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Sample records for disordered eating results

  1. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... About Eating Disorders More Publications About Eating Disorders Research Results PubMed: Journal Articles about Eating Disorders Contact Us The National ...

  2. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can ...

  3. [Eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  4. Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...

  5. Toward valid and reliable brain imaging results in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Guido K W; Favaro, Angela; Marsh, Rachel; Ehrlich, Stefan; Lawson, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    Human brain imaging can help improve our understanding of mechanisms underlying brain function and how they drive behavior in health and disease. Such knowledge may eventually help us to devise better treatments for psychiatric disorders. However, the brain imaging literature in psychiatry and especially eating disorders has been inconsistent, and studies are often difficult to replicate. The extent or severity of extremes of eating and state of illness, which are often associated with differences in, for instance hormonal status, comorbidity, and medication use, commonly differ between studies and likely add to variation across study results. Those effects are in addition to the well-described problems arising from differences in task designs, data quality control procedures, image data preprocessing and analysis or statistical thresholds applied across studies. Which of those factors are most relevant to improve reproducibility is still a question for debate and further research. Here we propose guidelines for brain imaging research in eating disorders to acquire valid results that are more reliable and clinically useful. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Night Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...

  7. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to control them. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) ARFID is a new term that some people think ... eating issues can also cause it. People with ARFID don't have anorexia or bulimia, but they ...

  8. Eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kontić Olga; Vasiljević Nadja; Trišović Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Lakić Aneta; Jašović-Gašić Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis...

  9. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  10. Night Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tuncel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.

  11. Behavioral symptoms of eating disorders in Native Americans: results from the ADD Health Survey Wave III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Holtzman, Niki; Dierker, Lisa; Becker, Anne E; Swaney, Gyda

    2011-09-01

    To examine prevalence and correlates (gender, Body Mass Index) of disordered eating in American Indian/Native American (AI/NA) and white young adults. We examined data from the 10,334 participants (mean age 21.93 years, SD = 1.8) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Wave III for gender differences among AI/NA participants (236 women, 253 men) and ethnic group differences on measures of eating pathology. Among AI/NA groups, women were significantly more likely than men to report loss of control and embarrassment due to overeating. In gender-stratified analyses, a significantly higher prevalence of AI/NA women reported disordered eating behaviors compared with white women; there were no between group differences in prevalence for breakfast skipping or having been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Among men, disordered eating behaviors were uncommon and no comparison was statistically significant. Our study offers a first glimpse into the problem of eating pathology among AI/NA individuals. Gender differences among AI/NA participants are similar to results reported in white samples. That AI/NA women were as likely as white women to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder is striking in light of well documented under-utilization of mental health care among AI/NA individuals. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Overeating among Seriously Overweight Children Seeking Treatment: Results of the Children’s Eating Disorder Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D.; Ringham, Rebecca M.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Wisniewski, Lucene; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine rates of eating disorder symptoms among seriously overweight children seeking treatment using the Eating Disorder Examination for Children (ChEDE) and to provide initial data about their association with treatment outcome. Method Overweight children (N = 27) 8–13 years old were interviewed using the ChEDE before participating in a family-based behavioral treatment program. Height and weight were measured pretreatment, posttreatment, and approximately 8 months posttreatment. Results Fifteen percent of children reported subjective bulimic episodes (SBE). Weight loss did not differ for children with and without SBEs, but concerns about body shape were related to larger weight losses during treatment. Conclusion A considerable minority of treatment-seeking overweight children report an episodic sense of loss of control over eating. Loss of control is related to other disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, but does not appear to affect treatment outcome. Future studies are needed to replicate these initial findings. PMID:16231347

  13. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  14. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... binge eating, doctors may prescribe medications along with therapy and nutrition advice. People with binge eating disorder ...

  15. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  16. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  17. EATING DISORDERS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...

  18. Eating Disorders in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances [1]. Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances [1]. Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen in adolescents with eating disorders and obesity [2]. Those with comorbid eating disorder and obesity have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for future medical problems.

  19. Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, N.P.G.; Bot, M.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Visser, M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating

  20. Eating styles in major depressive disorder : Results from a large-scale study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating

  1. Sleeve Gastrectomy: Correlation of Long-Term Results with Remnant Morphology and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Daniele; Berta, Rossana D; Nannipieri, Monica; Giusti, Patrizia; Di Paolo, Luca; Guarino, Daniela; Anselmino, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Remnant dimension is considered one of the crucial elements determining the success of sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and dilation of the gastric fundus is often believed to be the main cause of failure. The main outcome of this study is to find correlations between remnant morphology in the immediate post-operative stage, its dilation in years, and the long-term results. The second purpose aims to correlate preoperative eating disorders, taste alteration, hunger perception, and early satiety with post-SG results. Remnant morphology was evaluated, in the immediate post-operative stage and over the years (≥2 years), through X-ray of the oesophagus-stomach-duodenum calculating the surface in anteroposterior (AP) and right anterior oblique projection (RAO). Presurgery diagnosis of eating disorders and their evaluation through "Eating Disorder Inventory-3" (EDI3) during follow-up were performed. Change in taste perception, sense of appetite, and early satiety were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: "failed SGs (EWL50%). There were a total of 50 patients (37 F, 13 M), with mean age 52 years, preoperative weight 131 ± 21.8 kg, and BMI 47.4 ± 6.8 kg/m 2 . Post-operative remnant mean dimensions overlapped between the two groups. On a long-term basis, an increase of 57.2 and 48.4% was documented in the AP and RAO areas respectively. In "failed" SGs, dilation was significantly superior to "efficient" SGs (AP area 70.2 vs 46.1%; RAO area 59.3 vs 39%; body width 102% vs 41.7%). Preoperative eating disorders were more present in efficient SGs than in failed SGs with the exception of sweet eating. There were no significant changes to taste perception during follow-up. Fifty-two percent of efficient SGs vs 26% of failed SGs reported a persistent lack of sense of hunger; similarly, 92.5 vs 78% declared the persistence of a sense of early satiety. The two groups did not statistically differ as far as all the variables of the EDI3 are concerned. On a long

  2. Ghrelin and eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Donzelli Fabbri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED, particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, and LILACS databases using the keywords “eating disorder”, “ghrelin”, “polymorphism”, “anorexia nervosa”, “bulimia nervosa”, “binge eating disorder”, and their combinations. We found 319 articles. Thirty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Results High levels of ghrelin were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially in the purging subtype (AN-P. There was also a positive correlation between fasting ghrelin level and frequency of episodes of bingeing/purging in bulimia nervosa (BN and the frequency of bingeing in periodic binge eating disorder (BED. Some polymorphisms were associated with AN and BN. Conclusion Changes in ghrelin levels and its polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of EDs; however, further studies should be conducted to clarify the associations.

  3. Eating styles in major depressive disorder: Results from a large-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paans, Nadine P G; Bot, Mariska; van Strien, Tatjana; Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Visser, Marjolein; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2018-02-01

    Depressed persons have been found to present disturbances in eating styles, but it is unclear whether eating styles are different in subgroups of depressed patients. We studied the association between depressive disorder, severity, course and specific depressive symptom profiles and unhealthy eating styles. Cross-sectional and course data from 1060 remitted depressed patients, 309 currently depressed patients and 381 healthy controls from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. Depressive disorders (DSM-IV based psychiatric interview) and self-reported depressive symptoms (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology) were related to emotional, external and restrained eating (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) using analyses of covariance and linear regression. Remitted and current depressive disorders were significantly associated with higher emotional eating (Cohen's d = 0.40 and 0.60 respectively, p eating (Cohen's d = 0.20, p = 0.001 and Cohen's d = 0.32, p eating styles between depression course groups were observed. Associations followed a dose-response association, with more emotional and external eating when depression was more severe (both p-values eating (p depressive symptoms, neuro-vegetative depressive symptoms contributed relatively more to emotional and external eating, while mood and anxious symptoms contributed relatively less to emotional and external eating. No depression associations were found with restrained eating. Intervention programs for depression should examine whether treating disordered eating specifically in those with neuro-vegetative, atypical depressive symptoms may help prevent or minimize adverse health consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eating disorders and personality

    OpenAIRE

    Levallius, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious psychiatric conditions often demanding specialized psychiatric care. Several effective treatments have been developed and disseminated, but more needs to be done, as not all patients respond well to intervention, let alone achieve recovery. Obvious candidates such as eating disorder diagnosis, symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity have generally failed to explain variability in prognosis and outcome, warranting investigation of a wider range of relevant factors. Ac...

  5. Management of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Nancy D; Bulik, Cynthia M; Brownley, Kimberly A; Lohr, Kathleen N; Sedway, Jan A; Rooks, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed evidence on efficacy of treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED), harms associated with treatments, factors associated with the treatment efficacy and with outcomes of these conditions, and whether treatment and outcomes for these conditions differ by sociodemographic characteristics. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Applied Health (CINAHL), PSYCHINFO, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), the National Agricultural Library (AGRICOLA), and Cochrane Collaboration libraries. REVIEW METHODS We reviewed each study against a priori inclusion/exclusion criteria. For included articles, a primary reviewer abstracted data directly into evidence tables; a second senior reviewer confirmed accuracy. We included studies published from 1980 to September 2005, in all languages. Studies had to involve populations diagnosed primarily with AN, BN, or BED and report on eating, psychiatric or psychological, or biomarker outcomes. RESULTS We report on 30 treatment studies for AN, 47 for BN, 25 for BED, and 34 outcome studies for AN, 13 for BN, 7 addressing both AN and BN, and 3 for BED. The AN literature on medications was sparse and inconclusive. Some forms of family therapy are efficacious in treating adolescents. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may reduce relapse risk for adults after weight restoration. For BN, fluoxetine (60 mg/day) reduces core bulimic symptoms (binge eating and purging) and associated psychological features in the short term. Individual or group CBT decreases core behavioral symptoms and psychological features in both the short and long term. How best to treat individuals who do not respond to CBT or fluoxetine remains unknown. In BED, individual or group CBT reduces binge eating and improves abstinence rates for up

  6. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  7. Eating disorders in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  8. Understanding Eating Disorders, Anorexia, Bulimia, and Binge-Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Photo: iStock Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating , are among ... There are three main types of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. People ...

  9. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  10. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  11. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  12. Ghrelin and eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri,Alessandra Donzelli; Deram,Sophie; Kerr,Daniel Shikanai; Cordás,Táki Athanássios

    2015-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED), particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and LILACS databases u...

  13. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedriye Oncu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

  14. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight ef...

  15. Fathers and mothers with eating-disorder psychopathology: Associations with child eating-disorder behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A limited literature suggests an association between maternal eating disorders and child feeding difficulties, and notes maternal concern about inadvertently transmitting eating disorders. Thus, parents may be an important target for eating-disorder research to guide the development of clinical programs. Methods The current study examined differences in child eating-disorder behaviors and parental feeding practices between a sample of parents (42 fathers, 130 mothers) exhibiting core features of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, or purging disorder, and a matched sample of parents (n=172) reporting no eating-disorder characteristics. Results Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology were significantly more likely than parents without eating-disorder characteristics to report child binge-eating and compulsive exercise. Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology reported greater perceived feeding responsibility, greater concern about their child’s weight, and more monitoring of their child’s eating than parents without eating-disorder characteristics; however, they did not differ significantly in restriction of their child’s diet and pressure-to-eat. Child body mass index z-scores did not differ between parents with versus without eating-disorder characteristics. Conclusion Our findings suggest some important differences between parents with and without core eating-disorder psychopathology, which could augment clinical interventions for patients with eating disorders who are parents, or could guide pediatric eating-disorder prevention efforts. However, because our study was cross-sectional, findings could indicate increased awareness of or sensitivity to eating-disorder behaviors rather than a psychosocial cause of those behaviors. Longitudinal research and controlled trials examining prevention and intervention can clarify and address these clinical concerns. PMID:27302549

  16. Eating Disorders and Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Lea; Steiger, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by intense preoccupation with shape and weight and maladaptive eating practices. The complex of symptoms that characterize EDs often arise through the activation of latent genetic potentials by environmental exposures, and epigenetic mechanisms are believed to link environmental exposures to gene expression. This chapter provides an overview of genetic factors acting in the etiology of EDs. It then provides a background to the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms link stresses such as obstetric complications and childhood abuse as well as effects of malnutrition to eating disorders (EDs). The chapter then summarizes the emerging body of literature on epigenetics and EDs-mainly studies on DNA methylation in samples of anorexia and bulimia. The available evidence base suggests that an epigenetically informed perspective contributes in valuable ways to the understanding of why people develop EDs.

  17. Binge eating disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...

  18. Pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Haley; Attia, Evelyn

    2017-11-01

    Medications are commonly prescribed in the treatment of eating disorders. In this review, we discuss relevant medications used for the treatment of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder (BED), and anorexia nervosa. We focus on recent research developments, where applicable, in addition to discussing important findings from older studies to provide a complete synopsis of the current evidence base for eating disorder treatment using pharmacologic agents. Medications are generally useful for patients with bulimia nervosa and BED. For bulimia nervosa, antidepressant medications are the primary pharmacologic treatment and limited new research has been completed. For BED, lisdexamfetamine is reported to be generally well tolerated and effective, and is the first medication to be indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of BED. For anorexia nervosa, there is limited evidence supporting benefits of medications. Second-generation antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine, appear to demonstrate some benefit for weight gain in anorexia nervosa, although are not advised as a stand-alone treatment. Transdermal administration of hormonal agents is also being explored for improving bone health in anorexia nervosa. Although pharmacotherapy has established utility in bulimia nervosa and BED, further research on medications for the treatment of eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa, is necessary.

  19. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  20. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  1. Depression and coping in subthreshold eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennard, E Eliot; Richards, C Steven

    2013-08-01

    The eating disorder literature has sought to understand the role of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and coping in relation to eating disorders. The present research extends these findings by studying the relationships among depression, coping, and the entire continuum of disordered eating behaviors, with an emphasis on subthreshold eating disorders. 109 undergraduate females completed questionnaires to assess disordered eating symptoms, depressive symptoms, and the use of active and avoidant coping mechanisms. Hypotheses were tested using bivariate linear regression and multivariate linear regression. Results indicated that depression was a significant predictor of disordered eating symptoms after controlling for relationships between depression and coping. Although avoidant coping was positively associated with disordered eating, it was not a significant predictor after controlling for depression and coping. Previous research has found associations between depression and diagnosable eating disorders, and this research extends those findings to the entire continuum of disordered eating. Future research should continue to investigate the predictors and correlates of the disordered eating continuum using more diverse samples. Testing for mediation and moderation among these variables may also be a fruitful area of investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Eating disorders in college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivardia, R; Pope, H G; Mangweth, B; Hudson, J I

    1995-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the characteristics of men with eating disorders in the community. The authors recruited 25 men meeting DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders and 25 comparison men through advertisements in college newspapers. A second comparison group comprised 33 women with bulimia nervosa who were recruited and interviewed with virtually identical methods. The men with eating disorders closely resembled the women with eating disorders but differed sharply from the comparison men in phenomenology of illness, rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and dissatisfaction with body image. Homosexuality did not appear to be a common feature of men with eating disorders in the community. Childhood physical and sexual abuse appeared slightly more common among the eating-disordered men than among the comparison men. Eating disorders, although less common in men than in women, appear to display strikingly similar features in affected individuals of the two genders.

  3. Binge Eating Disorder and Night Eating Syndrome: A Comparative Study of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors compared eating patterns, disordered eating, features of eating disorders, and depressive symptoms in persons with binge eating disorder (BED; n = 177), with night eating syndrome (NES; n = 68), and in an overweight comparison group without BED or NES (comparison; n = 45). Participants completed semistructured interviews and several…

  4. Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  6. Eating disorders in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Neural correlates of eating disorders: translational potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAdams CJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carrie J McAdams,1,2 Whitney Smith1 1University of Texas at Southwestern Medical Center, 2Department of Psychiatry, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital of Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Eating disorders are complex and serious psychiatric illnesses whose etiology includes psychological, biological, and social factors. Treatment of eating disorders is challenging as there are few evidence-based treatments and limited understanding of the mechanisms that result in sustained recovery. In the last 20 years, we have begun to identify neural pathways that are altered in eating disorders. Consideration of how these pathways may contribute to an eating disorder can provide an understanding of expected responses to treatments. Eating disorder behaviors include restrictive eating, compulsive overeating, and purging behaviors after eating. Eating disorders are associated with changes in many neural systems. In this targeted review, we focus on three cognitive processes associated with neurocircuitry differences in subjects with eating disorders such as reward, decision-making, and social behavior. We briefly examine how each of these systems function in healthy people, using Neurosynth meta-analysis to identify key regions commonly implicated in these circuits. We review the evidence for disruptions of these regions and systems in eating disorders. Finally, we describe psychiatric and psychological treatments that are likely to function by impacting these regions. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, social cognition, reward processing, decision-making

  8. Diabetes and Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of insulin restriction is an important women's health issue in type 1 diabetes. This behavior is associated with increased rates of diabetes complications and decreased quality of life. Clinical and technological research is greatly needed to improve treatment tools and strategies for this problem. In this commentary, the author describes the scope of the problem of eating disorders and diabetes, as well as offers ideas about ways technology may be applied to help solve this compl...

  9. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  10. Child maltreatment and eating disorders among men and women in adulthood: Results from a nationally representative United States sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Sareen, Jitender; Fortier, Janique; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; Cheung, Kristene; Henriksen, Christine A

    2017-11-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with an increased likelihood of having mood disorders, anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, and personality disorders, but far less is known about eating disorders. The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between child maltreatment, including harsh physical punishment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and exposure to intimate partner violence, and eating disorders in adulthood among men and women. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions wave 3 (NESARC-III) collected in 2012-2013. The sample was nationally representative of the United States adult population (N = 36,309). Lifetime eating disorders (anorexia nervosa [AN], bulimia nervosa [BN], and binge-eating disorder [BED]) were assessed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria and the alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities interview schedule-5 (AUDADIS-5). The prevalence of any lifetime eating disorder was 1.7% (0.8% among men and 2.7% among women). All child maltreatment types were associated with AN, BN, and BED with notable differences among men and women. Overall, the types of child maltreatment with the strongest relationships with any eating disorder were sexual abuse and physical neglect among men and sexual abuse and emotional abuse among women. Clinicians should be mindful that child maltreatment experiences are associated with increased odds of eating disorders including AN, BED, and BN. Such relationships are significant among men and women although notable gender differences in these relationships exist. Abstract word count = 248. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  12. Advances in eating disorder therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2014-01-01

    Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment.......Researchers at the Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Centre are seeking to improve outcomes for patients with eating disorders by gathering their feedback on group psychotherapy sessions with the aim of optimising treatment....

  13. Genetic determinants of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, Margarita Cornelia Theodora

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, a series of studies on different aspects of the genetics of eating disorders is presented. The heritability of disordered eating behavior and attitudes in relation with body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in a large adolescent twin-family sample ascertained through the Netherlands

  14. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  15. Cognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. Terence; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1993-01-01

    Sees cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as applicable to all eating disorders but most intensively studied in treatment of bulimia nervosa. Briefly reviews most commonly used cognitive treatments for eating disorders, provides critical evaluation of their effectiveness, and speculates about their mechanisms of action. Notes that CBT has not been…

  16. Eating patterns in patients with spectrum binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kate; Rosselli, Francine; Wilson, G. Terence; DeBar, Lynn L.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We sought to describe meal and snack frequencies of individuals with recurrent binge eating and examine the association between these eating patterns and clinical correlates. Method Data from 106 women with a minimum diagnosis of recurrent binge eating were utilized. Meal and snack frequencies were correlated with measures of weight, eating disorder features, and depression. Participants who ate breakfast every day (n=25) were compared with those who did not (n=81) on the same measures. Results Breakfast was the least, and dinner the most, commonly consumed meal. Evening snacking was the most common snacking occasion. Meal patterns were not significantly associated with clinical correlates; however, evening snacking was associated with binge eating. Discussion Our findings largely replicated those reported in earlier research. More research is needed to determine the role of breakfast consumption in binge eating. PMID:21661003

  17. A mindful eating group as an adjunct to individual treatment for eating disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Natasha S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a Mindful Eating Group as an adjunct to long-term treatment for a variety of eating disorders. Individuals (N = 33) attending treatment at an outpatient treatment facility participated in the 10-week intervention designed to enhance awareness around hunger and satiety cues. Disordered eating symptoms were assessed pre- and post-intervention using the EAT-26. Significant reductions were found on all subscales of the EAT-26 with large effect sizes. No significant differences were identified between eating disorder diagnoses. Results suggest potential benefits of an adjunct mindfulness group intervention when treating a variety of eating disorders. Limitations are discussed.

  18. Eating Disorder Examination – Differences in eating disorder pathology between men and women with eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Maja Schølarth; Clausen, Loa; Rokkedal, Kristian

    Objective In general eating disorder pathology in men shows more similarities than differences compared to women though with an overall lower level of pathology. In community studies men have been found to have more excessive exercise and more binge eating and in clinical populations men have been...... found to have more vomiting. Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) is “the golden standard” of diagnostic interviewing in eating disorder but analysis of gender differences in scores on the EDE have never been reported. The present study aim to explore gender differences on the EDE among adolescents...

  19. Pro-eating disorder search patterns: the possible influence of celebrity eating disorder stories in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen P; Klauninger, Laura; Marcincinova, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Pro eating disorder websites often contain celebrity-focused content (e.g., images) used as thinspiration to engage in unhealthy eating disorder behaviours. The current study was conducted to examine whether news media stories covering eating disorder disclosures of celebrities corresponded with increases in Internet searches for pro eating disorder material. Results indicated that search volumes for pro eating disorder terms spiked in the month immediately following such news coverage but only for particularly high-profile celebrities. Hence, there may be utility in providing recovery-oriented resources within the search results for pro-eating disorder Internet searches and within news stories of this nature.

  20. Biomarkers of Eating Disorders Using Support Vector Machine Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Data: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cerasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there are no valid biomarkers to identify individuals with eating disorders (ED. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a machine learning method for extracting reliable neuroimaging features allowing individual categorization of patients with ED. Support Vector Machine (SVM technique, combined with a pattern recognition method, was employed utilizing structural magnetic resonance images. Seventeen females with ED (six with diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 11 with bulimia nervosa were compared against 17 body mass index-matched healthy controls (HC. Machine learning allowed individual diagnosis of ED versus HC with an Accuracy ≥ 0.80. Voxel-based pattern recognition analysis demonstrated that voxels influencing the classification Accuracy involved the occipital cortex, the posterior cerebellar lobule, precuneus, sensorimotor/premotor cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the small size investigated, SVM analysis highlights the role of well-known brain regions as possible biomarkers to distinguish ED from HC at an individual level, thus encouraging the translational implementation of this new multivariate approach in the clinical practice.

  1. Biomarkers of Eating Disorders Using Support Vector Machine Analysis of Structural Neuroimaging Data: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Castiglioni, Isabella; Salvatore, Christian; Funaro, Angela; Martino, Iolanda; Alfano, Stefania; Donzuso, Giulia; Perrotta, Paolo; Gioia, Maria Cecilia; Gilardi, Maria Carla; Quattrone, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Presently, there are no valid biomarkers to identify individuals with eating disorders (ED). The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of a machine learning method for extracting reliable neuroimaging features allowing individual categorization of patients with ED. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique, combined with a pattern recognition method, was employed utilizing structural magnetic resonance images. Seventeen females with ED (six with diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 11 with bulimia nervosa) were compared against 17 body mass index-matched healthy controls (HC). Machine learning allowed individual diagnosis of ED versus HC with an Accuracy ≥ 0.80. Voxel-based pattern recognition analysis demonstrated that voxels influencing the classification Accuracy involved the occipital cortex, the posterior cerebellar lobule, precuneus, sensorimotor/premotor cortices, and the medial prefrontal cortex, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of ED. Although these findings should be considered preliminary given the small size investigated, SVM analysis highlights the role of well-known brain regions as possible biomarkers to distinguish ED from HC at an individual level, thus encouraging the translational implementation of this new multivariate approach in the clinical practice. PMID:26648660

  2. Emerging Treatments in Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, constitute a class of common and deadly psychiatric disorders. While numerous studies in humans highlight the important role of neurobiological alterations in the development of ED-related behaviors, the precise neural substrate that mediates this risk is unknown. Historically, pharmacological interventions have played a limited role in the treatment of eating disorders, typically providing symptomatic relief of comorbid psychiatric issues, like depression and anxiety, in support of the standard nutritional and psychological treatments. To date there are no Food and Drug Administration-approved medications or procedures for anorexia nervosa, and only one Food and Drug Administration-approved medication each for bulimia nervosa (fluoxetine) and binge-eating disorder (lisdexamfetamine). While there is little primary interest in drug development for eating disorders, postmarket monitoring of medications and procedures approved for other indications has identified several novel treatment options for patients with eating disorders. In this review, I utilize searches of the PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov databases to highlight emerging treatments in eating disorders.

  3. Eating disorders in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M B

    1986-01-01

    A total of 748 patients who attended four south London group practices were screened using the eating attitudes test; 1% of women had bulimia nervosa and a further 3% a partial syndrome eating disorder. Eating and weight control behaviour and psychiatric indicators for an eating disorder were analysed. Patients with bulimia nervosa and partial syndromes were remarkably similar. They were mainly women, from the middle to upper classes, in the normal weight range but having had considerable weight fluctuation in the past, more likely to have had a history of menstrual irregularity, often psychologically troubled, and tended to have more family psychopathology. PMID:3099893

  4. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...

  5. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho GMO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira Coelho,1 Ainá Innocencio da Silva Gomes,2 Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro,2 Eliane de Abreu Soares11Nutrition Institute, Rio de Janeiro State University, Maracanã, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Macaé Campus, Granja dos Cavaleiros, Macaé, BrazilAbstract: Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.Keywords: nutrition, disordered eating, sport, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  6. [Comorbidity of eating disorders and bipolar affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rybakowski, Filip

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders--anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) occur usually in young females. The significant pathogenic differences between patients who only restrict food, and patients with binge eating and compensatory behaviours, such as vomiting and purging were described. The prevalence of bipolar affective disorders--especially bipolar II and bipolar spectrum disorders (BS) may reach 5% in the general population. About half of the depressive episodes are associated with a "mild" bipolar disorder, and such a diagnosis is suggested by impulsivity and mood-instability. Previously, majority of research on the comorbidity between eating and affective disorders focused on depressive symptomatology, however difficulties in the reliable assessment of hypomania may obfuscate the estimation of the co-occurrence of eating disorders with BS. Epidemiological studies suggest the association between BS and eating disorders with binge episodes (bulimia nervosa, anorexia- bulimic type and EDNOS with binge episodes). Co-occurrence of such disorders with depressive symptoms probably suggests the diagnosis of BS, not recurrent depression. Bulimic behaviours, impulsivity and affective disorders might be related to the impairment of the serotonergic neurotransmission, which may result from the genetic vulnerability and early life trauma. Currently, the first-line pharmacological treatment of co-occurring eating disorders with binge episodes and BS are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However in some cases, the use of mood-stabilising agents as monotherapy or in combination with serotonergic drugs may be helpful.

  7. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  8. Eating disorder beliefs and behaviours across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Steven; Goss, Ken

    2014-01-01

    To test for differences between diagnostic groups on the severity of eating disorder beliefs and behaviours, evaluate the clinical significance of such differences, and assess the extent to which these beliefs and behaviours may be present at clinically significant levels across eating disorder diagnoses. 136 adult women outpatients (aged 18-65, with a BMI over 15) were diagnosed with an eating disorder and completed the Stirling Eating Disorder Scale. The expected pattern of statistically significant differences was found between diagnostic groups on anorexic dietary beliefs and behaviours and bulimic dietary beliefs and behaviours. A high percentage of participants in each diagnostic group scored above the clinical cut-off on the eating disorder belief and behaviour measures and a very high percentage of participants in each group reported clinically significant levels of restricting beliefs. Transdiagnostic or functional analytic approaches to treatment planning may lead to more effective interventions than current, diagnostically-based, care pathways. The high prevalence of restricting beliefs reported suggested that this may need to be a key focus for intervention for the majority of individuals presenting with an eating disorder. © 2013.

  9. Globalization and eating disorder risk: Peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E.; Richards, Lauren K.; Thomas, Jennifer J.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E.; Becker, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. Method We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). Results We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition—and where globalization is also influencing local social norms—may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. PMID:25139374

  10. Neurocognitive Treatments for Eating Disorders and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Matheson, Brittany E; Appleton-Knapp, Sara L; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted executive function and neurocognitive deficits among individuals with eating and weight disorders, identifying a potential target for treatment. Treatments targeting executive function for eating and weight disorders are emerging. This review aims to summarize the recent literature evaluating neurocognitive/executive function-oriented treatments for eating and weight disorders and highlights additional work needed in this area. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for anorexia nervosa has been the most extensively studied neurocognitive treatment for eating disorders. Results demonstrate that CRT improves executive function and may aid in the reduction of eating disorder symptomatology. Computer training programs targeting modifying attention and increasing inhibition are targeting reduction of binge eating and weight loss with modest success. Neurocognitive treatments are emerging and show initial promise for eating and weight disorders. Further research is necessary to determine whether these treatments can be used as stand-alone treatments or whether they need to be used as an adjunct to or in conjunction with other evidence-based treatments to improve outcomes.

  11. Eating disorder emergencies: understanding the medical complexities of the hospitalized eating disordered patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Martina M

    2004-12-01

    Eating disorders are maladaptive eating behaviors that typically develop in adolescence and early adulthood. Psychiatric maladies and comorbid conditions, especially insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, frequently co-exist with eating disorders. Serious medical complications affecting all organs and tissues can develop and result in numerous emergent hospitalizations. This article reviews the pathophysiologies of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and orthorexia nervosa and discusses the complexities associated with the treatment of medical complications seen in these patients.

  12. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Parenting styles and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enten, Roni S; Golan, Moria

    2009-06-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association between parenting style and eating disorder symptoms in patients treated in an intensive outpatient center for eating disorders. The study design is a cross-sectional survey set in a community-based facility for eating disorders. Participants included 53 families, including 32 with a child meeting the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa, 18 for bulimia nervosa, and 3 diagnosed ED-NOS. Data was collected using the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). Significant, negative correlations were found between drive for thinness scores and body dissatisfaction scores and the patient's perception of the father as authoritative. Total patient EDI score was significantly and positively correlated with patient's perception of the father as authoritarian and inversely correlated with her perception of him as authoritative. These results emphasize the importance of fathers' role in the eating disorder pathology, a relatively untapped area of research.

  14. Evaluation of a Screening Test for Female College Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Deborah L.; Black, David R.; Leverenz, Larry J.; Coster, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop a screening test to detect female college athletes with eating disorders/disordered eating (ED/ DE). No validated eating disorder screening tests specifically for athletes have been available. Design and Setting: In this cross-sectional study, subjects from a large midwestern university completed 3 objective tests and a structured diagnostic interview. Measurements: A new test, developed and pilot tested by the researchers (Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire, AMDQ), and 2 tests normed for the general population (Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Bulimia Test-Revised) were used to identify ED/DE athletes. A structured, validated, diagnostic interview (Eating Disorder Examination, version 12.OD) was used to determine which test was most effective in screening female college athletes. Subjects: Subjects included 149 female athletes, ages 18 to 25 years, from 11 Division I and select club sports. Results: ED/DE subjects (35%) were found in almost every sport. Of the ED/DE subjects, 65% exhibited disordered eating, 25% were bulimic, 8% were classified as eating disordered not otherwise specified (NOS), and 2% were anorexic. The AMDQ more accurately identified ED/DE than any test or combination of items. The AMDQ produced superior results on 7 of 9 epidemiologic analyses; sensitivity was 80% and specificity was 77%, meaning that it correctly classified approximately 4 of every 5 persons who were truly exhibiting an eating disorder or disordered eating. Conclusions: We recommend that the AMDQ subsets, which met statistical criteria, be used to screen for ED/DE to enable early identification of athletes at the disordered eating or NOS stage and to initiate interventions before the disorder progresses. PMID:16558658

  15. The Efficacy of a Universal School-Based Prevention Program for Eating Disorders among German Adolescents: Results from a Randomized-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschburger, Petra; Zitzmann, Jana

    2018-04-10

    Disordered eating is highly prevalent during adolescence and has a detrimental effect on further development. Effective prevention programs are needed to prevent unhealthy developmental trajectories. This study evaluated the efficacy of the POPS-program (POtsdam Prevention at Schools), a universal school-based eating disorder prevention program for adolescents. In a cluster-randomized design, we compared the intervention group receiving the prevention program to a waiting control group. Outcomes included indicators of disordered eating and relevant risk factors for eating disorders (body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, perceived media pressure, perfectionism, emotional element of exercise, social comparison, and perceived teasing). Questionnaires were administered at the start of the intervention, 3 and 12 months post intervention. At baseline, 1112 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years participated (49% girls; 51% intervention group). Intention-to-treat analyses with the complete data set and per-protocol analyses as a completer analysis were performed. The intervention group showed a more favorable course compared to the control group regarding all observed risk factors for eating disorders except for perceived teasing. Effect sizes were small but comparable to other primary prevention programs. At 1-year follow-up, a small but significant effect on disordered eating was observed. Results of the per-protocol analyses were mostly confirmed by the intention-to-treat analyses. Results were promising for both genders although girls benefited more regarding disordered eating and internalization of the thin ideal. Further studies are warranted examining successful program elements and whether gender-specific programs are needed.

  16. Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Judith M E; Wheat, Mary E; Freund, Karen

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe how primary care clinicians can detect an eating disorder and identify and manage the associated medical complications. DESIGN A review of literature from 1994 to 1999 identified by a medlinesearch on epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Detection requires awareness of risk factors for, and symptoms and signs of, anorexia nervosa (e.g., participation in activities valuing thinness, family history of an eating disorder, amenorrhea, lanugo hair) and bulimia nervosa (e.g., unsuccessful attempts at weight loss, history of childhood sexual abuse, family history of depression, erosion of tooth enamel from vomiting, partoid gland swelling, and gastroesophageal reflux). Providers must also remain alert for disordered eating in female athletes (the female athlete triad) and disordered eating in diabetics. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team including a primary care practitioner, nutritionist, and mental health professional. The role of the primary care practitioner is to help determine the need for hospitalization and to manage medical complications (e.g., arrhythmias, refeeding syndrome, osteoporosis, and electrolyte abnormalities such as hypokalemia). CONCLUSION Primary care providers have an important role in detecting and managing eating disorders. PMID:10940151

  17. Sudden death in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia

  18. Eating disorders – compulsive overeating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ogris

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to establish the main characteristics of subjects prone to compulsive overeating (experimental group, EG, and the differences between them and the girls who are not prone to any kind of eating disorders (control group, CG. The results of the research are in accordance with the expectations. Girls from the EG exhibit personality characteristics which are signifficantly different from the girls in the CG. These characteristics may be either possible predispositions for development of overeating, or they may already be the consequences of the girls' struggles with overeating and their perception of being overweight. The responses given by the girls from the EG confirm the generaly accepted characteristics of overeating individuals. It can be said that the girls from the ES show the pre-clinical picture of overeating, while some of them have already developed the clinical picture. The results of the research strongly support the view that overeating must be defined as a form of eating disorder just as important as anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

  19. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutrition is one of the fundamental human needs, which allows for the proper functioning of the body. Nowadays, people are increasingly turning attention to the type and quantity of food intake, in order to preserve health and slim. Rigorous adherence to the principles of nutrition only healthy meals can lead to disorder orthorexia nervosa, which can lead to many complications (such as weight loss, vitamin deficiencies and mineral, hormonal disorders, psychological problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders such orthorexia nervosa in women of childbearing age and to check whether there is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders and a global orientation of life of respondents. Material and method. The study included 280 women aged between 18 and 35 years old who voluntarily joined the study. The study used the questionnaire technique, consisting of the author's questionnaire and standardized research tools (ORTO-15 Questionnaire, the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence Scale SOC-29. Results. After conducting these studies found an association between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion, and between type of eating disorder anorexia and bulimia and marital status, and body mass index (BMI. It was also shown that the lower the overall level of sense of coherence and its components is more common in individuals at risk of developing anorexia or bulimia. Conclusion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia marital status and body mass index of women.

  20. Zonisamide Combined with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Rotella, Carlo M.; Faravelli, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Binge eating disorder is a serious, prevalent eating disorder that is associated with overweight. Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that can promote weight loss. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zonisamide as augmentation to individual cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of binge eating disorder patients. Design: controlled open study. Participants: Twenty four threshold and subthreshold binge eating disorder patients were enrolled in the cognitive behavioral therapy treatment group, and 28 patients in the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group. Measurements: At the beginning (T0), at the end (T1) of treatment, and one year after the end of treatment (T2), body mass index was measured and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Binge Eating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered. Results. At T1 the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group showed a higher mean reduction of body mass index, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Binge Eating Scale scores. At T2, the cognitive behavior therapy group regained weight, while the cognitive behavioral therapy plus zonisamide group reduced their body mass and showed a higher reduction in binge eating frequency and Binge Eating Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire Restraint, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores. Conclusion. The zonisamide augmentation to individual cognitive behavior therapy can improve the treatment of binge eating disorder patients, reducing body weight and the number of binge eating episodes. These results are maintained one year after the end of treatment. PMID:20049147

  1. A Case of Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amitabh Saha; Neha Sharma

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of Eating Disorder, which is described in a teenage girl who presented with intractable vomiting, hydropneumothorax and pulmonary Koch′s. The patient′s initial presentation was markedpreoccupation with body shape and image, restrictive eating, which progressed to episodes of vomiting after every meal, and led to academic decline followed by amenorrhoea and deterioration of general medical condition. She was managed with nutritional restoration, ATT and Olanzapine with Fluoxetin...

  2. A Case of Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of Eating Disorder, which is described in a teenage girl who presented with intractable vomiting, hydropneumothorax and pulmonary Koch′s. The patient′s initial presentation was markedpreoccupation with body shape and image, restrictive eating, which progressed to episodes of vomiting after every meal, and led to academic decline followed by amenorrhoea and deterioration of general medical condition. She was managed with nutritional restoration, ATT and Olanzapine with Fluoxetine, to which she responded poorly.

  3. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Defining Features of Unhealthy Exercise Associated with Disordered Eating and Eating Disorder Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Lauren A; Brown, Tiffany A; Keel, Pamela K

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to compare different features of unhealthy exercise on associations with disordered eating and their ability to identify individuals with eating disorders. A secondary aim of the study was to compare prevalence and overlap of different aspects of unhealthy exercise and potential differences in their gender distribution. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. A community-based sample of men (n=592) and women (n=1468) completed surveys of health and eating patterns, including questions regarding exercise habits and eating disorder symptoms. Compulsive and compensatory features of exercise were the best predictors of disordered eating and eating disorder diagnoses compared to exercise that was excessive in quantity. Further, compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise represented overlapping, yet distinct qualities in both men and women. Including the compulsive quality among the defining features of unhealthy exercise may improve identification of eating disorders, particularly in men. Results suggest that the compensatory aspect of unhealthy exercise is not adequately captured by the compulsive aspect of unhealthy exercise. Thus, interventions that target unhealthy exercise behaviors among high-risk individuals, such as athletes, may benefit from addressing both the compulsive and compensatory aspects of unhealthy exercise. Future prospective longitudinal studies will aid in determining the direction of the association between these features of unhealthy exercise and the onset of eating pathology.

  5. Parental representation in eating disorder patients with suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, N; Kobayashi, J; Tachikawa, H; Sato, S; Hori, M; Suzuki, T; Shiraishi, H

    2000-08-01

    We examined parental, personality, and symptomatological characteristics in relation to suicide attempts among eating disorder patients. Fifty-one eating disorder inpatients, divided into two groups according to lifetime suicide attempts, and 107 non-psychiatric subjects were compared on the following variables: Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), Global Clinical Score (GCS), Eating Disorder Inventory-91 (EDI-91), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT), clinical and personality characteristics, and family backgrounds. Suicidal patients reported significantly higher overprotection by both parents than non-suicidal patients and non-psychiatric subjects. Suicidal patients had a more prevalent history of child abuse, affective instability, unstable self-image, avoidance of abandonment, maladaptive perfectionism, personality disorder, and mood disorder. There were no differences in symptomatological factors or the severity of the eating disorders. The results suggest that high overprotection is associated with suicidal behaviour in eating disorder patients. The association between overprotective parenting and personality characteristics, and methods of suicide prevention are discussed briefly.

  6. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  7. Kids and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wanting to go to parties or out for dinner) What Is Bulimia? Instead of starving themselves, people who have bulimia nervosa (say: boo-LEE-mee-uh nur-VOH-suh) will binge and purge . That means they will binge (that is, eat a huge amount of food, like a tub ...

  8. Ghrelin in eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Heppner, Kristy; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known circulating hormone that acts on peripheral and central targets to increase food intake and promote adiposity. The present review focuses on the possible clinical relevance of ghrelin in the regulation of human feeding behavior in individuals with obesity and other eating

  9. Suicidality in adolescents and adults with binge-eating disorder: Results from the national comorbidity survey replication and adolescent supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N; Zuromski, Kelly L; Dodd, Dorian R; Smith, April R

    2017-01-01

    The relation between binge-eating disorder (BED) and suicidality (i.e., suicide ideation, plan, and/or attempt) has not been studied extensively, and it is unknown whether BED is uniquely associated with suicidality when adjusting for comorbid psychopathology. Moreover, the course of suicidality in BED has not been determined and it is unknown whether BED precedes suicidality or vice versa. A total of 10,123 adolescents and 2,980 adults from two nationally representative surveys were administered diagnostic interviews assessing psychopathology and suicidality, as well the retrospectively reported ages of onset. Among adults and adolescents, BED was associated with elevated odds of suicide ideation, plan, and attempt at a univariate level, but BED was not associated with elevated odds of suicidality when adjusting for comorbid psychopathology. Kaplan-Meier estimates of temporal patterns displayed that most adolescents experienced suicidality onset following BED onset, whereas most adults experienced suicidality onset prior to BED onset. BED, comorbid disorders, and suicidality share common factors and interrelations, and individuals with BED and comorbid disorders may be at particularly high risk for suicidal outcomes. The presence of BED in adolescence may serve as a marker for more severe symptomatology that precedes the occurrence of suicidality. Research is needed to understand how eating disorder symptoms, comorbid symptoms, and suicidality affect one another over time. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:40-49). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Eating disorders among classic ballet dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Freitas Monteiro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the prevalence of eating disorders symptoms among classical ballet dancers. Methods: This is an analytical, observational, cross-sectional study, conducted in 2009, that investigated eating disorder symptoms using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE. The body image of the study population was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ. In addition, the anthropometric assessment was performed – measurement of weight, height and skin folds, calculation of body mass index (BMI and body fat percentage. Results: Of all the 139 emale adolescents assessed, 4.4% (n=6 had nutrition problems and 23% (n=23 presented abnormal values of body fat. The analysis of the EAT concluded that 12.3% (n=17 of the girls presented positive results for anorexia nervosa (AN. The BITE results showed that 13.7% (n=19 ofthe girls had unusual eating habits and 6.5% (n=9 presented subclinical bulimia nervosa (BN. As for severity, 3.6% (n=5 of the girls presented clinically significant results and 1.4% (n=2 were diagnosed with high severity. Concerning the results of the BSQ, 15.7% (n=21 of the girls were slightly concerned about body image; 5.2% (n=7 were moderately worried, and 6.7% (n=9 were severely concerned about it. Conclusion: This study did not diagnose the occurrence of eating disorders but found symptoms of AN (Anorexia Nervosa and BN (Bulimia Nervosa. Its main purpose was to alert about the prevalence of the possible development of eating disorders due to the influences of the environment where the teenagers are inserted – under a model defined by the classic ballet dance and the psychological turmoil of adolescence. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p396

  11. Temperament and risk for exercise dependence: results of a pilot study in female patients with eating disorders compared to elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Claes, Laurence; Wos, Katharina; Kerling, Arno; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Cook, Brian; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The present pilot study investigated the relationship between temperament and the risk for exercise dependence (EXD). A total of 32 female patients with eating disorders (potentially at risk for secondary EXD) and 29 female elite athletes without eating disturbances (potentially at risk for primary EXD) answered the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Exercise Dependence Scale-German version (EDS-G), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, and the effortful control subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ-EC). There were significant positive correlations of the EDS-G with the BIS in women with an eating disorder and with the BAS in elite athletes. No significant association was found between the EDS-G and effortful control. The results indicate that the risk for EXD is associated with avoidance tendencies in women with eating disorders and with approach tendencies in elite athletes. Implications for secondary and primary EXD are discussed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Marilou DP Tromp,1 Anouk AMT Donners,1 Johan Garssen,1,2 Joris C Verster1,31Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaObjective: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI, sleep disorders, and daytime functioning.Design: Survey.Setting: The Netherlands.Participants: N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old.Measurements: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD, and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2 and positive (>2 on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4 and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese were compared using nonparametric statistics.Results: Almost 12% (n=67 of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012, insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001, CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011, and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001. ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005, sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004, sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012, and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001, but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112. BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001 and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001. When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015.Conclusion

  13. Psychological need satisfaction, control, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froreich, Franzisca V; Vartanian, Lenny R; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Grisham, Jessica R; Touyz, Stephen W

    2017-03-01

    Unfulfilled basic psychological needs have been associated with disordered eating behaviours, but the mechanisms underlying that associations are not well understood. This study examined a two-stage path model linking basic psychological need satisfaction to disordered eating behaviours via issues of control. Female university students (N = 323; M age  = 19.61), community participants (N = 371; M age  = 29.75), and women who self-reported having been diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED; N = 41; M age  = 23.88) completed measures of psychological need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy and competence), issues of control (i.e., feelings of ineffectiveness and fear of losing self-control [FLC]), and ED pathology. Path analysis revealed that unsatisfied needs of autonomy and competence were indirectly related to disordered eating behaviours through feelings of ineffectiveness and FLC. The results indicate that issues of control might be one of the mechanisms through which lack of psychological need satisfaction is associated with disordered eating. Although the model was constructed using cross-sectional data, these findings suggest potential targets for prevention and treatment efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating in young females. Our results indicate that young women with chronically unfulfilled basic psychological needs might be vulnerable to developing disordered eating behaviours. The observed patterns suggest that persistent experience of need frustration may engender an internal sense of ineffectiveness and lack of control, which then compels individuals to engage in disordered eating behaviours in an attempt to regain autonomy and competence. Interventions for eating disorders may be most effective when emphasizing the promotion of people's needs for autonomy and competence. Limitations The model was constructed using cross-sectional data. Future experimental and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the temporal sequence from basic

  14. Recovery from Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Adrienne; Chew, Judy; Arthur, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychological processes of recovery from binge eating disorder (BED). A model was developed by asking the research question, "What is the experience of recovery for women with BED?" Unstructured interviews were conducted with six women who met the DSM-IV criteria for BED, and who were recovered…

  15. Adolescent Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuss, Rolf E.

    1985-01-01

    Examines anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder seen with increasing frequency, especially among adolescent girls. Presents five theories about causation, discusses early characteristics, typical family patterns, physical and medical characteristics, social adjustment problems, and society's contribution to anorexia. Describes course of the…

  16. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.

