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  1. Narcissistic personality disorder: effect on relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Sybil V

    Personality disorders, by definition, affect relationships. Narcissistic Personality Disorder can negatively impact relationships in all areas of life: the workplace, the community, and the family. A clear understanding of the types and extent of interpersonal impairment can assist nurses in establishing therapeutic relationships with those diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The purpose of this activity is to examine the negative impact of Narcissistic Personality Disorder on interpersonal relationships. A review of literature connecting Narcissistic Personality Disorder to impairment in relationships. Research findings show that Narcissistic Personality Disorder symptoms and behaviors will negatively impact interpersonal relationships across all areas of life. CONCLUSIONS AND COMMENT: Nurses interact with diverse populations in a variety of settings. Establishment of a therapeutic relationship with individuals who have Narcissistic Personality Disorder can be aided by a clear understanding of the associated relationship issues.

  2. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bi...

  3. The relationship between hyperactivity dyslexia disorder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperactivity and dyslexia disorder, which was discovered at begining of the the twentieth century, also affects academic life negatively. In this study, the relationship between hyperactivity/dyslexia disorder and emotional intelligence and success has been analysed. In this study, the first-year students of primary schools in ...

  4. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890

  5. Genetic Relationships Between Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, Alastair G.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for partial overlap of genetic influences on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with family, twin, and adoption studies showing a genetic correlation between the disorders of around 0.6. Results of genome-wide association studies are consistent with commonly occurring genetic risk variants, contributing to both the shared and nonshared aspects, while studies of large, rare chromosomal structural variants, particularly copy number variants, show a stronger influence on schizophrenia than bipolar disorder to date. Schizoaffective disorder has been less investigated but shows substantial familial overlap with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A twin analysis is consistent with genetic influences on schizoaffective episodes being entirely shared with genetic influences on schizophrenic and manic episodes, while association studies suggest the possibility of some relatively specific genetic influences on broadly defined schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype. Further insights into genetic relationships between these disorders are expected as studies continue to increase in sample size and in technical and analytical sophistication, information on phenotypes beyond clinical diagnoses are increasingly incorporated, and approaches such as next-generation sequencing identify additional types of genetic risk variant. PMID:24567502

  6. The relationship between mental disorders and different types of crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, David J.; De Beurs, Edwin; Barendregt, Marko; Rinne, Thomas; Hoek, Hans W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies of relationships between mental disorder and crime have tended to group the mental disorders, the crimes or both, leaving uncertainty about a more specific mental disorder: crime relationships. Objective To examine the relationship between types of mental disorder and

  7. Relationship between craniomandibular disorders and poor posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolakis, P; Nicolakis, M; Piehslinger, E; Ebenbichler, G; Vachuda, M; Kirtley, C; Fialka-Moser, V

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to show that a relationship between craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and postural abnormalities has been repeatedly postulated, but still remains unproven. This study was intended to test this hypothesis. Twenty-five CMD patients (mean age 28.2 years) were compared with 25 gender and age matched controls (mean age 28.3 years) in a controlled, investigator-blinded trial. Twelve postural and ten muscle function parameters were examined. Measurements were separated into three subgroups, consisting of those variables associated with the cervical region, the trunk in the frontal plane, and the trunk in the sagittal plane. Within these subgroups, there was significantly more dysfunction in the patients, compared to control subjects (Mann-Whitney U test p Postural and muscle function abnormalities appeared to be more common in the CMD group. Since there is evidence of the mutual influence of posture and the craniomandibular system, control of body posture in CMD patients is recommended, especially if they do not respond to splint therapy. Whether poor posture is the reason or the result of CMD cannot be distinguished by the data presented here.

  8. The relationship between hyperactivity dyslexia disorder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    and memory disorder, learning disabilities in some subjects ( reading, writting, ... Although attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) shows ... make approriate decisions about these children both in education division and school ... The first diagnose of learning disability are listening, reasoning, speaking, reading,.

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Sibling Relationships: Research and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Julia F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…

  10. Free will and mental disorder: exploring the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynen, Gerben

    2010-12-01

    A link between mental disorder and freedom is clearly present in the introduction of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). It mentions "an important loss of freedom" as one of the possible defining features of mental disorder. Meanwhile, it remains unclear how "an important loss of freedom" should be understood. In order to get a clearer view on the relationship between mental disorder and (a loss of) freedom, in this article, I will explore the link between mental disorder and free will. I examine two domains in which a connection between mental disorder and free will is present: the philosophy of free will and forensic psychiatry. As it turns out, philosophers of free will frequently refer to mental disorders as conditions that compromise free will and reduce moral responsibility. In addition, in forensic psychiatry, the rationale for the assessment of criminal responsibility is often explained by referring to the fact that mental disorders can compromise free will. Yet, in both domains, it remains unclear in what way free will is compromised by mental disorders. Based on the philosophical debate, I discuss three senses of free will and explore their relevance to mental disorders. I conclude that in order to further clarify the relationship between free will and mental disorder, the accounts of people who have actually experienced the impact of a mental disorder should be included in future research.

  11. Sibling relationships of anxiety disordered children--a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhout, Ingeborg E.; Boer, Frits; Markus, Monica T.; Hoogendijk, Thea H. G.; Maingay, Ragna; Borst, Sophie R.

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on the role of sibling relationships in internalizing disorders. Research in nonclinical populations suggests an association between internalizing problems in children and negative sibling interactions. Further, an association is reported between internalizing

  12. A Study of the Relationship Between Alcoholism and Character Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfley, Virgil L.

    Studies have shown that sociopaths and alcoholics tend to come from similar social backgrounds and that they share several characteristics. To investigate the relationship between alcoholism and character disorder syndrome in adult males, 20 males who had a history of alcohol problems and displayed characteristics of character disorder were…

  13. The role of social relationships in bipolar disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sarah; Rosenblum, Katherine L; McInnis, Melvin G; Muzik, Maria

    2014-10-30

    Social relationships and attachment are core developmental elements of human existence and survival that evolve over the lifetime of an individual. The internal and external factors that influence them include the presence of illness in the individual or in their immediate environment. The developmental aspects of attachment and social relationships have become increasingly of interest and relevance in light of early developmental epigenetic modification of gene expression patterns that may influence subsequent behavioral patterns and outcomes. This review examines extant literature on attachment and social relationships in bipolar cohorts. Despite many methodological challenges, the findings indicate that social relationships and capacity for attachment are significantly compromised in individuals with bipolar disorder compared to other mood disorders and normal controls. Though extant research is limited, research clearly points toward the importance of social relationships on the etiology, course, and consequences of bipolar disorder. We highlight a number of key considerations for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E; Redlin, Jennifer; Wonderlich, Steve; Crosby, Ross; Faber, Ron; Miltenberger, Ray; Smyth, Joshua; Stickney, Marci; Gosnell, Blake; Burgard, Melissa; Lancaster, Kathy

    2002-07-01

    Compulsive buying has received increased research attention in the last decade. The disorder has high rates of comorbidity for other disorders, including eating disorders. This study explored the possible relationship between compulsive buying and eating disorders. Twenty women who scored in the pathological range on a measure of compulsive buying and 20 controls were recruited via the media. Various measures of psychopathology and eating disorder symptoms were administered to both groups. Compulsive buyers were significantly more likely to have a higher lifetime history of substance abuse or dependence. No differences existed between normal controls and compulsive buyers in prevalence of current or lifetime eating disorders, nor were there differences in scores of eating-related psychopathology. This work failed to demonstrate an increased risk for eating disorder in compulsive buyers, although a higher rate of substance dependence or abuse and higher scores on pathological personality dimension scales were seen.

  15. Kleptomania: clinical characteristics and relationship to substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Kim, Suck Won

    2010-09-01

    Although categorized as an impulse control disorder, kleptomania has many features in common with substance use disorders. This paper sought to examine the mounting evidence supporting the phenomenological, clinical, epidemiological, and biological links between kleptomania and substance addictions. A review of the literature examining family history, genetics, comorbid psychiatric conditions, neuroimaging, and phenomenology was utilized to examine the relationship of kleptomania to substance addiction. Kleptomania and substance addiction share common core qualities, including similar treatment successes, as well as etiologic and phenomenological similarities. Future research investigating the relationship between kleptomania and substance use disorders holds significant promise in advancing prevention and treatment strategies for addiction in general. Research investigating kleptomania (and other behavioral addictions) and its relationship to substance addiction holds significant promise in advancing prevention and treatment strategies for addiction in general.

  16. The Relationship between Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Adulthood Borderline Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mashhadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a risk factor for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD during adulthood. Studying the relationship between childhood ADHD disorder symptoms and depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms among students was the main aim of this study. Materials and Methods: A total of 291 students, who were studying in Shiraz and Tabriz universities inThe academic year of 2010-2011, were selected from three groups of Humanities, Basic Sciences, and Technical-Engineering Sciences using simple sampling method. They participated in the study through completing Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS, Borderline Personality Scale (STB and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II. Pearsons correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between childhood ADHD and borderline Personality Disorder (BPD in adulthood and childhood ADHD is able to predict BPD in adulthood (p<0.01. Similarly, the relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD and depression was positive and significant (p<0.01. Conclusion: There is a relationship between symptoms of childhood ADHD, BPD and depression in students. It is recommended to pay due attention to the comorbidity disorders such as BPD and depression in the treatment of ADHD disorder.

  17. Father-daughter relationship and the severity of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, N; Sommerfeld, E; Wolf, M; Zubery, E; Zalsman, G

    2015-01-01

    Mother-daughter relationship was the focus of studies on the development of eating disorders (ED) for many years. This study aimed to examine the association between the father-daughter relationship and ED and depressive symptoms. Fifty-three women diagnosed with ED were compared to a psychiatric control group (n=26) and to healthy participants (n=60) regarding their perception of their fathers and the relationship with them. Assessments were done using the Parental Bonding Instrument, the Eating Disorders Questionnaire, the Body Shape Questionnaire, the Eating Attitude Test, and the Beck Depression Inventory as well as narrative-based methods. Fathers' negative attributes were significantly associated with ED and depressive symptom. Two profiles of father-daughter relationship were found, the "caring and benevolent" relationship and the "overprotective and avoidant" one. In the latter, patients displayed significantly higher levels of food-restraint, more concerns about eating and about their body shape and appearance, and higher levels of depression. Negative perception of the father's parenting style as well as the quality of the relationship with him are crucial for the understanding of the development and persistence of ED. Therapeutic programs for ED should focus not only on the relationship with the mother but must also address the relationship with the father. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep disorder among medical students: relationship to their academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Bin-Saad, Norah S; Al-Subaie, Nourah M; Haji, Alhan M A; Alhaqwi, Ali I

    2012-01-01

    Medical students are exposed to a significant level of pressure due to academic demands. Their sleep pattern is characterized by insufficient sleep duration, delayed sleep onset, and occurrence of napping episodes during the day. To examine the prevalence of sleep disorder among medical students and investigate any relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance. This is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study. The participants were medical students of the first, second, and third academic years. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was also included to identify sleep disorder and grade point average was recorded for academic performance. There were 491 responses with a response rate of 55%. The ESS score demonstrated that 36.6% of participants were considered to have abnormal sleep habits, with a statistically significant increase in female students (p = 0.000). Sleeping between 6-10 h per day was associated with normal ESS scores (p = 0.019) as well as the academic grades ≥ 3.75. Abnormal ESS scores were associated with lower academic achievement (p = 0.002). A high prevalence of sleep disorder was found in this group of students, specifically female students. Analysis of the relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance indicates a significant relationship between abnormal ESS scores, total sleeping hours, and academic performance.

  19. Peer Relationship Difficulties in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; Freeman, Andrew J.; La Greca, Annette M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with psychosocial impairment, but few studies have examined peer relationship functioning and PBD. Adolescence is a crucial developmental period when peers become increasingly salient. Objective: This study compared perceived friendship quality and peer victimization in adolescents with…

  20. Difficult Temperament, Parental Relationships, and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Bryan D.; Clark, Duncan B.; Donovan, John E.; Brody, Gene H.

    2000-01-01

    Study tested the hypothesis that the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship mediates the association between difficult temperament and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms. Results suggest that alcohol abuse prevention and treatment programs should consider the role of basic temperamental characteristics in pathological drinking, and the…

  1. The relationship between perfectionism, eating disorders and athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, S; Lock, J

    2006-12-01

    Perfectionism is a potentially maladaptive personality trait implicated in a number of psychopathologies. As our understanding of the construct perfectionism has shifted from more unidimensionally focused conceptualizations to multidimensional ones, our ability to assess its bearing on various disorders has grown. One particular area in which perfectionism appears to play an important role is among eating disorder patients. The personalities of both those with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are thought to be intrinsically perfectionistic, which suggests a need to understand the role perfectionism plays in the development, course and outcome of these disorders. There is also an increased focus on perfectionism among athletes and its relationship to the higher prevalence of eating disorders in this group. With the institution of Title IX in the United States (which prohibited sex discrimination in higher educational settings) the participation of women in various sports has increased exponentially and with it concerns about their well-being in a milieu where a risk for menstrual irregularities, osteoporosis and eating disorders (the female athlete triad) are common. However, conflicting data suggests that athletics may be a protective factor in the development of eating disorders on the one hand, or it may be a risk factor on the other. Thus, it has become important to examine other variables, such as perfectionism, that may influence the outcome, one way or another. This review examines the current evidence about the relations between perfectionism, athletics and eating disorders.

  2. Anxiety Disorders Comorbidity in Iranian Patients with Mood Disorders and Its' Relationship with Suicidal Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shabani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available     Objective: Several studies show co morbidity of anxiety disorders amongst patients with bipolar and unipolar disorders. It is associated with an intensification of symptoms, insufficient treatment response, non recovery, poor functional outcome and suicidality. The aim of this study was to show the frequency of anxiety disorders comorbidity and the relationship between comorbidity and suicide attempt in these patients.         Method: In a descriptive study, 152 patients with bipolar and unipolar disorders in a psychiatric center were assessed with SCID. Current and lifetime comorbidity in bipolar and unipolar patients were analyzed.         Results: One hundred fifty two subjects aged 18-60 years were included in the study and102 bipolar I, 11 bipolar II, and 39 unipolar patients were diagnosed.Co morbidity in each group was 21.2%, 11.5%, and 43.5%. Suicide attempt in patients with bipolar disorders and anxiety disorders comorbidity was significantly more than patients with bipolar disorders without co morbidity.     Conclusions: Significant proportions of patients with bipolar and unipolar disorder had co morbid anxiety disorders. Moreover, anxiety disorders comorbidity may be associated with more suicide attempt in bipolar patients,highlighting the need for greater clinical attention to anxiety in this population, particularly for enhanced clinical monitoring of suicidality. In addition, it is important to determine whether an effective treatment of anxiety symptoms can reduce suicidality.

  3. Parent-child relationships in gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, H A; O'Shea, D; Lucey, J V

    2014-06-01

    To describe the relationship between parents with gender identity disorder (GID) and their child(ren) as described by the parent and to understand how being a parent affects transitioning from one gender to the other. Fourteen parents with GID underwent a semi-structured interview and completed the Index of Parental Attitudes (IPA). An IPA score of greater than 30 indicates parent–child relationship difficulties (range 0–100). The authors also conducted the SCID-I to establish other Axis I disorders. We assessed 12 male to female and two female to male parents with GID residing in Ireland. In total, 14 GID parents had 28 children. Three children had no relationship with their GID parent. The other 25 children, as reported by the parent, had good relationships with their children. In addition, these 25 children average score IPA score was 6.4 (range 0–25). Twelve GID parents (86 %) believed that being a parent had no effect on their desired level of transitioning, while two were influenced not to transition. Eleven GID parents (79 %) reported that being a parent had increased the time taken to commence transitioning, two have stopped transitioning altogether, while one cited no effect on time. Parents with GID report positive relationships or no relationship with their children and the IPA revealed no clinical problems. Being a parent can prolong transitioning time in people with GID and can affect overall achieved level of transitioning.

  4. Pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders and its relationship with neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by complex brain circuits located in the brain stem, thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. Wakefulness and NREM and REM sleep are modulated by the interactions between neurotransmitters that promote arousal and neurotransmitters that promote sleep. Various lines of evidence suggest that sleep disorders may negatively affect neuronal plasticity and cognitive function. Pharmacological treatments may alleviate these effects but may also have adverse side effects by themselves. This chapter discusses the relationship between sleep disorders, pharmacological treatments, and brain plasticity, including the treatment of insomnia, hypersomnias such as narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and parasomnias.

  5. Relationship between motor abilities and severity of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijetić Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the findings in literature, motor skills of children with autism spectrum disorders generally differ from age expectations and are increasingly being associated with speech and language and social development, and adaptive behavior. The aim of the research was to determine the relationship between the development level of fine and gross motor skills and autism severity of children with autism spectrum disorder. The sample included 30 children with autism spectrum disorder and associated intellectual disability, seven to 19 years of age (M=11.97; SD=3.70. The assessment was conducted using the Peabody Motor Development Scale, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, and the criteria for describing the level of severity of autism spectrum disorder (APA, 2013. The results have shown that participants' motor skills significantly correlate with social communication (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.452; p=0.012; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.511; p=0.004; Vineland total r=-0.391; p=0.032 and restricted, repetitive behaviors (Peabody fine motor skills r=-0.383; p=0.037; Vineland fine motor skills r=-0.433; p=0.017; Vineland total r=-0.371; p=0.044. Lower level of autistic symptomatology is associated with higher motor achievements. It is necessary to pay more attention to the assessment and treatment of motor skills in children with autism spectrum disorder, given the established delay in the development of these skills, and bearing in mind their relationship with the severity of the symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Timely identification of motor disorders would allow the use of early treatment and potentially lead to better results, compared to later inclusion in intervention programs.

  6. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaferia, G; Bianchi, I; Bianchi, M L; Cavedini, P; Erzegovesi, S; Bellodi, L

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in a group of 277 patients (88 with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], 58 with major depressive disorder [MDD], and 131 with panic disorder [Panic]) to test the specificity of the relationship between OCPD and OCD. OCPD is statistically significantly more frequent in patients with OCD than in those with Panic and MDD. The distribution of single criteria of OCPD in the three groups does not differ significantly. Discriminant analysis selects a list of items that provide a correct classification rate of 66% based on OCPD criteria selected by canonical function. OCD patients with and without OCPD do not differ in sex, age of onset, duration of illness, positive family history for Tics disorder/Tourette syndrome (TS), or morbidity risk for OCD.

  7. Hypersexuality and couple relationships in bipolar disorder: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeykina, Irina; Kim, Hae-Joon; Khatun, Tasnia; Boland, Jennifer; Haeri, Sophia; Cohen, Lisa J; Galynker, Igor I

    2016-05-01

    Although change in sexual behavior is recognized as an integral part of bipolar disorder, most of the relevant literature on sexual issues in patients with this illness concerns medication side effects and does not differentiate bipolar disorder from other serious mental disorders. Surprisingly, little has been published on mania-induced hypersexuality and the effects of mood cycling on couple relationships. In this review, we examine the extant literature on both of these subjects and propose a framework for future research. A search of PsycINFO and PubMed was conducted using keywords pertaining to bipolar disorder, hypersexuality and couple relationships. A total of 27 articles were selected for review. Despite lack of uniformity in diagnosis of bipolar disorder and no formal definition of hypersexuality, the literature points to an increased incidence of risky sexual behaviors in bipolar patients during manic episodes compared to patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. Further, it appears that bipolar patients are more similar to healthy controls than to other psychiatric patients when it comes to establishing and maintaining couple relationships. Nonetheless, the studies that examined sexuality in couples with one bipolar partner found decreased levels of sexual satisfaction associated with the diagnosis, varying levels of sexual interest across polarities, increased incidence of sexual dysfunction during depressive episodes, and disparate levels of satisfaction in general between patients and their partners. Due to changes in diagnostic criteria over time, there is a lack of uniformity in the definition of bipolar disorder across studies. Hypersexuality is not systematically defined and therefore the construct was not consistent across studies. Some of the older articles date back more than 30 years, making them subject to the biases of sexual and gender norms that have since become outdated. Finally, the heterogeneity of the samples, which include patients

  8. Personality and Its Relationship with Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omran Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Individual factors are usually important as non-occupational parameters that participate in the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Personality traits are one of the individual factors that affect physical illness, which are constant over time, thereby reflecting stable individual differences. Identifying the personality trait can be used to predict musculoskeletal disorders in workers and select individual with appropriate personality traits for different works. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to identify the personality traits used to determine the relationship between different personality traits and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods 136 people of 2 different companies in Tabriz (in 2015 were selected as the study population. The first group was selected from the petrochemical repair workers and the second from a dairy factory. The 50-item version of Goldberg’s big five personality scale was used to assess the personality traits. Nordic questionnaire was employed to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Chi-square test was incorporated for analyzing the data. Finally, logistic regression test was used to study the factors affecting upper and lower body pain. Results Results indicated that individual personality traits were associated with musculoskeletal disorder prevalence in some members of body: Extraversion with wrist (P-value = 0.013 and hip (P-value = 0.044, emotional stability with shoulder (P-value = 0.012, wrist (P-value = 0.043, back (P-value = 0.034, low back (P-value = 0.029 and ankle( P-value = 0.014, Conscientiousness with Hip ( P-value = 0.009, Agreeableness with shoulder (P-value = 0.004, back (P-value = 0.001, Hip ( P-value = 0.006 and ankle ( P-value = 0.019. Conclusions According to the results of this study, the personality traits can contribute to musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, notice of personality traits can be used to predict individuals who

  9. Relationship between Comorbidity of Cluster Personality Disorders with Major Depression Disorder and Depression Relapse

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    Shima Tamanaei-Far

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this research studied the relation between cluster B personality disorders and major depression disorder with relapse. Materials & Methods: In this analytical and comparative study, samples consisted of the major depressive disorders patients that had experienced major depression through 5 years ago and were experiencing partial remission in research time. Samples were selected by non probability sampling in outpatient centers. The patients with more than two relapses were assigned as case group and the patients without any relapse were assigned as control group (two groups on the base of demographic in formations were matched. They completed BDI_II and SCID_II to assess cluster B personality disorders, and a questionnaire made by researcher to gather information’s. Results: Comorbidity of borderline personality disorder (P<0.001 and narcissitic personality disorder (P=0.016 with depression in patient with relapse of the depression is more significantly than patients with first episode of depression, but comorbidity of exhibitive personality disorder with depression and relapse had no significant difference between two groups (P=0.401. Conclusion: according to the relationship between narcissistic and borderline personality disorders and the role of them in relapse of depression, for making an effective psychotherapy for depression, it is necessary to consider personality beside special symptoms.

  10. The Relationship of Hypochondriasis to Anxiety, Depressive, and Somatoform Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarella, Timothy M.; Laferton, Johannes A. C.; Ahern, David K.; Fallon, Brian A.; Barsky, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Background Though the phenotype of anxiety about medical illness has long been recognized, there continues to be debate as to whether it is a distinct psychiatric disorder and, if so, to which diagnostic category it belongs. Our objective was to investigate the pattern of psychiatric co-morbidity in hypochondriasis and to assess the relationship of health anxiety to anxiety, depressive, and somatoform disorders. Methods Data were collected as part of a clinical trial on treatment methods for hypochondriasis. 194 participants meeting criteria for DSM-IV hypochondriasis were assessed by sociodemographic variables, results of structured diagnostic interviews, and validated instruments for assessing various symptom dimensions of psychopathology. Results The majority of individuals with hypochondriasis had co-morbid psychiatric illness; the mean number of co-morbid diagnoses was 1.4, and 35.1% had hypochondriasis as their only diagnosis. Participants were more likely to have only co-morbid anxiety disorders than only co-morbid depressive or somatoform disorders. Multiple regression analysis of continuous measures of symptoms revealed the strongest correlation of health anxiety with anxiety symptoms, and a weaker correlation with somatoform symptoms; in multiple regression analysis, there was no correlation between health anxiety and depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the entity of health anxiety (Hypochondriasis in DSM-IV, Illness Anxiety Disorder in DSM-5) is a clinical syndrome distinct from other psychiatric disorders. Analysis of co-morbidity patterns and continuous measures of symptoms suggest its appropriate classification is with anxiety rather than somatoform or mood disorders. PMID:26785798

  11. The Relationship between Concurrent Substance Use Disorders and Eating Disorders with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Courbasson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The current pilot study investigated whether patients with concurrent substance use disorders and eating disorders (SUD and ED who experienced a reduction in SUD and ED symptoms following treatment for SUD and ED also experienced a reduction in personality disorder (PD symptoms. Method: Twenty patients with SUD and ED and PD were assessed pre and post treatment using clinical interviews, self-report questionnaires, and a therapist questionnaire on DSM-IV-TR symptoms for PD. Results: Symptoms for the personality disorders were reduced following treatment. This reduction was correlated with a decrease in the number of symptoms of ED at post treatment. Discussion: Chronic concurrent SUD and ED may make it difficult to separate PD symptoms from co-occurring disorders. Many features attributed to PDs may be reduced when problematic substance use and disordered eating are addressed, a fact that may increase clinician and patients’optimism about therapeutic change.

  12. Relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of Substance Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD), Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and Dependent personality disorder (DPD) and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00)...

  13. Achievement Goal Theory and disordered eating: Relationships between female gymnasts’ goal orientations, perceived motivational climate and disordered eating correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, A.P.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationships between disordered eating in female gymnasts and dancers and their perspective towards achievement in sport and dance, respectively. With an emphasis on outperforming others (ego involvement), more disordered eating was expected than when personal progress

  14. Thyroid disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome: An emerging relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Singla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence of these endocrine dysfunctions increases, the association of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and autoimmune thyroid disease is increasingly being recognised. While the causality of this association is still uncertain, the two conditions share a bidirectional relationship. The exact nature of this link has not been elucidated yet. Both syndromes share certain common characteristics, risk factors, and pathophysiological abnormalities. Simultaneously, certain etiopathogenetic factors that operate to create these dysfunctions are dissimilar. Polycystic appearing ovaries are a clinical feature of hypothyroidism, though hypothyroidism should be excluded before diagnosing PCOS. Adiposity, increased insulin resistance, high leptin, evidence of deranged autoimmunity, all of which are present in both disease states, seem to play a complex role in connecting these two disorders. This brief communication explores the nature of the relationship between PCOS and hypothyroidism. It reviews current data and analyses them to present a unified pathophysiological basis, incorporating these complex relationships, for the same.

  15. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

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    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  16. COMORBID INTERMITTENT EXPLOSIVE DISORDER AND POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: CLINICAL CORRELATES AND RELATIONSHIP TO SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Jennifer R.; Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with both aggressive and suicidal behavior. Recent research suggests that the diagnosis of Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED), an impulse-control disorder characterized by repeated impulsive aggressive behavior, may help to identify individuals at risk for attempting suicide. Given the relationship between anger and PTSD, there is likely to be an increased prevalence of IED among individuals with PTSD; however, little is known about the overlap in these two disorders, including how individuals with comorbid IED and PTSD may differ from those with either disorder alone. The purpose of this study is to examine the clinical correlates of comorbid IED and PTSD and the contribution of these two disorders (among others) to lifetime suicide attempt and characteristics of suicidal behavior. Method In a large sample of community research volunteers (N=1460), we compared individuals with PTSD, IED, and comorbid PTSD and IED on measures of current mood, trait aggression, and trait impulsivity. We also examined the contributions of PTSD, IED, and other syndromal and personality disorders to the prediction of lifetime aggression and lifetime suicide attempt, and their relationship to characteristics of suicide attempts, including level of intent, use of violent versus non-violent means, and the medical seriousness of the attempt. Results Comorbid PTSD and IED was associated with significantly elevated levels of depression, anxiety, anger, aggression, and impulsivity, as well as with high rates of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. IED (β=.56, psuicide attempt in multivariate analysis (ORs: 1.6 and 1.6, pssuicide attempt (41.4% in this sample). Conclusion These findings add support to the notion that the diagnosis of IED may aid in identifying individuals at risk for aggressive and suicidal behavior. PMID:27624432

  17. Relationship between alexithymia and dependent personality disorder: a dimensional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loas, Gwenolé; Baelde, Olympe; Verrier, Annie

    2015-02-28

    The present study had two aims and used two different samples. The first aim was to determine if alexithymia and dependent personality disorder (DPD) are distinct or overlapping constructs. The second aim was to determine the specificity and the stability of the relationship between alexithymia and DPD. The first study used exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) in a sample of 477 non-clinical subjects who completed three questionnaires measuring alexithymia (Twenty item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, i.e. TAS-20), dependent personality disorder (Dependent Personality Questionnaire, i.e. DPQ) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II, i.e. BDI-II). The second study used a sample of 305 subjects consecutively admitted to an outpatient department of legal medicine. The subjects completed (at admission and 3 months later) the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, screen questionnaire (SCID-II-SQ), the TAS-20 and the BDI. Multiple regressions were done. For the first study, the PCA yielded a four-factor solution with no overlap of the significant factor loadings for the items from each scale and with the factors corresponding to their respective construct. For the second study, multiple regressions showed that only avoidant personality disorder was an independent predictor of the TAS-20 scores. Alexithymia is a construct that is distinct and separate from DPD and depression. Alexithymia is not a stable feature of DPD while it is a core feature of avoidant personality disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W Y; Okeson, J P; Lindroth, J

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between forward head posture and temporomandibular disorder symptoms. Thirty-three temporomandibular disorder patients with predominant complaints of masticatory muscle pain were compared with an age- and gender-matched control group. Head position was measured from photographs taken with a plumb line drawn from the ceiling to the lateral malleolus of the ankle and with a horizontal plane that was perpendicular to the plumb line and that passed through the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra. The distances from the plumb line to the ear, to the seventh vertebra, and to the shoulder were measured. Two angles were also measured: (1) ear-seventh cervical vertebra-horizontal plane and (2) eye-ear-seventh cervical vertebra. The only measurement that revealed a statistically significant difference was angle ear-seventh cervical vertebra-horizontal plane. This angle was smaller in the patients with temporomandibular disorders than in the control subjects. In other words, when evaluating the ear position with respect to the seventh cervical vertebra, the head was positioned more forward in the group with temporomandibular disorders than in the control group (P < .05).

  19. The Relationship between Major Depressive Disorder and Personality Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bensaeed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the clinical temperaments and characters of Iranian patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD with healthy controls.The study participants included 47 outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and 120 normal controls with no psychiatric disorders. Sampling method was convenience. The MDD patients were diagnosed as MDD by a psychiatrist using the Persian structured clinical interview for axis I disorders (SCID-I, and they completed at least 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment. All the patients filled out the Persian version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17, Chi square, T test and Multiple Regression. The level of significance was set at 5%.The present study demonstrates a link between depression and lower persistence (p≤0.001, self-directedness (p≤0.001 and cooperativeness (p≤0.001 scores. A negative correlation between age and Harm Avoidance (p≤0.001 was observed in both groups.Lower scores of persistence (P, self-directedness (SD and cooperativeness (CO were observed in patients with depression more than controls even in the remission phase which could indicate a relationship between these traits and depression.

  20. High functioning autism disorder: marital relationships and sexual offending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Peixoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe the implications of social inability as a factor that can contribute to sexual abuse in the marriage relationship of people with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Case description A 30-year-old male sought medical attention complaining of being “very nervous” and have difficulties in family relationships. He was diagnosed with high-functioning ASD based on the DSM-5. Married for over 4 years with a woman diagnosed with histrionic personality disorder (HPD, he asked for her to accompany him in the sessions and help him describe difficulties they had during sexual intercourse. His wife reported feeling raped in all of her sexual relations with the patient, especially when he could not understand that she did not want sex. Comments The case study leads us to believe that the social and communicative disability is a complicating factor that can contributes to the occurrence of sexual abuse in marital relationships with individuals with ASD. Social skills training, psychotherapy, and traditional medical therapies should be considered to minimize the risk of occurrence of cases of sexual abuse by individuals with high-functioning ASD against the spouses themselves.

  1. Hypochondriasis and its relationship to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, B A; Qureshi, A I; Laje, G; Klein, B

    2000-09-01

    Hypochondriasis is a heterogeneous disorder. This was well demonstrated in the study by Kellner et al, which showed that patients with high levels of disease fear tended to be more anxious or phobic, whereas patients with high levels of disease conviction tended to have more and more severe somatic symptoms. Little comorbidity exists to support the statement that hypochondriasis is an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. Although patients exist whose hypochondriac concerns are identical in quality to the intrusive thoughts of patients with OCD, as a group, patients with hypochondriasis do not share a comorbidity profile comparable with that of patients with OCD. The data support a closer relationship between hypochondriasis and somatization disorder than between hypochondriasis and OCD. The family history data is limited by the lack of adequate studies. Using comparable methods of the family history approach, Black's study reported a higher frequency of GAD but not OCD among the relatives of OCD patients--a finding similar to what Noyes found among the relatives of hypochondriac patients; however, using the direct interview method, somatization disorder was the only statistically more common disorder, among relatives of female hypochondriac patients. Therefore, although the parallel in overlap with GAD is suggestive of a commonality between OCD, GAD, and hypochondriasis, the finding of a greater frequency of somatization disorder leans against the hypothesis that hypochondriasis is best considered an OCD spectrum disorder. The pharmacologic treatment data are the one type of biologic evidence that supports a bridge to OCD. The pharmacologic studies suggest that for patients with general hypochondriasis, TCAs are not effective and that higher dosages and longer trials of the SRIs are needed. These pharmacologic observations are comparable with the ones made for patients with OCD but dissimilar to the observations made for depression. The benefit of imipramine

  2. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Symptoms and Social Anxiety Disorder in Students in Isfahan

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    Shahla Mohamadirizi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety can be occurring in the same time. Also social anxiety is one of the important factors predicting Eating Disorder symptoms which vary among different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and social anxiety in school boys.  Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 361 high school boys in isfahan who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, Eating Disorder Questionnaire and social anxiety. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student’s t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and regression through SPSS version 14. Results: Based on the findings, the mean (SD value for age was 14.14 (1.2 years and for BMI was 23.25 (0.3.35.2% had eating disorder and 17.5% bulimia and30% had anorexia nervosa Symptoms. Also there was a positive correlation between the rate of Eating Disorder Symptoms, bulimia and anorexia nervosa and social anxiety. (P=0.004, r= 0.287, P=0.001, r= 0.257, P=0.020, r= 0.242.  Conclusions: There was correlation between the Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety  in  school boys.So educating people like caregivers by community health midwives regarding nutritional problems in during adolescence can be effective in early diagnosing and identifying such disorders.

