. (Inventor); Arthur, Jarvis J. (Inventor); Kramer, Lynda J. (Inventor); Schutte, Paul C. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention permit flight paths (current and planned) to be viewed from various orientations to provide improved path and terrain awareness via graphical two-dimensional or three-dimensional perspective display formats. By coupling the flight path information with a terrain database, uncompromising terrain awareness relative to the path and ownship is provided. In addition, missed approaches, path deviations, and any navigational path can be reviewed and rehearsed before performing the actual task. By rehearsing a particular mission, check list items can be reviewed, terrain awareness can be highlighted, and missed approach procedures can be discussed by the flight crew. Further, the use of Controller Pilot Datalink Communications enables data-linked path, flight plan changes, and Air Traffic Control requests to be integrated into the flight display of the present invention.

  16. [Progress of Experimental Research on Differentiation of Muscle-Derived Stem Cells into Haematopoietic Lineages in Vitro -Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan-Juan; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Wang, Tao; Dou, Hao-Ying

    2016-12-01

    Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSC) are a population of multipotent stem cells in the muscular tissue. It provide an excellent prospect of hemopathy treatment due to their superiorities, such as rich sources, convenient material resource and a high survival rate after transplantation and so on. However, there are great differences in sampling, separation, purification, and proliferation when MDSC were cultured in vitro. In addition, the proliferation conditions of the MDSC in vitro are yet unclear. The related regulatory mechanisms, which MDSC transformed into haematopoietic cells, need to be investigated. In this article, the experimental researches on the differentiation of MDSC into haematopoietic lineages are reviewed, the concrete problems discussed in this review are culture of MDSC in vitro, identification of MDSC, proleferation of MDSC, differention of MDSC in to hematopoietic lineages and so on.

  17. Control and non-progression of HIV-1 infection in sub-Saharan Africa: A case and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Patel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Elite and viraemic controllers represent unique subsets of HIV-infected patients who may also be long-term non-progressors (LTNPs. LNTPs constitute an estimated 1 - 15% of the total HIV-positive population in the USA and Europe, but less is known about their epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. Though the exact mechanisms for long-term non-progression appear to be numerous and are still under investigation, research on elite controllers may hold the key to new therapeutics and vaccine development. The clinical management of such patients can be challenging, as there are no standard guidelines for treatment, particularly in resource-limited settings. We describe the case of an HIV-infected Botswanan man who is likely an elite or viraemic controller.

  18. Progress on Phytoremediation of Drainage Water N and P Pollution in Farmland Drainage Ditches:A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Liang-guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution is a main issue that contributes to the water quality-induced shortage of global water resources. After cleaner production technology successfully applied to the industrial pollution control, agricultural non-point source pollution has been the biggest contributor to water pollution, in particular, the leading source of excess nitrogen and phosphorus in surface water and gaining more attention. The phytoremediation technology has been gradually applied to improve surface water quality because of the advantages in its insitu remediation and no secondary pollution. This paper summarized the progress made on the main approaches, influencing factors and issues of removing N and P in farmland drainage water using phytoremediation. Recommendations regarding to the future research in strengthening plant combination, its economic and social efficiencies, and the implementation from small scale demonstration to large scale extension will be proposed. It would further support improving the effect of agricultural nonpoint source pollution control.

  19. A systematic review of the risks factors associated with the onset and natural progression of spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnan, Jennifer; Walsh, Stephanie; Sikora, Lindsey; Morrissey, Andrea; Collins, Kayla; MacDonald, Don

    2016-03-19

    The purpose of this study was to systematically assess and synthesize the world literature on risk factors for the onset and natural progression of spina bifida, thereby providing a basis for policy makers to identify appropriate risk management measures to mitigate the burden of disease in Canada. Searches of several health literature databases from inception to February 2013 were conducted by a health sciences librarian. A total of three meta-analyses that studied a risk factor for the onset of spina bifida were included. Pooled results showed that paternal exposure to Agent Orange (RR=2.02; 95% CI 1.48-2.74) and maternal obesity prior to pregnancy (OR=2.24; 95% CI 1.86-2.74) each increased the risk of having a child with spina bifida. Paternal exposure to organic solvents was also close to the limit of significance (OR=1.59; 95% CI 0.99-2.56). A total of 63 observational studies, encompassing hundreds of potential risk factors, were included for risk factors for the onset of disease. One meta-analysis and four observational studies examined the impact of genetic risk factors. Only specified mutations in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) genes were found to be linked to disease onset. One observational study evaluated a risk factor for the natural progression of disease. An extensive number of potential risk factors for the onset of spina bifida have been studied, though most lack sufficient evidence to confirm an association. Currently, strong evidence exists to suggest a causal association for maternal obesity prior to pregnancy, and paternal exposure to Agent Orange.

  20. Regional Warming by Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone:A Review of Progresses and Research Challenges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosol and tropospheric ozone (O3) are major air pollutants with short lifetimes of days to weeks in the atmosphere. These short-lived species have also made signifi cant contributions to global warming since the preindustrial times (IPCC, 2013). Reductions in short-lived BC and tropospheric O3 have been proposed as a complementary strategy to reductions in greenhouse gases. With the rapid economic development, concentrations of BC and tropospheric O3 are relatively high in China, and therefore quantifying their roles in regional climate change is especially important. This review summarizes the existing knowledge with regard to impacts of BC and tropospheric O3 on climate change in China and defi nes critical gaps needed to assess the climate benefi ts of emission control measures. Measured concentrations of BC and tropospheric O3, optical properties of BC, as well as the model estimates of radiative forcing by BC and tropospheric O3 are summarized. We also review regional and global modeling studies that have investigated climate change driven by BC and tropospheric O3 in China;predicted sign and magnitude of the responses in temperature and precipitation to BC/O3 forcing are presented. Based on the review of previous studies, research challenges pertaining to reductions in short-lived species to mitigate global warming are highlighted.

  1. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sarahn M; Bryant, Allison S

    2017-03-01

    A health disparity is defined as an increased burden of an adverse health outcome or health determinant within a specific subset of the population. There are well-documented racial and ethnic disparities throughout health care at the patient, provider, and health care system levels. As the minority populations within the United States grow to record numbers, it is increasingly important to invest in efforts to characterize, understand, and end racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Inequities in health outcomes and care pose real threats to the entire nation's well-being. Eliminating health disparities is fundamental to the well-being, productivity, and viability of the entire nation.

  2. A narrative review on role of Yoga as an adjuvant in the management of risk factor, disease progression and the complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooventhan, A

    2017-03-06

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major health problems in the world as well as in India that greatly affects the health care sector and economy. Use of drugs has its own drawbacks and in recent days the use of non-medical measures were reported not only to manage T2DM, but also to prevent its complications. Through there are various review articles that are dealing with the effect of Yoga on risk profiles, management along with the mechanisms of action of yoga in T2DM separately, there is a lack of comprehensive review on the effect of Yoga in combination with all the above mentioned including the effect of Yoga in the management of T2DM complications. Hence, we performed a narrative review in Medline/PubMed using keyword "Yoga and diabetes". All the relevant articles published till 08th November 2016 were included. Based on the available literature, it could be concluded that Yoga plays a vital role as an adjuvant in the management of risk factors, disease progression and the complications of the T2DM. Further studies are warranted using standard research designs and variables to find out the various mechanisms of effects of Yoga in detail. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  4. The Determinants Of Population Health Spatial Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modranka Emilia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Health of the population is one of the basic factors of social development. The results of empirical studies indicate a number of factors determining the level of health of the population related to access to health care services, the level of environmental pollution and the wealth of society. It must be assumed that the observed disparities in the health depend on distributions of particular determinants. The aim of the article is to assess the significance of the main factors affecting the occurrence of spatial disparities in the level of social development districts NTS-4 in terms of health of the population. The analysis was based on estimates of the Spatial Durbin Model (SDM which takes into account the impact of neighborhood spatial units on level of dependent variable and the explanatory variables. The size of the level of social development in terms of health of the population in the study was approximate by the aggregate value of the index, which is the local component of the Local Human Development Index LHDI.

  5. Efficacy and safety of second-line agents for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Perletti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the efficacy and the safety of second-line agents targeting metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC that has progressed after docetaxel. Pooled-analysis was also performed, to assess the effectiveness of agents targeting the androgen axis via identical mechanisms of action (abiraterone acetate, orteronel. Materials and Methods: We included phase III randomized controlled trials that enrolled patients with mCRPC progressing during or after first-line docetaxel treatment. Trials were identified by electronic database searching. The primary outcome of the review was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS and severe adverse effects (grade 3 or higher. Results: Ten articles met the inclusion criteria for the review. These articles reported the results of five clinical trials, enrolling in total 5047 patients. The experimental interventions tested in these studies were enzalutamide, ipilimumab, abiraterone acetate, orteronel and cabazitaxel. Compared to control cohorts (active drug-treated or placebotreated, the significant overall survival advantages achieved were 4.8 months for enzalutamide (hazard ratio for death vs. placebo: 0.63; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.75, P < 0.0001, 4.6 months for abiraterone (hazard ratio for death vs. placebo: 0.66, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.75, P < 0.0001 and 2.4 months for cabazitaxel (hazard ratio for death vs. mitoxantrone-prednisone: 0.70, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.83, p < 0.0001. Pooled analysis of androgen synthesis inhibitors orteronel and abiraterone resulted in significantly increased overall and progression-free survival for anti-androgen agents, compared to placebo (hazard ratio for death: 0.76, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.87, P < 0.0001; hazard ratio for radiographic progression: 0.7, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.77, P < 0.00001. Androgen synthesis inhibitors induced significant increases in risk ratios for adverse effects

  6. Chronic non-progressive pneumonia of sheep in New Zealand - a review of the role of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, M R; Ionas, G; Clarke, J K