    1993-01-01

    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  17. Disordered Eating and Psychological Distress among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Julie Hicks; Stahl, Sarah T.; Sundaram, Murali

    2011-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about eating disorders derives from adolescent and young adult samples; knowledge regarding disordered eating in middle and later adulthood is limited. We examined the associations among known predictors of eating disorders for younger adults in an age-diverse sample and within the context of psychological distress.…

  18. Eating disorders in males: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    regarding the abnormality of reproductive hormone function ... This paper reviews the existing literature on males with eating disorders in an ... through the work of Gerald Russell.7 The term “bulimia” is .... a critical time for adolescents, as an eating disorder could po- ..... Gender Related Aspects of Eating Disorders: A Guide.

  19. [Eating disorders and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, L M; Houdent, C

    1989-02-16

    In most cases, obesity does not stem from a specific psychologic disturbance. Some obese people overeat, as do their family or their socio-professional peers, and this cannot be considered a pathologic behaviour. Many obese patients increase their energy intake when frustrated, anxious, or tired, like many normal individuals who enjoy a better weight regulation. But when obesity increases suddenly and/or severely in these circumstances, and in gross obesity, abnormal feeding behaviour is usually responsible: prandial or, more often extraprandial overeating (nibbling, gorging, binge eating, night eating, excess alcohol, carbohydrate craving). Serotoninergic mechanisms of the latter have focused wide interest. Conflicting situations and/or anxiety are usually a factor in child obesity. Deppreciated self-image and feelings of culpability, partly secondary to obesity itself and dietary failures often contribute to feeding disturbances, sometimes surreptitious, carrying a risk of vicious circle. But weight reduction itself, while improving self image, carries a risk of unmasking depressive tendencies, especially when too quick. Hence the importance of careful and comprehensive management.

  20. Eating disorder severity and functional impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Hoyt, William T.; Poulsen, Stig Bernt

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to examine duration of illness and body mass index as possible moderators of the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment, as well as psychological distress as a possible mediator of this relationship. Methods: The study included 159 patients...... was measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale, and psychological distress was measured with the Symptom Check List-90-R. Duration of illness and body mass index were assessed clinically. Results: Duration of illness significantly moderated the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional...... impairment; the relationship was strongest for patients with a shorter duration of illness. Psychological distress partly mediated the relationship between eating disorder severity and functional impairment. Duration of illness significantly moderated the relationship between psychological distress...

  1. [Television and eating disorders. Study of adolescent eating behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, A P; Verticale, M S; Vallero, E; Bellone, S; Nespoli, L

    1997-06-01

    The media, mainly TV, play a significant social and cultural role and may affect the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia nervosa. Their influence acts mainly by favoring a tall and thin body as the only fashionable for female adolescents: your social success depends primarily and totally by your physical appearance and you can, (and must), shape your body as you like better. Our research aims t analyze the attitude of adolescent people toward the TV and to investigate on: 1) time spent watching TV programs; 2) the influence of TV on the personal choices of goods to buy; 3) the ideal body images; 4) choice of TV programs. Sixty-seven healthy adolescents (36 F-31 M) were included in our study as controls together with 24 female adolescents with eating disorders (DCA) diagnosed according to the DSM-IV and EAT/26 criteria. Our results show a psychological dependence of DCA adolescents from the TV (longer period of time spent watching TV programs, buying attitudes more influenced by TV advertising). The thin and tall body image is preferred by the DCA girls as well as by the controls; however the body appearance and proportions have a predominant and utmost importance only for the eating disorder females. The masculine subjects instead have a preference for a female and masculine opulent body appearance. To prevent the observed increase in prevalence and incidence of eating disorders among adolescents, it is appropriate to control the messages, myths and false hood propagated by media, TV in particular.

  2. Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Dahmen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB to test the hypothesis that typical or atypical eating attacks or eating disorders may be more frequent in narcoleptic patients. No difference in the current prevalence of eating disorders bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or anorexia nervosa was found, nor was the frequency of eating attacks higher in the narcolepsy group. We conclude that present eating disorders and eating attacks as defined in DSM IV are not the reason for the observed differences in body composition. Additional factors, such as basal metabolic rates and lifestyle factors need to be considered.Keywords: narcolepsy, eating disorder, SIAB, bulimia, anorexia, eating attack

  3. Eating Disorders: Facts about Eating Disorders and the Search for Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Eating disorders involve serious disturbances in eating behavior, such as extreme and unhealthy reduction of food intake or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress or extreme concern about body shape or weight. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are the two main types of eating disorders. Eating disorders frequently co-occur with…

  4. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Aneta; Szejko, Natalia; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa). The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED), pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES), sleep-related eating disorder (SRED), bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5-4.7% (SRED) to about 7% (orthorexia). With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Lisa S; Maguen, Shira; Epel, Elissa S; Metzler, Thomas J; Neylan, Thomas C

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and emotional eating in a sample of medically healthy and medication-free adults. Participants with PTSD (n = 44) and control participants free of lifetime psychiatric history (n = 49) completed a measure of emotional eating. Emotional eating is the tendency to eat or overeat in response to negative emotions. PTSD participants exhibited greater emotional eating than control participants (η(2)  = .20) and emotional eating increased with higher PTSD symptom severity (R(2)  = .11). Results supported the stress-eating-obesity model whereby emotional eating is a maladaptive response to stressors. Over time, this could lead to weight gain, particularly abdominal stores, and contribute to higher risk for comorbid medical disorders. Findings suggest the importance of future longitudinal research to understand whether emotional eating contributes to the high rates of obesity, diabetes, and heart disease in PTSD. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  6. Outcomes of empirical eating disorder phenotypes in a clinical female sample: results from a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechartres, Agnes; Huas, Caroline; Godart, Nathalie; Pousset, Maud; Pham, Alexandra; Divac, Snezana M; Rouillon, Frederic; Falissard, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    To empirically classify phenotypes of eating disorders (ED) using latent class analysis (LCA), and to validate this classification based on clinical outcomes. LCA was applied to 968 inpatients. The resultant classes were validated by clinical outcomes including mortality. A 5-class solution showed the best fit. The symptoms of latent class 1 (LC1; 26% of the sample) resembled anorexia nervosa (AN), bingeing-purging (AN-B/P) subtype; those of LC2 (23%) resembled bulimia nervosa; those of LC3 (11%) were close to AN-B/P without weight and body concerns; those of LC4 resembled restrictive anorexia nervosa (RAN) without weight and body concerns, and those of LC5 RAN. A history of hospitalization for ED was significantly more frequent for LC3 and LC4. The lowest BMI at admission were presented in LC4. LC1 showed the highest level of psychological disturbances and LC4 the lowest. LC3 and LC4 differed from LC1 and LC5 by higher percentages of treatment dropout (64.9 vs. 57.2 and 55.7 vs. 47.5%, respectively; overall p = 0.001). Survival rates tended to be different between the LC (p = 0.09). Subgroups of AN patients with low weight and body concerns seem more severe at hospitalization and more difficult to manage, with a higher rate of treatment dropout than the 'typical' AN patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Apps and eating disorders: A systematic clinical appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Rothwell, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Smartphone applications (apps) are proliferating and health?related apps are particularly popular. The aim of this study was to identify, characterize, and evaluate the clinical utility of apps designed either for people with eating disorders or for eating disorder professionals. Method A search of the major app stores identified 805 potentially relevant apps, of which 39 were primarily designed for people with eating disorders and five for professionals. Results The apps f...

  8. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  9. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF EATING DISORDERS

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    Elisaveta Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating Disorders (EDs are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. EDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, biological, behavioral, psychological, and social factors. Their epidemiology is rising for the past decades, and EDs affect all races, social levels and both genders. Due to the long and expensive treatment, chronic course, and the fact that most of the sufferers do not realize the need for therapy or do not seek treatment, the demand on developing prevention programs, early detection and assessment is essential. Despite the fact, that many new EDs screening tools were developed already, there is a great lack of validated screening instruments, adapted to the Bulgarian conditions. Objects and methods: Our study aimed at eliciting a comprehensive battery for screening of not only specific ED pathology, but also some risk factors, such as negative body image, weight and depressive symptoms. The object of our study consisted of 201 females, aged 18 to 45 (mean 24.65. SCOOF- questionnaire, Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS-5, Body Image Questionnaire-34 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were applied. Results: Our preliminary results show that approximately 45% of the tested subjects show some of the: negative body image, eating disorders’ clinical pathology, distorted eating patterns, subclinical eating disorders pathology, overweight/obesity, or depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Our ongoing efforts in area of research also are aimed at developing and refining strategies for preventing and treating ED among adolescents and adults.

  10. Sleep-Related Eating Disorder: A Case Report of a Progressed Night Eating Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Shahabuddin Hoseini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders.

  11. Distinguishing Between Risk Factors for Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Purging Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Byrne, Susan M; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-08-01

    , this significant indirect effect was not moderated by eating disorder group. The results support a prospective model of risk that applies to bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder. Common prevention approaches may be possible for bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and purging disorder.

  12. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise; Marks, Saul; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior (DE) and eating disorders (EDs) are of great concern because of their associations with physical and mental health risks and, in the case of athletes, impaired performance. The syndrome originally known as the Female Athlete Triad, which focused on the interaction of energy availability, reproductive function, and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognize that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective judgments of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations, including athletes from aquatic sports, ranges from 18 to 45% in female athletes and from 0 to 28% in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behavior at all periods of development pathway, and coaches and members of the athletes' health care team should be able to recognize early symptoms indicating risk for energy deficiency, DE, and EDs. Coaches and leaders must accept that DE/EDs can be a problem in aquatic disciplines and that openness regarding this challenge is important.

  13. Women Veterans' Treatment Preferences for Disordered Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Dinh, Julie; Nevedal, Andrea; Maguen, Shira

    2016-01-01

    Disordered eating, which includes subclinical and clinical maladaptive eating behaviors, is common among women, including those served by the Veterans Health Administration (VA). We used qualitative methods to determine whether and how women veterans want to receive treatment for disordered eating. Women veterans participated in one of seven focus groups/interviews and completed in-person demographic and psychological questionnaires. We used thematic analysis of focus groups/interviews to understand preferences for disordered eating treatment. Participants (n = 20) were mostly women of color (55%); mean age was 48 (SD = 15) and 65% had significant psychological symptoms. Few participants described being assessed for disordered eating, but all thought VA should provide treatment for disordered eating. Through thematic analysis, we identified six preferences: 1) treatment for disordered eating should be provided in groups, 2) treatment for disordered eating should provide concrete skills to facilitate the transition out of structured military environments, 3) treatment for disordered eating should address the relationship between eating and mental health, 4) disordered eating can be treated with mindfulness and cognitive-behavioral therapy, 5) disordered eating treatment providers should be experienced and take an interactive approach to care, but can come from diverse disciplines, and 6) referrals to treatment for disordered eating should be open ended, occur early, and allow for ongoing, flexible access to treatment. Women veterans are interested in treatment for disordered eating. Preferred treatments align with existing treatments, could be offered in conjunction with weight loss or primary care services, and should provide social support and interactive learning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Loss of control eating and eating disorders in adolescents before bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Linsey M; Gowey, Marissa A; Zeller, Meg; Jenkins, Todd M; Engel, Scott G; Rofey, Dana L; Inge, Thomas H; Mitchell, James E

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed loss of control (LOC) eating and eating disorders (EDs) in adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity. Preoperative baseline data from the Teen Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (Teen-LABS) multisite observational study (n = 242; median BMI = 51 kg/m 2 ; mean age= 17; 76% female adolescents; 72% Caucasian) included anthropometric and self-report questionnaires, including the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R), the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids) RESULTS: LOC eating (27%) was common and ED diagnoses included binge-eating disorder (7%), night eating syndrome (5%), and bulimia nervosa (1%). Compared to those without LOC eating, those with LOC eating reported greater depressive symptomatology and greater impairment in weight-related quality of life. Before undergoing bariatric surgery, adolescents with severe obesity present with problematic disordered eating behaviors and meet diagnostic criteria for EDs. LOC eating, in particular, was associated with several negative psychosocial factors. Findings highlight targets for assessment and intervention in adolescents before bariatric surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:947-952). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Self-Discrepancy and Eating Disorder Symptoms Across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Strauman, Timothy J; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel; Klein, Marjorie H; Smith, Tracey L; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-11-01

    This study examined self-discrepancy, a construct of theoretical relevance to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, across different types of EDs. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 112), bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 72), and binge eating disorder (BED; n = 199) completed semi-structured interviews assessing specific types of self-discrepancies. Results revealed that actual:ideal (A:I) discrepancy was positively associated with AN, actual:ought (A:O) discrepancy was positively associated with BN and BED, and self-discrepancies did not differentiate BN from BED. Across diagnoses, A:O discrepancy was positively associated with severity of purging, binge eating, and global ED psychopathology. Further, there were significant interactions between diagnosis and A:O discrepancy for global ED psychopathology and between diagnosis and A:I discrepancy for binge eating and driven exercise. These results support the importance of self-discrepancy as a potential causal and maintenance variable in EDs that differentiates among different types of EDs and symptom severity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. [Cognitions in eating disorders and their assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiber, R; Mirabel-Sarron, C; Urdapilleta, I

    2005-01-01

    to food cues indicates that bulimics were more responsive to sight, smell and taste of their favourite binge food, and a greater responsivity was associated with increasing -cue salience. Eating disorder patients appear to have internalised a mediated social rule concerning "good food" and make drastic selections thus removing the possibility of choice of foodstuffs. b) Experimental processes: temporal factors in the processing of threat seem to be of importance in patients with high levels of eating psychopathology. There is no evidence for preattentive processing biases among anorectics. Changes in information processing speed after treatment were not linked to treatment condition or treatment response. c) Judgement and emotions: in eating disorder patients, distortions of depressogenic nature are found that influence the cognitive style; thoughts about eating, weight and shape are characterised by negative affective tone; negative emotions could account for bulimic behaviour; anxiety and distress are correlated to thought control strategies. Information treating seems to be impaired in a non-homogeneous way. d) Cognitive schemas are seriously maladaptive and not well investigated. In eating disorder patients, core beliefs are absolute, unconditional and dichotomous cognitions about oneself and the world. There are only few studies in this field moreover showing controversial results. Core beliefs can explain links between personality disorders and eating psychopathology. Pathological core beliefs have to be taken in to account because they influence the outcome and the efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapy. Third, the last part of this paper summarises actually available rating scales eva-luating distorted cognitions in eating disorders. There are different methods for evaluation: specific and non-specific self-report questionnaires, thought-sampling procedures, -methods derived from cognitive psychology. The Mizes Anorectic Cognition questionnaire (MAC) is a

  18. Nutritional supplements in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Alberdi-Páramo, Iñigo; Niell-Galmés, Lluis

    2017-09-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are a series of differentiated nosological entities sharing the common link of a continuous alteration in food intake or in food intake-related behavior. Within this classification, the following disorders are noteworthy: anorexia nerviosa (AN) and bulimia nerviosa (BN). Anorexia nervosa is a chronic disorder characterized mainly by negative or decreased food intake accompanied by a distortion of body image and intense accompanying fear of weight gain. The estimated vital prevalence of this disorder in adolescence is approximately 0.5%-1%.1 The primary feature of BN is the presence of binge eating accompanied by compensatory behavior (in the form of intense exercise and the use of laxatives and diuretics, etc.). The prevalence of BN is estimated to be between 2% and 4% in young women, and it generally starts at somewhat later stages than AN. It is believed that biological, psychological, and environmental factors, as well as genetic vulnerability, influence the pathogenesis of EDs. A variety of therapies exist, both biological and psychological, whose effectiveness is supported by the scientific literature. Nonetheless, we find these therapies only partially effective and new targets as well as new treatments should be sought. Although the etiopathogenesis of EDs is unclear, some of the neurobiological dysfunction found suggests that diet and nutrient supplementation could be relevant in their treatment. We review in this article new treatments focusing on nutritional deficits.

  19. Eating behavior and eating disorders in adults before bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; King, Wendy C; Courcoulas, Anita; Dakin, George; Elder, Katherine; Engel, Scott; Flum, David; Kalarchian, Melissa; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Pender, John; Pories, Walter; Wolfe, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    To describe eating patterns, prevalence of problematic eating behaviors, and determine factors associated with binge eating disorder (BED), before bariatric surgery. Before surgery, 2,266 participants (median age 46 years; 78.6% female; 86.9% white; median body mass index 45.9 kg/m(2) ) of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 (LABS-2) study completed eating behavior survey items in the self-administered LABS-2 Behavior form. Other measures included the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, the LABS-2 Psychiatric and Emotional Test Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, and Impact of Weight Quality of Life-Lite Survey. The majority (92.1%) of participants reported eating dinner regularly, whereas just over half (54.0%) reported eating breakfast regularly. Half of the participants reported eating at least four meals/week at restaurants; two meals/week were fast food. Loss of control eating was reported by 43.4%, night eating syndrome by 17.7%; 15.7% satisfied criteria for binge eating disorder (BED), 2% for bulimia nervosa. Factors that independently increased the odds of BED were being a college graduate, eating more times per day, taking medication for psychiatric or emotional problems, and having symptoms of alcohol use disorder, lower self-esteem and greater depressive symptoms. Before undergoing bariatric surgery a substantial proportion of patients report problematic eating behaviors. Several factors associated with BED were identified, most suggesting other mental health problems, including higher levels of depressive symptomotology. The strengths of this study include the large sample size, the multi-center design and use of standardized assessment practices. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified'

  1. A review of eating disorders in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th

  2. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Purpose of reviewTo review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5).Recent findingsThe residual category eating disorder not otherwise specified'

  3. Christian Spirituality in Eating Disorder Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cora Grant

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are some of the most severe and destructive of all psychological conditions. They are associated with restricted capacities in cognitive, emotional, physical, and spiritual development. This paper provides an examination of the practical application of Christian spirituality as a force for recovery from an eating disorder. Specifically, it expounds the transformative potential in the spiritual qualities of hope, trust, acceptance, surrender, and courage underpinning engagement with evidence-based therapeutic models of care in eating disorder recovery.

  4. Eating disordes and the importance of nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kučírková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with nutritional therapy for eating disorders. It explores whether nutritional therapy has an irreplaceable role in treatment of these disorders or whether nutritional therapy has a marginal effect. I describe general issues of eating disorders in a theoretical part of my thesis such as etiology, epidemiology, therapy and nutrition therapy. I composed educational handout about eating in a practical part of my thesis containing fundamental dietary recommendations, menu for un...

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Rebecca; Straebler, Suzanne; Cooper, Zafra; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the leading evidence-based treatment for bulimia nervosa. A new ?enhanced? version of the treatment appears to be more potent and has the added advantage of being suitable for all eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. This article reviews the evidence supporting CBT in the treatment of eating disorders and provides an account of the ?transdiagnostic? theory that underpins the enhanced form of the treatme...

  6. StudentBodies-eating disorders: A randomized controlled trial of a coached online intervention for subclinical eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine Saekow

    2015-11-01

    Results: Results indicate that for study completers, the intervention had large effects for reduction of eating-related psychopathology (d = 1.5, weight concerns (d = .7, and psychosocial impairment (d = .7. Those who completed it rated the program very acceptable. This pilot study suggests the potential efficacy of StudentBodies-Eating Disorders as a self-help intervention for subclinical eating disorders in a non-clinical setting.

  7. Predicting Eating Disorders in Women: A Preliminary Measurement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jean K; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified items from Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) that differentiated eating-disordered women (n=173) currently receiving treatment for bulimia from non-eating-disordered university women (n=265). Results identified a list of statements related to social withdrawal and depression that may be appropriate for use in assessing a…

  8. Eating disorders: Insights from imaging and behavioral approaches to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to eating disorders, which affect 13% of females, is critical to developing effective prevention and treatment programs. In this paper, we summarize results from prospective studies that identified factors predicting onset and persistence of eating disorders and core symptom dimensions. Next, implications for intervention targets for prevention, and treatment interventions from the risk- and maintenance-factor findings are discussed. Third, given that evidence suggests eating disorders are highly heritable, implying biological risk and maintenance factors for eating disorders, we offer working hypotheses about biological factors that might contribute to eating disorders, based on extant risk factor findings, theory, and cross-sectional studies. Finally, potentially fruitful directions for future research are presented. We suggest that it would be useful for experimental therapeutics trials to evaluate the effects of reducing the risk factors on future onset of eating pathology and on reducing maintenance factors on the risk for persistence of eating pathology, and encourage researchers to utilize prospective high-risk studies so that knowledge regarding potential intervention targets for prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders can be advanced. Using the most rigorous research designs should help improve the efficacy of prevention and treatment interventions for eating disorders.

  9. Personality profiles in patients with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2002-01-01

    The present review focused on the personality profiles of patients with eating disorders. Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder showed high rates of diagnostic co-occurrence between eating disorders and personality disorders. The most commonly observed were histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent and borderline personality disorders. Studies using the Cloninger’s personality theory suggested that high Harm Avoidance might be relevant ...

  10. Social safeness and disordered eating: Exploring underlying mechanisms of body appreciation and inflexible eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Catarina; Ferreira, Cláudia; Mendes, Ana Laura; Trindade, Inês A

    2017-06-01

    Feelings of social safeness and connectedness have been associated with adaptive emotion regulation processes and well-being indicators. Further, literature has demonstrated that interpersonal experiences play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of body and eating psychopathology. However, the study of the role of social variables and emotion regulation processes in the engagement in inflexible eating rules and eating psychopathology is still in its early stages. The current study aims to fill some gaps within the literature and explore the mediator role of body appreciation and inflexible eating rules in the link between social safeness and disordered eating. Participants were 253 women, aged between 18 and 50 years old, who completed a series of online self-report measures. Results from the tested path analysis model showed that social safeness holds a significant effect on eating psychopathology, through the mechanisms of body appreciation and inflexible eating rules. Also, results suggested that women who present higher levels of social safeness tend to present a more positive and respectful attitude towards their body and decreased adoption of inflexible eating rules, which seem to explain lower levels of disordered eating behaviours. These findings seem to present empirical support for the development of intervention programs that promote a positive, affectionate and healthy relationship with one's body image, in order to prevent the inflexible adherence to eating rules and disordered eating behaviours.

  11. Eating disorders among professional fashion models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio; Usai, Ambra; Miotto, Paola; Petretto, Donatella Rita; Masala, Carmelo

    2008-05-30

    Fashion models are thought to be at an elevated risk for eating disorders, but few methodologically rigorous studies have explored this assumption. We have investigated the prevalence of eating disorders in a group of 55 fashion models born in Sardinia, Italy, comparing them with a group of 110 girls of the same age and of comparable social and cultural backgrounds. The study was based on questionnaires and face-to-face interviews, to reduce the bias due to symptom under-reporting and to social desirability responding. When compared on three well-validated self-report questionnaires (the EAT, BITE, BAT), the models and controls did not differ significantly. However, in a detailed interview (the Eating Disorder Examination), models reported significantly more symptoms of eating disorders than controls, and a higher prevalence of partial syndromes of eating disorders was found in models than in controls. A body mass index below 18 was found for 34 models (54.5%) as compared with 14 controls (12.7%). Three models (5%) and no controls reported an earlier clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. Further studies will be necessary to establish whether the slight excess of partial syndromes of eating disorders among fashion models was a consequence of the requirement in the profession to maintain a slim figure or if the fashion modeling profession is preferably chosen by girls already oriented towards symptoms of eating disorders, since the pressure to be thin imposed by this profession can be more easily accepted by people predisposed to eating disorders.

  12. Positive and negative eating expectancies in disordered eating among women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaki, Jumi; Free, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Deficits in emotion regulation are known to characterize disordered eating patterns including binge eating, purging, and dietary restraint, though much of this work has been conducted exclusively on women. Eating expectancies, or expectations regarding reinforcement from food and eating, constitute one cognitive mechanism that is thought to serve as a proximal influence on eating behavior. Previous research shows that eating to manage negative affect (a negative eating expectancy) is associated with eating pathology in women, but less is known about eating as a reward or for pleasure (a positive eating expectancy). In addition, no prior work has examined eating expectancies among men. This study examines the role of emotion regulation and eating expectancies on disordered eating in women and men. Participants were 121 female and 80 male undergraduates who completed self-report measures of emotion regulation, eating expectancies, and disordered eating. In women, body mass index (BMI), emotion regulation, and eating to manage negative affect directly predicted disordered eating in the final multivariate model, whereas eating for pleasure or reward was inversely associated with disordered eating. However, in men, emotion regulation predicted disordered eating, but not when eating expectancies were added to the model. In the final model, only BMI and eating to manage negative affect contributed significantly to the variance in disordered eating. These findings suggest that some correlates of eating pathology, particularly eating expectancies, may vary by gender. Future research should continue to examine gender differences in the explanatory mechanisms underlying disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli differentiate eating disorder and non-eating disorder groups and predict eating disorder behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, April R; Forrest, Lauren N; Velkoff, Elizabeth A; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Franklin, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    The current study tested whether people with and without eating disorders (EDs) varied in their implicit attitudes toward ED-relevant stimuli. Additionally, the study tested whether implicit evaluations of ED-relevant stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors over a 4-week interval. Participants were people without EDs (N = 85) and people seeking treatment for EDs (N = 92). All participants completed self-report questionnaires and a version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) at baseline. The AMP indexed implicit evaluations of average body stimuli, eating stimuli, and ED-symptom stimuli. Participants with EDs completed weekly follow-up measures of ED symptoms and behaviors for 4 weeks. Contrary to predictions, the anorexia nervosa (AN) group did not differ from the no ED group on implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli, and the bulimia nervosa (BN) group had less positive implicit attitudes toward ED-symptom stimuli relative to the no ED group. In line with predictions, people with AN and BN had more negative implicit attitudes toward average body and eating stimuli relative to the no ED group. In addition, among the ED group more negative implicit attitudes toward eating stimuli predicted ED symptoms and behaviors 4 weeks later, over and above baseline ED symptoms and behaviors. Taken together, implicit evaluations of eating stimuli differentiated people with AN and BN from people without EDs and longitudinally predicted ED symptoms and behaviors. Interventions that increase implicit liking of eating-related stimuli may reduce ED behaviors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among adult eating disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedlund, Nils Erik; Norring, Claes; Ginsberg, Ylva; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne

    2017-01-17

    Very little is known about the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder and even less in other eating disorders. This knowledge gap is of clinical importance since stimulant treatment is proven effective in Binge Eating Disorder and discussed as a treatment possibility for Bulimia Nervosa. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and types of self-reported ADHD symptoms in an unselected group of eating disorder patients assessed in a specialized eating disorder clinic. In total 1165 adults with an eating disorder were assessed with a battery of standardized instruments, for measuring inter alia ADHD screening, demographic variables, eating disorder symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity. Chi-square tests were used for categorical variables and Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables. Almost one third (31.3 %) of the patients scored above the screening cut off indicating a possible ADHD. The highest prevalence rates (35-37 %) were found in Bulimia Nervosa and Anorexia Nervosa bingeing/purging subtype, while Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified type 1-4 and Binge Eating Disorder patients reported slightly below average (26-31 %), and Anorexia Nervosa restricting subtype patients even lower (18 %). Presence of binge eating, purging, loss of control over eating and non-anorectic BMI were related to results indicating a possible ADHD. Psychiatric comorbidity correlated to ADHD symptoms without explaining the differences between eating disorder diagnoses. There is a high frequency of ADHD symptoms in patients with binge eating/purging eating disorders that motivates further studies, particularly concerning the effects of ADHD medication. The finding that the frequency of ADHD symptoms in anorexia nervosa with binge eating/purging is as high as in bulimia nervosa highlights the need also for this group.

  15. Eating disorders and circadian eating pattern: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Fabiana; Harb, Ana Beatriz Cauduro; Levandovski, Rosa Maria; Hidalgo, Maria Paz Loayza

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo revisar aspectos relacionados a transtornos alimentares e suas relações com as alterações no ritmo circadiano. Realizou-se uma busca sistematizada das informações nas bases de dados PubMed usando os seguintes descritores: eating disorders, circadian rhythm, night eating syndrome, binge eating disorder e sleep patterns. Os transtornos alimentares, como a síndrome do comer noturno e o transtorno da compulsão alimentar periódica, têm sido considerados e relacionados...

  16. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  17. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  18. Motivation to change in eating disorders: clinical and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasnovas, C; Fernández-Aranda, F; Granero, R; Krug, I; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Bulik, C M; Vallejo-Ruiloba, J

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the clinical impact of the motivational stage of change on the psychopathology and symptomatology of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The participants were 218 eating disorder (ED) patients (58 AN, 95 BN and 65 EDNOS), consecutively admitted to our hospital. All patients fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for these disorders. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI), Bulimic Investigation Test Edinburgh (BITE), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), four analogue scales of motivational stage, as well as a number of other clinical and psychopathological indices. Our results indicated higher motivation for change in BN than in AN and EDNOS patients (p EDNOS (p EDNOS patients are most resistant to change and the younger these patients are, the less likely they are to be motivated to change their disturbed eating behaviour. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  19. Eating disorder symptomatology in normal-weight vs. obese individuals with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J; Hill, Laura L; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, Jim E

    2011-07-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ(2) analyses. After controlling for age and sex, normal-weight participants reported more frequent use of a range of healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers, including eating fewer meals and snacks per day; exercising and skipping meals more frequently in the past month; and avoiding certain foods for weight control. They also endorsed more frequent attempts at dieting in the past year, and feeling more frequently distressed about their binge eating, at a trend level. There were no group differences in binge eating frequency in the past month, age at onset of binge eating, overvaluation of shape/weight, or likelihood of having used certain weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting, laxative use) or having sought treatment for an eating disorder in the past. Based on our findings, normal-weight individuals appear to be a behaviorally distinct subset of the BED population with significantly greater usage of both healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors compared to their obese peers. These results refute the notion that distress and impairment in BED are simply a result of comorbid obesity.

  20. Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola D’Arista

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.

    Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.

    Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.

    Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet

  1. Bulimia: Growing Awareness of an Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkovitz, Elaine

    1983-01-01

    Describes bulimia, a disorder involving binge eating and purging increasingly prevalent in young women. Reviews the literature and describes symptoms, etiological factors, and treatment considerations and approaches for the disorder. (Author)

  2. Eating Disorder Treatment: Know Your Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Dietetic Association. 2011:111:1236. Gabbard GO, ed. Evidence-based psychological treatments for eating disorders. In: Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: ...

  3. Development of a Chinese medicine pattern severity index for understanding eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Sarah; Harris, David; Zaslawski, Chris; McAinch, Andrew J; Stojanovska, Lily

    2012-06-01

    Eating disorders commonly affect young girls and women. Four eating disorders are analyzed in this study: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and binge eating disorder (BED). Eating disorders are a modern concept and as such there is no critically appraised research on how Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) conceptualizes of or treats eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the TCM patterns relevant to eating disorders based on a systematic evaluation of the results of a self-reported questionnaire. One hundred and ninety-six (196) female participants (142 with a self-reported eating disorder and 54 with no eating disorder) completed an online survey, designed to collect data on their current general health and, where relevant, their eating disorder. The Berle methodology was used to identify TCM patterns involved in eating disorders to tabulate and score the number of signs and symptoms experienced by the participants. For many of the TCM patterns, statistically significant differences were found between presentation severity across the four eating disorders. For the first time, there is evidence-based research to classify the TCM patterns involved in AN, BN, EDNOS, and BED. Evidence is given to support the anecdotal theories of TCM patterns involved in eating disorder presentation. These results have relevance on how eating disorders are treated and viewed by TCM practitioners.

  4. SOCIOTROPY AND AUTONOMY IN EATING DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Czarniak, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Studies of development psychopathology and psychia try have shown that personality variables are greatly associated with eating disorders. Sociotropy and autonomy may be features that facilitate the occurrence and persistence of the eating disturbances. Theoretical framework for own research was mainly the A. Beck’s concept of autonomy and sociotropy. The aim of the study was to answer the research question whether a person suffering from an eating disorder is characterized by ...

  5. Feedback in group psychotherapy for eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Annika Helgadóttir; Poulsen, Stig; Lindschou, Jane

    2017-01-01

    -generated allocation sequence concealed to the investigators. One-hundred and 59 adult participants, diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, or eating disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV, were included. Eighty participants were allocated to the experimental group, and 79 participants...

  6. Integrative Response Therapy for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Athena

    2013-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), a chronic condition characterized by eating disorder psychopathology and physical and social disability, represents a significant public health problem. Guided self-help (GSH) treatments for BED appear promising and may be more readily disseminable to mental health care providers, accessible to patients, and…

  7. The psychopharmacological management of eating disorders in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review we synthesised current literature on the psychopharmacological management of eating disorders (EDs) in children and adolescents (C&As). We focus specifically on anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). The treatment of EDs is determined by physical and ...

  8. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, Marilou Dp; Donners, Anouk Amt; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, and daytime functioning. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: The Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: N=574 Dutch young adults (18-35 years old). MEASUREMENTS: Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep

  9. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  10. Remission of eating disorder during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Hørder, Kirsten; Støving, René Klinkby

    2009-01-01

    Eating disorder during pregnancy is associated with a diversity of adverse outcomes and is of potential danger to both mother and child. There is, however, a tendency for remission of the eating disorder during pregnancy with improvement of symptoms such as restrictive dieting, binging and purgin...

  11. Gender Difference in the Prevalence of Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Rosselli, Francine; Perrin, Nancy; DeBar, Lynn; Wilson, G. Terence; May, Alexis; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method A random sample of members (ages 18 to 35) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observe, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes (“Number Needed to Treat”) were small to moderate. Conclusions Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. PMID:19107833

  12. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  13. Eating Disorders, Autoimmune, and Autoinflammatory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M; Quaranta, Michela; Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Pisetsky, David; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-12-01

    Identifying factors associated with risk for eating disorders is important for clarifying etiology and for enhancing early detection of eating disorders in primary care. We hypothesized that autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases would be associated with eating disorders in children and adolescents and that family history of these illnesses would be associated with eating disorders in probands. In this large, nationwide, population-based cohort study of all children and adolescents born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 and managed until 2012, Danish medical registers captured all inpatient and outpatient diagnoses of eating disorders and autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. The study population included 930 977 individuals (48.7% girls). Cox proportional hazards regression models and logistic regression were applied to evaluate associations. We found significantly higher hazards of eating disorders for children and adolescents with autoimmune or autoinflammatory diseases: 36% higher hazard for anorexia nervosa, 73% for bulimia nervosa, and 72% for an eating disorder not otherwise specified. The association was particularly strong in boys. Parental autoimmune or autoinflammatory disease history was associated with significantly increased odds for anorexia nervosa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.25), bulimia nervosa (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.08-1.55) and for an eating disorder not otherwise specified (OR = 1.27; CI = 1.13-1.44). Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases are associated with increased risk for eating disorders. Ultimately, understanding the role of immune system disturbance for the etiology and pathogenesis of eating disorders could point toward novel treatment targets. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Eating disorder pathology in elite adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Hermann-Werner, Anne; Mayer, Jochen; Diehl, Katharina; Schneider, Sven; Thiel, Ansgar; Zipfel, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate eating disorder pathology in German elite adolescent athletes. Evidence suggests that eating disorder pathology is more common in adult elite sports, especially in female athletes and in sports emphasizing leanness. There is a scarcity of studies in elite adolescent athletes who are in a vulnerable developmental stage and are affected by general as well as sport-specific risk factors. Our data was derived from the German Young Olympic Athletes' Lifestyle and Health Management Study (GOAL) which conducted a survey in 1138 elite adolescent athletes. In this sample, we assessed body weight, weight control behavior, body acceptance and screened overall for core symptoms of eating disorders, depression and anxiety. We performed a tree analysis to identify high risk groups for eating disorder pathology. High risk groups comprised (a) athletes competing in weight dependent sports, and among athletes competing in disciplines other than weight dependent sports (b) athletes who are high on negative affectivity, (c) female athletes and (d) male athletes competing in endurance, technical or power sports. Athletes competing in weight dependent disciplines reported wide spread use of compensatory behaviors to influence body weight. Athletes reporting eating disorder pathology showed higher levels of depression and anxiety than athletes without eating disorder pathology. Increased psychosocial burden in athletes with eating disorder pathology suggests that eating disorder symptoms should not be accepted as an unproblematic and functional part of elite sports. The prevention and management of eating disorder pathology is especially important in weight dependent sports. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:553-562). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Surfing for thinness: a pilot study of pro-eating disorder Web site usage in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jenny L; Peebles, Rebecka; Hardy, Kristina K; Litt, Iris F

    2006-12-01

    Pro-eating disorder Web sites are communities of individuals who engage in disordered eating and use the Internet to discuss their activities. Pro-recovery sites, which are less numerous, express a recovery-oriented perspective. This pilot study investigated the awareness and usage of pro-eating disorder Web sites among adolescents with eating disorders and their parents and explored associations with health and quality of life. This was a cross-sectional study of 698 families of patients (aged 10-22 years) diagnosed with an eating disorder at Stanford between 1997 and 2004. Anonymous surveys were mailed and offered in clinic. Survey content included questions about disease severity, health outcomes, Web site usage, and parental knowledge of eating disorder Web site usage. Surveys were returned by 182 individuals: 76 patients and 106 parents. Parents frequently (52.8%) were aware of pro-eating disorder sites, but an equal number did not know whether their child visited these sites, and only 27.6% had discussed them with their child. Most (62.5%) parents, however, did not know about pro-recovery sites. Forty-one percent of patients visited pro-recovery sites, 35.5% visited pro-eating disorder sites, 25.0% visited both, and 48.7% visited neither. While visiting pro-eating disorder sites, 96.0% reported learning new weight loss or purging techniques. However, 46.4% of pro-recovery site visitors also learned new techniques. Pro-eating disorder site users did not differ from nonusers in health outcomes but reported spending less time on school or schoolwork and had a longer duration of illness. Users of both pro-eating disorder and pro-recovery sites were hospitalized more than users of neither site. Pro-eating disorder site usage was prevalent among adolescents with eating disorders, yet parents had little knowledge of this. Although use of these sites was not associated with other health outcomes, usage may have a negative impact on quality of life and result in

  16. Personality Dimensions in Bulimia Nervosa, Binge Eating Disorder, and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B.; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M.; Mitchell, James E.; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Pederson, Melissa W.; Crow, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity and a normal weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Method Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal weight comparison participants. Results Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other three groups, and lower well-being scores compared to the normal weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were re-analyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other three groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal weight comparison group. Conclusions The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and

  17. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  18. Incidence of eating disorders in Navarra (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; De Irala-Estévez, Jokin; Cano-Prous, Adrián; Gual-García, Pilar; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Cervera-Enguix, Salvador

    2005-03-01

    To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain. We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the study, we visited the established centers and the eating attitudes test (EAT-40) and eating disorder inventory (EDI) Questionnaires were administered to the entire study population. We obtained a final response of 92%. All adolescents whose EAT score was over 21 points and a randomized sample of those who scored 21 or below, were interviewed. Any person meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) was considered a case. We detected 90 new cases of eating disorders. Taking into consideration the randomly selected group whose EAT score was 21 points or below, we estimated the overall weighted incidence of eating disorders to be 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), after 18 months of observation, in which EDNOS predominated with an incidence of 4.2% (95% CI: 2.0-6.3). The incidence of AN was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5), while that of BN was also found to be 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). The highest incidence was observed in the group of adolescents between 15 and 16 years of age. The overall incidence of ED in a cohort of 2509 adolescents after 18 months of follow-up was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), with EDNOS outweighing the other diagnoses. The majority of new cases of eating disorders were diagnosed between ages 15 and 16.

  19. Peripheral Endocannabinoid Responses to Hedonic Eating in Binge-Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Maria Monteleone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reward mechanisms are likely implicated in the pathophysiology of binge-eating behaviour, which is a key symptom of binge-eating disorder (BED. Since endocannabinoids modulate food-related reward, we aimed to investigate the responses of anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG to hedonic eating in patients with BED. Peripheral levels of AEA and 2-AG were measured in 7 obese BED patients before and after eating favorite (hedonic eating and non-favorite (non-hedonic eating foods. We found that plasma levels of AEA progressively decreased after eating the non-favorite food and significantly increased after eating the favorite food, whereas plasma levels of 2-AG did not differ significantly between the two test conditions, although they showed a trend toward significantly different time patterns. The changes in peripheral AEA levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensations of the urge to eat and the pleasantness while eating the presented food, while changes in peripheral 2-AG levels were positively correlated to the subjects’ sensation of the pleasantness while eating the presented food and to the amount of food they would eat. These results suggest the occurrence of distinctive responses of endocannabinoids to food-related reward in BED. The relevance of such findings to the pathophysiology of BED remains to be elucidated.

  20. Adult picky eaters with symptoms of avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder: comparable distress and comorbidity but different eating behaviors compared to those with disordered eating symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickgraf, Hana F; Franklin, Martin E; Rozin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One presentation of Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) is characterized by picky eating, i.e., selective eating based on the sensory properties of food. The present study has two aims. The first is to describe distress and impairment in individuals with ARFID secondary to picky eating. The second is to determine whether eating behaviors hypothesized to be specific to picky eating can differentiate picky eaters with and without ARFID from typical eaters (e.g., individuals not reporting picky or disordered eating) and individuals who strongly endorse attitudes associated with anorexia and bulimia (eating disordered attitudes). Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk ( N =  325) and an online support group for adult picky eaters ( N =  81). Participants were grouped based on endorsement of picky eating, ARFID symptoms, and elevated eating disordered attitudes on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). The resulting four eating behavior groups were compared on measures of distress and impairment (e.g., anxiety/depression and, obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms, eating-related quality of life) and on measures of eating behaviors associated with picky eating (e.g., food neophobia, inflexibility about preparation and presentation of preferred foods, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and eating from a very narrow range of foods). The groups were compared using one way ANOVA with post-hoc Tamhane's T2 tests. On measures of distress and impairment, participants with ARFID reported higher scores than both typical eaters and picky eaters without ARFID, and comparable scores to those with disordered eating attitudes. Three of four measures of picky eating behavior, eating inflexibility, food neophobia, and eating from a range of 20 or fewer foods, distinguished picky eaters with and without ARFID form typical eaters and those with disordered eating attitudes. Picky eaters with ARFID reported greater food neophobia and eating inflexibility

  1. Eating Disorders in Child and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Onal Sonmez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are relatively common and serious disorders in adolescent and pre-adolescent age. The aim of this review is to update new findings related with mostly seen feeding and eating disorders in child and adolescents. The article focuses specifically on anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 301-316

  2. The multimodal treatment of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    HALMI, KATHERINE A.

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of eating disorders is based on a multimodal model, recognizing that these disorders do not have a single cause or a predictable course. The treatment strategy is determined by the severity of illness and the specific eating disorder diagnosis. For the treatment of anorexia nervosa, the key elements are medical management, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy and family therapy, while pharmacotherapy is at best an adjunct to other therapies. In bulimia nervosa...