  3. Relationship of Occlusal Schemes with the Occurrence of Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina H. Sugiaman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Masticatory system is a complex functional unit of the body responsible for mastication, speech, and deglutition process. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD is used to describe all functional disturbances of the masticatory system. The etiology of TMD is multifactorial, such as occlusal disharmony and emotional stress. The relationship between occlusion and TMD has been highly debated in dentistry, one of the occlusal factors is the occlusal scheme. Occlusal schemes are defined as bilateral canine guidance, unilateral canine guidance, group function and balanced occlusion. However, studies about the relationship of occlusal schemes and the occurrence of the TMD are still limited and remained controversial. Objective: To investigate the relationship of occlusal schemes witht he occurrence of TMD. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, Uniiversitas Indonesia. A total of 127 students were included in this study. Subjects were examined based on Clinical Helkimo Index and divided into TMD and non-TMD groups. Subjects were categorized as non-TMD groups if the value of the clinical Helkimo index was 0 and as TMD group when the value ranged between 1-25. Results: Balanced occlusion schemes has a greater risk of TMD occurrence with odds ratio value 5.6 and 95% confidence interval 1.188 to 26.331 (p=0.021. Conclusion: Balanced occlusion has a significant relationship with the occurrence of TMD.

  4. The relationship between brain volumes and intelligence in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeker, Annabel; Abramovic, Lucija; Boks, Marco P M; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder type-I (BD-I) patients show a lower Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and smaller brain volumes as compared with healthy controls. Considering that in healthy individuals lower IQ is related to smaller total brain volume, it is of interest to investigate whether IQ deficits in BD-I patients are related to smaller brain volumes and to what extent smaller brain volumes can explain differences between premorbid IQ estimates and IQ after a diagnosis of BD-I. Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, IQ and premorbid IQ scores were obtained from 195 BDI patients and 160 controls. We studied the relationship of (global, cortical and subcortical) brain volumes with IQ and IQ change. Additionally, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma, lithium- and antipsychotic use and IQ. Total brain volume and IQ were positively correlated in the entire sample. This correlation did not differ between patients and controls. Although brain volumes mediated the relationship between BD-I and IQ in part, the direct relationship between the diagnosis and IQ remained significant. Childhood trauma and use of lithium and antipsychotic medication did not affect the relationship between brain volumes and IQ. However, current lithium use was related to lower IQ in patients. Our data suggest a similar relationship between brain volume and IQ in BD-I patients and controls. Smaller brain volumes only partially explain IQ deficits in patients. Therefore, our findings indicate that in addition to brain volumes and lithium use other disease factors play a role in IQ deficits in BD-I patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TMJ DISORDER AND HEAD AND NECK POSTURE

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    Sesi R. Puspita Dewi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular joint disorders may be caused by variety of factors; one of which is the posture of head and neck. However, this remains controversial and a subject of debate by experts. The objective of this study was to know whether there was a relation between temporomandibular disorders and the head and neck posture seen radiographically. Subjects were 40 dental students from University of Indonesia who met the inclusion criteria, selected through questionnaire, and subjective examination based on Helkimo’s dysfunction index. Then, lateral cephalometric radiographs were done to all subjects. In the radiogram, a horizontal line was made from the nasion point to the sella tursica, and a vertical line was drawn along the prominent bone of C1 – C5. The angle between the two lines was measured, and used to represent the head and neck posture. The design of the study was cross sectional. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant relationship between the anamnestic dysfunction index as well as the clinical dysfunction index that represented the temporomandibular joint disorders and the posture of the head and neck seen radiographically.

  6. Depressive personality disorder, dysthymia, and their relationship to perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Porcerelli, John; Keaschuk, Rachel; Binienda, Juliann; Engle, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two studies in a nonclinical (n=105) and primary care outpatient sample (n=110), in which Depressive Personality Disorder (DPD), Dysthymia, and depression were assessed for their distinctive relationship with perfectionism. Results from both studies found that self-reported DPD, Dysthymia, and depressive symptoms were all intercorrelated, and that DPD, Dysthymia, and depressive symptoms were correlated with three dimensions of perfectionism-Concern over Mistakes, Doubts about Actions, and Parental Criticism. In the nonclinical sample, variance in measures of DPD was predicted by measures of perfectionism after controlling for depression and Dysthymia symptoms. A similar pattern of findings was observed in the primary care sample. This relationship with perfectionism did not occur when Dysthymia or depressive symptoms were predicted. Nevertheless, much of the variance in measures of DPD, Dysthymia, and depressive symptoms is associated with each other and not perfectionism. It is concluded that a common factor or set of factors underlies these disorders, but that DPD may be more strongly related to perfectionism than Dysthymia and depression. As a common factor(s) is identified, measures of DPD and Dysthymia may be refined, thereby increasing the discriminant validity of their measures.

  7. The relationship between neuroticism, major depressive disorder and comorbid disorders in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jing; He, Qiang; Li, Yihan; Xie, Dong; Zhu, Suoyu; Chen, Jing; Shen, Yuan; Zhang, Ning; Wei, Yan; Chen, Chunfeng; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Chengge; Li, Youhui; Ding, Jihong; Shen, Wenwu; Wang, Qian; Cao, Meiyue; Liu, Tiebang; Zhang, Jinbei; Duan, Huijun; Bao, Cheng; Ma, Ping; Zhou, Cong; Luo, Yanfang; Zhang, Fengzhi; Liu, Ying; Li, Yi; Jin, Guixing; Zhang, Yutang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yunchun; Zhao, Changyin; Li, Haiyan; Chen, Yiping; Shi, Shenxun; Kendler, Kenneth S; Flint, Jonathan; Wang, Xumei

    2011-12-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism is a risk factor for major depressive disorder (MDD), but this relationship has not been demonstrated in clinical samples from Asia. We examined a large-scale clinical study of Chinese Han women with recurrent major depression and community-acquired controls. Elevated levels of neuroticism increased the risk for lifetime MDD (with an odds ratio of 1.37 per SD), contributed to the comorbidity of MDD with anxiety disorders, and predicted the onset and severity of MDD. Our findings largely replicate those obtained in clinical populations in Europe and US but differ in two ways: we did not find a relationship between melancholia and neuroticism; we found lower mean scores for neuroticism (3.6 in our community control sample). Our findings do not apply to MDD in community-acquired samples and may be limited to Han Chinese women. It is not possible to determine whether the association between neuroticism and MDD reflects a causal relationship. Neuroticism acts as a risk factor for MDD in Chinese women, as it does in the West and may particularly predispose to comorbidity with anxiety disorders. Cultural factors may have an important effect on its measurement. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Relationship between movement disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder : beyond the obsessive-compulsive-tic phenotype. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fibbe, Lieneke A.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; Van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and symptoms (OC symptoms) are associated with tic disorders and share an aetiological relationship. The extent to which OCD/OC symptoms are correlated with other hyperkinetic movement disorders is unclear. The aim of this review was to investigate this

  9. Relationship between movement disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: beyond the obsessive-compulsive-tic phenotype. A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fibbe, L.A.; Cath, D.C.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Tijssen, M.A.J.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and symptoms (OC symptoms) are associated with tic disorders and share an aetiological relationship. The extent to which OCD/OC symptoms are correlated with other hyperkinetic movement disorders is unclear. The aim of this review was to investigate

  10. Comparative study of attachment relationships in young children with symptoms of externalizing disorders: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Najafi Shoar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the relationship of attachment between children with externalizing disorder (ADHD and less conflict and conduct disorder was performed with normal children. And the correlation was causalcomparative research design. The study population included all male students in Year 94 was 12.7 years in Tabriz To this aim, and to a multi-stage random sampling method, a sample of 200 (150 patients with symptoms and 50 normal KCAQ people were selected and CSI-4 was performed on them. The data were analyzed using ANOVA. The results showed that children with externalizing disorders and normal children in terms of attachment there is a significant difference (P <0/005. So that children with attention disorders and children with the disorder more or less active and less conflict in relationships have insecure attachment styles. Another finding of the study showed that children with conduct disorder, avoidant, ambivalent insecure attachment relationships are the common children are secure attachment relationships. Thus, the results of this study have practical implications in clinical areas to the extent that the design of such attachment-based interventions are necessary.

  11. Relationship of neurotransmitters to the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2008-01-01

    A relationship appears to exist between the 3 main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) and specific symptoms of major depressive disorder. Specific symptoms are associated with the increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitters, which suggests that specific symptoms of depression could be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanisms, and subsequently specific antidepressant drugs could target symptom-specific neurotransmitters. Research on electroconvulsive therapy has supported a correlation between neurotransmitters and depression symptoms. A 2-dimensional model of neurotransmitter functions is discussed that describes depression as a mixture of 2 separate components--negative affect and the loss of positive affect--that can be considered in relation to the 3 amine neurotransmitters. Owing to the different methods of action of available antidepressant agents and the depression symptoms thought to be associated with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, current treatments can be targeted toward patients' specific symptoms.

  12. examining the relationship between anxiety disorders and depression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    It is meaningful to distinguish anxiety and depression both as symptoms and as syndromes ... disorder). Anxiety, as a symptom, is a feeling of apprehension caused by anticipation of danger ... disorder. In medical disorders or substance-.

  13. Living with bipolar disorder: the impact on patients, spouses, and their marital relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Danan, Dor; Bersudsky, Yuly; Osher, Yamima

    2016-03-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder are characterized by an unusually high divorce rate. As such, the purpose of the present study was to uncover information relating specifically to the impact of bipolar disorder on patients and spouses individually, and on the marital relationship from the perspectives of both patients and spouses. Eleven patients with bipolar disorder and ten spouses were interviewed separately about the impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their marital relationship. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The impact of bipolar disorder for spouses included self-sacrifice, caregiving burden, emotional impact, and a sense of personal evolution. The impact of bipolar disorder on patients included an emotional impact, responsibility for self-care, and struggling socially and developmentally. When comparing patient and spouse perspectives on the impact of the disorder, neither the patient nor the spouse was able to accurately assess the impact of the disorder on their partner's lives. The impact of bipolar disorder on the relationship included volatility in the relationship, strengthening the relationship, weakening the relationship, and family planning. The research indicated that patients and partners alike struggle with the tremendous impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their relationships. Given the high rates of divorce and volatility in these relationships, healthcare professionals can provide (or refer to) emotional and practical support both to patients and spouses on their own, and as a couple in their clinics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The relationship of temporomandibular disorders with headaches: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Nilüfer Cakir; Ozkan, Fatih

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the incidence of the concurrent existence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and headaches. Forty patients (36 female, 4 male, mean age: 29.9±9.6 years) clinically diagnosed with TMD were screened. Patient records were analyzed regarding: range of mouth opening, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) noises, pain on palpation of the TMJ and masticatory muscles and neck and upper back muscles, and magnetic resonance imaging of the TMJ. According to patient records, a total of 40 (66.6%) patients were diagnosed with TMD among 60 patients with headache. Thirty-two (53%) patients had TMJ internal derangement (ID), 8 (13%) patients had only myofascial pain dysfunction (MPD) and 25 (41.6%) patients had concurrent TMJ ID/MPD. There were statistically significant relationships between the number of tender masseter muscles and MPD patients (p=0.04) and between the number of tender medial pterygoid muscles and patients with reducing disc displacement (RDD) (p=0.03). The TMJ and associated orofacial structures should be considered as possible triggering or perpetuating factors for headaches, especially tension-type. There might be a significant connection between TMD and headache. However, most medical and dental practitioners are unaware of this relationship. Therefore, a careful evaluation of the TMJ and associated orofacial structures is required for a correct interpretation of the craniofacial pain in headache patients, and these patients should be managed with a multidisciplinary approach.

  15. Relationship of quality of life with disability grade in obsessive compulsive disorder and dysthymic disorder

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    N V Roopesh Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of information on the relationship of quality of life (QOL in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and dysthymic disorder (DD with disability grade in India. Aim: To assess the relation of QOL with disability level in OCD and DD. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted in a medical institution in Davanagere, Karnataka, India. Data was collected by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Text Revision (DSM IV TR criteria, WHO QOL BREF and IDEAS. Relationship between disability grade and QOL was assessed by independent sample t test. Results: Mild disabled OCD patients had a significantly better QOL in the Q1 domain i.e. perception on quality of life as compared to moderately disabled patients ( P 0.05. But, QOL score in physical domain showed significant difference across disability grades (56.00, SD = 6.89; 48.50, SD = 12.28 in DD, but not in other domains. Conclusion: Perception of QOL is better in those with mild disability in OCD, but in DD, physical domain of QOL score is more in mild disability compared to moderate disability.

  16. The relationship between challenging parenting behaviour and childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Rebecca S; Dodd, Helen F; Majdandžić, Mirjana; de Vente, Wieke; Morris, Talia; Byrow, Yulisha; Bögels, Susan M; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2016-01-15

    This research investigates the relationship between challenging parenting behaviour and childhood anxiety disorders proposed by Bögels and Phares (2008). Challenging parenting behaviour involves the playful encouragement of children to go beyond their own limits, and may decrease children's risk for anxiety (Bögels and Phares, 2008). Parents (n=164 mothers and 144 fathers) of 164 children aged between 3.4 and 4.8 years participated in the current study. A multi-method, multi-informant assessment of anxiety was used, incorporating data from diagnostic interviews as well as questionnaire measures. Parents completed self-report measures of their parenting behaviour (n=147 mothers and 138 fathers) and anxiety (n=154 mothers and 143 fathers). Mothers reported on their child's anxiety via questionnaire as well as diagnostic interview (n=156 and 164 respectively). Of these children, 74 met criteria for an anxiety disorder and 90 did not. Fathers engaged in challenging parenting behaviour more often than mothers. Both mothers' and fathers' challenging parenting behaviour was associated with lower report of child anxiety symptoms. However, only mothers' challenging parenting behaviour was found to predict child clinical anxiety diagnosis. Shared method variance from mothers confined the interpretation of these results. Moreover, due to study design, it is not possible to delineate cause and effect. The finding with respect to maternal challenging parenting behaviour was not anticipated, prompting replication of these results. Future research should investigate the role of challenging parenting behaviour by both caregivers as this may have implications for parenting interventions for anxious children. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship of bipolar disorder with psychiatric comorbidity in the postpartum period-a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder

    2018-04-01

    Childbirth can trigger a variety of psychiatric disorders; however, no disorder is as profoundly affected by childbirth as bipolar disorder. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity especially anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and substance use disorders are quite high in individuals with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this scoping review is to ascertain the effect of childbirth on the relationship between the onset of bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. On June 27, 2017, a search of the Medline, PsycINFO, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, and ISI-Web of Science (WOS) databases was performed using the terms mental disorders, mental disease, major depressive disorder, major depression, depression, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, comorbidity, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders, reactive attachment disorder, childbirth, parturition, puerperium, postpartum, postpartum period and postnatal period. Reference lists of identified papers were manually searched, and all relevant papers published in English were included. A total of eight relevant articles were identified and included in the review. There is some evidence to suggest that occurrence of certain psychiatric disorders in the postpartum period may predict later onset of bipolar disorder. It is unknown whether childbirth raises the risk of postpartum recurrence of comorbid disorders. Whether patients who have past histories of psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for onset of bipolar disorder in the postpartum period also remains unclear. Additional research is needed to increase our understanding of the impact of childbirth on bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of this issue could lead to more accurate and timely detection, improved treatment planning, and optimal delivery of care for these disorders.

  18. The relationship between epilepsy, sleep disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Kalil Neto; Renan Noschang; Magda Lahorgue Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the relationship between epilepsy, sleep disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Bibliographic search: A literature search of the PubMed database was performed using the following key words: epilepsy, sleep, and ADHD. In total, 91 articles were located in PubMed, 34 were selected for abstract reading and twelve articles were reviewed, in which the main objectives were examine the relationship between epilepsy, sleep and ADHD from several perspe...

  19. The Relationships between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Problematic Drug Use (PDU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD) and problematic drug use (PDU). The review considers the main debates around the structure and aetiology of ADHD and the main theoretical frameworks offered to explain the…

  20. Military-related posttraumatic stress disorder and intimate relationship behaviors: a developing dyadic relationship model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlock, April A; Grimesey, Jackie; Sayre, George

    2014-07-01

    The protracted conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan and an all-volunteer military has resulted in multiple war zone deployments for many service members. While quick redeployment turnaround has left little time for readjustment for either the service member or family, dealing with the long-term sequelae of combat exposure often leaves families and intimate partners ill-prepared for years after deployments. Using a modified grounded theory approach, digitally recorded couple interviews of 23 couples were purposefully selected from a larger sample of 441 couples to better understand the impact of war zone deployment on the couple. The veteran sample was recruited from a randomly selected cohort of men in treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Overall, it was found when veterans experiencing deployment-related PTSD reenter or start new intimate relationships they may bring with them a unique cluster of interrelated issues which include PTSD symptoms, physical impairment, high rates of alcohol and/or drug abuse, and psychological and physical aggression. These factors contributed to a dynamic of exacerbating conflict. How these couples approached relationship qualities of mutuality, balanced locus of control and weakness tolerance across six axes of caregiving, disability, responsibility, trauma, communication, and community impacted the couple's capacity to communicate and resolve conflict. This dyadic relationship model is used to help inform implications for clinical practice. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  1. Relationship Between Orthodontics and Temporomandibular Disorders: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes Ortega, Ana Carolina Bannwart; Pozza, Daniel Humberto; Rocha Rodrigues, Luciane Lacerda Franco; Guimarães, Antônio Sergio

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between the orthodontic treatment of Class II malocclusion and the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A total of 40 patients was evaluated at four time points: the day before the start of treatment employing bilateral Class II elastics (baseline), as well as at 24 hours, 1 week, and 1 month after the start of treatment. The development of TMD pain complaints in the orofacial region and changes in the range of mouth opening were assessed at these times. Shapiro-Wilk, McNemar, and Friedman tests with 5% significance level were used to analyze the data. The treatment produced pain of a transitory, moderate intensity, but there was no significant change from baseline after 1 month. There were no restrictions in the range of jaw motion or any evidence of limitations in mouth opening. Orthodontic treatment with bilateral Class II elastics does not cause significant orofacial pain or undesirable changes in the range of mouth opening. Furthermore, this modality of orthodontic treatment was not responsible for inducing TMD.

  2. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  3. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury, Sleep Disorders, and Psychiatric Disorders: An Underrecognized Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Morse

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is commonplace among pediatric patients and has a complex, but intimate relationship with psychiatric disease and disordered sleep. Understanding the factors that influence the risk for the development of TBI in pediatrics is a critical component of beginning to address the consequences of TBI. Features that may increase risk for experiencing TBI sometimes overlap with factors that influence the development of post-concussive syndrome (PCS and recovery course. Post-concussive syndrome includes physical, psychological, cognitive and sleep–wake dysfunction. The comorbid presence of sleep–wake dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms can lead to a more protracted recovery and deleterious outcomes. Therefore, a multidisciplinary evaluation following TBI is necessary. Treatment is generally symptom specific and mainly based on adult studies. Further research is necessary to enhance diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as improve the understanding of contributing pathophysiology for the shared development of psychiatric disease and sleep–wake dysfunction following TBI.

  5. The relationship between sensory processing and anxiety on cars scale in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Neda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by deficits in social interactions, social communication, stereotyped behavior associated with sensory disorders occurring before the age of 3. There has been a growing trend of this neurodevelopmental disorder in recent years. Although the sensory processing problems have been noticed since the first descriptions of autism spectrum disorders, it is only the DSM-5, diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, that includes sensory problems, as the crucial symptom in diagnostic profile of autism spectrum disorder. Objective: To establish the relationship between functional areas related to sensory processing and anxiety, as well as to determine the degree of autistic disorder in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Method: 42 participants, adolescents and adults with severe autism disorder and intellectual disability, aged 15-35, of both sexes from Belgrade were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS used to determine the degree of autistic disorder. The following functional areas were compared: sensory interests and anxiety in adolescents and adults with autistic spectrum of both sexes. Results: The results indicated the existence of the relationship between anxiety and unusual sensory interests and the severity of autism spectrum disorder. The results showed that there was a correlation between visual perception and the level of intellectual functioning, especially of the severity of autistic disorder and visual perception. Conclusion: These results indicate the reasons of the problems and difficulties in the field of general adaptation of the individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

  6. Relationship between movement disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder: beyond the obsessive-compulsive-tic phenotype. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibbe, Lieneke A; Cath, Danielle C; van den Heuvel, Odile A; Veltman, Dick J; Tijssen, Marina A J; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2012-06-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and symptoms (OC symptoms) are associated with tic disorders and share an aetiological relationship. The extent to which OCD/OC symptoms are correlated with other hyperkinetic movement disorders is unclear. The aim of this review was to investigate this co-occurrence and the extent to which OCD/OC symptoms and hyperkinetic movement disorders share a neurobiological basis. A systematic review was performed, specifically searching for OCD/OC symptom comorbidity in hyperkinetic movement disorders using case control studies, longitudinal studies and family based studies. The literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsycINFO databases. Heterogeneity of measurement instruments to detect OCD diagnosis and OC symptoms decreased comparability between studies. The most convincing evidence for a relationship was found between the choreas (Huntington's disease and Sydenham's chorea) and OCD/OC symptoms. Furthermore, elevated frequencies of OC symptoms were found in small case control series of dystonias. Small family based studies in dystonia subtypes modestly suggest shared familial/genetic relationships between OC symptoms and dystonia. Current data indicate a relationship between OCD/OC symptoms and the choreas. As OCD and the choreas have been associated with dysfunctional frontal-striatal circuits, the observed relationships might converge at the level of dysfunctions of these circuits. However, paucity of longitudinal and family studies hampers strong conclusions on the nature of the relationship. The relationship between OCD and movement disorders needs further elaboration using larger family based longitudinal studies and sound instruments to characterise OC symptomatology. This could lead to better understanding of the shared pathology between OCD and hyperkinetic movement disorders.

  7. Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Couple's Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Jennifer B.; Clopton, James R.; Hendrick, Susan S.

    2009-01-01

    Balancing the roles of parent and partner is challenging for most people and may be especially challenging when extra time and effort are required in the parenting role. The current research compared 25 couples whose children have autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with 20 couples whose children do not have developmental disorders. Comparisons were…

  8. Assessment of the relationship between stress and temporomandibular joint disorder in female students before university entrance exam (Konkour exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mottaghi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The parallel increase of temporomandibular disorders and anxiety between the two stages can suggest a possible relationship between anxiety and temporomandibular disorders. Therefore, the effect of anxiety in triggering temporomandibular disorder symptoms is probable.

  9. Relationship of personality disorders to the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E; Grilo, Carlos M; Keyes, Katherine M; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder comorbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (in 2001-2002) were reinterviewed 3 years later (in 2004-2005) to determine persistence and recurrence. Predictors included all DSM-IV personality disorders. Control variables included demographic characteristics, other axis I disorders, family and treatment histories, and previously established predictors of the course of major depressive disorder. A total of 15.1% of participants had persistent major depressive disorder, and 7.3% of those who remitted had a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that avoidant, borderline, histrionic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders all elevated the risk for persistence. With axis I comorbidity controlled, all personality disorders except histrionic personality disorder remained significant. With all other personality disorders controlled, borderline and schizotypal disorders remained significant predictors. In final, multivariate analyses that controlled for age at onset of major depressive disorder, the number of previous episodes, duration of the current episode, family history, and treatment, borderline personality disorder remained a robust predictor of major depressive disorder persistence. Neither personality disorders nor other clinical variables predicted recurrence. In this nationally representative sample of adults with major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder robustly predicted persistence, a finding that converges with recent clinical studies. Personality psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder, should be assessed in all patients with major depressive disorder, considered in prognosis, and addressed in treatment.

  10. The relationship between avoidant personality disorder and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2007-01-01

    The main explanatory hypothesis for the distinction between social phobia (SP) and avoidant personality disorder (APD) has been the severity continuum hypothesis, stating that APD only differs from SP in terms of severity of dysfunction and symptomatic distress, that is, social anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study aimed at a comprehensive evaluation of this hypothesis in a large sample (n = 2192) of thoroughly assessed patients, most of whom had a diagnosis of personality disorder. Social phobia was stronger associated with APD than with other personality disorders, and APD was stronger associated with SP than with other symptom disorders. Social phobia-pure patients had a higher level of global functioning and lower levels of general symptom distress and interpersonal problems than APD-pure patients. The 2 groups were similar on domains that pertain to social anxiety and introversion, but APD was associated with a broader array of symptoms and interpersonal problems and was substantially lower on the personality domain of conscientiousness. Avoidant personality disorder was stronger associated with eating disorders, and SP was stronger associated with panic disorder. The APD diagnosis seems to capture a broader constellation of symptoms and personality features pointing toward more severe personality dysfunction. Our findings suggest that the severity continuum hypothesis lacks specificity and exploratory power to account for both similarities and differences between SP and APD.

  11. Relationship of Personality Disorders to the Course of Major Depressive Disorder in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Keyes, Katherine; Geier, Timothy; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of specific personality disorder co-morbidity on the course of major depressive disorder in a nationally-representative sample. Method Data were drawn from 1,996 participants in a national survey. Participants who met criteria for major depressive disorder at baseline in face-to-face interviews (2001–2002) were re-interviewed three years later (2004–2005) to determine persistence and recurrence. Predictors included all DSM-IV personality disorders. Control variables included demographic characteristics, other Axis I disorders, family and treatment histories, and previously established predictors of the course of major depressive disorder. Results 15.1% of participants had persistent major depressive disorder and 7.3% of those who remitted had a recurrence. Univariate analyses indicated that avoidant, borderline, histrionic, paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal personality disorders all elevated the risk for persistence. With Axis I co-morbidity controlled, all but histrionic personality disorder remained significant. With all other personality disorders controlled, borderline and schizotypal remained significant predictors. In final, multivariate analyses that controlled for age at onset of major depressive disorder, number of previous episodes, duration of current episode, family history, and treatment, borderline personality disorder remained a robust predictor of major depressive disorder persistence. Neither personality disorders nor other clinical variables predicted recurrence. Conclusions In this nationally-representative sample of adults with major depressive disorder, borderline personality disorder robustly predicted persistence, a finding that converges with recent clinical studies. Personality psychopathology, particularly borderline personality disorder, should be assessed in all patients with major depressive disorder, considered in prognosis, and addressed in treatment. PMID:21245088

  12. Do bruxism and temporomandibular disorders have a cause-and-effect relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, F; Lavigne, G J

    1997-01-01

    Controversy continues to exist over the putative role of bruxism in the etiology of temporomandibular disorders. A commonly held concept is that bruxism leads to signs and symptoms characteristic of one or more of the subdiagnoses of temporomandibular disorders, while another hypothesis suggests that bruxism is a temporomandibular disorder itself that sometimes coexists with other forms of temporomandibular disorders. Following a thorough review of the literature in this article, it is concluded that the relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders is still unclear. Future research should examine longitudinal epidemiologic and clinical/experimental data to establish or refute a cause-and-effect relationship. In doing so, the existence of various sub-groups of temporomandibular disorders should be taken into account, and sleep-related bruxism should be discriminated from its daytime variant.

  13. Individuals with bipolar disorder and their relationship with the criminal justice system: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovet, Thomas; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Vaiva, Guillaume; Adins, Catherine; Thomas, Pierre; Amad, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and prevalent psychiatric disease. Poor outcomes include a high frequency of criminal acts, imprisonments, and repeat offenses. This critical review of the international literature examined several aspects of the complex relationship between individuals with bipolar disorder and the criminal justice system: risk factors for criminal acts, features of bipolar patients' incarceration, and their postrelease trajectories. Publications were obtained from the PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases by using the following MeSH headings: prison, forensic psychiatry, criminal law, crime, and bipolar disorder. Among patients with bipolar disorder, the frequency of violent criminal acts is higher than in the general population (odds ratio [OR]=2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.8-4.3). The frequency is higher among patients with bipolar disorder and a comorbid substance use disorder than among those without either disorder (OR=10.1, CI=5.3-19.2). As a result, the prevalence of bipolar disorder among prisoners is high (2%-7%). In prison, patients' bipolar disorder symptoms can complicate their relationship with prison administrators, leading to an increased risk of multiple incarcerations. Moreover, the risk of suicide increases for these prisoners. Criminal acts are common among patients with bipolar disorder and are often associated with problems such as addiction. Thus it is important to improve the diagnosis and treatment of inmates with bipolar disorder.

  14. An examination of the relationships between psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Kate Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, pre- and post-injury frequencies of disorders are variable, and their course, associated risk factors and relationship with psychosocial outcome are poorly understood due to methodological inconsistencies. No studies have prospectively examined the full range of Axis I psychiatric disorders using semi-structured clinical interview. Accordingly, the main aims of the current study were to (a) investigate t...

  15. Brain structure and the relationship with neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder : MRI studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hartberg, Cecilie Bhandari

    2011-01-01

    Brain structural abnormalities as well as neurocognitive dysfunction, are found in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder. Based on the fact that both brain structure and neurocognitive functioning are significantly heritable and affected in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, relationships between them are expected. However, previous studies report inconsistent findings. Also, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are classified as separate disease entities, but demonstrate overlap with reg...

  16. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  17. Relationship between Parental Attachment and Eating Disorders in an Inpatient and a College Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Hart, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Examined relationship between parental attachment and eating disorder symptoms for 68 inpatient women with eating disorders and for 162 college women. College women described themselves as more securely attached to parents and reported lower levels of weight and dieting preoccupation, bulimic behavior, and feelings of ineffectiveness. (Author/NB)

  18. Race, Disability, and Grade: Social Relationships in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi F.; Locke, Jill; Kasari, Connie; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Race is associated with social relationships among typically developing children; however, studies rarely examine the impact of race on social outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined how race (African American, Latino, Asian, or White) in conjunction with disability status (autism spectrum disorders or typically…

  19. Father–Child Longitudinal Relationship: Parental Monitoring and Internet Gaming Disorder in Chinese Adolescents

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    Binyuan Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although empirical studies have indicated that parents have an important role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents, longitudinal research on the parental predictors of Internet gaming disorder is lacking. We used a three-wave cross-lagged panel model to explore the reciprocal association between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, and examined the different impacts of mother– and father–child relationships on this association. A sample of 1490 adolescents aged 10–15 years (M = 12.03, SD = 1.59; 45.4% female completed assessments at all three points. The cross-lagged model revealed that (a parental monitoring at T1 predicted lower Internet gaming disorder at T2, and greater Internet gaming disorder at T2 predicted lower parental monitoring at T3; (b father–child relationship had a reciprocal, indirect effect on the relationship between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, while mother–child relationship did not. These findings suggest that the parental effects (e.g., higher parental monitoring and better father–child relationship might play a vital role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents.

  20. Father–Child Longitudinal Relationship: Parental Monitoring and Internet Gaming Disorder in Chinese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Binyuan; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Su, Qin; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    Although empirical studies have indicated that parents have an important role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents, longitudinal research on the parental predictors of Internet gaming disorder is lacking. We used a three-wave cross-lagged panel model to explore the reciprocal association between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, and examined the different impacts of mother– and father–child relationships on this association. A sample of 1490 adolescents aged 10–15 years (M = 12.03, SD = 1.59; 45.4% female) completed assessments at all three points. The cross-lagged model revealed that (a) parental monitoring at T1 predicted lower Internet gaming disorder at T2, and greater Internet gaming disorder at T2 predicted lower parental monitoring at T3; (b) father–child relationship had a reciprocal, indirect effect on the relationship between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, while mother–child relationship did not. These findings suggest that the parental effects (e.g., higher parental monitoring and better father–child relationship) might play a vital role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents. PMID:29467704

  1. Father-Child Longitudinal Relationship: Parental Monitoring and Internet Gaming Disorder in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Binyuan; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Wei; Su, Qin; Zhu, Jianjun; Jiang, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    Although empirical studies have indicated that parents have an important role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents, longitudinal research on the parental predictors of Internet gaming disorder is lacking. We used a three-wave cross-lagged panel model to explore the reciprocal association between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, and examined the different impacts of mother- and father-child relationships on this association. A sample of 1490 adolescents aged 10-15 years ( M = 12.03, SD = 1.59; 45.4% female) completed assessments at all three points. The cross-lagged model revealed that (a) parental monitoring at T1 predicted lower Internet gaming disorder at T2, and greater Internet gaming disorder at T2 predicted lower parental monitoring at T3; (b) father-child relationship had a reciprocal, indirect effect on the relationship between parental monitoring and Internet gaming disorder, while mother-child relationship did not. These findings suggest that the parental effects (e.g., higher parental monitoring and better father-child relationship) might play a vital role in preventing Internet gaming disorder in adolescents.

  2. Neurobiological and clinical relationship between psychiatric disorders and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, Marijana; Dordević, Veljko; Gregurek, Rudolf; Bulajić, Masa

    2010-06-01

    Pain is one of the most ubiquitous problems of today's world, its impact being far-reaching. Current conceptualizations of pain medicine adopt a bio-psycho-social perspective. In this model, pain is best described as an interactive, psycho-physiological behavioral pattern that cannot be divided into independent psycho-social and physical components. Neurophysiologic substrates of the pain experience can be broken down into the pain transmission elements emanating from peripheral, spinal, and supra-spinal processes. There are many complex mechanisms involved in pain processing within the central nervous system, being influenced by genetics, interaction of neurotransmitters and their receptors, and pain- augmenting and pain-inhibiting neural circuits. The patient's emotional experiences, beliefs and expectations may determine the outcome of treatment, and are fully emphasized in the focus of treatment interventions. There are several common psychiatric disorders accompanying and complicating the experience of pain that warrant clinical attention and that can be the focus of psychiatric treatment. These include depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, substance-related disorders and personality disorders. Complex and disabling pain conditions often require comprehensive pain treatment programs, involving interdisciplinary and multimodal treatment approaches. There are many roles that the psychiatrist can perform in the assessment and treatment of the patients with pain, individually tailored to meet the specific needs of the patient. Rational poly-pharmacy is of a high importance in the treatment of patients with chronic pain, with antidepressants and anticonvulsants contributing as the important adjuvant analgesic agents.