    1999-10-01

    Chronic non-progressive pneumonia (CNP) is a common disease which affects lambs in New Zealand during late summer and autumn. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can be recovered from a high proportion of lesions but it is also present in some normal lungs. Bacteria, especially Pasteurella haemolytica, can also be recovered from more than half the lungs of affected animals. Isolates of M. ovipneumoniae are genetically heterogeneous, as demonstrated by examination of their DNA or total cellular proteins, and are serologically heterogeneous as shown by metabolic inhibition tests. The number of strains present in New Zealand is large and several distinguishable strains can be recovered from each affected lung. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has pathogenic potential as indicated by its ability to produce hydrogen peroxide, cause ciliostasis and by its possession of a capsule. Chronic non-progressive pneumonia can be transmitted consistently to over 50% of lambs by inoculation of pooled pneumonic lung homogenate and transmission can be suppressed by broad spectrum antibiotics. In contrast, penicillin does not prevent the development of lesions but diminishes their severity. Pooled lung homogenate treated with digitonin, which inactivates mycoplasmas, has failed to transmit CNP. Pure cultures of M. ovipneumoniae produce only mild lesions in some animals, whereas inoculation with pooled lung homogenate (from which no viruses were isolated) containing mixed strains of M. ovipneumoniae and free from bacteria, is more effective in producing lesions. Research work to date suggests that CNP may be initiated by colonisation of the lung by M. ovipneumoniae which causes ciliostasis and elicits an exudate allowing colonisation of the lungs by bacteria especially M. haemolytica and by other strains of M. ovipneumoniae. The immune response to the initial strain of M. ovipneumoniae may inhibit its replication but would be less effective in inhibiting heterologous strains of the organism allowing

  7. Health disparities from economic burden of diabetes in middle-income countries: evidence from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arredondo

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of diabetes in middle-income countries is generating disparities in global health. In this context we conducted a study to quantify the health disparities from the economic burden of diabetes in México. Evaluative research based on a longitudinal design, using cost methodology by instrumentation. For the estimation of epidemiological changes during the 2010-2012 period, several probabilistic models were developed using the Box-Jenkins technique. The financial requirements were obtained from expected case management costs by disease and the application of an econometric adjustment factor to control the effects of inflation. Comparing the economic impact in 2010 versus 2012 (p<0.05, there was a 33% increase in financial requirements. The total amount for diabetes in 2011 (US dollars was $7.7 billion. It includes $3.4 billion in direct costs and $4.3 in indirect costs. The total direct costs were $.4 billion to the Ministry of Health (SSA, serving the uninsured population; $1.2 to the institutions serving the insured population (Mexican Institute for Social Security-IMSS-, and Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers-ISSSTE-; $1.8 to users; and $.1 to Private Health Insurance (PHI. If the risk factors and the different health care models remain as they currently are in the analyzed institutions, health disparities in terms of financial implications will have the greatest impact on users' pockets. In middle-income countries, health disparities generated by the economic burden of diabetes is one of the main reasons for catastrophic health expenditure. Health disparities generated by the economic burden of diabetes suggests the need to design and review the current organization of health systems and the relevance of moving from biomedical models and curative health care to preventive and socio-medical models to meet expected challenges from diseases like diabetes in middle-income countries.

  8. An official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society policy statement: disparities in respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraufnagel, Dean E; Blasi, Francesco; Kraft, Monica; Gaga, Mina; Finn, Patricia; Rabe, Klaus F

    2013-10-01

    Health disparities, defined as a significant difference in health between populations, are more common for diseases of the respiratory system than for those of other organ systems, because of the environmental influence on breathing and the variation of the environment among different segments of the population. The lowest social groups are up to 14 times more likely to have respiratory diseases than are the highest. Tobacco smoke, air pollution, environmental exposures, and occupational hazards affect the lungs more than other organs and occur disproportionately in ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Lack of access to quality healthcare contributes to disparities. The executive committees of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) established a writing committee to develop a policy on health disparities. The document was reviewed, edited, and approved by their full executive committees and boards of directors of the societies. This document expresses a policy to address health disparities by promoting scientific inquiry and training, disseminating medical information and best practices, and monitoring and advocating for public respiratory health. The ERS and the ATS have strong international commitments and work with leaders from governments, academia, and other organisational bodies to address and reduce avoidable health inequalities. Their training initiatives improve the function of healthcare systems and health equality. Both the ATS and the ERS support all aspects of this document, confer regularly, and act together when possible, but the activities to bring about change may vary because of the differences in the continents where the two organisations carry out most of their activities. The ATS and ERS pledge to frame their actions to reduce respiratory health disparities. The vision of the ATS and ERS is that all persons attain better and sustained respiratory health. They call on all their members

  9. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society policy statement: disparities in respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraufnagel, Dean E; Blasi, Francesco; Kraft, Monica; Gaga, Mina; Finn, Patricia W; Rabe, Klaus F

    2013-10-01

    Health disparities, defined as a significant difference in health between populations, are more common for diseases of the respiratory system than for those of other organ systems, because of the environmental influence on breathing and the variation of the environment among different segments of the population. The lowest social groups are up to 14 times more likely to have respiratory diseases than are the highest. Tobacco smoke, air pollution, environmental exposures, and occupational hazards affect the lungs more than other organs, and occur disproportionately in ethnic minorities and those with lower socioeconomic status. Lack of access to quality health care contributes to disparities. The executive committees of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and European Respiratory Society (ERS) established a writing committee to develop a policy on health disparities. The document was reviewed, edited, and approved by the full executive committees and boards of directors of the societies. This document expresses a policy to address health disparities by promoting scientific inquiry and training, disseminating medical information and best practices, and monitoring and advocating for public respiratory health. ERS and ATS have strong international commitments, and work with leaders from governments, academia, and organizations to address and reduce avoidable health inequalities. Their training initiatives improve the function of health care systems and health equality. Both the ATS and ERS support all aspects of this document, confer regularly, and act together when possible, but the activities to bring about change may vary because of the differences in the continents where the two organizations carry out most of their activities. The ATS and ERS pledge to frame their actions to reduce respiratory health disparities. The vision of the ATS and ERS is that all persons attain better and sustained respiratory health. They call on all their members and other societies to

  10. Development and Dissemination of the El Centro Health Disparities Measures Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrani, Victoria Behar; O'Day, Joanne E; Norris, Timothy B; Adebayo, Oluwamuyiwa Winifred

    2017-09-01

    This report describes the development and dissemination of a library of English measures, with Spanish translations, on constructs relevant to social determinants of health and behavioral health outcomes. The El Centro Measures Library is a product of the Center of Excellence for Health Disparities Research: El Centro, a program funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The library is aimed at enhancing capacity for minority health and health disparities research, particularly for Hispanics living in the United States and abroad. The open-access library of measures (available through www.miami.edu/sonhs/measureslibrary) contains brief descriptions of each measure, scoring information (where available), links to related peer-reviewed articles, and measure items in both languages. Links to measure websites where commercially available measures can be purchased are included, as is contact information for measures that require author permission. Links to several other measures libraries are hosted on the library website. Other researchers may contribute to the library. El Centro investigators began the library by electing to use a common set of measures across studies to assess demographic information, culture-related variables, proximal outcomes of interest, and major outcomes. The collection was expanded to include other health disparity research studies. In 2012, a formal process was developed to organize, expand, and centralize the library in preparation for a gradual process of dissemination to the national and international community of researchers. The library currently contains 61 measures encompassing 12 categories of constructs. Thus far, the library has been accessed 8,883 times (unique page views as generated by Google Analytics), and responses from constituencies of users and measure authors have been favorable. With the paucity of availability and accessibility of translated

  11. 钛合金的研究进展与应用现状%Review on the Research Progress and Application of Titanium Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昂; 毛振东

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the research progress of titanium alloys in China and other countries, especially aerospace titanium alloys, marine titanium alloys, and low-cost titanium alloys. It also briefly summaries the application of titanium alloys in the aerospace, naval ship and automobile and chemical industry, and gives the development trends of titanium alloys.%综述了国内外钛合金的研究进展和应用现状,具体介绍了航空用钛合金、船用钛合金及低成本钛合金的研究进展,简要概述了钛合金在航空航天、舰船及汽车和化工行业的应用现状,并对我国钛行业的发展进行了展望。

  12. Progress Review of the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertensive Disorder During Pregnancy%妊娠期高血压疾病诊断及治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余秀琼; 戴玫

    2012-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain a major cause of maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality in China. Hypertension in China is the most common and severe medical problem to occur during pregnancy. This article reviews recent progress made in diagnosis and management of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.%妊娠期高血压疾病目前仍然是我国孕产妇死亡的主要原因之一,是威胁母婴健康最常见最严重的一种疾病.但由于妊娠期的特殊性,缺乏前瞻性随机大规模的循证证据.现综述近年妊娠期高血压疾病的诊断及治疗进展.

  13. The feasibility and educational value of Hear My Voice, a chaplain-led spiritual life review process for patients with brain cancers and progressive neurologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piderman, Katherine M; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Jenkins, Sarah M; Lovejoy, Laura A; Dulohery, Yvette M; Marek, Dean V; Durland, Heidi L; Head, Debra L; Swanson, Spence W; Hogg, James T; Evans, John L; Jorgenson, Scott E; Bunkowski, Laura J; Jones, Karl L; Euerle, Terin T; Kwete, Gracia M; Miller, Keith A; Morris, Jacob R; Yoder, Timothy J; Lapid, Maria I; Jatoi, Aminah

    2015-06-01

    Research continues to establish the importance of spirituality for many persons with medical illnesses. This paper describes a pilot study titled, "Hear My Voice," designed to provide an opportunity for persons with progressive neurologic illnesses, including brain tumors and other neurodegenerative diseases, to review and discuss their spirituality with a board-certified chaplain, and to prepare a spiritual legacy document (SLD). First, we provide background information that underscores the importance of such a project for this patient population that is particularly vulnerable to cognitive impairment and communication difficulties. Second, we provide detailed methodology, including the semi-structured interview format used, the development of the SLD, and an overview of responses from participants and investigators. We also describe the quantitative and qualitative approaches to analysis taken with the aim of developing scientific validation in support of the Hear My Voice project.