  3. Associations of Adolescent Emotional and Loss of Control Eating with 1-year Changes in Disordered Eating, Weight and Adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika M. K.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Thompson, Katherine A.; Mehari, Rim D.; Marwitz, Shannon E.; Demidowich, Andrew P.; Galescu, Ovidiu A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent emotional-eating, referring to eating in response to negative affective states, is frequently reported by those with loss of control (LOC) eating. Although LOC eating has been shown to predict exacerbated disordered eating and excess weight/adiposity gain, the extent to which emotional-eating, either alone or in combination with LOC, predicts adverse outcomes has not been determined. Thus, we examined associations of baseline emotional-eating with changes in disordered eating, BMI, and adiposity over 1-year, and to what degree the presence or absence of baseline LOC moderated these associations. Methods 189 non-treatment-seeking youth (15.4±1.4y; 66% female; 67% non-Hispanic White, 38% overweight [BMI ≥85th %ile]) completed the emotional-eating Scale for Children/Adolescents and the Eating Disorder Examination interview at baseline and again at 1-year. Air displacement plethysmography assessed adiposity at both time points. Results Baseline emotional-eating alone was not significantly associated with the development of objective binge eating or changes in disordered eating attitudes, BMI or adiposity 1-year later. However, baseline emotional-eating interacted with the presence of baseline LOC in the prediction of 1-year outcomes. Among adolescents with LOC eating, greater baseline emotional-eating was related to increased disordered eating attitudes (p=.03), BMI (p=.04), and adiposity (p=.04) at 1-year, after correcting for false discovery rate. Discussion Emotional-eating among youth also reporting LOC was associated with adverse outcomes over 1-year. Adolescents who report both behaviors may represent a subset of individuals at especially high risk for exacerbated disordered eating and excess weight gain. PMID:27753140

  4. Genetics in eating disorders: extending the boundaries of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Poyastro Pinheiro

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the recent literature relevant to genetic research in eating disorders and to discuss unique issues which are crucial for the development of a genetic research project in eating disorders in Brazil. METHOD: A computer literature review was conducted in the Medline database between 1984 and may 2005 with the search terms "eating disorders", "anorexia nervosa", "bulimia nervosa", "binge eating disorder", "family", "twin" and "molecular genetic" studies. RESULTS: Current research findings suggest a substantial influence of genetic factors on the liability to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Genetic research with admixed populations should take into consideration sample size, density of genotyping and population stratification. Through admixture mapping it is possible to study the genetic structure of admixed human populations to localize genes that underlie ethnic variation in diseases or traits of interest. CONCLUSIONS: The development of a major collaborative genetics initiative of eating disorders in Brazil and South America would represent a realistic possibility of studying the genetics of eating disorders in the context of inter ethnic groups, and also integrate a new perspective on the biological etiology of eating disorders.

  5. Perfectionism Across Stages of Recovery from Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Sturm, Katrina; Lawson, Melissa A.; Robinson, D. Paul; Smith, Roma

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined perfectionism in relation to recovery from eating disorders by comparing different conceptualizations of perfectionism across healthy controls and fully recovered, partially recovered, and active eating disorder cases, where full recovery was defined using physical, behavioral, and psychological indices. Method Participants were primarily young adult females; 53 active eating disorder cases, 15 partially recovered cases, 20 fully recovered cases, and 67 healthy controls. Participants completed questionnaires assessing trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation style, and frequency of perfectionism cognitions, as well as a diagnostic interview to determine lifetime and current eating disorder diagnoses. Results A robust pattern emerged whereby the fully recovered eating disorder individuals and healthy controls had similar levels of perfectionism that were significantly lower than the perfectionism levels of the partially recovered and active eating disorder individuals, who were comparable to each other. Conclusion These findings have implications for more clearly defining eating disorder recovery and for the role perfectionism may play in achieving full recovery. PMID:19308994

  6. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions.

  7. Development and validation of the Stirling Eating Disorder Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G J; Power, K G; Miller, H R; Freeman, C P; Yellowlees, A; Dowds, T; Walker, M; Parry-Jones, W L

    1994-07-01

    The development and reliability/validity check of an 80-item, 8-scale measure for use with eating disorder patients is presented. The Stirling Eating Disorder Scales (SEDS) assess anorexic dietary behavior, anorexic dietary cognitions, bulimic dietary behavior, bulimic dietary cognitions, high perceived external control, low assertiveness, low self-esteem, and self-directed hostility. The SEDS were administered to 82 eating disorder patients and 85 controls. Results indicate that the SEDS are acceptable in terms of internal consistency, reliability, group validity, and concurrent validity.

  8. Early childhood adversities and risk of eating disorders in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating...

  9. Eating Disorders, Autoimmune, and Autoinflammatory Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-01-01

    higher hazards of eating disorders for children and adolescents with autoimmune or autoinflammatory diseases: 36% higher hazard for anorexia nervosa, 73% for bulimia nervosa, and 72% for an eating disorder not otherwise specified. The association was particularly strong in boys. Parental autoimmune...... or autoinflammatory disease history was associated with significantly increased odds for anorexia nervosa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13, confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.25), bulimia nervosa (OR = 1.29; CI = 1.08-1.55) and for an eating disorder not otherwise specified (OR = 1.27; CI = 1.13-1.44). CONCLUSIONS: Autoimmune...

  10. Nibbling and picking in obese patients with Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Roberto, Christina A; White, Marney A

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the clinical utility of nibbling behavior, defined as eating in an unplanned and repetitious manner between meals and snacks without a sense of loss of control, in obese patients with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Two-hundred seventeen (N = 217) consecutive, treatment-seeking, obese patients with BED were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Nibbling frequency was examined in relation to current weight, eating disorder psychopathology and eating patterns. Results found that nibbling/picking was not related to body mass index, objective bulimic, subjective bulimic, or overeating episodes, food avoidance, sensitivity to weight gain, or any subscales of the EDE. However, nibbling/picking was significantly related to frequency of morning and afternoon snacking (r = .21, p = .002; r = .27, p < .001). The assessment of nibbling/picking behaviors among individuals with BED might not provide clinically significant information. © 2013.

  11. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewThis is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent.Recent findingsThe majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including

  12. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K.; Hoek, Hans W.

    Purpose of reviewThis is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent.Recent findingsThe majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including

  13. Eating Disorders: A Problem in Athletics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckes-Miller, Mardie E.; Black, David R.

    1988-01-01

    A review of research regarding athletes' eating habits suggests that they may practice eating disorder habits and poor weight management behaviors as well as have poor attitudes and knowledge regarding nutrition, indicating their immediate need for appropriate education about the possible detrimental effects of such practices. (CB)

  14. Epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smink, Frédérique R E; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W

    2013-11-01

    To review the recent literature about the epidemiology, course, and outcome of eating disorders in accordance with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The residual category 'eating disorder not otherwise specified' (EDNOS) was the most common DSM-IV eating disorder diagnosis in both clinical and community samples. Several studies have confirmed that the DSM-5 criteria for eating disorders effectively reduce the proportion of EDNOS diagnoses. The lifetime prevalence of DSM-5 anorexia nervosa among women might be up to 4%, and of bulimia nervosa 2%. In a cross-national survey, the average lifetime prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) was 2%. Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are associated with increased mortality. Data on long-term outcome, including mortality, are limited for BED. Follow-up studies of BED are scarce; remission rates in randomized controlled trials ranged from 19 to 65% across studies. On a community level, 5-year recovery rates for DSM-5 anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are 69 and 55%, respectively; little is known about the course and outcome of BED in the community. Applying the DSM-5 criteria effectively reduces the frequency of the residual diagnosis EDNOS, by lowering the threshold for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and adding BED as a specified eating disorder. Course and outcome studies of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa show that no significant differences exist between DSM-5 and DSM-IV definitions.

  15. Attachment and eating disorders: a research update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A

    2018-03-16

    Prominent models of eating disorders tend to focus on cognitive and behavioral features, but tend not to consider important developmental issues related to affect regulation, interpersonal style, self concept, and mentalization-all of which are well conceptualized within attachment theory. Higher levels of attachment insecurity across diagnoses are related to greater eating disorder symptoms. Low parental care and early trauma may lead to attachment insecurity that then might lead to greater eating disorder symptoms. The association between insecure attachment and eating disorder severity is likely mediated by affect dysregulation and perfectionism. Recent research using the Adult Attachment Interview highlights the importance of reflective functioning in predicting treatment response and therapeutic processes, and on the utility of therapies that increase mentalization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Den tredje spiseforstyrrelse - Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Mennesker med Binge Eating Disorder indtager større mængder mad uden at være sultne. Overspisningen kan dulme svære følelser, men medfører typisk ekstremt ubehag og skam. Mennesker, der lider af spiseforstyrrelsen Binge Eating Disorder (i daglig tale kaldet BED), har ofte problemer med overvægt, og...

  17. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cuzzolaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological of BED and b to present the results of an original research on body image in obese patients with BED. The study was aimed to verify the following hypothesis: in persons with obesity, BED is associated with greater body uneasiness independently of some possible modulating factors. We studied a clinical sample of 159 (89 females and 70 males adult obese patients who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BED matched to 159 non-BED obese patients for gender, ethnicity, BMI class, age, weight, stature, onset age of obesity, education level, and marital status. We used the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT, a valuable multidimensional tool for the clinical assessment of body uneasiness in subjects suffering from eating disorders and/or obesity. Obese patients with BED reported higher scores than non-BED patients in the General Severity Index (BUT-A GSI and in every BUT-A subscale. All differences were statistically significant in both sexes. As expected women obtained higher scores than men. According to some other studies, our findings suggest that a negative body image should be included among diagnostic criteria for BED. Consequently, treatment should be focused not simply on eating behaviour and outcome studies should evaluate changes of body image as well.

  18. Eating attitudes of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and obesity without eating disorder female patients: differences and similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, M S; Koritar, P; Pisciolaro, F; Mancini, M; Cordás, T A; Scagliusi, F B

    2014-05-28

    The objective was to compare eating attitudes, conceptualized as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food, of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) patients and a group of obese (OBS) without eating disorders (ED). Female patients from an Eating Disorder (ED) Unit with AN (n=42), BN (n=52) and BED (n=53) and from an obesity service (n=37) in Brazil answered the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) which evaluate eating attitudes with 5 subscales: relationship with food, concerns about food and weight gain, restrictive and compensatory practices, feelings toward eating, and idea of normal eating. OBS patients were recruited among those without ED symptoms according to the Binge Eating Scale and the Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns. ANOVA was used to compare body mass index and age between groups. Bonferroni test was used to analyze multiple comparisons among groups. AN and BN patients presented more dysfunctional eating attitudes and OBS patients less dysfunctional (peating." BED patients were worst than OBS for "Relationship with food" and as dysfunctional as AN patients - besides their behavior could be considered the opposite. Differences and similarities support a therapeutic individualized approach for ED and obese patients, call attention for the theoretical differences between obesity and ED, and suggest more research focused on eating attitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Eating disorders in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, J.; Skinner, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    There is some debate in the literature as to whether there is an increased risk of developing eating disorders in individuals with type 1 diabetes. This review located 12 empirical studies of eating pathology in females with type 1 diabetes. Review of these papers indicates...... that there is no evidence for an increase in the rates of anorexia or bulimia, in females with type 1 diabetes. However, the data do suggest that eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) are more prevalent in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Key features of these articles are reviewed and discussed....

  20. Update on course and outcome in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Pamela K; Brown, Tiffany A

    2010-04-01

    To review recent studies describing eating disorder course and outcome. Electronic and manual searches were conducted to identify relevant articles published since 2004. Twenty-six articles were identified. For anorexia nervosa (AN), most patients ascertained through outpatient settings achieved remission by 5-year follow-up. Inpatient treatment predicted poor prognosis as inpatient samples demonstrated lower remission rates. Outcome differed between bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS), including binge eating disorder (BED), for shorter follow-up durations; however, outcomes appeared similar between BN and related EDNOS by 5-year follow-up. Greater psychiatric comorbidity emerged as a significant predictor of poor prognosis in BN, whereas few prognostic indicators were identified for BED or other EDNOS. Results support optimism for most patients with eating disorders. However, more effective treatments are needed for adult AN inpatients and approximately 30% of patients with BN and related EDNOS who remain ill 10-20 years following presentation.

  1. Contributions of mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint to BMI, disordered eating, and meal consumption in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Schaumberg, Katherine; Dmochowski, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-03-01

    Mindful eating and intuitive eating are promoted as means to circumvent potentially maladaptive dietary restraint while maintaining a healthy weight. Although theoretically related, no studies have examined the correlations between intuitive eating, mindful eating, and restraint in the same sample. This study sought to examine these constructs and their correlations with body mass index (BMI), eating-disordered behaviors, and meal consumption in a college sample. Participants (N = 125) completed a laboratory taste-test meal and measures of each eating-related construct using the EDDS, IES, MEQ, and TFEQ-Restraint Subscale. Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint were not strongly correlated. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that restraint and intuitive eating accounted for significant variance in disordered eating and BMI. Elevated restraint was associated with increased BMI and disordered eating; elevated intuitive eating was associated with decreased BMI and disordered eating. Mindful eating did not correlate with any outcome variables. Follow-up analyses suggested that specific intuitive eating subscales accounted for unique variance in the relation between intuitive eating and disordered eating. Intuitive eating was the only construct that was significantly associated with meal consumption. Intuitive eating and restraint appear to be only weakly correlated, and each is differentially associated with meal consumption. Mindful eating does not appear to relate to outcome variables.

  2. Risk of eating disorders in immigrant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustelin, L; Hedman, A M; Thornton, L M; Kuja-Halkola, R; Keski-Rahkonen, A; Cantor-Graae, E; Almqvist, C; Birgegård, A; Lichtenstein, P; Mortensen, P B; Pedersen, C B; Bulik, C M

    2017-08-01

    The risk of certain psychiatric disorders is elevated among immigrants. To date, no population studies on immigrant health have addressed eating disorders. We examined whether risk of eating disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants differs from native-born Danes and Swedes. All individuals born 1984-2002 (Danish cohort) and 1989-1999 (Swedish cohort) and residing in the respective country on their 10th birthday were included. They were followed up for the development of eating disorders based on out-patient and in-patient data. The risks of all eating disorder types were lower among first-generation immigrants compared to the native populations: Incidence-rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.39 (0.29, 0.51) for anorexia nervosa, 0.60 (0.42, 0.83) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.62 (0.47, 0.79) for other eating disorders in Denmark and 0.27 (0.21, 0.34) for anorexia nervosa, 0.30 (0.18, 0.51) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.39 (0.32, 0.47) for other eating disorders in Sweden. Likewise, second-generation immigrants by both parents were at lower risk, whereas those with only one foreign-born parent were not. The decreased risk of eating disorders among immigrants is opposite to what has been observed for other psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Possible explanations include buffering sociocultural factors and underdetection in health care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Globalization and eating disorder risk: peer influence, perceived social norms, and adolescent disordered eating in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbasi, Margaret E; Richards, Lauren K; Thomas, Jennifer J; Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Gilman, Stephen E; Becker, Anne E

    2014-11-01

    The increasing global health burden imposed by eating disorders warrants close examination of social exposures associated with globalization that potentially elevate risk during the critical developmental period of adolescence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study aim was to investigate the association of peer influence and perceived social norms with adolescent eating pathology in Fiji, a LMIC undergoing rapid social change. We measured peer influence on eating concerns (with the Inventory of Peer Influence on Eating Concerns; IPIEC), perceived peer norms associated with disordered eating and body concerns, perceived community cultural norms, and individual cultural orientations in a representative sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n = 523). We then developed a multivariable linear regression model to examine their relation to eating pathology (measured by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q). We found independent and statistically significant associations between both IPIEC scores and our proxy for perceived social norms specific to disordered eating (both p peer influence as well as perceived social norms relevant to disordered eating may elevate risk for disordered eating in Fiji, during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Replication and extension of these research findings in other populations undergoing rapid social transition--and where globalization is also influencing local social norms--may enrich etiologic models and inform strategies to mitigate risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The overlap between binge eating disorder and substance use disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Binge eating disorder (BED) is a relatively common condition, especially in young adult females, and is characterized by chronic over-consumption of food resulting in embarrassment, distress, and potential health problems. It is formally included as a disorder in DSM-5...... use disorder, binging, obesity, food addiction, comorbidity, dopamine, opioid, serotonin, glutamate, and pharmacological treatment were the keywords used in searching. RESULTS: BED shares similar phenomenology to SUD, including significant urges to engage in binging episodes, resulting in distress...... and impairment. Similar neurobiological pathways are found in both BED and SUD and medications based on similar neurobiology have been examined for both disorders. A subset of individuals with BED may have a "food addiction", but there is no clinical agreement on the meaning of "food addiction". Exploring...

  5. Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Adults with Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Passananti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Symptoms of celiac disease negatively impact social activities and emotional state. Aim was to investigate the prevalence of altered eating behaviour in celiac patients. Methods. Celiac patients and controls completed a dietary interview and the Binge Eating Staircases, Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2, Eating Attitudes Test, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory Forma Y (STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, and Symptom Check List (SCL-90. Results. One hundred celiac adults and 100 controls were not statistically different for gender, age, and physical activity. STAI-Y1 and STAI-Y2, Somatization, Interpersonal, Sensitivity, and Anxiety scores of the SLC-90 were higher in CD patients than controls. EDI-2 was different in pulse thinness, social insecurity, perfectionism, inadequacy, ascetisms, and interpersonal diffidence between CD and HC women, whilst only in interceptive awareness between CD and HC men. A higher EAT-26 score was associated with the CD group dependently with gastrointestinal symptoms. The EAT26 demonstrated association between indices of diet-related disorders in both CD and the feminine gender after controlling for anxiety and depression. Conclusion. CD itself and not gastrointestinal related symptoms or psychological factors may contribute pathological eating behavior in celiac adults. Eating disorders appear to be more frequent in young celiac women than in CD men and in HC.

  6. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  7. The Science Behind the Academy for Eating Disorders' Nine Truths About Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Welch, Elisabeth; Breithaupt, Lauren; Hübel, Christopher; Baker, Jessica H; Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Ehrlich, Stefan; Mustelin, Linda; Ghaderi, Ata; Hardaway, Andrew J; Bulik-Sullivan, Emily C; Hedman, Anna M; Jangmo, Andreas; Nilsson, Ida A K; Wiklund, Camilla; Yao, Shuyang; Seidel, Maria; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-11-01

    In 2015, the Academy for Eating Disorders collaborated with international patient, advocacy, and parent organizations to craft the 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders'. This document has been translated into over 30 languages and has been distributed globally to replace outdated and erroneous stereotypes about eating disorders with factual information. In this paper, we review the state of the science supporting the 'Nine Truths'. The literature supporting each of the 'Nine Truths' was reviewed, summarized and richly annotated. Most of the 'Nine Truths' arise from well-established foundations in the scientific literature. Additional evidence is required to further substantiate some of the assertions in the document. Future investigations are needed in all areas to deepen our understanding of eating disorders, their causes and their treatments. The 'Nine Truths About Eating Disorders' is a guiding document to accelerate global dissemination of accurate and evidence-informed information about eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Screen for Disordered Eating: Improving the accuracy of eating disorder screening in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Hebenstreit, Claire; Li, Yongmei; Dinh, Julie V; Donalson, Rosemary; Dalton, Sarah; Rubin, Emma; Masheb, Robin

    To develop a primary care eating disorder screen with greater accuracy and greater potential for generalizability, compared to existing screens. Cross-sectional survey to assess discriminative accuracy of a new screen, Screen for Disordered Eating (SDE), compared to Eating Disorders Screen for Primary Care (EDS-PC) and SCOFF screener, using prevalence rates of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and Any Eating Disorder (AED), as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The SDE correctly classified 87.2% (CI: 74.3%-95.2%) of BED cases, all cases of BN and AN, and 90.5% (CI: 80.4%-96.4%) of AED cases. Sensitivity estimates were higher than the SCOFF, which correctly identified 69.6% (CI: 54.2%-82.3%) of BED, 77.8% (CI: 40.0%-97.2%) of BN, 37.5% (CI: 8.52%-75.5%) of AN, and 66.1% (CI: 53%-77.7%) of AED. While the EDS-PC had slightly higher sensitivity than the SDE, the SDE had better specificity. The SDE outperformed the SCOFF in classifying true cases, the EDS-PC in classifying true non-cases, and the EDS-PC in distinguishing cases from non-cases. The SDE is the first screen, inclusive of BED, valid for detecting eating disorders in primary care. Findings have broad implications to address eating disorder screening in primary care settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Eating disorder not otherwise specified in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T; Celio Doyle, Angela; Hoste, Renee Rienecke; Herzog, David B; le Grange, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    To examine the frequency, type, and clinical severity of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in adolescents seeking treatment through an outpatient eating disorders service. Two hundred eighty-one consecutive referrals to an eating disorders program were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and self-report measures of depression and self-esteem. The majority of adolescents presented with EDNOS (59.1%; n = 166) relative to anorexia nervosa (AN; 20.3%; n = 57) and bulimia nervosa (BN; 20.6%; n = 58). Most EDNOS youths could be described as subthreshold AN (SAN; 27.7%; n = 46), subthreshold BN (SBN; 19.9%; n = 33), EDNOS purging (27.7%; n = 46), or EDNOS bingeing (6.0%; n = 10); yet 31 (18.7%) could not be categorized as such (EDNOS "other"). Overall differences in eating disorder pathology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem emerged between the EDNOS types, wherein adolescents with EDNOS bulimic variants (SBN, EDNOS purging, and EDNOS bingeing) had more pathology than youths with SAN or EDNOS "other." There were no differences in these variables between AN and SAN; in contrast, compared with BN, youths with EDNOS bulimic variants reported lower EDE scores and higher self-esteem, although there were no between-group differences in depression. As in adults with eating disorders, EDNOS predominates and is heterogeneous with regard to eating disorder pathology and associated features in an adolescent clinical sample. Lack of differences between AN and SAN suggests that the strict criteria for AN could be relaxed; differences between BN and EDNOS bulimic variants do not support their combination.

  10. Behavioral management of night eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berner LA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laura A Berner,1 Kelly C Allison2 1Department of Psychology, Drexel University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Night eating syndrome (NES is a form of disordered eating associated with evening hyperphagia (overeating at night and nocturnal ingestions (waking at night to eat. As with other forms of disordered eating, cognitive and behavioral treatment modalities may be effective in reducing NES symptoms. This review presents evidence for a variety of behavioral treatment approaches, including behavioral therapy, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss treatment, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. A more detailed overview of cognitive-behavioral therapy for NES is provided. All of these studies have been case studies or included small samples, and all but one have been uncontrolled, but the outcomes of many of these approaches are promising. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to advance NES treatment literature. With the inclusion of NES in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 as a “Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified,” more sophisticated, empirically-supported, behaviorally-based treatment approaches are much needed. Keywords: night eating syndrome, cognitive-behavioral treatment, phototherapy, behavioral weight loss, behavior therapy

  11. Interventions for preventing eating disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, B M; Woolfenden, S R

    2002-01-01

    psychopathology or general psychological and physical well-being in the general sample or those classified as being at high risk for eating disorder (Buddeberg-F 1998; Killen 1993/1996; Santonastaso 1999; Zanetti 1999). Given only one program used a psychoeducation approach to prevent bulimia nervosa (Jerome, unpublished) and only one program adopted a focus on self-esteem (O'Dea 2000), the effect of these approaches could not be evaluated via meta-analyses. In relation to potential harmful effects, there is not sufficient evidence to suggest that harm resulted from any of the prevention programs included in the review. The one significant pooled effect in the current review does not allow for any firm conclusions to be made about the impact of prevention programs for eating disorders in children and adolescents, although none of the pooled comparisons indicated evidence of harm. From a clinical perspective, the development and refinement of prevention programs is complicated by a lack of knowledge about risk factors associated with eating disorders and the need to strike a balance between delivering preventive interventions for eating disorders and considering the potential to cause harm. From a research perspective, the idea of "thresholds" for identifying young people at risk of developing eating disorders has been raised, and denial of concern or denial of illness represents a further issue complicating early identification in relation to eating disorder symptomatology. Longer-term effects of the intervention approaches will need to be monitored across development in order to demonstrate a decline in the incidence of eating disorders and associated risk factors.

  12. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Son, Gabrielle E.; Van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; Van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose-response

  13. Urbanisation and the incidence of eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, G.E. van; Hoeken, D. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Furth, E.F. van; Hoek, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    The link between degree of urbanisation and a number of mental disorders is well established. Schizophrenia, psychosis and depression are known to occur more frequently in urban areas. In our primary care-based study of eating disorders, the incidence of bulimia nervosa showed a dose response

  14. The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project: development and debut of a paediatric clinical eating disorder registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The HOPE (Helping to Outline Paediatric Eating Disorders) Project is an ongoing registry study made up of a sequential cross-sectional sample prospectively recruited over 17 years, and is designed to answer empirical questions about paediatric eating disorders. This paper introduces the HOPE Project, describes the registry sample to-date, and discusses future directions and challenges and accomplishments. The project and clinical service were established in a tertiary academic hospital in Western Australia in 1996 with a service development grant. Research processes were inbuilt into the initial protocols and data collection was maintained in the following years. Recognisable progress with the research agenda accelerated only when dedicated research resources were obtained. The registry sample consists of consecutive children and adolescents assessed at the eating disorder program from 1996 onward. Standardised multidisciplinary data collected from family intake interview, parent and child clinical interviews, medical review, parent, child and teacher psychometric assessments, and inpatient admission records populate the HOPE Project database. Results The registry database to-date contains 941 assessments, of whom 685 met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder at admission. The majority of the sample were females (91%) from metropolitan Perth (83%). The cases with eating disorders consist of eating disorders not otherwise specified (68%), anorexia nervosa (25%) and bulimia nervosa (7%). Among those with eating disorders, a history of weight loss since illness onset was almost universal (96%) with fear of weight gain (71%) common, and the median duration of illness was 8 months. Conclusions Over the next five years and more, we expect that the HOPE Project will make a strong scientific contribution to paediatric eating disorders research and will have important real-world applications to clinical practice and policy as the research unfolds

  15. Differences in Emotion Regulation Difficulties Across Types of Eating Disorders During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbach, Noam; Sher, Helene; Bohon, Cara

    2017-11-04

    Emotion regulation appears to play a key role in eating disorders. However, prior attempts to associate specific emotion regulation abilities with specific types of eating disorders resulted in inconsistent findings. Moreover, far less is known about emotion regulation in eating disorders during adolescence, a critical period of emotional development. The current study addresses this gap, comparing emotion regulation characteristics between adolescents with restrictive types of eating disorders and those with binge eating or purging types of eating disorders. Ninety-eight adolescents with eating disorders (49 with restrictive and 49 with binge eating/purging eating disorders) completed a set of questionnaires including the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). The results revealed that binge eating/purging types of eating disorders were associated with greater difficulties in a variety of emotion regulation dimensions including impulse control, goal-directed behavior and access to effective emotion regulation strategies. Awareness and clarity of emotions were also worse in the binge eating/purging types of eating disorders, but this difference did not remain when comorbid psychopathology measures were controlled for. Moreover, the emotion regulation profile of adolescents with anorexia nervosa-binging/purging type was more similar to that of adolescents with bulimia nervosa than to that of adolescents with anorexia nervosa-restrictive type. While both restrictive and binge eating/purging eating disorders have been associated with emotion regulation difficulties, the current study shows that the presence of binge eating or purging episodes is linked with greater severity of emotion regulation deficits among adolescents with eating disorders.

  16. Eating behaviour and eating disorders in students of nutrition sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Anne; Schiess, Sonja; Westenhoefer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes the suspicion is put forward that nutrition students show more disordered eating patterns, which may be among the motivating factors to study nutrition. At the same time, it is not clear whether the students' increasing knowledge about diet and nutrition is associated with a more healthy eating behaviour or with an unhealthy obsession with food choices. Cross-sectional comparison of nutrition students from German universities during the first year of their studies (n 123) and during higher semesters (n 96), with a control group from other study programmes (n 68 and n 46, respectively). Dietary restraint, disinhibition, the tendency towards orthorexia nervosa and healthy food choices were assessed using a questionnaire. Nutrition students showed higher levels of dietary restraint than the control group. Disinhibition and orthorexia nervosa did not differ between nutrition students and controls. Orthorexic tendencies were lower in the more advanced nutrition students. Healthy food choices did not differ among students in the first year. More advanced nutrition students showed healthier food choices, whereas the corresponding controls showed slightly more unhealthy food choices. Nutrition students, more than other students, tend to restrict their food intake in order to control their weight, but they do not have more disturbed or disordered eating patterns than other students. Moreover, during the course of their studies, they adopt slightly more healthy food choices and decrease their tendency to be obsessive in their eating behaviour.

  17. An Evolutionary Genetic Perspective of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; Pigeyre, Marie; Couturier, Jennifer; Meyre, David

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED) affect up to 5% of the population in Western countries. Risk factors for developing an ED include personality traits, family environment, gender, age, ethnicity, and culture. Despite being moderately to highly heritable with estimates ranging from 28 to 83%, no genetic risk factors have been conclusively identified. Our objective was to explore evolutionary theories of EDs to provide a new perspective on research into novel biological mechanisms and genetic causes of EDs. We developed a framework that explains the possible interactions between genetic risk and cultural influences in the development of ED. The framework includes three genetic predisposition categories (people with mainly AN restrictive gene variants, people with mainly BED variants, and people with gene variants predisposing to both diseases) and a binary variable of either the presence or absence of pressure to be thin. We propose novel theories to explain the overlapping characteristics of the subtypes of AN (binge/purge and restrictive), BN, and BED. For instance, mutations/structural gene variants in the same gene causing opposite effects or mutations in nearby genes resulting in partial disequilibrium for the genes causing AN (restrictive) and BED may explain the overlap of phenotypes seen in AN (binge/purge). © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Topiramate: use in binge eating disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Topiramate was serendipitously synthesized in 1979 during research aimed at developing a fructose-1,6-diphosphatase inhibitor that might be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Some investigators have suggested it might be used in the treatment of binge eating disorder (BED. The aim of this review was to evaluate current knowledge and opinions on this topic. Materials and methods: We conducted a search of five electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Nice, Cochrane, Cinahl using the search strategy ‘‘topiramate’’ AND ‘‘binge’’, ‘‘binge eating disorder.’’ No time limits were applied, and only reports of randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Results: In clinical studies, topiramate use has been associated with significant weight loss mediated by reductions in the frequency of bingeing episodes. The most common side effects of the drug are paresthesias, but nephrolithiasis, oligohydrosis, and dizziness have also been described. Conclusions: Available data are limited, but the literature we reviewed suggests that topiramate can be useful in the medical treatment of BED, reducing both body weight and binge episodes. Side effects are not negligible. Before topiramate can be regarded as a good tool for the treatment of BED, further data must be obtained from longer, methodologically correct studies of larger populations.

  19. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: hypoleptinemia and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M P; Voussoughian, F; Geer, E B; Hyle, E P; Adberg, C L; Ramos, R H

    1999-03-01

    Because the exact etiology of functional, or idiopathic, hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is still unknown, FHA remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The disorder may be stress induced. However, mounting evidence points to a metabolic/nutritional insult that may be the primary causal factor. We explored the thyroid, hormonal, dietary, behavior, and leptin changes that occur in FHA, as they provide a clue to the etiology of this disorder. Fourteen cycling control and amenorrheic nonathletic subjects were matched for age, weight, and height. The amenorrheic subjects denied eating disorders; only after further, detailed questioning did we uncover a higher incidence of anorexia and bulimia in this group. The amenorrheic subjects demonstrated scores of abnormal eating twice those found in normal subjects (P < 0.05), particularly bulimic type behavior (P < 0.01). They also expended more calories in aerobic activity per day and had higher fiber intakes (P < 0.05); lower body fat percentage (P < 0.05); and reduced levels of free T4 (P < 0.05), free T3 (P < 0.05), and total T4 (P < 0.05), without a significant change in rT3 or TSH. Cortisol averaged higher in the amenorrheics, but not significantly, whereas leptin values were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Bone mineral density was significantly lower in the wrist (P < 0.05), with a trend to lower BMD in the spine (P < 0.08). Scores of emotional distress and depression did not differ between groups. The alterations in eating patterns, leptin levels, and thyroid function present in subjects with FHA suggest altered nutritional status and the suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis or the alteration of feedback set-points in women with FHA. Both lower leptin and thyroid levels parallel changes seen with caloric restriction. Nutritional issues, particularly dysfunctional eating patterns and changes in thyroid metabolism, and/or leptin effects may also have a role in the metabolic signals suppressing GnRH secretion and

  20. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeken, Daphne; Burns, Jonathan K; Hoek, Hans W

    2016-11-01

    This is the first review of studies on the epidemiology of eating disorders on the African continent. The majority of articles found through our search did not assess formal diagnoses, but only screened for eating attitudes and behaviors. Only four studies - including only one recent study - provided specific epidemiological data on anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and/or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). No cases of anorexia nervosa according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria were found among a total of 1476 (young) females. The combined point-prevalence rate of bulimia nervosa is 0.87% (95% CI 0.22-1.51) and of EDNOS is 4.45% (95% CI 2.74-6.16) in young women in Africa. The epidemiological study of eating disorders in Africa is still in its infancy. Over time in total four studies providing epidemiological data on specific, formally assessed eating disorders were found. No cases of anorexia nervosa were reported in African epidemiological studies, which concurs with the very low prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa in Latin Americans and in African Americans in the USA. With the DSM-5 criteria for anorexia nervosa, some women in the African studies would have fulfilled the criteria for anorexia nervosa. The prevalence rate of bulimia nervosa in women in Africa is within the range reported for western populations, as well as African Americans and Latin Americans.

  1. Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Salmon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A sample of female undergraduates completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of the Arizona Life History Battery, a modified version of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the Behavioral Regulation scales from the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and two measures of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness that distinguished between competition for mates and competition for status. As predicted, Executive Functions completely mediated the relation between Slow Life History Strategy and Disordered Eating Behavior. Surprisingly, however, the relation between Female Intrasexual Competitiveness (competition for mates and competition for status and Disordered Eating Behavior was completely spurious, with executive functions serving as a common cause underlying the inhibition of both Disordered Eating Behavior and Female Intrasexual Competitiveness. The protective function of Slow Life History Strategy with respect to Disordered Eating Behavior apparently resides in a higher degree of Behavioral Regulation, a type of Executive Function. The enhanced Behavioral Regulation or self-control, of individuals with a Slow Life History Strategy is also protective against hazardously escalated levels of Female Intrasexual Competitiveness.

  2. How frequent are eating disturbances in the population? Norms of the eating disorder examination-questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Hilbert

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q is a self-report instrument assessing the specific psychopathology and key behaviors of eating disorders. This study sought to determine the prevalence of eating disturbances, and to provide psychometric properties and norms of the EDE-Q, in a representative German population sample. METHODS: A total of 2520 individuals (1166 men, 1354 women were assessed with the EDE-Q. RESULTS: Eating disorder psychopathology was higher and most key behaviors were more prevalent in women than in men. Psychopathology declined with age ≥65 in both sexes, and showed a peak at age 55-64 in men. Overall, 5.9% of the women and 1.5% of the men revealed eating disturbances. The prevalence of eating disturbances decreased with age in women and was significantly higher in obese than in normal-weight individuals. Psychometric analyses showed favorable item characteristics. Internal consistencies of EDE-Q composite scores were ≥.80 for women and ≥.70 for men. The factor structure of the EDE-Q was partially reproduced. Sex- and age-specific population norms are reported. DISCUSSION: This study provides population norms of the EDE-Q for both sexes and across the age range, demonstrates demographic variations in symptomatology, and reveals satisfactory psychometric properties. Further research is warranted on eating disturbances in older adults.

  3. Validation of the exercise and eating disorder questionnaire in males with and without eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Marit; Bjørnelv, Sigrid; Bratberg, Grete Helen; Rø, Øyvind

    2018-03-14

    The need to consider gender when studying exercise in eating disorder (ED) has been underscored. The study aimed to test the psychometric properties and factor structure of the exercise and eating disorder (EED) questionnaire for males with and without ED, to highlight gender differences, and to explore issues relevant for a male version of the EED questionnaire. This cross sectional study included 258 male participants: 55 ED patients (inpatients and outpatients) and 203 student controls. The patient group consisted of 54.5% (n = 30) with AN, 18.2% (n = 10) with BN, 27.2% (n = 15) with unspecified ED. The ED sample was treated as transdiagnostic in all analyses. t Tests, chi-square test, correlations analyses, and a principal component analysis were conducted. The analyses confirmed that the EED questionnaire had adequate psychometric properties, and a four-factor solution: (a) compulsive exercise, (b) positive and healthy exercise, (c) awareness of bodily signals, and (d) weight and shape exercise. The questionnaire discriminated significantly (p < .01- < .001) between patients and controls on the global score, subscales, and 16 out of 18 individual items. Convergent validity was demonstrated by high correlations between the EED questionnaire and the eating disorder examination questionnaire (r = .65). The results indicated that the EED questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for males. It is a clinically derived, self-report questionnaire to assess compulsive exercise among ED patients, regarding attitudes and thoughts toward compulsive exercise and identification of treatment targets and priorities. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Emotional Eating, Binge Eating and Animal Models of Binge-Type Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Robert; Chami, Rayane; Treasure, Janet

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the role that hedonic factors, emotions and self-regulation systems have over eating behaviours from animal models to humans. Evidence has been found to suggest that for some high-risk individuals, obesity/binge eating may develop as an impulsive reaction to negative emotions that over time becomes a compulsive habit. Animal models highlight the neural mechanisms that might underlie this process and suggest similarities with substance use disorders. Emotional difficulties and neurobiological factors have a role in the aetiology of eating and weight disorders. Precise treatments targeted at these mechanisms may be of help for people who have difficulties with compulsive overeating.

  5. MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY IN MANAGEMENT OF EATING DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Pavlović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of eating disorders demands a comprehensive medical approach, where a dietitian has an important role, primarily due to numerous instances of malnutrition. The objective of this paper was to recapitulate the research findings and clinical evidence which show the importance of medical nutrition therapy in the treatment of eating disorders; furthermore, they present significant guidelines for clinical practice. The research methods have entailed a thorough exploration of literature available at research data bases. The results of the research studies published so far have unambiguously pointed out that, when eating disorders are concerned, there is an urgent need for a diet therapy in order for the patient to restore the appropriate body weight as well as normal eating habits. On the one hand, certain authors suggest returning to normal nutritional habits immediately, whereas, on the other hand, certain others advocate a diet therapy program, that is, a gradual process of recovery. Patients incapable of oral food intake receive enteral nutrition. Parenteral nutrition is applied for recovering the lost electrolytes and fluids, but it should be applied rarely, primarily in states of urgency. For patients suffering from eating disorders the increase in weight indicates good chances of recovery; therefore, the patient’s nutritional status should be carefully and continuously noted. Finally, it is important that our country, too, should adopt a carefully prescribed and conducted diet therapy as an obligatory step in the treatment of patients with eating disorders.

  6. Binge eating disorder and night eating syndrome in adults with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of binge eating disorder (BED) and night eating syndrome (NES) among applicants to the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ) were used to screen patients. Phone int...

  7. Prevalence of eating disorders and eating attacks in narcolepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Norbert Dahmen; Julia Becht; Alice Engel; Monika Thommes; Peter Tonn

    2008-01-01

    Norbert Dahmen, Julia Becht, Alice Engel, Monika Thommes, Peter TonnPsychiatry Department, University of Mainz, GermanyAbstract: Narcoleptic patients suffer frequently from obesity and type II diabetes. Most patients show a deficit in the energy balance regulating orexinergic system. Nevertheless, it is not known, why narcoleptic patients tend to be obese. We examined 116 narcoleptic patients and 80 controls with the structured interview for anorectic and bulimic eating disorders (SIAB) to te...

  8. Investigating the use of CD-Rom CBT for bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder in an NHS adult outpatient eating disorders service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lisa; Walton, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Many patients who experience bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) find it hard to access evidence-based treatments. Rates of failure to enter outpatient services following initial assessment are high, as are dropout rates from specialist outpatient eating disorders services. To offer CD-Rom CBT, a cognitive-behavioural multi-media supported self-help treatment, in a locality-based outpatient NHS Eating Disorders Service to patients who have binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa. Patients referred to a catchment-based NHS outpatient eating disorders service who were assessed and had an eating disorder with a binge-eating component were offered CD-Rom based CBT (Overcoming Bulimia) whilst on the waiting list for individual CBT. Forty patients completed the 8 sessions and attended the evaluation appointment (13 had BN, 27 had BED). For both groups, there were significant improvements in well-being and functioning, as well as significant reductions in problems and risk. There was also a significant reduction on the "Bulimic Subscale" of the EDI. These results were comparable with the original study findings (Schmidt, Treasure and Williams, 2001). Dropouts from the CD-Rom reflected rates common to other EDS treatments suggesting that CD-Rom did not directly impact upon service dropout rates. Computer assisted CBT for Eating Disorders offers a promising, feasible and acceptable first step for patients who have bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder and access treatment from specialist eating disorders services.

  9. EATING DISORDERS AND DIET MANAGEMENT IN CONTACT SPORTS; EAT-26 QUESTIONNAIRE DOES NOT SEEM APPROPRIATE TO EVALUATE EATING DISORDERS IN SPORTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Rodríguez, Alejandro; Vicente Salar, Néstor; Montero Carretero, Carlos; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Roche Collado, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    there is a growing concern in the appearance of eating disorders in athletes, especially those that practice sports grouped into weight categories. This affects the way athletes eat, using frequently unhealthy strategies to control weight, especially during the pre-competition period. this study analyses the prevalence of contact sports athletes in developing eating disorders, and how a controlled diet plan can reduce this risk. At the same time, it evaluates the use of the EAT-26 questionnaire to detect such disorders. a randomized frequency study was performed on 244 athletes (158 men, 86 women), who were separated into two groups: those that followed a diet plan given by a nutritionist, and a control group on a free diet. The athletes completed an EAT-26 questionnaire while participating in the University-level National Championships. the free diet group scored significantly higher on the questionnaire. Also, the female athletes controlled diet group scored significantly higher than their male counterparts. the results of the questionnaire indicate that an adequate nutritional program circumvents the use of unhealthy habits to control body weight and therefore avoids developing particular eating disorders. EAT-26 questionnaire does not seem the most appropriate tool to detect these disorders. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Eating disorder symptoms in middle-aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Kummer, Kai K; Pope, Harrison G

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have assessed symptoms of eating disorders in older men. We administered anonymous questionnaires to 470 men, aged 40-75 years, in and around Innsbruck, Austria, to assess eating behavior, body image, and exercise activities. We defined current eating disorder symptoms (EDS) as (1) BMI men, 32 (6.8%) reported one of the four eating disorder symptoms. The 32 men with eating disorder symptoms, compared to the 438 men with normal eating, showed significantly greater pathology on scales assessing eating behavior, exercise addiction, satisfaction with body shape, and weight. However, the EDE-Q cutoff score for eating disturbance identified only three (9%) of the EDS men. Symptoms of disordered eating, sometimes involving purging via excessive exercise, do occur in older men, and may be missed by conventional instruments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:953-957). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Personality predicts drop-out from therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders. Results from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Högdahl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT seems a promising way of delivering eating disorder treatment. However, treatment drop-out is a common problem and little is known about the correlates, especially in clinical settings. The study aimed to explore prediction of drop-out in the context of a randomized controlled trial within specialized eating disorder care in terms of eating disorder symptomatology, personality traits, comorbidity, and demographic characteristics. 109 outpatients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa or similar eating disorder were randomized to two types of ICBT. Participants were assessed with several clinical- and self-ratings. The average drop-out rate was 36%. Drop-out was predicted by lower scores in the personality traits Dutifulness and Assertiveness as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory Revised, and by higher scores in Self-affirm as measured by the Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour. Drop-out was also predicted by therapist factors: one therapist had significantly more drop-outs (82% than the other three (M = 30%. Theoretical and clinical implications of the impact of the predictors are discussed.