  3. Comorbidity of Anxiety Disorders and Substance Abusewith Bipolar Mood Disorders and Relationship with ClinicalCourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: Patients with bipolar mood disorder constitute a relatively large number of individuals hospitalized in psychiatric hospitals. This disorder is highly co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders and may effect their clinical course. The goal of this study was to determine the co-occurrence rate of anxiety disorders and substance abuse with bipolar mood disorders and their impact on clinical course. "n Methods: 153 bipolar patients (type I were selected among the hospitalized patients at Razi Psychiatric Hospital in Tabriz, Iran, from September 2007 to October 2008 through convenience sampling method. The participants were evaluated by a structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV criteria (SCID, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS. Results: Co-morbidity of anxiety disorders was 43% . Occurrence of anxiety disorders was 26% for obsessive-compulsive disorder, 24.8% for generalized anxiety disorder, 3.9% for phobia and 2% for panic disorder. Co-morbidity of substance abuse was 7.2% and the highest occurrence of substance abuse was 5.2% for alcoholism and 3.9% for opium. No significant difference was observed between the severity of disease and duration of hospitalization in bipolar patients with or without anxiety disorder. The severity of disease and duration of hospitalization in bipolar patients with substance abuse was higher compared to bipolar patients without substance abuse (P<0.05. "nConclusions: This study suggests that there is a high co-morbidity between anxiety disorders and substance abuse with bipolar disorder. Further, this study suggests that co-occurrence of substance abuse disorder with bipolar disorder increases the severity of the disease and duration of hospitalization.

  4. Parental bonding in men with alcohol disorders: a relationship with conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, P R; Sellman, D; Wells, E; Frampton, C M; Bushnell, J A; Oakley-Browne, M; Hornblow, A R

    1994-09-01

    Men from a clinical treatment setting suffering from alcohol dependence, and randomly selected men from the community diagnosed as having alcohol abuse and/or dependence, completed the Parental Bonding Instrument. The men from the alcohol treatment setting perceived both parents as having been uncaring and overprotective. In the general population sample, an uncaring and overprotective parental style was strongly associated with childhood conduct disorder, but not with alcohol disorder symptoms. This discrepancy in perceived parenting highlights the difficulties in extrapolating findings about aetiological factors for alcohol disorders from clinical samples. It also suggests that childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behaviour could influence which men with alcohol disorders receive inpatient treatment.

  5. Avoidant personality disorder and its relationship to social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, James

    2009-02-01

    This review summarizes past and recent findings in the empiric literature and the evolution of the concepts of avoidant personality disorder (APD) and social phobia (SP). APD is an internally consistent dimensional personality pathology that causes dysfunction that appears to be dimensional rather than a sudden jump in impairment after a certain number of criteria have been met. It has state and trait personality components. Evidence indicates that symptoms are at least partially treatable with psychological or pharmacologic interventions. APD and SP have similar symptoms and treatment response and identical genetics. We can conclude from the empiric evidence that no dividing line exists between APD and SP, with APD merely being the more severe form of the disorder. The best conceptualization is that APD is a dimensional personality pathology that in its attenuated form (SP) resembles an anxiety disorder.

  6. A Survey of Relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis and Hearing Disorders

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    Mohammad Hossein Baradaranfar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RA (rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic multisystem disease with a variety of systemic manifestations. One of these manifestations, is hearing disorder, so study of the relation between RA and hearing disorders is seem important. This was a case-control study which has done from December 2004 to August 2006. This study compared 50 patients with RA, with age, sex and job-matched as control. Audiometric tests in different frequencies show that hearing threshold in high frequencies specially in 8000 Hz had a significant difference between two groups, also acoustic reflexes were absent in case groups and had significant difference between two groups too. The evaluation of sensory neural hearing loss showed that this hearing loss is sensory not neural. Based on this study, frequent evaluation of audiometric tests is recommended for controlling hearing disorders by therapeutic and rehabilitation procedures in RA patients.

  7. The relationship between brain volumes and intelligence in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeker, Annabel; Abramovic, Lucija; Boks, Marco P.M.; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Kahn, René S.; van Haren, Neeltje E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder type-I (BD-I) patients show a lower Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and smaller brain volumes as compared with healthy controls. Considering that in healthy individuals lower IQ is related to smaller total brain volume, it is of interest to investigate whether IQ deficits in

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Conduct Disorder and Residential Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabat, Julia Cathcart; Lyons, John S.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    We examined the differential outcomes in residential treatment for youths with conduct disorder (CD)--with special attention paid to interactions with age and gender--in a sample of children and adolescents in 50 residential treatment centers and group homes across Illinois. Multi-disciplinary teams rated youths ages 6-20 (N = 457) on measures of…

  9. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  10. Relationship between EDNOS and its subtypes and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, M F; Zanarini, M C

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and four well-defined subtypes of this disorder found in a sample of female borderline patients. The lifetime prevalence of EDNOS and its various subtypes among 233 female borderline patients and 46 female Axis II comparison subjects was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis I disorders. Thirty-three percent of female borderline patients met DSM-III-R criteria for EDNOS at some point in their lives. Of these 76 women, 20% reported a pattern of restricting without low weight, 37% reported a pattern of binging without purging, 37% reported a pattern of purging without binging, and 33% reported a pattern of low weight without loss of menses. However, less than 25% of these 76 borderline women had ever met criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. The results of this study suggest that EDNOS is a separate cluster of eating disorders among borderline women, rather than a prodromal or residual form of a more clear-cut case of anorexia or bulimia nervosa. Copyright 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Ghaderi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987 and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of personality disorders is among students. It was also found that there existed a positive correlation between schizoid, avoidant, dependent, schizotypal, borderline and paranoid personality disorders with Neuroticism factor (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders with extraversion factor (r = .1 and significant positive correlation between histrionic disorders and extraversion (r = .1. There was a significant negative correlation between dependent personality disorder and Openness factor (r = .1 , significant negative correlation between narcissistic, antisocial and paranoid personality disorders with agree ableness factor (r = .1 and finally, significant negative correlation between antisocial, passive-aggressive and borderline personality disorders with accountability factor (r = .1and a significant positive correlation between accountability factor and compulsive personality disorder (r = .1. Conclusion: The results suggest a prevalence of personality disorders among students and significant correlation between some disorders with personality factors. Further studies in this area could provide more insightful findings in the field.

  12. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts: relationships to bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter R; Light, Katrina J; Rowe, Sarah L; Cloninger, C Robert; Kennedy, Martin A

    2010-03-01

    Self-mutilation has traditionally been associated with borderline personality disorder, and seldom examined separately from suicide attempts. Clinical experience suggests that self-mutilation is common in bipolar disorder. A family study was conducted on the molecular genetics of depression and personality, in which the proband had been treated for depression. All probands and parents or siblings were interviewed with a structured interview and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. Fourteen per cent of subjects interviewed reported a history of self-mutilation, mostly by wrist cutting. Self-mutilation was more common in bipolar I disorder subjects then in any other diagnostic groups. In multiple logistic regression self-mutilation was predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance, but not by borderline personality disorder. Furthermore, the relatives of non-bipolar depressed probands with self-mutilation had higher rates of bipolar I or II disorder and higher rates of self-mutilation. Sixteen per cent of subjects reported suicide attempts and these were most common in those with bipolar I disorder and in those with borderline personality disorder. On multiple logistic regression, however, only mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance predicted suicide attempts. Suicide attempts, unlike self-mutilation, were not familial. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts are only partially overlapping behaviours, although both are predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance. Self-mutilation has a particularly strong association with bipolar disorder. Clinicians need to think of bipolar disorder, not borderline personality disorder, when assessing an individual who has a history of self-mutilation.

  13. Psychiatric disorders moderate the relationship between insomnia and cognitive problems in military soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlow, Janeese A; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Boland, Elaine M; Brewster, Glenna S; Gehrman, Philip R

    2017-10-15

    There has been a great deal of research on the comorbidity of insomnia and psychiatric disorders, but much of the existing data is based on small samples and does not assess the full diagnostic criteria for each disorder. Further, the exact nature of the relationship between these conditions and their impact on cognitive problems are under-researched in military samples. Data were collected from the All Army Study of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Service members (unweighted N = 21, 449; weighted N = 674,335; 18-61 years; 13.5% female). Participants completed the Brief Insomnia Questionnaire to assess for insomnia disorder and a self-administered version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Screening Scales to assess for psychiatric disorders and cognitive problems. Military soldiers with current major depressive episode (MDE) had the highest prevalence of insomnia disorder (INS; 85.0%), followed by current generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 82.6%) and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 69.7%), respectively. Significant interactions were found between insomnia and psychiatric disorders; specifically, MDE, PTSD, and GAD status influenced the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems. Cross-sectional nature of the assessment and the absence of a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Psychiatric disorders moderated the relationship between insomnia and memory/concentration problems, suggesting that psychiatric disorders contribute unique variance to cognitive problems even though they are associated with insomnia disorder. Results highlight the importance of considering both insomnia and psychiatric disorders in the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits in military soldiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship between Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Aggressive Behaviour in Preschool Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakouros, Efthymios; Maniadaki, Katerina; Karaba, Rania

    2005-01-01

    Research regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) among preschoolers is limited. This study explored prevalence rates of AD/HD on a community-based sample of preschoolers in Athens. Moreover, it examined the relationship between AD/HD and aggressive behaviour and explored sex differences in this relationship. Nursery teachers…

  15. Attention-Deficit/Hperactivity Disorder Symptom Levels and Romantic Relationship Quality in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R.; Kuryluk, Amanda D.; Whitton, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association.…

  16. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  17. The Power of Positivity: Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Ghilain, Christine; Alessandri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that…

  18. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains--behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement--and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a…

  19. Structural relationships among attachment insecurity, alexithymia, and body esteem in women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hill, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Patients with eating disorders tend to experience low levels of body esteem. To assess the psychosocial processes that may predict low body esteem in these individuals, we assessed the structural interrelations among attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, alexithymia, and body esteem in a cross-sectional sample of patients with eating disorders. We tested a model in which alexithymia mediates the relationship between attachment insecurity and body esteem. Participants were 300 women with anorexia nervosa (n = 109), bulimia nervosa (n = 130), and eating disorders not otherwise specified (n = 61) who completed pretreatment self-report questionnaires at intake for a day hospital treatment program. We found a direct and negative relationship between attachment anxiety and body esteem. Additionally, attachment avoidance had an indirect negative relationship to body esteem through alexithymia. These results indicate that therapists may attend to attachment insecurity and affective regulation strategies when addressing body image issues in patients with eating disorders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Embodiment Mediates the Relationship between Avoidant Attachment and Eating Disorder Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Castellini, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Volpe, Umberto; De Riso, Francesco; Nigro, Massimiliano; Zamponi, Francesco; Mancini, Milena; Stanghellini, Giovanni; Monteleone, Palmiero; Treasure, Janet; Maj, Mario

    2017-11-01

    The overvaluation of body shape and weight of persons with eating disorders (EDs) is putatively explained by a disturbance in the way they experience their own body (embodiment). Moreover, attachment disorders seem to promote the use of body as source for self-definition. Therefore, we assessed the role of embodiment in the connection between attachment styles and ED psychopathology. One-hundred and thirteen ED patients and 117 healthy subjects completed the Identity and Eating Disorders (IDEA) Questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale. Eating disorder patients displayed IDEA, EDI-2 and Experiences in Close Relationships scores significantly higher than controls. IDEA total and subtotal scores mediated entirely the influence of avoidant attachment on EDI-2 interoceptive awareness and impulsivity. These findings demonstrate a relationship between insecure attachment and disorders of identity and embodiment and point to embodiment as a possible mediator between avoidant attachment and specific ED psychopathological traits. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Economic Stress and Mental Health: The Relationship Between the Stock Market and Neurotic Disorder Doctor Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chih; Lin, Ying-Tzu; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the stock market and the neurotic disorder doctor visits. We use aggregate data, partition the population by age and gender and examine the impact of changes in the stock market on neurotic disorders. Using doctor visits as a proxy measure of morbidity, we find evidence of some relationship between neurotic disorder morbidity and stock market variations. A stock market falling in a single day and the accumulation of daily stock market drops are both associated with more neurotic disorder doctor visits. We also observe more neurotic disorder doctor visits during periods of a low stock index for the elderly, regardless of gender. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Stroke and sleep-disordered breathing: A relationship under construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Olga; Arboix, Adrià

    2016-02-16

    The association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cardiovascular risk has been the focus of attention in recent years. Sleep disorders are emerging risk factors for cardiovascular disease and have been related to the whole spectrum of stroke, including transient ischemic attack, ischemic cerebral infarction and intracerebral haemorrhage. It has been shown that lacunar stroke or lacunar infarctions affecting the internal capsule or the protuberance are associated with a higher frequency of SDB. Acute stroke patients with associated SDB have a worse prognosis and a higher mortality as compared to patients with first-ever stroke without SDB. Preliminary studies provide evidence of the usefulness of treatment with continuous positive airway pressure when SDB is present in stroke patients.

  3. Violent men in couple relationships: mental disorders and typological profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Echeburúa, Enrique; J. Amor, Pedro; de Corral, Paz

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this theoretical paper are to analyze the mental disorders and the most relevant psychological deficits of intimate partner violent men, as well as to identify different types of batterers according to the classifications of Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) and of Fernandez- Montalvo and Echeburúa (1997). A review of multiple theoretical and empirical papers has been carried out with this purpose. The main results show that the aggressors usually show psychological deficits –la...

  4. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoodloo, Safa; Ghodousi, Arash; Karimzadeh, Taghi

    2012-06-01

    Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient's condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R) score. Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%), history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%), and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility) in patients (40%) were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25) in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  5. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Maghsoodloo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  6. The role of conduct disorder in the relationship between alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J D; Lynskey, M T; Madden, P A F; Nelson, E C; Few, L R; Bucholz, K K; Statham, D J; Martin, N G; Heath, A C; Agrawal, A

    2015-12-01

    Genetic influences contribute significantly to co-morbidity between conduct disorder and substance use disorders. Estimating the extent of overlap can assist in the development of phenotypes for genomic analyses. Multivariate quantitative genetic analyses were conducted using data from 9577 individuals, including 3982 complete twin pairs and 1613 individuals whose co-twin was not interviewed (aged 24-37 years) from two Australian twin samples. Analyses examined the genetic correlation between alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and cannabis abuse/dependence and the extent to which the correlations were attributable to genetic influences shared with conduct disorder. Additive genetic (a(2) = 0.48-0.65) and non-shared environmental factors explained variance in substance use disorders. Familial effects on conduct disorder were due to additive genetic (a(2) = 0.39) and shared environmental (c(2) = 0.15) factors. All substance use disorders were influenced by shared genetic factors (rg = 0.38-0.56), with all genetic overlap between substances attributable to genetic influences shared with conduct disorder. Genes influencing individual substance use disorders were also significant, explaining 40-73% of the genetic variance per substance. Among substance users in this sample, the well-documented clinical co-morbidity between conduct disorder and substance use disorders is primarily attributable to shared genetic liability. Interventions targeted at generally reducing deviant behaviors may address the risk posed by this shared genetic liability. However, there is also evidence for genetic and environmental influences specific to each substance. The identification of these substance-specific risk factors (as well as potential protective factors) is critical to the future development of targeted treatment protocols.

  7. The relationship between compulsive buying, eating disorder symptoms, and temperament in a sample of female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Bijttebier, Patricia; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina; Mueller, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between compulsive buying (CB), eating disorder symptoms, and temperament (controlling for depression) in a sample of female students. We assessed 211 female undergraduate students using the Compulsive Buying Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System scales, the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, and the Physical Health Questionnaire-Depression. The results show a positive association between CB and the Eating Disorder Inventory-II drive for thinness and bulimia subscales. Both CB and eating disorder symptoms were related to low levels of effortful control. Finally, CB was also related to high levels of Behavioral Activation Scale reactivity (impulsivity), whereas eating disorder symptoms (especially drive for thinness) were more strongly related to high levels of Behavioral Inhibition Scale reactivity (anxiety). The implications of these findings for the treatment of CB and eating disorder symptoms will be discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  9. Bipolar disorder type I and II show distinct relationships between cortical thickness and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, C; Rolstad, S; Petrovic, P; Ekman, C-J; Sparding, T; Ingvar, M; Landén, M

    2018-06-15

    Frontal cortical abnormalities and executive function impairment co-occur in bipolar disorder. Recent studies have shown that bipolar subtypes differ in the degree of structural and functional impairments. The relationships between cognitive performance and cortical integrity have not been clarified and might differ across patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and healthy subjects. Using a vertex-wise whole-brain analysis, we investigated how cortical integrity, as measured by cortical thickness, correlates with executive performance in patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and controls (N = 160). We found focal associations between executive function and cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex in bipolar II patients and controls, but not in bipolar I disorder. In bipolar II patients, we observed additional correlations in lateral prefrontal and occipital regions. Our findings suggest that bipolar disorder patients show altered structure-function relationships, and importantly that those relationships may differ between bipolar subtypes. The findings are line with studies suggesting subtype-specific neurobiological and cognitive profiles. This study contributes to a better understanding of brain structure-function relationships in bipolar disorder and gives important insights into the neuropathophysiology of diagnostic subtypes. © 2018 The Authors Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. Objective: In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Methods: Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. Results: The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. Conclusion: The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  11. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Araújo, Célia; Nery-Fernandes, Fabiana; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Taveres; Moraes, Walter André Dos Santos; Montaño, Maria Beatriz Marcondes Macedo; Rocha, Marlos; Quarantini, Lucas C; Schoedl, Aline; Pupo, Mariana; Mello, Marcelo F; Andreoli, Sergio B; Miranda-Scippa, Angela; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mari, Jair J; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2012-01-01

    New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP) and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia) were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  12. Relationship between affective temperaments and aggression in euthymic patients with bipolar mood disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, B; Dernovšek, M Z; Sprah, L; Tavcar, R; Perugi, G; Akiskal, H S

    2015-03-15

    So far there is a scarce of studies dealing with the relationship between different aspects of aggressive behaviour and affective temperaments among various mood disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore in a group of patients with affective mood disorders the relationship between affective temperaments and aggression. 100 consecutive outpatients in euthymic phase of mood disorders (46 with bipolar disorder-type I, 18 with bipolar disorder-type II and 36 with major depressive disorder) were self-assessed with the Aggression Questionnaire and the short version of Slovenian Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego - Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A). The factorial analysis of the TEMPS-A subscales revealed 2 main factors: Factor 1 (prominent cyclothymic profile) consisted of cyclothymic, depressive, irritable, and anxious temperaments and Factor 2 (prominent hyperthymic profile) which was represented by the hyperthymic temperament, and by depressive and anxious temperaments as negative components. Patients with prominent cyclothymic profile got their diagnosis later in their life and had significantly higher mean scores on anger and hostility (non-motor aggressive behaviour) compared with patients with prominent hyperthymic profile. We included patients with different mood disorders, therefore the sample selection may influence temperamental and aggression profiles. We used self-report questionnaires which can elicit sociable desirable answers. Anger and hostility could represent stable personality characteristics of prominent cyclothymic profile that endure even in remission. It seems that distinct temperamental profile could serve as a good diagnostic and prognostic value for non-motor aspects of aggressive behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of spinal disorders and their relationships with age and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshami, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the period prevalence of spinal disorders referred to physical therapy in a university hospital over a 3-year period, and to determine the relationships of common spinal disorders with patients’ age and gender. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Computer data of all new electronic referrals from January 2011 to December 2013 were retrieved and reviewed. The computer data included demographic information, referring facility, and diagnosis/disorder. Results: One thousand six hundred and sixty-nine (28.1%) of all referred patients (5929) had spinal disorders. The most common disorders affected the lumbar spine (53.1%) and cervical spine (27.1%), and pain was the most common disorder. Neck pain (60.5%) was more common in patients spondylosis was common (~30%) in the >30 age groups. Spondylosis and low back pain were more prevalent in women (7.8% and 76.2%) than in men (73.9% and 3.3%). Conclusion: Spinal disorders were common compared with other disorders. Low back pain and neck pain were the most common spinal disorders. Age and gender were weakly related to some of the disorders that affected the lumbar and cervical spine. PMID:25987116

  14. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Gaming Disorder in Young Adults: Mediating Effects of Interpersonal Relationships and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyera; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Aruem; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2018-03-06

    Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young's Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11), interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI). We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults' IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression) but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships).

  15. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Gaming Disorder in Young Adults: Mediating Effects of Interpersonal Relationships and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyera; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Aruem; Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young’s Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11), interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI). We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults’ IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression) but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships). PMID:29509708

  16. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Gaming Disorder in Young Adults: Mediating Effects of Interpersonal Relationships and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyera Ryu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to explore relationships between impulsivity, interpersonal relationships, depression, and Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD symptoms. Methods: A total of 118 young adults participated in this study: 67 IGD patients who met five or more of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for IGD and 56 healthy controls. We administered questionnaires to assess IGD symptoms (Young’s Internet Addiction Test; Y-IAT, impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale; BIS-11, interpersonal relationship (Relationship Change Scale; RCS, and depression (Beck Depression Inventory; BDI. We used PROCESS macro in SPSS to perform mediation analysis. Results: IGD symptom was positively related to depression and impulsivity, and negatively related to the quality of interpersonal relationships. Mediation analysis revealed full mediation effects of interpersonal relationships and depression on the association between impulsivity and IGD symptoms in the IGD group. Specifically, even after adjusting for gender as a covariate, high impulsivity was associated with greater difficulty with interpersonal relationships; which further affected depression and increased the risk of IGD. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of early intervention in IGD patients, particularly in young adults with high impulsivity. When intervening in adults’ IGD, we should consider not only individual factors (e.g., depression but also socioenvironmental factors (e.g., interpersonal relationships.

  17. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: Implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Carol S; Hong, Barry A; Alpers, David H

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder). One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness. Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions. Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in

  18. Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: Implications for treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol S North; Barry A Hong; David H Alpers

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits the links between psychopathology and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), discusses the rational use of antidepressants as well as non-pharmacological approaches to the management of IBS, and suggests guidelines for the treatment of IBS based on an interdisciplinary perspective from the present state of knowledge. Relevant published literature on psychiatric disorders, especially somatization disorder, in the context of IBS, and literature providing direction for management is reviewed, and new directions are provided from findings in the literature. IBS is a heterogeneous syndrome with various potential mechanisms responsible for its clinical presentations. IBS is typically complicated with psychiatric issues, unexplained symptoms, and functional syndromes in other organ systems. Most IBS patients have multiple complaints without demonstrated cause, and that these symptoms can involve systems other than the intestine, e.g. Bones and joints (fibromyalgia, temporomandibular joint syndrome), heart (non-cardiac chest pain), vascular (post-menopausal syndrome), and brain (anxiety, depression). Most IBS patients do not have psychiatric illness per se, but a range of psychoform (psychological complaints in the absence of psychiatric disorder) symptoms that accompany their somatoform (physical symptoms in the absence of medical disorder) complaints. It is not correct to label IBS patients as psychiatric patients (except those more difficult patients with true somatization disorder).One mode of treatment is unlikely to be universally effective or to resolve most symptoms. The techniques of psychotherapy or cognitive-behavioral therapy can allow IBS patients to cope more readily with their illness.Specific episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders can be managed as appropriate for those conditions.Medications designed to improve anxiety or depression are not uniformly useful for psychiatric complaints in IBS

  19. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  20. An examination of the relationship between binge eating disorder and insomnia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Therese E; Van Wijk, Megan; Singleton, Christopher; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2018-05-01

    Although studies on sleep difficulties in binge eating disorder (BED) have produced inconsistent findings, research has linked poor sleep to the presence of related concerns (e.g., obesity, anxiety, and depression). To clarify the relationship between BED and sleep problems, this study aimed to compare insomnia symptoms in individuals with BED and those with no history of an eating disorder (NED). An adult community sample of individuals with BED (N = 68) and NED (N = 78) completed measures of insomnia, depression and anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. Individuals with BED reported significantly greater insomnia symptoms than the NED group. The relationship between BED and insomnia symptoms was partially mediated by anxiety. Depression fully mediated the positive association between insomnia symptom severity and binge frequency in the BED group. These findings suggest that depression, anxiety, and sleep are important constructs to consider in BED development and presentation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  1. Relationship between 5-HT function and impulsivity and aggression in male offenders with personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dolan, M; Anderson, I M; Deakin, J F

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced serotonergic (5-HT) function and elevated testosterone have been reported in aggressive populations.AIMS: To investigate relationships between impulsivity, aggression, 5-HT function and testosterone in male offenders with personality disorders.METHOD: Sixty male offenders with DSM-III-R personality disorders and 27 healthy staff controls were assessed using the Special Hospital Assessment of Personality and Socialisation (SHAPS), impulsivity and aggression ratings, d-fenfl...

  2. Alcohol Use Disorder History Moderates the Relationship Between Avoidance Coping and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hruska, Bryce; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Sledjeski, Eve M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2011-01-01

    Avoidance coping (AVC) is common in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Given that PTSD and AUD commonly co-occur, AVC may represent a risk factor for the development of comorbid post-traumatic stress and alcohol use. In this study, the relationship between AVC and PTSD symptoms (PTSS) was examined in individuals with versus without AUDs. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) victims were assessed 6-weeks post accident for AUD histo...

  3. Investigating the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students

    OpenAIRE

    Davod Ghaderi; Ali Mostafaei; Saadi Bayazidi; Mahdi Shahnazari

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of personality disorders and its relationship with personality traits among students. This research was among epidemiological-correlational descriptive studies. Method: For this purpose, 389 male students were selected via a multi-stage cluster sampling method. All subjects completed Millon's personality disorder (1987) and five-factor personality Costaand McCrae's questionnaires (1989). Results: The results showed that the prevalence ...

  4. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom levels and romantic relationship quality in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Michael R; Kuryluk, Amanda D; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom levels in college undergraduates are associated with poorer romantic relationship quality, and to test whether emotion regulation difficulties, perceived stress, and hostile relationship conflict mediate this association. The sample consisted of 189 undergraduate students aged 18 to 25. Self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, relationship quality, and the proposed mediators were collected via online survey from May through August 2011. Participants who reported clinically significant levels of both hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness (consistent with ADHD-C) had lower relationship quality than those whose self-reported symptoms indicated no ADHD diagnosis. Further, for women only, both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptom levels were negatively associated with relationship quality. Emotion regulation problems and hostile relationship conflict mediated this association. Findings suggest that ADHD impairs relationship quality among young adults and suggest mechanisms through which this impairment might occur.

  5. The Reciprocal Relationship between Bipolar Disorder and Social Interaction: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rebecca; Gooding, Patricia; Dempsey, Robert; Jones, Steven

    2017-07-01

    Evidence suggests that social support can influence relapse rates, functioning and various clinical outcomes in people with bipolar disorder. Yet 'social support' is a poorly defined construct, and the mechanisms by which it affects illness course in bipolar disorder remain largely unknown. Key aims of this study were to ascertain which facets of social interaction affect mood management in bipolar disorder, and how symptoms of bipolar disorder can influence the level of support received. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 individuals with bipolar disorder. Questions were designed to elicit: the effects of social interaction upon the management and course of bipolar disorder; and the impact of bipolar disorder upon social relationships. An inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Empathy and understanding from another person can make it easier to cope with bipolar disorder. Social interaction can also provide opportunities to challenge negative ruminative thoughts and prevent the onset of a major mood episode. The loss of social support, particularly through bereavement, creates a loss of control and can trigger mania or depression. Hypomanic symptoms can facilitate new social connections, whereas disinhibited and risky behaviour exhibited during mania can cause the breakdown of vital relationships. An in-depth clinical formulation of an individual's perceptions of how their illness affects and is affected by social interaction is crucial to understanding psychosocial factors which influence mood management. These results have clear application in interventions which aim to promote improved wellbeing and social functioning in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The relationship between bipolar-related experiences and social interaction is complex and multi-faceted. Bipolar disorder can damage social relationships and create a loss of social control via extreme mood states, but it can also offer a

  6. Relationship between suicidality and impulsivity in bipolar I disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E; Wu, Jinghui; Ardekani, Babak A; Szeszko, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Background Impulsivity is characteristic of individuals with bipolar disorder and may be a contributing factor to the high rate of suicide in patients with this disorder. Although white matter abnormalities have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, their relationship to impulsivity and suicidality in this disorder has not been well-investigated. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging scans were acquired in 14 bipolar disorder patients with a prior suicide attempt, 15 bipolar disorder patients with no prior suicide attempt, and 15 healthy volunteers. Bipolar disorder patients received clinical assessments including measures of impulsivity, depression, mania, and anxiety. Images were processed using the Tract-Based Spatial Statistics method in the FSL software package. Results Bipolar disorder patients with a prior suicide attempt had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) within the left orbital frontal white matter (p impulsivity compared to patients without a previous suicide attempt. Among patients with a prior suicide attempt, FA in the orbital frontal white matter region correlated inversely with motor impulsivity. Conclusions Abnormal orbital frontal white matter may play a role in impulsive and suicidal behavior among patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:22329475

  7. [The relationship of attachment features and multi-impulsive symptoms in eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, Tamás Dömötör

    2017-07-01

    Attachment dysfunctions determine borderline personality disorder, which is a frequent background factor of multi-impulsivity; however, the relationship between attachment and multi-impulsive eating disorders is almost unexplored. To compare attachment features of multi-impulsive and classical eating disorder patients with individuals without eating disorders, and to test attachment as a predictor of multi-impulsivity. A cross-sectional survey (148 females, mean age: 30.9 years) investigated maternal, paternal and adult attachment, depression, anxiety, eating disorder and multi-impulsive symptoms in these groups. Altogether 41.3% of the individuals without eating disorders, 17.6% of classical and 11.8% of multi-impulsive eating disorder patients had secure attachment. Multi-impulsive patients had the most severe eating disorder symptoms (F (2) = 17.733) and the lowest paternal care (F (2) = 3.443). Preoccupied and fearful attachment explained 14.5% of multi-impulsive symptoms; however, with adjustment for depression only latter one remained the predictor of multi-impulsivity (t = 5.166, peating disorder patients from the aspects of both symptoms and attachment. Handling their negative moods may hold therapeutic potentials. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate the therapeutic value of paternal care, attachment preoccupation and fearfulness. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(27): 1058-1066.

  8. Relationship between sexual offences and mental and developmental disorders: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that concerns and faces our society. The prevalence, magnitude and consequences of this problem have merited growing attention by health researchers and human rights scholars. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a review of the literature regarding the relationship between mental disorders, sexual offences and those of development. METHODS: A bibliographic research was performed in PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO and Lilacs, employing the terms "sexual crime", "sexual offence", "mental disorder", "mental retardation", "developmental disability" and its combinations. RESULTS: The mental disorders and developmental disorders more frequently related to the perpetration of sexual offences were schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and mental retardation. DISCUSSION: The detection and treatment of psychiatric morbidity among sexual offenders in health and criminal justice systems, which may contribute to a lower risk of recidivism of this sexual behaviour, is important.

  9. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Setareh Jani; Mehri Molaee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present...

  10. THE CLINICAL AND PATHOGENETIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEHCET'S DISEASE AND MENTAL DISORDERS

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    Daria Anatolyevna Ishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the results of an investigation into the relationship between Behcet's disease (BB and mental disorders. It establishes the importance of an emotional stress factor for developing the clinical symptoms and disease. In its turn, the systemic immune inflammatory disease and its complications become a source of mental disorders. The literature describes different variants of BB, but anxiety-depressive spectrum disorders and moderate cognitive impairments are most common. The presence of depression contributes significantly to lower quality of life in patients with BB.

  11. Dose-response relationship in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, T R; Demol, P

    1989-08-01

    Numerous clinical studies have been performed to establish efficacy and safety of drugs in gastroenterological disorders. Only in a few if any of these studies, however, the rationale for the optimal dose and the dose regimens, respectively, have been addressed. Adequate and well-controlled dose finding studies play a key role in the clinical assessment of new drugs and in the evaluation of new indications. Hereby the range from the minimal effective dose to the maximal effective and well tolerated dose can be assessed and thus the optimal dose-range and dosage regimen be determined. Meaningful pharmacodynamic studies can be performed in the gastrointestinal tract also in healthy volunteers provided that a method with a high predictability for the desired therapeutic effect is available such as measurement of gastric acid secretion and its inhibition by a drug. Dose finding studies in gastroenterology can be carried out under two main aspects: First, to assess the pharmacodynamic and therapeutic effect of a compound on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. anti-ulcer drug). Second, to evaluate the side effects of a drug on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. gastric mucosal damage by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). For the evaluation of new drugs in gastrointestinal therapy a number of methods are available which yield accurate and reproducible data. While careful clinical-pharmacological dose-response studies using these methods have been carried out already more than a decade ago, it is surprising that therapeutic dose finding studies have become available only during the past few years. For scientific as well as for ethical reasons more trials which determine the optimal therapeutic dose are warranted.

  12. Relationship between personality disorder functioning styles and the emotional states in bipolar I and II disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashu Yao

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder types I (BD I and II (BD II behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled.We therefore administered the Plutchick - van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ, the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32, and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers.Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependent, Paranoid (- and Schizoid (- predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (- predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (- predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependent (- predicted MDQ.Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome.

  13. Relationships Among Avoidant Personality Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, and Normative Personality Traits: A Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander-Vatn, Audun; Torvik, Fartein Ask; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Kendler, Kenneth S; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Ystrom, Eivind

    2018-03-05

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) share risk factors to a substantial degree, and both are characterized by the experience of anxiety in social situations. The authors investigated whether these disorders are differentially related to the Big Five personality traits. They also examined the underlying genetic and environmental influences on these associations. A population-based sample of 1,761 female twins was interviewed at baseline, and 1,471 of these were re-interviewed 10 years later. Associations between AvPD, SAD, and personality traits were investigated with multivariate biometric analyses. The authors found that AvPD and SAD are differentially related to several personality traits at the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental level. The genetic and environmental liability to AvPD could be fully accounted for by the genetic and environmental factors influencing SAD and personality. The findings may increase current etiological understanding of these disorders and inform future classification and treatment efforts.