  14. The Research Progress of SiRNA Targeting Notch1 on Tumor Cells: A Mini Review of the State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanfen Huo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Notch signaling is a highly conserved signaling pathway, playing an important role in a variety of cell differentiation, development and regulation. Notch signaling includes Notch1-4; Notch1 gene encodes Notch1 signaling that can shorten cell cycle, enhance cell proliferation, inhibit cell differentiation, and promote apoptosis. Mutation and overexpression of the Notch1 gene may induce tumorigenesis, which plays an important role in the development of tumors across a variety of signaling pathways. Currently, using RNA interference technology (RNAi synthesizing small interference RNA (siRNA targeting Notch1 gene(siNotch1)has become a hot topic, and clinical application of gene silencing has also obtained a certain therapeutic effect. In this paper, the application of Notch1 gene silencing in tumor progress was reviewed.

  15. Problem of ticks and tick-borne diseases in India with special emphasis on progress in tick control research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Nagar, Gaurav

    2014-12-01

    Ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. The diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. A number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV), Babesia spp, Theileria, Rickettsia conorii, Anaplasma marginale, etc. and the damages caused by them are well-recognised. There is a need to reassess the renewed threat posed by the tick vectors and to prioritize the tick control research programme. This review is focused on the major tick-borne human and animal diseases in India and the progress in vector control research with emphasis on acaricide resistance, tick vaccine and the development of potential phytoacaricides as an integral part of integrated tick control programme.

  16. Surgical treatment of Chiari malformation: review and progress%Chiari畸形外科治疗回顾与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏超; 刘勇; 菅凤增; 张远征

    2012-01-01

    The surgical treatment of Chiari malformation (CM) began in 1932. With the advance of medical technology, the surgical technique of CM is also in constant improvement. But due to its pathogenesis has not yet clear, there is no accepted optimal method, and different levels of the operation is still controversial. The author reviewed the concept, pathogenesis, diagnosis and surgical treatment of CM. The hot topics and new technological application were also reviewed in this article.%Chiari畸形的外科治疗始于1932 年,70 余年来随着医学技术的不断进步,其手术方式不断改进.然而,由于发病机制至今尚未明确,致使不能形成一种临床公认的最佳外科手术方法,手术过程中不同层次的操作步骤或具体方法仍存有争议.本文拟就Chiari畸形的概念、发病机制、诊断与神经外科手术治疗方法进行回顾,并对目前的热点问题和新技术应用进行概述.

  17. The NIHR Invention for Innovation (i4i) Programme: A Review of Progress and Contributions to Innovation in Healthcare Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Krapels, Joachim; Sousa, Sonia; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Horvath, Veronika; Chataway, Joanna

    2015-11-30

    The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Invention for Innovation (i4i) programme supports the development of innovative medical technologies for patient benefit. The i4i product development stream involves collaborative projects between at least two partners from academia, the NHS and industry. Medical technology innovators apply for funding for one to three years, through a peer review-based process that includes presentation to a selection panel. The funding and business advice provided by i4i support the development of early-stage innovations, generally at proof of concept and prototype stages. Since its inception the product development stream has identified and supported 170 projects, led by 146 principal investigators (PIs). RAND Europe evaluated the programme, with the aim of identifying its outputs and impacts and examining the factors influencing performance. The evaluation findings should help inform the future of the programme. The evaluation used a multi-method approach, including a focused review of background information from i4i, scoping interviews with key informants, a survey of programme participants and case studies of projects representing diverse technologies and health needs.

  18. How dietary patterns could have a role in prevention, progression, or management of diabetes mellitus? Review on the current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Maghsoudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of dietary patterns in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of databases which were published in ISI, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, PubMed, Iran Medex, and MagIran was performed. "Diabetes" and "dietary pattern" were used as the keywords. Results: A total of 58 studies which aimed to focus on diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, dietary pattern, and other related key words were reviewed. More than 47,447 articles were found and 46,709 entries of the extracted studies were excluded on the basis of the title and abstracts. The major dietary patterns were: "Healthy," "Western," "Traditional," "Prudent," "Unhealthy," "Mediterranean," "Modern," and "Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension" (DASH diets. Comparison of the effects of different diets revealed that dietary patterns containing fiber-rich foods have a protective role in managing diabetes mellitus. "Healthy," "Mediterranean," "Prudent," and "DASH" dietary patterns were associated with lower risk of hyperglycemia. Conclusions: The adherence to the "Mediterranean," "Prudent," or "DASH" diets could control hyperglycemia. The higher intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, and lower intake of red meat could reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. A Decade of Progress Using Virtual Reality for Poststroke Lower Extremity Rehabilitation: Systematic Review of the Intervention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luque-Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop a systematic review of the literature, to describe the different virtual reality (VR interventions and interactive videogames applied to the lower extremity (LE of stroke patients, and to analyse the results according to the most frequently used outcome measures. Material and Methods. An electronic search of randomized trials between January 2004 and January 2014 in different databases (Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science, PEDro, and Cochrane was carried out. Several terms (virtual reality, feedback, stroke, hemiplegia, brain injury, cerebrovascular accident, lower limb, leg, and gait were combined, and finally 11 articles were included according to the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results. The reviewed trials showed a high heterogeneity in terms of study design and assessment tools, which makes it difficult to compare and analyze the different types of interventions. However, most of them found a significant improvement on gait speed, balance and motor function, due to VR intervention. Conclusions. Although evidence is limited, it suggests that VR intervention (more than 10 sessions in stroke patients may have a positive impact on balance, and gait recovery. Better results were obtained when a multimodal approach, combining VR and conventional physiotherapy, was used. Flexible software seems to adapt better to patients’ requirements, allowing more specific and individual treatments.

  20. A Decade of Progress Using Virtual Reality for Poststroke Lower Extremity Rehabilitation: Systematic Review of the Intervention Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To develop a systematic review of the literature, to describe the different virtual reality (VR) interventions and interactive videogames applied to the lower extremity (LE) of stroke patients, and to analyse the results according to the most frequently used outcome measures. Material and Methods. An electronic search of randomized trials between January 2004 and January 2014 in different databases (Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science, PEDro, and Cochrane) was carried out. Several terms (virtual reality, feedback, stroke, hemiplegia, brain injury, cerebrovascular accident, lower limb, leg, and gait) were combined, and finally 11 articles were included according to the established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results. The reviewed trials showed a high heterogeneity in terms of study design and assessment tools, which makes it difficult to compare and analyze the different types of interventions. However, most of them found a significant improvement on gait speed, balance and motor function, due to VR intervention. Conclusions. Although evidence is limited, it suggests that VR intervention (more than 10 sessions) in stroke patients may have a positive impact on balance, and gait recovery. Better results were obtained when a multimodal approach, combining VR and conventional physiotherapy, was used. Flexible software seems to adapt better to patients' requirements, allowing more specific and individual treatments. PMID:26539480

  1. Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome: a comprehensive review of its clinical presentation, relationship to immune system status, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin

    2000-12-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a form of the Varicella zoster virus (VZV) chorioretinitis found almost exclusively in people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to no light perception in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachments often occur after the development of atrophic retinal holes, and silicone oil temponade has been found to be the most successful reattachment procedure. Unfortunately, cataract formation is common after such surgery. PORN needs to be differentiated from acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome, a necrotizing retinitis that can also be caused by VZV. PORN and ARN are found at opposite ends of the spectrum of necrotizing herpetic retinopathies (NHR), where its clinical presentation depends upon immune system status. After a brief case presentation, the distinguishing clinical characteristics of PORN, its differentiation from ARN, attempts at its treatment, the role of the immune system status on its clinical appearance and treatment, and management of complications such as retinal detachment and subsequent cataracts are discussed.

  2. Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of miR-22 in regulating malignant progression in human cancer (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Li, Yuan; Ding, Meiman; Zhang, Honghe; Xu, Xiaoming; Tang, Jinlong

    2017-01-01

    miRNAs (microRNAs) have been validated to play fateful roles in the occurrence and development of cancers by post-transcriptionally targeting 3′-untranslated regions of the downstream gene mRNAs to repress mRNA expression. Mounting investigations forcefully document that not only does miR-22 biologically impinge on the processes of senescence, energy supply, angiogenesis, EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis and apoptosis, but also it genetically or epigenetically exerts dual (inhibitory/promoting cancer) effects in various cancers via CNAs (copy number alterations), SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms), methylation, acetylation and even more momentously hydroxymethylation. Additionally, miR-22 expression may fluctuate with cancer progression in the body fluids of cancer patients and miR-22 could amplify its inhibitory or promoting effects through partaking in positive or negative feedback loops and interplaying with many other related miRNAs in the cascade of events, making it possible for miR-22 to be a promising and complementary or even independent cancer biomarker in some cancers and engendering profound influences on the early diagnosis, therapeutics, supervising curative effects and prognosis. PMID:28000852

  3. Is the control of disease progression within our grasp? Review of the GRISAR study. (Gruppo Reumatologi Italiani Studio Artrite Reumatoide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, G F; Della Casa-Alberighi, O; Marubini, E; Priolo, F; Mathieu, A; Fantini, F; Cutolo, M; Pasero, G

    1996-09-01

    A prospective, open, multicentre, randomized study with a blinded radiological end-point was started in 1991. The aim of the study was to assess whether cyclosporin A (CyA) controls ongoing anatomical damage in active early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) better than conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) as used in everyday clinical practice. A total of 340 consenting patients with early RA (mean duration 1.4 yr) were recruited; 167 were randomized to CyA 3mg/kg per day and 173 to DMARDs. Hand, wrist and foot X-rays were blindly scored by a central committee of three radiologists using the Larsen-Dale method. Any side-effects were carefully recorded. The control of clinical symptoms was similar in both groups. Radiological evaluation of 284 patients (141 on CyA; 143 on DMARDs) after 12 months showed a significant decrease in the mean progression in the eroded joint count (1.3 +/- 3.1 vs 2.4 +/- 3.0, P < 0.001). There was also better maintenance on treatment with CyA than in the group treated with DMARDs (89.2 vs 77.5%, respectively; P = 0.002). CyA seems to offer greater control of ongoing anatomical joint damage in early RA than conventional DMARDs after 12 months.