  12. [Prevention of eating disorder: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephanie; Kindermann, Sally Sophie; Moessner, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Eating disorders are severe mental illnesses that are challenging to treat and often follow a chronic course. They are associated with immense impairment on the psychological, physical, interpersonal, and social level as well as signifi cant direct and indirect cost. Therefore, prevention and early intervention are of utmost importance. Based on a qualitative literature review, we summarized the empirical evidence for the effi cacy of universal and selective prevention of eating disorders. Programs available in German and/or English were included in the review. In addition to research on effi cacy and effectiveness, the areas of implementation, dissemination, and reach were identifi ed as key issues for future studies. Furthermore, more research is needed on the relationship of cost, benefi t, and risks of eating disorder prevention.

  13. Feeding and eating disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    The past few years have seen a steep increase in journal articles relating to feeding and eating disorders in children, making a succinct overview timely. The relevance of this review is enhanced by the recent publication of revised feeding and eating disorder diagnostic criteria in DSM-5. These have significant implications for younger patients, in particular through the inclusion of the new diagnostic category Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID). It is likely that this will encourage increased research interest in this field. Recent publications included in this article cover a broad range of topics relevant to childhood feeding and eating disorders, to include: presentation, diagnosis and classification; epidemiology; risk factors; assessment measures; treatment, prognosis and outcome. The area of feeding and eating disorders in children remains relatively under-researched, with significant gaps in knowledge about epidemiology, course and prognosis as well as a limited evidence base for treatment. However, important and promising avenues are increasingly being explored. In relation to clinical practice, there is now a much better recognition of these disorders and a greater awareness of their complexity, severity and potential impact in both the short and the longer term if not appropriately managed.

  14. The evolving genetic foundations of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, K L; Kaye, W H; Strober, M

    2001-06-01

    Data described earlier are clear in establishing a role for genes in the development of eating abnormalities. Estimates from the most rigorous studies suggest that more than 50% of the variance in eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors can be accounted for by genetic effects. These high estimates indicate a need for studies identifying the specific genes contributing to this large proportion of variance. Twin and family studies suggest that several heritable characteristics that are commonly comorbid with AN and BN may share genetic transmission with these disorders, including anxiety disorders or traits, body weight, and possibly major depression. Moreover, some developmental research suggests that the genes involved in ovarian hormones or the genes that these steroids affect also may be genetically linked to eating abnormalities. Molecular genetic research of these disorders is in its infant stages. However, promising areas for future research have already been identified (e.g., 5-HT2A receptor gene, UCP-2/UCP-3 gene, and estrogen receptor beta gene), and several large-scale linkage and association studies are underway. These studies likely will provide invaluable information regarding the appropriate phenotypes to be included in genetic studies and the genes with the most influence on the development of these disorders.

  15. An Investigation of Loss of Control Eating Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    syndrome eating disorders in adulthood ( Kotler , Cohen, Davies, Pine, & Walsh, 2001). For this reason, early identification of pathological overeating...eating (Iancu, Cohen, Ben Yehuda, & Kotler , 2006; Schmidt, Jiwany, & Treasure, 1993). Such research indicates that alexithymia may be a stable trait...CT: Yale University. Iancu, I., Cohen, E., Ben Yehuda, Y., & Kotler , M. (2006). Treatmetn of eating disorders improves eating symptoms but not

  16. Re-examination of chewing and spitting behavior: characteristics within and across eating disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Nora E; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James; Peterson, Carol B; Crosby, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Chewing and spitting (CS) out food is a relatively understudied eating disorder behavior. The aim of this study was to examine lifetime and current frequencies of CS across eating disorder diagnostic groups and to compare the severity of eating disorder symptomatology between participants who did and did not endorse CS. A total of 972 individuals presenting for outpatient eating disorder treatment between 1985 and 1996 completed a questionnaire that included items regarding current and lifetime eating disorder behaviors, including CS. Results indicated that both lifetime and current prevalence estimates of CS varied cross-diagnostically, with CS being more common among those with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa compared to those with eating disorder not otherwise specified. CS was significantly associated with several eating disorder symptoms, including compensatory behaviors, meal restriction, and lower BMI. Those who reported CS were also younger in age compared to those who did not report CS. These findings indicate that CS is associated with more severe eating and weight pathology and is not equally prevalent across eating disorder diagnoses. These results also support the relatively high occurrence of CS and the importance of targeting this behavior in eating disorder treatment. Future research should clarify the correlates, mechanisms, and function of CS in eating disorders.

  17. Comorbidity between lifetime eating problems and mood and anxiety disorders: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangfei; D'Arcy, Carl

    2015-03-01

    This study was to examine profiles of eating problems (EPs), mood and anxiety disorders and their comorbidities; explore risk patterns for these disorders; and document differences in health service utilization in a national population. Data were from the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being. The lifetime prevalence of EPs was 1.70% among Canadians, compared with 13.25% for mood disorder, 11.27% for anxiety disorder and 20.16% for any mood or anxiety disorder. Almost half of those with EPs also suffered with mood or anxiety disorders. A similar pattern in depressive symptoms was found among individuals with major depression and EPs, but individuals with EPs reported fewer symptoms. Factors associated with the comorbidity of EPs and mood and anxiety disorders were identified. Individuals with EPs reported more unmet needs. Patients with EPs should be concomitantly investigated for mood and anxiety disorders, as similar interventions may be effective for both. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Personality profiles in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomotake, Masahito; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2002-08-01

    The present review focused on the personality profiles of patients with eating disorders. Studies using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorder showed high rates of diagnostic co-occurrence between eating disorders and personality disorders. The most commonly observed were histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent and borderline personality disorders. Studies using the Cloninger's personality theory suggested that high Harm Avoidance might be relevant to the pathology of anorexia nervosa and high Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance to bulimia nervosa. Moreover, high Self-Directedness was suggested to be associated with favorable outcome in bulimia nervosa. The assessment of personality in a cross-sectional study, however, might be influenced by the various states of the illness. Therefore, a sophisticated longitudinal study will be required to advance this area of research.

  19. Eating Disorders in Schizophrenia: Implications for Research and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Kouidrat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Despite evidence from case series, the comorbidity of eating disorders (EDs with schizophrenia is poorly understood. This review aimed to assess the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of EDs in schizophrenia patients and to examine whether the management of EDs can be improved. Methods. A qualitative review of the published literature was performed using the following terms: “schizophrenia” in association with “eating disorders,” “anorexia nervosa,” “bulimia nervosa,” “binge eating disorder,” or “night eating syndrome.” Results. According to our literature review, there is a high prevalence of comorbidity between schizophrenia and EDs. EDs may occur together with or independent of psychotic symptoms in these patients. Binge eating disorders and night eating syndromes are frequently found in patients with schizophrenia, with a prevalence of approximately 10%. Anorexia nervosa seems to affect between 1 and 4% of schizophrenia patients. Psychopathological and neurobiological mechanisms, including effects of antipsychotic drugs, should be more extensively explored. Conclusions. The comorbidity of EDs in schizophrenia remains relatively unexplored. The clearest message of this review is the importance of screening for and assessment of comorbid EDs in schizophrenia patients. The management of EDs in schizophrenia requires a multidisciplinary approach to attain maximized health outcomes. For clinical practice, we propose some recommendations regarding patient-centered care.

  20. The Relationship between Concurrent Substance Use Disorders and Eating Disorders with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Courbasson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current pilot study investigated whether patients with concurrent substance use disorders and eating disorders (SUD and ED who experienced a reduction in SUD and ED symptoms following treatment for SUD and ED also experienced a reduction in personality disorder (PD symptoms. Method: Twenty patients with SUD and ED and PD were assessed pre and post treatment using clinical interviews, self-report questionnaires, and a therapist questionnaire on DSM-IV-TR symptoms for PD. Results: Symptoms for the personality disorders were reduced following treatment. This reduction was correlated with a decrease in the number of symptoms of ED at post treatment. Discussion: Chronic concurrent SUD and ED may make it difficult to separate PD symptoms from co-occurring disorders. Many features attributed to PDs may be reduced when problematic substance use and disordered eating are addressed, a fact that may increase clinician and patients’optimism about therapeutic change.

  1. Binge Eating, Purging, or Both: Eating Disorder Psychopathology Findings from an Internet Community Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD) on clinically significant variables and examine the utility of once versus twice-weekly diagnostic thresholds for disturbed eating behaviors. Method 234 women with BN, BED, or PD were identified through self-report measures via an online survey and categorized based on either once-weekly or twice-weekly disturbed eating behaviors. Results BN emerged as a more severe disorder than BED and PD. The three groups differed significantly in self-reported restraint and disinhibition and the BN and BED groups reported higher levels of depression than PD. For BN, those engaging in behaviors twice-weekly versus once-weekly were more symptomatic. Discussion The BN, BED, and PD groups differed in clinically meaningful ways. Future research need to clarify the relationship between mood disturbances and eating behaviors. Reducing the twice-weekly behavior threshold for BN would capture individuals with clinically significant eating disorders, though the twice-weekly threshold may provide important information about disorder severity for both BN and BED. PMID:19862702

  2. Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African ... e between body composition and disordered eating in irregular vs normal menstruating athletes. ... measured by air displacement plethysmography.

  3. Delayed Diagnoses: Nonspecific Findings and Diagnostic Challenges in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Schwarz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Eating disorders commonly present with nonspecific findings, masquerading as other, more common etiologies of malnutrition and wasting. In low-prevalence populations, these ambiguities can complicate clinicians’ diagnostic reasoning, resulting in delayed or missed diagnoses. Method. We report the atypical case of a 51-year-old male with a five-year history of unexplained weight loss despite extensive past medical evaluation. Previous documentation of profound lymphopenia and bone marrow atrophy had not been linked to a known association with eating disorders. Results. Evaluation for medical etiologies of wasting was negative. Following psychiatric evaluation, the patient was diagnosed with an eating disorder, not otherwise specified, and admitted to a specialized nutritional rehabilitation program. Conclusion. The nonspecific clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory abnormalities of eating disorders can make these diagnoses challenging and delay appropriate treatment. Clinicians should consider eating disorders in patients with malnutrition, severe lymphopenias, and gelatinous marrow transformation early in their workup, so as to avoid potentially negative outcomes.

  4. Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory: exploring the dimensionality of eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñá, Conxa; Roncero, María; Belloch, Amparo; Sánchez-Reales, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to examine the structure and validity of the Eating-related Intrusive Thoughts Inventory (INPIAS), a self-report questionnaire designed to assess eating disorders related to intrusive thoughts (EDITs), and second, to explore the existence of a continuum ranging from normal to abnormal thought intrusions related to eating, weight, and shape. Participants were 574 (408 women) nonclinical community individuals. Analyses revealed that EDITs can be clustered into three sets: appearance-dieting, need to exercise, and thoughts-impulses related to eating disorders. EDITs' consequences showed a two-factor structure: emotional consequences/personal meaning and thought-action fusion responsibility; and four factors of strategies: "anxiety," suppression, obsessive-compulsive rituals, and distraction. The sample was then divided according to reported restrained eating. The High dietary restraint group reported a higher frequency of EDITs, whereas differences in the other factors were mediated by depression, anxiety, and obsessionality. The results suggest that eating disorder-related cognitions are experienced by nonclinical individuals, and distributed on a continuum.

  5. Food insecurity and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Middlemass, Keesha; Taylor, Brigitte; Johnson, Clara; Gomez, Francesca

    2017-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate eating disorder (ED) pathology in those living with food insecurity. A secondary aim was to investigate whether any-reason dietary restraint, weight self-stigma, and worry increased as level of food insecurity increased. Participants (N = 503) seeking food from food pantries completed questionnaires assessing level of food insecurity, demographics, ED pathology, dietary restraint, weight self-stigma, and worry. Consistent with hypotheses, participants with the highest level of food insecurity (i.e., adults who reported having hungry children in their household) also endorsed significantly higher levels of binge eating, overall ED pathology, any-reason dietary restraint, weight self-stigma, and worry compared to participants with lower levels of food insecurity. Contrary to hypotheses, compensatory behaviors also increased as level of food insecurity worsened. Overall, 17% of those in the child hunger food insecurity group reported clinically significant ED pathology. This is the first study to assess the full spectrum of ED pathology in a low-income, marginalized population with food insecurity. Given that food insecurity is a global concern, results from this study suggest that greater attention to the association between ED pathology and food insecurity is warranted by researchers around the world. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Hannah M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors. PMID:26694553

  7. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Hannah M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors.

  8. Fetal programming and eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Candace; Pearce, Brad; Barrera, Ingrid; Mummert, Amanda

    2017-09-07

    Fetal programming describes the process by which environmental stimuli impact fetal development to influence disease development later in life. Our analysis summarizes evidence for the role of fetal programming in eating disorder etiology through review of studies demonstrating specific obstetric complications and later eating risk of anorexia or bulimia. Using Pubmed, we found thirteen studies investigating obstetric factors and eating disorder risk published between 1999 and 2016. We then discuss modifiable maternal risk factors, including nutrition and stress, that influence anorexia or bulimia risk of their offspring. Translation of these findings applies to preventative strategies by health organizations and physicians to provide optimal health for mothers and their children to prevent development of medical and psychiatric illnesses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early improvement in eating attitudes during cognitive behavioural therapy for eating disorders: the impact of personality disorder cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Emma C; Waller, Glenn; Gannon, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    The personality disorders are commonly comorbid with the eating disorders. Personality disorder pathology is often suggested to impair the treatment of axis 1 disorders, including the eating disorders. This study examined whether personality disorder cognitions reduce the impact of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, in terms of treatment dropout and change in eating disorder attitudes in the early stages of treatment. Participants were individuals with a diagnosed eating disorder, presenting for individual outpatient CBT. They completed measures of personality disorder cognitions and eating disorder attitudes at sessions one and six of CBT. Drop-out rates prior to session six were recorded. CBT had a relatively rapid onset of action, with a significant reduction in eating disorder attitudes over the first six sessions. Eating disorder attitudes were most strongly associated with cognitions related to anxiety-based personality disorders (avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and dependent). Individuals who dropped out of treatment prematurely had significantly higher levels of dependent personality disorder cognitions than those who remained in treatment. For those who remained in treatment, higher levels of avoidant, histrionic and borderline personality disorder cognitions were associated with a greater change in global eating disorder attitudes. CBT's action and retention of patients might be improved by consideration of such personality disorder cognitions when formulating and treating the eating disorders.

  10. Inner body and outward appearance: the relationships between appearance orientation, eating disorder symptoms, and internal body awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoor, Sonja T P; Bekker, Marrie H J; Van Heck, Guus L; Croon, Marcel A; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the associations of appearance orientation and eating disorder symptoms with internal body awareness in an eating-disordered group of women and a general sample of women. In the eating-disordered group, appearance orientation was positively associated with internal body awareness. Eating disorders symptoms were negatively related to the awareness of bodily signals. No significant associations were found in the general sample of women. The results indicate that in eating-disordered individuals preoccupation with the body and eating-disordered behaviors are not only negatively associated with hunger, but with awareness of other bodily signals as well.

  11. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  12. VREPAR 2: VR in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, G; Bacchetta, M; Baruffi, M; Defrance, C; Gatti, F; Galimberti, C; Nugues, P; Ferretti, G S; Tonci, A

    1999-01-01

    Virtual Reality Environments for Psychoneurophysiological Assessment and Rehabilitation (VREPAR) are two European Community funded projects (Telematics for health-HC 1053/HC 1055-http://www.psicologia.net) whose aim is (a) to develop a PC based virtual reality system (PC-VRS) for the medical market that can be marketed at a price that is accessible to its possible endusers (hospitals, universities, and research centres) and that would have the modular, connectability and interoperability characteristics that the existing systems lack; and (b) to develop three hardware/software modules for the application of the PC-VRS in psychoneurophysiological assessment and rehabilitation. The chosen development areas are eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia, and obesity), movement disorders (Parkinson's disease and torsion dystonia), and stroke disorders (unilateral neglect and hemiparesis). In particular, the VREPAR 2 project is now testing the eating disorders module on a clinical sample.

  13. Disulfiram for binge eating disorder: an open trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farci, Anna Maria Giulia; Piras, Simona; Murgia, Magnolia; Chessa, Alessandra; Restivo, Angelo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Agabio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of disulfiram for treatment of binge eating disorder. Two hundred and fifty milligrams per day of disulfiram was administered to 12 patients affected by binge eating disorder for 16 weeks; the number of binge eating episodes per week and the number of participants who reported side effects were evaluated. Nine participants (75.0%) completed the trial, while the other 3 (25.0%) discontinued prematurely. Disulfiram significantly decreased the mean frequency of binge eating episodes per week from 7.9±1.2 to 0.9±0.6 (pbinge eating episodes, and 7 participants (58.3%) achieved remission of binge eating. Eleven participants (91.7%) reported side effects [drowsiness (N=9), headache (N=7), dysgeusia (N=3), tachycardia (N=3), dizziness (N=2), and nausea (N=2)]. While disulfiram reduced the frequency of binge eating episodes, side effects were observed in the majority of participants. Longer-term placebo-controlled studies are warranted to exclude the contribution of a placebo response from these results and to evaluate drugs with similar pharmacological activity but improved tolerability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eating disorders in black South African females

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Med J 1995; 85: 588-590. Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa, have .... body image there did not appear to be any distortion, and she claimed to .... it has been noted that fatness is tolerated rather than accepted by young Chinese.

  15. Quality of life in eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Laura Vad; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck

    2014-01-01

    to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders...

  16. Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  17. Effectiveness of Parent Counselling in Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Quaranta, Michela; Marzola, Enrica; Cazzaniga, Giovanna; Amianto, Federico; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders (ED) are often severe illnesses entailing a heavy burden for families. Family therapy is recommended for young patients, but only a few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions with families tailored also to adult and longstanding patients. We recruited 87 families with daughters affected by an ED, aiming to assess the…

  18. Treatment and Counseling Approaches for Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kristin L.

    Maladaptive eating behaviors are a growing phenomenon which has captured the interest of not only health and psychology professionals, but also the general public. This paper examines the various types of treatment and counseling approaches for treating anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Definitions for both disorders are provided, followed by…

  19. Perplexities and Provocations of Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Etiological hypotheses of eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have not produced informative research for predictably effective treatment. Methods: The rationale for applying a model of allostasis, a dysregulation of reward circuits with activation of brain and hormonal stress responses to maintain apparent stability,…

  20. Genetics and epigenetics of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Z

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Yilmaz,1 J Andrew Hardaway,1 Cynthia M Bulik1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 3Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Eating disorders (EDs are serious psychiatric conditions influenced by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. A better understanding of the genetics of these complex traits and the development of more sophisticated molecular biology tools have advanced our understanding of the etiology of EDs. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the literature on the genetic research conducted on three major EDs: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. We will first review the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, prevalence, and prognosis of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, followed by a review of family, twin, and adoption studies. We then review the history of genetic studies of EDs covering linkage analysis, candidate-gene association studies, genome-wide association studies, and the study of rare variants in EDs. Our review also incorporates a translational perspective by covering animal models of ED-related phenotypes. Finally, we review the nascent field of epigenetics of EDs and a look forward to future directions for ED genetic research. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, animal models, genome-wide association studies, high-throughput sequencing

  1. Self-Mutilation and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Armando R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents evidence from literature review, patient interviews, responses to Self-Harm Behavior Survey, and case reports that patients with eating disorders are at high risk for self-mutilation. In lieu of dual diagnosis, postulates that combination of self-mutilation, anorexia, bulimia, and other symptoms may be manifestations of impulse control…

  2. Disordered Eating in Women of Color: Some Counseling Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2012-01-01

    There is little attention devoted to studying eating disorder symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse groups despite the fact that the prevalence rates among women of color for eating disorder symptoms are similar to those of European American women. This article reviews research related to eating disorders in women of color, including a…

  3. The Eating Disorders Continuum, Self-Esteem, and Perfectionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Lisa D.; Lightsey, Owen Richard

    2008-01-01

    Among 261 undergraduate women, increased severity of eating disorders along a continuum was associated with decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on 7 subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Women with eating disorders differed from both symptomatic women and asymptomatic women on all variables, whereas…

  4. College Student Stress: A Predictor of Eating Disorder Precursor Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Virginia L.; Valkyrie, Karena T.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorders are compulsive behaviors that can consume a person's life to the point of becoming life threatening. Previous research found stress associated with eating disorders. College can be a stressful time. If stress predicted precursor behaviors to eating disorders, then counselors would have a better chance to help students sooner. This…

  5. Achievement Goal Theory and disordered eating: Relationships between female gymnasts’ goal orientations, perceived motivational climate and disordered eating correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationships between disordered eating in female gymnasts and dancers and their perspective towards achievement in sport and dance, respectively. With an emphasis on outperforming others (ego involvement), more disordered eating was expected than when personal progress

  6. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D

    2012-03-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18-24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors.

  7. Disordered eating and eating disorders in aquatic sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Burke, Louise

    2014-01-01

    availability, reproductive function and bone health in female athletes, has recently been expanded to recognise that Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) has a broader range of negative effects on body systems with functional impairments in both male and female athletes. Athletes in leanness......-demanding sports have an increased risk for RED-S and for developing EDs/DE. Special risk factors in aquatic sports related to weight and body composition management include the wearing of skimpy and tight-fitting bathing suits, and in the case of diving and synchronized swimming, the involvement of subjective...... judgements of performance. The reported prevalence of DE and EDs in athletic populations including athletes from aquatic sports ranges from 18-45 % in female athletes and 0-28 % in male athletes. To prevent EDs, aquatic athletes should practice healthy eating behaviour at all periods of development pathway...

  8. Feminist identity as a predictor of eating disorder diagnostic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melinda A; Scott, Norman A; Riopel, Cori M; Skaggs, Anna K

    2008-06-01

    Passive Acceptance (PA) and Active Commitment (AC) subscales of the Feminist Identity Development Scale (FIDS) were examined as predictors of eating disorder diagnostic status as assessed by the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (Q-EDD). Results of a hierarchical regression analysis revealed PA and AC scores were not statistically significant predictors of ED diagnostic status after controlling for diagnostic subtype. Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed FIDS as a statistically significant predictor of ED diagnostic status when failing to control for ED diagnostic subtype. Discrepancies suggest ED diagnostic subtype may serve as a moderator variable in the relationship between ED diagnostic status and FIDS. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Military sexual trauma is associated with eating disorders, while combat exposure is not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Li, Yongmei; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Goldstein, Lizabeth A; Maguen, Shira

    2018-05-01

    There are strong associations among trauma and eating disorders. However, while trauma and eating disorders are more common among veterans than other populations, there is little information on how military-specific stressors affect eating disorder risk. This study's objective was to determine whether military sexual trauma and combat exposure were independent predictors of eating disorders among women veterans, a high-risk group. Participants were women age 18-70, using VA medical center services, without psychotic disorders or suicidal ideation (N = 407). We estimated a cross-sectional logistic regression model to predict eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder) as a function of military sexual trauma and combat exposure, adjusting for demographic variables. Sixty-six percent of participants reported military sexual trauma, 32% reported combat exposure, and 15% met eating disorder criteria. Mean age was 49 years (SD = 13); 40% were veterans of color. Women reporting military sexual trauma had twice the odds of an eating disorder compared to women who did not (odds ratio [OR]: 2.03; 95% CI [1.03-3.98]). Combat exposure was not associated with eating disorders. Asian race (OR: 3.36; 95% CI [1.26-8.97]) and age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI [1.01-1.06]) were associated with eating disorders. The high rates of military sexual trauma and eating disorders highlight a need for continued work. Results suggest that it may be useful to focus on women reporting military sexual trauma when implementing eating disorder screening and treatment programs. Given associations among trauma, eating disorders, obesity, and mortality, such efforts could greatly improve veteran health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Do DSM-5 Eating Disorder Criteria Overpathologize Normative Eating Patterns among Individuals with Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Kamryn T.; Murray, Helen B.; Gorman, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. DSM-5 revisions have been criticized in the popular press for overpathologizing normative eating patterns—particularly among individuals with obesity. To evaluate the evidence for this and other DSM-5 critiques, we compared the point prevalence and interrater reliability of DSM-IV versus DSM-5 eating disorders (EDs) among adults seeking weight-loss treatment. Method. Clinicians (n = 2) assigned DSM-IV and DSM-5 ED diagnoses to 100 participants via routine clinical interview. Research assessors (n = 3) independently conferred ED diagnoses via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a DSM-5 checklist. Results. Research assessors diagnosed a similar proportion of participants with EDs under DSM-IV (29%) versus DSM-5 (32%). DSM-5 research diagnoses included binge eating disorder (9%), bulimia nervosa (2%), subthreshold binge eating disorder (5%), subthreshold bulimia nervosa (2%), purging disorder (1%), night eating syndrome (6%), and other (7%). Interrater reliability between clinicians and research assessors was “substantial” for both DSM-IV (κ = 0.64, 84% agreement) and DSM-5 (κ = 0.63, 83% agreement). Conclusion. DSM-5 ED criteria can be reliably applied in an obesity treatment setting and appear to yield an overall ED point prevalence comparable to DSM-IV. PMID:25057413

  11. Do DSM-5 Eating Disorder Criteria Overpathologize Normative Eating Patterns among Individuals with Obesity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. DSM-5 revisions have been criticized in the popular press for overpathologizing normative eating patterns—particularly among individuals with obesity. To evaluate the evidence for this and other DSM-5 critiques, we compared the point prevalence and interrater reliability of DSM-IV versus DSM-5 eating disorders (EDs among adults seeking weight-loss treatment. Method. Clinicians (n=2 assigned DSM-IV and DSM-5 ED diagnoses to 100 participants via routine clinical interview. Research assessors (n=3 independently conferred ED diagnoses via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and a DSM-5 checklist. Results. Research assessors diagnosed a similar proportion of participants with EDs under DSM-IV (29% versus DSM-5 (32%. DSM-5 research diagnoses included binge eating disorder (9%, bulimia nervosa (2%, subthreshold binge eating disorder (5%, subthreshold bulimia nervosa (2%, purging disorder (1%, night eating syndrome (6%, and other (7%. Interrater reliability between clinicians and research assessors was “substantial” for both DSM-IV (κ = 0.64, 84% agreement and DSM-5 (κ = 0.63, 83% agreement. Conclusion. DSM-5 ED criteria can be reliably applied in an obesity treatment setting and appear to yield an overall ED point prevalence comparable to DSM-IV.

  12. Eating disorder features and quality of life: Does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Allison F; Stefano, Emily C; Cicero, David C; Latner, Janet D; Mond, Jonathan M

    2016-10-01

    This study examined whether gender moderates the associations between eating disorder features and quality-of-life impairment and whether eating disorder features can explain gender differences in quality of life in a sample of undergraduate students. The SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary Scales were used to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) was used to quantify eating disorder behaviors and cognitions. These self-report forms were completed by undergraduate men and women (n = 709). Gender was a significant predictor of mental HRQoL, such that women in this sample reported poorer mental HRQoL than men. Eating disorder cognitions were the strongest predictor of undergraduate students' mental and physical HRQoL, while binge eating negatively predicted their physical HRQoL only. Gender was not found to moderate the associations between eating disorder features and HRQoL, and eating disorder cognitions were found to mediate the association between gender and mental HRQoL such that a proportion of the difference between undergraduate men and women's mental HRQoL was attributable to eating disorder cognitions. This study provided further evidence of the significant impact of eating disorder features, particularly eating disorder cognitions, on HRQoL. The finding that gender did not moderate the relationships between eating disorder features and HRQoL indicates the importance of investigating these features in both men and women in future research.

  13. [FAMILY EATING HABITS AND PERCEPTION OF RISK IN EATING DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Lazo, María; Hernández Camacho, Juan Diego; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada; Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-10-01

    factors related to food, shape, weight and exercise, transmitted from parents to children, and media sociocultural factors, such as social networks, also influence the development of Eating Disorders (ED). to analyse the influence of family eating habits and the parents perception about the influence of social networks on the development and maintenance of ED. 30 parents of ED patients participated voluntarily in this study fulfilling a series of questionnaires, as well as reporting their weight and height. it is observed an underestimation of weight in the case of overweight (33.33%) and obesity (35%) without considering the fact of going on diet in the future (χ2 = 11.31; p habits seem to be more relevant (e.g. snacking, intake of a single dish) (p eating habits of ED patients' families improve by means of the nutrition education included in the treatment. Relatives do not perceive adequately the risk of the social networks in their children, which might contribute to the maintenance and future relapses of ED. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. [Lack of assertiveness in patients with eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar A, Rosa; Manzo G, Rodrigo; Casanova Z, Dunny

    2006-03-01

    Low self-assertion has been noted as an important feature among patients with eating disorders. To verify, in a female population, if assertiveness is related or has a predictive capacity for the development of eating disorders. An structured clinical interview, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Rathus Assertiveness Scale (RAS) were administered to 62 patients that fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for eating disorders and to 120 female students without eating problems. Patients with eating disorders ranked significantly higher on the EAT-40 and its factors (p assertiveness on the RAS (p Assertiveness measured by RAS and its factors was inversely related to EAT-40 and its items (r= -0.21). The predictive capability of the lack of self-assertion in the development of an eating disorder reached 53%, when patients with eating disorders and subjects at risk were considered together and compared to students without such disorder. Lack of assertiveness is a significant trait in patients with eating disorders; it may worsen its outcome and even perpetuate symptoms. Low self-assertion may be considered a predictive factor in the development of an eating disorder and must be managed from a preventive or therapeutic point of view.

  15. Eating Disorder Symptomatology in Normal-Weight vs. Obese Individuals With Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline; Crow, Scott J.; Hill, Laura L.; Peterson, Carol B.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, Jim E.

    2011-01-01

    Although normal-weight individuals comprise a substantial minority of the binge eating disorder (BED) population, little is known about their clinical presentation. This study sought to investigate the nature and severity of eating disturbances in normal-weight adults with BED. We compared 281 normal-weight (n = 86) and obese (n = 195) treatment-seeking adults with BED (mean age = 31.0; s.d. = 10.8) on a range of current and past eating disorder symptoms using ANOVA and χ2 analyses. After con...

  16. Residents' and Fellows' Knowledge and Attitudes About Eating Disorders at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristen; Accurso, Erin C; Kinasz, Kathryn R; Le Grange, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This study examined physician residents' and fellows' knowledge of eating disorders and their attitudes toward patients with eating disorders. Eighty physicians across disciplines completed a survey. The response rate for this survey across disciplines was 64.5 %. Participants demonstrated limited knowledge of eating disorders and reported minimal comfort levels treating patients with eating disorders. Psychiatry discipline (p = 0.002), eating disorder experience (p = 0.010), and having ≥4 eating disorder-continuing medical education credits (p = 0.037) predicted better knowledge of anorexia nervosa but not bulimia nervosa. Psychiatry residents (p = 0.041), and those who had treated at least one eating disorder patient (p = 0.006), reported significantly greater comfort treating patients with eating disorders. These results suggest that residents and fellows from this sample may benefit from training to increase awareness and confidence necessary to treat patients with eating disorders. Sufficient knowledge and comfort are critical since physicians are often the first health care provider to have contact with patients who have undiagnosed eating disorders.

  17. Depressive mood, eating disorder symptoms, and perfectionism in female college students: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villamisar, Domingo; Dattilo, John; Del Pozo, Araceli

    2012-01-01

    Although perfectionism has long been established as an important risk factor for depressive mood and eating disorders, the mechanisms through which this temperamental predisposition mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms are still relatively unclear. In this study we hypothesized that both perfectionism dimensions, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism, would mediate the relationship between current symptoms of depression and eating disorders in a non-clinical sample of Spanish undergraduate females. Two hundred sixteen female undergraduate students of the University Complutense of Madrid (Spain) completed the Spanish versions of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40), the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), OBQ-44, and BDI-II and BAI. Results demonstrated the importance of socially prescribed perfectionism in mediation of the relationship between depressive mood and symptoms of eating disorders. Socially prescribed perfectionism mediates the relationship between depressive mood and eating disorder symptoms for female college students.

  18. Pharmacologic Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L

    2017-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is the most common eating disorder and is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. Psychological and behavioral interventions have been a mainstay of treatment for BED, but as understanding of this disorder has grown, pharmacologic agents have become promising treatment options for some patients. At this time, only one drug-the stimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine-is approved for the treatment of BED. Numerous classes of medications including antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and antiobesity drugs have been explored as off-label treatments for BED with variable success. Although not all patients with BED may be suitable candidates for pharmacotherapy, all patients should be considered for and educated about pharmacologic treatment options. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  20. Weight suppression and weight elevation are associated with eating disorder symptomatology in women age 50 and older: Results of the gender and body image study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Erica L; Baker, Jessica H; Peat, Christine M; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Bulik, Cynthia M; Watson, Hunna J

    2018-04-25

    Weight suppression (WS), the difference between highest past non-pregnancy weight and current weight, predicts negative outcomes in eating disorders, but the impact of WS and related weight constructs are understudied in nonclinical, midlife populations. We examined WS (current weight weight) and weight elevation (WE), the opposite of WS (current weight > lowest weight) and their associations with eating psychopathology in women aged 50+. Participants were a community-based sample (N = 1,776, M age  = 59) who completed demographic and eating psychopathology questions via online survey. WS, WE, and WS × WE were tested as predictors of outcome variables; BMI and medical conditions that affect weight were controlled for. Individuals that were higher on WS and WE were most likely to engage in current weight loss attempts, dieting in the past 5 years, and extreme lifetime restriction. Individuals with higher WS were more likely to experience binge eating, greater frequency of weight checking, overvaluation of shape and weight, and lifetime fasting. Individuals with higher WE were more likely to report negative life impacts of eating and dieting. Higher WS and WE each predicted higher levels of skipping meals over the lifetime. This novel study investigated WS in midlife women and introduced a new conceptualization of weight change (WE) that may be more relevant for aging populations given that women tend to gain weight with age. The findings implicate the utility of investigating both WS and WE as factors associated with eating psychopathology in midlife women. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Role of Ghrelin, Salivary Secretions, and Dental Care in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Inui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders, including anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are potentially life-threatening syndromes characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior. An effective treatment strategy for these conditions remains to be established, as patients with eating disorders tend to suffer from multiple relapses. Because ghrelin was originally discovered in the stomach mucosa, it has been widely studied over the past decade in an effort to uncover its potential roles; these studies have shed light on the mechanism by which ghrelin regulates food intake. Thus, studying ghrelin in the context of eating disorders could improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of eating disorders, possibly resulting in a promising new pharmacological treatment strategy for these patients. In addition, early detection and treatment of eating disorders are critical for ensuring recovery of young patients. Oral symptoms, including mucosal, dental, and saliva abnormalities, are typically observed in the early stages of eating disorders. Although oral care is not directly related to the treatment of eating disorders, knowledge of the oral manifestations of eating disorder patients may aid in early detection, resulting in earlier treatment; thus, oral care might contribute to overall patient management and prognosis. Moreover, ghrelin has also been found in saliva, which may be responsible for oral hygiene and digestion-related functions. This review discusses the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in regulating food-intake and the role of saliva and oral care in young patients with eating disorders.

  2. Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Identity Formation in Adolescence: A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux Verschueren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating disorder symptomatology, comprising both psychological and behavioral aspects of subclinical eating concerns, constitutes a clear precursor of developing eating disorders. It is crucial to investigate its antecedents and correlates to subsequently inform eating disorder prevention programs. The present study focused on identity formation, a core developmental task in adolescence, that has increasingly been linked to eating disorder development. Our main aim was to examine the temporal sequence between eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation.Methods: Data on eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation were collected in 530 high school students (at Time 1: mean age = 15 years; SD = 1.84; range: 12–18 years; 50.6% females using self-report questionnaires at three annual measurement points. Cross-lagged structural equation modeling was performed to examine the directionality of effects.Results: Results indicated bidirectional effects between eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation. Identity confusion seemed to increase vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and bulimia symptoms, whereas identity synthesis seemed to protect against their development. Additionally, identity synthesis seemed to protect against the development of drive for thinness as well. At the same time, body dissatisfaction and bulimia symptoms positively predicted identity confusion and negatively predicted identity synthesis over time.Conclusion: The present study adds to the growing body of literature on identity and eating disorders by focusing on their temporal interplay in a community sample of adolescents. As bidirectional effects emerged, a greater emphasis on identity formation in eating disorder prevention programs is advocated.

  3. Eating Disorder Symptomatology and Identity Formation in Adolescence: A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Margaux; Claes, Laurence; Bogaerts, Annabel; Palmeroni, Nina; Gandhi, Amarendra; Moons, Philip; Luyckx, Koen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Eating disorder symptomatology, comprising both psychological and behavioral aspects of subclinical eating concerns, constitutes a clear precursor of developing eating disorders. It is crucial to investigate its antecedents and correlates to subsequently inform eating disorder prevention programs. The present study focused on identity formation, a core developmental task in adolescence, that has increasingly been linked to eating disorder development. Our main aim was to examine the temporal sequence between eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation. Methods: Data on eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation were collected in 530 high school students (at Time 1: mean age = 15 years; SD = 1.84; range: 12-18 years; 50.6% females) using self-report questionnaires at three annual measurement points. Cross-lagged structural equation modeling was performed to examine the directionality of effects. Results: Results indicated bidirectional effects between eating disorder symptomatology and identity formation. Identity confusion seemed to increase vulnerability to body dissatisfaction and bulimia symptoms, whereas identity synthesis seemed to protect against their development. Additionally, identity synthesis seemed to protect against the development of drive for thinness as well. At the same time, body dissatisfaction and bulimia symptoms positively predicted identity confusion and negatively predicted identity synthesis over time. Conclusion: The present study adds to the growing body of literature on identity and eating disorders by focusing on their temporal interplay in a community sample of adolescents. As bidirectional effects emerged, a greater emphasis on identity formation in eating disorder prevention programs is advocated.

  4. [Acute tryptophan depletion in eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Marsa, M; Lozano, C; Herranz, A S; Asensio-Vegas, M J; Martín, O; Revert, L; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Carrasco, J L

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the rational bases justifying the use of acute tryptophan depletion technique in eating disorders (ED) and the methods and design used in our studies. Tryptophan depletion technique has been described and used in previous studies safely and makes it possible to evaluate the brain serotonin activity. Therefore it is used in the investigation of hypotheses on serotonergic deficiency in eating disorders. Furthermore, and given the relationship of the dysfunctions of serotonin activity with impulsive symptoms, the technique may be useful in biological differentiation of different subtypes, that is restrictive and bulimic, of ED. 57 female patients with DSM-IV eating disorders and 20 female controls were investigated with the tryptophan depletion test. A tryptophan-free amino acid solution was administered orally after a two-day low tryptophan diet to patients and controls. Free plasma tryptophan was measured at two and five hours following administration of the drink. Eating and emotional responses were measured with specific scales for five hours following the depletion. A study of the basic characteristics of the personality and impulsivity traits was also done. Relationship of the response to the test with the different clinical subtypes and with the temperamental and impulsive characteristics of the patients was studied. The test was effective in considerably reducing plasma tryptophan in five hours from baseline levels (76%) in the global sample. The test was well tolerated and no severe adverse effects were reported. Two patients withdrew from the test due to gastric intolerance. The tryptophan depletion test could be of value to study involvement of serotonin deficits in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of eating disorders.

  5. Oral health in female patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurek Mateusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate oral health in women with eating disorders. The clinical study covered 30 patients aged 14-36 years suffering from diagnosed eating disorders and treated in closed psychiatric institutions. The control group comprised 30 healthy women at the mean age corresponding to that of the patient group. No relationships were confirmed between eating disorders and the intensity of dental caries. Eating disorders contribute to increased loss of dental hard tissues. In women suffering from eating disorders non-specific lesions in oral cavity are more common than in healthy women.

  6. Eating disorder examination: Factor structure and norms in a clinical female pediatric eating disorder sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Amy; Watson, Hunna J; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Egan, Sarah J; Anderson, Rebecca A; Hamilton, Matthew J; Shu, Chloe; McCormack, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The factor structure of the eating disorder examination (EDE) has never been tested in a clinical pediatric sample, and no normative data exist. The factor structure of an adapted EDE was examined in a clinical sample of 665 females aged 9-17 years with anorexia nervosa spectrum (70%), bulimia nervosa spectrum (12%), purging disorder (3%), and unspecified feeding and eating disorders (15%). The original four-factor model was a good fit in a confirmatory factor analysis as well a higher order model with three dimensions of restraint, eating concern, and combined weight concern/shape concern. Normative data are reported for clinicians to identify the percentiles in which their patients' score. The findings support dimensions of restraint, eating concern, weight concern, and shape concern in a clinical pediatric sample. This supports the factorial validity of the EDE, and the norms may assist clinicians to evaluate symptoms in females under 18 years. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Development and validation of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: a brief self-report measure of anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, E; Telch, C F; Rizvi, S L

    2000-06-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a brief self-report scale for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. Study 1 used a panel of eating-disorder experts and provided evidence for the content validity of this scale. Study 2 used data from female participants with and without eating disorders (N = 367) and suggested that the diagnoses from this scale possessed temporal reliability (mean kappa = .80) and criterion validity (with interview diagnoses; mean kappa = .83). In support of convergent validity, individuals with eating disorders identified by this scale showed elevations on validated measures of eating disturbances. The overall symptom composite also showed test-retest reliability (r = .87), internal consistency (mean alpha = .89), and convergent validity with extant eating-pathology scales. Results implied that this scale was reliable and valid in this investigation and that it may be useful for clinical and research applications.

  8. Olfaction in eating disorders and abnormal eating behavior: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Fagundo, Ana B; Arcelus, Jon; Agüera, Zaida; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Real, José M; Tinahones, Francisco J; de la Torre, Rafael; Botella, Cristina; Frühbeck, Gema; Casanueva, Felipe F; Menchón, José M; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The study provides a systematic review that explores the current literature on olfactory capacity in abnormal eating behavior. The objective is to present a basis for discussion on whether research in olfaction in eating disorders may offer additional insight with regard to the complex etiopathology of eating disorders (ED) and abnormal eating behaviors. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science) were searched using the components in relation to olfaction and combining them with the components related to abnormal eating behavior. Out of 1352 articles, titles were first excluded by title (n = 64) and then by abstract and fulltext resulting in a final selection of 14 articles (820 patients and 385 control participants) for this review. The highest number of existing literature on olfaction in ED were carried out with AN patients (78.6%) followed by BN patients (35.7%) and obese individuals (14.3%). Most studies were only conducted on females. The general findings support that olfaction is altered in AN and in obesity and indicates toward there being little to no difference in olfactory capacity between BN patients and the general population. Due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity this review stresses on the importance of more research on olfaction and abnormal eating behavior.