  14. Relationship between Personality Disorder Functioning Styles and the Emotional States in Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jiashu; Xu, You; Qin, Yanhua; Liu, Jing; Shen, Yuedi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder types I (BD I) and II (BD II) behave differently in clinical manifestations, normal personality traits, responses to pharmacotherapies, biochemical backgrounds and neuroimaging activations. How the varied emotional states of BD I and II are related to the comorbid personality disorders remains to be settled. Methods We therefore administered the Plutchick – van Praag Depression Inventory (PVP), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), the Hypomanic Checklist-32 (HCL-32), and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM) in 37 patients with BD I, 34 BD II, and in 76 healthy volunteers. Results Compared to the healthy volunteers, patients with BD I and II scored higher on some PERM styles, PVP, MDQ and HCL-32 scales. In BD I, the PERM Borderline style predicted the PVP scale; and Antisocial predicted HCL-32. In BD II, Borderline, Dependant, Paranoid (-) and Schizoid (-) predicted PVP; Borderline predicted MDQ; Passive-Aggressive and Schizoid (-) predicted HCL-32. In controls, Borderline and Narcissistic (-) predicted PVP; Borderline and Dependant (-) predicted MDQ. Conclusion Besides confirming the different predictability of the 11 functioning styles of personality disorder to BD I and II, we found that the prediction was more common in BD II, which might underlie its higher risk of suicide and poorer treatment outcome. PMID:25625553

  15. Is there a relationship between mood disorders and dysmenorrhea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balık, Gülşah; Ustüner, Işık; Kağıtcı, Mehmet; Sahin, Figen Kır

    2014-12-01

    Menstrual problems are common among adolescent females. Mood changes are related to menstrual problems (menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, and abnormal menstrual cycle length). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between depressive symptoms, anxiety, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) with dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls. A total of 159 adolescent girls (aged 13-19 y) with regular menstrual cycles presenting to the gynecology clinic with any complaints were included in the study during April-May 2013. All of the participants filled up the sociodemographic data collection form, FACES Pain Rating Scale, Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), Beck depression inventory (BDI), and a questionnaire form on criteria for PMS. Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 67.9%. The mean BAI and BDI scores of the patients were 13.64 ± 12.81 and 11.88 ± 10.83, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients and control groups on the BAI and BDI scoring (P dysmenorrhea have an increased risk of depression and anxiety. These results of our study are significant in emphasizing the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to primary dysmenorrhea follow-up and treatment. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperament and personal character relationship with symptoms of schizophrenia disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abolghasemi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge is limited concerning the role of temperament and character factors on schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest that dimensions of temperament and character influence symptoms and functions in schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between temperament and character with positive and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: The research sample consisted of 100 men which were randomly selected from schizophrenia patients with positive and negative symptoms at Razi hospital in Tabriz. Temperament and character inventory and positive and negative symptoms scale were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using t-test and discriminate analyses. Results: The research findings showed that patients with schizophrenia with negative symptoms had higher levels of self– transcendence and harm avoidance. However, patients with schizophrenia with positive symptoms had higher levels of cooperativeness. The results of discriminate analysis showed that explained 37 percent of variance of self– transcendence, harm avoidance and cooperativeness for only function between groups of schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms. Discriminate function obtained was classified correctly by stepwise method 68.3 percent schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms.Conclusion: It can be concluded that self– transcendence, harm avoidance and cooperativeness discriminated the patients with schizophrenia with positive and negative symptoms. The study confirmed important implications about intensity of symptomology and early intervention for patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Relationship between removable prosthesis and some systemics disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Le Bars

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the dental literature concerning the potential impact of the removable prosthesis (RP on the health status of patients with certain systemic diseases. Literature was surveyed using Medline/PubMed database resources, as well as a manual search, up to 2015 to identify appropriate articles that addressed the aim of this review. The research used keywords about associations between RP and six pathologies: Human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary diseases, gastric-Helicobacter pylori, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Analysis of literature showed that in patients with dentures having one or more of the six general conditions listed, Candida albicans organism is more frequently found in the oral flora compared to healthy denture wearer. Although causality has not been established and pending further research on this topic, the hygienic practices necessary to minimize the risk of numerous pathologies should be strengthened in the case of these patients, all the more in the presence of physical or psychological disability. The relationship between the general diseases and increasing of oral candidiasis denture patients is not explained. Therefore, attention to oral hygiene and professional care for removing C. albicans may be beneficial in these medically compromised patients.

  18. Relationship between removable prosthesis and some systemics disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bars, Pierre; Kouadio, Alain Ayepa; N'goran, Justin Koffi; Badran, Zahi; Soueidan, Assem

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the dental literature concerning the potential impact of the removable prosthesis (RP) on the health status of patients with certain systemic diseases. Literature was surveyed using Medline/PubMed database resources, as well as a manual search, up to 2015 to identify appropriate articles that addressed the aim of this review. The research used keywords about associations between RP and six pathologies: Human immunodeficiency virus infection, diabetes mellitus, pulmonary diseases, gastric-Helicobacter pylori, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. Analysis of literature showed that in patients with dentures having one or more of the six general conditions listed, Candida albicans organism is more frequently found in the oral flora compared to healthy denture wearer. Although causality has not been established and pending further research on this topic, the hygienic practices necessary to minimize the risk of numerous pathologies should be strengthened in the case of these patients, all the more in the presence of physical or psychological disability. The relationship between the general diseases and increasing of oral candidiasis denture patients is not explained. Therefore, attention to oral hygiene and professional care for removing C. albicans may be beneficial in these medically compromised patients.

  19. The relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, M S; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Bailey, P E

    2003-03-01

    To examine the relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Seventy-six adolescents (mean age: 16.02 years; range: 12-20) treated in an inpatient unit and presenting with DSM-IV psychotic disorder, depressive disorder, anxious disorder, anorexia nervosa, personality disorder, or conduct disorder were compared with a control group of 119 adolescents drawn from a normal population. All the subjects were assessed with the French translation of the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory (SEI). Self-esteem was significantly higher in the control than in the clinical population (P = 0.0001). Female patients showed significantly lower SEI scores than male patients. Self-esteem increased significantly after 12 weeks in patients with a first psychotic episode who responded successfully to antipsychotic drug treatment. In the clinical group, a history of suicide attempts and sexual abuse was associated with significantly lower SEI scores. Lack of boy- or girlfriend, dropping out of school, and social withdrawal were also associated with lower self-esteem. The presence of a psychiatric disorder in adolescents is associated with decreased self-esteem. This decrease in self-esteem varies according to the psychiatric disorder. Appropriate treatment can enhance self-esteem in adolescent patients.

  20. The relationship between psychological symptoms and frequency of eating disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hüseyin Çam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are serious mental illnesses that are associated with significant physical complications. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of disordered eating attitudes and their relationship to psychological symptoms among adolescent students.  Methods: 338 high school students participated in this descriptive study. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of the Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT˗26, the Duke Health Profile and a socio-demographic questionnaire. An EAT-26 score of 20 or higher was defined as the presence of disordered eating attitudes. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 16.0, through the use of both descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The frequency of eating disorder attitudes was found to be 18.3% (7.1% among boys and 21.3% among girls. The  results indicate that there are statistically significant associations between the risk of developing eating disorders and age, gender and mental health. Conclusion: Eating disorders are becoming more prevalent amongst adolescents, particularly among females. As eating disorder are strongly associated with adolescent mental health, intervention programmes should be implemented, with a focus on adolescent developmental challenges and issues for both sexes, particularly in school education syllabi.Key words: Eating disorders, frequency, adolescents, psychological symptoms

  1. The relationship between acculturation strategies and depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü Ince, Burçin; Fassaert, Thijs; de Wit, Matty A S; Cuijpers, Pim; Smit, Jan; Ruwaard, Jeroen; Riper, Heleen

    2014-09-05

    Turkish migrants in the Netherlands have a high prevalence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Acculturation has been shown to be related to higher levels of psychological distress, although it is not clear whether this also holds for depressive and anxiety disorders in Turkish migrants. This study aims to clarify the relationship between acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) and the prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders as well as utilisation of GP care among Turkish migrants. Existing data from an epidemiological study conducted among Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan inhabitants of Amsterdam were re-examined. Four scales of acculturation strategies were created in combination with the bi-dimensional approach of acculturation by factor analysis. The Lowlands Acculturation Scale and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were used to assess acculturation and mood and anxiety disorders. Socio-demographic variables, depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders and the use of health care services were associated with the four acculturation strategies by means of Chi-Squared and Likelihood tests. Three two-step logistic regression analyses were performed to control for possible, confounding variables. The sample consisted of 210 Turkish migrants. Significant associations were found between the acculturation strategies and age (p acculturation strategies and depressive disorders (p = .049): integration was associated with a lower risk of depression, separation with a higher risk. Using the axis separately, participation in Dutch society showed a significant relationship with a decreased risk of depressive, anxiety and co-morbidity of both disorders (OR = .15; 95% CI: .024 - .98). Non-participation showed no significant association. No association was found between the acculturation strategies and uptake of GP care. Turkish migrants who integrate may have a lower risk of developing a

  2. Mental disorder and violence: is there a relationship beyond substance use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn, Richard; Volavka, Jan; Johnson, Norman

    2012-03-01

    A general consensus exists that severe mental illness (SMI) increases violence risk. However, a recent report claimed that SMI "alone was not statistically related to future violence in bivariate or multivariate analyses." We reanalyze the data used to make this claim with a focus on causal relationships between SMI and violence, rather than the statistical prediction of violence. Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a two-wave study (N = 34,653: Wave 1: 2001-2003; Wave 2: 2004-2005). Indicators of mental disorder in the year prior to Wave 1 were used to examine violence between Waves 1 and 2. Those with SMI, irrespective of substance abuse status, were significantly more likely to be violent than those with no mental or substance use disorders. This finding held in both bivariate and multivariable models. Those with comorbid mental and substance use disorders had the highest risk of violence. Historical and current conditions were also associated with violence, including childhood abuse and neglect, household antisocial behavior, binge drinking and stressful life events. These results, in contrast to a recently published report, show that the NESARC data are consistent with the consensus view on mental disorder and violence: there is a statistically significant, yet modest relationship between SMI (within 12 months) and violence, and a stronger relationship between SMI with substance use disorder and violence. These results also highlight the importance of premorbid conditions, and other contemporaneous clinical factors, in violent behavior.

  3. Exploring the relationship difficulties of Iranian adolescents with conduct disorder: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanian, Maryam; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Alavi, Seyyed-Salman; Jokarian, Ali-Akbar; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-01-20

    Conduct disorder is characterized by aggressive behaviors, deceitfulness or theft, destruction of property and serious violations of rules prior to age 18 years. The object relations theory provides an integrative model to understand the problems of conduct disorder, and proposes that child-caregiver relationships develop the internal working models of self and others. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship difficulties of Iranian adolescents with conduct disorder. This study was a qualitative directed content analysis research. The in-depth interview was conducted with nine male adolescents aged 12-17 years who had conduct disorder with or without substance use disorder at the reformatory in Tehran. All tape-recorded data were fully transcribed and analyzed. The relations with different objects including parents, siblings, relatives, friends, peers, teachers, other school members, colleagues and employers were analyzed, and four themes were extracted: 1) Object relations based on insecurity and fear; 2) Object relations based on inability and abjection; 3) Object relations based on pessimism and mistrust; 4) Object relations based on non-maintenance of boundaries and limits. The importance of object relations and attachment problems in adolescents with conduct disorder, and their need to participate in special intervention programs should be reconsidered.

  4. Relationship between Self-Reported Health and Stress in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Sejunaite, Karolina; Osborne, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study explore the relationship between various forms of experienced stress (general stress and parenting stress) and both health-related quality of life (QoL) and reported physical health symptoms. One hundred and twenty-two mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder responded to an online survey included questionnaires on…

  5. Relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of literature from 1998 to 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The present paper aims to systematically review the literature on the temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-bruxism relationship published from 1998 to 2008. Study design: A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was performed to identify all studies on

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Gestural Recognition and Imitation: Evidence of Dyspraxia in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Heidi Stieglitz; Bartolo, Angela; Corley, Martin; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Szabo, Aniko; Swanson, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between gesture recognition and imitation was explored. Nineteen individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were compared to a control group of 23 typically developing children on their ability to imitate and recognize three gesture types (transitive, intransitive, and pantomimes). The ASD group performed more…

  7. Sexuality and Relationship Education for Young People with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Curriculum Change and Staff Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Sue; Tector, Angie

    2010-01-01

    Finding suitable curriculum materials for Sexuality and Relationship Education for young people with autistic spectrum disorder can be a challenge for teaching staff. In this article, Sue Hatton and Angie Tector who both formerly worked at Coddington Court School discuss findings from their research project asking pupils with autistic spectrum…

  8. Relationship between Type of Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Urban Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Rohini; Abramovitz, Robert; Greenberg, Rick; Schoor, Alan; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Schmeidler, James; Levine, Paul; Nomura, Yoko; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the association between trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 157 help-seeking children (aged 8-17). Structured clinical interviews are carried out, and linear and logistic regression analyses are conducted to examine the relationship between PTSD and type of trauma exposure controlling for age, gender,…

  9. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  10. The Relationship of Everyday Executive Function and Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, Pontea

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between executive functioning (EF), as manifested in everyday behavior, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, and adaptive behaviors in a sample of preschoolers with ASD. Quantitative data from a clinical database were analyzed for this study. Participants in the ASD group (n=52) were a…

  11. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with…

  12. Relationships with Mothers and Peers Moderate the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…

  13. Student-Teacher Relationships for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Barbara; Feldman, Melanie; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of early student-teacher relationships (STRs) has been shown to predict children's school adjustment, and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for poor quality STRs. The present study examined 162 children with ASD (ages 4-7) and their teachers to evaluate student, teacher, and classroom characteristics that…

  14. Sexual orientation, gender identity, and romantic relationships in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth.

  15. Family Involvement and Parent-Teacher Relationships for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbacz, S. Andrew; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Santiago, Rachel T.

    2016-01-01

    Family educational involvement and parent--teacher relationships are important for supporting student outcomes and have unique implications for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little research has examined child and family characteristics among families of children with ASD as predictors of family involvement and…

  16. Relationships of efficiency to reproductive disorders in Danish milk production: a stochastic frontier analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L G; Bruun, J; Coelli, T; Agger, J F; Lund, M

    2004-01-01

    Relationships of various reproductive disorders and milk production performance of Danish dairy farms were investigated. A stochastic frontier production function was estimated using data collected in 1998 from 514 Danish dairy farms. Measures of farm-level milk production efficiency relative to this production frontier were obtained, and relationships between milk production efficiency and the incidence risk of reproductive disorders were examined. There were moderate positive relationships between milk production efficiency and retained placenta, induction of estrus, uterine infections, ovarian cysts, and induction of birth. Inclusion of reproductive management variables showed that these moderate relationships disappeared, but directions of coefficients for almost all those variables remained the same. Dystocia showed a weak negative correlation with milk production efficiency. Farms that were mainly managed by young farmers had the highest average efficiency scores. The estimated milk losses due to inefficiency averaged 1142, 488, and 256 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow, respectively, for low-, medium-, and high-efficiency herds. It is concluded that the availability of younger cows, which enabled farmers to replace cows with reproductive disorders, contributed to high cow productivity in efficient farms. Thus, a high replacement rate more than compensates for the possible negative effect of reproductive disorders. The use of frontier production and efficiency/inefficiency functions to analyze herd data may enable dairy advisors to identify inefficient herds and to simulate the effect of alternative management procedures on the individual herd's efficiency.

  17. Siblings of Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Sibling Relationships and Wellbeing in Adolescence and Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Kuo, Hsin-Yu; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2009-01-01

    We investigated sibling relationships and wellbeing in adolescents and adults with a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Adolescents engaged in more shared activities than did adults. Adolescents reported greater social support, greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and less use of problem-focused coping than adults. In…

  18. Child Temperaments, Differential Parenting, and the Sibling Relationships of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Jessica Wood; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations between sibling temperaments, differential parenting, and the quality of the relationships between 50 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their typically developing siblings. The temperament dimension of persistence, but not activity level or emotional intensity, was found to relate to the quality of…

  19. Teacher-Child Relationships and Classroom-Learning Behaviours of Children with Developmental Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoad-Drogalis, Anna; Justice, Laura M.; Sawyer, Brook E.; O'Connell, Ann A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children with developmental language disorders (DLDs) often struggle with classroom behaviour. No study has examined whether positive teacher-child relationships may act as a protective factor for children with DLDs in that these serve to enhance children's important classroom-learning behaviours. Aims: To examine the association…

  20. The Relationship between Body Image Coping Strategy and Eating Disorders among Iranian Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to physical and psychological changes during puberty, most common problem of young people is body image defined as degree of size, shape and general appearance. Wrong perception of body image and dissatisfaction with body image in people can lead to eating disorders and stress. Peace of mind is in fact a mental mechanism that people use it to reduce physical and emotional strains coping with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strategy of adolescent girls and its relationship with their eating disorders. Methods: This is study is a cross-sectional study in which 573 female adolescent of Karaj participated. Two-Stage Random Sampling was used in this study. In this study, to assess people who are at risk of eating disorder, the nutritional approach assessment questionnaire of EAT-26 was used, while Strategy Inventory Body Image Coping- BICSI questionnaire was used to determine the type of coping strategy. Results: In this study, the mean age of participants was 16.6 (±26/1 (19- 14 years. In this study, 23.7% of participants had an eating disorder. Mental image of an individual of his body had significant correlation with eating disorder (P= 0.000. Kruskal-Wallis test showed a significant relationship between the type of coping strategy adopted by adolescent girls and eating disorder score of them (P= 0.007. The relationship between coping strategy and body image and having or not having the eating disorder was determined by Chi-square test at the borderline level (P= 0.054. Conclusion: In this study, results showed that there is relationship between coping strategy of adolescent girls and the eating disorder score of adolescent girls. The highest score was assigned to getting involved with body image, followed by avoidance and rational acceptance. Since the use of inappropriate coping strategies is associated with negative results such as eating disorders and depression, it is expected

  1. Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders. I. Interpersonal relationships during the depressive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Antich, J; Lukens, E; Davies, M; Goetz, D; Brennan-Quattrock, J; Todak, G

    1985-05-01

    Psychosocial environment and relationships with parents, peers, and siblings of 115 prepubertal children were measured by interview with their parent(s) for the three-month period preceding the assessment. The children had a current diagnosis of major depression (52 children) or nondepressed neurotic disorder (23) or were assessed to be normal (40). Most aspects of psychosocial relationships were found to be significantly impaired in the psychiatric groups. This impairment was generally worse in the depressives and significantly worse for aspects of verbal and affective communication with parents and siblings. Prepubertal children with major depressive disorder regularly present social relation deficits in which two components can be distinguished: one general to childhood psychiatric disorder and another specific to major depression.

  2. DSM-5 intermittent explosive disorder: Relationship with Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccaro, Emil F

    2018-04-30

    This study was designed to estimate how many adults with DSM-5 Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) would also meet diagnostic criteria for Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD). This was done by examining how many individuals with IED would meet the DMDD criterion of being persistently angry in between impulsive aggressive outbursts. The first one-hundred study participants diagnosed with DSM-5 IED in our clinical research program were included in this study. Two questions were added to the IED module from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-5 Disorders (SCID) inquiring about the duration of anger in between impulsive aggressive outbursts in IED study participants. Data regarding aggression, impulsivity, anger expression, and related dysphoric variables were also collected. The proportion of time spent as angry in between impulsive aggressive outbursts was DSM-5 IED. Despite this, persistently-angry (i.e., angry >50% time in between outbursts) IED study participants displayed no differences from not-persistently-angry IED study participants in dysphoric and aggression/impulsivity related variables. These data indicate that inter-outburst anger in those with IED is relatively brief and that such individuals do not generally display the kind of persistent anger that is a diagnostic feature of DMDD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Relationship between temporomandibular disorders and orthodontic treatment: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Antônio Leite

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to review the most recent studies from the last 15 years, in search of clinical studies that report the relationship between TMD and orthodontic treatment and/or malocclusion. Our intention was to determine whether orthodontic treatment would increase the incidence of signs and symptoms of TMD, and whether orthodontic treatment would be recommended for treating or preventing signs and symptoms of TMD. METHODS: Literature reviews, editorials, letters to the editor, experimental studies in animals and short communications were excluded from this review. Were included only prospective, longitudinal, case-control or retrospective studies with a large sample and significant statistical analysis. Studies that dealt with craniofacial deformities and syndromes or orthognathic surgery treatment were also excluded, as well as those that reported only the association between malocclusion and TMD. RESULTS: There were 20 articles relating orthodontics to TMD according to the inclusion criteria. The studies that associated signs and symptoms of TMD to orthodontic treatment showed discrepant results. Some have found positive effects of orthodontic treatment on signs and symptoms of TMD, however, none showed a statistically significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: All studies cited in this literature review reported that orthodontic treatment did not provide risk to the development of signs and symptoms of TMD, regardless of the technique used for treatment, the extraction or non-extraction of premolars and the type of malocclusion previously presented by the patient. Some studies with long-term follow-up concluded that orthodontic treatment would not be preventive or a treatment option for TMD.OBJETIVO: revisar a literatura mais atual, dos últimos 15 anos, em busca de estudos clínicos que relatem a relação entre a disfunção temporomandibular (DTM e o tratamento ortodôntico e/ou a má oclusão. A intenção foi

  4. Co-occurrence of communication disorder and psychiatric disorders in maltreated children and adolescents: relationship with global functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin, Luciene; Oliveira, Christian C de; Santos, Fernanda P Dos; Santos, Bernardo Dos; Scivoletto, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.

  5. The relationship between alexithymia and maladaptive perfectionism in eating disorders: a mediation moderation analysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsero, S; Ruggiero, G M; Scarone, S; Bertelli, S; Sassaroli, S

    2011-09-01

    This work aimed to explore the relationship between alexithymia and maladaptive perfectionism in the psychological process leading to eating disorders (ED). Forty-nine individuals with ED and 49 controls completed the Concern over Mistakes subscale of the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionism subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory, the total score of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory. We tested a model in which alexythimia is the independent variable and perfectionism is the possible mediator or moderator. Analyses confirmed the assumed model. In addition, it emerged that perfectionism played a mediating or moderating role when measured by different instruments. This result suggested that different instruments measured subtly different aspects of the same construct. Results could suggest that alexithymia is a predisposing factor for perfectionism, which in turn may lead to the development of eating disorders.

  6. Rumination mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yansong; Yu, Xinnian; Yang, Bixiu; Zhang, Fuquan; Zou, Wenhua; Na, Aiguo; Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Guangzhong

    2017-03-21

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been identified as a risk factor for the onset and maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might explain overgeneral autobiographical memory phenomenon in depression. The purpose of this study was to test the mediation effects of rumination on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms. Specifically, the mediation effects of brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined in patients with major depressive disorder. Eighty-seven patients with major depressive disorder completed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Bootstrap mediation analysis for simple and multiple mediation models through the PROCESS macro was applied. Simple mediation analysis showed that rumination significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that brooding, but not reflection, significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Our results indicate that global rumination partly mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, the present results suggest that the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression is mainly due to the maladaptive brooding subtype of rumination.

  7. A Bowen Family Systems Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Romantic Relationship Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Jacob B

    2015-07-01

    Many individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) do not respond well to currently available treatments. Moreover, treatments are less effective when GAD is accompanied by romantic relationship distress. In order to develop effective treatments for GAD and relationship distress, it is necessary to conduct theory-based research to identify links common to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Drawing on Bowen's family systems theory, the roles of family abuse/violence and differentiation in GAD and romantic relationship distress were examined using existing data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 2,312; 2005). As predicted, family abuse/violence was directly linked to both GAD and romantic relationship distress. Differentiation mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and GAD, and partially mediated the relationship between family abuse/violence and romantic relationship distress. Findings suggest that current and past relationship processes may help maintain chronic anxiety and that Bowen's theory may be a useful framework for developing couple therapy treatment of GAD and romantic relationship distress. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. The relationship between self-injurious behavior and self-disclosure in adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Shellac, Evia; Hadas, Arik; Berger, Uri; Horwitz, Mira; Fennig, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine the association between self disclosure and self-injurious behaviors among adolescent patients diagnosed with an eating disorder. Sixty three female patients who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of eating disorders were included (i.e. anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified). Participants' age ranged from 11.5 to 20 years (M = 15.42, SD = 1.82). Participants completed self- report questionnaires about eating disorders, self-disclosure, self-injurious behaviors (FASM) and depression (BDI-II) RESULTS: 82.5% of the sample endorsed severe self-injurious behaviors. A moderate negative relationship was found between general disclosure to parents and self-injurious behaviors indicating that patients who generally self-disclose to their parents (on different topics, apart from suicidal ideation) engage less frequently in self-injurious behaviors. In addition, the more patients self-disclose their suicidal ideation to others, the more they tend to self-injure. Self-disclosure to parents on any topic may buffer against self-injurious behaviors and therefore it is important to work with adolescents suffering from eating disorders on effective self disclosure. In addition, self-disclosure about suicidal ideation to others by adolescents suffering from eating disorders should always be taken seriously, since it may be related to self-injurious behaviors.

  9. The relationship between religion and mental disorders in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Ik; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Subin; Cho, Maeng-Je

    2012-03-01

    The question of whether religion has beneficial or detrimental effects on the mental well-being of the adult individual is debatable. Because most Korean citizens are free to select their own religion, there is a higher proportion of non-believers than believers among the Korean population. The aim of this research was to investigate the association between spiritual values and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mental disorders in Korea across all types of belief systems, including Koreans not affiliated with a particular religion. The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was used to interview 6,275 people across South Korea in 2001. While controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to analyze the relationship between mental disorders (both current and past) and the types of religion and spiritual values. Strong spiritual values were positively associated with increased rates of current depressive disorder and decreased rates of current alcohol use disorder. Using "atheist" as the reference category, Catholics had higher lifetime odds of single episodes of depression whilst Protestants had higher lifetime odds of anxiety disorder and lower lifetime odds of alcohol use disorders. The results of this study suggest that depressive episodes often lead to a search for spirituality and that religion may be helpful in overcoming depression or becoming less vulnerable to relapsing. The associations between religion, spiritual values, and mental health have not been fully elucidated and warrant further exploration.

  10. Siblings of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Theoretical Perspectives on Sibling Relationships and Individual Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning research literature investigates the sibling relationships of youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and their implications for individual adjustment. Focusing on four relationship domains-- behaviors, emotions, cognitions and involvement—and toward advancing this generally atheoretical literature, we review and apply tenets from a range of theoretical perspectives in an effort to illuminate the mechanisms underlying sibling relationship experiences and their adjustment implications. Our review suggests new directions for research to test theoretically-grounded hypotheses about how sibling relationships develop and are linked to individual adjustment. In addition, we consider how identifying underlying bio-psycho-social processes can aid in the development of interventions to promote warm and involved sibling relationships and positive youth development. PMID:26476737

  11. Supportive Relationships in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Perspectives of Individuals with ASD and Supporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Robledo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored 17 dyads of academically successful people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and individuals who they identified as supportive. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews, participant observations, and document analysis, were used to study these supportive relationships. The purpose of the study was to develop a substantive grounded theory regarding supportive relationships within the lives of individuals with ASD. A dynamic model of supportive relationships emerged, with trust, unity, and support as the three core categories of these relationships. The data suggest that the quality of the relationship between an individual with ASD and the support provider can be a critical factor within effective support. These findings suggest that there is much yet to be learned about the social world of individuals with ASD.

  12. Supportive Relationships in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Perspectives of Individuals with ASD and Supporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Jodi; Donnellan, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored 17 dyads of academically successful people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and individuals who they identified as supportive. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviews, participant observations, and document analysis, were used to study these supportive relationships. The purpose of the study was to develop a substantive grounded theory regarding supportive relationships within the lives of individuals with ASD. A dynamic model of supportive relationships emerged, with trust, unity, and support as the three core categories of these relationships. The data suggest that the quality of the relationship between an individual with ASD and the support provider can be a critical factor within effective support. These findings suggest that there is much yet to be learned about the social world of individuals with ASD. PMID:27827873

  13. Gender differences in the relationship between impulsivity and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Alyssa; Wahlstrom, Laura C; Christ, Christa C; Stoltenberg, Scott F

    2015-08-01

    We investigated relationships among gender, impulsivity and disordered eating in healthy college students. Participants (N=1223) were healthy, undergraduate men (28.5%) and women (71.5%), who completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - Version 11 (BIS-11) and a four-factor version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-16). As predicted, mean scores on all four EAT-16 factors were significantly higher for women than for men. Attentional impulsivity was related to poorer self-perception of body shape, more dieting, and a greater preoccupation with food for the sample as a whole. Moreover, motor impulsivity was related to poorer self-perceptions of body shape and a greater preoccupation with food. However, no gender differences emerged in the relationship between impulsivity and disordered eating attitudes. This study elucidates the role of impulsivity in disordered eating behaviors among non-clinical college students. For both women and men, attentional and motor impulsivity were related to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Overall, these findings suggest that different facets of impulsivity are related to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a non-clinical college population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between anhedonia and impulsivity in schizophrenia, major depression and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Volpe, Fernando Madalena

    2013-12-01

    Anhedonia and impulsivity are prominent symptoms of many psychiatric disorders and may indicate worse prognosis, notably in schizophrenia and major depression. Despite the convergence of negative outcomes from both dimensions, the relationship between anhedonia and impulsivity in psychiatric disorders has been seldom directly assessed. The objective of the present study is to examine the correlations between anhedonia and impulsivity in three diagnostic groups: major depression, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. 121 outpatients (Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt) with major depressive disorder (N=29), schizophrenia (N=59), and schizoaffective disorder (N=33), were assessed and responded to the Beck Depression Inventory, Barrat's Impulsivity Scale-11, and Chapman's Social and Physical Anhedonia Scales. Physical and social anhedonia scores were negatively correlated to impulsivity scores in major depression patients. Conversely, higher scores in physical and social anhedonia predicted higher impulsivity scores in schizophrenia. No correlations between impulsivity and anhedonia were evidenced among schizoaffectives. The relationship between self-reported physical and social anhedonia and impulsivity is diagnosis-specific. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) for Panic Disorder: Relationship of Anxiety and Depression Comorbidity with Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Laura B.; White, Kamila S.; Barlow, David H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Gorman, Jack M.; Woods, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    Research evaluating the relationship of comorbidity to treatment outcome for panic disorder has produced mixed results. The current study examined the relationship of comorbid depression and anxiety to treatment outcome in a large-scale, multi-site clinical trial for cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for panic disorder. Comorbidity was associated with more severe panic disorder symptoms, although comorbid diagnoses were not associated with treatment response. Comorbid generalized anxiety disor...

  16. The Relationship between Personality Disorders and the Type of Crime Committed and Substance Used among Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrzadegan, Shahin; Gholami-Doon, Hossein; Shamloo, Bagher; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz

    2017-04-01

    Prisoners are a vulnerable group within societies, and also threaten society due to their dangerous behavior. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between prisoners' personality disorders and their crime and substance use. This was a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population consisted of all prisoners of Kerman, Iran. Through stratified random sampling, 228 prisoners (114 women and 114 men) were selected as the study subjects. Data were collected through clinical interviews by a psychiatrist [structured interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4 th Edition (DSM-IV)], a social worker, and a physician and using a demographic characteristics questionnaire and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-2 nd Edition (MCMI-II) (the 175-item Persian version). Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, and Fisher's z-distribution in SPSS software. The results showed that 87.3% of women and 83.3% of men had a personality disorder at the time of committing the crime. Moreover, 46.5% of the target population had developed substance dependence at the time of committing the crime. The highest percentage of substance abuse in both women and men was related to opium, especially in the age group of 18-28 years. The highest rates of mental disorders were related to major depressive disorder (MDD), dependent personality disorder (DPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), respectively. In these personality disorders, opium, methamphetamine, heroin, and alcohol, respectively, had the highest rates of use. The results of Fisher's z-distribution illustrated a significant relationship between personality disorders and type of crime committed and substance used. The total rate of substance abuse was lower in sexual offenses and fraud, but was the highest in theft and drug trafficking. The presence of personality disorders in the target population is

  17. Relationship between attention deficit hyperactive disorder symptoms and perceived parenting practices of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Yoo, Il Young

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationship between the perception on parenting practices and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school-age children. Psychosocial attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention approaches emphasise environmental risk factors at the individual, family and community level. Parenting variables are strongly related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The participants were 747 children and their parents in two elementary schools. The instruments used were Korean Conners Abbreviated Parent Questionnaire and Korean version Maternal Behavior Research Instrument (measuring four dimensions of parenting practices: affection, autonomy, rejection, control). Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. The rejective parenting practice was statistically significant in logistic regression controlling gender and age of children, family structure, maternal education level and socio-economic status. The rejection parenting is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children (OR=1.356). These results suggest the importance of specific parenting educational programmes for parents to prevent and decrease attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. It would be more effective rather than focusing only on the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, developing educational programmes for parents to prevent rejection parenting practice and improve parenting skills in the family system. When developing a treatment programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, healthcare providers should consider not only the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, but also the parenting practices. Comprehensive interventions designed to prevent rejection and improve parenting skills may be helpful in mitigating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. © 2012 Blackwell

  18. The Relationship Between Child Anxiety Related Disorders and Primary Nocturnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Bahman; Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Rafeei, Mohammad; Mostajeran, Mahssa

    2016-06-01

    Nocturnal enuresis, often called bedwetting or sleep wetting, is a common problem in children after the age of five and may lead to symptoms such as infection, incontinence and frequent urination. This problem refers to a state in which children after the age of five have no control of their urine for six continuous months and it cannot be attributed to any organic factors or drug use. In this study we aimed to study generalized anxiety disorder as one of the possible causes of primary nocturnal enuresis. In this case-control study 180 children with primary nocturnal enuresis and same number of healthy children with a mean age of 7 - 17 years old with the same demographic characteristics were selected. The study took place at Amir Kabir hospital of Arak, Iran during year 2014. After collecting the information, diagnosis was verified based on the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) IV-TR criteria. Results were analyzed using the SPSS software (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Frequency of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school phobia, social anxiety, separation anxiety, history of anxiety in mother, history of primary nocturnal enuresis in parent's family and body mass index had a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.005). With the results obtained from this study we could say that there was a clear significant difference between the two control and patient groups for all subgroups of anxiety disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder and their relationship with primary nocturnal enuresis. Given the higher prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school phobia, social anxiety, separation anxiety and comparison with healthy children, it is recommended for all children with primary nocturnal enuresis to be investigated and treated for generalized anxiety disorder.