  4. The controversy over the association between statins use and progression of age-related macular degeneration: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Peponis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasileios Peponis1, Spyridon E Chalkiadakis1, Stefanos Bonovas2,3, Nikolaos M Sitaras21Athens Eye Hospital, 2nd Eye Clinic, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece; 3Center for Diseases Control and Prevention, Athens, GreeceObjective: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of blindness in ¬western societies. Statins comprise a class of pharmacological agents that reduce plasma cholesterol levels, and have been shown to prevent progression of atherosclerosis and reduce cardiovascular mortality. The relationship between these medications and AMD has been evaluated in several recent studies. Herein, we examine the current evidence for an association between statin use and risk of AMD.Methods: Literature database search (Medline, Scopus, and Science Citation Index Expanded for articles published up to March 2010, using particular search terms.Results: From the current evidence available, it is not safe to conclude upon the assumption of a protective effect of statins against age-related maculopathy and AMD.Conclusion: There is a need for large scale prospective studies with a long follow-up period and accurate assessment of AMD to further explore this matter.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration (AMD, blindness, statin use, controversy

  5. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    WEB WATCH (204) Try unearthing some interesting information about archaeology BOOK REVIEWS (206) Teaching and assessing practical skills Book Review: Learn to drive with Sir Isaac Newton DVD REVIEW (207) Bring some sunshine into the classroom EQUIPMENT REVIEWS (208) Robust air puck takes a kicking Flowlog offers sensing options plus multimode datalogging Mastering Chladni figures takes practice but it offers surprises

  6. Genetic association studies of suicidal behaviour: A review of the past 10 years, progress, limitations and future directions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOJAN MIRKOVIC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behaviours, which range from suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide, represent a fatal dimension of mental ill-health. The involvement of genetic risk factors in suicidal behaviour is supported by family, twin, and adoption studies. The aim of this paper is to review recent genetic association studies in suicidal behaviours including (i case-control studies, (ii family-based association studies and (iii genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Various studies on genetic associations have tended to suggest that a number of genes (e.g., tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin receptors and transporters or brain-derived neurotrophic factors are linked to suicidal behaviours, but these findings are not consistently supported by the results obtained. Although the candidate-gene approach is useful, it is hampered by the present state of knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of diseases. Interpretations of GWAS results are mostly hindered by a lack of annotation describing the functions of most variation throughout the genome.Association studies have addressed a wide range of SNPs in numerous genes. We have included 104 such studies, of which 10 are family-based association studies and 11 are GWAS studies. Numerous meta-analyses of case-control studies have shown significant associations of suicidal behaviour with variants in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT or SLC6A4 and the tryptophane hydroxylase1 gene (TPH1, but others report contradictory results. The gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its receptor (NTRK2 are also promising candidates. Only two of the GWAS studies showed any significant associations. Several pathways are mentioned in an attempt to understand the lack of reproducibility and the disappointing results. Consequently, we review and discuss here the following aspects: (i sample characteristics and confounding factors; (ii statistical limits; (iii gene-gene interactions; (iv gene

  7. Identifying risk and preventing progression to Type 2 diabetes in vulnerable and disadvantaged adults: a pragmatic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Cottrell, C; Chatterton, H; Hill, J; Hughes, R; Wohlgemuth, C; Holt, R I G

    2013-01-01

    To identify effective approaches to recognize diabetes risk and prevent progression to Type 2 diabetes in vulnerable groups, whose diabetes risk may be difficult to identify or manage. UK-based interventions that assess diabetes risk and/or target known risk factors were identified through four main sources: submissions to two calls for evidence by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; local practice examples collected via a targeted email questionnaire; selected electronic databases; and a focused search of relevant websites. No restriction was placed on the study type or evaluation methods used. Key themes and sub-themes on outcomes, as well as facilitators and barriers to successful delivery, are reported. Twenty-four interventions met all inclusion criteria: 15 included a risk identification element and 14 included preventative activities. A range of risk identification tools were used to improve diagnosis of unmet diabetes-related health needs and raise awareness of diabetes risk factors. All preventative interventions focused on lifestyle change. No interventions monitored blood glucose as an outcome and only one reported improvements in baseline risk scores. Facilitators included tailored and flexible programme design, outreach delivery in familiar locations and effective inter-agency working. Barriers included literacy and language difficulties, transient participant populations, low prioritization of diabetes prevention and cost. It is possible to engage successfully with high-risk adults in vulnerable groups to achieve positive health outcomes relevant to the prevention of diabetes. However, more robust evidence on longer-term outcomes is required to ensure that programmes are targeted and delivered appropriately. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  8. Progress in new vaccine strategies against influenza: a review%流感疫苗研制的新策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志辉; 姜涛; 秦鄂德; 冉多良; 秦成峰

    2012-01-01

    Influenza, caused by influenza virus, is a serious respiratory illness which poses a global public health threat. Vaccination is the primary strategy for the prevention and control of influenza. Although both inactivated vaccines and the live attenuated vaccines are effective in preventing influenza, the current vaccines have poor efficacy in the elderly and fail to provide protection against heterosubtype viruses. Development of a safer and more effective influenza vaccine that provides broad cross protection, overcoming the intrinsic limitation of the current vaccines, has been a scientific challenge.During the past decades, structural biology, reverse genetic and other virological technologies developed quickly and sped the progress of influenza vaccinology. Some new strategies for developing influenza vaccine have been generated, produced encouraging results, which showed great prospect as next-generation of influenza vaccines.%流感病毒感染可引起急性呼吸道传染病,严重危害人类的健康与生命.疫苗免疫是防控流感的重要手段.目前广泛应用的传统灭活疫苗和减毒活疫苗,在预防流感中发挥了重要作用,但存在通用性差和免疫效率低等不足.研制更为安全高效特别是能针对多种流感亚型的新型广谱疫苗成为当前流感疫苗研究的热点.随着结构生物学和反向遗传生物学等新技术的迅速发展,一些新策略不断应用于新型流感疫苗的研究,显示出良好的应用前景.

  9. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  10. Vector disparity sensor with vergence control for active vision systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Francisco; Diaz, Javier; Gibaldi, Agostino; Sabatini, Silvio P; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based) and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system.

  11. Vector Disparity Sensor with Vergence Control for Active Vision Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ros

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an architecture for computing vector disparity for active vision systems as used on robotics applications. The control of the vergence angle of a binocular system allows us to efficiently explore dynamic environments, but requires a generalization of the disparity computation with respect to a static camera setup, where the disparity is strictly 1-D after the image rectification. The interaction between vision and motor control allows us to develop an active sensor that achieves high accuracy of the disparity computation around the fixation point, and fast reaction time for the vergence control. In this contribution, we address the development of a real-time architecture for vector disparity computation using an FPGA device. We implement the disparity unit and the control module for vergence, version, and tilt to determine the fixation point. In addition, two on-chip different alternatives for the vector disparity engines are discussed based on the luminance (gradient-based and phase information of the binocular images. The multiscale versions of these engines are able to estimate the vector disparity up to 32 fps on VGA resolution images with very good accuracy as shown using benchmark sequences with known ground-truth. The performances in terms of frame-rate, resource utilization, and accuracy of the presented approaches are discussed. On the basis of these results, our study indicates that the gradient-based approach leads to the best trade-off choice for the integration with the active vision system.

  12. Poverty and elimination of urban health disparities: challenge and opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen B; Quinn, Sandra Crouse

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the intersection of race and poverty, two critical factors fueling persistent racial and ethnic health disparities among urban populations. From the morass of social determinants that shape the health of racial and ethnic communities in our urban centers, we will offer promising practices and potential solutions to eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities.

  13. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  14. Black-white preterm birth disparity: a marker of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose. The racial disparity in preterrn birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology, inconsistently modeled in the literature. Rather than include race as an explanatory variable, or employ race-stratified models, we sought to directly model the PTB disparity ...

  15. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  16. Black-white preterm birth disparity: a marker of inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose. The racial disparity in preterrn birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology, inconsistently modeled in the literature. Rather than include race as an explanatory variable, or employ race-stratified models, we sought to directly model the PTB disparity ...

  17. Challenges for Multilevel Health Disparities Research in a Transdisciplinary Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, John H.; Lehman, Amy; Hade, Erinn; Ferketich, Amy K.; Sarah, Gehlert; Rauscher, Garth H.; Abrams, Judith; Bird, Chloe E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous factors play a part in health disparities. Although health disparities are manifested at the level of the individual, other contexts should be considered when investigating the associations of disparities with clinical outcomes. These contexts include families, neighborhoods, social organizations, and healthcare facilities. This paper reports on health disparities research as a multilevel research domain from the perspective of a large national initiative. The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) program was established by the NIH to examine the highly dimensional, complex nature of disparities and their effects on health. Because of its inherently transdisciplinary nature, the CPHHD program provides a unique environment in which to perform multilevel health disparities research. During the course of the program, the CPHHD centers have experienced challenges specific to this type of research. The challenges were categorized along three axes: sources of subjects and data, data characteristics, and multilevel analysis and interpretation. The CPHHDs collectively offer a unique example of how these challenges are met; just as importantly, they reveal a broad range of issues that health disparities researchers should consider as they pursue transdisciplinary investigations in this domain, particularly in the context of a large team science initiative. PMID:18619398

  18. Gender-based disparities in access to and outcomes of livertransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omobonike O Oloruntoba; Cynthia A Moylan

    2015-01-01

    Despite comprising 35% of transplants, the numberof female transplant recipients has continued todecline. Accordingly, there is a growing attentionto the issue of access to and outcomes of livertransplantation in women. The purpose of this reviewis to critically evaluate the published literature onetiologies contributing to gender-based disparitiesin liver transplantation focusing on the steps fromchronic liver disease through transplantation includingdisparities in liver disease prevalence, access to livertransplant centers and transplant waiting list, receiptof liver transplantation once listed and disparities inpost-liver transplantation outcomes. Our review findsfactors contributing to this disparity may include genderdifferences in the etiology of underlying liver diseaseand patient and physician referral patterns, lifestyle andhealth care, but also utilization of an imperfect organallocation system based on the model for end stage liverdisease score and donor-recipient liver size matching.The review also highlights the need for further researchin the area of gender disparity in order to developappropriate approaches to address it and to improveallocation of this precious resource in the future.