  9. Frequency of Binge Eating Episodes in Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder: Diagnostic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G. Terence; Sysko, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective In DSM-IV, to be diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or the provisional diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), an individual must experience episodes of binge eating is “at least twice a week” on average, for three or six months respectively. The purpose of this review was to examine the validity and utility of the frequency criterion for BN and BED. Method Published studies evaluating the frequency criterion were reviewed. Results Our review found little evidence to support the validity or utility of the DSM-IV frequency criterion of twice a week binge eating; however, the number of studies available for our review was limited. Conclusion A number of options are available for the frequency criterion in DSM-V, and the optimal diagnostic threshold for binge eating remains to be determined. PMID:19610014

  10. Eating disordered patients: personality, alexithymia, and implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, D L; Dolton, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are becoming more apparent in primary care. Descriptions of character traits related to people with eating disorders are rarely reported in the primary care literature and there is little awareness of the implications of alexithymia--a concept that defines the inability to identify or express emotion. We hypothesised that many individuals with active eating disorders have alexithymic traits and a tendency to somatize their distress. AIM: To analyse the character traits and degree of alexithymia of a selected group of women with active eating disorders and in recovery, and to recommend responses by members of the primary care team that might meet the needs of such individuals. METHOD: Letters were sent to 200 female members of the Eating Disorders Association who had agreed to participate in research. Seventy-nine women volunteered to complete four postal questionnaires. This gave a response rate of 38.5%. Responders were categorised into three groups--anorexic, bulimic, and recovered--using the criteria of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). The results of the 16PF5 Personality Inventory (16PF5) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlated using Pearson's correlation. A biographical questionnaire was also completed. RESULTS: In all three subgroups, high scores were achieved on the 16PF5 on 'apprehension and social sensitivity', while there were significant differences in the scores for 'privateness': a scale that measures the ability to talk about feelings and confide in others. On the TAS-20, 65% of the anorexic and 83% of the bulimic group scored in the alexithymic range compared with 33% of the recovered group. There was a significant negative correlation between alexithymia and social skills such as 'social and emotional expressivity' on the 16PF5. CONCLUSION: The results of this study emphasise the difference between those with active eating disorders who

  11. Family relations and eating disorders. The effectiveness of an integrated approach in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia in teenagers: results of a case-control systemic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnis, L; Barbara, E; Bernardini, M; Caggese, A; Di Giacomo, S; Giambartolomei, A; Leonelli, A; Mule', A M; Nicoletti, P G; Vietri, A

    2012-03-01

    This article presents the results of a broader clinical research into the effectiveness of integrated treatments in teenage eating disorders, carried out at the Complex Operative Unit of Psychotherapy (Unità Operativa Complessa or U.O.C.) of the Department of Psychiatric Sciences and Psychological Medicine in collaboration with the Department of Neuropsychiatric Science for Child Development (Dipartimento di Scienze Neuropsichiatriche dell'Età Evolutiva), both at the "La Sapienza" University of Rome. The hypothesis of this research project is that in diagnosticable situations such as anorexia or bulimia, an integrated and multidisciplinary treatment, which combines medical-nutritional interventions and family psychotherapy, allows better results than a single kind of treatment, which is the usual medical- nutritional intervention supported by psychiatric counselling. Twenty-eight cases (16 of bulimia and 12 of anorexia) were selected and then subdivided, with a randomized distribution, into two (experimental and control) homogeneous groups of 14 patients. The grouping variables were the diagnosis, the disorder's seriousness and duration, BMI, gender, age, family composition and social status. The variables which have been examined in this article are the clinical parameters, which were valuated in accordance with the DSM IV-TR criteria, and relational parameters which were explored through the use of the W.F.T. Test (Wiltwyck Family Tasks). These parameters were tested at beginning as well as at the end of the therapies, in both the experimental group and the control group. Statistical analysis has shown that the experimental group, which was followed with the integrated treatment, experienced a significant improvement of the parameters as related to dysfunctional family interaction modalities, and that this improvement was correlated to the positive evolution of the clinical parameters. This improvement was not present or not of the same degree in the control

  12. Does the stress generation hypothesis apply to eating disorders?: an examination of stress generation in eating, depressive, and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Hames, Jennifer L; Holm-Denoma, Jill M; Smith, April R; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2012-12-15

    The stress generation hypothesis posits that individuals actively contribute to stress in their lives. Although stress generation has been studied frequently in the context of depression, few studies have examined whether this stress generation process is unique to depression or whether it occurs in other disorders. Although evidence suggests that stress contributes to the development of eating disorders, it is unclear whether eating disorders contribute to subsequent stress. A prospective design was used to examine the influence of eating disorder symptoms on negative life stressors. Two hundred and ninety female undergraduates completed questionnaires at two time points that examined eating disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms and the presence of negative life events. Regression analyses found that while eating disorder symptoms (i.e. bulimic symptoms and drive for thinness) were independent, significant predictors of negative life events, they did not predict negative life events above and beyond symptoms of depression. Limitations include the use of self-report measures and a college-based sample, which may limit generalizability of the results. Findings suggest that if stress generation is present in individuals with symptoms of eating disorders, it is likely attributable to symptoms of depression. Thus, it may be important for clinicians to target depressive symptoms in order to reduce the frequency of negative life stressors among individuals with eating disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on

  14. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of

  15. Supporting someone with an eating disorder: a systematic review of caregiver experiences of eating disorder treatment and a qualitative exploration of burnout management within eating disorder services

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Eating disorder recovery is often supported by caregivers and mental health professionals. This research portfolio focuses on the experiences of supporting someone with an eating disorder from the perspective of the caregivers and also mental health professionals. The aims of this research portfolio are: Firstly, to systematically review the published qualitative literature relating to the experiences of caregivers supporting someone during eating disorder treatment; and ...

  16. Associations between body weight status, psychological well-being and disordered eating with intuitive eating among Malaysian undergraduate university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Yeoh, Wei Ching

    2017-09-13

    Intuitive eating, which can be defined as reliance on physiological hunger and satiety cues to guide eating, has been proposed as a healthy weight management strategy. To date, there has not been a published study on intuitive eating in the context of Malaysia. Therefore, this cross-sectional study aims to determine associations between body weight status, psychological well-being and disordered eating behaviors with intuitive eating among undergraduate university students. A total of 333 undergraduate respondents (21.3% males and 78.7% females) from three randomly selected faculties in a public university in Malaysia participated in this study. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire which featured socio-demographic characteristics, intuitive eating, self-esteem, body appreciation, general unconditional acceptance, body acceptance by others, body function and disordered eating. Body weight, height, body fat percentage and waist circumference were measured. The results from this study revealed that there was no difference (t = 0.067, p = 0.947) in intuitive eating scores between males (75.69 ± 7.16) and females (75.62 ± 7.90). Multiple linear regression results have shown that body appreciation (β = 0.385, p < 0.001) and disordered eating (β = -0.168, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of intuitive eating, which accounted for 19.6% of the variance in intuitive eating. Health promotion programs should highlight the importance of enhancing body appreciation and preventing disordered eating behaviors among university students in order to promote intuitive eating as one of the healthy weight management approaches.

  17. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder in Midlife and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Benyamini, Yael; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Hill, Laura L; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    We examined eating disorders in midlife and beyond by comparing frequency of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and other specified feeding or eating disorder (OSFED) among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals and younger controls. We also compared demographic and eating disorder-related characteristics across diagnoses and age groups. Participants included 2,118 treatment-seeking adults who self-reported their eating-related symptoms on the Eating Disorder Questionnaire. Results showed that percent of patients with BN was significantly lower whereas percent of patients with BED and OSFED was significantly higher among midlife relative to younger patients. Percent of patients with AN did not differ between midlife and younger patients. Additionally, midlife and younger patients with BED and OSFED differed on several demographic (e.g., marital status) and eating disorder-related characteristics (e.g., BMI, compulsive exercising). This study suggests that BN is less common whereas BED and OSFED are more common among midlife eating disorder treatment-seeking individuals relative to younger controls. In addition, AN and BN present fairly similarly whereas BED and OSFED present fairly differently among midlife patients relative to younger controls. Attention to these differences and similarities is necessary to understand eating disorders in midlife.

  18. Co-occurrence of avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse predicts poor outcome in long-standing eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabel, Karianne R; Hoffart, Asle; Rø, Oyvind; Martinsen, Egil W; Rosenvinge, Jan H

    2010-08-01

    Few consistent predictive factors for eating disorder have been identified across studies. In the current 5-year prospective study, the objective was to examine whether (a) personality disorder and child sexual abuse predict the course of severity of eating disorder symptoms after inpatient treatment and (b) how the predictors interact. A total of 74 patients with long-standing eating disorder and mean age of 30 years were assessed at the beginning and end of inpatient therapy and at 1-, 2-, and 5-year follow-up. A mixed model was used to examine the predictors. Avoidant personality disorder and child sexual abuse interacted in predicting high levels of eating disorder over a long-term course. These results suggest that eating disorder, avoidant personality disorder, and sequelae after child sexual abuse are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Do disordered eating behaviours in girls vary by school characteristics? A UK cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; De Stavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Micali, Nadia

    2018-03-15

    Previous research on eating disorders, disordered eating behaviours, and whether their prevalence varies across schools, has produced inconsistent results. Our previous work using Swedish record-linkage data found that rates of diagnosed eating disorders vary between schools, with higher proportions of girls and higher proportions of highly educated parents within a school being associated with greater numbers of diagnosed eating disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a UK population-based sample and hypothesised that a similar association would be evident when studying disordered eating behaviours. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to test the hypothesis that prevalence of self- and parent-reported disordered eating behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, restrictive eating, and fear of weight gain), and body dissatisfaction cluster by school. We had complete data on body dissatisfaction, school attended, and other possible risk factors for 2146 girls in 263 schools at age 14 and on disordered eating behaviours for 1769 girls in 273 schools at age 16. We used multilevel logistic regression modelling to assess whether prevalence varied between and within schools, and logistic regression to investigate the association between specific school characteristics and prevalence of disordered eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction. At age 14, there was no evidence for body dissatisfaction clustering by school, or for specific school characteristics being associated with body dissatisfaction. At age 16, there was no evidence for clustering, but higher rates of disordered eating behaviours were associated with attending all-girl schools and lower levels with attending schools with higher academic results. We found no evidence for clustering of disordered eating behaviours in individual schools, possibly because of the small cluster sizes. However, we found evidence for higher levels of disordered eating behaviours in 16

  20. Eating disorders in persons with type 1 diabetes: A focus group investigation of early eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Margaret A; Richter, Sara A; Ackard, Diann M; Cronemeyer, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Through focus groups, we examined the development and maintenance of an eating disorder in 16 females with type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder. The quotes and qualitative data summaries provide rich insights into understanding why those with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for eating disorders. Content analyses revealed five themes pertinent to the dual diagnosis (feeling different, difficulty with control/coping, body image, feelings, and quality of life) of which four themes were relevant to eating disorder development. Findings support early identification of those at risk and inform interventions to mitigate development of an eating disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. The relationship between psychological symptoms and frequency of eating disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Çam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that are associated with significant physical complications. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of disordered eating attitudes and their relationship to psychological symptoms among adolescent students.  Methods: 338 high school students participated in this descriptive study. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT˗26, the Duke Health Profile and a socio-demographic questionnaire. An EAT-26 score of 20 or higher was defined as the presence of disordered eating attitudes. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 16.0, through the use of both descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The frequency of eating disorder attitudes was found to be 18.3% (7.1% among boys and 21.3% among girls. The  results indicate that there are statistically significant associations between the risk of developing eating disorders and age, gender and mental health. Conclusion: Eating disorders are becoming more prevalent amongst adolescents, particularly among females. As eating disorder are strongly associated with adolescent mental health, intervention programmes should be implemented, with a focus on adolescent developmental challenges and issues for both sexes, particularly in school education syllabi.Key words: Eating disorders, frequency, adolescents, psychological symptoms

  2. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  4. A retrospective study of the impact of DSM-5 on the diagnosis of eating disorders in Victoria, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Caudle, Henry; Pang, Christine; Mancuso, Sam; Castle, David; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the DSM-IV and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for eating disorders. DSM-IV resulted in a large number of patients being diagnosed with Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS). In DSM-5 the residual category is renamed Other Specified Feeding and Eating Disorders (OSFED) and Unspecified Eating Disorders (UFED) however the diagnostic criteria for the residual category in each of the diagnostic systems remains the same. This study aims to evaluate the changes in...

  5. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  6. Evidence-Based Practices in Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Angela D.; Buchanan, Linda Paulk

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the current issues relevant to implementing evidence-based practices in the context of outpatient treatment for eating disorders. The study also examined the effectiveness of an outpatient treatment program for eating disorders among a group of 196 patients presenting with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder…

  7. A desire for weight loss in season increases disordered eating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Eating Disorder Inventory and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire's cognitive dietary restraint subscale were used to measure disordered eating behaviour. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Estimated energy availability (estEA) was determined from a three-day diet and ...

  8. Tooth erosion and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? METHODS: An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs and a 95% confidence interval (CI were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1-37.5. Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6-68.8. Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2-41.7. CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion.

  9. Binge-Eating Disorder: Between Eating Disorders and Obesity? A Cognitive-Behavioral Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gempeler Rueda, Juanita

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This article reviews the available literature on binge-eating disorder, currently included in the DSM IV as an Eating Disorder NOS. Its inclusion in the DSM V is under discussion. Conceptualization of this disorder is examined, as well as implications for clinical interventions from a cognitive-behavioral perspective. Resumen El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar la bibliografía actualizada disponible sobre el tema del trastorno por atracones de la alimentación, que hasta ...

  10. Objectification Theory: Of Relevance for Eating Disorder Researchers and Clinicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a large and expanding body of research on Objectification Theory. Central to the theory is the proposition that self-objectification results in shame and anxiety surrounding the body, and as a consequence, the development of eating disorders. However, the theory and research have been developed and reported in the gender and…

  11. Neuromodulation for the treatment of eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darrin J; Elias, Gavin J B; Lozano, Andres M

    2018-02-01

    Eating disorders and obesity adversely affect individuals both medically and psychologically, leading to reduced life expectancy and poor quality of life. While there exist a number of treatments for anorexia, morbid obesity and bulimia, many patients do not respond favorably to current behavioral, medical or bariatric surgical management. Neuromodulation has been postulated as a potential treatment for eating disorders and obesity. In particular, deep brain stimulation and transcranial non-invasive brain stimulation have been studied for these indications across a variety of brain targets. Here, we review the neurobiology behind eating and eating disorders as well as the current status of preclinical and clinical neuromodulation trials for eating disorders and obesity.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life in Obese Presurgery Patients with and without Binge Eating Disorder, and Subdiagnostic Binge Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Marie Sandberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study health-related quality of life (HRQoL in obese presurgery patients with binge eating disorder (BED and with subdiagnostic binge eating disorder (SBED compared to patients without eating disorders or SBED. Method. Participants were patients referred to St. Olavs University Hospital, Norway, for bariatric surgery. Eating Disorders in Obesity (EDO questionnaire was used to diagnose BED and SBED. Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 assessed health-related quality of life. Questionnaires were returned by 160 of 209 patients. The present study sample consisted of 143 patients (103 women and 40 men as 17 patients did not complete the SF-12. Results. Patients with BED and patients with SBED both had significantly lower mental HRQoL, but not physical HRQoL, compared to patients without eating disorders. Discussion. The findings indicate that obese presurgery patients with BED, and also SBED, may have special treatment needs in regard to their mental health.

  13. Does the Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED) Scheme Reduce the Frequency of Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated whether the Broad Categories for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorders (BCD-ED) proposal (Walsh & Sysko, 2009) reduces the number of individuals who receive a DSM-IV eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) diagnosis. Method Individuals calling a tertiary care facility completed a brief telephone interview and were classified into a DSM-IV eating disorder category (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, EDNOS). Subsequently, the proposed DSM-5 criteria for eating disorders and the BCD-ED scheme were also applied. Results A total of 247 individuals with telephone interview data met criteria for an eating disorder, including 97 (39.3%) with an EDNOS. Of patients with an EDNOS diagnosis, 97.6% were re-classified using the BCD-ED scheme. Discussion The BCD-ED scheme has the potential to virtually eliminate the use of DSM-IV EDNOS; however, additional data are needed to document its validity and clinical utility. PMID:21997426

  14. Serum Lipid Levels in Patients with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Fukusima, Mitsuo; Taniguchi, Ataru; Teramukai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate some risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in feeding and eating disorders, the degree of lipid abnormalities was investigated in a large Japanese cohort of different groups of feeding and eating disorders, according to the Japan Atherosclerosis Society Guidelines for the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases 2012 (JAS Guidelines 2012). Methods Participants in the current study included 732 women divided into four groups of feeding and eating disorders: anorexia nervosa, restricting type (AN-R); anorexia nervosa, binge-eating/purging type; bulimia nervosa (BN); and binge-eating disorder (BED). We measured the serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride in these participants. Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol levels were also calculated. Results The concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol were widely distributed in all groups. When the LDL cholesterol risk was defined as ≥120 mg/dL and the non-HDL cholesterol risk as ≥150 mg/dL, according to the JAS Guidelines 2012, the proportion of LDL cholesterol risk ranged from 29.6% (BN) to 38.6% (AN-R), and the proportion of non-HDL cholesterol risk ranged from 17.8% (BN) to 30.1% (BED). Conclusion The present findings suggest the existence of LDL cholesterol risk and non-HDL cholesterol risk in all groups of eating disorders. Given the chronicity of this condition, the development of elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol at an early age may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and anorexia…

  16. Binge-Eating Disorder in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Kimberly A.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Peat, Christine M.; Lohr, Kathleen N.; Cullen, Katherine E.; Bann, Carla M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The best treatment options for binge-eating disorder are unclear. Purpose To summarize evidence about the benefits and harms of psychological and pharmacologic therapies for adults with binge-eating disorder. Data Sources English-language publications in EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Academic OneFile, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov through 18 November 2015, and in MEDLINE through 12 May 2016. Study Selection 9 waitlist-controlled psychological trials and 25 placebo-controlled trials that evaluated pharmacologic (n = 19) or combination (n = 6) treatment. All were randomized trials with low or medium risk of bias. Data Extraction 2 reviewers independently extracted trial data, assessed risk of bias, and graded strength of evidence. Data Synthesis Therapist-led cognitive behavioral therapy, lisdexamfetamine, and second-generation antidepressants (SGAs) decreased binge-eating frequency and increased binge-eating abstinence (relative risk, 4.95 [95% CI, 3.06 to 8.00], 2.61 [CI, 2.04 to 3.33], and 1.67 [CI, 1.24 to 2.26], respectively). Lisdexamfetamine (mean difference [MD], −6.50 [CI, −8.82 to −4.18]) and SGAs (MD, −3.84 [CI, −6.55 to −1.13]) reduced binge-eating–related obsessions and compulsions, and SGAs reduced symptoms of depression (MD, −1.97 [CI, −3.67 to −0.28]). Headache, gastrointestinal upset, sleep disturbance, and sympathetic nervous system arousal occurred more frequently with lisdexamfetamine than placebo (relative risk range, 1.63 to 4.28). Other forms of cognitive behavioral therapy and topiramate also increased abstinence and reduced binge-eating frequency and related psychopathology. Topiramate reduced weight and increased sympathetic nervous system arousal, and lisdexamfetamine reduced weight and appetite. Limitations Most study participants were overweight or obese white women aged 20 to 40 years. Many treatments were examined only in single studies. Outcomes were measured inconsistently across trials and rarely

  17. Assessment and Treatment of Co-occurring Eating Disorders in Privately Funded Addiction Treatment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Therese K.; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Bride, Brian E.; Cohen, Lisa; Gordon, Susan Merle; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Privately-funded addiction treatment programs were surveyed to increase understanding of assessment and current treatment options for patients with co-occurring substance use and eating disorders. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with program administrators of a nationally representative sample of 345 private addiction treatment programs. Although the majority of programs reported screening for eating disorders, programs varied in screening instruments used. Sixty-seven percent reported admitting cases of low severity. Twenty-one percent of programs attempt to treat eating disorders. These results highlight the need for education of addiction treatment professionals in assessment, referral and treatment of eating disorders. PMID:21477048

  18. Behavioral and Psychological Aspects of Exercise across Stages of Eating Disorder Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Higgins, M. K.; St George, Sara M.; Rosenzweig, Ilyssa; Schaefer, Lauren M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Henning, Taylor M.; Preston, Brittany F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between behavioral and psychological aspects of exercise and eating disorder recovery. Participants were categorized as having an eating disorder (n = 53), partially recovered (n = 15), fully recovered (n = 20), or non-eating disorder controls (n = 67). Groups did not differ significantly in time spent exercising, but did differ in exercise intensity, guilt related exercise, obsessive exercise cognitions, and appearance/weight management and stress/mood management motivations for exercise. Results support the importance of measuring psychological aspects of exercise in particular across the course of an eating disorder. PMID:27463591

  19. The Eating Disorder Assessment for DSM-5 (EDA-5): Development and Validation of a Structured Interview for Feeding and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Hildebrandt, Tom; Klimek, Patrycja; Mitchell, James E.; Berg, Kelly C.; Peterson, Carol B.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Walsh, B. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Existing measures for DSM-IV eating disorder diagnoses have notable limitations, and there are important differences between DSM-IV and DSM-5 feeding and eating disorders. This study developed and validated a new semi-structured interview, the Eating Disorders Assessment for DSM-5 (EDA-5). Method Two studies evaluated the utility of the EDA-5. Study 1 compared the diagnostic validity of the EDA-5 to the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and evaluated the test-retest reliability of the new measure. Study 2 compared the diagnostic validity of an EDA-5 electronic application (“app”) to clinician interview and self-report assessments. Results In Study 1, the kappa for EDE and EDA-5 eating disorder diagnoses was 0.74 across all diagnoses (n= 64), with a range of κ=0.65 for Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED)/Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (USFED) to κ=0.90 for Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The EDA-5 test-retest kappa coefficient was 0.87 across diagnoses. For Study 2, clinical interview versus “app” conditions revealed a kappa of 0.83 for all eating disorder diagnoses (n=71). Across individual diagnostic categories, kappas ranged from 0.56 for OSFED/USFED to 0.94 for BN. Discussion High rates of agreement were found between diagnoses by EDA-5 and the EDE, and EDA-5 and clinical interviews. As this study supports the validity of the EDA-5 to generate DSM-5 eating disorders and the reliability of these diagnoses, the EDA-5 may be an option for the assessment of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and BED. Additional research is needed to evaluate the utility of the EDA-5 in assessing DSM-5 feeding disorders. PMID:25639562

  20. Restraint and eating concern in North European and East Asian women with and without eating disorders in Australia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Surgenor, Lois J; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Rieger, Elizabeth; Ung, Ken Eng Khean; Walter, Garry

    2007-06-01

    To investigate eating disorder psychopathology, restraint and eating concern in young women with and without an eating disorder from two different ethnic groups in Australia and Singapore. The relationship of Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Global, Restraint and Eating Concern scores to cultural orientation and sociocultural factors was analysed in 154 women with and without an eating disorder. Participants were from the following backgrounds: North European Australian, East Asian Australian, Singaporean Chinese and North European expatriates in Singapore. Women with eating disorders had similar psychopathology across the cultural groups. Among controls, Singaporean Chinese reported significantly greater overall eating disorder psychopathology than other cultural groups and greater restraint than North European Australians/expatriates. Eating concern was not associated with cultural group overall or acculturation to Western culture. Dissatisfaction with family functioning, socioeconomic status and education level were not significantly associated with any of the eating disorder measures. In eating disorder psychopathology, the specific symptom of eating concern may transcend cultural influences.

  1. Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Benjamin

    Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

  2. Ask and you shall receive: desire and receipt of feedback via Facebook predicts disordered eating concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Smith, April R

    2015-05-01

    The current study examined whether certain types of Facebook content (i.e., status updates, comments) relate to eating concerns and attitudes. We examined the effects of seeking and receiving negative feedback via Facebook on disordered eating concerns in a sample of 185 undergraduate students followed for approximately 4 weeks. Results indicated that individuals with a negative feedback seeking style who received a high number of comments on Facebook were more likely to report disordered eating attitudes four weeks later. Additionally, individuals who received extremely negative comments in response to their personally revealing status updates were more likely to report disordered eating concerns four weeks later. Results of the current study provide preliminary evidence that seeking and receiving negative feedback via social networking sites can increase risk for disordered eating attitudes, and suggest that reducing maladaptive social networking usage may be an important target for prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing disordered eating attitudes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Course and predictors of maternal eating disorders in the postpartum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph, Cecilie; Holle, Ann Von; Zerwas, Stephanie; Torgersen, Leila; Tambs, Kristian; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Bulik, Cynthia M; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate course and predictors of eating disorders in the postpartum period. Method A total of 77,807 women, participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), completed questionnaires during pregnancy including items covering DSM-IV criteria for pre-pregnancy anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS-P), and binge eating disorder (BED). Additional questionnaires were completed at 18 and 36 months postpartum. Results Proportions of women remitting at 18 months and 36 months postpartum were 50% and 59% for AN, 39% and 30% for BN, 46% and 57% for EDNOS-P, and 45% and 42% for BED, respectively. However, disordered eating persisted in a substantial proportion of women meeting criteria for either full or subthreshold eating disorders. BN during pregnancy increased the risk for continuation of BN. BMI and psychological distress were significantly associated with course of BED. Discussion This is the first large-scale population-based study on course of eating disorders in the postpartum period. The results indicated that disordered eating persists in a substantial proportion of women with pre-pregnancy eating disorders. Health care professionals working with women in this phase of life need to pay specific attention to eating disorder symptoms and behaviors. PMID:23307499

  4. Drug Abuse In Women suffering from Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Krankusová, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    This thesis concerns addictive substance abuse in women suffering from eating disorders. In the theoretical part it defines the term eating disorder itself and furthermore briefly works with the cause of these disorders, patients' personality and commonly associating complicating diagnoses. Afterwards it defines the term addiction and illustrates some of the possible influences on development. Then it characterises commonly abused substances and their relation with eating disorders. The empir...

  5. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Background Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. Methods This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify e...

  6. Teen Eating Disorders: Tips to Protect Your Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for eating patterns and beliefs that might signal unhealthy behavior, as well as peer pressure that may ... or other sources that promote anorexia as a lifestyle choice, rather than an eating disorder. Promote a ...

  7. Eating Disorders in Youth-Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    van Dyck, Zoé; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Der Essstörungen im Kindesalter-Fragebogen (Eating Disorders in Youth-Questionnaire; EDY-Q) ist ein aus 14 Items bestehendes Instrument zur Erfassung von restriktiven Essproblemen bei 8-13-jährigen Kindern im Selbstbericht. Die Items basieren auf den Kriterien der Störung mit Vermeidung oder Einschränkung der Nahrungseinschränkung (Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder; ARFID), definiert im Diagnostischen und Statistischen Manual Psychischer Störungen, 5. Auflage (DSM-5; American Psychiat...

  8. The Validation of Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khabir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorder is a common problem in teenage girls and young women. In clinical situations, brief screening is necessary to recognize the patients. The present research aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS. Methods: The study sample included 431 females selected from among the females referring to Shiraz’s sport clubs using convenience sampling. The participants in this research responded to the EDDS that was translated by the researcher and their BMI index was calculated. Results: The internal consistency coefficients, and Spearman-Brown and Guttmann spilt-half correlations were 0.84, 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. The findings showed that the agreement rate of the instrument with the clinician’s diagnosis and confirmatory factor analysis, and the correlation between each question and the whole score were appropriate. Conclusion: In general, the results of this research showed that the Persian version of Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS has appropriate validity and reliability and can be used in clinical and research situations for the assessment of eating disorder.

  9. Increased mortality in bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B; Swanson, Sonja A; Raymond, Nancy C; Specker, Sheila; Eckert, Elke D; Mitchell, James E

    2009-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa has been consistently associated with increased mortality, but whether this is true for other types of eating disorders is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine whether anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified are associated with increased all-cause mortality or suicide mortality. Using computerized record linkage to the National Death Index, the authors conducted a longitudinal assessment of mortality over 8 to 25 years in 1,885 individuals with anorexia nervosa (N=177), bulimia nervosa (N=906), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (N=802) who presented for treatment at a specialized eating disorders clinic in an academic medical center. Crude mortality rates were 4.0% for anorexia nervosa, 3.9% for bulimia nervosa, and 5.2% for eating disorder not otherwise specified. All-cause standardized mortality ratios were significantly elevated for bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified; suicide standardized mortality ratios were elevated for bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Individuals with eating disorder not otherwise specified, which is sometimes viewed as a "less severe" eating disorder, had elevated mortality risks, similar to those found in anorexia nervosa. This study also demonstrated an increased risk of suicide across eating disorder diagnoses.

  10. Eating disorders in children: is avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder a feeding disorder or an eating disorder and what are the implications for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Grace A; Wick, Madeline R; Keel, Pamela K

    2018-01-01

    Avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a current diagnosis in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" section of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition) and captures a heterogeneous presentation of eating disturbances. In recent years, ARFID has been studied primarily within the context of eating disorders despite having historical roots as a feeding disorder. The following review examines ARFID's similarities with and differences from feeding disorders and eating disorders, focusing on research published within the last three years. Implications of this differentiation for treatment are discussed.

  11. Social anxiety and disordered eating: The influence of stress reactivity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarma, Jessica Lyn; Mathew, Jaya Miriam

    2017-08-01

    While previous research indicates a strong link between social anxiety and disordered eating, more research is needed in order to understand the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. Given that stress is often implicated in disordered eating, it was hypothesised that ones reaction to stress (i.e. stress reactivity) would mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. Similarly, given that low self-esteem is commonly reported in both those with social anxiety and eating disorders, it was hypothesised that self-esteem would also mediate the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. In order to test this, an online survey measuring social anxiety, disordered eating, stress reactivity and self-esteem, was administered to 282 participants in the community, aged between 18 and 35years. Results showed that self-esteem and a reactivity to stress during social conflict - but not during negative social evaluations - partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety and disordered eating. These findings demonstrate that low self-esteem and interpersonal conflict are powerful mechanisms that can maintain eating disorder psychopathology in those who are socially anxious. This highlights the importance of ensuring that these mechanisms are sufficiently addressed in eating disorder prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Internet-Based Motivation Program for Women With Eating Disorders: Eating Disorder Pathology and Depressive Mood Predict Dropout

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    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Rieger, Elizabeth; Schmidt, Ulrike; Kosfelder, Joachim; Hechler, Tanja; Schulte, Dietmar; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the main problems of Internet-delivered interventions for a range of disorders is the high dropout rate, yet little is known about the factors associated with this. We recently developed and tested a Web-based 6-session program to enhance motivation to change for women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or related subthreshold eating pathology. Objective The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of dropout from this Web program. Methods A total of 179 women took part in the study. We used survival analyses (Cox regression) to investigate the predictive effect of eating disorder pathology (assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire; EDE-Q), depressive mood (Hopkins Symptom Checklist), motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale; URICA), and participants’ age at dropout. To identify predictors, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method. Results The dropout rate was 50.8% (91/179) and was equally distributed across the 6 treatment sessions. The LASSO analysis revealed that higher scores on the Shape Concerns subscale of the EDE-Q, a higher frequency of binge eating episodes and vomiting, as well as higher depression scores significantly increased the probability of dropout. However, we did not find any effect of the URICA or age on dropout. Conclusions Women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood had a higher likelihood of dropping out from a Web-based motivational enhancement program. Interventions such as ours need to address the specific needs of women with more severe eating disorder pathology and depressive mood and offer them additional support to prevent them from prematurely discontinuing treatment. PMID:24686856

  13. [Consensus document about the nutritional evaluation and management of eating disorders: bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and others].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Candela, Carmen; Palma Milla, Samara; Miján-de-la-Torre, Alberto; Rodríguez Ortega, Pilar; Matía Martín, Pilar; Loria Cohen, Viviana; Campos Del Portillo, Rocío; Virgili Casas, M ª Nuria; Martínez Olmos, Miguel Á; Mories Álvarez, M ª Teresa; Castro Alija, M ª José; Martín-Palmero, Ángela

    2018-03-07

    Bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder are unique nosological entities. Both show a large variability related to its presentation and severity which involves different therapeutic approaches and the need to individualize the treatment, thus it is indispensable a multidisciplinary approach. Patients with bulimia nervosa may suffer from malnutrition and deficiency states or even excess weight, while in binge eating disorders, it is common overweight or obesity, which determine other comorbidities. Many of the symptoms and complications are associated with compensatory behaviors. There are many therapeutic tools available for the treatment of these patients. The nutritional approach contemplates the individualized dietary advice which guarantees an adequate nutritional state and nutritional education. Its objective is to facilitate the voluntary adoption of eating behaviors that promote health and allow the long-term modification of eating habits and the cessation of purgatory and bingeing behaviors. Psychological support is a first-line treatment and it must address the frequent disorder of eating behavior and psychiatric comorbidities. Psychotropic drugs are effective and widely used although these drugs are not essential. The management is carried out mainly at an outpatient level, being the day hospital useful in selected patients. Hospitalization should be reserved to correct serious somatic or psychiatric complications or as a measure to contain non-treatable conflict situations. Most of the guidelines' recommendations are based on expert consensus, with little evidence which evaluates clinical results and cost-effectiveness.

  14. The relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders.

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    Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy

    2002-07-01

    Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.

  15. [Eating disorders and depressive symptoms: an epidemiological study in a male population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, M; Callahan, S; Rousseau, A; Chabrol, H

    2014-06-01

    eating disorders). The most typical compensatory behavior was fasting (11%). According to the cut-off score of 22, 18% of young men had a moderate to severe depressive symptomatology, including 5% of participants who also reported an eating disorder (i.e. 30 participants). A one-way ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in depressive symptoms as a function of eating disorder groups, namely the clinical eating disorders sample (n=22), the subthreshold disorders sample (n=54) and the asymptomatic sample (participants without eating disorder; n=382). Results were statistically significant, (F(2,455)=7.27, Peating disorders sample (19.45±8.2; Pdisorders sample (18.15±10.9; Peating disorder groups (P>0.05). The results demonstrate that a significant proportion of men with eating disorders manifest comorbid depressive symptomatology. These results suggest that EDNOS and subthreshold disorders should be taken into consideration, as they represent 15% of the total sample. Participants reported high rate of excessive exercise and fasting, which could reflect the importance of muscle tone or strategies to increase muscle mass. Further research is necessary in order to better understand male eating behaviors and disorders. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Breaking the Silence: Disordered Eating and Big Five Traits in College Men.

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    Dubovi, Abigail S; Li, Yue; Martin, Jessica L

    2016-11-01

    Men remain largely underrepresented in the eating disorder literature and few studies have investigated risk factors for disordered eating among men. The current study examined associations between Big Five personality traits and eating disorder symptoms in a sample of college men (N = 144). Participants completed the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale and Ten Item Personality Inventory online. Results suggested that openness was positively associated with purging-type behaviors and that emotional stability was positively related to symptoms of anorexia nervosa and global eating pathology. Findings highlight the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms among college men and suggest that these symptoms are associated with a different constellation of personality traits than is typically reported among women. Implications for targeted prevention and intervention programs and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khan, I.; Bashir, M.S.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes. Methodology: A questionnaire based survey was undertaken among 71 athletes (15-25 years old) athletes from University of Lahore and Lahore College for Women University. Then the level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior calculated. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 71 athletes, 56 (78.87%) had anxiety due to eating disorder and 15 (21.12%) had no eating disorder. And 67 (94.3%) athletes had raised anxiety levels while 3 (4.2%) had no anxiety. Conclusion: Dieting behavior and binge eating that prompted eating disorder are the main cause of anxiety among young female athletes. (author)

  18. Social anxiety and eating disorder comorbidity: The role of negative social evaluation fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. However, it is unknown how specific domains of social anxiety relate to disordered eating. We provide data on these relationships and investigate social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation as potential vulnerabilities linking social anxiety with eating disorders. Specifically, we examined five domains of social anxiety: Social interaction anxiety, fear of scrutiny, fear of positive evaluation, fear of negative evaluation, and social appearance anxiety. Results indicated that social appearance anxiety predicted body dissatisfaction, bulimia symptoms, shape concern, weight concern, and eating concern over and above fear of scrutiny, social interaction anxiety, and fear of positive evaluation. Fear of negative evaluation uniquely predicted drive for thinness and restraint. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation are vulnerabilities for both social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. Interventions that target these negative social evaluation fears may help prevent development of eating disorders. PMID:22177392

  19. Risk of disordered eating attitudes and its relation to mental health among university students in ASEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2018-06-01

    Since there is a lack of information on eating disorders attitudes in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of eating disorder attitude and its relation to mental distress among university student populations in Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurement were conducted with undergraduate university students that were randomly recruited. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was utilized to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes. The sample included 3148 university students, with a mean age of 20.5 years, SD = 1.6. Using the EAT-26, 11.5% of the students across all countries were classified as being at risk for an eating disorder, ranging from below 10% in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam to 13.8% in Malaysia and 20.6% in Myanmar. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (wealthier subjective economic status, and living in a lower middle income country), underweight and overweight body weight perception, psychological factors (depression symptoms and pathological internet use), and being obese were associated with eating disorder risk. Relatively high rates of eating disorder risk were found. This result calls for increased awareness, understanding of eating disorders and related risk factors and interventions in university students in ASEAN. Level V, descriptive cross-sectional survey.

  20. Diagnosing binge eating disorder in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, C Brendan; Rasgon, Natalie L; Herman, Barry K

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED), now recognized as a distinct eating disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, is the most prevalent eating disorder. Although nearly half of individuals with BED are obese, BED also occurs in nonobese individuals. Despite the relatively high percentage of weight loss treatment-seeking individuals meeting BED criteria, primary care physicians may not be familiar with or have ever diagnosed BED. Many providers may also have difficulty distinguishing BED as a contributory factor in obesity. This review differentiates BED from other causes of obesity by describing how obese individuals with BED differ from obese individuals without BED and from nonobese individuals with BED in areas including psychopathology, behavior, genetics, physiology, quality of life and productivity. The ways in which health-care providers can identify individuals who may have BED are also highlighted so the proper course of treatment is pursued. Overall, obese individuals with BED demonstrate a number of key characteristics that differentiate them from obese individuals without eating disorders, including increased impulsivity in response to food stimuli with loss of control over eating, resulting in the consumption of more calories. They also experience significant guilt and other negative emotions following a meal. In addition, individuals with BED patients have more psychiatric comorbidity, display more psychopathology, exhibit longer binge durations, consume more meals as snacks during the day and have less dietary restraint compared with individuals with BED who are not obese. However, the differences between individuals with BED who are obese versus not obese are not as prominent. Taken together, the evidence appears to support the conclusion that BED is a unique and treatable neurobehavioral disorder associated with distinct behavioral and psychological profiles and distinct medical and functional outcomes, and that

  1. Men, Muscles, and Eating Disorders: an Overview of Traditional and Muscularity-Oriented Disordered Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Jason M; Brown, Tiffany A; Murray, Stuart B

    2017-06-01

    There is growing recognition that eating disorder (ED) symptoms, particularly those of a muscularity-oriented nature, are more common in men than previously understood. The purpose of the current review is to describe contemporary directions and implications of research on traditional and muscularity-oriented ED symptoms among males. Evidence indicates that ED symptoms occur in a substantial minority of men. Importantly, recent research has focused on muscularity-oriented body image and disordered eating in males, demonstrating the prevalence, correlates, and consequences of maladaptive muscularity-oriented attitudes and behaviors. A growing number of assessments are available to measure these constructs in males, and preliminary treatment considerations have begun to be addressed in the literature. Research on male EDs and body image is increasingly focusing on muscularity-oriented manifestations. Continued empirical work will be critical to improve our understanding of the onset, maintenance, and treatment of muscularity-oriented disordered eating in males.

  2. Psychological and psychopathological variables associated with eating disorders (ED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare some psychological and psychopathological variables usually associated with different types of patients with eating disorders (ED. A total of 22 variables (psychological, psychopathological and specifically related to TCA were analyzed in three groups of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS. Method: The sample consisted of 76 patients diagnosed with ED (mean age 20.13 ± 6.28 years; 69 women and 7 men. The following questionnaires were administered: Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2 and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP. Results: Generally no significant differences between groups, except for the variables related to the BSQ and EDI-2 questionnaires, were found. The study of the correlations among the different variables specifically related to eating disorders and others, showed differences between groups. Conclusions: The present study shows few differences with respect to psychopathological symptoms among the different types of ED. Bearing in mind future studies, it would be interesting to use a bigger sample size, to include more men, and to distinguish between restricted/purging types of ED.

  3. Neuromodulation and neurofeedback treatments in eating disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bethan; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2017-11-01

    Psychological interventions are the treatment of choice for most eating disorders; however, significant proportions of patients do not recover with these. Advances in understanding of the neurobiology of eating disorders have led to the development of targeted treatments, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), and neurofeedback. We review the emerging clinical evidence for the use of these interventions in eating disorders and obesity, together with their theoretical rationale. Finally, we reflect on future developments. During the last 20 months, seven case studies/series and seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of NIBS or neurofeedback in different eating disorders, obesity, or food craving have appeared. These have largely had promising results. One NIBS trial, using a multisession protocol, was negative. A case series of subcallosal DBS in anorexia nervosa has also shown promise. A search of trial registries identified a further 21 neuromodulation/feedback studies in progress, indicating that neuromodulation/feedback is an area of growing interest. At present, neuromodulation and neurofeedback are largely experimental interventions; however, growing understanding of the mechanisms involved, together with the rising number of studies in this area, means that the clinical utility of these interventions is likely to become clearer soon.

  4. Relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: mediating role of self-esteem and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechan, Inge; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Body image, media, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L; Beresin, Eugene V

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The authors attempt to explain the historical context of the problem and explore potential avenues for change. The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth. Throughout history, the ideal of beauty has been difficult to achieve and has been shaped by social context. Current mass media is ubiquitous and powerful, leading to increased body dissatisfaction among both men and women. Parents need to limit children's exposure to media, promote healthy eating and moderate physical activity, and encourage participation in activities that increase mastery and self-esteem. Funding for high-quality, visible advertising campaigns promoting healthy life styles may increase awareness.

  6. Are children with chronic illnesses requiring dietary therapy at risk for disordered eating or eating disorders? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conviser, Jenny H; Fisher, Sheehan D; McColley, Susanna A

    2018-03-01

    Pediatric chronic illnesses (CI) can affect a child's mental health. Chronic illnesses with treatment regimens that specify a therapeutic diet may place the child at increased risk for disordered eating and specific eating disorders (ED). The aim of this review is to examine the relation between diet-treated CI and disordered eating and to determine the order of onset to infer directionality. Diet-treated CI is hypothesized to precede and to be associated with disordered eating. A comprehensive search of empirical articles that examine the relation between diet-treated CI (diabetes, cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, gastrointestinal disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases) and disordered eating was conducted in Medline and PsycINFO using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A table of the sample's characteristics, ED measures, major pertinent findings, and the onset of CI in relation to ED were provided. Diet-treated CI was associated with disordered eating and ED. Diet-treated CI had onset prior to disordered eating in most studies, except for inflammatory bowel diseases. Disordered eating and unhealthy weight management practices put children at risk for poor medical outcomes. Interventions for diet-treated CI require a focus on diet and weight, but may increase the risk for disordered eating. Future research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that transform standard treatment practices into pathological eating, including characteristics and behaviors of the child, parents/care providers, family, and treatment providers. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Family structure and eating behavior disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Agut, Manuel; García-Alonso, Isabel; De la Gándara-Martín, Jesús J; Vegas-Miguel, María I; Sebastián-Vega, Carlota; Sanz-Cid, Beatriz; Martínez-Villares, Ana; Martín-Martínez, Esther

    2014-01-01

    The modern way of life, characterized by the cult of individualism, discredited authority, and a proliferation of points of view about reality, has modified family structure. This social structure imbues families and the way that its members become ill, in such a way that eating behavior disorders (EDs) have become a typically postmodern way of becoming ill. The aim is to understand the systemic structure and vulnerability of families by comparing 108 families with members who have ED to 108 families without pathology. A questionnaire administered by an interview with trained personnel was used. Families with ED have a different structure from the families in the control group. They have more psychiatric history and poor coping skills. The family hierarchy is not clearly defined and the leadership is diffuse, with strict and unpredictable rules, more intergenerational coalitions, and fewer alliances. The relationship between the parents is distant or confrontational, and their attitudes towards their children are complacent and selfish, with ambivalent and unaffectionate bonds. In the case of mothers, this is manifested by separation anxiety and dyadic dependence. Their expectations concerning their offspring are either very demanding and unrealistic, or indifferent, and there is less control of their behavior, in addition to poor organization of the family meals. The structural differences between the two groups of families seem to be important for the occurrence and maintenance of EDs, although they may not be the only cause. The results suggest strategies for clinical intervention in EDs.

  8. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Symptoms and Social Anxiety Disorder in Students in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Mohamadirizi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety can be occurring in the same time. Also social anxiety is one of the important factors predicting Eating Disorder symptoms which vary among different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and social anxiety in school boys.  Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 361 high school boys in isfahan who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, Eating Disorder Questionnaire and social anxiety. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student’s t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and regression through SPSS version 14. Results: Based on the findings, the mean (SD value for age was 14.14 (1.2 years and for BMI was 23.25 (0.3.35.2% had eating disorder and 17.5% bulimia and30% had anorexia nervosa Symptoms. Also there was a positive correlation between the rate of Eating Disorder Symptoms, bulimia and anorexia nervosa and social anxiety. (P=0.004, r= 0.287, P=0.001, r= 0.257, P=0.020, r= 0.242.  Conclusions: There was correlation between the Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety  in  school boys.So educating people like caregivers by community health midwives regarding nutritional problems in during adolescence can be effective in early diagnosing and identifying such disorders.

  9. Evaluation of an online training program in eating disorders for health professionals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Rachel S; Maguire, Sarah; O'Dell, Adrienne; Dias-da-Costa, Catia; Touyz, Stephen; Russell, Janice

    2015-01-01

    eating disorders. The results of this study demonstrated that the online training program was an effective tool in increasing health professionals' level of knowledge, skill and confidence to treat people with eating disorders. The results also demonstrated that online training reduced health professionals' personal bias towards people with eating disorders. Limitations of this study include the use of self-report measures rather than observation of the health professional in clinical practice. As a result, it is not possible to make determinations regarding the translation of these results to clinical settings. The findings of this study suggest that online training programs may present an innovative solution to the considerable workforce development challenges faced by clinicians needing training in eating disorders.