  19. Relationships between Premonitory Urge and Anxiety in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Johnson, Olivia E; Chang, Susanna W; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John

    2015-07-01

    Tourette's Disorder and other chronic tic disorders are common neurodevelopmental conditions. One characteristic of tic disorders is the premonitory urge, an aversive or unpleasant sensory phenomenon that may precede tics. Initial examination of premonitory urge in pediatric tic disorders suggests that awareness and experience of sensations preceding tics may be related to anxiety and OCD. However, it may be possible that specific anxiety-related symptoms, such as anxious physiologic arousal, are particularly relevant to the experience of premonitory urge. The current study examines relationships between tic-related premonitory urge and anxiety-related symptom clusters in treatment-seeking youths with a primary diagnoses of Tourette's or other chronic tic disorder. The sample consisted of 124 youth, ages 9 to 17, who participated in the multi-site Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics randomized controlled trial (CBIT; Piacentini et al., 2010). Specific anxiety-related subtypes, including generalized worry, separation, social, and panic/somatic symptoms, as well as severity of obsessions and compulsions, were assessed as potential correlates of premonitory urge. Findings indicated that age, global tic-related impairment, and specific panic/somatic symptoms accounted for a substantial proportion of variance in youth report of premonitory urge. These findings provide information about the characteristics of premonitory urge in pediatric tic disorders, and have implications for the treatment of pediatric tic syndromes.

  20. [Relationship between intestinal mucosal inflammation and mental disorders in patients with irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jing-xin; Han, Mai; Duan, Li-ping; Han, Ya-jing; Ge, Ying; Huang, Yue-qin

    2012-08-28

    To examine the relationship between inflammation and the comorbidity of mental disorders with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by comparing intestinal mucosa inflammatory biomarkers in patients with and without mental disorders. A total of 43 consecutive IBS patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria and 15 volunteers serving as controls without digestive symptoms were recruited and interviewed with Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) by the well-trained staff and thus classified as with or without mental disorders. All subjects underwent colonoscopy and biopsies were acquired from the mucosa of distal ileum and colon. CD3(+) lymphocytes, mast cells, 5-HT positive cells and (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase) IDO positive cells were identified immunohistologically in mucosa biopsies in volunteers (n = 13), IBS patients without mental disorder (n = 24) and IBS patients with mental disorder (n = 19). The incidence of mental disorders in IBS patients was significantly higher than that in the volunteers (19/43 vs 2/15, P = 0.012), including 9 patients with anxiety disorders and 8 with mood disorders. (1) The number of mast cells in IBS patients with mental disorder and that in IBS patients without mental disorder has no statistical significance ((16.7 ± 3.6)/HP vs (15.4 ± 3.1)/HP in distal ileum, (12.8 ± 2.2)/HP vs (12.3 ± 2.5)/HP in sigmoid, both P > 0.05). Similar results were seen in 5-HT positive cells ((3.7 ± 0.9)/HP vs (3.4 ± 0.8)/HP in distal ileum, (6.1 ± 1.8)/HP vs (5.2 ± 1.8)/HP in sigmoid, both P > 0.05). In distal ileum, the number of CD3(+) cells in IBS patients with mental disorder has no statistical significance with that in the IBS patients without mental disorder ((62 ± 16)/HP vs (55 ± 22)/HP, P > 0.05). Similar results were seen in IDO positive cells (6(2, 8)/HP vs 2(1, 5)/HP, P > 0.05). (2) The number of IDO positive cells from distal ileum in IBS patients with anxiety disorder was significantly higher than that in the IBS patients

  1. Exercise dependence as a mediator of the exercise and eating disorders relationship: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Hausenblas, Heather; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Excessive exercise is a common feature of eating disorders (ED) and is associated with earlier ED onset, more ED symptoms, and higher persistence of ED behavior. Research indicates that exercise amount alone is not associated with ED. The purpose of this study was to investigate pathological attitudes and behaviors related to exercise (e.g., exercise dependence) as a mediator of the exercise and ED relationship. Participants were 43 women with an ED who completed measures of ED symptoms, exercise behavior, and exercise dependence. Analyses were conducted using the indirect bootstrapping method for examining mediation. Exercise dependence mediated the relationship between exercise and ED. This mediation model accounted for 14.34% of the variance in the relationship. Our results extend the literature by offering preliminary evidence of a psychological variable that may be a candidate for future interventions on the exercise and ED relationship. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Autonomous and controlled motivation for eating disorders treatment: baseline predictors and relationship to treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jacqueline C; Kelly, Allison C

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to identify baseline predictors of autonomous and controlled motivation for treatment (ACMT) in a transdiagnostic eating disorder sample, and to examine whether ACMT at baseline predicted change in eating disorder psychopathology during treatment. Participants were 97 individuals who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for an eating disorder and were admitted to a specialized intensive treatment programme. Self-report measures of eating disorder psychopathology, ACMT, and various psychosocial variables were completed at the start of treatment. A subset of these measures was completed again after 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of treatment. Multiple regression analyses showed that baseline autonomous motivation was higher among patients who reported more self-compassion and more received social support, whereas the only baseline predictor of controlled motivation was shame. Multilevel modelling revealed that higher baseline autonomous motivation predicted faster decreases in global eating disorder psychopathology, whereas the level of controlled motivation at baseline did not. The current findings suggest that developing interventions designed to foster autonomous motivation specifically and employing autonomy supportive strategies may be important to improving eating disorders treatment outcome. The findings of this study suggest that developing motivational interventions that focus specifically on enhancing autonomous motivation for change may be important for promoting eating disorder recovery. Our results lend support for the use of autonomy supportive strategies to strengthen personally meaningful reasons to achieve freely chosen change goals in order to enhance treatment for eating disorders. One study limitation is that there were no follow-up assessments beyond the 12-week study and we therefore do not know whether the relationships that we observed persisted after treatment. Another limitation is that this was a correlational study and it is therefore important

  3. Organivore or organorexic? Examining the relationship between alternative food network engagement, disordered eating, and special diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michaela J; Dripps, Weston R; Blomquist, Kerstin K

    2016-10-01

    The alternative food network (AFN) refers to connections between consumers, producers, and sellers of organic, local/regional, "sustainably grown," and other artisanal and niche food not produced by the conventional system (Goodman & Goodman, 2007). Alternative foods are often viewed as the "right" consumption choice while conventional counterparts are positioned as ethically "wrong." A moral positioning of food, avoidance of certain food groups, and anxiety elicited by food consumption choices bears similarities to disordered eating behaviors (Hesse-Biber, Leavy, Quinn, & Zoino, 2006), including a newly proposed eating syndrome, orthorexia nervosa (ON; Vandereycken, 2011; Zamora, Bonaechea, Sánchez, & Rial, 2005). This study examines the relationship among engagement in the AFN, disordered eating behaviors, and special diets. We hypothesized that individuals with higher AFN engagement would be more likely report disordered eating behaviors as well as to follow a special diet. Adult men and women (N = 284) completed a series of measures assessing engagement in the AFN and eating behaviors. We found that individuals with higher AFN engagement were more likely to report ON tendencies but not significantly likely to engage in other disordered eating behaviors. Individuals following a special diet were significantly more engaged in the AFN, more likely to report ON tendencies, and more likely to self-report an eating disorder. Our findings suggest that the most engaged consumers participate in the AFN for the purported benefits reaped by society and the environment and not to moderate their consumption or mask disordered eating behaviors. Future research should prospectively explore associations between AFN engagement, ON and disordered eating behaviors, and special diets as well as consider the utility of incorporating AFN engagement into existing disordered eating prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between the FFM and personality disorders in a personnel selection sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederström, Mikael; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-10-01

    The relationships between the Five Factor Model (FFM) personality and personality disorders were investigated. A sample of real-life job applicants completed two personality questionnaires with different theoretical backgrounds in a psychological assessment center. The job applicants provided self-descriptions both on the FFM inventory and on a personality disorder trait inventory. A subsample of these candidates was interviewed by expert psychologists upon entrance to the assessment center. The psychologists assessed the same disorder traits of each target in job interviews. Both self-descriptions were used to predict the expert assessments. The results demonstrated considerable overlap between the FFM measures of normal and measures of abnormal personality in both samples and regardless of assessment method. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  5. Relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C

    2013-08-01

    Two studies investigate relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. Participants completed the Brief Assessment of Individual Motives 1--Revised, a measure of 15 putative evolved motives (i.e., "traits of action"). In Study 1, N = 147 adult participants also completed the Borderline Personality Questionnaire and Self-Report Psychopathy III Questionnaire (SRP III). In Study 2, N = 135 college age participants also completed the SRP III and the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62. Regression analyses suggested that individual differences in motivational traits account for moderate amounts of variance in measures of antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. They also suggested that lower motivation to engage in cooperative behaviors (e.g., sharing resources and forming coalitions) is related to impaired interpersonal relationships and maladjustment.

  6. Investigation on the relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mahmoudifar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: High prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts between nursing staff. High level of workload is considered as a serious problem and identified as a stressor in the nursing. This study intends to recognize the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload in nursing personnel reside at southern part of West Azerbaijan province Iran in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 nurses working in West Azerbaijan hospitals have been randomly selected. Nordic and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index workload questionnaires have been simultaneously utilized as data collection tools. Data analysis has also carried out using SPSS, variance analysis tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Results suggest that the most frequent complaints of musculoskeletal problems are associated to the back area. Investigation on sextet scales of mental workload indicates that each of the six scales of workload was at the high-risk level and the average of total workload was 72.45 ± 19.45 which confirms a high-risk level. Pearson's correlation coefficient also indicates mental workload elements have a significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results suggest there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload and the majority of personnel had mental workload with high-risk level. The best way of management planning to mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising of mental workload is, therefore, managing-controlling approach such as staff training, job rotation, and time management.

  7. Relationship between Sleep Disorders, Pain and Quality of Life in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Purabdollah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis as one of the most common autoimmune diseases is known to be one of the leading causes of disability. Sleep disorders have direct influence on patient’s life. According to studies, sleep problems are known to have negative impact on well-being and functioning, but the exact nature of relationship between sleep disorders and Rheumatoid arthritis is not completely understood. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep disorders, pain and quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis patients. Methods: In a descriptive -correlative study, 210 patients with rheumatoid arthritis referred to Tabriz medical university clinics selected by convenience sampling and were assessed by Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, SF-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale (VAS. Data were analyzed using SPSS-13 by descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean (SD and inferential statistics including Spearman correlation analysis, linear regression, x2, t- test and ANOVA. Results: The mean age of participants was 48.41(12.92 years in which most of them (74% were female. The mean (SD quality of life was 40.51(22.94, sleepiness 13.14 (5.6 and pain 6.09 (2.14. There was significant negative relationship between some sleep disorders such as (naps, apnea, asphyxia, ... and pain with quality of life but pain severity had more effect on QOL compared to sleep problems. Furthermore, participants had low quality of life with more restriction in physical (mean=34.71 and general health (mean=34.42.Conclusion: Sleep problems and pain were associated with poor quality of life in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.

  8. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Nasirian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted in shahid Beheshti hospital and also kerman women prison  for detoxification.With emphasizing  the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of abuse , neglect and household dysfunction . using multivariate Logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics , childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and  personality disorder were analyzed  . "n Results : The mean age of cases was 33.13 ± 10.94 and Borderline personality disorder (24.3% was the most frequent type of personality disorder in this   sample . Physical abuse (45.4% and emotional abuse (36.2% and emotional   neglect (92.1% were the most frequent type of maltreatment .  while dependency considered as independent variable , with logistic  regression analysis, sexual abuse was the only type of childhood maltreatment which showed significant association statistically with personality disorder . (P - value < 0/05 "n Conclusion: There was significant association statistically between increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances among those experiencing multiple types of abuse  and neglect .such studies are important for a more complete  understanding  of these problems and for practical  efforts to alleviate them.

  9. Perception of transgenerational family relationships: Comparison of eating-disordered patients and their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Pilecki, Maciej Wojciech; J?zefik, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbances in various elements of transgenerational family functioning patterns are not uncommon in studies of eating disorders. We examined the relationship between patients? perception of autonomy and intimacy in their families of origin and that of their parents in their own families of origin. Material/Methods The sample consisted of 112 girls who had a diagnosis of an eating disoder and their parents; 54 of the girls were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa restrictive subtype, ...

  10. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Herbort, Maike C.; Soch, Joram; W?stenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, J?rgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Bj?rn H.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BP...

  11. Sexual orientation, gender identity, and romantic relationships in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n?=?675) and general population peers (n?=?8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relation...

  12. The relationship between phone dependency with psychological disorders and academic burnout in students

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Noruzi Kuhdasht; Zahra Ghayeninejad; Naser Nastiezaie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of mobail phones in Iranian students, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and its consequences have not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cell phone dependency with psychological disorders and academic burnout among nursing and midwifery students. In this study, 169 students were chosen through stratified random sampling method. Data collection tools included mobile phone addiction index, sympt...

  13. The relationship between phone dependency with psychological disorders and academic burnout in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Noruzi Kuhdasht

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of mobail phones in Iranian students, psychological and behavioral effects of addiction to it and its consequences have not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between cell phone dependency with psychological disorders and academic burnout among nursing and midwifery students. In this study, 169 students were chosen through stratified random sampling method. Data collection tools included mobile phone addiction index, symptom check list-90- Revision and academic burnout inventory. Correlation coefficients of mobile phone dependency with psychological disorders was 0.487 and according results from regression analysis mobile phone dependency predicted 23.8% of the variance of psychological disorders. Correlation coefficients of mobile phone dependency with academic burnout was 0.677 and results from regression analysis mobile phone dependency explained 47.6 of the variance academic burnout. Considering the positive and significant relationship between cell phone usage with psychological disorders and students' academic burnout, identifying the people at risk and holding mobile phone injury training workshops is recommended.

  14. Significant relationship between lifetime alcohol use disorders and suicide attempts in an Australian schizophrenia sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Duncan; Gladman, Beverley; Mowry, Bryan

    2012-02-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide are common in individuals with schizophrenia, and evidence exists for a link between substance use disorders and suicidality in this disorder. However, alcohol has not been consistently implicated. We examined the relationship between substance use disorders and suicide attempts in schizophrenia. We recruited a schizophrenia sample in Australia (n = 821) for genetic analyses. We analysed demographic and clinical variables, including substance use disorders, and their relationship to suicide attempts using generalised equation modelling. A significant association was identified between lifetime alcohol abuse/dependence and suicide attempts (OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.24; p = 0.001) after adjustment for potential confounders, but not between cannabis abuse/dependence and suicide attempts, nor between other illicit drug abuse/dependence and suicide attempts. Polysubstance abuse/dependence was also not implicated. These results suggest that the presence of alcohol abuse/dependence may be a risk factor for suicide attempts in individuals with schizophrenia, independent of comorbid substance abuse/dependence.

  15. [Integrative parent-infant psychotherapy for early regulatory and relationship disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papousek, Mechthild; de Chuquisengo, Ruth Wollwerth

    2006-01-01

    The author introduces both the concept and practice of Integrative Parent-Infant Psychotherapy (IPI-P), a treatment specifically designed for the most frequent developmental problems and psychological needs of infants and their parents. Based on growing knowledge from interdisciplinary infancy research, both basic and clinical, IPI-P has been developed and practised in the "Munich Interdisciplinary Research and Intervention Program" for early regulatory and relationship disorders since the early nineties. Preverbal parent-infant communication represents both the port of entry into the system and the main focus of diagnostics, developmental counselling, interaction guidance, or psychodynamic psychotherapy of distorted communication and distressed/disordered relationships. The method of videomicroanalysis during video-feedback with the parent has proven particularly efficient--while observing, reliving and working through brief episodes of recorded parent-infant interaction. The author illustrates the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with excerpts from psychotherapy of a toddler with an age-specific regulatory disorder in the context of severely distressed primary relationships.

  16. Relationship between adverse childhood experiences and homelessness and the impact of axis I and II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Katz, Laurence Y; Distasio, Jino; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the links between homelessness associated with serious mental and physical healthy disparities and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in nationally representative data, with Axis I and II disorders as potential mediators. We examined data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001-2002 and 2004-2005, and included 34,653 participants representative of the noninstitutionalized US population who were 20 years old or older. We studied the variables related to 4 classes of Axis I disorders, all 10 Axis II personality disorders, a wide range of ACEs, and a lifetime history of homelessness. Analyses revealed high prevalences of each ACE in individuals experiencing lifetime homelessness (17%-60%). A mediation model with Axis I and II disorders determined that childhood adversities were significantly related to homelessness through direct effects (adjusted odd ratios = 2.04, 4.24) and indirect effects, indicating partial mediation. Population attributable fractions were also reported. Although Axis I and II disorders partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and homelessness, a strong direct association remained. This novel finding has implications for interventions and policy. Additional research is needed to understand relevant causal pathways.

  17. The Relationship of Disordered Eating Attitudes With Body Composition and Anthropometric Indices in Physical Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzitalab, Tohid; Pourghassem Gargari, Bahram; Amirsasan, Ramin; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Farsad Naeimi, Alireza; Sanoobar, Meisam

    2015-11-01

    Abnormal eating behavior, unhealthy weight control methods, and eating disordered symptoms have risen among college students. The aim of this study was to examine disordered eating attitudes and their relationship with anthropometric and body composition indices in physical education students in Tabriz, the capital of East Azerbaijan province, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 210 physical education students, 105 males and 105 females aged 18 to 25, who were selected by systematic random sampling from physical education faculty of Tabriz University in Tabriz, Iran, in 2013. Eating attitude test (EAT-26) was used for the assessment of disordered eating attitudes. In addition, anthropometric and body composition indices were assessed. About 10% of the studied subject had disturbed eating attitudes; significantly more males (15.4%) reported an EAT-26 ≥ 20 (disordered eating attitudes) than females (4.8%) (P EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weist perimeter (WP) (r = 0.21, P EAT-26 score was positively correlated with weight (r = 0.19, P eating attitude and healthy subjects, while in males there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the anthropometric and body composition indices. Abnormal eating attitude was notable among physical education students in Tabriz, Iran. It seems that some anthropometric indices such as BMI and central obesity indices were related to the increase of disordered eating attitude.

  18. [Relationship between perceptions of safety climate at workplace and depressive disorders in manufacturing workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-hua; Xiao, Ya-ni; Huang, Zhi-xiong; Huang, Shao-bin; Cao, Xiao-ou; Guan, Dong-bo; Chen, Wei-qing

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the risk factors for depressive disorders in manufacturing workers and to provide a basis for developing health promotion measures at workplace. A questionnaire survey was performed in 8085 front-line production workers from 33 manufacturing enterprises in Nanhai District of Foshan, Guangdong Province, China. The questionnaire contained a survey of demographic characteristics, the Safety Climate Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, etc. The multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to investigate the risk factors for depressive disorders in workers. A total of 6260 workers completed the survey; their mean age was 31.1 ± 8.6 years, and 53.2% of them were males. The multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustment for sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and martial status, more depressive disorders were reported in the enterprises with higher score of "production safety training" than in those with lower score (OR = 1.46, 95%CI = 1.07 ∼ 1.97); fewer depressive disorders were reported in the enterprises with higher score of "colleagues concerned about production safety" than in those with lower score (OR = 0.08, 95%CI = 0.03 ∼ 0.26); the relationships of "safety warnings and precautions" and "managers concerned about production safety" with workers' depressive disorders were not statistically significant (OR = 0.78, 95%CI = 0.48 ∼ 1.28; OR = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.68 ∼ 1.72). Depressive disorders in manufacturing workers are related to the safety climate at workplace, which indicates that a good safety climate at workplace should be created to prevent and control depressive disorders in workers.

  19. A genetically informative developmental study of the relationship between conduct disorder and peer deviance in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K. S.; Jacobson, K.; Myers, J. M.; Eaves, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Conduct disorder (CD) and peer deviance (PD) both powerfully predict future externalizing behaviors. Although levels of CD and PD are strongly correlated, the causal relationship between them has remained controversial and has not been examined by a genetically informative study. Method Levels of CD and PD were assessed in 746 adult male–male twin pairs at personal interview for ages 8–11, 12–14 and 15–17 years using a life history calendar. Model fitting was performed using the Mx program. Results The best-fit model indicated an active developmental relationship between CD and PD including forward transmission of both traits over time and strong causal relationships between CD and PD within time periods. The best-fit model indicated that the causal relationship for genetic risk factors was from CD to PD and was constant over time. For common environmental factors, the causal pathways ran from PD to CD and were stronger in earlier than later age periods. Conclusions A genetically informative model revealed causal pathways difficult to elucidate by other methods. Genes influence risk for CD, which, through social selection, impacts on the deviance of peers. Shared environment, through family and community processes, encourages or discourages adolescent deviant behavior, which, via social influence, alters risk for CD. Social influence is more important than social selection in childhood, but by late adolescence social selection becomes predominant. These findings have implications for prevention efforts for CD and associated externalizing disorders. PMID:17935643

  20. Relationships between self-reported childhood traumatic experiences, attachment style, neuroticism and features of borderline personality disorders in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, Ilya; Joffe, Grigori; Koivisto, Maaria; Melartin, Tarja; Aaltonen, Kari; Suominen, Kirsi; Rosenström, Tom; Näätänen, Petri; Karpov, Boris; Heikkinen, Martti; Isometsä, Erkki

    2017-03-01

    Co-occurring borderline personality disorder (BPD) features have a marked impact on treatment of patients with mood disorders. Overall, high neuroticism, childhood traumatic experiences (TEs) and insecure attachment are plausible aetiological factors for BPD. However, their relationship with BPD features specifically among patients with mood disorders remains unclear. We investigated these relationships among unipolar and bipolar mood disorder patients. As part of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium study, the McLean Screening Instrument (MSI), the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R), the Short Five (S5) and the Trauma and Distress Scale (TADS) were filled in by patients with mood disorders (n=282) in psychiatric care. Correlation coefficients between total scores of scales and their dimensions were estimated, and multivariate regression (MRA) and mediation analyses were conducted. Spearman's correlations were strong (rho=0.58; pchildhood traumatic experiences and Attachment Anxiety also among patients with mood disorders. Independent predictors for BPD features include young age, frequency of childhood traumatic experiences and high neuroticism. Insecure attachment may partially mediate the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and borderline features among mood disorder patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships between Behavioural Addictions and Psychiatric Disorders: What Is Known and What Is Yet to Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Khazaal, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a narrative review of the relationships between several behavioural addictions [pathological gambling, problematic Internet use (PIU), problematic online gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, compulsive buying, and exercise addiction] and psychiatric disorders. Associations between most behavioural addictions and depressive and anxiety disorders are strong and seem relatively non-specific. Strong links with substance use disorders may support the notion that some people are more prone to addictive behaviours, regardless of whether these involve substances or problematic activities. Other associations seem relatively specific, for example, those between PIU/online gaming and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, between compulsive buying on the one hand and eating disorders and hoarding on the other hand and between exercise addiction and eating disorders. The quality of the research varies, but most studies suffer from methodological limitations, including a cross-sectional or correlational design, non-representative study populations, small sample sizes, reliance on self-report assessment instruments, diverse diagnostic criteria, and conceptual heterogeneity of most behavioural addictions. Due to these limitations, generalisability of the findings is questionable and the direction of causality, if any, is unknown in the relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. Regardless of the aetiological uncertainty, these relationships often call for a modified treatment approach. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the longitudinal relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:28439243

  2. Relationships between Behavioural Addictions and Psychiatric Disorders: What Is Known and What Is Yet to Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Khazaal, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a narrative review of the relationships between several behavioural addictions [pathological gambling, problematic Internet use (PIU), problematic online gaming, compulsive sexual behaviour disorder, compulsive buying, and exercise addiction] and psychiatric disorders. Associations between most behavioural addictions and depressive and anxiety disorders are strong and seem relatively non-specific. Strong links with substance use disorders may support the notion that some people are more prone to addictive behaviours, regardless of whether these involve substances or problematic activities. Other associations seem relatively specific, for example, those between PIU/online gaming and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, between compulsive buying on the one hand and eating disorders and hoarding on the other hand and between exercise addiction and eating disorders. The quality of the research varies, but most studies suffer from methodological limitations, including a cross-sectional or correlational design, non-representative study populations, small sample sizes, reliance on self-report assessment instruments, diverse diagnostic criteria, and conceptual heterogeneity of most behavioural addictions. Due to these limitations, generalisability of the findings is questionable and the direction of causality, if any, is unknown in the relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders. Regardless of the aetiological uncertainty, these relationships often call for a modified treatment approach. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the longitudinal relationships between behavioural addictions and psychiatric disorders.

  3. Relationship between patient characteristics and treatment allocation for patients with personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Janine G; Andrea, Helene; van den Eijnden, Ellen; Meerman, Anke M M A; Thunnissen, Moniek M; Hamers, Elisabeth F M; Huson, Nelleke; Ziegler, Uli; Stijnen, Theo; Busschbach, Jan J V; Timman, Reinier; Verheul, Roel

    2011-10-01

    Within a large multi-center study in patients with personality disorders, we investigated the relationship between patient characteristics and treatment allocation. Personality pathology, symptom distress, treatment history, motivational factors, and sociodemographics were measured at intake in 923 patients, who subsequently enrolled in short-term or long-term outpatient, day hospital, or inpatient psychotherapy for personality pathology. Logistic regressions were used to examine the predictors of allocation decisions. We found a moderate relationship (R(2) = 0.36) between patient characteristics and treatment setting, and a weak relationship (R(2) = 0.18) between patient characteristics and treatment duration. The most prominent predictors for setting were: symptom distress, cluster C personality pathology, level of identity integration, treatment history, motivation, and parental responsibility. For duration the most prominent predictor was age. We conclude from this study that, in addition to pathology and motivation factors, sociodemographics and treatment history are related to treatment allocation in clinical practice.

  4. Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationship among Chinese children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Chi, Peilian; Wang, Zhonghui; Heath, Melissa Allen; Du, Hongfei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment negatively affects children's development and wellbeing. This study investigated the associations between child maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse) and interpersonal functioning, including parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and peer relationships among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). A total of 256 children with ODD and their parents and class master teachers from Mainland China completed questionnaires. Results showed a negative correlation between emotional abuse (parent-reported) and children's interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Emotional neglect and physical abuse were related to poor parent-child relationships. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of child maltreatment among children with ODD. ODD children with more severe levels of one type of maltreatment were also more likely to have experienced severe levels of other types of maltreatment. Children with ODD who were in the group of high maltreatment had the poorest quality of interpersonal relationships. Our findings highlight the urgent need to prevent child maltreatment and promote more positive parenting in families with ODD children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using personal construct methodology to explore relationships with adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Mark; Burns, Jan; Kilbey, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Research shows that adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience difficulties developing friendships, and that loneliness is a significant factor contributing to higher incidence of anxiety and depression within this population. This study aimed to provide an in-depth analysis of relationships as described by adolescents with ASD, and, from these descriptions, to explore what can be inferred about the development of successful interpersonal relationships for these individuals. Eight adolescents with ASD participated in semi-structured interviews using established personal construct theory (PCT) techniques. PCT was found to be a helpful approach to elicit rich, qualitative data. A thematic analysis identified four themes: relationships as a source of support, perceptions of similarity and difference, valued qualities in self and others, and the development and maintenance of relationships. Whilst this exploratory study highlighted some commonality in terms of perceptions of family support and friendships as protective and desirable, participants differed in their ability to establish and maintain peer relationships. Participants valued personal qualities such as intelligence, humour and trust within relationships, and recognised the important role of peers and siblings in the development of social skills, a finding which has implications for the delivery of social skills training and other interventions. The study provides empirical support for the application of personal construct methodologies in ASD research and offers a potentially useful approach to therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Young adults' recollections of parental bonds--does satisfaction with partner relationships mediate the longitudinal association with mental disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Vollebergh, Wilma; Meeus, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-09-01

    Recollections of cold and overprotective behaviors from parents have been hypothesized to lead to the presence of mental disorders in young adulthood through their detrimental effects on individuals' satisfaction in later partner relationships. Previous studies have not explicitly tested, however, whether partner relationship satisfaction mediates the longitudinal relationship from parental bonds to DSM-III-R disorders in young adults. We examined: (1) whether recollections of parental bonds in the first 16 years of life were related to the prevalence of DSM-III-R mental disorders in young adulthood, and (2) whether young adults' satisfaction with current partner relationships mediated these links. Data were used from 1,581 Dutch young adults aged 18-34 years, who were interviewed in three waves (1996, 1997, and 1999) of a nationwide epidemiological study. Structural Equation Models demonstrated that recollections of caring, non-intrusive parenting behaviors were significantly, negatively associated with the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders (but not substance disorders) in young adulthood. The satisfaction with current partner relationships did not mediate these negative associations. Results replicate and extend earlier findings from the National Comorbidity Survey (Enns et al. 2002), demonstrating that mental disorders are directly related to people's recollections of parental care and overprotection. Low-quality parental bonds were only related to internalizing types of psychopathology, however, and were of a modest strength. Results may indicate that there is relatively little cross-relationship continuity in the experience of intimacy between relationships with parents and with partners.

  7. Education Mitigates the Relationship of Stress and Mental Disorders Among Rural Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Nisha; Soni, Apurv; Allison, Jeroan; Vankar, Jagdish; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Byatt, Nancy; Phatak, Ajay; O'Keefe, Eileen; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    Common mental disorders (CMD) are a constellation of mental health conditions that include depression, anxiety, and other related nonpsychotic affective disorders. Qualitative explanatory models of mental health among reproductive-aged women in India reveal that distress is strongly associated with CMD. The relationship of perceived stress and CMD might be attenuated or exacerbated based on an individual's sociodemographic characteristics. To screen for Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among reproductive-aged women from rural western India and explore how the relationship between perceived stress and CMD screening status varies by sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional survey of 700 women from rural Gujarat, India. CMD screening status was assessed using Self-Reported Questionnaire 20 (SRQ-20). Factors associated with CMD screening status were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. Effect modification for the relationship of perceived stress and CMD screening status was assessed using interaction terms and interpreted in terms of predicted probabilities. The analytic cohort included 663 women, with roughly 1 in 4 screening positive for CMD (157, 23.7%). Poor income, low education, food insecurity, and recurrent thoughts after traumatic events were associated with increased risk of positive CMD screen. Perceived stress was closely associated with CMD screening status. Higher education attenuated the relationship between high levels of stress and CMD screening status (82.3%, 88.8%, 32.9%; P value for trend: 0.03). Increasing income and age attenuated the link between moderate stress and CMD. Our findings suggest a high burden of possible CMD among reproductive-aged women from rural western India. Higher education might mitigate the association between elevated stress and CMD. Future efforts to improve mental health in rural India should focus on preventing CMD by enhancing rural women's self-efficacy and problem-solving capabilities to overcome

  8. The relationship between working memory and episodic memory disorders in transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinette, Peggy; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Noël, Audrey; de la Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the relationship between the disorders of both episodic memory and working memory in the acute phase of transient global amnesia (TGA). Since executive functions were spared, another dysfunction may be responsible for the binding and maintenance of multimodal informations and contribute to the encoding disorders observed in some patients [Quinette, P., Guillery, B., Desgranges, B., de la Sayette, V., Viader, F., & Eustache, F. (2003). Working memory and executive functions in transient global amnesia. Brain, 126, 1917-1934.]. The aim of this present study was to assess the functions of binding and maintenance of multimodal information during TGA and explore their involvement in episodic memory disorders. We therefore conducted a more thorough investigation of working memory in 16 new patients during the acute phase of TGA using two tasks designed to assess the binding process and both dimensions of the maintenance, namely the active storage and the memory load ability. We also investigated the nature of the episodic memory impairment in distinguishing between the performance of patients with preferential encoding deficits and those of patients with preferential storage disorders on the episodic memory task. This distinction was closely related to the severity of amnesia, i.e. an encoding disorder was observed rather in the early phase of TGA. The results showed that while the functions of binding and maintenance of multimodal information were intact in patients with storage disorders, they were impaired in the case of encoding deficits. These results are interpreted in the recent framework of episodic buffer proposed by Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417-423] that represents an interface between working memory and episodic memory.

  9. The prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder in an army unit and its relationship with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian WANG

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the prevalence of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in the army officers and soldiers (AOSs, and identify its relationship with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs. Methods PTSD and FGIDs were diagnosed based on the PTSD checklist-civilian (PCL-C and Rome Ⅲ Modular Questionnaire respectively, the overlaps of PTSD and FGIDs and their correlation were diagnosed. The correlation of PTSD with traumatic and stressful events was investigated using Trauma History and Stressful Event Screening Questionnaire. The coexistence and relationship of PTSD and FGIDs were analyzed. Results Of 927 AOSs, 33 were diagnosed with PTSD. The prevalence of PTSD was 3.56%. FGIDs were identified in 435 subjects and the incidence of FGIDs was 46.93%. Among 33 AOSs with PTSD, 28 were diagnosed as having FGIDs and the prevalence of FGIDs was 84.85%, which was significantly higher than that of non-PTSD group (45.53%, P<0.05. Moreover, the FGIDs group had a higher prevalence of PTSD, compared with the non-FGID group (6.43% vs. 1.02%, P<0.05. Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS, 33.33%, unspecified functional bowel disorder (24.24%, functional bloating (18.18% and functional anorectal pain (18.18% were the four most frequent FGIDs in PTSD AOSs. Multiple regression analysis showed PTSD was the risk factor for CVS (OR=9.118, functional anorectal pain (OR=3.373, functional bloating (OR=4.772, irritable bowel syndrome (OR=3.438, rumination syndrome (OR=16.033, functional vomiting (OR=10.329, functional dysphagia (OR=9.891(P<0.05. CVS (OR=4.063, the number of traumatic (OR=1.159 and stress events (OR=1.401 were the risk factors for PTSD in AOSs (P<0.05. Conclusions PTSD and FGID interact as risk factor each other. The prevalence of PTSD differs significantly in different FGIDs. CVS is the most frequent FGID in PTSD AOSs and risk factor for PTSD, which deserves more concerns. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2018.02.14

  10. The Relationship of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling to Compulsive Buying and other Possible Spectrum Disorders: Results from the Iowa PG Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was...