  19. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  20. Husserl and Heidegger: exploring the disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell-Henry, Tracy; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2009-02-01

    Introduced as an alternative to empirical science, phenomenology offers nursing an insightful means for understanding nursing phenomena specifically in relation to lived experiences. However, not all phenomenologies were created equal, a point which has left many a nursing researcher not only confused. Furthermore, this confusion might result in the choosing of a philosophical framework that is neither cognizant with the research question nor the epistemological lens through which the researcher operates. Drawing on common nursing examples to illustrate concepts, the authors closely examine and debate the disparities between Husserl's transcendental phenomenology and Heidegger's hermeneutic approach to phenomenology. The aim of the article is to demystify the dense language used and present the fundamental beliefs of each philosopher in a format that is accessible to novice phenomenologists.

  1. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Juarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.

  2. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Lapka, Christina; Wellborn, Rachel; Clark, Eddie M; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta; Jacobsen, Heather M; Casey, Chris

    2008-11-01

    Little is known about how minority groups react to public information that highlights racial disparities in cancer. This double-blind randomized study compared emotional and behavioral reactions to four versions of the same colon cancer (CRC) information presented in mock news articles to a community sample of African-American adults (n = 300). Participants read one of four articles that varied in their framing and interpretation of race-specific CRC mortality data, emphasizing impact (CRC is an important problem for African-Americans), two dimensions of disparity (Blacks are doing worse than Whites and Blacks are improving, but less than Whites), or progress (Blacks are improving over time). Participants exposed to disparity articles reported more negative emotional reactions to the information and were less likely to want to be screened for CRC than those in other groups (both P effect on intention. This seems especially important among those with high levels of medical mistrust who are least likely to use the health care system and are thus the primary target of health promotion advertising.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, M.; Nur, O.; Zhao, Q. X.; Yang, L. L.; Lorenz, M.; Cao, B. Q.; Zúñiga Pérez, J.; Czekalla, C.; Zimmermann, G.; Grundmann, M.; Bakin, A.; Behrends, A.; Al-Suleiman, M.; El-Shaer, A.; Che Mofor, A.; Postels, B.; Waag, A.; Boukos, N.; Travlos, A.; Kwack, H. S.; Guinard, J.; LeSi Dang, D.

    2009-08-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO), with its excellent luminescent properties and the ease of growth of its nanostructures, holds promise for the development of photonic devices. The recent advances in growth of ZnO nanorods are discussed. Results from both low temperature and high temperature growth approaches are presented. The techniques which are presented include metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), vapour phase epitaxy (VPE), pulse laser deposition (PLD), vapour-liquid-solid (VLS), aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and finally the electrodeposition technique as an example of a selective growth approach. Results from structural as well as optical properties of a variety of ZnO nanorods are shown and analysed using different techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL), for both room temperature and for low temperature performance. These results indicate that the grown ZnO nanorods possess reproducible and interesting optical properties. Results on obtaining p-type doping in ZnO micro- and nanorods are also demonstrated using PLD. Three independent indications were found for p-type conducting, phosphorus-doped ZnO nanorods: first, acceptor-related CL peaks, second, opposite transfer characteristics of back-gate field effect transistors using undoped and phosphorus doped wire channels, and finally, rectifying I-V characteristics of ZnO:P nanowire/ZnO:Ga p-n junctions. Then light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO nanorods combined with different technologies (hybrid technologies) are suggested and the recent electrical, as well as electro-optical, characteristics of these LEDs are shown and discussed. The hybrid LEDs reviewed and discussed here are mainly presented for two groups: those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type crystalline substrates, and those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type amorphous substrates. Promising electroluminescence

  4. Animal health syndromic surveillance: a systematic literature review of the progress in the last 5 years (2011–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dórea FC

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda C Dórea,1 Flavie Vial2 1Department of Disease Control and Epidemiology, National Veterinary Institute (SVA, Uppsala, 2Epi-Connect, Skogås, Sweden Abstract: This review presents the current initiatives and potential for development in the field of animal health surveillance (AHSyS, 5 years on from its advent to the front of the veterinary public health scene. A systematic review approach was used to document the ongoing AHSyS initiatives (active systems and those in pilot phase and recent methodological developments. Clinical data from practitioners and laboratory data remain the main data sources for AHSyS. However, although not currently integrated into prospectively running initiatives, production data, mortality data, abattoir data, and new media sources (such as Internet searches have been the objective of an increasing number of publications seeking to develop and validate new AHSyS indicators. Some limitations inherent to AHSyS such as reporting sustainability and the lack of classification standards continue to hinder the development of automated syndromic analysis and interpretation. In an era of ubiquitous electronic collection of animal health data, surveillance experts are increasingly interested in running multivariate systems (which concurrently monitor several data streams as they are inferentially more accurate than univariate systems. Thus, Bayesian methodologies, which are much more apt to discover the interplay among multiple syndromic data sources, are foreseen to play a big part in the future of AHSyS. It has become clear that early detection of outbreaks may not be the principal expected benefit of AHSyS. As more systems will enter an active prospective phase, following the intensive development stage of the last 5 years, the study envisions AHSyS, in particular for livestock, to significantly contribute to future international-, national-, and local-level animal health intelligence, going beyond the detection and

  5. Left behind: cancer disparities in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Niharika; Crawford, Gregory B; Lemonde, Manon; Rittenberg, Cynthia N; Fernández-Ortega, Paz

    2016-08-01

    Huge advances have been made in cancer treatments over recent decades; however, significant disparities still exist in the developed world on the basis of race, socioeconomic status, education level, geographical location, and immigration status and in the United States, insurance status. Cancer disparities persist in the continuum of cancer care from risk factors, screening, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life care. The causes of disparities are complex and multifactorial. The MASCC (Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer) Education Study Group would like to propose a framework of cancer disparities from a social perspective utilizing "social determinants of health" as delineated by the World Health Organization and highlight an unmet need for research and policy innovations to address cancer disparities in developed world.

  6. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy secondary to rituximab-induced immunosuppression and the presence of John Cunningham virus: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kelly, MBBCH

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 60-year-old man who developed subacute neurologic changes, in the setting of stage III non-Hodgkin's follicular lymphoma, and was treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by a year of maintenance rituximab. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with gadolinium was pathognomonic for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. He was treated with sequential plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin with clinical improvement. A literature review of the diagnostic workup of rituximab-induced PML was undertaken. This case and the literature review demonstrate the important role of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in diagnosis and follow-up of rituximab-induced PML. Specific radiologic features in combination with cerebrospinal fluid can be diagnostic and avoid the morbidity and mortality of a diagnostic brain biopsy. Plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin have a therapeutic role and demonstrate symptom improvement and disease control. Follow-up imaging in combination with clinical response is important in demonstrating a treatment response.

  7. Review on the Progress of Producing Bio-Energy from Microalgae%利用微藻制备生物能源的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝国礼; 刘佳; 陈超; 李兴杰

    2011-01-01

    This review provides a brief overview on the screening and cultivation of the Microalgae,the factors influencing oil-producing of Microalgae,the research on the current production condition,and the problems existing in the comprehensive utilization of microalgae.Here,we review the global research progress of microalgae energy in recent years,and the relationship between microalgae energy and low carbon.%结合目前能源微藻在藻种选育、影响微藻产油因素以及生产工艺方面的研究现状和微藻综合利用发展中存在的问题,综述了近年来各国在微藻能源开发方面的重要科研工作,以及微藻能源与低碳的关系,并对微藻能源开发的相关研究方向和进展进行了评述。

  8. Roles of caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengmeng Lv

    Full Text Available The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments. However, the conclusions are controversial. We aim to review the relevant animal studies systematically and provide assistance for further clinical studies.Literatures on associations between dietary restriction and cancer published in PubMed in recent twenty years were comprehensively searched. Animal model, tumor type, feeding regimen, study length, sample size, major outcome, conclusion, quality assessment score and the interferential step of cancer were extracted from each eligible study. We analyzed the tumor incidence rates from 21 studies about caloric restriction.Fifty-nine studies were involved in our system review. The involved studies explored roles of dietary restriction during initiation, progression and metastasis of cancer. About 90.9% of the relevant studies showed that caloric restriction plays an anti-cancer role, with the pooled OR (95%CI of 0.20 (0.12, 0.34 relative to controls. Ketogenic diet was also positively associated with cancer, which was indicated by eight of the nine studies. However, 37.5% of the related studies obtained a negative conclusion that intermittent fasting was not significantly preventive against cancer.Caloric restriction and ketogenic diet are effective against cancer in animal experiments while the role of intermittent fasting is doubtful and still needs exploration. More clinical experiments are needed and more suitable patterns for humans should be investigated.

  9. Gender disparities in lipid management: the presence of disparities depends on the quality measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Kerr, Eve A; Bernstein, Steven J; Krein, Sarah L

    2006-03-01

    To determine if the use of a more detailed quality measure affected the finding of gender disparities in lipid management. Retrospective cohort study. Study subjects included 2589 patients with diabetes mellitus in a managed care plan in 2000-2001. We compared the quality of lipid management in men and women using the following 3 measures: (1) the traditional screening measure (measurement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] level), (2) the LDL-C level (ie, among those with an LDL-C level measured, an LDL-C level or= 130 mg/dL plus statin initiation or intensification). Multivariate models were adjusted for clustering within clinic and for patient age, insulin use, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, and number of visits. In unadjusted analyses, using the traditional screening measure, women were less likely to be screened than men (P gender disparity does not persist with the use of a more detailed measure.