  10. Investigating vulnerability to eating disorders: biases in emotional processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, A; Harmer, C J; Cooper, M J

    2010-04-01

    Biases in emotional processing and cognitions about the self are thought to play a role in the maintenance of eating disorders (EDs). However, little is known about whether these difficulties exist pre-morbidly and how they might contribute to risk. Female dieters (n=82) completed a battery of tasks designed to assess the processing of social cues (facial emotion recognition), cognitions about the self [Self-Schema Processing Task (SSPT)] and ED-specific cognitions about eating, weight and shape (emotional Stroop). The 26-item Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; Garner et al. 1982) was used to assess subclinical ED symptoms; this was used as an index of vulnerability within this at-risk group. Regression analyses showed that biases in the processing of both neutral and angry faces were predictive of our measure of vulnerability (EAT-26). In the self-schema task, biases in the processing of negative self descriptors previously found to be common in EDs predicted vulnerability. Biases in the processing of shape-related words on the Stroop task were also predictive; however, these biases were more important in dieters who also displayed biases in the self-schema task. We were also able to demonstrate that these biases are specific and separable from more general negative biases that could be attributed to depressive symptoms. These results suggest that specific biases in the processing of social cues, cognitions about the self, and also about eating, weight and shape information, may be important in understanding risk and preventing relapse in EDs.

  11. An integrative model of risk for high school disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A; Smith, Gregory T

    2018-06-21

    Binge eating and purging behaviors are associated with significant harm and distress among adolescents. The process by which these behaviors develop (often in the high school years) is not fully understood. We tested the Acquired Preparedness (AP) model of risk involving transactions among biological, personality, and psychosocial factors to predict binge eating and purging behavior in a sample of 1,906 children assessed in the spring of 5th grade (the last year of elementary school), the fall of 6th grade (the first year of middle school), spring of 6th grade, and spring of 10th grade (second year of high school). Pubertal onset in spring of 5th grade predicted increases in negative urgency, but not negative affect, in the fall of 6th grade. Negative urgency in the fall of 6th grade predicted increases in expectancies for reinforcement from eating in the spring of 6th grade, which in turn predicted increases in binge eating behavior in the spring of 10th grade. Negative affect in the fall of 6th grade predicted increases in thinness expectancies in the spring of 6th grade, which in turn predicted increases in purging in the spring of 10th grade. Results demonstrate similarities and differences in the development of these two different bulimic behaviors. Intervention efforts targeting the risk factors evident in this model may prove fruitful in the treatment of eating disorders characterized by binge eating and purging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Eating disorders and the role of the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spettigue, Wendy; Henderson, Katherine A

    2004-02-01

    This paper provides a review of the role of the media in the development, maintenance, prevention, and treatment of eating disorders. The literature on gambling in youth on the internet was reviewed. It explores: (1) the role of the media in providing a social context for the development of eating disorders, (2) the role of the media in the etiology of eating disorder pathology, (3) the ways in which the media is used by patients suffering from eating disorders, and (4) the role that awareness of the media can have in the treatment and prevention of eating disorders. This review demonstrates that the media does contribute to the development of eating disorders. This review highlights the need for media literacy and media activism to help change the current normative body discontent of women in the Western world.

  13. Nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients with binge-eating disorder and night eating syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldofski, Sabrina; Tigges, Wolfgang; Herbig, Beate; Jurowich, Christian; Kaiser, Stefan; Stroh, Christine; de Zwaan, Martina; Dietrich, Arne; Rudolph, Almut; Hilbert, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) as a distinct eating disorder category and night eating syndrome (NES) as a form of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders were recently included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study sought to investigate the prevalence of BED and NES and associations with various forms of nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology in prebariatric patients. Within a consecutive multicenter registry study, patients in 6 bariatric surgery centers in Germany were recruited. Overall, 233 prebariatric patients were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination and self-report questionnaires. Assessment was unrelated to clinical procedures. Diagnostic criteria for full-syndrome BED and NES were currently met by 4.3% and 8.2% of prebariatric patients, respectively. In addition, 8.6% and 6.9% of patients met subsyndromal BED and NES criteria, respectively. Co-morbid BED and NES diagnoses were present in 3.9% of patients. In comparison to patients without any eating disorder symptoms, patients with BED and NES reported greater emotional eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and more symptoms of food addiction. Moreover, differences between patients with BED and NES emerged with more objective binge-eating episodes and higher levels of eating concern, weight concern, and global eating disorder psychopathology in patients with BED. BED and NES were shown to be prevalent among prebariatric patients, with some degree of overlap between diagnoses. Associations with nonnormative eating behavior and psychopathology point to their clinical significance and discriminant validity. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Tale of Eating: Writing as a Pathway out of an Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Fiona

    1994-01-01

    Presents a prose-poetry tale which examines the use of writing as a pathway out of an eating disorder. Highlights the need for persons with an eating problem to find their own voice and describe their experiences in their own words rather than the restrictive narrative of an eating problem. Stresses the value of eliciting reflective, as well as…

  15. Understanding the Female Athlete Triad: Eating Disorders, Amenorrhea, and Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Katherine A.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Gonyou, Julianna B.

    1999-01-01

    Examines three disorders that can affect female athletes who focus on succeeding athletically and achieving a prescribed body weight: disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. The paper presents prevention and treatment suggestions for athletes with eating disorders, focusing on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Recommends that…

  16. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  17. Eating disorders focused on anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Zinková, Alžběta

    2011-01-01

    The study deals with eating disorders. It tries to bring the most comprehensive overview of the two majority eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, respectively. Both diseases have a lot in common, but also some of its specifics which are pointed out in the study. The study is conceived to make the reader in the early chapters acquainted with the various eating disorders according to international diagnostic criteria. Then there is a brief history, epidemiology and etiology a...

  18. The prevalence of eating disorders not otherwise specified

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paulo P. P.; Machado, Bárbara César; Gonçalves, Sónia; Hoek, Hans W.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2028 female students, aged 12 to 23, attending public schools in the 9th to 12th grades in Portugal. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire in Stage 1 of the study. In Stage 2, we selected a...

  19. Differential Social Comparison Processes in Women with and without Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corning, Alexandra F.; Krumm, Angela J.; Smitham, Lora A.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of predictions from social comparison theory (L. Festinger, 1954) and informed by findings from the social comparison and eating disorder literatures, hypotheses were tested regarding the social comparison behaviors of women with eating disorder symptoms and their asymptomatic peers. Results indicated differentiating social-cognitive…

  20. Binge or control? : assessment of the validity, treatment and underlying mechanisms of Binge Eating Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on patients with Binge Eating Disorder. The thesis consists of three parts. In the first part the validity of the diagnosis of BED will be discussed. The results of two literature reviews and an empirical cross-sectional study suggested that BED is a distinct eating disorder and

  1. Body Image and Eating Disorders among Female Students: A Pilot Nutritional Psychology Study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Nora Ntim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image and eating disorders have emerged as an essential facet of bio-psychosocial well-being. Although considered less prevalent in Ghana than in the West, body image and eating disorders are issues of global concern. One hundred (100 female participants with a mean age of approximately 21 years were recruited after informed consent for this pilot study. Results showed a positive correlation between body image and eating disorders. In addition, there was no significant difference between the levels of university education on female body image and eating distortions in Ghana. These findings underscore the importance for more future studies in nutritional psychology and related clinical management.

  2. Treatment of eating disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2017-11-01

    Recent research on the multimodal treatment of eating disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry has yielded a significant increase in randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews. This review aims to present relevant findings published during the last 2 years related to medical and psychological treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). For anorexia nervosa, recent reports described the efficacy of different treatment settings, lengths of hospital stay and high vs. low-calorie refeeding programmes. For both anorexia and bulimia nervosa, a number of randomized controlled trials comparing individual and family-oriented treatment approaches were published. For the newly defined ARFID, only very preliminary results on possible treatment approaches implying a multidisciplinary treatment programme were obtained. Although there is some evidence of the effectiveness of new child and adolescent psychiatric treatment approaches to eating disorders, the relapse rate remains very high, and there is an urgent need for ongoing intensive research.

  3. Adolescent Eating Disorder Risk and the Online World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Jennifer S; Rodgers, Rachel F

    2018-04-01

    The proliferation of social media and rapid increase in the use of the Internet by adolescents generates new dynamics and new risks for the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Here, the authors review different types of online content and how they are relevant to eating disorders within different theoretic frameworks, before examining the empirical evidence for the risks posed by online content in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. They describe pro-eating disorder content specifically and examine the research related to it, before considering its implications, and considering directions for future research, and prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Readiness and motivation for change among young women with broadly defined eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ålgars, Monica; Ramberg, Carin; Moszny, Josefine; Hagman, Jessica; Rintala, Hanna; Santtila, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Readiness and motivation for change were examined in 32 women with broadly defined eating disorders who took part in a 10-week Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)-based group intervention. Readiness for change and eating disorder psychopathology were assessed before and after the intervention. The results revealed significant negative associations between degree of eating disorder symptoms and degree of readiness for change before the intervention started. In particular, higher levels of eating concern, shape concern, and body dissatisfaction were associated with lower motivation for change. No significant associations between degree of readiness for change before the intervention started and changes in eating disorder symptoms at the end of intervention were found. Readiness for change increased from the beginning to the end of the intervention, indicating that group CBT may be a cost-effective and time-efficient way of enhancing readiness and motivation for change in individuals with eating psychopathology.

  5. Depression and eating disorders: treatment and course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischoulon, David; Eddy, Kamryn T; Keshaviah, Aparna; Dinescu, Diana; Ross, Stephanie L; Kass, Andrea E; Franko, Debra L; Herzog, David B

    2011-05-01

    We examined the course of major depressive disorder (MDD) and predictors of MDD recovery and relapse in a longitudinal sample of women with eating disorders (ED). 246 Boston-area women with DSM-IV anorexia nervosa-restricting (ANR; n=51), AN-binge/purge (ANBP; n=85), and bulimia nervosa (BN; n=110) were recruited between 1987 and 1991 and interviewed using the Eating Disorders Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE-EAT-II) every 6-12 months for up to 12 years. 100 participants had MDD at study intake and 45 developed MDD during the study. Psychological functioning and treatment were assessed. Times to MDD onset (1 week-4.3 years), recovery (8 weeks-8.7 years), and relapse (1 week-5.2 years) varied. 70% recovered from MDD, but 65% subsequently relapsed. ANR patients were significantly less likely to recover from MDD than ANBP patients (p=0.029). Better psychological functioning and history of MDD were associated with higher chance of MDD recovery. Higher baseline depressive severity and full recovery from ED were associated with greater likelihood of MDD relapse; increased weight loss was somewhat protective. Adequate antidepressant treatment was given to 72% of patients with MDD and generally continued after MDD recovery. Time on antidepressants did not predict MDD recovery (p=0.27) or relapse (p=0.26). Small ED diagnostic subgroups; lack of non-ED control group. The course of MDD in EDs is protracted; MDD recovery may depend on ED type. Antidepressants did not impact likelihood of MDD recovery, nor protect against relapse, which may impact on treatment strategies for comorbid MDD and EDs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age

    OpenAIRE

    Bień, Agnieszka; Pieczykolan, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Bień Agnieszka, Pieczykolan Agnieszka. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(3):381-391. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.344548 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4289 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 © Th...

  7. German version of the intuitive eating scale: Psychometric evaluation and application to an eating disordered population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyck, Zoé; Herbert, Beate M; Happ, Christian; Kleveman, Gillian V; Vögele, Claus

    2016-10-01

    Intuitive eating has been described to represent an adaptive eating behaviour that is characterised by eating in response to physiological hunger and satiety cues, rather than situational and emotional stimuli. The Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) has been developed to measure such attitudes and behaviours on four subscales: unconditional permission to eat (UPE), eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (EPR), reliance on internal hunger and satiety cues (RHSC), and body-food choice congruence (B-FCC). The present study aimed at validating the psychometric properties of the German translation of the IES-2 in a large German-speaking sample. A second objective was to assess levels of intuitive eating in participants with an eating disorder diagnosis (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder). The proposed factor structure of the IES-2 could be confirmed for the German translation of the questionnaire. The total score and most subscale scores were negatively related to eating disorder symptomatology, problems in appetite and emotional awareness, body dissatisfaction, and self-objectification. Women with eating disorders had significantly lower values on all IES-2 subscale scores and the total score than women without an eating disorder diagnosis. Women with a binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis had higher scores on the UPE subscale compared to participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN), and those diagnosed with AN had higher scores on the EPR subscale than individuals with BN or BED. We conclude that the German IES-2 constitutes a useful self-report instrument for the assessment of intuitive eating in German-speaking samples. Further studies are warranted to evaluate psychometric properties of the IES-2 in different samples, and to investigate its application in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factor Structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Interview in Patients With Binge-eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Crow, Scott J.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) as a primary assessment instrument in studies of eating and weight disorders, little is known about the psychometric aspects of this interview measure. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the EDE interview in a large series of patients with binge-eating disorder (BED). Participants were 688 treatment-seeking patients with BED who were reliably administered the EDE interview by trained research clinicians at three research centers. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) performed on EDE interview data from a random split-half of the study group suggested a brief 7-item 3-factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) performed on the second randomly selected half of the study group supported this brief 3-factor structure of the EDE interview. The three factors were interpreted as Dietary Restraint, Shape/Weight Overvaluation, and Body Dissatisfaction. In this series of patients with BED, factor analysis of the EDE interview did not replicate the original subscales but revealed an alternative factor structure. Future research must further evaluate the psychometric properties, including the factor structure, of the EDE interview in this and other eating-disordered groups. The implications of these factor analytic findings for understanding and assessing the specific psychopathology of patients with BED are discussed. PMID:19798064

  9. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based s...

  10. Eating disorder symptoms and weight and shape concerns in a large web-based convenience sample of women ages 50 and above: results of the Gender and Body Image (GABI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Danielle A; Von Holle, Ann; Brownley, Kimberly A; Runfola, Cristin D; Hofmeier, Sara; Branch, Kateland E; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2012-11-01

    Limited research exists on eating disorder symptoms and attitudes and weight and shape concerns in women in midlife to older adulthood. We conducted an online survey to characterize these behaviors and concerns in women ages 50 and above. Participants (n = 1,849) were recruited via the Internet and convenience sampling. Eating disorder symptoms, dieting and body checking behaviors, and weight and shape concerns were widely endorsed. Younger age and higher body mass index (BMI) were associated with greater endorsement of eating disorder symptoms, behaviors, and concerns. Weight and shape concerns and disordered eating behaviors occur in women over 50 and vary by age and BMI. Focused research on disordered eating patterns in this age group is necessary to develop age-appropriate interventions and to meet the developmental needs of an important, growing, and underserved population. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Personality Assessment Inventory profiles of university students with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Michael Wm; Lamborn, Paige

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex disorders that involve medical and psychological symptoms. Understanding the psychological factors associated with different eating disorders is important for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. This study sought to determine on which of the 22 Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) differed, and whether the PAI can be used to classify eating disorder subtypes. Because we were interested in both whether the PAI could be used to differentiate eating disorder subtypes from each other, as well as from other disorders, we also included a group of patients with major depression. The three eating disorder groups did differ significantly from each other, and from the patients with depression, on a number of the PAI scales. Only two PAI scales (Anxiety and Depression), however, exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with anorexia nervosa, no scales exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with bulimia nervosa or EDNOS, and only two exceeded a T-score of 70 for the patients with depression (Depression and Suicide). A discriminant function analysis revealed an overall correct classification between the groups of 81.6%. The PAI helps to understand the psychological factors associated with eating disorders and can be used to assist with assessment. Continued investigation using the PAI in an eating disordered population is supported.

  12. Associations between Race and Eating Disorder Symptom Trajectories in Black and White Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Wildes, Jennifer E; Cheng, Yu; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological research suggests racial differences in the presentation of eating disorder symptoms. However, no studies have examined associations between race and eating disorder symptom trajectories across youth and adolescence, which is necessary to inform culturally sensitive prevention programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the trajectories of eating disorder symptoms from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether race was associated with trajectory group membership. Data were drawn from 2,305 Black and White girls who participated in a community-based longitudinal cohort study (Pittsburgh Girls Study) examining the development of psychopathology. The child and adult versions of the Eating Attitudes Test assessed self-reported eating disorder symptoms at six time points between ages 9 and 21 years. Growth mixture modeling was used to examine developmental trajectories of dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. Given potential confounds with race and disordered eating, financial strain (i.e., receiving public assistance) and weight were included as covariates. Four to six distinct developmental patterns were found across eating disorder symptoms, including none, increasing, decreasing, or increasing-decreasing trajectories. Black girls had a greater likelihood of being in the decreasing trajectories for dieting, bulimia/food preoccupation, and total eating disorder symptom scores. White girls were more likely to follow increasing trajectories of dieting and total eating disorder symptom scores compared to Black girls. These results highlight the importance of examining the influence of racial background on eating disorder symptoms and the potential need for differences in the timing and focus of prevention interventions in these groups.

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and disordered eating behaviors: links, risks, and challenges faced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptacek R

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radek Ptacek,1,2 George B Stefano,1,3 Simon Weissenberger,1 Devang Akotia,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Hana Papezova,1 Lucie Domkarova,1 Tereza Stepankova,1 Michal Goetz4 1Department of Psychiatry, Charles University 1st Medical Faculty and General Teaching Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychology, University of New York in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 3MitoGenetics Research Institute, MitoGenetics, LLC, Farmingdale, NY, USA; 4Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that often persists in adulthood. It is defined by inattention and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. ADHD is associated with many comorbidities, including eating disorders (EDs. In the last decade, studies have reported that ADHD is linked with binge EDs, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa. Many postulates have been proposed to explain the association: 1 impulsive behavior in ADHD patients leads to disordered eating behavior; 2 other psychologic comorbidities present in ADHD patients account for eating behavior; 3 poor eating habits and resulting nutritional deficiencies contribute to ADHD symptoms; and 4 other risk factors common to both ADHD and EDs contribute to the coincidence of both diseases. Additionally, sex differences become a significant issue in the discussion of EDs and ADHD because of the higher incidence of bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa in females and the ability of females to mask the symptoms of ADHD. Interestingly, both EDs and ADHD rely on a common neural substrate, namely, dopaminergic signaling. Dopaminergic signaling is critical for motor activity and emotion, the latter enabling the former into a combined motivated movement like eating. This linkage aids in explaining the many comorbidities associated with ADHD. The interconnection of ADHD and EDs is discussed from

  14. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders.

  15. Have personality disorders been overdiagnosed among eating disorder patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lojewski, Astrid; Fisher, Anna; Abraham, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    There is persuasive evidence for a relationship between eating disorders (EDs) and personality disorders (PDs). Research studies over the last three decades have used various tools to explore PDs in EDs with differing results. We investigated PDs derived from an interview--the International Personality Disorder Examination. 132 female inpatients with restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN-R), binge-purging AN, bulimia nervosa (BN) and ED not otherwise specified were interviewed. MANCOVA was used to test for differences in dimensional PD scores for the ED diagnostic and behavioural groups. Twenty-one percent of patients had a definite DSM-IV PD diagnosis and 37% of patients had ≥1 definite or probable DSM-IV PD diagnoses. Cluster C PDs were most commonly found [avoidant (25%), obsessive-compulsive (9%), dependent (2%)], followed by cluster B PDs [borderline (13%), histrionic (2%)]. Comparison of PD dimensional scores revealed significantly lower PD scores for borderline PD in AN-R when compared to the other diagnostic groups; and significantly higher scores for histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial, and not otherwise specified PDs for BN when compared to the other diagnostic groups. Self-induced vomiting was the only behaviour significantly associated with any PD dimensional scores (borderline and narcissistic). Assessment of PDs using a highly structured interview administered by trained interviewers results in less PD diagnoses compared with previous studies of inpatients with an ED. Avoidance is the most common PD and those patients who induce vomiting are more likely to have borderline features. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Military-related trauma is associated with eating disorder symptoms in male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditte Hall, Kimberly A; Bartlett, Brooke A; Iverson, Katherine M; Mitchell, Karen S

    2017-11-01

    Eating disorders are understudied among male veterans, who may be at increased risk due to the high rates of trauma exposure and experiences of multiple traumatization in this population. This study sought to examine the associations between specific types of trauma (i.e., childhood physical abuse, adult physical assault, childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and military-related trauma) and eating disorder symptoms in a large, nationally-representative sample of trauma-exposed male veterans. Survey data were collected from N = 642 male veterans. Traumatic experiences in childhood and adulthood were assessed using the Trauma History Screen and the National Stressful Events Survey. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed with the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Analyses also controlled for age and body mass index. Multiple traumatization was associated with increased eating disorder symptoms. However, military-related trauma was the only trauma type that was uniquely associated with eating disorder symptoms when controlling for other trauma types. Examination of different types of military-related trauma indicated that this association was not driven by exposure to combat. Noncombat, military-related trauma was associated with eating disorder symptom severity in male veterans. Results highlight the need for better assessment of eating disorder symptoms in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Disordered eating and suicidal intent: the role of thin ideal internalisation, shame and family criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unikel, C; Von Holle, A; Bulik, C M; Ocampo, R

    2012-01-01

    We explored the effect of thin ideal internalisation, shame proneness and family criticism on disordered eating and suicidal intent in female Mexican adolescents. We studied a probabilistic sample of 2537 high school students in central Mexico, stratified by marginalisation status and migratory intensity. We used a generalised logistic regression model to estimate the odds of disordered eating and suicidal intent across scores for three predictors: Internalisation of the thin ideal, shame and family criticism. Disordered eating was reported by 4.2% (95% CI = 0.9-7.5%) and suicidal intent by 13.2% (95% CI = 12.0-14.4%) of girls. The unadjusted odds ratios of any disordered eating for thin ideal internalisation, shame proneness and familial criticism were 1.2, 1.1 and 3.2, respectively. The positive association between thin ideal internalisation and disordered eating remained even after controlling for shame proneness and familial criticism. The association of these variables with suicidal intent was weaker. Results support stronger effects for disordered eating than suicidal intent across the three unadjusted predictors. It also highlights the presence of the relationship of criticism and disordered eating in female adolescents from low and middle socio-economic backgrounds. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. Disordered Eating Attitudes and Their Correlates among Iranian High School Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdiyeh Hamed Behzad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disordered eating attitudes are contributing factors to the development of eatingdisorders. Adolescent girls are at high risk for eating diseases. In Iran, there is few data onthe subject, especially in Azarian adolescent girls, so we did this study for assessing disorderedeating attitudes and their correlates among Iranian Azarbaijani high school girls.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 1887 high school girls were selected. Eating AttitudeTest-26 (EAT-26 and socio economical questionnaires were used. The EAT-26 score of 20or higher defined as disordered eating attitudes. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Programfor Social Sciences, by using from descriptive and analytical statistics.Results: Reliability and validity of the translated EAT-26 were 0.80, 0.76, respectively. Instudied subjects, mean (SD of EAT-26 was 11.71(8.48. Totally, 16.7% (C.I with 95%: 15.1-18.3% of students had disordered eating attitudes. About half of the participants were unhappywith their body weight and considered themselves as obese. Mean of EAT-26 washigher in this group. Groups, who intent to weight loss, were smoker, and who had age ofmenarche less than 11 years, also had higher EAT-26 scores. Parent’s literacy or job, birthorder, family size or income and house ownership had not any significant effect on EAT-26score.Conclusions: Persian version of EAT-26 has good reliability and validity for assessing disorderedeating attitudes in Azarian girl adolescents. Prevalence of disordered eating attitudesamong Azarian adolescent girls are in the range of some studies, but are less than Arabiancountries, and some European ones. In adolescent girls, body weight dissatisfaction, smokingand early menarche has important role in eating attitudes.

  19. Eating disorders among fashion models: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancu, Simona Alexandra; Enea, Violeta

    2017-09-01

    In the light of recent concerns regarding the eating disorders among fashion models and professional regulations of fashion model occupation, an examination of the scientific evidence on this issue is necessary. The article reviews findings on the prevalence of eating disorders and body image concerns among professional fashion models. A systematic literature search was conducted using ProQUEST, EBSCO, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Gale Canage electronic databases. A very low number of studies conducted on fashion models and eating disorders resulted between 1980 and 2015, with seven articles included in this review. Overall, results of these studies do not indicate a higher prevalence of eating disorders among fashion models compared to non-models. Fashion models have a positive body image and generally do not report more dysfunctional eating behaviors than controls. However, fashion models are on average slightly underweight with significantly lower BMI than controls, and give higher importance to appearance and thin body shape, and thus have a higher prevalence of partial-syndrome eating disorders than controls. Despite public concerns, research on eating disorders among professional fashion models is extremely scarce and results cannot be generalized to all models. The existing research fails to clarify the matter of eating disorders among fashion models and given the small number of studies, further research is needed.

  20. Nutrition and eating disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenfeld, Marjorie E Kaplan; Sosin, Elyse; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2004-05-01

    Adequate nutrition is essential during adolescence, since growth and development during this period play key roles in achieving normal adult size and reproductive capacity. This article briefly reviews recommended caloric intake; the healthy balance of carbohydrates, fat and protein; and the appropriate dietary intake of iron, folic acid and calcium for the adolescent. A major potential obstacle to good nutrition for an adolescent is the development of an eating disorder such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Anorexia nervosa, characterized by severe underweight, fear of gaining weight, and low self-esteem and amenorrhea, is associated with many physiological and psychological complications with which the provider must be familiar. Similarly, bulimia nervosa, which presents with eating binges followed by compensatory behaviors such as vomiting, diet pill abuse and overexercise, may be harder to detect, but can also have devastating consequences, both physically and emotionally, for a young person. Both of these disorders are best treated by a multidisciplinary team of specialists to address the medical, psychological, and nutritional components of these illnesses.

  1. Classification and correlates of eating disorders among Blacks: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Baser, Raymond E; Matusko, Niki; Faison, Nakesha; Jackson, James S

    2013-02-01

    To assess classification adjustments and examine correlates of eating disorders among Blacks. The National Survey of American Life (NSAL) was conducted from 2001-2003 and consisted of adults (n=5,191) and adolescents (n=1,170). The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-World Health Organization 2004-modified) and DSM-IV-TR eating disorder criteria were used. Sixty-six percent of African American and 59% Caribbean Black adults were overweight or obese, while 30% and 29% of adolescents were overweight or obese. Although lifetime rates of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were low, binge eating disorder was high for both ethnic groups among adults and adolescents. Eliminating certain classification criteria resulted in higher rates of eating disorders for all groups. Culturally sensitive criteria should be incorporated into future versions of Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM) classifications for eating disorders that consider within-group ethnic variations.

  2. Eating disorders in adolescents and their repercussions in oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Rosana; Couto, Geraldo; Sougey, Everton

    2010-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of oral alterations related to eating disorders and associated factors. A cross-sectional study including 650 adolescents aged from 12 to 16 was carried out through self-report questionnaires (EAT-26; BITE and self-rating hamilton depression questionnaire, SRHDQ) and dental examination. Significant associations were observed in mucositis, cheilitis, hypertrophy of salivary glands, and dental erosions. The prevalence of adolescents at risk for eating disorders was of 33.1%, according to EAT-26 and 1.7% (high scores) and 36.5% (medium scores), in BITE, higher among 13-year-old females, with brothers, parents or responsible person who are illiterate, being the youngest child, living in a residence of at most two rooms and who showed depressive symptoms. All these factors showed significant relation to eating disorders. Presence of oral alterations is associated to symptoms of eating disorders, helping precocious detection of sub clinical cases.

  3. Gender and disordered eating of adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Bracha

    2014-01-01

    Studies from recent decades indicate that the ideal of thinness can be discerned in a growing dissatisfaction with weight and an increase of the prevalence of disordered eating at an earlier age of onset. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of disordered eating (above the cutoff point of 30 on the EAT-40) among a normal population of school students in Israel. The study sample was composed of Israeli (Jewish) adolescents in grades 7 to 12 from four schools. Of 326 students approached (181 females and 142 males), 323 completed the self-report EAT-40 and a structured questionnaire that provided socio-demographic and other information. 41.5% of adolescents were not satisfied with their weight and 45.3% want to lose weight. A third of the sample engages in dieting behavior frequently; 6.1% of the adolescents have pathologic EAT-40 scores, with about three times as many girls as boys exhibiting disordered eating; 8.2% of the girls and 2.8% of the males show disordered eating (Ø=0.115, p times more with pathologic EAT scores than those who are satisfied with their weight (Ø=0.220; p times more pathologic EAT scores among adolescents who wish to lose weight than among those who do not wish to reduce their weight (Ø=0.237; p EAT scores were found among adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds or levels of religious observance. The prevalence of disordered eating among adolescents in Israel is higher than other countries in general, and among males in particular. There is a need for increased efforts to detect adolescents at risk for developing eating disorders, with the assistance of clinical tools. In addition an educational policy for disordered eating prevention should be instituted.

  4. Multidisciplinary study: DCD method applied to patients with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Conese

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are quite common in clinical practice and can include out-of-control behaviours and thoughts that powerfully reinforce unhealthy eating patterns. They include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder. We conducted a trial on 102 patients (89 females and 13 males to investigate the efficacy of “DCD method” (appropriate dietary education associated to New-Electrosculpture on patients with obesity and eating disorders. The study underlines the efficacy of “DCD method”, especially when supported by behavioural therapy, in obese and overweight patients.

  5. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test: a study of Mexican eating disorders patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rayón, G; Mancilla-Díaz, J M; Vázquez-Arévalo, R; Unikel-Santoncini, C; Caballero-Romo, A; Mercado-Corona, D

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Mexican version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) in clinical and control populations in Mexico City. 276 female patients with eating disorders [52 with anorexia nervosa (AN), 102 with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 122 with eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)] and a comparison group of 280 normal control female subjects completed the EAT. The EAT had an adequate level of internal consistency in the clinical sample (Cronbach's alpha=0.90). Total score was significantly correlated with criterion group membership (r=0.77, pBulimia, 3) Drive of thinness, 4) Food preoccupation and 5) Perceived social pressure. This study provides evidence that the Mexican version of the EAT is an economical, reliable and potentially useful instrument for research in this field.

  6. Interpersonal Problems and Developmental Trajectories of Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Kerstin K.; Ansell, Emily B.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore associations between specific interpersonal constructs and the developmental progression of behaviors leading to binge eating disorder (BED). Method Eighty-four consecutively evaluated, treatment-seeking obese (BMI ≥ 30) men and women with BED were assessed with structured diagnostic and clinical interviews and completed a battery of established measures to assess the current and developmental eating- and weight-related variables as well as interpersonal functioning. Results Using the interpersonal circumplex structural summary method, amplitude, elevation, the affiliation dimension, and the quadratic coefficient for the dominance dimension were associated with eating and weight-related developmental variables. The amplitude coefficient and more extreme interpersonal problems on the dominance dimension (quadratic)—i.e., problems with being extremely high (domineering) or low in dominance (submissive)—were significantly associated with ayounger age at onset of binge eating, BED, and overweight as well as accounted for significant variance in age at binge eating, BED, and overweight onset. Greater interpersonal problems with having an overly affiliative interpersonal style were significantly associated with, and accounted for significant variance in, ayounger age at diet onset. Discussion Findings provide further support for the importance of interpersonal problems among adults with BED and converge with recent work highlighting the importance of specific types of interpersonal problems for understanding heterogeneity and different developmental trajectories of individuals with BED. PMID:22727087

  7. Disordered eating and menstrual patterns in female university ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical eating disorders (i.e. anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) ... studies have reported a higher prevalence of DE and menstrual disorders in female ... sity volunteered to take part in this descriptive, cross-sectional study which was ...

  8. Eating Disorders Among Female Students of Taif University, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Azeem Taha, Azza Ali; Abu-Zaid, Hany Ahmed; El-Sayed Desouky, Dalia

    2018-03-01

    Eating disorders are a common health problem among adolescents, and females are especially vulnerable to them. There is lack of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in Saudi Arabia. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders among female undergraduate university students in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. The study was undertaken in the female section at Taif university from November 1, 2016 to March 30, 2017. Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of eating disorders. The questionnaire was distributed among undergraduate students and their anthropometric measurements were assessed after obtaining their consent. The sample included 1200 university students with a median age of 21 years (range 17-33). Nonparametric tests were used to assess relationship between variables. Chi-squared test was used to compare items of the disordered eating attitudes and behaviors between positive and negative EAT respondents. Using the cutoff score of 20 on EAT-26 test, 35.4% of the students were classified at risk for eating disorders. Medical and obese students achieved the highest significant EAT scores. A high prevalence of eating disorders was found among females at Taif university, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Our findings call for prevention of these disorders and we recommend establishing a national screening program among Saudi university female students for early detection and management of these problems. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  9. Similarities and differences between eating disorders and orthorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Kristine Instefjord

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2013 In today`s society there is an increased focus on having a healthy lifestyle and a good health. For some people, the attempt to achieve good health turns into an obsession which again may lead to an eating disorder. In recent years a new term is noticed, called orthorexia nervosa. Orthorexia is about being obsessed with healthy eating. Today there is a lot of research and literature about eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa ...

  10. Muscle Dysmorphia: A New Form of Eating Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Patti Lou; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), a variation of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia, among college students. Surveys indicated that MD symptomatology appears in the general population and among both sexes. MD significantly related to eating disorder pathology and depression, and to some degree to impaired social support.…

  11. Evidence-based clinical guidelines for eating disorders : International comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hoek, Hans W.; Schmidt, Ricarda

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review: The current systematic review sought to compare available evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for all specific eating disorders. Recent findings: Nine evidence-based clinical treatment guidelines for eating disorders were located through a systematic search. The

  12. Mutuality, Self-Silencing, and Disordered Eating in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Lisa S.; Riggs, Shelley A.; Stabb, Sally D.; Marshall, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of association among mutuality, self-silencing, and disordered eating in an ethnically diverse sample of college women (N = 149). Partner mutuality and overall self-silencing were negatively correlated and together were associated with six disordered eating indices. All four self-silencing subscales were…

  13. Eating disorders in black South African females | Szabo | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating disorders are generally associated with westernised white populations. Isolated cases of anorexia nervosa have been described in blacks in Africa. A series of cases is presented documenting the existence of eating disorders in young black South African women. This has implications in terms of both conceptualising ...

  14. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  15. The Effects of Peer Influence on Disordered Eating Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tiffany A.; Gast, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Peer influence has been found to be correlated with a host of harmful health behaviors. However, little research has been conducted investigating the relationship between peer influence and disordered eating. The present study surveyed 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade girls and boys using the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and Inventory of Peer…

  16. Eating disorder professionals' perceptions of oral health knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L B; Boyd, L D; Rainchuso, L; Rothman, A; Mayer, B

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge among professionals who specialize in treating eating disorders, and identify to what extent their education, and training addresses oral health care delivery, and recommendations for individuals with eating disorders. Participants for this study were licensed behavioural and medical providers specializing in eating disorder treatment (n = 107), and recruited through professional eating disorder organizations. Participants completed an anonymous, online questionnaire (33 items) assessing level of oral health-related education, knowledge and treatment recommendations within the participant's respective eating disorder discipline. The majority of respondents (85%) were formally trained in eating disorders, and of those trained, 64.4% were not satisfied with the level of oral health education during formal education, and 19.5% report no oral health education. Respondents consider their knowledge of risk of oral disease for their clients/patients as average or above (84%), and ranked tooth erosion as the greatest reason for oral care (63%) while dry mouth led in the rankings for least significant reason for oral care (33%). Referral for oral care was found to be more common after reports of complication (55%). According to these findings, eating disorder professionals regard oral health care for their clients as significant, and may be unaware of associated oral risk factors, current oral care standards and long-term oral effects of disordered eating apart from enamel erosion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Alexithymia and eating disorders: a critical review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or frightening and may use their eating disorder symptoms (i.e., restricting food intake, bingeing, and/or purging) as a way to avoid or cope with their feelings. The current critical review synthesizes the literature on alexithymia and eating disorders and examines alexithymia levels across eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified), the role of alexithymia in binge eating disorder, and the influence of alexithymia on the development of eating disorders as well as treatment outcome. The clinical implications of the research conducted to date and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:24999402

  18. Epidemiology of Eating Disorders : Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, Frederique R. E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Hoek, Hans W.

    Eating disorders are relatively rare among the general population. This review discusses the literature on the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates of eating disorders. We searched online Medline/Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO databases for articles published in English using several keyterms

  19. Reliability of self-reported eating disorders : Optimizing population screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Sihvola, Elina; Raevuori, Anu; Kaukoranta, Jutta; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess whether short self-report eating disorder screening questions are useful population screening methods. Method: We screened the female participants (N = 2881) from the 1975-1079 birth cohorts of Finnish twins for eating disorders, using several

  20. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to

  1. Reflective functioning and attachment in adolescent eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Siddell, Laurette

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A systematic review was undertaken to identify any psychological predictors of treatment dropout for individuals diagnosed with an eating disorder, to help inform psychological therapy and reduce attrition. An empirical study was conducted to understand developmental psychological mechanisms at play in the aetiology and maintenance of eating disordered symptomology by assessing reflective functioning and attachment from a trans-diagnostic perspective. Method...

  2. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  3. Autonomy, Eating Disorders and Elite Gymnastics: Ethical and Conceptual Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodworth, Andrew; McNamee, Mike; Tan, Jacinta

    2017-01-01

    Participation in elite sport, and in particular those sports with special demands in terms of weight and shape, is associated with a higher risk for eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa [Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Torstveit, M. K. (2010). Aspects of disordered eating continuum in elite high intensity sports. "Scandinavian Journal of…

  4. The prevalence of eating disorders not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machado, Paulo P. P.; Machado, Barbara C.; Goncalves, Sonia; Hoek, Hans W.

    Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2,028 female students,

  5. The Impact of DSM-5 on Eating Disorder Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Megen; Accurso, Erin C; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Eating disorder diagnostic criteria were revised from the fourth to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and -5, respectively). This study examines the impact of these revisions on rates of eating disorder diagnoses in treatment-seeking youth. Participants were 651 youth, ages 7-18 years, presenting to an outpatient eating disorders program who met criteria for a DSM-IV eating disorder diagnosis on intake. Patients completed well-validated semi-structured interviews to assess eating disorder psychopathology and psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were predominantly female (n = 588; 90.3%) with an average age of 15.28 years (SD = 2.21), mean percent of median Body Mass Index (mBMI) of 101.91 (SD = 31.73), and average duration of illness of 16.74 months (SD = 17.63). Cases of DSM-IV Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), now most consistent with DSM-5 Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder, decreased from 47.6% to 39.0%, Anorexia Nervosa increased from 29.6% to 33.5%, and Bulimia Nervosa increased from 22.7% to 24.7%. Consistent with previous studies, and in keeping with the aims of the DSM-5 for eating disorders, the revised diagnostic criteria reduced cases of DSM-IV EDNOS and increased cases of specified eating disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:578-581). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Using the mood disorder questionnaire and bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale to detect bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder among eating disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening scales for bipolar disorder including the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) have been plagued by high false positive rates confounded by presence of borderline personality disorder. This study examined the accuracy of these scales for detecting bipolar disorder among patients referred for eating disorders and explored the possibility of simultaneous assessment of co-morbid borderline personality disorder. Methods Participants were 78 consecutive female patients who were referred for evaluation of an eating disorder. All participants completed the mood and eating disorder sections of the SCID-I/P and the borderline personality disorder section of the SCID-II, in addition to the MDQ and BSDS. Predictive validity of the MDQ and BSDS was evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis of the Area Under the Curve (AUC). Results Fifteen (19%) and twelve (15%) patients fulfilled criteria for bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder, respectively. The AUCs for bipolar II disorder were 0.78 (MDQ) and 0.78 (BDSD), and the AUCs for borderline personality disorder were 0.75 (MDQ) and 0.79 (BSDS). Conclusions Among patients being evaluated for eating disorders, the MDQ and BSDS show promise as screening questionnaires for both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. PMID:23443034

  7. Associations Between Core Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Both Binge and Restrictive Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Kaisari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionIt is unclear whether core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD relate to specific types of disordered eating and little is known about the mediating mechanisms. We investigated associations between core symptoms of ADHD and binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior and assessed whether negative mood and/or deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues mediate these relationships.MethodsIn two independent studies, we used a dimensional approach to study ADHD and disordered eating. In Study 1, a community-based sample of 237 adults (72.6% female, 18–60 years [M = 26.8, SE = 0.6] completed an online questionnaire, assessing eating attitudes/behaviors, negative mood, awareness, and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues and ADHD symptomatology. In Study 2, 142 students (80.3% female, 18–32 years [M = 19.3, SE = 0.1] were recruited to complete the same questionnaires and complete tasks assessing interoceptive sensitivity and impulsivity in the laboratory.ResultsIn each study, core symptoms of ADHD correlated positively with both binge/disinhibited and restrictive eating and negative mood mediated the relationships. Deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety signals also mediated the association between inattentive symptoms of ADHD and disordered eating, especially binge/disinhibited eating. The results from both studies demonstrated that inattentive symptoms of ADHD were also directly related to binge/disinhibited eating behavior, while accounting for the indirect pathways of association via negative mood and awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety signals.ConclusionThis research provides evidence that core symptoms of ADHD are associated with both binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior. Further investigation of the role of inattentive symptoms of ADHD in disordered eating may be helpful in developing novel

  8. Facebook Use and Disordered Eating in College-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Morgan; Thornton, Laura; De Choudhury, Munmun; Teevan, Jaime; Bulik, Cynthia M; Levinson, Cheri A; Zerwas, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Disordered eating behavior-dieting, laxative use, fasting, binge eating-is common in college-aged women (11%-20%). A documented increase in the number of young women experiencing eating psychopathology has been blamed on the rise of engagement with social media sites such as Facebook. We predicted that college-aged women's Facebook intensity (e.g., the amount of time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and integration of Facebook into daily life), online physical appearance comparison (i.e., comparing one's appearance to others' on social media), and online "fat talk" (i.e., talking negatively about one's body) would be positively associated with their disordered eating behavior. In an online survey, 128 college-aged women (81.3% Caucasian, 6.7% Asian, 9.0% African-American, and 3.0% Other) completed items, which measured their disordered eating, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, online fat talk, body mass index, depression, anxiety, perfectionism, impulsivity, and self-efficacy. In regression analyses, Facebook intensity, online physical appearance comparison, and online fat talk were significantly and uniquely associated with disordered eating and explained a large percentage of the variance in disordered eating (60%) in conjunction with covariates. However, greater Facebook intensity was associated with decreased disordered eating behavior, whereas both online physical appearance comparison and online fat talk were associated with greater disordered eating. College-aged women who endorsed greater Facebook intensity were less likely to struggle with disordered eating when online physical appearance comparison was accounted for statistically. Facebook intensity may carry both risks and benefits for disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Poor self-recognition of disordered eating among girls with bulimic-type eating disorders: cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Bentley, Caroline; Harrison, Carmel; Mond, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Bulimic-type eating disorders are common among young women and associated with high levels of distress and disability and low uptake of mental health care. We examined self-recognition of disordered eating and factors associated with this among female adolescents with bulimic-type eating disorders (n = 139) recruited from a large, population-based sample. A vignette of a fictional character with bulimia nervosa was presented, followed by a series of questions addressing the nature and treatment of the problem described. One of these questions required participants to indicate whether they currently had a problem such as the one described. Self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms, general psychological distress and quality of life were also completed. More than half of participants (58%) did not believe that they currently had a problem with their eating. In multivariable analysis, impairment in emotional well-being and self-induced vomiting were the only variables independently associated with self-recognition. Participants who recognized a problem with their eating were more likely to have sought treatment for an eating problem than those who did not. Recognition of disordered eating among adolescents with bulimic-type eating disorders may be poor and this may be a factor in low uptake of mental health care. Health promotion efforts may need to address the misconception that only bulimic-type disorders involving self-induced vomiting are pathological. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Empirical support for a reclassification of eating disorders NOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helverskov, J L; Lyng, B; Clausen, L; Mors, O; Frydenberg, M; Thomsen, P H; Rokkedal, K

    2011-01-01

    To explore the empirical support for a reclassification of the eating disorders NOS (EDNOS) category. In a cross-sectional design eight specific subgroups of EDNOS were compared to anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) on interview-based data and questionnaire measures. The sample consisted of 965 patients in the age 13-54 years admitted to treatment for an eating disorder. According to the DSM-IV 176(18%) presented with AN, 290(30%) with BN and 499(52%) with EDNOS. Of all EDNOS cases 34% could be reclassified as AN or BN. Three specific subgroups emerged as separate diagnostic entities. A heterogeneous subgroup of 122 patients (13% of all) was proposed as 'true' EDNOS. Implications of the results on the DSM-V are discussed. The results support a broader definition of AN and BN and suggest subgroups of EDNOS as separate diagnostic entities. This results in a substantial reduction of the heterogeneous EDNOS group. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. [Orthorexia nervosa. A new eating behavior disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Zamora, M L; Bote Bonaechea, B; García Sánchez, F; Ríos Rial, B

    2005-01-01

    New eating behavior disorders such as bigorexia (muscle dysmorphia) and orthorexia are appearing in developed countries. These disorders have not been officially recognized so that they are not classified as independent entities. The term orthorexia comes from the Greek word orthos (straight, proper) and orexia (appetite). It is characterized by the pathological obsession for biologically pure food, which leads to important dietary restrictions. Orthorexic patients exclude foods from their diets that they consider to be impure because they have herbicides, pesticides or artificial substances and they worry in excess about the techniques and materials used in the food elaboration. This obsession leads to loss of social relationships and affective dissatisfactions which, in turn, favors obsessive concern about food. In orthorexia, that patient initially wants to improve his/her health, treat a disease or lose weight. Finally, the diet becomes the most important part of their lives. We present a clinical case that responds to the characteristics of orthorexia. The differential diagnosis with chronic delusional disorder, anorexia nervosa and obsessive-compulsive disorder is carried out.