  11. Empowerment, feminism, and self-efficacy: relationships to body image and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsaul, Jessica A E; Curtin, Lisa; Bazzini, Doris; Martz, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural norms pertaining to an ideal of thinness for women likely play a role in the development and maintenance of disturbance in body image, and by extension, disordered eating. However, competing norms associated with feminism may buffer women from pressures associated with achieving the thin ideal. The present study explored the relationship between feminist ideology, empowerment, and self-efficacy relative to body image and eating behavior with a sample of U.S. undergraduate women (N=318) attending a southeastern U.S. mid-sized university. In planned hierarchical multiple regression analyses, endorsement of feminist ideology predicted perceptions of positive body image, but did not appear to predict disordered eating. Self-efficacy emerged as a robust predictor of positive body image and lower disordered eating even after controlling for perceptions of personal empowerment and feminism. Results, although limited by correlational data, suggest that self-efficacy may protect college-aged women from disordered eating and negative body image. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Internet gaming disorder in Lebanon: Relationships with age, sleep habits, and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawi, Nazir S; Samaha, Maya; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-03-01

    Background and aims The latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders included Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a disorder that needs further research among different general populations. In line with this recommendation, the primary objective of this was to explore the relationships between IGD, sleep habits, and academic achievement in Lebanese adolescents. Methods Lebanese high-school students (N = 524, 47.9% males) participated in a paper survey that included the Internet Gaming Disorder Test and demographic information. The sample's mean average age was 16.2 years (SD = 1.0). Results The pooled prevalence of IGD was 9.2% in the sample. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that IGD was associated with being younger, lesser sleep, and lower academic achievement. While more casual online gamers also played offline, all the gamers with IGD reported playing online only. Those with IGD slept significantly less hours per night (5 hr) compared with casual online gamers (7 hr). The school grade average of gamers with IGD was the lowest among all groups of gamers, and below the passing school grade average. Conclusions These findings shed light on sleep disturbances and poor academic achievement in relation to Lebanese adolescents identified with IGD. Students who are not performing well at schools should be monitored for their IGD when assessing the different factors behind their low academic performance.

  13. Executive functioning in pre-school children with autism spectrum disorders: The relationship between executive functioning and language

    OpenAIRE

    Linnerud, Ida Cathrine Wang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Executive function difficulties are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and there are several indications of a modifying relationship between executive functions and language in children. However, there is limited research on the relationship between executive functioning and language in young children with ASD. The current study compared real-world executive functioning between groups of children with ASD, language disorders (LD), and typical development (T...

  14. Gender and stress : is gender role stress? A reexamination of the relationship between feminine gender role stress and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Boselie, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was, first, aimed at examining the relationship between eating disorders, feminine gender role stress and other types of stress. In addition, we investigated whether eating disordered women compared to non-clinical controls use depressogenic coping more often. We hypothesized that

  15. An Examination of the Relationship between Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Symptoms of Anxiety in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Stacey R.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have found significant comorbidity between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders in children (e.g., Bauermeister et al., 2007; Busch et al., 2002), but limited research has examined factors that may underlie or explain this relationship (e.g., Lilienfeld, 2003; Baldwin & Dadds, 2008). This study…

  16. Evaluation of relationship between metacognition components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between metacognitive components and dysfunctional attitudes in outpatients with bipolar mood disorder II. Methods: Thirty-six young adult outpatients with current diagnoses of BMD II(20 females and 16 males were recruited from Esfahan Counseling Center. Diagnoses were based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorder-Clinical Version(SCID-CV. A battery of questionnaires including Metacognition Questionnaire and Dysfunctional Attitude Scale(DAS were self-assessed by patients before medical therapy. Results: Pearson's correlation analysis showed that the components of metacognition and its relationship with dysfunctional attitudes is positive and significant(r= 28/0, p<0/05. Multiple regression analysis showed that two of the metacognitive components emerged as potentially useful in prediction of dysfunctional attitudes(negative beliefs about uncontrollability, danger and thoughts control. Also, results indicated that those two components have a significant positive relationship with vulnerability, perfectionism and effectivenessR²= 0/29, 0/35; p<0/05. Components of positive beliefs about worry and beliefs about cognitive self-consciousness related to cognitive confidence in predicting the criterion variable and its components showed no significant contribution. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that DSM-IV BMD II outpatients with metacognitive distortions have shown higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes.

  17. The effects of maternal alcohol use disorders on childhood relationships and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joseph D

    2016-10-01

    Despite millions of children living in the turmoil of their parents' active alcoholism or the aftermath of past abuse, research to date has not (1) provided a comprehensive examination of the effects of maternal alcohol use disorders (AUDs) on children's social ties outside of their relationships with parents, or (2) considered whether the number and quality of childhood social ties alter the effects of maternal AUDs on children's mental health. Using data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1979 Children and Young Adults, analysis examined the influence of maternal AUDs on the number and quality of children's ties with siblings, extended family and family friends, peers, and neighborhood members. The analysis also considered how children's social ties influenced the association between maternal AUDs and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Children of alcoholic mothers had similarly sized networks but more distant relationships with siblings and friends, negative interactions with classmates, and isolating neighborhoods. Controlling for these aspects of children's social ties substantially reduced mental health disparities between children of alcoholic mothers and other children. Findings support the view that maternal alcohol use disorders have the potential to damage children's mental health while also setting into motion long-term relationship problems. Future research should examine the networks of children who experience parental AUDs to further clarify the social processes that link parental AUDs to children's mental health.

  18. Treated delinquent boys' substance use: onset, pattern, relationship to conduct and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S E; Mikulich, S K; Goodwin, M B; Hardy, J; Martin, C L; Zoccolillo, M S; Crowley, T J

    1995-02-01

    We describe relationships between substance use, conduct disorder (CD), depression, and history of self-injury or suicide attempts, in referred, delinquent, substance involved, adolescent males. Sixty youths (mean age 16.3 years) completed standardized assessments for substance use and other psychiatric disorders, aggressiveness, and social class. All boys met modified criteria for CD. Most had high aggression ratings. Twenty percent had depressive diagnoses. By age 13, 78% had begun regular substance use. Marijuana was the first substance for 42%. The boys had substance dependence on a mean of 3.2 different drugs (usually including alcohol and marijuana), with abuse of an average of one additional drug. CD symptoms began 3.6 years (mean) before regular use. CD symptom count correlated with number of dependence diagnoses, and both of those (but not depression) related significantly to suicide attempt and self-injury histories. Improved understanding of substance involvement in youths with CD may generate more rational prevention and treatment.

  19. Unravelling the relationship between degree of disorder and the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mah, Pei T; Laaksonen, Timo; Rades, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Milling is an attractive method to prepare amorphous formulations as it does not require the use of solvents and is suitable for thermolabile drugs. One of the key critical quality attributes of milled amorphous formulations is their dissolution behavior. However, there are limited studies...... that have investigated the relationship between degree of disorder induced by milling and dissolution behavior. The main aim of this study was to identify the analytical technique used to characterize degree of disorder that correlates best with the recrystallization behavior during dissolution of milled...... glibenclamide samples. Solid state and surface changes during dissolution of milled glibenclamide samples were monitored in order to elucidate the processes that influence the dissolution behavior of milled glibenclamide samples. Glibenclamide was ball milled for different durations and analyzed using X...

  20. Relationships Between Gross Motor Skills and Social Function in Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby M; Biasini, Fred

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.

  1. Relationships among depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support in adolescents with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Hergüner, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships of depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support with conversion symptoms in adolescents with conversion disorder (CD). Fifty outpatients, aged 8-18 years, who had been diagnosed with CD and members of a control group were assessed using the psychological questionnaires. Compared with controls, adolescents with CD scored higher on the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety-related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) total, CASI physical and cognitive subscales, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support family subscale. Multiple regression analysis showed that CDI, CASI total, and CASI cognitive scores predicted the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ) scores and that CDI and CASI total scores predicted the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) scores of subjects. This study suggest that adolescents with CD had poor psychosocial well-being, and depression, global anxiety sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns are related to conversion symptoms.

  2. The relationship of whiplash injury and temporomandibular disorders: a narrative literature review☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Charles E.; Amiri, Abid; Jaime, Joseph; Delaney, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this article is to offer a narrative review and discuss the possible relationship between temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and whiplash injuries. Methods Databases from 1966 to present were searched including PubMed; Manual, Alternative, and Natural Therapy Index System; and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Search terms used included whiplash injury, temporomandibular disorders and craniomandibular disorders. Inclusion criteria consisted of studies on orofacial pain of a musculoskeletal origin addressing the following topics: posttraumatic temporomandibular disorder (pTMD) incidence and prevalence, mechanism of injury, clinical findings and characteristics, prognosis (including psychologic factors). Excluded were studies of orofacial pain from nontraumatic origin, as well as nonmusculoskeletal causes including neurologic, vascular, neoplastic, or infectious disease. Results Thirty-two studies describing the effects of whiplash on TMD were reviewed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The best evidence from prospective studies indicates a low to moderate incidence and prevalence. Only 3 studies addressed mechanism of injury theories. Most studies focusing on clinical findings and characteristics suggest significant differences when comparing pTMD to idiopathic/nontraumatic patients. Regarding prognosis, most studies suggest a significant difference when comparing pTMD to idiopathic/nontraumatic TMD patients, with pTMD having a poorer prognosis. Conclusions There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of whiplash on the development of TMD. Furthermore, because of lack of homogeneity in the study populations and lack of standardization of data collection procedures and outcomes measured, this review cannot conclusively resolve the controversies that exist concerning this relationship. This review of the literature is provided to clarify the issues and to provide useful clinical information for health care

  3. Structure–Conductivity Relationships in Ordered and Disordered Salt-Doped Diblock Copolymer/Homopolymer Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, Matthew T.; Hickey, Robert J.; Xie, Shuyi; So, Soonyong; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P. (UMM)

    2016-11-21

    We examine the relationship between structure and ionic conductivity in salt-containing ternary polymer blends that exhibit various microstructured morphologies, including lamellae, a hexagonal phase, and a bicontinuous microemulsion, as well as the disordered phase. These blends consist of polystyrene (PS, Mn ≈ 600 g/mol) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, Mn ≈ 400 g/mol) homopolymers, a nearly symmetric PS–PEO block copolymer (Mn ≈ 4700 g/mol), and lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (LiTFSI). These pseudoternary blends exhibit phase behavior that parallels that of well-studied ternary polymer blends consisting of A and B homopolymers compatibilized by an AB diblock copolymer. The utility of this framework is that all blends have nominally the same number of ethylene oxide, styrene, Li+, and TFSI– units, yet can exhibit a variety of microstructures depending on the relative ratio of the homopolymers to the block copolymer. For the systems studied, the ratio r = [Li+]/[EO] is maintained at 0.06, and the volume fraction of PS homopolymer is kept equal to that of PEO homopolymer plus salt. The total volume fraction of homopolymer is varied from 0 to 0.70. When heated through the order–disorder transition, all blends exhibit an abrupt increase in conductivity. However, analysis of small-angle X-ray scattering data indicates significant structure even in the disordered state for several blend compositions. By comparing the nature and structure of the disordered states with their corresponding ordered states, we find that this increase in conductivity through the order–disorder transition is most likely due to the elimination of grain boundaries. In either disordered or ordered states, the conductivity decreases as the total amount of homopolymer is increased, an unanticipated observation. This trend with increasing homopolymer loading is hypothesized to result from an increased density of

  4. Metacognition moderates the relationship of disturbances in attachment with severity of borderline personality disorder among persons in treatment of substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outcalt, Jared; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Buck, Kelly; Chaudoin-Patzoldt, Kelly A; Kukla, Marina; Olesek, Kyle L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder traits have been observed to be linked with both insecure attachment styles as well as deficits in mentalizing and metacognition. Less is known, however, about how attachment style does or does not interact with deficits in mentalizing and metacognition to create, sustain, or influence levels of borderline personality disorder traits. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that metacognitive mastery, which is the ability to use knowledge about mental states of self and others to cope with distress and solve social problems, moderates the relationship of anxious attachment style with the severity of borderline personality disorder traits. Concurrent assessments were gathered of metacognitive mastery using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated, anxious attachment style using the Experiences of in Close Relationships Scale, and borderline personality disorder traits using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders. Participants were 59 adults in an early phase of recovery from substance use disorders in a residential setting. Multiple regression revealed that metacognitive mastery moderated the relationship of anxious attachment style with the number of borderline personality disorder traits. A median split of the anxious attachment and metacognitive mastery scores was performed yielding 4 groups. An analysis of covariance revealed that participants with higher levels of anxious attachment and poorer metacognitive mastery had more borderline personality disorder traits did than the other groups after controlling for levels of psychopathology. Insecure attachment may be associated with higher number of borderline personality disorder traits in the presence of deficits in metacognitive mastery. Patients with substance use and borderline personality disorder traits may benefit from treatment which addresses metacognitive mastery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Symptoms Among Women Seeking Help for Relationship Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Casey T.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between intimate partner aggression and physical health symptoms among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing relationship aggression (N = 388). Using a structural equation modeling framework, the authors found posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to fully mediate the associations of both physical and psychological aggression with physical health symptoms. The influence of PTSD symptoms on physical health symptoms was partially mediated by anger/irritability. Results were consistent with studies from other trauma groups suggesting that PTSD is pivotal with respect to explaining the effects of trauma on health. PMID:17874920

  6. Relationship between Musculoskeletal Disorders and Quality of Life in Employees of Selected Hospitals in Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Tabatabaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and purpose: In this study, we attempted to investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and quality of life in staff of selected hospitals in Golestan Province, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, the study population included all the employees (n=770 of Kordkuy Heart Hospital and Khatam al-Anbia Hospital of Gonbad Kavus, Golestan Province, Iran. The standard sample size was estimated at 256 based on Morgan Table. Considering the probability of subject attrition and to bolster the validity of the study, 300 employees (150 Kurdkuy and 150 Gonbad Kavus from different occupational groups were randomly selected by stratified sampling. To collect the data, a demographic information form, the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, and the Lancashire quality of life profile were used. Independent t-test was run in SPSS, version 22. Results: During the past year, the neck and knee were the most problematic areas, and the elbows and thighs caused the least amount of pain or discomfort among the employees. There was a significant difference between different dimensions of quality of life with consideration of musculoskeletal disorders in different areas of the body. Musculoskeletal disorders in various areas significantly diminished different aspects of quality of life. In the physical aspect of quality of life, the employees suffering from musculoskeletal disorders in all areas were significantly different from those without any problems. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, musculoskeletal disorders are one of the workplace damages that affect employees’ quality of life. Indeed, in addition to high costs, it undermines physical, mental, and social health, hence low productivity of employees.

  7. The relationship between aggression rates and drugs abuse among posttraumatic stress disorder patients

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    Faezeh Tatari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD. The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aggression levels and substances use among PTSD patients. Methods: Among patients with PTSD referred to Kermanshah Farabi Hospital in 2011,182 cases were selected and their aggression levels were assessed by Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The aggression levels in PTSD patients with and without SUD were compared. Result: The highest frequencies were in middle-aged (81.1%, males (91.8%, married (77.5% and poor economic status (63.2% patients. Substances using was higher among married patients and the most abused substances was opium. Substances consumption was higher among patients with lower socioeconomic status and opium and amphetamines were the most abused substance. Most PTSD types were related to after-war events (70.3%. Mean of total aggression was higher in SUD. Rate of total aggression was higher in patients using opium. Conclusion: Compared to those without PTSD, individuals with this disorder are more likely to have aggression. Patients with concurrent PTSD and SUD suffer from more severe complaints and show worse treatment outcomes compared with patients with either disorder alone.

  8. Emotion regulation strategies in bipolar II disorder and borderline personality disorder: differences and relationships with perceived parental style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; Paterson, Amelia; McClure, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Bipolar II disorder (BP II) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) share common features and can be difficult to differentiate, contributing to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Research contrasting phenomenological features of both conditions is limited. The current study sought to identify differences in emotion regulation strategies in BP II and BPD in addition to examining relationships with perceived parental style. Participants were recruited from a variety of outpatient and community settings. Eligible participants required a clinical diagnosis of BP II or BPD, subsequently confirmed via structured diagnostic interviews assessing DSM-IV criteria. Participants completed a series of self-reported questionnaires assessing emotion regulation strategies and perceived parental style. The sample comprised 48 (n=24 BP II and n=24 BPD) age and gender-matched participants. Those with BPD were significantly more likely to use maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, less likely to use adaptive emotion regulation strategies, and scored significantly higher on the majority of (perceived) dysfunctional parenting sub-scales than participants with BP II. Dysfunctional parenting experiences were related to maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in participants with BP II and BPD, however differential associations were observed across groups. Relatively small sample sizes; lack of a healthy control comparator group; lack of statistical control for differing sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication and psychological treatments; no assessment of state or trait anxiety; over-representation of females in both groups limiting generalisability of results; and reliance on self-report measures. Differences in emotion regulation strategies and perceived parental style provide some support for the validity of distinguishing BP II and BPD. Development of intervention strategies targeting the differing forms of emotion regulatory pathology in these groups

  9. Psychosocial functioning in prepubertal major depressive disorders. II. Interpersonal relationships after sustained recovery from affective episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Antich, J; Lukens, E; Davies, M; Goetz, D; Brennan-Quattrock, J; Todak, G

    1985-05-01

    Psychosocial relationships with parents, peers, and siblings, as well as school functioning, were measured at two points in time by parental interview in 21 prepubertal children: during an episode of major depression and after they had sustained an affective recovery from the index episode for at least four months. School functioning was completely normalized, but deficits in the child's intrafamilial and extra-familial relationships had improved only partially. The pattern of improvement was merely quantitative. Moderate deficits during the depressive episode reached, after affective recovery, the level of the normal control group. In contrast, severe deficits only improved to a moderate level of severity. It is suggested that treating the affective disorder is not sufficient in many children with major depression and that efficacy studies of psychotherapeutic interventions in affectively recovered children are needed.

  10. Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Romantic Relationships in Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewinter, J; De Graaf, H; Begeer, S

    2017-09-01

    This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relationship (heterosexual in most cases) and most of them lived with their partner. A notable number of autistic participants, again more women than men, reported gender non-conforming feelings. Attention to gender identity and sexual diversity in education and clinical work with people with ASD is advised.

  11. Traditional games in interpersonal relationships development in students with behavioral disorders

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    Lauriesky Hernández-Oruña

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The educational alternative proposed is aimed at promoting the development of interpersonal relationships of students with behavioral disorders. The study stand fom different theoretical approaches that have allowed psychological and pedagogical support of the actions developed, highlighting the importance of traditional games in the integral formation of the students. For the altrnative design it was started with a diagnosis in which identified problems that these are in this particular subject using different research methods. The results allowed the development of alternative that is suggested, thus responding to the problem identified. This work is based on Cuban traditional games that favor the development of appropriate interpersonal relationships with emphasis on the interaction among the pupils in Special School Hermanos Saiz from Pinar del Rio municipality.

  12. Evaluation of Relationship between Obsessive-compulsive Disorder and Dissociative Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlı, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ozlem; Maner, Fulya

    2018-05-31

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and dissociative experiences and the effect of childhood traumatic experiences on this relationship in OCD patients. Fifty consecutive OCD patients and 50 healthy controls are enrolled for this study. Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Form, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Padua Inventory (PI) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) are applied to participants. Average DES total score in the patient group is 20.58 and in the control group it is 4.87. In the patient group, when we evaluate the relation strengths of DES total and subscale scores with PI total score, we found out that amnesia subscale has r=0.361 ( p controls. Among dissociative experiences, absorption has stronger relation with OCD symptoms. The relation between OCD and dissociation is independent from and stronger than the relation between childhood traumatic experiences and OCD.

  13. Traditional Machismo and Caballerismo as Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Psychological Distress, and Relationship Satisfaction in Hispanic Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Catherine J.; Owens, Gina P.; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2013-01-01

    An online survey was used to examine 45 Hispanic male veterans' traditional machismo and caballerismo as correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, and relationship satisfaction. Higher traditional machismo was associated with higher PTSD severity and distress and lower relationship satisfaction. Psychometric…

  14. The Relationship between Optimism, Coping, and Depressive Symptoms in Hispanic Mothers and Fathers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Kelcie; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Schneider, Hoa Lam; Alessandri, Michael; Ekas, Naomi V.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the relationship between dispositional optimism, coping, and depressive symptoms of Hispanic mothers (n = 46) and fathers (n = 43) of children with autism spectrum disorder. Coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between optimism and depressive symptoms. The results revealed that mothers…

  15. Representations of Self and Parents, and Relationship Themes, in Adolescents with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, Naama; Shahar, Golan; Berant, Ety; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Negative perceptions of self and others have lately become one of the criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults and adolescents. Drawing from theories of mental representations in psychopathology, this study examined self-reported negative cognitions, self and parental representations, and relationship themes among adolescents with and without PTSD. Thirty one adolescents with PTSD (11 boys, mean age = 14.06, SD = 2.24) were matched with 29 adolescents who had no psychiatric diagnosis (11 boys, mean age = 14.96, SD = 1.78). Adolescents completed self-report measures, wrote a description of self, mother and father, and were interviewed about positive and negative relationship episodes with mother, father, and peers. Adolescents with PTSD reported more self-criticism and performance evaluation than did controls. Their self-representation exhibited a lower sense of agency, which was related to structural variables (i.e., less integrative description). Although parental representations of adolescents with PTSD were not generally less benevolent or more punitive than those of controls, their relationship themes revealed a higher proportion of the wish to be distant from others. Adolescents with PTSD exhibited more passive responses and perceived more dominant or controlling responses from their parents. Findings point out to a serious impairment in representations of self and relationship patterns in adolescent PTSD.

  16. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Mehta, Manju; Sagar, Rajesh; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4) years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ) of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores.

  17. Relationship of cognitive function and adjustment difficulties among children and adolescents with dissociative disorder

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    Rajeev Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although it has been suggested that children and adolescents with dissociative disorder have some cognitive deficits, the association of these cognitive impairments with adjustment difficulties has not been evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between cognitive functioning and adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents with dissociative disorder. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive assessment was carried out in the outpatient setting of child and adolescent psychiatric service in a tertiary care hospital. Fifty newly diagnosed children and adolescents with dissociative disorder were included. The cognitive functions were assessed by varied neuropsychological tests, and Bell's adjustment inventory was used for assessing various domains of adjustment. Results: The mean age of the sample which comprised 40% males was 13.0 (±2.4 years. The mean intelligence quotient (IQ of the sample was 90.6. Impairment in cognitive test was maximum for verbal working memory followed by sustained attention, visual learning and memory, and verbal retention and recall. Adjustment difficulties were greatest in the domains of self, followed by domains of health, school, and family. Significant association was found between the IQ and adjustment in school; visual learning and memory and adjustments in school and overall adjustment; and sustained attention and adjustment of health. Conclusions: Dissociative children have poor cognitive ability which may be related to poor adjustment scores.

  18. Possible role of glial cells in the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and mental disorders

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    Mami eNoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the endocrine system and the central nervous system (CNS. Among hormones closely related to the nervous system, thyroid hormones (THs are critical for the development and function of the CNS; not only for neuronal cells but also for glial development and differentiation. Any impairment of TH supply to the developing CNS causes severe and irreversible changes in the overall architecture and function of human brain, leading to various neurological dysfunctions. In adult brain, impairment of THs, such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, can cause psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety and depression. Though hypothyroidism impairs synaptic transmission and plasticity, its effect on glial cells and cellular mechanisms are unknown. This mini-review article summarizes how THs are transported to the brain, metabolized in astrocytes and affect microglia and oligodendrocytes, showing an example of glioendocrine system. It may help to understand physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of THs in the CNS and how hypo- and hyper-thyroidism may cause mental disorders.

  19. Disability among patients with opioid use disorders and its relationship with stigma toward substance use

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    Saurabh Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: From a medical model perspective of substance use disorders (SUDs, opioid use disorders are associated with some degree of disability. This study aimed to assess the disability among patients with opioid use disorders (OUDs and its relationship with internalized stigma. Methodology: This cross-sectional study assessed patients with SUDs at a tertiary care center. Disability among patients with OUDs was assessed using Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS while stigma was measured using Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS. Results: Among 168 patients with OUD, the disability was greatest in the domain of work followed by interpersonal activities. About 48.2% and 3.0% of the participants had moderate and severe disability according to IDEAS. Disability (IDEAS scores had a robust correlation with the stigma (ISMIS scores (r = 0.453, P < 0.01. Multiple regression analysis found that internalized stigma (ISMIS score was an independent predictor of disability among patients with OUDs (β =0.42, P < 0.01. Conclusions: From a medical perspective, OUDs are associated with considerable disability which has significant correlation with internalized stigma. Designing interventions which can target internalized stigma among patients with OUD may help in reducing the disability associated with it.

  20. Addictive Online Games: Examining the Relationship Between Game Genres and Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Hendriks, Stefan J F

    2016-04-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is the most recent term used to describe problematic or pathological involvement with computer or video games. This study examined whether this disorder is more likely to involve pathological involvement with online (i.e., Internet) games as opposed to offline games. We also explored the addictive potential of nine video game genres by examining the relationship between IGD and 2,720 games played by a sample of 13- to 40-year olds (N = 2,442). Although time spent playing both online and offline games was related to IGD, online games showed much stronger correlations. This tendency is also reflected within various genres. Disordered gamers spent more than four times as much time playing online role-playing games than nondisordered gamers and more than thrice as much time playing online shooters, whereas no significant differences for offline games from these genres were found. Results are discussed within the frame of social interaction and competition provided by online games.

  1. Relationship between stress coping and personality in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, T; Sakado, K; Sakado, M; Sato, T; Someya, T

    1999-01-01

    Stress coping is defined as a behavioral or cognitive response of an individual to uncomfortable or difficult situations. It has been suggested that coping, like personality, is related to the pathology and course of mental disorders. Accordingly, we here used a clinical sample to investigate the relationships between coping strategies and personality traits. Subjects were 60 outpatients who were in remission from major depressive disorder and who completed the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and the Munich Personality Test (MPT). Task-oriented coping showed a positive correlation with extraversion and frustration tolerance. Emotion-oriented coping was closely associated with neuroticism, esoteric tendencies and isolation tendency. Avoidance-oriented coping was related to extraversion. Principal component analysis indicated three corresponding factors between coping and personality; one was related to psychopathology (loading from the neuroticism, esoteric tendencies and isolation tendency scales of the MPT, and from the emotion-oriented coping scale of the CISS), a second was a social-adaptive ability component (loading from the frustration tolerance and extraversion scales of the MPT, and from the task-oriented coping and avoidance-oriented coping scales of the CISS), and a third was a passive-avoidance coping component (loaded from the emotion-oriented coping and avoidance-oriented coping scales of the CISS only). Some personality traits such as extraversion and frustration tolerance are significantly related to task-oriented coping, and psychopathological personality traits such as neuroticism are associated with emotional-oriented coping in major depressive disorder.

  2. The Relationship between Sleep Problems, Neurobiological Alterations, Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

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    Luigi Mazzone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are at an increased risk for sleep disturbances, and studies indicate that between 50 and 80% of children with ASD experience sleep problems. These problems increase parental stress and adversely affect family quality of life. Studies have also suggested that sleep disturbances may increase behavioral problems in this clinical population. Although understanding the causes of sleep disorders in ASD is a clinical priority, the causal relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Given the complex nature of ASD, the etiology of sleep problems in this clinical population is probably multi-factorial. In this overview, we discuss in detail three possible etiological explanations of sleep problems in ASD that can all contribute to the high rate of these symptoms in ASD. Specifically, we examine how neurobiological alterations, genetic mutations, and disrupted sleep architecture can cause sleep problems in individuals with ASD. We also discuss how sleep problems may be a direct result of core symptoms of ASD. Finally, a detailed examination of the relationship between sleep problems and associated clinical features and psychiatric comorbidities in individuals with ASD is described.

  3. Relationship between clinical findings of temporomandibular disorders and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Yasuyuki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Fujiro; Kikuchi, Shiori; Konishi, Nobuhiro; Sakamaki, Kimio

    1996-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and clinical findings of patients having symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, and to consider the possibility to grasp the internal derangement of the TMJ from clinical findings. Subjects were 80 patients who visited to ask orthodontic treatment 16 males and 64 females. The average age was 22 years and 4 months. We performed a investigation of both their previous and present illness. In addition, to decide the correct condition concerning the internal derangement of the TMJ, patients were given MRI examinations (G. E. medical system Signa 1.5 Tesla) before orthodontic treatment. Results were as follows: The three symptoms of temporomandibular disorders-noise, pain, and abnormal mandibular movement, were not related to constant disk displacement. It seemed difficult to infer and obtain the diagnosis of the condition of internal derangement of the TMJ only from clinical findings. In a dental clinics having no medical imaging instrument such as MRI, it was, however, considered that the following items will make it possible to define the condition of internal derangements of the TMJ from clinical findings. As to respects concerning clinical findings, it is necessary to consider the previous illness as well as present illness. TMJ noise indicates a higher relationship to the disk displacement in MRI findings. The temporomandibular joint with plural symptoms indicated a higher incidence of disk displacement examined by MR Imaging than that with a single symptom. (author)

  4. The relationship between psychological comfort space and self-esteem in people with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunikata, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Yuko; Nakajima, Kazuo; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Tomotake, Masahito

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate a causal model of the sense of having psychological comfortable space that is call 'ibasho' in Japanese and self-esteem in people with mental disorders who had difficulty in social activities. The subjects were 248 schizophrenia patients who were living in the community and receiving day care treatment. Data were collected from December 2007 to April 2009 using the Scale for the Sense of ibasho for persons with mentally ill (SSI) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and analyzed for cross-validation of construct validity by conducting covariance structure analysis. A relationship between the sense of having comfortable space and self-esteem was investigated. Multiple indicator models of the sense of having psychological comfortable space and self-esteem were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Furthermore, the SSI scores were compared between the high- and low-self-esteem groups. The path coefficient from the sense of having comfortable space to self-esteem was significant (0.80). High-self-esteem group scored significantly higher in the SSI subscales, 'the sense of recognizing my true self' and 'the sense of recognizing deep person-to-person relationships' than the low-self-esteem group. It was suggested that in order to help people with mental disorders improve self-esteem, it might be useful to support them in a way they can enhance the sense of having comfortable space.

  5. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D

    2012-03-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based survey. Of 278 participants (nfemale=208; nmale=70) aged 18-24 years old, disordered eating cognitions, mindfulness, and psychological flexibility were related to psychological distress after controlling for gender, ethnicity, and body mass index. Disordered eating cognitions and mindfulness accounted for unique variance in disordered eating behaviors. Finally, mindfulness was found to moderate the association between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors.

  6. The relationship between work stress and mental disorders in men and women: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J L; Lesage, A; Schmitz, N; Drapeau, A

    2008-01-01

    [corrected] This analysis estimated the gender-specific associations between work stress, major depression, anxiety disorders and any mental disorder, adjusting for the effects of demographic, socioeconomic, psychological and clinical variables. Data from the Canadian national mental health survey were used to examine the gender-specific relationships between work stress dimensions and mental disorders in the working population (n = 24,277). Mental disorders were assessed using a modified version of the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In multivariate analysis, male workers who reported high demand and low control in the workplace were more likely to have had major depression (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.69) and any depressive or anxiety disorders (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.04) in the past 12 months. In women, high demand and low control was only associated with having any depressive or anxiety disorder (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.84). Job insecurity was positively associated with major depression in men but not in women. Imbalance between work and family life was the strongest factor associated with having mental disorders, regardless of gender. Policies improving the work environment may have positive effects on workers' mental health status. Imbalance between work and family life may be a stronger risk factor than work stress for mental disorders. Longitudinal studies incorporating important workplace health research models are needed to delineate causal relationships between work characteristics and mental disorders.

  7. Examining the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder and social participation among Veterans with spinal cord injuries and disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etingen, Bella; Locatelli, Sara M; Miskevics, Scott; LaVela, Sherri L

    2017-07-26

    The objectives of this study were to examine differences in social participation among Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders with and without post-traumatic stress disorder, and determine if lower social participation was independently associated with having post-traumatic stress disorder. A cross-sectional mailed national survey was sent to a national sample of Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders who received prior-year Veterans Affairs healthcare. Surveys provided data on: demographics, health conditions, injury characteristics, and social participation. Analyses included bivariate comparisons, and multivariate logistic regression to determine if lower social participation was independently associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. Veterans with (vs. without) post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 896) reported lower social participation (40.2 vs. 43.9, p stress disorder, while a greater number of health conditions (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.25-1.64, p stress disorder (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90-0.98, p = 0.003). Results indicate post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower social participation in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders, independent of other factors that may impact participation. Efforts to screen for and treat post-traumatic stress disorder among persons with spinal cord injuries/disorders, regardless of injury-specific factors, are needed to improve participation. Implications for Rehabilitation Individuals with spinal cord injuries/disorders often have post-traumatic stress disorder; in Veterans with spinal cord injuries/disorders this may be compounded by trauma incurred through military experiences. Social participation, an important aspect of rehabilitation and community integration following spinal cord injury or disorder, may be hindered by symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Our data show that post-traumatic stress disorder is associated with lower social participation in Veterans

  8. Relationship between stress coping and sleep disorders among the general Japanese population: a nationwide representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yuichiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Itani, Osamu; Nakagome, Sachi; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    To clarify the prevalence of stress, and examine the relationship between sleep disorders and stress coping strategies among highly stressed individuals in the general Japanese population. A cross-sectional nationwide survey was undertaken in November 2007. Men and women were randomly selected from 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7671 (3532 men (average age 53.5 ± 17.0 years) and 4139 women (average age 53.9 ± 17.7 years)) were analyzed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on stress, sleep disorders, and stress coping strategies in the previous month. Highly stressed individuals comprised 16.6% (95% confidence interval 15.8-17.5%) of the total sample, and most were aged 20-49 years. In multiple logistic regression, symptoms of insomnia (ie, difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening), excessive daytime sleepiness, nightmares, daytime malfunction, and lack of rest due to sleep deprivation were more prone to occur in highly stressed individuals. In addition, logistic regression analysis controlling for other adjustment factors revealed that stress coping strategies such as 'giving up on problem-solving', 'enduring problems patiently', 'smoking' and 'drinking alcohol' were positively associated with the above-mentioned sleep disorders. On the other hand, stress coping strategies such as 'exercising', 'enjoying hobbies', and 'sharing worries' were inversely associated with the above-mentioned sleep disorders. Distraction-based stress coping (eg, hobbies, exercise, and optimistic thinking) was found to be preferable to problem-based stress coping in a highly stressed Japanese general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Influencing factors of visual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease and its relationship with sleep disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D D; Li, S H; Jin, L Y; Jin, Y; Cui, Y Y; Zhao, H; Liu, H J; Ma, X X; Su, W; Chen, H B

    2016-04-05

    To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of visual hallucinations in patients with Parkinson's disease(PD), and to analyze the relationship between visual hallucinations and sleep disorders. We recruited 187 patients with PD(H-Y Ⅰ-Ⅲ) from outpatient department in Beijing Hospital. The patients were investigated for general information and the use of medicine. The patients were divided into visual hallucination(VH) group and non-hallucination(non-VH) group. A comparison study was conducted between two groups. We investigated the sleep disorders of PD patients according to Non Motor Symptom Quest(NMSquest) and Parkinson's disease sleep scale(PDSS). Logistic stepwise multiple regression procedures were used to determine the best predictive model of visual hallucinations in patients with PD. (1) 42 cases(22.5%) of PD patients were accompanied by visual hallucinations; (2) the VH group and non-VH group had no difference in age, sex, duration of illness, the scores of Minimum Mental State Examination(MMSE) and levodopa equivalent doses (LED). The scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale(UPDRS) Ⅰ, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety(HAMA) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression(HAMD) in VH group were significantly higher than those in non-VH group[3.5(2, 5) vs 2 (1, 3); 10(6.75, 15) vs 8(5, 11); 11(7.75, 17) vs 9(5, 13); Psleep behavior disorder(RBD) in VH group were significantly higher than those in non-VH group(61.9% vs 40.7%, 71.4% vs 47.6%, P0.05). The score of PDSS in VH group was significantly lower than that in non-VH group[111(92.75, 128.25) vs 123(109, 135), Psleep disorder are independently associated with VH in PD.