  10. Implementing colorectal cancer screening in community health centers: addressing cancer health disparities through a regional cancer collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, Stephen H; Haggstrom, David; Jacobs, Tracy; Determan, Ada; Granger, Jennifer; Montalvo, Wanda; Snyder, William M; Lockhart, Susan; Calvo, Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    The population served by Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) has lower levels of cancer screening compared with the general population and suffers a disproportionate cancer burden. To address these disparities, 3 federal agencies and a primary care association established and tested the feasibility of a Regional Cancer Collaborative (RCC) in 2005. RCC faculty implemented a learning model to improve cancer screening across 4 FQHCs that met explicit organizational readiness criteria. Regional faculty trained "care process leaders," who worked with primary care teams to plan and implement practice changes. FQHCs monitored progress across the following measures of screening implementation: self-management goal-setting; number and percent screened for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer; percent timely results notification; and percent abnormal screens evaluated within 90 days. Progress and plans were reviewed in regular teleconferences. FQHCs were encouraged to create local communities of practice (LCOP) involving community resources to support cancer screening and to participate in a monthly teleconference that linked the LCOPs into a regional community of practice. Summary reports and administrative data facilitated a process evaluation of the RCC. chi test and test of trends compared baseline and follow-up screening rates. The RCC taught the collaborative process using process leader training, teleconferences, 2 regional meetings, and local process improvement efforts. All organizations created clinical tracking capabilities and 3 of the 4 established LCOPs, which met monthly in an regional community of practice. Screening documentation increased for all 3 cancers from 2005 to 2007. Colorectal cancer screening increased from 8.6% to 21.2%. A regional plan to enable collaborative learning for cancer screening implementation is feasible, and improvements in screening rates can occur among carefully selected organizations.

  11. A revisit to prevailing care and challenges of managing diabetes in India: Focus on regional disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash P Baruah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented rise in diabetes prevalence in India is the outcome of lifestyle changes in the background of genetic predisposition. Moreover, there is a substantial regional variation in diabetes prevalence and management. The highest prevalence of DM was observed in southern region (Ernakulum, Kerala and lowest prevalence was observed in North Eastern region (Manipur. Similarly large variations have been evident in overall awareness and diabetes care across the geographies within India. The regional challenges are largely affected by poor disease awareness, socioeconomic disparity and underutilization of the public health-care services. Though government has taken initiatives to address this issue, overall situation demands a collaborative effort from patients, health care professionals and the state. This article reviews the regional disparity of diabetes epidemiology, current management practices and government policies for T2DM in India, identifies policy and research gaps, and suggests corrective measures to address the lacunae in diabetes care.

  12. Racial disparities in cancer mortality in the United States, 2000-2010

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    Eileen B O'keefe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Declining cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States (U.S. have continued through the first decade of the twenty-first century. Reductions in tobacco use, greater uptake of prevention measures, adoption of early-detection methods, and improved treatments have resulted in improved outcomes for both men and women. However, Black Americans continue to have the higher cancer mortality rates and shorter survival times. This review discusses and compares the cancer mortality rates and mortality trends for Blacks and Whites. The complex relationship between socioeconomic status and race and its contribution to racial cancer disparities is discussed. Based on current trends and the potential and limitations of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA with its mandate to reduce health care inequities, future trends and challenges in cancer mortality disparities in the United States are explored.

  13. Radiative neutron capture as a counting technique at pulsed spallation neutron sources: a review of current progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveld, E. M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Rhodes, N. J.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron scattering techniques are attracting an increasing interest from scientists in various research fields, ranging from physics and chemistry to biology and archaeometry. The success of these neutron scattering applications is stimulated by the development of higher performance instrumentation. The development of new techniques and concepts, including radiative capture based neutron detection, is therefore a key issue to be addressed. Radiative capture based neutron detectors utilize the emission of prompt gamma rays after neutron absorption in a suitable isotope and the detection of those gammas by a photon counter. They can be used as simple counters in the thermal region and (simultaneously) as energy selector and counters for neutrons in the eV energy region. Several years of extensive development have made eV neutron spectrometers operating in the so-called resonance detector spectrometer (RDS) configuration outperform their conventional counterparts. In fact, the VESUVIO spectrometer, a flagship instrument at ISIS serving a continuous user programme for eV inelastic neutron spectroscopy measurements, is operating in the RDS configuration since 2007. In this review, we discuss the physical mechanism underlying the RDS configuration and the development of associated instrumentation. A few successful neutron scattering experiments that utilize the radiative capture counting techniques will be presented together with the potential of this technique for thermal neutron diffraction measurements. We also outline possible improvements and future perspectives for radiative capture based neutron detectors in neutron scattering application at pulsed neutron sources.

  14. Review of Research Progresses on the Science of Earthquake Underground Fluid in China During the Last 40 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yaowei

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the development of scientific research and practice of earthquake underground fluid in China during the last 40 years,summaries early constructive research and primary achievements in this field.The science of earthquake underground fluid is closely correlated with earthquake monitoring and prediction,such as innovations in observation techniques and theoretical methods,and analysis of diversified parameters and research into predictive methods.The historical evolution of observation networks for underground fluid indicates that the demand for strong earthquake monitoring and prediction has become the driving force of the construction and development of the observation network.The development of observation techniques represents the trend based on multiform measurement,syntheses,and digitization.The study results of underground fluid theory and precursory mechanisms suggest that the precursory model,numerical simulation and in-door or field experimental research are the main technological approaches promoting innovation.Research results of earthquake forecast methods use physics based forecast techniques and the ideas of cornbination of usabifity and scientific advance.It has been proved by forecast practice that studying underground fluid is a very important subject in earthquake prediction on the Chinese mainland.Finally,the primary work and technical criterion on underground fluid are introduced,and some major scientific issues and development trends in different historical stages are summarized.

  15. Decreased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels correlate with cancer progression and poor survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lanwei; Li, Yuan; Luo, Mei; He, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and then to 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), resulting in genomic DNA demethylation. Decreased 5-hmC levels have been reported in a variety of cancers, and loss of 5-hmC might be considered an epigenetic hallmark of cancer. However, the prognostic value of decreased 5-hmC in cancers remain controversial. Here, a systematic review was performed by conducting an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library. Finally, ten studies with a total of 1736 patients with cancer were included in the present study. Negative/low 5-hmC levels were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis [OR=2.20, 95% CI=1.23-3.96, P=0.008] and advanced TNM stage [OR=2.89, 95% CI=1.21-6.92, P=0.017]. More importantly, negative/low 5-hmC levels were significantly associated with poor prognosis of cancer patients [overall survival: HR=1.76, 95% CI=1.41-2.11, P analysis indicate that decreased 5-hmC levels are an indicator of poor survival of cancer patients. Given variability related to ethnicity, cancer types and detection methods, additional well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are required to further confirm our findings. PMID:27911867

  16. Nanostructured bismuth vanadate-based materials for solar-energy-driven water oxidation: a review on recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen-Feng; Pan, Lun; Zou, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    Water oxidation is the key step for both photocatalytic water splitting and CO2 reduction, but its efficiency is very low compared with the photocatalytic reduction of water. Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) is the most promising photocatalyst for water oxidation and has become a hot topic for current research. However, the efficiency achieved with this material to date is far away from the theoretical solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, mainly due to the poor photo-induced electron transportation and the slow kinetics of oxygen evolution. Fortunately, great breakthroughs have been made in the past five years in both improving the efficiency and understanding the related mechanism. This review is aimed at summarizing the recent experimental and computational breakthroughs in single crystals modified by element doping, facet engineering, and morphology control, as well as macro/mesoporous structure construction, and composites fabricated by homo/hetero-junction construction and co-catalyst loading. We aim to provide guidelines for the rational design and fabrication of highly efficient BiVO4-based materials for water oxidation.

  17. Can anti-Mullerian hormone replace ultrasonographic evaluation in polycystic ovary syndrome? A review of current progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies over the past decade have now consistently indicated that the serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH levels are at least 2–3-fold higher in the patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, which also corresponds to the increased number of AMH producing preantral and small antral follicles. Moreover, AMH levels have been found to be associated in direct proportion to the follicle numbers per ovary or antral follicular count, assessed by the transvaginal ultrasound (TVS. Furthermore, AMH correlates directly with the rising serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels in PCOS. Hence, serum AMH in women with oligo-anovulation and/or hyperandrogenemia could indicate the presence of underlying PCOS, when reliable TVS is not feasible, or not acceptable, either due to the virginal status or psycho-social issue. In addition, the imaging quality of abdominal ultrasound is often impaired by obesity, which typically occurs in PCOS women. Indeed, PCOS occurs most commonly in young females who cannot be subjected to invasive TVS for various reasons; therefore, a desirable alternative to TVS is urgently required to diagnose the most prevalent endocrine abnormality of young women. This review will analyze the currently available evidence regarding the role of AMH in the diagnosis of PCOS.

  18. Nanostructured bismuth vanadate-based materials for solar-energy-driven water oxidation: a review on recent progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen-Feng; Pan, Lun; Zou, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Li

    2014-11-06

    Water oxidation is the key step for both photocatalytic water splitting and CO₂ reduction, but its efficiency is very low compared with the photocatalytic reduction of water. Bismuth vanadate (BiVO₄) is the most promising photocatalyst for water oxidation and has become a hot topic for current research. However, the efficiency achieved with this material to date is far away from the theoretical solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, mainly due to the poor photo-induced electron transportation and the slow kinetics of oxygen evolution. Fortunately, great breakthroughs have been made in the past five years in both improving the efficiency and understanding the related mechanism. This review is aimed at summarizing the recent experimental and computational breakthroughs in single crystals modified by element doping, facet engineering, and morphology control, as well as macro/mesoporous structure construction, and composites fabricated by homo/hetero-junction construction and co-catalyst loading. We aim to provide guidelines for the rational design and fabrication of highly efficient BiVO₄-based materials for water oxidation.

  19. Role of Sex Hormones in the Development and Progression of Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Maurizio Montella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in developed countries. Epidemiological reports indicate that the incidence of HBV-related HCC is higher in males and postmenopausal females than other females. Increasing evidence suggests that sex hormones such as androgens and estrogens play an important role in the progression of an HBV infection and in the development of HBV-related HCC. While androgen is supposed to stimulate the androgen signaling pathway and cooperate to the increased transcription and replication of HBV genes, estrogen may play a protecting role against the progression of HBV infections and in the development of HBV-related HCC through decreasing HBV RNA transcription and inflammatory cytokines levels. Additionally, sex hormones can also affect HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis by inducing epigenetic changes such as the regulation of mRNA levels by microRNAs (miRNAs, DNA methylation, and histone modification in liver tissue. This review describes the molecular mechanisms underlying the gender disparity in HBV-related HCC with the aim of improving the understanding of key factors underneath the sex disparity often observed in HBV infections. Furthermore, the review will propose more effective prevention strategies and treatments of HBV-derived diseases.