  12. Identifying Dieters Who Will Develop an Eating Disorder: A Prospective, Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen A.; Davies, Beverley A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to identify the characteristics of the dieters most at risk of subsequently developing an eating disorder and to evaluate the feasibility of using a brief questionnaire to identify such dieters in advance. Method A general population cohort of 2,992 young women who were dieting was identified. On four occasions over the subsequent 2 years, this cohort was sent a questionnaire concerning eating habits and attitudes. Participants whose responses suggested that they had developed an eating disorder were interviewed to establish their true case status. The baseline questionnaires of those who did and did not subsequently develop an eating disorder were compared to identify features that predicted future case status. Results One hundred four of the dieters developed an eating disorder of clinical severity during the 2 years of follow-up. Their baseline questionnaire scores differed in many respects from those who had not developed an eating disorder. Items associated with developing an eating disorder were selected by using three different statistical methods. A simple case-predicting instrument based on one of five items scoring above an optimal cut point had a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 72% (overall efficiency of 72%). Conclusions Dieters who will develop an eating disorder within the next 2 years have distinctive features. It is feasible to identify them in advance with reasonable efficiency with a brief questionnaire. This questionnaire could be incorporated into routine health assessments, thereby identifying those at high risk. PMID:16330587

  13. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d = .41, p = .003; dieting (six studies), d = .68, p eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Prevalence of Screening-Detected Eating Disorders in Chinese Females and Exploratory Associations with Dietary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J.; Hamer, Robert M.; Thornton, Laura M.; Peat, Christine M.; Kleiman, Susan C.; Du, Shufa; Wang, Huijin; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective China is undergoing dramatic Westernization, hence may be able to provide unique insights into the role of sociocultural factors in disease. The purpose of this exploratory study was two-fold: to describe the prevalence of screening-detected eating disorders and disordered eating in China at the first occasion of assessment in the large-scale China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and to explore the associations between dietary practices and disordered eating. Regarding the first objective, participants are provincially representative and in subsequent waves will be followed longitudinally. Method CHNS participants were recruited using multistage, cluster random sampling, beginning in 1989. In this study, participants comprised 259 female adolescents (12–17 years) and 979 women (18–35 years) who participated in the CHNS 2009 survey, which is the first CHNS survey to assess disordered eating. Dietary practice-disordered eating associations were investigated with logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, and urbanization. Results Of the participants, 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8, 8.2) of adults and 7.8% (95% CI: 5.0, 12.0) of adolescents had a screening-detected eating disorder. Dietary practices had non-significant associations with disordered eating at the general population level, except for protein consumption among women. There was evidence that skipping meals and a high-fat diet may confer risk. Discussion Screening-detected eating disorders in China are lower in prevalence than in developed countries. Dietary practices had fairly limited associations with disordered eating at the general population level; protein consumption, skipping meals, and a high-fat diet are candidate dietary practice exposures for disordered eating. PMID:25407415

  15. Stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Three groups of women [obese with BED (n=9); obese non-BED (n=11); and normal weight (NW) non-BED (n=12)], rated their levels of hunger and psychological distress before and after completing the Trier Social Stress Test, followed by food anticipation and then consumption of their preferred snack food. We differentiated between the motivational and hedonic components of eating by measuring the amount of food participants poured into a serving bowl compared to the amount consumed. Stress did not affect poured and consumed calories differently between groups. Across all subjects, calories poured and consumed were positively correlated with post-stress hunger, but calories poured was positively correlated with post-stress anxiety and negative affect. These results indicate that stress-related psychological factors may be more strongly associated with the motivational drive to eat (i.e. amount poured) rather than the hedonic aspects of eating (i.e. amount consumed) for women in general. Exploratory correlation analyses per subgroup suggest that post-stress hunger was positively associated with calories poured and consumed in both non-BED groups. In the obese BED group, calories consumed was negatively associated with dietary restraint and, although not significantly, positively associated with stress-induced changes in anxiety.These findings suggest that stress-induced snacking in obese BED women may be influenced by psychological factors more so than homeostatic hunger mechanisms. After controlling for dietary restraint and negative affect, the NW non-BED women ate a greater percentage of the food they poured than both obese groups, suggesting that obesity may be associated with a heightened motivational drive to eat coupled with a reduction in hedonic pleasure from eating post-stress. Further studies that incorporate novel approaches to

  16. Eating behavior and psychological profile: associations between daughters with distinct eating disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María

    2017-09-06

    Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D; Roecklein, Kathryn A; Rohan, Kelly J; Wildes, Jennifer E; Kamarck, Marissa L

    2014-06-30

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of binge eating disorder (BED) in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N=112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and validation of an Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale (EDSIS for carers of people with eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family members of relatives with eating disorders experience high levels of distress due to the difficulties in their care giving role. However no measures have been developed to measure the specific impact that an individual with an eating disorder has on family life. The aim of this study was to develop a measure to assess the specific caregiving burden of both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A secondary aim was to examine whether this measure was sensitive to change. Methods A new scale, the Eating Disorders Symptom Impact Scale (EDSIS, was generated by a panel of clinicians and researchers based upon quantitative and qualitative work with carers and reviewed by a panel of "expert carers". A cross-sectional study was conducted among carers of relatives with an eating disorder to examine the properties of the new scale. In addition, participants from an ongoing pre-and-post design study completed several self-report questionnaires to assess the sensitivity of the EDSIS to change. Results A sample of 196 carers of relatives with an eating disorder aged 25–68 compted the scale. A 24-item EDSIS scale was derived with four factors: nutrition, guilt, dysregulated behaviour and social isolation. These explained 58.4% of the variance in carer distress. Reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.84 to 0.90. The convergent validity of the EDSIS subscales was moderately supported by correlations with a general caregiving measure (Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI, r = 0.42 to 0.60, psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12, r = 0.33 and perceived functioning of the relative (Children Global Assessment Scale (CGAS, r = -30. A sample of 57 primary caregivers completed pre-post intervention assessments and the overall scale (t = 2.3, p Conclusion The EDSIS instrument has good psychometric properties and may be of value to assess the impact of eating disorder symptoms on family members. It

  19. Quality of life in eating disorders: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Christiansen, Erik; Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hansen, Nina Beck; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinkby

    2014-09-30

    Eating disorders (EDs) comprise a variety of symptoms and have a profound impact on everyday life. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse published data on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in EDs so as to compare the results to general population norm data and to investigate potential differences between ED diagnostic groups. A systematic review of the current literature was conducted using a keyword-based search in PubMed and PsychInfo. The search covered anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and binge eating disorder (BED) and used the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a measure of HRQoL. Of the 102 citations identified, 85 abstracts were reviewed and seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. AN patients were included in five studies (n=227), BN in four studies (n=216), EDNOS in two studies (n=166) and BED in four studies (n=148). We tested for between-study variation and significant differences between the diagnostic groups. The results confirmed a significantly lower level of HRQoL in all EDs compared to a population mean. It was not possible to establish any differences between the diagnostic groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Disordered eating in ethnic minority adolescents with overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Watts, Allison W; Austin, S Bryn; Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-06-01

    High rates of disordered eating exist among adolescents with overweight and among ethnic/racial minority adolescents. Given the lack of research examining how eating disorder risk is moderated by both overweight and ethnicity/race, this study aimed to explore interactions between ethnicity/race and overweight status on disordered eating behaviors in a population-based adolescent sample. Cross-sectional data from adolescents (n = 2,271; 52% females) of White (23%), Black (34%), Hispanic (20%), and Asian (23%; 82% Hmong) ethnicity/race participating in the EAT 2010 study were used to examine associations between overweight status and disordered eating behaviors across ethnic/racial groups. Disordered eating behaviors occurred more frequently among adolescents with overweight compared with those without overweight across all ethnic/racial groups. Although some differences in the prevalence of disordered eating were found by ethnicity/race, particularly in girls, no consistent patterns of interaction emerged. Overweight White and Hispanic girls reported the highest risk for dieting, while the highest risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors was among overweight Black girls, and for overeating among overweight White and Asian girls. Within a society in which thinness is highly valued and being overweight is stigmatized, across diverse cultural groups, adolescents with overweight are at risk for disordered eating. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Associations Between Core Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Both Binge and Restrictive Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Rotshtein, Pia; Higgs, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    It is unclear whether core symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relate to specific types of disordered eating and little is known about the mediating mechanisms. We investigated associations between core symptoms of ADHD and binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior and assessed whether negative mood and/or deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues mediate these relationships. In two independent studies, we used a dimensional approach to study ADHD and disordered eating. In Study 1, a community-based sample of 237 adults (72.6% female, 18-60 years [M = 26.8, SE = 0.6]) completed an online questionnaire, assessing eating attitudes/behaviors, negative mood, awareness, and reliance on internal hunger/satiety cues and ADHD symptomatology. In Study 2, 142 students (80.3% female, 18-32 years [M = 19.3, SE = 0.1]) were recruited to complete the same questionnaires and complete tasks assessing interoceptive sensitivity and impulsivity in the laboratory. In each study, core symptoms of ADHD correlated positively with both binge/disinhibited and restrictive eating and negative mood mediated the relationships. Deficits in awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety signals also mediated the association between inattentive symptoms of ADHD and disordered eating, especially binge/disinhibited eating. The results from both studies demonstrated that inattentive symptoms of ADHD were also directly related to binge/disinhibited eating behavior, while accounting for the indirect pathways of association via negative mood and awareness and reliance on internal hunger/satiety signals. This research provides evidence that core symptoms of ADHD are associated with both binge/disinhibited eating and restrictive eating behavior. Further investigation of the role of inattentive symptoms of ADHD in disordered eating may be helpful in developing novel treatments for both ADHD and binge eating.

  2. Substance use in female adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Suzanne L; Goldberg, Eudice; Corbett, Shannon; Katzman, Debra K

    2002-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of substance use in adolescents with eating disorders, compare the results with a data set of Ontario high school students, and explore why adolescents with eating disorders do, or do not, use various substances. From January 1999 to March 2000, 101 female adolescents who met the DSM-IV criteria for an eating disorder were followed up in a tertiary care pediatric treatment center. They were asked to participate in a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire assessing substance use and investigating reasons for use and nonuse; 95 agreed to participate and 77 completed the questionnaire (mean age, 15.2 years). The patients were divided into two groups: 63 with restrictive symptoms only, 17 with purging symptoms. The rates of drug use between subjects and their comparison groups were compared by z-scores, with the level of significance set at.05. During the preceding year, restrictors used significantly less tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis than grade- and sex-matched comparison populations, and purgers used these substances at rates similar to those of comparison subjects. Other drugs seen frequently in the purgers included hallucinogens, tranquilizers, stimulants, LSD, PCP, cocaine, and "ecstasy." Both groups used caffeine and laxatives, but few used diet pills. Restrictors said they did not use substances because they were bad for their health, tasted unpleasant, were contrary to their beliefs, and were too expensive. Purgers generally used substances to relax, relieve anger, avoid eating, and "get away" from problems. Female adolescents with eating disorders who have restrictive symptoms use substances less frequently than the general adolescent population but do not abstain from their use. Those with purging symptoms use substances with a similar frequency to that found in the general adolescent population. Because the sample size for the purging group was small, firm conclusions cannot be drawn from our analysis

  3. [Feeding and eating disorders in the DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, H W; van Elburg, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the DSM-5, feeding disorders and eating disorders have been integrated into one single category. To review the rationale for changes in the criteria for feeding and eating disorders in DSM-5. The revised criteria were drafted and formulated by a DSM-5 workgroup. Next, professionals were given the opportunity to react to the proposed revisions by participating in several discussion rounds. The criteria for anorexia nervosa have been reworded and the amenorrhea criterion has been removed. The threshold for the diagnosis of bulimia nervosa has been lowered so that once-a-week binge eating and complementary behaviours are now sufficient for a patient to be diagnosed as having bulimia nervosa. Subtyping of bulimia nervosa has been removed. There are hardly any changes in the criteria for pica and rumination disorder. Two new official feeding and eating disorders have been introduced into DSM-5: avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder and binge eating disorder. The definition of and the criteria for feeding and eating disorders given in DSM-5 are an improvement on those used in dsm-iv and should help to reduce the eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS).

  4. Application of a latent class analysis to empirically define eating disorder phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Pamela K; Fichter, Manfred; Quadflieg, Norbert; Bulik, Cynthia M; Baxter, Mark G; Thornton, Laura; Halmi, Katherine A; Kaplan, Allan S; Strober, Michael; Woodside, D Blake; Crow, Scott J; Mitchell, James E; Rotondo, Alessandro; Mauri, Mauro; Cassano, Giovanni; Treasure, Janet; Goldman, David; Berrettini, Wade H; Kaye, Walter H

    2004-02-01

    Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders influence how we recognize, research, and treat eating disorders, and empirically valid phenotypes are required for revealing their genetic bases. To empirically define eating disorder phenotypes. Data regarding eating disorder symptoms and features from 1179 individuals with clinically significant eating disorders were submitted to a latent class analysis. The resulting latent classes were compared on non-eating disorder variables in a series of validation analyses. Multinational, collaborative study with cases ascertained through diverse clinical settings (inpatient, outpatient, and community). Members of affected relative pairs recruited for participation in genetic studies of eating disorders in which probands met DSM-IV-TR criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa and had at least 1 biological relative with a clinically significant eating disorder. Main Outcome Measure Number and clinical characterization of latent classes. A 4-class solution provided the best fit. Latent class 1 (LC1) resembled restricting AN; LC2, AN and bulimia nervosa with the use of multiple methods of purging; LC3, restricting AN without obsessive-compulsive features; and LC4, bulimia nervosa with self-induced vomiting as the sole form of purging. Biological relatives were significantly likely to belong to the same latent class. Across validation analyses, LC2 demonstrated the highest levels of psychological disturbance, and LC3 demonstrated the lowest. The presence of obsessive-compulsive features differentiates among individuals with restricting AN. Similarly, the combination of low weight and multiple methods of purging distinguishes among individuals with binge eating and purging behaviors. These results support some of the distinctions drawn within the DSM-IV-TR among eating disorder subtypes, while introducing new features to define phenotypes.

  5. Maladaptive eating behavior assessment among bariatric surgery candidates: Evaluation of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gail A; Hawkins, Misty A W; Duncan, Jennifer; Rummell, Christina M; Perkins, Shannon; Crowther, Janis H

    2017-07-01

    Eating pathology among bariatric surgery candidates is common and associated with adverse outcomes. However, its assessment is complicated by the inconsistent use of standardized measures. We addressed this by examining the use of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) in a large bariatric sample (N = 343). To evaluate the EDDS among bariatric surgery candidates via examination of: (1) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) and fifth edition (DSM-5) rates of binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and maladaptive eating behaviors, and (2) the relationship between response biases and self-reported eating disorder symptoms. Participants were bariatric surgery candidates at a large public hospital in the Midwest. As part of a larger preoperative evaluation, 343 patients seeking bariatric surgery completed the EDDS and measures of problematic response bias. Approximately 16% of the sample met full threshold criteria for binge eating disorder using DSM-5 criteria. Using the DSM-IV-TR, rates were lower but still substantial at 13%. Rates for bulimia nervosa were 8% (DSM-5) and 6% (DSM-IV-TR). The majority (66.1%) of participants reported at least one binge-eating episode per week. The most commonly used compensatory behavior was fasting (20.4%), followed by excessive exercise (11.7%), laxative use (5.6%), and vomiting (1.8%). An inverse relationship between severity of the eating symptomatology and problematic response bias emerged. The EDDS shows promise as a screening tool that uses diagnostic criteria to provide rates of binge eating and eating psychopathology among surgical candidates. Our findings suggest that subsequent validation studies of this measure are needed, should address potential response bias concerns, and should employ clear definitions of binge eating to promote standardization of eating pathology assessment in the bariatric population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric

  6. Medical Considerations in Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DerMarderosian, Diane; Chapman, Heather A; Tortolani, Christina; Willis, Matthew D

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders are a group of psychiatric disorders with potentially fatal medical complications. Early integrated care including the family as well as pediatric medicine, nutrition, psychology and psychiatry is critical for improving prognosis and limiting negative outcomes. Mental health services are a critical component of treatment; timely weight restoration maximizes efficacy. Despite being relatively common, there are many misperceptions about eating disorders, their severity, and the associated morbidity and mortality. Opportunities exist within the medical and psychiatric communities for a better understanding of the complexity of diagnosing and treating patients with eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subthreshold autism spectrum disorder in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Carpita, B; Gesi, C; Cremone, I M; Corsi, M; Massimetti, E; Muti, D; Calderani, E; Castellini, G; Luciano, M; Ricca, V; Carmassi, C; Maj, M

    2018-02-01

    Increasingly data suggest a possible overlap between psychopathological manifestations of eating disorders (EDs) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of subthreshold autism spectrum symptoms, by means of a recently validated instrument, in a sample of participants with EDs, particularly comparing participants with or without binge eating behaviours. 138 participants meeting DSM-5 criteria for EDs and 160 healthy control participants (HCs), were recruited at 3 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and assessed by the SCID-5, the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum) and the Eating Disorders Inventory, version 2 (EDI-2). ED participants included: 46 with restrictive anorexia (AN-R); 24 with binge-purging type of Anorexia Nervosa (AN-BP); 34 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and 34 with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The sample was split in two groups: participants with binge eating behaviours (BEB), in which were included participants with AN-BP, BN and BED, and participants with restrictive behaviours (AN-R). participants with EDs showed significantly higher AdAS Spectrum total scores than HCs. Moreover, EDs participants showed significantly higher scores on all AdAS Spectrum domains with the exception of Non verbal communication and Hyper-Hypo reactivity to sensory input for AN-BP participants, and Childhood/Adolescence domain for AN-BP and BED participants. Participants with AN-R scored significantly higher than participants with BEB on the AdAS Spectrum total score, and on the Inflexibility and adherence to routine and Restricted interest/rumination AdAS Spectrum domain scores. Significant correlations emerged between the Interpersonal distrust EDI-2 sub-scale and the Non verbal communication and the Restricted interest and rumination AdAS Spectrum domains; as well as between the Social insecurity EDI-2 sub-scale and the Inflexibility and adherence to routine and Restricted interest and rumination

  8. The rise of eating disorders in Asia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kathleen M; Dunne, Patricia E

    2015-01-01

    Once concentrated among adolescent Caucasian females in high-income Western countries, today, eating disorders (EDs) are truly global. Building upon previous work describing the rise of EDs among cultures in transition, we contextualize the emergence of EDs in Asia by locating this development within the broader discourse about the processes of change that have radically transformed Asian societies over the last three decades. By identifying where EDs are emerging in the region, and by examining their particular expression, our aim is to explicate a fuller story of the relationship between culture and eating disorders. Much of the discussion of EDs in non-Western societies is predicated upon the assumption that an increase in EDs is the by-product of "Westernization", the term used to describe the process by which increased cultural contact with the West results in the transmission of so-called 'Western' ideas and cultural norms to a non-Western culture. While the Westernization literature represents a historical anchor in our understanding of EDs in Asia, we propose that this analysis is incomplete in that societal change in the form of industrialization and urbanization occurring independently from, or in tandem with, "Western" influence are critical factors contributing to the rise of EDs in Asia. Further, our review of eating disorders in Asia suggests that an understanding of the diversity and distinctiveness of the individual countries and cultures that comprise 'Asia' is crucial to understanding the emergence and rise of EDs across this vast region, suggesting that eating disorders are not culture-bound or culture-specific, but rather culture-reactive. Taking into account both the historical influence of Western culture and the more contemporary effects of Asian industrialization and urbanization, key distinctions among respective Asian cultures expands our understanding of the development and expression of EDs globally.

  9. Eating disorders in Asian populations: a critique of current approaches to the study of culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Lillian Huang; Simmons, Angela M; Zane, Nolan W S

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing evidence that eating disorders are present among ethnically diverse populations, and researchers have suggested that investigations in this area may inform the field's understanding of how sociocultural factors are related to the development of eating disorders. Although it is generally accepted that sociocultural factors are key in eating disorder etiology, knowledge on how best to study these influences in diverse groups is still limited. In this article, the authors review how the research literature has explored relationships among culture, ethnicity, and eating disorders in Asian populations and critically examine strategies that have been used to investigate these issues across 1 ethnic/racial group. The methodological challenges encountered in these approaches are identified and considered in the provision of recommendations for future endeavors to improve the field's understanding of how culture is related to eating disorders.

  10. Personality dimensions in bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B; Thuras, Paul; Ackard, Diann M; Mitchell, James E; Berg, Kelly; Sandager, Nora; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Pederson, Melissa W; Crow, Scott J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in personality dimensions among individuals with bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, non-binge eating obesity, and a normal-weight comparison group as well as to determine the extent to which these differences were independent of self-reported depressive symptoms. Personality dimensions were assessed using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire in 36 patients with bulimia nervosa, 54 patients with binge eating disorder, 30 obese individuals who did not binge eat, and 77 normal-weight comparison participants. Participants with bulimia nervosa reported higher scores on measures of stress reaction and negative emotionality compared to the other 3 groups and lower well-being scores compared to the normal-weight comparison and the obese samples. Patients with binge eating disorder scored lower on well-being and higher on harm avoidance than the normal-weight comparison group. In addition, the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder groups scored lower than the normal-weight group on positive emotionality. When personality dimensions were reanalyzed using depression as a covariate, only stress reaction remained higher in the bulimia nervosa group compared to the other 3 groups and harm avoidance remained higher in the binge eating disorder than the normal-weight comparison group. The higher levels of stress reaction in the bulimia nervosa sample and harm avoidance in the binge eating disorder sample after controlling for depression indicate that these personality dimensions are potentially important in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of these eating disorders. Although the extent to which observed group differences in well-being, positive emotionality, and negative emotionality reflect personality traits, mood disorders, or both, is unclear, these features clearly warrant further examination in understanding and treating bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

  11. Illness perception in eating disorders and psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Terol Cantero, Ma Carmen; Romero Escobar, Cristina; Pagán Acosta, Gonzalo

    2007-09-01

    The current study is based on the framework of the Self-Regulatory Model of Illness (SRM). The aim of this work was to examine perception of illness in eating disorder (ED) patients and investigate whether illness perception is related to psychosocial adaptation in these patients. A total of 98 female ED patients completed the specific eating disorders Spanish version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a range of adjustment variables including the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). ED patients reported a moderate number of physical symptoms, and perceived their illness as controllable, treatable, highly distressing, as a chronic condition and with serious consequences. Emotional representation was the most significant dimension related to emotional adjustment. Illness identity and cure dimensions were the most significant dimensions associated with psychosocial adaptation. This study shows that patients' illness perceptions are related to illness adaptation. Illness identity was associated with emotional and psychosocial adjustment, and having faith that treatment may control the illness was related to positive benefits for ED. These results suggest that a psychological intervention, which addresses patients' illness representations, may assist in their adjustment to ED. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  12. Family profiles in eating disorders: family functioning and psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerniglia L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Luca Cerniglia,1 Silvia Cimino,2 Mimma Tafà,2 Eleonora Marzilli,2 Giulia Ballarotto,2 Fabrizia Bracaglia2 1Faculty of Psychology, International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, 2Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Abstract: Research has studied family functioning in families of patients suffering from eating disorders (EDs, particularly investigating the associations between mothers’ and daughters’ psychopathological symptoms, but limited studies have examined whether there are specific maladaptive psychological profiles characterizing the family as a whole when it includes adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, and binge eating disorder (BED. Through the collaboration of a network of public and private consultants, we recruited n=181 adolescents diagnosed for EDs (n=61 with AN, n=60 with BN, and n=60 with BEDs and their parents. Mothers, fathers, and youths were assessed through a self-report measure evaluating family functioning, and adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire assessing psychopathological symptoms. Results showed specific family functioning and psychopathological profiles based on adolescents’ diagnosis. Regression analyses also showed that family functioning characterized by rigidity predicted higher psychopathological symptoms. Our study underlines the importance of involving all members of the family in assessment and intervention programs when adolescent offspring suffer from EDs. Keywords: family functioning, eating disorders, adolescents, psychopathological risk

  13. The Latent Class Structure of Chinese Patients with Eating Disorders in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuchen; Kang, Qing; Huang, Jiabin; Jiang, Wenhui; Liu, Qiang; Chen, Han; Fan, Qing; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Jue; Xiao, Zeping

    2017-08-25

    Eating disorder is culture related, and the clinical symptoms are different between eastern and western patients. So the validity of feeding and eating disorders in the upcoming ICD-11 guide for Chinese patients is unclear. To explore the latent class structure of Chinese patients with eating disorder and the cross-cultural validity of the eating disorder section of the new ICD-11 guide in China. A total of 379 patients with eating disorders at Shanghai Mental Health Center were evaluated using the EDI questionnaire and a questionnaire developed by researchers from 2010 to 2016. SPSS 20.0 was used to enter data and analyze demographic data, and Latent GOLD was employed to conduct latent profile analysis. According to the results of latent profile analysis, patients with eating disorder were divided into five classes: low-weight fasting class (23.1%), non-fat-phobic binge/purge class (21.54%), low-fat-phobic binge class (19.27%), fat-phobic binge class (19.27%), and non-fat-phobic low-weight class (16.76%). Among the clinical symptoms extracted, there were significant differences in Body Mass Index (BMI), binge eating behavior, self-induced vomiting, laxative use and fat-phobic opinion; while there was no significant difference in restrictive food intake. Based on the clinical symptoms, there are five latent classes in Chinese patients with eating disorder, which is in accordance with the diagnostic categories of feeding and eating disorder in ICD-11. However, further work is needed in improving the fat-phobic opinion of patients with eating disorder and clarifying the BMI standard of thinness in the Chinese population.

  14. Eating behavior, weight problems and eating disorders in 101 long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Postma, Frank P; Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Gebhardt, Ursel; Müller, Hermann L

    2015-01-01

    As a result of hypothalamic involvement and/or treatment-related hypothalamic damage, up to 75% of childhood craniopharyngioma patients develop hypothalamic obesity. Eating behavior was analyzed in 101 survivors of childhood craniopharyngioma, recruited from 1980 to 2001 in the HIT-Endo multicenter study, and in 85 body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls using the Inventory for Eating Behavior and Weight Problems (IEG) and the Inventory for Eating Disorders (ESI). Severely obese patients (BMI>8 SD; n=9) presented with pathological eating behavior, more weight problems, and eating disorders, as compared to obese (BMI 3-8 SD; n=44) and normal or overweight patients (BMICraniopharyngioma patients with different degrees of obesity showed similar or even less pathological findings as compared to BMI-matched normal controls. Severe obesity is associated with pathological eating behavior/disorders in craniopharyngioma patients. As these disorders are not disease-specific, risk factors for hypothalamic obesity should be the focus of further craniopharyngioma research.

  15. A Readiness Ruler for Assessing Motivation to Change in People with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Hilaire, Annie; Axelrod, Kaitlyn; Geller, Josie; Mazanek Antunes, Juliana; Steiger, Howard

    2017-09-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Readiness Ruler a simple self-report instrument designed to enable rapid assessment of readiness to change problematic eating behaviours in people with clinical eating disorders. We administered the ED-RR, the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire and a measure of autonomous and controlled motivation for change to 206 individuals receiving outpatient treatment for an eating disorder. A principal axis factoring analysis of the ED-RR yielded a significant two-factor solution (explaining 59% of variance)-one factor pertaining to restriction and body image preoccupation (four items), the other to binge-eating and vomiting symptoms (two items). The ED-RR showed good internal consistency (alpha coefficients for the two factors being .77 and .84 respectively). Furthermore, individuals reporting higher readiness showed higher scores on independent measures of autonomous motivation and greater symptom reductions over time. Results suggest that the ED-RR is a psychometrically sound tool with potential clinical utility. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Risk of disordered eating attitudes among male adolescents in five Emirates of the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Al-Lalla, Osama

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes among male adolescents in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 731 male students aged 15-18 years from five Emirates of the UAE. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was used to determine the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in students. The findings revealed that the proportion of disordered eating attitudes in the UAE was relatively high compared with many developing and developed countries and ranged from 33.1% to 49.1%. Moreover, students living in the Emirates of Dubai and Al-Fujairah have double the risk of having disordered eating attitudes compared with students living in the other Emirates. The results suggest the need for screening adolescents for eating disorders, as well as for increased awareness and understanding of eating disorders and their associated risk factors in all male adolescents in the UAE. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A cross-sectional model of eating disorders in Argentinean overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizathe, Luciana Soledad; Arana, Fernán Guido; Rutsztein, Guillermina

    2018-02-01

    Despite the fact that past research identified childhood obesity as an antecedent of eating disorders, not all obese children further develop this pathology. With this regard, our first purpose was to isolate which characteristics differentiate overweight children who have an eating disorder from those who have not. Second, considering that there is little evidence collected in Latin American countries, we provided overweight children data from an Argentinean sample. Specifically, we investigated if weight-teasing, perfectionism, disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction are related to the occurrence of an eating disorder in 100 school-aged overweight/obese children (37 girls and 63 boys; mean age 10.85, SD 0.88). Participants completed self-report instruments and were interviewed between 1 and 2 months later to confirm the presence of eating disorders. Seventeen percent participants confirmed to have an eating disorder. Further, the multivariate logistic analysis revealed that perfectionism (Exp β = 1.19) and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (Exp β = 4.78) were jointly associated with the presence of an eating disorder. These results were maintained even when the overall model was adjusted for covariates such as age, gender, body mass index, and school type. Weight-teasing and body image dissatisfaction did not contribute to the multivariate model. Prevalence rates of ED and model findings were discussed.

  18. Parental mental illness and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; Koupil, Ilona; Dalman, Christina; DeStavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2015-05-01

    To investigate which parental mental illnesses are associated with eating disorders in their offspring. We used data from a record-linkage cohort study of 158,679 children aged 12-24 years at the end of follow-up, resident in Stockholm County from 2001 to 2007, to investigate whether different parental mental illnesses are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. The outcome measure was diagnosis of any eating disorder, either from an ICD or DSM-IV code, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. Mental illness in parents is a risk factor for eating disorders in female offspring (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 1.57 (95% CI 1.42, 1.92), p eating disorders is increased if there is a parental diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (AHR 2.28 (95% CI 1.39, 3.72), p = 0.004), personality disorder (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.01, 2.44), p = 0.043) or anxiety/depression (AHR 1.57 (95% CI 1.32, 1.86), p disorder (AHR 1.25 (95% CI 0.74, 2.13), p = 0.40). There is no support for a relationship between parental substance misuse and eating disorders in children (AHR 1.08 (95% CI 0.82, 1.43), p = 0.57). Parental mental illness, specifically parental anxiety, depression, bipolar affective disorder, and personality disorders, are risk factors for eating disorders in their offspring. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Eating disorders: a hidden phenomenon in outpatient mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursland, Anthea; Watson, Hunna J

    2014-05-01

    Eating disorders are common but underdiagnosed illnesses. Help-seeking for co-occurring issues, such as anxiety and depression, are common. To identify the prevalence of eating problems, using the SCOFF, and eating disorders when screening positive on the SCOFF (i.e., ≥2), among patients seeking help for anxiety and depression at a community-based mental health service. Patients (N = 260) consecutively referred and assessed for anxiety and depression treatment were administered the SCOFF screening questionnaire and a semi-structured standardized diagnostic interview during routine intake. 18.5% (48/260) scored ≥2 on the SCOFF, indicating eating problems. Of these, 41% (19/48) met criteria for an eating disorder. Thus, overall, 7.3% (19/260) of the sample met criteria for a DSM-IV eating disorder. Those scoring ≥2 on the SCOFF were more likely to: be female (p = 0.001), younger (p = 0.003), and have a history of self-harm (p eating disorders are a hidden phenomenon in general outpatient mental health. By using a standardized diagnostic interview to establish diagnosis rather than self- or staff-report, the study builds on limited previous findings. The naturalistic study setting shows that screening for eating disorders can be easily built into routine intake practice, and successfully identifies treatment need. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A 4-year prospective study of eating disorder NOS compared with full eating disorder syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W Stewart; Crow, Scott; Mitchell, James E; Halmi, Katherine A; Bryson, Susan

    2009-09-01

    To examine the course of Eating Disorder NOS (EDNOS) compared with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Prospective study of 385 participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for AN, BN, BED, and EDNOS at three sites. Recruitment was from the community and specialty clinics. Participants were followed at 6-month intervals during a 4-year period using the Eating Disorder Examination as the primary assessment. EDNOS remitted significantly more quickly that AN or BN but not BED. There were no differences between EDNOS and full ED syndromes, or the subtypes of EDNOS, in time to relapse following first remission. Only 18% of the EDNOS group had never had or did not develop another ED diagnosis during the study; however, this group did not differ from the remaining EDNOS group. EDNOS appears to be a way station between full ED syndromes and recovery, and to a lesser extent from recovery or EDNOS status to a full ED. Implications for DSM-V are examined.

  1. Neuromodulation for the treatment of eating disorders and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Darrin J.; Elias, Gavin J.B.; Lozano, Andres M.

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders and obesity adversely affect individuals both medically and psychologically, leading to reduced life expectancy and poor quality of life. While there exist a number of treatments for anorexia, morbid obesity and bulimia, many patients do not respond favorably to current behavioral, medical or bariatric surgical management. Neuromodulation has been postulated as a potential treatment for eating disorders and obesity. In particular, deep brain stimulation and transcranial non-invasive brain stimulation have been studied for these indications across a variety of brain targets. Here, we review the neurobiology behind eating and eating disorders as well as the current status of preclinical and clinical neuromodulation trials for eating disorders and obesity. PMID:29399320

  2. Motivation to change in the eating disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Loa; Lübeck, Marlene; Jones, Allan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to review the eating disorder literature in order to examine the effect of pretreatment autonomous/level of motivation to change on treatment outcome as measured by change in eating disorder pathology. Relevant databases were systematically searched for studies in which motivation to change prior to treatment was examined in relation to treatment outcome. Pretreatment autonomous/level of motivation were associated with change in restrictive eating behaviors, bingeing behaviors, and cognitive/affective measures of eating disorder pathology. There was mixed support for the effect of motivation to change on global measures of eating disorder symptoms and virtually no support for the effect of motivation to change on purging behavior. The level of pretreatment motivation the person exhibits prior to commencement of treatment appears to be helpful in predicting treatment outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mindfulness-based eating awareness training for treating binge eating disorder: the conceptual foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeller, Jean L; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the conceptual foundation of mindfulness-based eating awareness training (MB-EAT). It provides an overview of key therapeutic components as well as a brief review of current research. MB-EAT is a group intervention that was developed for treatment of binge eating disorder (BED) and related issues. BED is marked by emotional, behavioral and physiological disregulation in relation to food intake and self-identity. MB-EAT involves training in mindfulness meditation and guided mindfulness practices that are designed to address the core issues of BED: controlling responses to varying emotional states; making conscious food choices; developing an awareness of hunger and satiety cues; and cultivating self-acceptance. Evidence to date supports the value of MB-EAT in decreasing binge episodes, improving one's sense of self-control with regard to eating, and diminishing depressive symptoms.

  4. Current and Emerging Drug Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study evaluated controlled treatment studies of pharmacotherapy for binge eating disorder (BED). Areas Covered The primary focus of the review was on phase II and III controlled trials testing medications for BED. A total of 46 studies were considered and 26 were reviewed in detail. BED outcomes included binge-eating remission, binge-eating frequency, associated eating-disorder psychopathology, associated depression, and weight loss. Expert Opinion Data from controlled trials suggests that certain medications are superior to placebo for stopping binge-eating and for producing faster reductions in binge eating, and - to varying degrees - for reducing associated eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and weight loss over the short-term. Almost no data exist regarding longer-term effects of medication for BED. Except for topiramate, which reduces both binge eating and weight, weight loss is minimal with medications tested for BED. Psychological interventions and the combination of medication with psychological interventions produce binge-eating outcomes that are superior to medication-only approaches. Combining medications with psychological interventions does not significantly enhance binge-eating outcomes, although the addition of certain medications enhances weight losses achieved with cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss, albeit modestly. PMID:24460483

  5. Mood disorders in eating disorder patients: Prevalence and chronology of ONSET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godart, N; Radon, L; Curt, F; Duclos, J; Perdereau, F; Lang, F; Venisse, J L; Halfon, O; Bizouard, P; Loas, G; Corcos, M; Jeammet, Ph; Flament, M F

    2015-10-01

    In a clinical population, we estimated the frequency of mood disorders among 271 patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) in comparison to a control group matched for age and gender. The frequency of mood disorders was measured using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), DSM-IV version. Mood disorders were more frequent among eating disorder (ED) patients than among controls, with a global prevalence of the order of 80% for each ED group. The majority of the mood disorders comorbid with ED were depressive disorders (MDD and dysthymia). The relative chronology of onset of these disorders was equivocal, because mood disorders in some cases preceded and in others followed the onset of the eating disorders. Our sample was characterized by patients with severe ED and high comorbidities, and thus do not represent the entire population of AN or BN. This also may have resulted in an overestimation of prevalence. Mood disorders appear significantly more frequently in patients seeking care for ED than in controls. These results have implications for the assessment and treatment of ED patients, and for the aetio-pathogenesis of these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. You are how you eat : Decelerated eating may protect from obesity and eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Zandian, Modjtaba

    2009-01-01

    On a new framework for anorexia nervosa, learning to eat is central intervention; as patients regain a normal pattern of eating their problems dissolve. Mandometer®, a development of previous methods, allows simultaneous recording of eating rate and the development of satiety as well as experimental manipulation of eating rate. By measuring eating behavior during the course of a meal with this method, women were divided into those eating at a decelerated rate and those eatin...

  7. "Hunger Hurts, but Starving Works". The Moral Conversion to Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Gisella

    2017-03-01

    This article aims to shed light on the self-perceptions of people with eating disorders in Malta and Italy through a deep understanding of their narratives. In contrast to the biomedical perception of the phenomenon and in opposition with the prevalent feminist theories on the subject, I consider eating disorders as the result of self-transformative processes. I suggest that anorexics, bulimics and binge eaters are actively and deliberately engaged in a project of moral self-transformation that is culturally defined. The moral transformations of women with eating disorders in Malta and Italy, the two considered contexts of this research, reflect the social expectations of women in these societies. The drastic changes in personal attitudes towards both food and the body that characterise eating disorders are the result of a complete dedication to the moral values embodied in thinness, namely the control of bodily needs and pleasure. The self-transformative process of people with eating disorders can be understood as a form of moral conversion along a continuum of increasing control over hunger: the higher the control, the higher the level of satisfaction and the degree of moral conversion achieved. Considering the general low recovery rates of people with eating disorders, this approach helps in the understanding of why people who are diagnosed with an eating disorder accept medical definitions and treatments to different extents.

  8. Personality, emotion-related variables, and media pressure predict eating disorders via disordered eating in Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria Jose; El-Jor, Claire; Abi Kharma, Joelle; Bassil, Maya; Zeeni, Nadine

    2017-04-18

    Disordered eating behaviors are on the rise among youth. The present study investigates psychosocial and weight-related variables as predictors of eating disorders (ED) through disordered eating (DE) dimensions (namely restrained, external, and emotional eating) in Lebanese university students. The sample consisted of 244 undergraduates (143 female) aged from 18 to 31 years (M = 20.06; SD = 1.67). Using path analysis, two statistical models were built separately with restrained and emotional eating as dependent variables, and all possible direct and indirect pathways were tested for mediating effects. The variables tested for were media influence, perfectionism, trait emotional intelligence, and the Big Five dimensions. In the first model, media pressure, self-control, and extraversion predicted eating disorders via emotional eating. In the second model, media pressure and perfectionism predicted eating disorders via restrained eating. Findings from this study provide an understanding of the dynamics between DE, ED, and key personality, emotion-related, and social factors in youth. Lastly, implications and recommendations for future studies are advanced.

  9. Eating disorder symptoms: association with perfectionism traits in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO DE SOUSA FORTES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence indicates a relationship between perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms (EDS. However, there is no such empirical evidence in Brazilian scientific literature. Moreover, studies of EDS in the male sex are scarce. Objective To analyze a possible association between EDS and perfectionism traits in adolescent males. Methods Participants were 368 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale to assess EDS and perfectionism traits, respectively. Results The results indicated a statistically significant association between the high perfectionism trait and EDS (X2 = 16.40; Wald = 15.92; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings showed no difference in the scores of the Diet (F(1, 367 = 2.14; p = 0.23 or Concern for Food and Bulimia (F(1, 367 = 2.44; p = 0.19 subscales according to groups of perfectionism. However, we identified a higher score on the Oral Self-Control subscale of the EAT-26 in the group with high perfectionism trait than adolescents with a low perfectionism trait (F(1, 367 = 13.88; p = 0.02. Discussion: EDS were associated with perfectionism in adolescent males.

  10. Youth internalizing symptoms, sleep-related problems, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chardon, Marie L; Janicke, David M; Carmody, Julia K; Dumont-Driscoll, Marilyn C

    2016-04-01

    Internalizing symptoms increase the risk for disordered eating; however, the mechanism through which this relationship occurs remains unclear. Sleep-related problems may be a potential link as they are associated with both emotional functioning and disordered eating. The present study aims to evaluate the mediating roles of two sleep-related problems (sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness) in the relationship between youth internalizing symptoms and disordered eating, and to explore if age moderates these relations. Participants were 225 youth (8-17years) attending a primary care appointment. Youth and legal guardians completed questionnaires about youth disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, internalizing symptoms, sleep disturbance, and daytime sleepiness. Mediation and moderated mediation analyses were utilized. The mediation model revealed both youth sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness independently mediated the association between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and explained 18% of the variance in disordered eating. The moderated mediation model including youth age accounted for 21% of the variance in disordered eating; youth age significantly interacted with sleep disturbance, but not with daytime sleepiness, to predict disordered eating. Sleep disturbance only mediated the relationship between internalizing symptoms and disordered eating in youth 12years old and younger, while daytime sleepiness was a significant mediator regardless of age. As sleep-related problems are frequently improved with the adoption of health behaviors conducive to good sleep, these results may suggest a relatively modifiable and cost-effective target to reduce youth risk for disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comorbidity of mood and substance use disorders in patients with binge-eating disorder: Associations with personality disorder and eating disorder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M

    2015-08-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with elevated rates of mood and substance use disorders, but the significance of such comorbidity is ambiguous. We compared personality disorder and eating disorder psychopathology in four subgroups of BED patients: those with mood disorders, those with substance use disorders, those with both, and those with neither. Subjects were 347 patients who met DSM-IV research criteria for BED. Semistructured interviews evaluated lifetime DSM-IV axis I disorders, DSM-IV personality disorder features, and eating disorder psychopathology. Among these patients, 129 had co-occurring mood disorder, 34 had substance use disorder, 60 had both, and 124 had neither. Groups differed on personality disorder features, with those having mood disorder and both mood and substance use disorders showing the highest frequencies. Although groups did not differ in body mass index or binge eating frequency, they did differ on eating disorder psychopathology-with the groups having mood disorder and both comorbidities demonstrating higher eating, weight, and shape concerns. No differences were observed between groups with respect to ages of onset for specific eating behaviors, but some differences were observed for ages of disorder onset. Mood and substance use disorders co-occur frequently among patients with BED. Compared with a previous work, the additional comparison group (those with both mood and substance use disorders) and the control group (those with neither) afforded better discrimination regarding the significance of these comorbidities. Our findings suggest approaches to subtyping BED based on psychiatric comorbidity, and may also have implications for treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality and coping in patients with eating disorders and obesity / Personalidade e coping em pacientes com transtornos alimentares e obesidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tomaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the differential use of coping and personality trait of patients with eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia, and Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified - EDNOS, obesity as well as in subjects from the general population. 109 subjects participated in the study (60 with eating disorder or obesity diagnostics; 49 from the general population. The instruments were Personality Trait Scale, Coping Response Inventory and Eating Attitudes Scale (EAS. It was observed significant differences on EAS according to the type of population, demonstrating this instrument's adequacy as psychopathological screening for eating disorders. Moreover, individuals presenting high neuroticism and who discharge their emotion to cope with their problems have more inadequate eating attitudes as shown by EAS (R=0.291, p=0.011. These results are discussed through theories related to the Big Five personality traits, coping, eating disorders and obesity.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Hellemann, Gerhard; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Post, Robert M.