  10. Relationship between neural rhythm generation disorders and physical disabilities in Parkinson's disease patients' walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Leo; Uchitomi, Hirotaka; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Orimo, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Walking is generated by the interaction between neural rhythmic and physical activities. In fact, Parkinson's disease (PD), which is an example of disease, causes not only neural rhythm generation disorders but also physical disabilities. However, the relationship between neural rhythm generation disorders and physical disabilities has not been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of gait rhythm generation. In former research, neural rhythm generation disorders in PD patients' walking were characterized by stride intervals, which are more variable and fluctuate randomly. The variability and fluctuation property were quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV) and scaling exponent α. Conversely, because walking is a dynamic process, postural reflex disorder (PRD) is considered the best way to estimate physical disabilities in walking. Therefore, we classified the severity of PRD using CV and α. Specifically, PD patients and healthy elderly were classified into three groups: no-PRD, mild-PRD, and obvious-PRD. We compared the contributions of CV and α to the accuracy of this classification. In this study, 45 PD patients and 17 healthy elderly people walked 200 m. The severity of PRD was determined using the modified Hoehn-Yahr scale (mH-Y). People with mH-Y scores of 2.5 and 3 had mild-PRD and obvious-PRD, respectively. As a result, CV differentiated no-PRD from PRD, indicating the correlation between CV and PRD. Considering that PRD is independent of neural rhythm generation, this result suggests the existence of feedback process from physical activities to neural rhythmic activities. Moreover, α differentiated obvious-PRD from mild-PRD. Considering α reflects the intensity of interaction between factors, this result suggests the change of the interaction. Therefore, the interaction between neural rhythmic and physical activities is thought to plays an important role for gait rhythm generation. These characteristics have

  11. Social relationship difficulties in autism and reactive attachment disorder: Improving diagnostic validity through structured assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Claire; O'Hare, Anne; Mactaggart, Fiona; Green, Jonathan; Young, David; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2015-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) versus Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) is a common diagnostic challenge for clinicians due to overlapping difficulties with social relationships. RAD is associated with neglect or maltreatment whereas ASD is not: accurate differential diagnosis is therefore critical. Very little research has investigated the relationship between the two, and it is unknown if standardised measures are able to discriminate between ASD and RAD. The current study aimed to address these issues. Fifty eight children with ASD, and no history of maltreatment, were group matched on age with 67 children with RAD. Group profiles on multi-informant measures of RAD were investigated and group differences explored. Discriminant function analysis determined assessment features that best discriminated between the two groups. Although, according to parent report, children with ASD presented with significantly fewer indiscriminate friendliness behaviours compared to the RAD group (p<0.001), 36 children with ASD appeared to meet core RAD criteria. However, structured observation clearly demonstrated that features were indicative of ASD and not RAD for all but 1 of these 36 children. Children with RAD and children with ASD may demonstrate similar social relationship difficulties but there appears to be a difference in the social quality of the interactions between the groups. In most cases it was possible to differentiate between children with ASD and children with RAD via structured observation. Nevertheless, for a small proportion of children with ASD, particularly those whose difficulties may be more subtle, our current standardised measures, including structured observation, may not be effective in differentiating RAD from ASD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Relationship between productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorder risk among deboning workers in a Chilean salmon industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardi, Juan S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this ergonomic investigation is to establish a relationship between quality, productivity and risk of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) in manual bone-removal process in the salmon fish industry. The method consists in a follow up study of 14 workers in a lane that processes salmon steak. Time between each steak (work cycle), quality of the steak's meat through inspection of deepness and length of the gapping generated by the manual bone-removal process and risk for musculoskeletal disorders through OCRA method were considered for this study. IMC and musculoskeletal Nordic Questionnaire of Kourinka were applied to the workers evaluated. Fourteen women worker's completed the evaluation, age 37.67 ± 8.1, with 65.27 ± 34.41 months of experience, with an IMC of 27.18 ± 3.87 (1.52 ± 0.057 meters of height) at the time of the evaluation. Time for deboning per steak averaged 38 ± 14 seconds with 68.33 ± 14.79 steaks per hour per worker. In quality terms, 74% of the steaks were qualified as "premium steaks" and 26% as "grade or industrial" (lower category and cheapest price). OCRA index for the right hand average 13.79 ± 4.59 and 3.59 ± 0.41 for the left hand. From Nordic questionnaire 80% of the workers manifested musculoskeletal symptoms in the right hand/wrist, followed up by shoulder with 60% of the workers and arm/elbow with over 50%. There was no statistically significant relationship between productivity and quality of the steak after manual bone removal process and between quality and MSD risk. However, there was a statistically significant relationship between productivity and MSD risk (pproductive sector, considering its importance for this region.

  13. Psychological distress as a mediator in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wan Ying; Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hazizi, Abu Saad

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism linking biopsychosocial factors to disordered eating among university students is not well understood especially among Malaysians. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of psychological distress in the relationships between biopsychosocial factors and disordered eating among Malaysian university students. A self-administered questionnaire measured self-esteem, body image, social pressures to be thin, weight-related teasing, psychological distress, and disordered eating in 584 university students (59.4% females and 40.6% males). Body weight and height were measured. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the partial mediation model provided good fit to the data. Specifically, the relationships between self-esteem and weight-related teasing with disordered eating were mediated by psychological distress. In contrast, only direct relationships between body weight status, body image, and social pressures to be thin with disordered eating were found and were not mediated by psychological distress. Furthermore, multigroup analyses indicated that the model was equivalent for both genders but not for ethnic groups. There was a negative relationship between body weight status and psychological distress for Chinese students, whereas this was not the case among Malay students. Intervention and prevention programs on psychological distress may be beneficial in reducing disordered eating among Malaysian university students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationships of neuroticism and extraversion with axis I and II comorbidity among patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Isometsä, Erkki

    2009-04-01

    High comorbidity with axis I and II disorders among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients may in part be due to the predisposing personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion. However, a comprehensive view of this relationship is lacking. MDD patients (n=193) in the Vantaa Depression Study were interviewed at baseline and at 6 and 18 months with the SCAN and SCID-II, and a general population comparison group (n=388) surveyed by mail. Neuroticism and extraversion were measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory. A dose-exposure relationship between standardized levels of neuroticism and extraversion and type and number of comorbid axis I and II disorders among patients with MDD was hypothesized. Prevalence and number of comorbid axis I and II disorders increased significantly with increasing level of neuroticism. In contrast, as the level of extraversion increased, the prevalences of social phobia and cluster C personality disorders decreased. Patients with pure MDD or with any comorbid axis I or II disorder had z-scores of neuroticism of +0.46, +0.90 and +1.30 and of extraversion of -0.34, -0.47 and -0.84, respectively. Patients' personality scores were not pre-morbid. Among MDD patients, a positive dose-exposure relationship appears to exist between neuroticism and prevalence and number of comorbid axis I and II disorders. A negative relationship exists between level of extraversion and prevalence of social phobia and cluster C personality disorders. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that high neuroticism and low extraversion predispose to comorbid axis I and II disorders among patients with MDD.

  15. The relationship of the Severe Personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Jani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the disruptive effects of personality disorders on personal and family life, it is essential to recognize their predisposing factors to understand them more accurately, and identify their preventive measures treatment facilitators. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the relationship of severe personality disorders with behavioral activation and inhibition systems in patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders. Methods: The present descriptive-correlational study recruited patients with paranoid, borderline and schizotypal personality disorders presenting to psychiatry clinics in Ardabil using convenient sampling method. A total of 30 paranoid patients, 30 borderline patients and 20 schizotypal patients were selected by a psychiatrist through psychiatric examination, clinical interview and completing Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III. The following instruments were used: MCMI- III and behavioral activation-inhibition system scale (BIS-BAS. The data were analyzed with Pearson’s correlation coefficient and stepwise regression. Results: BIS and BAS systems were both significant for predicting borderline and paranoid personality disorders, but only BIS was significant for predicting schizotypal personality disorder. Conclusion: These findings can help experts to have a better and more accurate understanding of personality disorders and use proper methods to predict the probability of these disorders and develop treatments.

  16. The relationship of family characteristics and bipolar disorder using causal-pie models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-C; Kao, C-F; Lu, M-K; Yang, Y-K; Liao, S-C; Jang, F-L; Chen, W J; Lu, R-B; Kuo, P-H

    2014-01-01

    Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A systematic review of the relationship between severe maternal morbidity and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Bick, Debra

    2012-11-10

    The incidence of severe maternal morbidity is increasing in high-income countries as a consequence, in part, of increased obstetric intervention and increasingly complex medical needs of women who become pregnant. Access to emergency obstetric care means that for the majority of women in these countries, an experience of severe maternal morbidity is unlikely to result in loss of life. However, little is known about the subsequent impact on postnatal psychological health resulting in an evidence gap to support provision of appropriate care for these women. There has recently been increasing recognition that childbirth can be a cause of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The combination of experiencing a life-threatening complication and its management may culminate in psychological trauma. This systematic review examined the association between women's experience of severe maternal morbidity during labour, at the time of giving birth or within the first week following birth, and PTSD and its symptoms. Relevant literature was identified through multiple databases, including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Cochrane library and the British Library, using predetermined search strategies. The search terms included "post-traumatic stress disorder", "PTSD", "stress disorders, post-traumatic", "maternal morbidity", "pregnancy complications" "puerperal disorders", "obstetric labo(u)r complication", "postpartum h(a)emorrhage", "eclampsia". Studies identified were categorised according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was assessed using the relevant CASP appraisal tools. Eleven primary studies met review criteria. Evidence of a relationship between severe maternal morbidity and PTSD/PTSD symptoms was inconsistent and findings varied between studies. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that severe pre-eclampsia is a risk factor for PTSD and its symptoms, an association possibly

  18. Relationship between alexithymia and coping strategies in patients with somatoform disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominaga T

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toshiyuki Tominaga,1,4 Hyungin Choi,2 Yasuhide Nagoshi,3 Yoshihisa Wada,4 Kenji Fukui41Health Management Doctor's Office (Mental Health, Salary, Personnel Health, and Welfare Division, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Iwakura Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry (Psychosomatic Medicine, Kyoto First Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: A multidimensional intervention integrating alexithymia, negative affect, and type of coping strategy is needed for the effective treatment of somatoform disorder; however, few studies have applied this approach to the three different dimensions of alexithymia in patients with somatoform disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between type of coping strategy and three different dimensions of alexithymia expressed in patients.Patients and methods: A total of 196 patients with somatoform disorder completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale, and the Lazarus Stress Coping Inventory. The relationships between alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 score and subscales, demographic variables, and psychological inventory scores were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis.Results: The mean Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 total score (56.1±10.57 was positively correlated with the number of physical symptoms as well as with psychopathology scores (Self-Rating Depression Scale, State–Trait Anxiety Inventory trait, state, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale, but negatively correlated with planful problem solving, confrontive coping, seeking social support, and positive reappraisal coping scores. With respect to coping strategy, multiple regression

  19. The relationship between the five-factor model and latent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorder dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestadt, Gerald; Costa, Paul T; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Eaton, William W

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the latent structure of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorders (PDs) with the 5-factor model (FFM) of general personality dimensions. The subjects in the study were 742 community-residing individuals who participated in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorders Study. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition PD traits were assessed by psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination, and PD dimensions were derived previously using dichotomous factor analysis. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory, a measure of the FFM, was administered to all subjects. The relationship between the 2 sets of personality-related constructs was examined using a construct validity framework and also using Pearson correlation coefficients, multiple linear regression models, and spline regression models. The 5 PD factors each exhibited small to moderate correlations with several NEO dimensions; together, the NEO domain and facet scores explained a fifth to a third of the variance in PD dimensions. Examples of nonlinear relationships between the personality dimensions were identified. There is a modest correspondence between the PD dimensions and FFM traits, and the traits of FFM only partially explain the variance of the PDs. Dimensional measures of general personality may be a suitable alternative to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Whether additional maladaptive traits would better define the domain of PDs remains an important objective for future research.

  20. Relationship between Perceived Limit-Setting Abilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder Severity, Behaviour Problems and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips…

  1. 'I can't accept that feeling': Relationships between interoceptive awareness, mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms in females with, and at-risk of an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Paul; Mead, Bethan R; Irwin, Leanne; Grice, Lorna; Carson, Ruth; Malinowski, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mindfulness based therapies (MBTs) for eating disorders show potential benefit for outcomes yet evidence is scarce regarding the mechanisms by which they influence remission from symptoms. One way that mindfulness approaches create positive outcomes is through enhancement of emotion regulation skills. Maladaptive emotion regulation is a key psychological feature of all eating disorders. The aim of the current study was to identify facets of emotion regulation involved in the relationship between mindfulness and maladaptive eating behaviours. In three cross-sectional studies, clinical (n=39) and non-clinical (n=137 and 119) female participants completed: 1) the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) eating specific scales (drive-for-thinness and bulimia) and the EDI psychological symptom scales (emotion dysregulation and interoceptive deficits); and 2) mindfulness, impulsivity, and emotion regulation questionnaires. In all samples mindfulness was significantly and inversely associated with EDI eating and psychological symptom scales, and impulsivity. In non-clinical samples interoceptive deficits mediated the relationship between mindfulness and EDI eating specific scales. Non-acceptance of emotional experience, a facet of interoceptive awareness, mediated the relationship between mindfulness and eating specific EDI scores. Further investigations could verify relationships identified so that mindfulness based approaches can be optimised to enhance emotion regulation skills in sufferers, and those at-risk, of eating disorders. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mindfulness Moderates the Relationship Between Disordered Eating Cognitions and Disordered Eating Behaviors in a Non-Clinical College Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Akihiko; Price, Matthew; Latzman, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychological flexibility and mindfulness are two related, but distinct, regulation processes that have been shown to be at the core of psychological wellbeing. The current study investigated whether these two processes independently moderated the association between disordered eating cognitions and psychological distress as well as the relation between disordered eating cognitions and disordered eating behaviors. Non-clinical, ethnically diverse college undergraduates completed a web-based s...

  3. Relationship between bruxism and temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review of literature from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Daniele; Lobbezoo, Frank

    2010-06-01

    The present paper aims to systematically review the literature on the temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-bruxism relationship published from 1998 to 2008. A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database was performed to identify all studies on humans assessing the relationship between TMD symptoms and bruxism diagnosed with any different approach. The selected articles were assessed independently by the 2 authors according to a structured reading of articles format (PICO). A total of 46 articles were included for discussion in the review and grouped into questionnaire/self-report (n = 21), clinical assessment (n = 7), experimental (n = 7), tooth wear (n = 5), polysomnographic (n = 4), or electromyographic (n = 2) studies. In several studies, the level of evidence was negatively influenced by a low level of specificity for the assessment of the bruxism-TMD relationship, because of the low prevalence of severe TMD patients in the studied samples and because of the use of self-report diagnosis of bruxism with some potential diagnostic bias. Investigations based on self-report or clinical bruxism diagnosis showed a positive association with TMD pain, but they are characterized by some potential bias and confounders at the diagnostic level (eg, pain as a criterion for bruxism diagnosis). Studies based on more quantitative and specific methods to diagnose bruxism showed much lower association with TMD symptoms. Anterior tooth wear was not found to be a major risk factor for TMD. Experimental sustained jaw clenching may provoke acute muscle tenderness, but it is not analogous to myogenous TMD pain, so such studies may not help clarify the clinical relationship between bruxism and TMD. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship of thought-action fusion to pathologicial worry and generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett-Stevens, Holly; Zucker, Bonnie G; Craske, Michelle G

    2002-10-01

    Meta-cognitive beliefs associated with pathological worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) may encompass the likelihood subtype of thought-action fusion (TAF), the belief that one's thoughts can influence outside events. In the current study of 494 undergraduate college students, positive correlations between scores on the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and the two Likelihood subscales of the TAF Scale were found, and participants endorsing at least some DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for GAD scored significantly higher on both TAF-Likelihood subscales than participants reporting no GAD symptoms. However, these TAF scales did not predict GAD diagnostic status with PSWQ included as a predictor. In contrast to previous research, the TAF-Moral scale did not correlate with worry. Relationships between TAF, pathological worry, and meta-cognition are discussed in relation to GAD.

  5. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Substance use disorder counselors' job performance and turnover after 1 year: linear or curvilinear relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschober, Tanja C; de Tormes Eby, Lillian Turner

    2013-07-01

    The main goals of the current study were to investigate whether there are linear or curvilinear relationships between substance use disorder counselors' job performance and actual turnover after 1 year utilizing four indicators of job performance and three turnover statuses (voluntary, involuntary, and no turnover as the reference group). Using longitudinal data from 440 matched counselor-clinical supervisor dyads, results indicate that overall, counselors with lower job performance are more likely to turn over voluntarily and involuntarily than not to turn over. Further, one of the job performance measures shows a significant curvilinear effect. We conclude that the negative consequences often assumed to be "caused" by counselor turnover may be overstated because those who leave both voluntarily and involuntarily demonstrate generally lower performance than those who remain employed at their treatment program.

  7. A putative causal relationship between genetically determined female body shape and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimanti, Renato; Amstadter, Ananda B; Stein, Murray B; Almli, Lynn M; Baker, Dewleen G; Bierut, Laura J; Bradley, Bekh; Farrer, Lindsay A; Johnson, Eric O; King, Anthony; Kranzler, Henry R; Maihofer, Adam X; Rice, John P; Roberts, Andrea L; Saccone, Nancy L; Zhao, Hongyu; Liberzon, Israel; Ressler, Kerry J; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Koenen, Karestan C; Gelernter, Joel

    2017-11-27

    The nature and underlying mechanisms of the observed increased vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women are unclear. We investigated the genetic overlap of PTSD with anthropometric traits and reproductive behaviors and functions in women. The analysis was conducted using female-specific summary statistics from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a cohort of 3577 European American women (966 PTSD cases and 2611 trauma-exposed controls). We applied a high-resolution polygenic score approach and Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate genetic correlations and causal relationships. We observed an inverse association of PTSD with genetically determined anthropometric traits related to body shape, independent of body mass index (BMI). The top association was related to BMI-adjusted waist circumference (WC adj ; R = -0.079, P body shape and PTSD, which could be mediated by evolutionary mechanisms involved in human sexual behaviors.

  8. Substance Use Disorder Counselors’ Job Performance and Turnover after 1 Year: Linear or Curvilinear Relationship?1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschober, Tanja C.; de Tormes Eby, Lillian Turner

    2013-01-01

    The main goals of the current study were to investigate whether there are linear or curvilinear relationships between substance use disorder counselors’ job performance and actual turnover after 1 year utilizing four indicators of job performance and three turnover statuses (voluntary, involuntary, and no turnover as the reference group). Using longitudinal data from 440 matched counselor-clinical supervisor dyads, results indicate that overall, counselors with lower job performance are more likely to turn over voluntarily and involuntarily than not to turn over. Further, one of the job performance measures shows a significant curvilinear effect. We conclude that the negative consequences often assumed to be “caused” by counselor turnover may be overstated because those who leave both voluntarily and involuntarily demonstrate generally lower performance than those who remain employed at their treatment program. PMID:22527711

  9. The relationship of early communication concerns to developmental delay and symptoms of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turygin, Nicole; Matson, Johnny L; Konst, Matthew; Williams, Lindsey

    2013-08-01

    Parental concerns related to communication are an oft-cited reason that children present to early intervention clinics. We examine the relationship between early communication first concerns (FCs) and symptoms of ASD. The present study included 3173 toddlers at risk for developmental delay. The Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2nd edition and the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT) were used to examine developmental quotient scores and autism symptoms. Significant results were observed with respect to FC group and gender. A significant effect of FC-Communication group was observed with respect to developmental quotient overall and subscale scores, as well as autism symptom scores. Those with communication disorders are a heterogeneous population and do not account for all children who will meet criteria for a diagnosis of an ASD.

  10. El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, David N; de Alvarado, Ana Maria Glower; de Castro, Norma Blandon; Male, Robert Van; Zetino, A M; Vega, Raphael

    2006-12-01

    Four and seven weeks after powerful earthquakes in El Salvador, the authors examined the relationships among demographics, traumatic event exposure, social support, resource loss, acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms, depression, and posttraumatic growth. Participants were 253 college students (Study 1) and 83 people in the community (Study 2). In Study 1, female gender, traumatic event exposure, low social support, and loss of personal characteristic, condition, and energy resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. In Study 2, damage to home and loss of personal characteristic and object resources contributed to ASD symptoms and depression. Posttraumatic growth was not associated with ASD symptoms or depression. Findings support the conservation of resources stress theory (Hobfoll, 1998). Resource loss spirals, excessive demands on coping, and exposure to multiple disasters are discussed.

  11. Mindfulness and its relationship with eating disorders symptomatology in women receiving residential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butryn, Meghan L; Juarascio, Adrienne; Shaw, Jena; Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Clark, Vicki; O'Planick, Antonia; Forman, Evan M

    2013-01-01

    Mindfulness and its related constructs (e.g., awareness and acceptance) are increasingly being recognized as relevant to understanding eating disorders and improving treatment. The purpose of this study was to (1) examine the relationship between mindfulness and ED symptomatology at baseline and (2) examine how changes in mindfulness relate to change in ED symptomatology. Measures of mindfulness and ED symptomatology were administered to 88 patients upon admission to residential ED treatment and at discharge. Baseline ED symptomatology was associated with lower awareness, acceptance, and cognitive defusion, and higher emotional avoidance. Improvements in these variables were related to improvement in ED symptomatology. Interventions targeting mindfulness could be beneficial for patients with EDs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Relationship Between Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Self-Esteem in Rhinoplasty Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Bahadir; Erdim, Ibrahim; Ozbay, Isa; Oghan, Fatih; Oncu, Fatih; Erdogdu, Zeynep; Kayhan, Fatma Tulin

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between body dysmorphic syndrome and self-esteem in rhinoplasty candidates. A negative statistical correlation was evident between Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination-Self Report (BDDE-SR) scores. In terms of responses to the first Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ) question, which focuses on general attitude toward body dysmorphic syndrome, the average RSES "YES" score was significantly less than the "NO" score. No significant differences appeared between RSES scores and scores for the 4th subgroup of BDDQ questions (subgroups A, B, and C; these questions explore how much time is spent daily on maintenance of bodily appearance). However, significant differences appeared between scores for the 4th subgroup of BDDQ questions and BDDE-SR scores. The average BDD-SR score of subgroup A (less than 1 hour spent on bodily maintenance) was significantly lower than those of group B (1-3 hours) and group C (more than 3 hours). However, no significant differences appeared in average BDD-SR scores between subgroups B and C. In this prospective study, 56 patients (31 females and 25 males) were evaluated preoperatively using the BDDQ, the BDDE-SR, and the RSES. Patients younger than 15 years and those with deformities caused by trauma were excluded. Rhinoplasty candidates had higher levels of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Although patients with low RSES scores were more likely to have BDD, rhinoplasty candidates were not notably deficient in self-esteem. However, in rhinoplasty candidates with low RSES scores, the frequency of BDD was elevated. Therefore, the authors suggest that rhinoplasty candidates with low RSES scores should be investigated carefully in terms of BDD.

  13. Degree connectivity in body dysmorphic disorder and relationships with obsessive and compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucke, Jan C; Sepulcre, Jorge; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Kathmann, Norbert; Moody, Teena; Feusner, Jamie D

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are categorized within the same major diagnostic group and both show regional brain hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the basal ganglia during symptom provocation. While recent studies revealed that degree connectivity of these areas is abnormally high in OCD and positively correlates with symptom severity, no study has investigated degree connectivity in BDD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the local and distant degree of functional connectivity in all brain areas between 28 unmedicated BDD participants and 28 demographically matched healthy controls during a face-processing task. Correlational analyses tested for associations between degree connectivity and symptom severity assessed by the BDD version of the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (BDD-Y-BOCS). Reduced local amygdalar connectivity was found in participants with BDD. No differences in distant connectivity were found. BDD-Y-BOCS scores significantly correlated with the local connectivity of the posterior-lateral OFC, and distant connectivity of the posterior-lateral and post-central OFC, respectively. These findings represent preliminary evidence that individuals with BDD exhibit brain-behavioral associations related to obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors that are highly similar to correlations previously found in OCD, further underscoring their related pathophysiology. This relationship could be further elucidated through investigation of resting-state functional connectivity in BDD, ideally in direct comparison with OCD and other obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  14. Seizure variables and their relationship to genotype and functional abilities in the CDKL5 disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Stephanie; Wong, Kingsley; Chin, Richard; Williams, Simon; de Klerk, Nick; Forbes, David; Krishnaraj, Rahul; Christodoulou, John; Downs, Jenny; Leonard, Helen

    2016-11-22

    To investigate seizure outcomes and their relationships to genotype and functional abilities in individuals with the cyclin-dependent kinase-like-5 (CDKL5) disorder. Using the International CDKL5 Disorder Database, we identified 172 cases with a pathogenic CDKL5 mutation. We categorized individual mutations into 4 groups based on predicted structural and functional consequences. Negative binomial regression was used to model the linear association between current seizure rate and mutation group, current level of assistance required to walk 10 steps, and the highest level of expressive communication used to convey refusal or request. All but 3 (169/172) patients had a history of epilepsy. The median age at seizure onset was 6 weeks (range 1 week-1.5 years) and the median seizure rate at ascertainment was 2 per day (range 0-20 per day). After adjusting for walking ability and confounders including use or otherwise of polytherapy, seizure rate was lower in those with truncating mutations between aa172 and aa781 compared to those with no functional protein (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.93). Ability to walk and use of spoken language were associated with lower rates of current seizures when compared to those with the least ability after adjusting for genotype (walking: IRR 0.62; 95% CI 0.39-0.99, communication: IRR 0.48; 95% CI 0.23-1.02). At a median age at questionnaire completion of 5 years, those previously treated with corticosteroids had more frequent seizures than those who have never been treated, whether or not there was a history of infantile spasms. Epilepsy is pervasive but not mandatory for the CDKL5 disorder. Genotype and functional abilities were related to seizure frequency, which appears refractory to antiepileptic drugs. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Relationship between symptom dimensions and brain morphology in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Motohisa; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Sutoh, Chihiro; Asano, Kenichi; Miyata, Haruko; Matsumoto, Junko; Nakazato, Michiko; Matsumoto, Koji; Masuda, Yoshitada; Iyo, Masaomi; Shimizu, Eiji; Nakagawa, Akiko

    2017-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by symptom dimensions. Although substantial numbers of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of brain abnormalities in OCD, their results are controversial. The clinical heterogeneity of OCD could be one of the reasons for this. It has been hypothesized that certain brain regions contributed to the respective obsessive-compulsive dimensions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of OCD and brain morphology using voxel-based morphometry to discover the specific regions showing alterations in the respective dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The severities of symptom dimensions in thirty-three patients with OCD were assessed using Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R). Along with numerous MRI studies pointing out brain abnormalities in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) patients, a previous study reported a positive correlation between ASD traits and regional gray matter volume in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and amygdala in OCD patients. We investigated the correlation between gray and white matter volumes at the whole brain level and each symptom dimension score, treating all remaining dimension scores, age, gender, and ASD traits as confounding covariates. Our results revealed a significant negative correlation between washing symptom dimension score and gray matter volume in the right thalamus and a significant negative correlation between hoarding symptom dimension score and white matter volume in the left angular gyrus. Although our result was preliminary, our findings indicated that there were specific brain regions in gray and white matter that contributed to symptom dimensions in OCD patients.

  16. The relationship between theory of mind and insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulacı, Rıza Gökçer; Cankurtaran, Eylem Şahin; Özdel, Kadir; Öztürk, Nefise; Kuru, Erkan; Özdemir, İlker

    2018-02-09

    It is known that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients with poor insight display more severe neuropsychological impairments than other patients with OCD. There are limited studies of OCD and theory of mind (ToM). To investigate ToM skills in patients with OCD and the relationship between insight and ToM skills by comparing OCD patients with good and poor insight. Eighty patients with OCD and 80 healthy controls completed the structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders, the Yale Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Beck Anxiety and Beck Depression Inventories, and the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale. To assess ToM skills, first- and second-order false-belief tests, a hinting test, a faux pas test, a reading the mind in the eyes test, and a double-bluff test were administered. Patients with OCD had poorer ToM abilities than healthy controls. All ToM scores were significantly lower in the poor insight group than in the good insight group (p insight than in OCD with good insight may contribute to the idea of OCD with poor insight being a subtype with different clinical and neuropsychological characteristics.

  17. Relationships of Cerebrospinal Fluid Monoamine Metabolite Levels With Clinical Variables in Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyung Shin; Hattori, Kotaro; Ogawa, Shintaro; Sasayama, Daimei; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    Many studies have investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite levels in depressive disorders. However, their clinical significance is still unclear. We tried to determine whether CSF monoamine metabolite levels could be a state-dependent marker for major depressive disorder (MDD) based on analyses stratified by clinical variables in a relatively large sample. Subjects were 75 patients with MDD according to DSM-IV criteria and 87 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese). They were recruited between May 2010 and November 2013. We measured homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (MHPG) in CSF samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. We analyzed the relationships of the metabolite levels with age, sex, diagnosis, psychotropic medication use, and depression severity. There was a weak positive correlation between age and 5-HIAA levels in controls (ρ = 0.26, P 12) were significantly lower than those in controls (P .1), were related to depression severity. CSF 5-HIAA and HVA levels could be state-dependent markers in MDD patients. Since 5-HIAA levels greatly decrease with the use of antidepressants, HVA levels might be more useful in the clinical setting. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Relationship between the Broad Autism Phenotype, Social Relationships and Mental Health for Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Megan M.; Rhoden, Madeline; Ekas, Naomi V.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the mechanisms responsible for the association between the broad autism phenotype and depressive symptoms in mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 98 mothers who had a child with autism spectrum disorder between the ages of 2 and 16 years completed assessments of maternal broad autism phenotype,…

  19. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, S Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases...... and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17......-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD...

  20. Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p’s social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being. PMID:24656048

  1. The relationship between types and severity of repetitive behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cath, D.C.; Spinhoven, P.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Landman, A.D.; Woerkom, T.C.A.M. van; Roos, R.A.C.; Rooijmans, H.G.M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigated which categories of obsessive-compulsive and Tourette-related behaviors in Gilles de la Tourette's disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without tics are experienced as most severe across the study groups and what the differences are in symptom

  2. Changes in Matrix Metalloproteinases in Diabetes Patients' Tears After Vitrectomy and the Relationship With Corneal Epithelial Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takehiro; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Tomomatsu, Takeshi; Arimura, Shogo; Gozawa, Makoto; Takihara, Yuji; Inatani, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies indicate involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of diabetic keratopathy. To evaluate MMP levels in the tears of patients with diabetes, we investigated changes in MMP levels during perioperative periods and clarify the relationship with corneal epithelial disorders following vitrectomy. Matrix metalloproteinase levels in tears were measured by multiplex bead array in patients with or without diabetes who were scheduled for vitrectomy. Twenty-two patients with diabetes and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and 20 patients with epiretinal membrane or macular hole (control group), were recruited. Changes in MMP levels during perioperative periods and the relationship with corneal epithelial disorders after vitrectomy were analyzed. The levels of MMP-2, -9, and -10 at 1 day after surgery in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. At 1 week after surgery, MMP-10 levels in the diabetic group were significantly higher than in the control group. After vitrectomy, corneal epithelial disorders occurred in six patients in the diabetic group but not in the control group. In the diabetic group, MMP-10 levels in tears of patients with corneal epithelial disorders were significantly higher than those in patients without corneal epithelial disorders. The MMP concentration in tears of patients with diabetes was higher than in nondiabetic patients after vitrectomy. High MMP-10 levels were observed in patients with diabetes and corneal epithelial disorders after vitrectomy. Aberrant levels of MMP-10 may cause corneal epithelial disorder after vitrectomy.

  3. Assessment of the relationship between stress and temporomandibular joint disorder in female students before university entrance exam (Konkour exam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Ahmad; Razavi, S Mohammad; Pozveh, Elham Zamani; Jahangirmoghaddam, Milad

    2011-12-01

    Temporomandibular joint is one of the most complicated joints of the body and plays an important role in the head and neck system. One of the factors affecting the temporomandibular joint and lead to temporomandibular disorder is anxiety with all the events causing it. The aim of this study was to determine a relationship between anxiety and temporomandibular disorders. In this prospective study, subjects were randomly selected. One hundred and thirty pre-university students in Isfahan were evaluated with Ketel's test of anxiety, exam stress test and temporomandibular disorder questionnaires. The evaluation was done in two stages 10 months and 1 month prior to the university entrance exam (Konkour), clinical assessments consisted of masticatory muscles and sternocleidomastoid muscle palpation, temporomandibular joint palpation for pain and noise and its movement, and mouth opening limitations. The Wilcoxon rank test and paired t-test were used to analyze the data and the P value under 0.05 was considered significant. The level of anxiety and occurrence of temporomandibular disorders were increased between two stages and had the highest level in the second stage. There was a significant increase between two stages (Ptemporomandibular disorders and anxiety between the two stages can suggest a possible relationship between anxiety and temporomandibular disorders. Therefore, the effect of anxiety in triggering temporomandibular disorder symptoms is probable.