  20. Comparing interferon-gamma release assays with tuberculin skin test for identifying latent tuberculosis infection that progresses to active tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Peter; Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Pink, Joshua; Court, Rachel; McCarthy, Noel; Sutcliffe, Paul; Clarke, Aileen

    2017-03-09

    Timely and accurate identification of people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is important for controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). There is no gold standard for diagnosis of LTBI. Screening tests such as interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) and tuberculin skin test (TST) provide indirect and imperfect information. This systematic review compared two types of IGRAs QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB with TST for identification of LTBI by predicting progression to a diagnosis of active TB in three subgroups: children, immunocompromised people, and those recently arrived from countries with high TB burden. Cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and other databases from December 2009 to June 2015. One reviewer screened studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias with cross checking by a second reviewer. Strength of association between test results and incidence of TB was summarised using cumulative incidence ratios (CIRs with 95% CIs). Summary effect measures: the ratio of CIRs (R-CIR) with 95% CIs. R-CIRs, were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using Chi-squared and I(2) statistics. Seventeen studies, mostly of moderate or high risk of bias (five in children, 10 in immunocompromised people, and two in those recently arrived) were included. In children, while in two studies, there was no significant difference between QFT-GIT and TST (≥5 mm) (pooled R-CIR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.74), two other studies showed QFT-GIT to outperform TST (≥10 mm) in identifying LTBI. In immunocompromised people, IGRA (T-SPOT.TB) was not significant different from TST (≥10 mm) for identifying LTBI, (pooled R-CIR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.65, 1.58). The forest plot of two studies in recently arrived people from countries with high TB burden demonstrated inconsistent findings (high heterogeneity; I(2) = 92%). Prospective studies comparing IGRA

  1. Overcoming the Triad of Rural Health Disparities: How Local Culture, Lack of Economic Opportunity, and Geographic Location Instigate Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tami L.; DiClemente, Ralph; Snell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss how the effects of culture, economy, and geographical location intersect to form a gestalt triad determining health-related disparities in rural areas. Methods: We critically profile each component of the deterministic triad in shaping current health-related disparities in rural areas; evaluate the uniquely composed…

  2. Filipino Child Health in the United States: Do Health and Health Care Disparities Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce R. Javier, MD, MPH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionFilipinos are the second largest Asian subgroup in the United States, but few studies have examined health and health care disparities in Filipino children. The objectives of this review are 1 to appraise current knowledge of Filipino children’s health and health care and 2 to present the implications of these findings for research, clinical care, and policy.MethodsWe identified articles for review primarily via a Medline search emphasizing the terms Filipino and United States crossed with specific topics in child and adolescent health that fall under one of Healthy People 2010’s 28 focus areas. ResultsFilipino children are underrepresented in medical research. Studies that compare Filipino children and adolescents with white children or children of other Asian Pacific Islander subgroups suggest disparities with regard to gestational diabetes, rates of neonatal mortality and low birth weight, malnutrition in young children, overweight, physical inactivity and fitness, tuberculosis, dental caries, and substance abuse. Studies that compare Filipino adults with white adults describe adult Filipino health problems similar to those of Filipino children, including higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Health care disparities remain to be determined.ConclusionHealth and health care disparities appear to exist for Filipino children, but more research is needed to confirm these findings. Practitioners serving this population need to consider social and cultural factors that can increase or diminish risk for health problems. There are priorities in research and policy that, if pursued, may improve the health care and health outcomes of Filipino children.

  3. National Cancer Institute’s Cancer Disparities Research Partnership Program: Experience and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary S. L. Wong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To increase access of underserved/health disparities communities to National Cancer Institute (NCI clinical trials, the Radiation Research Program (RRP piloted a unique model - the Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP program. CDRP targeted community hospitals with a limited past NCI funding history and provided funding to establish the infrastructure for their clinical research program.Methods: Initially, 5-year planning phase funding was awarded to six CDRP institutions through a cooperative agreement (U56. Five were subsequently eligible to compete for 5-year implementation phase (U54 funding and three received a second award. Additionally, the NCI Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities supported their U56 Patient Navigation programs.Results: Community-based hospitals with little or no clinical trials experience required at least a year to develop the infrastructure and establish community outreach/education and Patient Navigation programs before accrual to clinical trials could begin. Once established, CDRP sites increased their yearly patient accrual mainly to NCI-sponsored cooperative group trials (~60% and Principal Investigator (PI/mentor-initiated trials (~30%. The total number of patients accrued on all types of trials was 2,371, while 5,147 patients received navigation services. Conclusions: Despite a historical gap in participation in clinical cancer research, underserved communities are willing/eager to participate. Since a limited number of cooperative group trials address locally advanced diseases seen in health disparities populations, this shortcoming needs to be rectified. Sustainability for these programs remains a challenge. Addressing these gaps through research and public health mechanisms may have an important impact on their health, scientific progress and efforts to increase diversity in NCI clinical trials.

  4. The validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression: a qualitative interview study of the perceptions of junior doctors and their trainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Antonia; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate trainee doctors’ and trainers’ perceptions of the validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) using Messick’s conceptualisation of construct validity. Design Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Kent Surrey and Sussex, Yorkshire and Humber, and Wales in November/December 2015. Part of a larger study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants Ninety-six trainees and 41 trainers, comprising UK and international medical graduates from Foundation, General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery, at all levels of training. Main outcome measures Trainee and trainer perceptions of the validity of the ARCP as an assessment tool. Results Participants recognised the need for assessment, but were generally dissatisfied with ARCPs, especially UK graduate trainees. Participants criticised the perceived tick-box nature of ARCPs as measuring clerical rather than clinical ability, and which they found detrimental to learning. Trainees described being able to populate their e-portfolios with just positive feedback; they also experienced difficulty getting assessments signed off by supervisors. ARCPs were perceived as poor at identifying struggling trainees and/or as discouraging excellence by focussing on minimal competency. Positive experiences of ARCPs arose when trainees could discuss their progress with interested supervisors. Conclusions Trainee and trainer criticisms of ARCPs can be conceptualised as evidence that ARCPs lack validity as an assessment tool. Ongoing reforms to workplace-based assessments could address negative perceptions of the ‘tick-box’ elements, encourage constructive input from seniors and allow trainees to demonstrate excellence as well as minimal competency, while keeping patients safe. PMID:28116956

  5. The validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression: a qualitative interview study of the perceptions of junior doctors and their trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viney, Rowena; Rich, Antonia; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Objective To investigate trainee doctors' and trainers' perceptions of the validity of the Annual Review of Competence Progression (ARCP) using Messick's conceptualisation of construct validity. Design Qualitative semi-structured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Kent Surrey and Sussex, Yorkshire and Humber, and Wales in November/December 2015. Part of a larger study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants Ninety-six trainees and 41 trainers, comprising UK and international medical graduates from Foundation, General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, and Surgery, at all levels of training. Main outcome measures Trainee and trainer perceptions of the validity of the ARCP as an assessment tool. Results Participants recognised the need for assessment, but were generally dissatisfied with ARCPs, especially UK graduate trainees. Participants criticised the perceived tick-box nature of ARCPs as measuring clerical rather than clinical ability, and which they found detrimental to learning. Trainees described being able to populate their e-portfolios with just positive feedback; they also experienced difficulty getting assessments signed off by supervisors. ARCPs were perceived as poor at identifying struggling trainees and/or as discouraging excellence by focussing on minimal competency. Positive experiences of ARCPs arose when trainees could discuss their progress with interested supervisors. Conclusions Trainee and trainer criticisms of ARCPs can be conceptualised as evidence that ARCPs lack validity as an assessment tool. Ongoing reforms to workplace-based assessments could address negative perceptions of the 'tick-box' elements, encourage constructive input from seniors and allow trainees to demonstrate excellence as well as minimal competency, while keeping patients safe.

  6. Common comorbidity of epilepsy:a review of new progress%癫痫共患病研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 迟兆富

    2012-01-01

    A range of medical and neurologic disorders occurs more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population and constitutes somatic comorbidity. Common examples include migraine, depression, schizophrenia, attention . deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleep disorder, cognitive damage, developmental abnormality and so on. There are more interesting clinical features in some special types of patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECT), temporal epilepsy and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. The association between epilepsy and other conditions can be due to a variety of interacting genetic, biologic structural, functional, pharmacological and environmental factors. Co.existence of other disorders in a person with epilepsy can complicate diagnosis, induce adverse prognostic implications and attenuate health.related quality of life. Therefore, recognition and management of comorbidity of epilepsy may facilitate the treatment of epilepsy. In this article, we review recent pathophysiologic and clinical studies to elucidate the etiology, mechanisms, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment of common comorbidity of epilepsy.%癫(癎)是多种原因导致的脑神经元高度同步化异常放电的临床综合征,某些疾病易与癫(癎)共存于同一个体中,不同疾病之间难分主次、相互影响,称为癫(癎)共患病.其中以偏头痛、焦虑、抑郁、精神分裂症、注意力缺陷多动障碍、睡眠障碍、认知损害、心理障碍、线粒体脑肌痫等较为常见,癫(癎)患者年龄、性别、发病年龄、病程、家族史、抗癫(癎)药物数量、发作控制情况等与共患病种类、数量、以及严重程度密切相关.癫(癎)共患病住临床上较易误诊,可影响抗癫(癎)药物的治疗效果与患者预后,降低患者生活质量.因此,积极探讨癫(癎)与共患病的内在住关系、充分认识癫(癎)共患病的临床特点,探索

  7. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A.; Chin, Marshall H.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L.; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E.; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. Participants in Development of Scientific Statement: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. Evidence: The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. Consensus Process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the

  8. Health disparities in endocrine disorders: biological, clinical, and nonclinical factors--an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-09-01

    The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC STATEMENT: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. consensus process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the Advocacy and Public

  9. 生态系统恢复力研究进展综述%Review of Ecosystem Resilience Research Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫海明; 战金艳; 张韬