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the co-occurrence of bipolar and eating disorders. We therefore assessed the prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorders in 875 patients with bipolar disorder. Method: 875 outpatients with DSM-IV bipolar I or II disorder were evaluated with

  14. Socio-cultural context of eating disorders in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; Sałapa, Kinga; Józefik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between sociocultural factors and clinical eating disorders during the intensive process of Westernisation in Poland that occurred after 1989. The study population included girls diagnosed with an eating disorder according to DSM-IV criteria (n = 47 anorexia nervosa restrictive type [ANR], n = 16 anorexia binge/purge type [ANBP], n = 34 bulimia nervosa [BN], n = 19 eating disorder not otherwise specified [EDNOS]) who received consultation for the first time between 2002 and 2004 in the Department of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital, Kraków, Poland. The study included an age-matched normal control group [NOR] of 85 schoolgirls from Kraków. Relationships between two given qualitative features were investigated using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Correspondence analysis was applied to graphically explore the relationship. The Kruskal-Wallis test with the Bonferroni was performed to compare quantitative results across groups. Objective sociodemographic variables and responses to the 62-item Questionnaire of Socio-cultural Context were measured. The mothers of ANBP and BN patients were less professionally active than mothers of ANR patients and NOR subjects. Subjective socio-cultural factors were more relevant for the BN group than the ANR group. Questionnaire responses in the ANBP group were more similar to those in the BN group than to those in the ANR group. The most unambiguous and specific characteristic of the ANR group was a sense of belonging to the middle class. Variables that differentiated the BN group from the NOR group included the importance attached to thinness treated as an expression of power and control over one's self, as well as a multifaceted negative evaluation of one's own family, including a negative assessment of the position of women and parental lack of concern for appearance and principles of nutrition. All patients, regardless

  15. Family meals and disordered eating in adolescents: longitudinal findings from project EAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Eisenberg, Marla E; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Larson, Nicole I

    2008-01-01

    To examine 5-year longitudinal associations between family meal frequency and disordered eating behaviors in adolescents. Longitudinal study. Participants from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (time 2). Adolescents (N=2516) who completed Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-I (time 1) and -II (time 2) assessments. Time 1 family meal frequency and time 2 disordered eating behaviors, including extreme weight control behaviors (self-induced vomiting and use of laxatives, diet pills, or diuretics), less extreme unhealthy weight control behaviors (eating very little, fasting, using food substitutes, skipping meals, or smoking), binge eating, and chronic dieting. Among adolescent girls, time 1 regular family meals (> or = 5 meals/wk) were associated with lower prevalences of time 2 extreme weight control behaviors (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.97), even after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, family connectedness, parental encouragement to diet, and extreme weight control behaviors at time 1. Associations with other disordered eating behaviors were also suggestive of a protective effect of family meals in unadjusted analyses but were not statistically significant in adjusted analyses. Among adolescent boys, regular family meals did not predict lower levels of disordered eating behaviors. The high prevalence of disordered eating behaviors among adolescent girls and the protective role of family meals suggest a need for interventions aimed at promoting family meals. Further exploration of predictors of disordered eating behaviors in adolescent boys and the role of family meals is warranted.

  16. Longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.

  17. Longitudinal Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Disordered Eating, and Weight Gain in Military Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    ksmitche@bu.edu). Initially submitted July 14, 2015; accepted for publication October 15, 2015. Obesity is a major health problem in the United States...and a growing concern among members of the military. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with overweight and obesity and may...disordered eating symptoms. The asso- ciation between PTSDandweight gain resulting from compensatory behaviors (vomiting, laxative use, fasting , over

  18. The relationship between self-injurious behavior and self-disclosure in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shellac, Evia; Hadas, Arik; Berger, Uri; Horwitz, Mira; Fennig, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association between self disclosure and self-injurious behaviors among adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Sixty three female patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of eating disorders were included (i.e. anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified). Participants' age ranged from 11.5 to 20 years (M = 15.42, SD = 1.82). Participants completed self- report questionnaires about eating disorders, self-disclosure, self-injurious behaviors (FASM) and depression (BDI-II) RESULTS: 82.5% of the sample endorsed severe self-injurious behaviors. A moderate negative relationship was found between general disclosure to parents and self-injurious behaviors indicating that patients who generally self-disclose to their parents (on different topics, apart from suicidal ideation) engage less frequently in self-injurious behaviors. In addition, the more patients self-disclose their suicidal ideation to others, the more they tend to self-injure. Self-disclosure to parents on any topic may buffer against self-injurious behaviors and therefore it is important to work with adolescents suffering from eating disorders on effective self disclosure. In addition, self-disclosure about suicidal ideation to others by adolescents suffering from eating disorders should always be taken seriously, since it may be related to self-injurious behaviors.

  19. Validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorders Inventory in Bulimia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed criterion and concurrent validity of the Eating Attitudes Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory in 82 women with bulimia nervosa. Both tests demonstrated criterion validity by discriminating bulimia nervosa subjects from normals. Only weak support was found for concurrent validity within bulimia subjects. Recommends combination of…

  20. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, ppsychopathology (B=.47±.09, ppsychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Eating Patterns and Disorders in a College Population: Are College Women's Eating Problems a New Phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires returned by 395 sophomores reveals that the eating difficulties of college women may be a problem that only partially resembles clinical eating disorders. They displayed the behavioral symptoms but not the psychological traits associated with anorexia and bulimia. Diagnosis and treatment issues, and sociocultural…

  2. ADHD-specific stimulant misuse, mood, anxiety, and stress in college-age women at high risk for or with eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Elise L.; Kass, Andrea E.; Eichen, Dawn M.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Trockel, Mickey; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the misuse of ADHD-specific stimulants in a college population at high risk for or with clinical or subclinical eating disorders. Participants 448 college-age women ages 18–25 at high risk for or with a clinical or subclinical eating disorder. Methods Participants completed assessments of stimulant misuse and psychopathology from September 2009 - June 2010. Results Greater eating disorder pathology, objective binge eating, purging, eating disorder-related clinical impairment, depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and trait anxiety were associated with an increased likelihood of stimulant misuse. Subjective binge eating, excessive exercise, and dietary restraint were not associated with stimulant misuse. Conclusions ADHD-specific stimulant misuse is associated with eating disorder and comorbid pathology among individuals at high risk for or with clinical or subclinical eating disorders. Screening for stimulant misuse and eating disorder pathology may improve identification of college-age women who may be engaging in maladaptive behaviors and inform prevention efforts. PMID:26822019

  3. Health-service Use in Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, John; DeBar, Lynn; Perrin, Nancy A.; Lynch, Frances; Wilson, G. Terence; Rosselli, Francine; Kraemer, Helena C.; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare health-care utilization between participants who met DSM-IV criteria for Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and those engaged in Recurrent Binge Eating (RBE) and to evaluate whether objective binge eating (OBE) days, a key measurement for diagnosing BED, predicted health-care costs. Method We obtained utilization and cost data from electronic medical records to augment patient reported data for 100 adult female members of a large health maintenance organization (HMO) who were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to treat binge eating. Results Total costs did not differ between the BED and RBE groups (β=−0.117, z=−0.48, p=0.629), nor did the number of OBE days predictor total costs (β= −0.017, z=−1.01, p=0.313). Conclusions Findings suggest that the medical impairment, as assessed through health care costs, caused by BED may not be greater than impairment caused by RBE. The current threshold number of two OBE days/week as a criterion for BED may need to be reconsidered PMID:21823138

  4. Transtornos alimentares em escolares Eating disorders in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João E. M Vilela

    2004-02-01

    Investigatory Test of Edinburgh (BITE, Eating Attitude Test (EAT, and Body Image Test were applied to 1,807 public school students with age ranging from 7 to 19 years. RESULTS: According to the EAT, 241 students (13.3%, mostly females, had inappropriate eating behaviors. Nineteen students (1.1% had a BITE score indicating a possible diagnosis of bulimia nervosa. We found that 1,059 students (59% were unhappy with their body image; 731 students (40% were on a diet; and 1,014 (56% exercised to loose weight. In addition, 218 students (12% presented binge-eating and 175 students (10% used purgative methods to control weight. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a high prevalence of possible eating disorders and inappropriate eating behaviors in the study population, especially among female adolescents. These results are similar to those reported for developed countries. The present findings are relevant for the clinical care of children and adolescents and can serve as the basis for future works aimed at increasing our understanding of the risk factors for these illnesses.

  5. Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Prevalence and Effect on Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Tobiassen, Linn Graham

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Additional aims were to assess whether having comorbid eating disorders could influence the treatment outcome for OCD, and if symptoms of eating disorders were reduced after treatment for OCD. The sample consisted of 93 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. The patients underwent assessment with the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Beck Depress...

  6. The Role of Socio-Physical Anxiety, Body Image, and Self Esteem in Prediction of the Eating Disorder in Sportswomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Valizade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-physical anxiety, body image, and self esteem are variables that play an important role on eating disorders. The purpose of this research was the role of socio-physical anxiety, body image and self esteem in prediction of the eating disorders in sportswomen.Materials and Method: 181 of aerobic and physical readiness sportswomen were selected by clustered sampling method and filled the questionnaire containing eating disorder, socio-physical anxiety, body image concern and self esteem scales. Results: According to this research, there was meaningful correlation between social physical anxiety (r=-0.326, body image concern (r=0.466 and self-esteem (r=0.349 with eating disorders and these variables were explained the 0.27 variance in eating disorders. Conclusion: Results are corresponding with previous studies and have important implications in attention to the predicting variables of eating disorders in athletes’ women

  7. Eating disorder not otherwise specified presentation in the US population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, Daniel; Swanson, Sonja A; Crow, Scott J; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2012-07-01

    To examine prevalence and clinical correlates of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in the US population. Two cross-sectional surveys of adults and adolescents used the WHO CIDI to assess DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and EDNOS. Lifetime prevalence of EDNOS was 4.78% in adolescents and 4.64% in adults. The majority of adolescents and adults with an eating disorder presented with EDNOS. Three-quarters of participants with EDNOS met criteria for comorbid disorders, while one-quarter endorsed suicidality. Severity correlates were equally prevalent in EDNOS and AN, whereas comparisons between EDNOS and BN varied by specific correlate and sample. Adolescents with subthreshold AN (SAN) endorsed more anxiety than AN (p EDNOS. Eating disorder diagnostic nomenclature requires modification to capture the full spectrum. © 2012 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2012. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The role of experiential avoidance, rumination and mindfulness in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdrey, Felicity A; Park, Rebecca J

    2012-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa has been associated with high levels of ruminative thoughts about eating, shape and weight as well as avoidance of emotion and experience. This study examined the associations between disorder-specific rumination, mindfulness, experiential avoidance and eating disorder symptoms. A sample of healthy females (n=228) completed a battery of on-line self-report measures. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that ruminative brooding on eating, weight and shape concerns was uniquely associated with eating disorder symptoms, above and beyond anxiety and depression symptoms. In a small group (n=42) of individuals with a history of anorexia nervosa, only reflection on eating weight and shape was able to predict eating disorder symptoms when controlling for depression and anxiety. The results suggest that rumination (both brooding and reflection) on eating, weight and shape concerns may be a process which exacerbates eating disorder symptoms. Examining rumination may improve understanding of the cognitive processes which underpin anorexia nervosa and this may in turn aid the development of novel strategies to augment existing interventions. Replication in a larger clinical sample is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. What's eating the internet? Content and perceived harm of pro-eating disorder websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steakley-Freeman, Diana M; Jarvis-Creasey, Zachary L; Wesselmann, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The internet is a popular tool for information dissemination and community building, serving many purposes from social networking to support seeking. However, there may be a downside to using some online support communities. For individuals with eating disorders (EDs), it is possible that certain online communities may reinforce the negative social aspects that encourage these disorders, rather than positive aspects that would facilitate treatment and recovery. Previous research identified several linguistic themes present on pro-eating disorder websites in an attempt to better understand the web-based conversation in the pro-eating disorder movement. We hypothesized that differences in theme presentation may predict changes in perceived harm. The present study sought to understand the perceived harm, and presentation patterns of pro-eating disorder (Pro-ED) website content. We replicated and extended previous research by having laypersons code these websites' content using previously identified linguistic themes and rate perceived harm. Our data replicate and extend the previous research by finding the same associations between co-occurring themes, and investigating associated perceived harm. We found that themes of Sacrifice, Control, Deceit, and Solidarity were associated with the highest perceived harm scores. In addition, we suggest an initial conceptualization of the "Eating Disorder Lifestyle", and its associations with the themes of Isolation, Success, and Solidarity. This research may provide clinicians with information to better understand the potential influence these sites have on eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated circuits and molecular components for stress and feeding: implications for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, J A; Crowley, N A; Bulik, C M; Kash, T L

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex brain disorders that afflict millions of individuals worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is not fully understood, but a growing body of literature suggests that stress and anxiety may play a critical role in their development. As our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to disease in clinical populations like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder continue to grow, neuroscientists are using animal models to understand the neurobiology of stress and feeding. We hypothesize that eating disorder clinical phenotypes may result from stress-induced maladaptive alterations in neural circuits that regulate feeding, and that these circuits can be neurochemically isolated using animal model of eating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. The relationship between eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: meta-analysis and implications for DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer J; Vartanian, Lenny R; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-05-01

    Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is the most prevalent eating disorder (ED) diagnosis. In this meta-analysis, the authors aimed to inform Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revisions by comparing the psychopathology of EDNOS with that of the officially recognized EDs: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). A comprehensive literature search identified 125 eligible studies (published and unpublished) appearing in the literature from 1987 to 2007. Random effects analyses indicated that whereas EDNOS did not differ significantly from AN and BED on eating pathology or general psychopathology, BN exhibited greater eating and general psychopathology than EDNOS. Moderator analyses indicated that EDNOS groups who met all diagnostic criteria for AN except for amenorrhea did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Similarly, EDNOS groups who met all criteria for BN or BED except for binge frequency did not differ significantly from full syndrome cases. Results suggest that EDNOS represents a set of disorders associated with substantial psychological and physiological morbidity. Although certain EDNOS subtypes could be incorporated into existing Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) categories, others-such as purging disorder and non-fat-phobic AN-may be best conceptualized as distinct syndromes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors in sexual minority populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Blashill, Aaron J.; Brown, Tiffany A.; Argenal, Russell L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarized trends and key findings from empirical studies conducted between 2011–2017 regarding eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) populations. Recent findings Recent research has examined disparities through sociocultural and minority stress approaches. Sexual minorities continue to demonstrate higher rates of disordered eating; disparities are more pronounced among males. Emerging data indicates elevated risk for disordered eating pathology among sexual minorities who are transgender or ethnic minorities. Dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs may hold promise for sexual minority males. Summary Continued research must examine the intersections of sexual orientation, gender, and ethnic identities, given emergent data that eating disorder risk may be most prominent among specific subgroups. More research is needed within sexual minorities across the lifespan. There are still a lack of eating disorder treatment and prevention studies for sexual minorities. PMID:28660475

  13. Family meal frequency among children and adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies on family meals and disordered eating have mainly drawn their samples from the general population. The goal of the current study is to determine family meal frequency among children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and feeding or eating disorder not elsewhere classified (FED-NEC) and to examine whether family meal frequency is associated with eating disorder psychopathology. Participants included 154 children and adolescents (M = 14.92 ± 2.62), who met criteria for AN (n = 60), BN (n = 32), or FED-NEC (n = 62). All participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the Family Meal Questionnaire prior to treatment at the University of Chicago Eating Disorders Program. AN and BN participants significantly differed in terms of family meal frequency. A majority of participants with AN (71.7%), compared with less than half (43.7%) of participants with BN, reported eating dinner with their family frequently (five or more times per week). Family meal frequency during dinner was significantly and negatively correlated with dietary restraints and eating concerns among participants with BN (r = -.381, r = -.366, p meal frequency may be explained by their parents' relatively greater vigilance over eating, whereas families of BN patients may be less aware of eating disorder behaviors and hence less insistent upon family meals. Additionally, children and adolescents with AN may be more inhibited and withdrawn and therefore are perhaps more likely to stay at home and eat together with their families. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-reported interoceptive deficits in eating disorders: A meta-analysis of studies using the eating disorder inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Paul M; Taylor, Lauren; Laws, Keith R

    2018-07-01

    An impairment of the ability to sense the physiological condition of the body - interoception - has long been proposed as central to the onset and maintenance of eating disorders. More recent attention to this topic has generally indicated the presence of interoceptive deficits in individuals with an eating disorder diagnosis; however, possible links with specific diagnosis, BMI, age, illness duration, depression, and alexithymia remain unclear from individual studies. This meta-analysis aimed to provide a necessary quantitative overview of self-reported interoceptive deficits in eating disorder populations, and the relationship between these deficits and the previously mentioned factors. Using a random effects model, our meta-analysis assessed the magnitude of differences in interoceptive abilities as measured using the Eating Disorder Inventory in 41 samples comparing people with eating disorders (n = 4308) and healthy controls (n = 3459). Follow-up and moderator analysis was conducted, using group comparisons and meta-regressions. We report a large pooled effect size of 1.62 for eating disorders with some variation between diagnostic groups. Further moderator analysis showed that BMI, age and alexithymia were significant predictors of overall effect size. This meta-analysis is the first to confirm that large interoceptive deficits occur in a variety of eating disorders and crucially, in those who have recovered. These deficits may be useful in identifying and distinguishing eating disorders. Future research needs to consider both objective and subjective measures of interoception across different types of eating disorders and may fruitfully examine interoception as a possible endophenotype and target for treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Change in Binge Eating and Binge Eating Disorder Associated with Migration from Mexico to the US

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Sonja A.; Saito, Naomi; Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Breslau, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to Western popular culture is hypothesized to increase risk for eating disorders. This study tests this hypothesis with respect to the proposed diagnosis of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) in an epidemiological sample of people of Mexican origin in Mexico and the US. Data come from the Mexico National Comorbidity Survey, National Comorbidity Survey Replication, and National Latino and Asian American Survey (N=2268). Diagnoses were assessed with the WMH-CIDI. Six groups were compared: Mex...

  16. The Study of Eating Disorders and Body Image Among Elite Martial Arts Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Taheri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Study objective: The competitive sports environment can enhance social and cultural pressure towards having ideal body weight in weight-sensitive sports. The close relationship between body image and performance makes the elite athletes vulnerable to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this research was to study eating disorders and body image among weight-class elite athletes. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with elite martial arts athletes (Karate, Taekwondo, and Judo who were considered to be of higher risk for eating disorders. 63 elite martial arts male athletes (18.59 ± 5.29 yrs, and 63 non-athlete persons (17.3 ± 3.4 yrs were recruited. Body Mass Index (BMI, Waist Hip Ratio (WHR, and Percent Body Fat (PBF were measured using caliper and meter. Eating Disorder Diagnosis Scale (EDDS and Body Image Rating Scale (BIRS were used to study eating disorders and body image among elite martial arts athletes. Results: no sign of clinical EDDS were found among the investigated athletes, and non-athletes. There were significant differences in total score of EDDS (p=0.001, eating disorder and weight concern subscales (respectively p=0.012, p=0.001 in athletes and non-athletes. Furthermore, compared with the non-athlete group, elite athlete group with middle, good, and great body images scored higher on total score and all subscales of EDDS (p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results from our study show the presence of worriment about eating disorder especially body weight and eating concern in elite athletes and the early detection of it may prevent progression to severe eating disorders.

  17. Difficulties in emotion regulation in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitti, Catherine; Rufino, Katrina; Goodwin, Natalie; Wagner, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    A defining characteristic of eating disorders (EDs) is difficulty with emotion regulation (ER). Previous research indicates that ED subtypes demonstrate differing ER difficulties. Specifically, individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN) show greater impairment in their ability to regulate emotions in areas such as achieving goals while upset, reacting impulsively to distress, and effectively using coping strategies, as compared to those with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). However, limited research includes the diagnostic category of Eating Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS). The aim of this study was to better understand ER difficulties for all ED diagnoses, especially EDNOS. It was hypothesized that patients with EDs will demonstrate similar ER difficulties as psychiatric patients without EDs and that patients with EDNOS will be similar in their total level of ER difficulties but will differ in their specific types of difficulties in ER as compared to patients with other EDs. Participants included 404 adults presenting to an inpatient psychiatric hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses, including EDs, were determined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders. Differences in specific and overall difficulties with ER were examined across psychiatric patients using the multidimensional Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Results of this study indicate that individuals with EDs have greater ER difficulties in most domains of ER and that those with BED and EDNOS demonstrate the most significant differences in ER as compared to psychiatric patients without EDs. Additionally, it was found that ED subtypes typically did not differ in terms of specific difficulties in ER. One exception emerged indicating that individuals with BED demonstrated significantly greater difficulty on the Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies subscale as compared to those with EDNOS. Researchers were able to clarify difficulties in ER across ED

  18. Prevalence and correlates of binge eating in seasonal affective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofry, Shannon D.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Wildes, Jennifer E.; Kamarck, Marissa L.

    2014-01-01

    Eating pathology in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) may be more severe than hyperphagia during winter. Although research has documented elevated rates of subclinical binge eating in women with SAD, the prevalence and correlates of BED in SAD remain largely uncharacterized. We examined the prevalence and correlates of binge eating, weekly binge eating with distress, and BED as defined by the DSM-IV-TR in SAD. We also tested whether binge eating exhibits a seasonal pattern among individuals with BED. Two samples were combined to form a sample of individuals with SAD (N = 112). A third sample included non-depressed adults with clinical (n=12) and subclinical (n=11) BED. All participants completed the Questionnaire of Eating and Weight Patterns-Revised (QEWP-R) and modified Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (M-SPAQ). In the SAD sample, 26.5% reported binge eating, 11.6% met criteria for weekly binge eating with distress, and 8.9% met criteria for BED. Atypical symptom severity predicted binge eating and BED. In the BED sample, 30% endorsed seasonal worsening of mood, and 26% reported a winter pattern of binge eating. The spectrum of eating pathology in SAD includes symptoms of BED, which are associated with atypical depression symptoms, but typical depression symptoms. PMID:24680872

  19. Emotional eating and temperamental traits in Eating Disorders: A dimensional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Francesco; Mannucci, Edoardo; Gemignani, Sara; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Fioravanti, Giulia; Ricca, Valdo

    2018-03-23

    Growing evidence shows that temperamental features and emotional dysregulation are linked to Eating Disorders (EDs). Aim of this study was to explore the possible relationship between temperament and emotional eating (EE) from a dimensional standpoint, and the association of specific temperamental dimensions with overeating triggered by specific emotions. We enrolled 253 women with Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder. Of those, 189 (74.7%), 73 (28.8%), and 80 (31.6%) reported binge eating, purging, or restrictive behaviors, respectively (the categories are not mutually exclusive). Participants completed the Emotional Eating Scale (EES), the Temperament and Character Inventory, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Higher Persistence scores were found in the Restriction group, while the Binge group reported lower Persistence and higher Novelty Seeking scores. The Purge group showed lower Reward Dependence, Self Directedness and Cooperativeness scores. Patients with Purge also reported lower BMI and higher scores on EDE-Q restriction and eating concern subscales as well as higher scores for all SCL 90-R subscales. Patterns of association between temperamental traits and specific emotions were found in each group. Therefore, some temperamental features could be considered predictors of specific associations between emotions and the tendency to eat. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Alexithymia in eating disorders: therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Federica Pinna, Lucia Sanna, Bernardo Carpiniello Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine - Unit of Psychiatry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy Abstract: A high percentage of individuals affected by eating disorders (ED achieve incomplete recovery following treatment. In an attempt to improve treatment outcome, it is crucial that predictors of outcome are identified, and personalized care approaches established in line with new treatment targets, thus facilitating patient access to evidence-based treatments. Among the psychological factors proposed as predictors of outcome in ED, alexithymia is of outstanding interest. The objective of this paper is to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to alexithymia, specifically in terms of the implications for treatment of ED. In particular, issues concerning the role of alexithymia as a predictor of outcome and as a factor to be taken into account in the choice of treatment will be addressed. The effect of treatments on alexithymia will also be considered. A search of all relevant literature published in English using PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases was carried out on the basis of the following keywords: alexithymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders, and treatment; no time limits were imposed. Despite the clinical relevance of alexithymia, the number of studies published on the above cited aspects is somewhat limited, and these studies are largely heterogeneous and feature significant methodological weaknesses. Overall, data currently available mostly correlate higher levels of alexithymia with a less favorable outcome in ED. Accordingly, alexithymia is seen as a relevant treatment target with the aim of achieving recovery of these patients. Treatments focusing on improving alexithymic traits, and specifically those targeting emotions, seem to show greater efficacy, although alexithymia levels often remain high even after specific

  1. Body checking and eating cognitions in Brazilian outpatients with eating disorders and non psychiatric controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachani, Adriana Trejger; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Brasiliano, Silvia; Cordás, Táki Athanássios; Hochgraf, Patrícia Brunfentrinker

    2015-12-01

    Compare inadequate eating behaviors and their relationship to body checking in three groups: patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) and a control group (C). Eighty three outpatients with eating disorders (ED) and 40 controls completed eating attitudes and body checking questionnaires. The overall relationship between the eating attitude and body checking was statistically significant in all three groups. The worse the eating attitude, the greater the body checking behavior. However, when we look at each group individually, the relationship was only statistically significant in the AN group (r=.354, p=0.020). The lower the desired weight and the worse the eating attitude, the more people check themselves, although in the presence of an ED the relationship between body checking and food restrictions is greater. In patients displaying the AN subgroup, body checking is also related to continued dietary control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Parenting style and the risk for eating disorders among teenage girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semiramida Manaj

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the role of parenting styles and the risk to develop an eating disordered behavior among teenage girls. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that parenting style are correlated with the risk to have an eating disordered behavior among female teenagers. It was predicted that the teenage girls at risk for developing an eating disorder would report experiencing their parents style as high in control and low in warmth or low in control and high in warmth. Specifically, the permissive and the authoritarian parenting style will be positively correlated with the risk to develop an eating disordered behavior. The sample of this research was composed by 100 teenage girls 15-18 years old. The selection of the participant was totally random and they were selected on the schools they frequented. There were found significant correlations between daughters approach to eating and mothers parenting style. These results support the impact of mothers parenting style on the risk to have an eating disorder, but more research needs to be conducted in examining the relationship between parenting style and eating disordered behavior.

  3. Eating pathology, emotion regulation, and emotional overeating in obese adults with Binge Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianini, Loren M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship among emotional regulation, emotional overeating, and general eating pathology in a treatment seeking sample of adults with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The sample was composed of 326 adults (248 women, 78 men) who were obese and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as part of a larger assessment battery. A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that difficulties with emotion regulation accounted for unique variance in both emotional overeating and general eating pathology above and beyond sex and negative affect. Emotion regulation may play a significant role in the maintenance of emotional overeating and eating pathology in obese adults with BED. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Binge eating disorder: Links with personality and emotionality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorard, G; Khorramian-Pour, M

    2017-04-01

    Our two objectives were: (1) to investigate the relationship between binge eating disorder, dimensions of personality (according to the Big Five model of Costa and McCrae) and those of emotionality in the "tripartite" model of emotions of Watson and Clark; (2) to evaluate the correspondence between the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) scores. Four self-administered questionnaires were completed on a shared doc website: the EDI-2, the BES, the BFI-Fr (Big Five Inventory-French version) and the EPN-31 (Positive and Negative Emotionality Scale). The analyses were conducted in a sample of 101 participants (36 men and 65 women), aged 20-59 years (mean age=35.28±9.76) from the general population. We found that 11% of the participants had moderate to severe binge eating disorder. Among them, nearly 4% were overweight and 4% were obese. The correlations analyses indicated that binge eating disorder was associated with two dimensions of personality, the neuroticism (P=0.001) and the consciousness (P=0.010), and with the emotions of joy (P=0.008), tenderness (P=0.036), fear (P=0.011), shame (Pbinge eating disorder get higher scores on EDI-2 subscales: search for thinness (P=0.001), bulimia (Pbinge eating disorder is associated with negative affectivity both as a personality dimension and as an emotional feeling. The patterns of associations, observed with the EDI scale, seem to confirm the good convergent validity of the Binge Eating Scale. Thus, like other eating disorders, emotional functioning should be a prime target for prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Male Eating Disorder Symptom Patterns and Health Correlates From 13 to 26 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Swanson, Sonja; Crosby, Ross D.; Micali, Nadia; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Field, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research on the manifestations and health correlates of eating disorder symptoms among males is lacking. This study identified patterns of appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors from adolescence through young adulthood and their health correlates. Method Participants were 7,067 males from the prospective Growing Up Today Study. Surveys from 1999–2007 (spanning ages 13–26 years) provided repeated measures data on: muscularity and leanness concerns; eating disorder behaviors (purging, overeating, binge eating, use of muscle-building products); and health correlates (obesity, non-marijuana drug use, binge drinking, and depressive symptoms). Results Latent class analyses of observations at ages 13–15, 16–18, 19–22, and 23–26 identified one large Asymptomatic class and four symptomatic patterns: Body Image Disturbance (high appearance concerns, low eating disorder behaviors; 1.0%–6.0% per age period); Binge Eating/Purging (binge eating and purging, use of muscle-building products, low appearance concerns; 0.1%–2.5%); Mostly Asymptomatic (low levels of muscularity concern, product use, and overeating; 3.5%–5.0%); and Muscularity Concerns (high muscularity concerns and use of products; 0.6%–1.0%). The Body Image Disturbance class was associated with high estimated prevalence of depressive symptoms. Males in the Binge Eating/Purging and Muscularity Concerns classes had high prevalence of binge drinking and drug use. Despite exhibiting modestly greater appearance concerns and eating disorder behaviors than the Asymptomatic class, being in the Mostly Asymptomatic class was prospectively associated with adverse health outcomes. Conclusion Results underscore the importance of measuring concerns about leanness, muscularity, and use of muscle-building products when assessing eating disorder presentations among males in research and clinical settings. PMID:27453083

  6. Intensive Outpatient Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe a novel model of intensive outpatient cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT indicated for eating disorder patients who are having difficulty modifying their eating habits in response to conventional outpatient CBT. Intensive outpatient CBT is a manual based treatment derived by the CBT-Enhanced (CBT-E for eating disorders. The treatment has four features that distinguish it from the conventional outpatient CBT-E: (1 it is designed to be suitable for both adult and adolescent patients, (2 it is delivered by a multidisciplinary non-eclectic team trained in CBT, (3 there is assistance with eating, (4 there is a family therapy module for patients under the age of 18 years. Preliminary outcome of intensive outpatient CBT-E are encouraging. The treatment has been applied to 20 consecutive underweight eating disorder patients (age 18.2 ± 6.5 years; BMI 14.6 ± 1.5 kg/m2. Thirteen patients (65% concluded the treatment, five (25% were admitted at an eating disorder inpatient unit, and two (10% prematurely interrupted the treatment. Completers obtained significant weight regain and improvement of eating disorder and general psychopathology. Most of the improvements were maintained at six-month follow-up.

  7. A Review of Eating Disorders and Suicide Risk in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida F. Dancyger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the literature during the past 10 years about suicide risk and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood of individuals with eating disorders. Epidemiological surveys are summarized, including suicide rates, parasuicidal behaviors, associated risk factors, and comorbid psychopathology. Critical implications for the comprehensive assessment and treatment planning, including safety considerations, are discussed. Two clinical cases of women with long-standing eating disorders are described to highlight both the pragmatic considerations and the complex clinical challenges of working with patients with eating disorders who become suicidal. The potentially life-threatening issues of safety have not received sufficient attention, neither in the medical literature nor by the treating clinicians. All health care professionals who are treating patients with an eating disorder must be keenly aware of the serious risks of suicidal behavior and of suicide in this population.

  8. A desire for weight loss in season increases disordered eating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... dysfunction, clinical eating disorder, performance decrements and .... exercise performed for sport, including games and recreational exercise) was ..... Low energy availability in the marathon and other endurance sports.

  9. Assessment of Parental Knowledge and Understanding of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Amanda E; Lehman, Erik B; Iriana, Sarah M; Lane-Loney, Susan E; Ornstein, Rollyn M

    2018-03-01

    Recommended treatment of adolescent eating disorders includes active parental involvement. The purpose of this study was to assess baseline parental knowledge and understanding of eating disorders and how it is affected by participation in treatment. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study comparing the parents of children ages 8 to 18 years seeking initial evaluation for an eating disorder at an adolescent medicine clinic (ED) to those attending appointments at a general pediatrics clinic (GP) was performed utilizing a 20-item questionnaire. There was no difference in mean scores at baseline, however after 2 months, the mean score of the ED group was significantly higher, while that of the GP group was not. The change in mean score from the first to second survey was significantly greater for the ED group than the GP group. Increased knowledge may improve self-efficacy, which plays a critical role in parents' ability to adopt eating disorder treatments.

  10. Assisted reproductive technology treatment in women with severe eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assens, Maria; Ebdrup, Ninna H; Pinborg, Anja

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This national retrospective cohort study investigates the prevalence of women with severe eating disorders in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment compared with an age-matched background population without ART treatment. It assesses the frequency distribution of the firs...

  11. Predicting intolerance of uncertainty in individuals with eating disorder symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sternheim, Lot C; Fisher, Martin; Harrison, Amy; Watling, Rosamond

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) is recognized for its contribution to various psychopathologies, in particular anxiety and depression. Studies highlight the relevance of IU for Eating Disorders (EDs) however, potential factors contributing to IU in EDs remain unstudied. METHODS: Three

  12. Treatment of Adolescent Eating Disorders: Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although eating disorders are common psychiatric disorders that usually onset during adolescence, few evidence-based treatments for this age group have been identified. A critical review of treatments used for Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and related conditions (EDNOS) is provided that summarizes the rationale for the treatments, evidence of effectiveness available, and outcomes. Method Critical review of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Results There are only seven published RCTs of psychotherapy for AN in adolescents with a total of 480 subjects. There are only two published RCTs for outpatient psychotherapy for adolescent BN with a total of 165 subjects. There are no published RCTs examining medications for adolescent AN or BN. For adolescent AN, Family-Based Treatment (FBT) is the treatment with the most evidence supporting its use. Three RCTs suggest that FBT is superior to individual therapy at the end of treatment; however, at follow-up differences between individual and family approaches are generally reduced. For adolescent BN, one study found no differences between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and FBT at the end of treatment or follow-up, while the other found FBT superior to individual therapy. Conclusions Although the evidence remains limited, FBT appears to be the first line treatment for adolescent AN. There is little evidence to support a specific treatment for adolescent BN. There is a need for additional studies of treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders. New treatments studies may build on current evidence as well as examine new approaches based on novel findings in the neurosciences about cognitive and emotional processes in eating disorders. PMID:21532979

  13. Unique associations between young adult men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Angus, Douglas; Murray, Stuart B; Touyz, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Research on emotional functioning, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in males is predominated by studies of negative affect and emotion regulation. Other aspects of emotional functioning, namely emotion recognition and attentional biases toward emotional stimuli, have received little empirical attention. The present study investigated the unique associations between different aspects of men's emotional functioning and their disordered eating attitudes, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction. Results from 132 male undergraduates showed that muscularity dissatisfaction was uniquely associated with both emotion regulation difficulties and an attentional bias toward rejecting faces. Body fat dissatisfaction was not uniquely associated with any aspect of emotional functioning. Disordered eating was uniquely associated with emotion regulation difficulties. Collectively, the results indicate differences in the patterns of associations between men's emotional functioning and their body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between alexithymia and maladaptive perfectionism in eating disorders: a mediation moderation analysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsero, S; Ruggiero, G M; Scarone, S; Bertelli, S; Sassaroli, S

    2011-09-01

    This work aimed to explore the relationship between alexithymia and maladaptive perfectionism in the psychological process leading to eating disorders (ED). Forty-nine individuals with ED and 49 controls completed the Concern over Mistakes subscale of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the total score of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory. We tested a model in which alexythimia is the independent variable and perfectionism is the possible mediator or moderator. Analyses confirmed the assumed model. In addition, it emerged that perfectionism played a mediating or moderating role when measured by different instruments. This result suggested that different instruments measured subtly different aspects of the same construct. Results could suggest that alexithymia is a predisposing factor for perfectionism, which in turn may lead to the development of eating disorders.

  15. Eating disorders - a submission or a resistance to social norms

    OpenAIRE

    Božič, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders exist. They are present in our everyday society. In most cases we talk about them uneasily, reproachfully and ignorantly. We often link them to food and slenderness. Emotions, pain, unacceptance, denial, feeling of defeat, humiliation and inferiority are left behind. Only few are aware that people through waiver or overeating express distress since they want to become visible persons with needs and wishes for (self)respect and (self)acceptance. I placed eating disorders in so...

  16. Maternal Eating Disorders Influence Sex Ratio at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-01-01

    We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...

  17. Difficulties in emotion regulation in patients with eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ruscitti, Catherine; Rufino, Katrina; Goodwin, Natalie; Wagner, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Background A defining characteristic of eating disorders (EDs) is difficulty with emotion regulation (ER). Previous research indicates that ED subtypes demonstrate differing ER difficulties. Specifically, individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN) show greater impairment in their ability to regulate emotions in areas such as achieving goals while upset, reacting impulsively to distress, and effectively using coping strategies, as compared to those with Binge Eating Disorde...

  18. Systemisk/Narrativ gruppebehandling af Binge Eating Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver gruppeterapi på systemisk/narrativt grundlag til patienter med Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Den beskriver, hvordan en problemmættet historie omkring BED-gruppen blev dekonstrueret ved at ændre behandlingens udformning og eksperimentere med socialkonstruktionistiske ideer og......, hvilket har fremmet konsolideringen af foretrukne historier i gruppens refleksioner og styrket terapeuternes evne til at facilitere processen. Nøgleord: Binge Eating Disorder, systemisk narrativ terapi, grupppe...

  19. Eating habits, physical activity, consumption of substances and eating disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Marcos, Yolanda; Balaguer-Solá, Isabel; Pamies-Aubalat, Lidia; Quiles-Sebastián, María José; Marzo-Campos, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences between adolescents with a high or low risk of developing an eating disorder (ED) in different health behaviors (eating habits, physical activity and the consumption of substances) per gender. The EAT-40 and the Inventory of Behavioral Health in Scholars were applied to 2142 middle school students from Alicante (Spain), of whom 52.8% were girls and 47.2% were boys, with an average age of 13.92 years old (Sd = 1.34). Results indicated that girls with a high risk of developing an ED consumed fewer meals, ate fewer unhealthy foods, followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. Furthermore, they also performed more physical activity with the objective of losing weight, and consumed more tobacco, alcohol and medicines. Boys at high risk of developing an ED followed more diets and paid more attention to nutritional components. For boys, no more differences were found. These results suggest that any program directed at the prevention of ED should not only include nutritional education, but should also seek to promote regular physical activity with objectives other than weight loss or the burning of calories.

  20. Psychometric Evaluation and Norms for the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) in a Clinical Eating Disorders Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany A; Berner, Laura A; Jones, Michelle D; Reilly, Erin E; Cusack, Anne; Anderson, Leslie K; Kaye, Walter H; Wierenga, Christina E

    2017-09-01

    Altered interoceptive awareness (IA) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of eating disorders; however, few comprehensive self-report measures of IA exist in eating disorders. The present study sought to validate the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), originally developed to assess IA in individuals practicing mind-body therapies, in an eating disorder sample. Adult and adolescent patients (n = 376) completed assessments upon admission to a partial hospital programme. Analyses examined the factor structure of the MAIA, scale means, scale-scale correlations, internal consistency and construct validity. Analyses also examined associations between MAIA subscales and eating disorder symptoms. Results supported the original eight-factor structure of the MAIA. Internal consistency was acceptable, and the scales converged with associated measures. Importantly, Not Distracting, Self-regulation, Body Listening and Trusting were most strongly associated with eating disorder symptoms. Results support use of the MAIA among eating disorders and provide further support for the relevance of IA in eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Control over interfering memories in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramaccia, Davide Francesco; Penolazzi, Barbara; Libardi, Arianna; Genovese, Aldo; Castelli, Luigi; Palomba, Daniela; Galfano, Giovanni

    2018-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that patients suffering from either anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN) exhibit abnormal performance in the ability to control cognitive interference in response selection. We assessed the status of cognitive control in episodic memory by addressing the ability to inhibit interfering memories. To this end, we used the retrieval-practice paradigm, which allows for measuring both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of memory practice. The latter phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), is thought to reflect an adaptive inhibitory mechanism aimed at reducing competition in memory retrieval. Twenty-seven healthy controls and 27 patients suffering from eating disorders (either AN or BN) performed a retrieval-practice paradigm and a control task addressing general reactivity and filled a self-report questionnaire on impulsivity. No differences between patients and healthy controls were observed for the beneficial effects of practice. The same pattern also emerged for RIF. However, when patients with AN and BN were analyzed separately, a clear dissociation emerged: patients with AN displayed no hint of RIF, whereas patients with BN showed an intact memory suppression performance. No group differences emerged in the control task. Our findings suggest a specific impairment in the ability to suppress interfering memories in patients with AN, thus extending current evidence of cognitive control deficits in AN to episodic memory.

  2. [Eating disorders and pregnancy - a review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukay-Szabó, Szilvia; Varga, Márta; Túry, Ferenc

    2016-09-30

    Eating disorders are psychosomatic disorders affecting primarily women, and influence reproductive functions as well. They have an impact on ovarial cyclem fertility, course of pregnancy, process of delivery, post partum period. Moreover, some data show that they can influence the adult health status. Extensive research from the last three decades call the attention to the fact that besides the classical eating disorders (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa) the newer types (e.g., orthorexia nervosa), and subclinical disorders also occur in a subgroup of pregnant women. For this reason it is of key importance that the personnel working in the territory of obstetrics and gynecology have a solid knowledge about the symptoms, screening and therapeutical opportunities, and outcome of these disorders. The review summarizes the recent research data about the relationship of eating disorders and pregnancy.

  3. Eating disorders in ballet dancing students: problems and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Josep; Guerrero, Marta; Sentis, Joan; Castro, Josefina; Puértolas, Carles

    2009-01-01

    To study the prevalence of symptoms of eating disorders and risk eating behaviours and the relationship between life at a dance school and the risk of developing an eating disorder (ED) in an adolescent population of Spanish dance students. Questionnaires were used to assess attitudes to eating, cultural influences on the body shape model, eating disorders (DSM-IV) and risk factors for eating disorders in 76 adolescent dance students (age 12-17 years) at the Barcelona Theatre Institute. Subjects were compared with a community sample of 453 female adolescents. To study the relationship between ED and characteristics of this particular school, an original questionnaire was administered to 105 students at the school aged from 12 to 21 years. The prevalence of eating disorders and several risk attitudes and behaviours were similar in the dance students and the female adolescents from the general population. Students at risk of eating disorders perceived greater pressure from coaches concerning eating, appearance, weight and artistic performance; they felt less satisfied with their weight and weighed themselves more often; they avoided performing so as not to exhibit their body in public, disliked comparing their body with their peers and believed that audiences paid a great deal of attention to their bodies. In contrast, Body Mass Index (BMI) had hardly any influence on these experiences. Depressive symptoms were associated almost exclusively with experience of stressors and aversive situations. Dance school students do not necessarily present a greater risk of ED than other girls of the same age. The risk of ED may be associated with greater pressure from coaches, with attitudes related to the ED itself, or with depressive symptoms, rather than with the BMI.

  4. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo P. P. Machado

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: (i To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI, self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only.

  5. Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Boys and Girls: The Relationship with Child and Maternal Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Silva, Margarida; Gomes, A. Rui; Machado, Paulo P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: (i) To analyze the eating behaviors and body satisfaction of boys and girls and to examine their mothers’ perceptions of these two domains; and (ii) to evaluate eating problem predictors using child body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, and body satisfaction as well as maternal BMI, eating problems, and satisfaction with their child’s body. The participants included 111 children (54.1% girls aged between 9 and 12 years old) and their mothers. Assessment measures included the Child Eating Attitude Test, the Self-Perception Profile for Children, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, and the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child and maternal measures also included BMI and Collins Figure Drawings. Results: (i) No association between child and maternal BMI for either sex was found; (ii) no difference was found between boys and girls with regard to eating behavior; (iii) most children revealed a preference for an ideal body image over their actual body image; (iv) most mothers preferred thinner bodies for their children; (v) greater BMI was related to higher body dissatisfaction; and (vi) child BMI and dissatisfaction with body image predicted eating disturbances in boys, whereas self-esteem, maternal BMI, and eating behavior predicted them in girls. Discussion: Maternal eating problems and BMI were related to female eating problems only. PMID:22606370

  6. Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA): clinical norms and functional impairment in male and female adults with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Camilla Lindvall; Stedal, Kristin; Rø, Øyvind

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to collect clinical normative data for the Clinical Impairment Assessment questionnaire (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) from adult patients with eating disorders (EDs). T