    2012-01-01

    Due to the climate change and human activities, the global ecosystem has changed significantly, which leads to the decline of ecosystem resilience at the regional and even global scale and constrains the sus- tainable development of ecosystems. The question about how to maintain the sustainable development of ecosystems and reduce the influence of uncertainties has aroused great concern from the academic community and peo- ple from all walks of life. A theory based on ecosystem resilience has provided a framework for solving these problems for the ecosystem resilience provides measures to alleviate the ecosystem deterioration. Although the significance of the concept of ecosystem resilience in management has been widely accepted, the research on ecosystem resilience still remain stagnant in the mode of the conceptual analysis and case studies and there is still no consensus on the concept of ecosystem resilience. Previous researches are generally theoretical analyses and even fewer researchers have quantitatively measured ecosystem resilience. The quantitative measurement of ecosystem resilience has become the key step and breakthrough point for further exploration of the ecosystem re- silience. This paper reviewed the development process of the concept of ecosystem resilience and illustrated cur- rent viewpoints on the concept, meaning and properties of ecosystem resilience. The current theories of ecosys- tem resilience were stated and some attempts of quantitative measurement of ecosystem resilience were dis- cussed. This paper also summarized the influencing factors of ecosystem resilience that have been found in rele- vant researches, and their influencing mechanism was also analyzed. Finally the future research were perspected.%气候变化和人类活动等致使全球生态系统发生了巨大变化,导致区域乃至全球生态系统恢复力不断下降,成为胁迫生态系统可持续发展能力因素之一。如何维持生态

  10. Disability, disparate impact, and class actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael Ashley; Waterstone, Michael E

    2006-12-01

    Following Title VII's enactment, group-based employment discrimination actions flourished due to disparate impact theory and the class action device. Courts recognized that subordination that defined a group's social identity was also sufficient legally to bind members together, even when relief had to be issued individually. Woven through these cases was a notion of panethnicity that united inherently unrelated groups into a common identity, for example, Asian Americans. Stringent judicial interpretation subsequently eroded both legal frameworks and it has become increasingly difficult to assert collective employment actions, even against discriminatory practices affecting an entire group. This deconstruction has immensely disadvantaged persons with disabilities. Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), individual employee claims to accommodate specific impairments, such as whether to install ramps or replace computer screens, have all but eclipsed a coherent theory of disability-based disparate impact law. Moreover, the class action device has been virtually nonexistent in disability discrimination employment cases. The absence of collective action has been especially harmful because the realm of the workplace is precisely where group-based remedies are needed most. Specifically, a crucial but overlooked issue in disability integration is the harder-to-reach embedded norms that require job and policy modifications. The Article argues that pandisability theory serves as an analogue to earlier notions of panethnicity and provides an equally compelling heuristic for determining class identity. It shows that pandisability undergirds ADA public service and public accommodation class actions in which individualized remedy assessments have been accepted as part of group-based challenges to social exclusion. The Article also demonstrates that this broader vision of collective action is consistent with the history underlying the class action device. Taking

  11. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Men's Health: Examining Psychosocial Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyson H; Hargrove, Taylor W; Griffith, Derek M

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the Health and Retirement Study and an approach informed by the Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor to examine the extent to which socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions are mechanisms underlying racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations among men. Results reveal that racial/ethnic differences in socioeconomic status, stressors, discrimination, and neighborhood conditions-individually and collectively-account for a substantial proportion of racial/ethnic disparities in functional limitations. Findings suggest that the social determinants of health for men of color need to be more seriously considered in investigations of and efforts to address health disparities.

  12. Trinocular Stereo Matching Based on Correlations Between Baselines and Disparities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANYepeng; GUWeikang

    2004-01-01

    Gray correlation technique is utilized to take the multi-peak feature points with gray correlation coefficients less than a certain range of maximal correlation coefficient as a potential candidate matching set. There exists the maximal correlation between the correct disparities and their corresponding baselines. A trinocular stereo matching algorithm is proposed based on correlations between the baselines and disparities. After computing the correlations between the baselines and disparities, the unique matches can be determined by maximal correlation coefficient. It is proved that the algorithm proposed is valid and credible by 3-D reconstruction on two pairs of actual natural stereo images.

  13. Immigrant-based Disparities in Mental Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn; Szaflarski, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Studies of immigrant-based disparities in mental health care have been limited by small sample sizes and a lack of measures of different dimensions of acculturation. This study draws on the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions to address these limitations. Results indicate first-generation immigrants have lower rates of utilization for both mood and anxiety disorders. Nativity-based disparities in treatment are particularly notable among people from African and Hispanic origins, while there is little evidence of disparities among people from European origins. Of three dimensions of acculturation, only the identity dimension has a positive association with mental health care utilization. PMID:28845455

  14. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Carol M; Haidet, Paul; Paterniti, Debora A; Collins, Tracie C; Gordon, Howard S; O'Malley, Kimberly; Petersen, Laura A; Sharf, Barbara F; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Wray, Nelda P; Street, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos use services that require a doctor's order at lower rates than do whites. Racial bias and patient preferences contribute to disparities, but their effects appear small. Communication during the medical interaction plays a central role in decision making about subsequent interventions and health behaviors. Research has shown that doctors have poorer communication with minority patients than with others, but problems in doctor-patient communication have received little attention as a potential cause, a remediable one, of health disparities. We evaluate the evidence that poor communication is a cause of disparities and propose some remedies drawn from the communication sciences. PMID:12542590

  15. Challenges to using a business case for addressing health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Nicole; Somers, Stephen A; Fremont, Allen; Angeles, January; Murphy, Erin K; Hamblin, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The authors consider the challenges to quantifying both the business case and the social case for addressing disparities, which is central to achieving equity in the U.S. health care system. They describe the practical and methodological challenges faced by health plans exploring the business and social cases for undertaking disparity-reducing interventions. Despite these challenges, sound business and quality improvement principles can guide health care organizations seeking to reduce disparities. Place-based interventions may help focus resources and engage health care and community partners who can share in the costs of-and gains from-such efforts.

  16. Data-driven high-throughput prediction of the 3-D structure of small molecules: review and progress. A response to the letter by the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre

    2011-12-27

    A response is presented to sentiments expressed in "Data-Driven High-Throughput Prediction of the 3-D Structure of Small Molecules: Review and Progress. A Response from The Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre", recently published in the Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, (1) which may give readers a misleading impression regarding significant impediments to scientific research posed by the CCDC.

  17. Developmental Readiness of Normal Full Term Infants To Progress from Exclusive Breastfeeding to the Introduction of Complementary Foods: Reviews of the Relevant Literature Concerning Infant Immunologic, Gastrointestinal, Oral Motor and Maternal Reproductive and Lactational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Audrey J., Ed.; Morrow, Ardythe L., Ed.

    This review of the developmental readiness of normal, full-term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods is the result of the international debate regarding the best age to introduce complementary foods into the diet of the breastfed human infant. After a list of definitions, four papers focus on:…

  18. Monitoring Radiographic Brain Tumor Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Sampson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining radiographic progression in primary malignant brain tumors has posed a significant challenge to the neuroncology community. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO Grade IV through its inherent heterogeneous enhancement, growth patterns, and irregular nature has been difficult to assess for progression. Our ability to detect tumor progression radiographically remains inadequate. Despite the advanced imaging techniques, detecting tumor progression continues to be a clinical challenge. Here we review the different criteria used to detect tumor progression, and highlight the inherent challenges with detection of progression.

  19. Lower limb progressive resistance training improves leg strength but not gait speed or balance in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Alex; Muthalib, Makii; Hendy, Ashlee M; Johnson, Liam G; Rantalainen, Timo; Kidgell, Dawson J; Enticott, Peter G; Teo, Wei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The use of progressive resistance training (PRT) to improve gait and balance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is an emerging area of interest. However, the main effects of PRT on lower limb functions such as gait, balance, and leg strength in people with PD remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of PRT to improve gait and balance in people with PD. Five electronic databases, from inception to December 2014, were searched to identify the relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the effect sizes between experimental and control groups and I (2) statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. In total, seven studies were identified consisting of 172 participants (experimental n = 84; control n = 88). The pooled results showed a moderate but significant effect of PRT on leg strength (SMD 1.42, 95% CI 0.464-2.376); however, no significant effects were observed for gait speed (SMD 0.418, 95% CI -0.219 to 1.055). No significant effects were observed for balance measures included in this review. In conclusion, our results showed no discernable effect of PRT on gait and balance measures, although this is likely due to the lack of studies available. It may be suggested that PRT be performed in conjunction with balance or task-specific functional training to elicit greater lower limb functional benefits in people with PD.

  20. Biomolecule-assisted exfoliation and dispersion of graphene and other two-dimensional materials: a review of recent progress and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, J I; Villar-Rodil, S

    2016-08-25

    Direct liquid-phase exfoliation of layered materials by means of ultrasound, shear forces or electrochemical intercalation holds enormous promise as a convenient, cost-effective approach to the mass production of two-dimensional (2D) materials, particularly in the form of colloidal suspensions of high quality and micrometer- and submicrometer-sized flakes. Of special relevance due to environmental and practical reasons is the production of 2D materials in aqueous medium, which generally requires the use of certain additives (surfactants and other types of dispersants) to assist in the exfoliation and colloidal stabilization processes. In this context, biomolecules have received, in recent years, increasing attention as dispersants for 2D materials, as they provide a number of advantages over more conventional, synthetic surfactants. Here, we review research progress in the use of biomolecules as exfoliating and dispersing agents for the production of 2D materials. Although most efforts in this area have focused on graphene, significant advances have also been reported with transition metal dichalcogenides (MoS2, WS2, etc.) or hexagonal boron nitride. Particular emphasis is placed on the specific merits of different types of biomolecules, including proteins and peptides, nucleotides and nucleic acids (RNA, DNA), polysaccharides, plant extracts and bile salts, on their role as efficient colloidal dispersants of 2D materials, as well as on the potential applications that have been explored for such biomolecule-exfoliated materials. These applications are wide-ranging and encompass the fields of biomedicine (photothermal and photodynamic therapy, bioimaging, biosensing, etc.), energy storage (Li- and Na-ion batteries), catalysis (e.g., catalyst supports for the oxygen reduction reaction or electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction), or composite materials. As an incipient area of research, a number of knowledge gaps, unresolved issues and novel future