  4. Specific Learning Disorders: A Look Inside Children's and Parents' Psychological Well-Being and Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacci, Paola; Storti, Michele; Tobia, Valentina; Suardi, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Despite their ascertained neurobiological origin, specific learning disorders (SLD) often have been found to be associated with some emotional disturbances in children, and there is growing interest in the environmental and contextual variables that may modulate children's developmental trajectories. The present study was aimed at evaluating the psychological profile of parents and children and the relationships between their measures. Parents of children with SLD (17 couples, 34 participants) and parents of children with typical development (17 couples, 34 participants) were administered questionnaires assessing parenting styles, reading history, parenting stress, psychopathological indexes, and evaluations of children's anxiety and depression. Children (N = 34, 10.7 ± 1.2 years) were assessed with self-evaluation questionnaires on anxiety, depression, and self-esteem and with a scale assessing their perception of parents' qualities. Results showed that parents of children with SLD have higher parental distress, poorer reading history, and different parenting styles compared to parents of children with TD; there were no differences in psychopathological indexes. The SLD group also rated their children as more anxious and depressed. Children with SLD had lower scholastic and interpersonal self-esteem, but they report ratings of parents' qualities similar to those of TD children. Relationships between parents' and children's measures were further explored. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2015.

  5. Relationships between irritable bowel syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, and worry-related constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Drews

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This ex post facto study aimed to replicate previous research demonstrating an association between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and to extend this work by examining possible relationships between IBS and psychological constructs associated with the development of GAD. A total of 391 undergraduate psychology students completed self-report diagnostic measures of IBS and GAD as well as questionnaire measures of trait anxiety, worry, experiential avoidance, intolerance of uncertainty, and problem-solving confidence. Consistent with previous research, an association between IBS and GAD was found. Compared to participants without IBS, participants endorsing Rome II diagnostic criteria for IBS reported greater trait anxiety, worry, and experiential avoidance. No group differences on measures of intolerance of uncertainty and problem-solving confidence were found. Etiological factors considered specific to the development of GAD (i.e., increased intolerance of uncertainty and deficits in problem-solving confidence do not account for the observed relationships between IBS and general anxiety variables. However, experiential avoidance, or attempts to avoid unwanted bodily sensations, emotions, or other internal events, does appear elevated among IBS individuals. Implications of these findings are discussed within the context of a biopsychosocial model of IBS.

  6. Relationship of ocular accommodation and motor skills performance in developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Sara A; Northway, Nadia

    2015-08-01

    Ocular accommodation provides a well-focussed image, feedback for accurate eye movement control, and cues for depth perception. To accurately perform visually guided motor tasks, integration of ocular motor systems is essential. Children with motor coordination impairment are established to be at higher risk of accommodation anomalies. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between ocular accommodation and motor tasks, which are often overlooked, in order to better understand the problems experienced by children with motor coordination impairment. Visual function, gross and fine motor skills were assessed in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing control children. Children with DCD had significantly poorer accommodation facility and amplitude dynamics compared to controls. Results indicate a relationship between impaired accommodation and motor skills. Specifically, accommodation anomalies correlated with visual motor, upper limb and fine dexterity task performance. Consequently, we argue accommodation anomalies influence the ineffective coordination of action and perception in DCD. Furthermore, reading disabilities were related to poorer motor performance. We postulate the role of the fastigial nucleus as a common pathway for accommodation and motor deficits. Implications of the findings and recommended visual screening protocols are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relationship Between Fatigue and Job Content with Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Regarding the high levels of physical and mental activities and the high risk of fatigue, prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs is increasingly high among nurses that can be negatively affect their work quality and patients’ safety. Objectives The present study aimed to survey the relationship between fatigue and job content with WMSDs among nurses from 2014 to 2015. In this study two hundred and eighty one nurses from two hospitals have been performed in Qom province. Methods Demographic information was age, gender, and work-related number of accidents. Fatigue and job content questionnaire (JCQ developed by researchers was used to collect data. Data were analyzed by SPSS V.20 and Poisson regression was applied. Results Totally, 238 nurses (84.7% had experienced pain in at least one part of their bodies, Fatigue mean scores and standard deviations were 50.83 ± 14.05, respectively. Job content scores were 43.96 as mean ± 7.23. Poisson regression model depicted that educational status, regular practice, fatigue, and job content had significant relationship with WRMSDs (P < 0.05. Conclusions Although job content and fatigue were in acceptable conditions, regarding sever probable consequences such as increasing care errors, some solutions such work procedures, systems and tasks redesign to make a holistic view of performing care duties, using standard equipment and probable layout of them can consequently help to improve the safety and health of staff members and care quality.

  8. Mother-Child Relationship in Youths with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and their Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-07-01

    Despite impaired mother-child interactions noted in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), there is no such information for their siblings. This study aimed to test whether the affected and unaffected siblings, like youth with ADHD, also encountered impaired mothering and mother-child relationships as compared to typically developing youth (TD). The sample consisted of 122 probands (107 males, 87.7 %), aged 10-16, with DSM-IV ADHD, 44 affected (26 males, 59.1 %) and 78 unaffected (28 males, 35.9 %) siblings, and 122 TD youth. Both participants and their mothers received psychiatric interviews (K-SADS-E) about the participants and reported maternal parenting style, mother-child interactions and child behavioral problems at home. Based on both reports, probands with ADHD and affected siblings (only youth report) had more impaired relationships, more behavioral problems at home, and less perceived family support than unaffected siblings and TD youth. Probands with ADHD had higher maternal authoritarian control than unaffected siblings. The findings suggest that impaired mothering, mother-child interactions, and family support are related to the presence of ADHD diagnosis in both probands and their affected siblings.

  9. Relationship between perceived limit-setting abilities, autism spectrum disorder severity, behaviour problems and parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Howse, Jessie; Ho, Ben; Osborne, Lisa A

    2017-11-01

    Parenting stress in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is high and impacts perceptions about parenting. This study examined the relationship between parenting stress and observer-perceived limit-setting ability. Participants' perceptions of other parents' limit-setting ability were assessed by showing participants video clips of parenting behaviours. Mothers of 93 children with autism spectrum disorder completed an online survey regarding the severity of their own child's autism spectrum disorder (Social Communication Questionnaire), their child's behaviour problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and their own levels of parenting stress (Questionnaire on Resources and Stress). They were shown five videos of other parents interacting with children with autism spectrum disorder and were asked to rate the limit-setting abilities observed in each video using the Parent-Child Relationship Inventory. Higher parenting stress negatively related to judgements about others' limit-setting skills. This mirrors the literature regarding the relationship between self-reported parenting stress and rating child behaviour more negatively. It suggests that stress negatively impacts a wide range of judgements and implies that caution may be required when interpreting the results of studies in which parenting skills are assessed by self-report.

  10. Affect dysregulation, psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and complex posttraumatic stress disorder independent of the symptoms of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijke, Annemiek; Hopman, Juliette A B; Ford, Julian D

    2018-01-01

    Objective : Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as defined by the Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) formulation is associated with childhood relational trauma and involves relational impairment, affect dysregulation, and identity alterations. However, the distinct contributions of relational impairment (operationalized in the form fears of closeness or abandonment), affect dysregulation (operationalized in the form of overregulation and under-regulation of affect), and identity alterations (operationalized in the form of positive or negative psychoform or somatoform dissociation) to the relationship between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS have not been systematically tested. Method and Results : In a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with severe and chronic psychiatric and personality disorders ( n  = 472; M  = 34.7 years, SD  = 10.1), structural equation modelling with bootstrap 95% confidence intervals demonstrated that the association between childhood trauma and CPTSD/DESNOS symptoms in adulthood was partially mediated by under-regulation of affect, negative psychoform dissociation, and adult relational fears of closeness and of abandonment. These results also were independent of the effects of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Conclusions : Some, but not all, hypothesized components of the DESNOS formulation of CPTSD statistically mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and adult CPTSD/DESNOS. These relationships appear specific to CPTSD/DESNOS and not to the effects of another potential sequelae of childhood trauma BPD. Replication with prospective longitudinal studies is needed.

  11. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits, obsessive-compulsive disorder and excessive exercise in patients with anorexia nervosa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah; Rhodes, Paul; Touyz, Stephen; Hay, Phillipa

    2013-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are commonly associated with patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this review was to systematically search the literature to examine whether OCPD and OCD are positively associated with excessive exercise in patients with AN. A systematic electronic search of the literature (using PsycInfo, Medline and Web of Knowledge) was undertaken to identify relevant publications until May 2012. A total of ten studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. The design of the studies varied from cross-sectional to retrospective and quasi-experimental. Seven out of the ten studies reviewed demonstrated a positive relationship between OCPD and/or OCD in AN patients who exercise excessively, whilst three studies found a lack of relationship, or a negative relationship, between these constructs. There is evidence from the literature to suggest that there is a positive relationship between OCPD and excessive exercise in patients with AN. However, the relationship between OCD and excessive exercise is less clear and further research is required to qualify the strength of such relationships. Future research should utilise the most comprehensive and reliable clinical assessment tools, and address prognostic factors, treatment factors and specific interventions for patients with OCPD and/or OCD and excessive exercise.

  12. The Relationship between Types of Attention and Auditory Processing Skills: Reconsidering Auditory Processing Disorder Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Georgios; Iliadou, Vassiliki-Maria; Edwards, Lindsey; Sirimanna, Tony; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2018-01-01

    Measures of attention have been found to correlate with specific auditory processing tests in samples of children suspected of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD), but these relationships have not been adequately investigated. Despite evidence linking auditory attention and deficits/symptoms of APD, measures of attention are not routinely used in APD diagnostic protocols. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between auditory and visual attention tests and auditory processing tests in children with APD and to assess whether a proposed diagnostic protocol for APD, including measures of attention, could provide useful information for APD management. A pilot study including 27 children, aged 7–11 years, referred for APD assessment was conducted. The validated test of everyday attention for children, with visual and auditory attention tasks, the listening in spatialized noise sentences test, the children's communication checklist questionnaire and tests from a standard APD diagnostic test battery were administered. Pearson's partial correlation analysis examining the relationship between these tests and Cochrane's Q test analysis comparing proportions of diagnosis under each proposed battery were conducted. Divided auditory and divided auditory-visual attention strongly correlated with the dichotic digits test, r = 0.68, p attention battery identified as having Attention Deficits (ADs). The proposed APD battery excluding AD cases did not have a significantly different diagnosis proportion than the standard APD battery. Finally, the newly proposed diagnostic battery, identifying an inattentive subtype of APD, identified five children who would have otherwise been considered not having ADs. The findings show that a subgroup of children with APD demonstrates underlying sustained and divided attention deficits. Attention deficits in children with APD appear to be centred around the auditory modality but further examination of types of attention in both

  13. The relationship of sex and sexual orientation to self-esteem, body shape satisfaction, and eating disorder symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetra eYean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b whether the internalization-eating disorder symptomatology was mediated by the different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The present data support several key trends in the literature: men generally reported less body dissatisfaction, internalization of socio-cultural standards of beauty, drive for thinness, and disordered eating, but a greater drive for muscularity than women; results also indicated that different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between internalization and eating disorder symptomatology. Gay men reported significantly more body dissatisfaction, internalization, eating disorder symptomatology, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity than heterosexual men. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians reported increased drive for muscularity, lower self-esteem, and lower internalization; however, they did not significantly differ on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness or disordered eating. Correlation coefficients between body shape dissatisfaction and several aspects of mental distress were significantly larger for gay men than heterosexual men; the same coefficients did not differ between lesbian women and heterosexual women. Results of path analyses indicated that the relationship between internalization and disordered eating differs for gay and heterosexual men but not for lesbian and heterosexual women. These results call attention to lesbians as a generally understudied population.

  14. The relationship of sex and sexual orientation to self-esteem, body shape satisfaction, and eating disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yean, Chetra; Benau, Erik M; Dakanalis, Antonios; Hormes, Julia M; Perone, Julie; Timko, C Alix

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a) differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b) whether the internalization-eating disorder symptomatology was mediated by the different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The present data support several key trends in the literature: men generally reported less body dissatisfaction, internalization of socio-cultural standards of beauty, drive for thinness, and disordered eating, but a greater drive for muscularity than women; results also indicated that different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between internalization and eating disorder symptomatology. Gay men reported significantly more body dissatisfaction, internalization, eating disorder symptomatology, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity than heterosexual men. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians reported increased drive for muscularity, lower self-esteem, and lower internalization; however, they did not significantly differ on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness or disordered eating. Correlation coefficients between body shape dissatisfaction and several aspects of mental distress were significantly larger for gay men than heterosexual men; the same coefficients did not differ between lesbian women and heterosexual women. Results of path analyses indicated that the relationship between internalization and disordered eating differs for gay and heterosexual men but not for lesbian and heterosexual women. These results call attention to lesbians as a generally understudied population.

  15. The Neurobiology and Genetics of Impulse Control Disorders: Relationships to Drug Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2008-01-01

    Impulse control disorders (ICDs), including pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania and others, have been conceptualized to lie along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum. Recent data have suggested that these disorders may be considered addictions. Here we review the genetic and neuropathological bases of the impulse control disorders and consider the disorders within these non-mutually exclusive frameworks. PMID:17719013

  16. Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Steven D; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Barth, Jürgen

    2014-03-24

    The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N=12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p'sdepressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being.

  17. Personality Disorders, Narcotics, and Stimulants; Relationship in Iranian Male Substance Dependents Population

    OpenAIRE

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and ...

  18. The relationship between the Five-Factor Model and latent DSM-IV personality disorder dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Nestadt, Gerald; Costa, Paul T.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Eaton, William W.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the latent structure of the DSM-IV personality disorders to the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality dimensions. The subjects in the study were 742 community-residing individuals who participated in the Hopkins Epidemiology of Personality Disorder Study. DSM-IV personality disorder traits were assessed by psychologists using the International Personality Disorder Examination, and personality disorder dimensions were derived previously using dichotomous factor ana...

  19. Psychological assessment of malingering in psychogenic neurological disorders and non-psychogenic neurological disorders : relationship to psychopathology levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M.; Griffioen, B. T.; Gross, A.; Leenders, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: It remains unknown whether psychological distress causes malingering in patients with psychogenic symptoms. Methods: We studied 26 patients with psychogenic neurological disorders on psychopathology and malingering in comparison with 26 patients with various neurological

  20. The Effects of Men's Bipolar Mood Disorder Type II on Marital Relationships from the Spouse's Perspective: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مصطفی عرب ورنوسفادرانی

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of males’ bipolar disorder type II on marital relationship from their wives’ perspective. This study was conducted with a qualitative research approach and thematic analysis. Data were collected through unstructured interviews with a purposive sampling of a husband with bipolar disorder and his wife and continued until data saturation (10 couples. Data analysis and comparison was performed continuously and synchronized with data collection and sampling. During the data analysis process, there were four main themes (escape balance, irritability, insecurity and management weakness. These themes show the effects of bipolar disorder on marital relationships. According to the results, the effects of bipolar disorder on marital relationships lead to crisis and serious harm in the family. Therefore, the knowledge of the effects of bipolar disorder with the theories expressed from the experiences of the spouse can be used in the treatment, care, counseling and education programs for the patient and family by specialists in the field of health, treatment, family, nursing, as well as by counselors and psychologists.

  1. Internalized weight bias mediates the relationship between depressive symptoms and disordered eating behavior among women who think they are overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienko, Rachel M; Saules, Karen K; Carr, Meagan M

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the potential mediating role of Internalized Weight Bias (IWB) in the relationship between depressive symptoms (DEP-SX) and disordered eating behavior. In particular, we hypothesized that IWB may be an intervening variable in the well documented association between depression and disordered eating. College women (N=172) who were taking undergraduate psychology courses and who endorsed thinking they were overweight completed the Patient Health Questionnaire depression screener (PHQ-9), the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBIS), and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Bootstrapping mediation analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between these variables. IWB was significantly correlated with eating disorder symptoms and DEP-SX, but not Body Mass Index. Mediation analyses supported a model in which IWB mediated the relationship between DEP-SX and disordered eating behavior. Results indicate that individuals with elevated DEP-SX may be likely to internalize weight bias, which may in turn lead to maladaptive approaches to eating and weight control, regardless of one's actual weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Study of the Burnout and its Relationship with Musculoskeletal Disorders among Librarians Working in Public Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rastgari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : In the 1960s, psychologists began to investigate the relationship between the work environment and individuals’ tolerance. Since the first harm of burnout is suffering from physical exhaustion, people who suffer from this disorder feel severe fatigue. There are several ways to confront burnout syndrome and try to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders: educational planning to the principles of working properly, job rotation, resting and information exchanging related to burnout and musculoskeletal injuries among employees. This study investigated the correlation of musculoskeletal disorders and burnout of librarians working in public libraries in Hamadan. Material and Methods: This is a descriptive - analytical study. The study population consisted of librarians working in public libraries in Hamadan. The census number was 112. Data collecting tools included two Nordic and burnout questionnaires. The validity of questionnaire was confirmed by the opinions of subject specialists. The questionnaire was distributed among librarians. SPSS13 software was used for statistical analysis. P Results: A significant correlations between burnout and musculoskeletal disorders (74% has been observed. The relationship between burnout dimensions and musculoskeletal areas were examined. Conclusion : Given the apparent relationship between burnout and musculoskeletal disorders, organization managers need to improve working conditions, reduce stress, working tools and training to work properly.

  3. Brief Report: The Relationship between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah R.; Jobson, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and autobiographical memory specificity in older adults. Method: Older adult trauma survivors (N = 23) completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, and Addenbrooke's Cognitive…

  4. South African Families Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Relationship between Family Routines, Cognitive Appraisal and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, L.; Samuels, A. E.; Dada, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal of the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the family and family quality of life (FQOL) in families raising children with ASD in South Africa. Methods: A sample of 180 families of young children with ASD who were…

  5. Examination of Bidirectional Relationships between Parent Stress and Two Types of Problem Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Mirenda, Pat; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Volden, Joanne; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Bryson, Susan; Smith, Isabel; Fombonne, Eric; Roberts, Wendy; Waddell, Charlotte; Thompson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Path analysis within a structural equation modeling framework was employed to examine the relationships between two types of parent stress and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors over a 4-year period, in a sample of 184 mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Parent stress was measured with the Parenting Stress…

  6. Brief Report: Inter-Relationship between Emotion Regulation, Intolerance of Uncertainty, Anxiety, and Depression in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ru Ying; Richdale, Amanda L.; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Uljarevic, Mirko

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the inter-relationship between emotion regulation (ER), intolerance of uncertainty (IU), and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sixty-one individuals aged 14-24 years (M[subscript age] = 18.19; SD[subscript age] = 2.19) completed the…

  7. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47 boys with no disabilities in general education…

  8. Relationships of Aggression Subtypes and Peer Status Among Aggressive Boys in General Education and Emotional/Behavioral Disorder (EBD) Classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Useche, Ana Carolina; Sullivan, Amanda L.; Merk, Welmoet; Orobio de Castro, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between reactive and proactive aggression and children's peer status. Participants were 94 Dutch elementary school-aged boys in self-contained special education classrooms for students with emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD) and 47

  9. Relationships between interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and other mental health problems in girls in compulsory residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenarts, Laura E. W.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the relationships (using structural equation modeling) between exposure to early-onset interpersonal trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), symptoms of complex PTSD, and other mental health problems. The participants were 92 girls recruited from

  10. Relationship of clinical course of illness variables to medical comorbidities in 900 adult outpatients with bipolar disorder'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trish; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Rowe, Mike

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medical illnesses are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder, but their relationship to illness characteristics has not been previously delineated. METHODS: The incidence of 34 medical conditions and 6 poor prognosis factors (PPFs) was derived from answers to a questionnaire in over 900

  11. Relationship of clinical course of illness variables to medical comorbidities in 900 adult outpatients with bipolar disorder'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, R.M.; Altshuler, L.; Leverich, G.S.; Frye, M.A.; Suppes, T.; McElroy, S.L.; Keck, P.E.; Nolen, W.A.; Kupka, R.W.; Grunze, H.; Rowe, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical illnesses are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder, but their relationship to illness characteristics has not been previously delineated. Methods The incidence of 34 medical conditions and 6 poor prognosis factors (PPFs) was derived from answers to a questionnaire in over 900

  12. The Deployment, Training and Teacher Relationships of Teaching Assistants Supporting Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Mainstream Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Wendy; Humphrey, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Growing numbers of pupils with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are attending mainstream schools, and increasing numbers of additional staff are being deployed to support them. Recent research has cast doubt on the effectiveness of this support, by highlighting issues relating to deployment and training, and to relationships with class teachers.…

  13. Exploring the relationship between timing of menarche and eating disorder symptoms in black and white adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; McMahon, RP; Biro, FM; Schreiber, G; Crawford, PB; Voorhees, C

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between timing of sexual maturation and eating disorders symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Data were collected over 10 years for a cohort of 1,213 Black girls and 1,166 White girls who were either 9 or 10 years old at study entry. Annually, girls'

  14. Supportive Dyadic Coping and Psychological Adaptation in Couples Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Relationship Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar; Recio, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    In couples parenting children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the partner becomes a primary source of support for addressing the additional parenting demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between supportive dyadic coping and parental adaptation, and to assess the mediating role of relationship satisfaction between…

  15. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  16. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model w...

  17. Psychological Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Environmental Stressors and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, Michael A.; Hastings, Richard P.; Nash, Susie; Hall, Louise M.; Joannidi, Helen; Dowey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Research with siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) suggests that they may be at increased risk for behavioural and emotional problems and relatively poor sibling relationships. This study investigated a diathesis-stress model, whereby the presence of Broad Autism Phenotype features in the typically developing siblings might…

  18. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  19. The Relationship between Clinicians' Confidence and Accuracy, and the Influence of Child Characteristics, in the Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Nevill, Rose; Uljarevic, Mirko; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the confidence accuracy relationship, and the influence of child characteristics on clinician confidence, when predicting a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder during screening of 125 referred children aged under 3.5 years. The diagnostic process included observation, interview, language and developmental testing. Clinical…

  20. The relationship between MR images and clinical findings in neuronal migration disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Akira; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Iinuma, Kazuie.

    1997-01-01

    Among the variable manifestating conditions of neuronal migration disorders, mental retardation, motor disturbance and epilepsy are the main features of developmental disabilities. We analyzed the relationship between clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance (MR) images, including surface anatomy scan (SAS). Thirty-nine patients (23 males, 16 females; mean age 6.1 years) with neuronal migration disorders were studied. The diagnoses were cerebral palsy in 23 cases, mental retardation in 4, West syndrome in 4, Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) in 6, Walker-Warburg syndrome in 1 and Dubowitz syndrome in 1. Cortical dysplasias were classified into the following 7 groups, mainly based on the SAS findings: complete agyria (AG 1), mixture of agyria and pachygyria (AG 2), bilateral complete pachygyria (BP 1), diffuse pachygyria with marked widening of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (BP 2), unilateral pachygyria with hemispheric atrophy or hemimegalencephaly (UP), focal cortical dysplasia (FP) and other findings such as solitary schizencephaly (Others). Most cases of AG 1 and AG 2 showed spastic quadriplegia (6/7) and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (5/7), whereas cases of BP 1 showed spasticity only in 1/8 and epilepsy in 7/8. Hemiplegia was observed in 6/7 of UP, 2/8 of FP and 2/4 of Others. Partial epilepsy was observed in 2/7 of UP and 1/8 of FP. Intellectual level was variable in BP 1, UP, FP and Others, but all cases showed severe mental retardation in AG 1, AG 2 and BP 2. BP 2 was observed in all cases of typical FCMD (5/5). The birth weight was less than 2,500 g in 6/7 of UP. The structural findings well correlated with clinical symptoms and epileptic seizure types. The surface anatomy scan was a very useful technique for detecting cortical dysplasias. (author)

  1. Relationship between personality and disability in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Medine Yazici; Hocaoğlu, Ciçek

    2011-01-01

    The co-morbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD ) with personality disorders (PDs) in patients with long-standing work disability at a psychiatry clinic was investigated. The purpose of our study was to evaluate personality for contributing to disability in patients with MDD and to investigate the relationship with these two psychometric characters in patients with MDD. Seventy-two patients with a MDD and 72 healthy controls were assessed by means of both clinician and self-rating scales for depression, anxiety, disability, and the SCID-II personality inventory. There was no difference between the personality parameters of the groups regarding schizotypal and antisocial PDs. Avoidant personality was found to be less common in the patient group (p=0.030). Dependent (p less than 0.001), obsessive (p=0.003), passive-aggressive (p=0.025), self-defeating (p less than 0.001), paranoid (p less than 0.001), schizoid (p=0.012), histrionic (p=0.001), narcissistic (p less than 0.001), and borderline (p less than 0.001) PDs in patients were more common than in controls. On the disability sub-scales, physical role limitation, vitality, social functioning, emotional role limitation, and mental health were significantly lower in patient group than normal control group. While Cluster A was not related to any disability subscale, Cluster B had a positive correlation with vitality and mental health, whereas Cluster C and Cluster NOS had a negative correlation with emotional role limitation. Only the emotional role limitation predicts the presence of depression, whereas only self-defeating, obsessive, paranoid, and passive aggressive personality predict the emotional role limitation. Patients with MDD have personality and disability problems. PDs in depression contribute to disability. Our results demonstrated that the emotional role limitation is the unique sub-scale that predicts the MDD group.

  2. The relationship between MR images and clinical findings in neuronal migration disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onuma, Akira; Kobayashi, Yasuko [Takuto Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children, Sendai (Japan); Iinuma, Kazuie

    1997-07-01

    Among the variable manifestating conditions of neuronal migration disorders, mental retardation, motor disturbance and epilepsy are the main features of developmental disabilities. We analyzed the relationship between clinical symptoms and magnetic resonance (MR) images, including surface anatomy scan (SAS). Thirty-nine patients (23 males, 16 females; mean age 6.1 years) with neuronal migration disorders were studied. The diagnoses were cerebral palsy in 23 cases, mental retardation in 4, West syndrome in 4, Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) in 6, Walker-Warburg syndrome in 1 and Dubowitz syndrome in 1. Cortical dysplasias were classified into the following 7 groups, mainly based on the SAS findings: complete agyria (AG 1), mixture of agyria and pachygyria (AG 2), bilateral complete pachygyria (BP 1), diffuse pachygyria with marked widening of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus (BP 2), unilateral pachygyria with hemispheric atrophy or hemimegalencephaly (UP), focal cortical dysplasia (FP) and other findings such as solitary schizencephaly (Others). Most cases of AG 1 and AG 2 showed spastic quadriplegia (6/7) and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (5/7), whereas cases of BP 1 showed spasticity only in 1/8 and epilepsy in 7/8. Hemiplegia was observed in 6/7 of UP, 2/8 of FP and 2/4 of Others. Partial epilepsy was observed in 2/7 of UP and 1/8 of FP. Intellectual level was variable in BP 1, UP, FP and Others, but all cases showed severe mental retardation in AG 1, AG 2 and BP 2. BP 2 was observed in all cases of typical FCMD (5/5). The birth weight was less than 2,500 g in 6/7 of UP. The structural findings well correlated with clinical symptoms and epileptic seizure types. The surface anatomy scan was a very useful technique for detecting cortical dysplasias. (author)

  3. Relationship Between Postural Control and Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krestin eRadonovich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs are one of the core diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, and include simple repetitive motor behaviors and more complex cognitive behaviors, such as compulsions and restricted interests. In addition to the core symptoms, impaired movement is often observed in ASD. Research suggests that the postural system in individuals with ASD is immature and may never reach adult levels. RRBs have been related to postural sway in individuals with mental retardation.Our goals were to determine whether subjects with ASD had greater postural sway and whether RBS-R scores were related to the magnitude of postural sway. We compared the center of pressure (COP sway area during quiet stance with scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R in children with ASD and typically developing controls (TD ages 3-16. All subjects had Nonverbal IQ>70. Subjects performed four quiet stance trials at a self–selected stance width for 15 seconds. Subjects with ASD had greater postural sway area compared to controls. Not surprisingly, subjects with ASD exhibited greater frequencies and intensities of RRBs overall and on all 6 subscales. Further, there was a positive correlation between postural sway area and presence of RRBs. Interestingly, results of the postural sway area for the ASD group suggests that roughly half of the ASD subjects scored comparable to TD controls, whereas the other half scored >2 SD worse. Motor impaired children did not have significantly worse IQ scores, but were younger and had more RRBs.Results support previous findings of relationships between RRBs and postural control. It appears that motor control impairments may characterize a subset of individuals with ASD. Better delineation of motor control abilities in individuals with ASD will be important to help explain variations of abilities in ASD, inform treatment, and guide examination of underlying neural involvement in this diverse

  4. The relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and premature infants in Taiwanese: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Shih-Ming

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered to be at risk for some neurobehavioral disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. The current study aimed to explore the relationship between ADHD and premature infants in Taiwan. Methods A total of 195 children (157 males and 38 females diagnosed with ADHD based on DSM-IV and aged between 6 to 12 years and a control group of 212 (164 males, 48 females age- and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled. The ADHD-Rating scale and CGI severity were performed by child psychiatrists. Demographic data of the children, including birth history, perinatal neurological and respiratory problems were collected to facilitate the investigation of whether a correlation exists between ADHD and prematurity. Results The ADHD group had a significantly higher rate of prematurity and significantly higher rate of low birth body weight (defined as P = 0.003. Pearson correlation showed a significantly negative correlation between gestational age and ADHD-RS score, inattentive score, hyperactivity and CGI-S score (P = 0.004, 0.013, 0.015 and 0.002, respectively. However, only a CGI-S score (P = 0.018 showed a significantly correlation between low birth weight and ADHD. Conclusions Premature infants have significantly more severe symptoms of ADHD at school age and they were highly correlated. Further study is necessary to determine the main effect and pathogenesis of moderate as well as extreme preterm birth on the development of ADHD.

  5. The Evaluation of Relationship between Spirometric Disorders and Methyl methacrylate in Dental Laboratories Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nadi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Methyl methacrylate (MMA, as a monomer of acrylic resin that has a wide variety of usages in denture fabrication, is considered as an air pollution indicator in the laboratories. Occupational exposure to these compound vapors can cause respiratory hypersensitivity, occupational asthma, eye and skin irritation and Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD. Therefore control of MMA exposure may promote the personnel’s health. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between spirometric disorders and methyl methacrylate in dental laboratories personnel.. Materials & Methods: In this case control study, exposure of time-weighted average (TWA and short-term exposure level (STEL were measured with MMA vapors in 39 randomly selected male employee (case group in 25 denture fabrication laboratories in Hamadan city. The air samples were collected by sorbent tubes containing chromosorb (XAD2( and analyzed by gas chromatograph equipped with FID detector based on NIOSH method. In addition 30 men whitout occupational exposure to air pollutants (control group were selected to compare the variation of spirometric parameters. Spirometric parameters of the case and control groups such as FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75 were measured by Vitalograph spirometer (model: 2120 on ATS method, after the standard questionnaire of respiratory diseases had been completed during an interview and medical examination..Results: The mean of MMA concentration was 132.87 ± 220.67 ppm for STEL and 1.95 ± 3.59 ppm for TWA.The relationship between MMA concentration in the STEL and TWA exposures was significant (P<0.05 and the relationship between MMA concentration and ventilation was significant just for STEL. In this study no relationship between MMA concentration and spirometric parameters in both STEL and TWA exposures was found. Also there was no significant difference between spirometric parameters of the case group and normal values of the

  6. A longitudinal analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and their relationship with Fear and Anxious-Misery disorders: implications for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David; Parslow, Ruth; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Bryant, Richard; McFarlane, Alexander; Silove, Derrick; Shalev, Arieh

    2010-12-01

    This paper examined the hypothesis that PTSD-unique symptom clusters of re-experiencing, active avoidance and hyperarousal were more related to the fear/phobic disorders, while shared PTSD symptoms of dysphoria were more closely related to Anxious-Misery disorders (MDD/GAD). Confirmatory factor and correlation analyses examining PTSD, anxiety and mood disorder data from 714 injury survivors interviewed 3, 12 and 24-months following their injury supported this hypothesis with these relationships remaining robust from 3-24 months posttrauma. Of the nine unique fear-oriented PTSD symptoms, only one is currently required for a DSM-IV diagnosis. Increasing emphasis on PTSD fear symptoms in DSM-V, such as proposed DSM-V changes to mandate active avoidance, is critical to improve specificity, ensure inclusion of dimensionally distinct features and facilitate tailoring of treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiologic and Molecular Relationship Between Vaccine Manufacture and Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisher, Theresa A; Doan, Ngoc V; Koyama, Kumiko; Bwabye, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    To assess the public health consequences of fetal cell line manufactured vaccines that contain residual human fetal DNA fragments utilizing laboratory and ecological approaches including statistics, molecular biology and genomics. MMR coverage and autism disorder or autism spectrum disorder prevalence data for Norway, Sweden and the UK were obtained from public and government websites as well as peer reviewed published articles. Biologically, the size and quantity of the contaminating fetal DNA in Meruvax II and Havrix as well as the propensity of various cell lines for cellular and nuclear uptake of primitive human DNA fragments were measured and quantified using gel electrophoresis, fluorescence microscopy and fluorometry. Lastly, genomic analysis identified the specific sites where fetal DNA fragment integration into a child's genome is most likely to occur. The average MMR coverage for the three countries fell below 90% after Dr. Wakefield's infamous 1998 publication but started to recover slowly after 2001 until reaching over 90% coverage again by 2004. During the same time period, the average autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the United Kingdom, Norway and Sweden dropped substantially after birth year 1998 and gradually increased again after birth year 2000. Average single stranded DNA and double stranded DNA in Meruvax II were 142.05 ng/vial and 35.00 ng/vial, respectively, and 276.00 ng/vial and 35.74 ng/vial in Havrix respectively. The size of the fetal DNA fragments in Meruvax II was approximately 215 base pairs. There was spontaneous cellular and nuclear DNA uptake in HFF1 and NCCIT cells. Genes that have been linked to autism (autism associated genes; AAGs) have a more concentrated susceptibility for insults to genomic stability in comparison to the group of all genes contained within the human genome. Of the X chromosome AAGs, 15 of 19 have double strand break motifs less than 100 kilobases away from the center of a meiotic recombination hotspot

  8. Examining genotypic variation in autism spectrum disorder and its relationship to parental age and phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geier DA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available David A Geier,1,2 Janet K Kern,1,3 Lisa K Sykes,2 Mark R Geier1,2 1Research Department, The Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc, 2Research Department, CoMeD, Inc, Silver Spring, MD, 3Research Department, CONEM US Autism Research Group, Allen, TX, USA Background: Previous studies on genetic testing of chromosomal abnormalities in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD found that ~80% have negative genetic test results (NGTRs and ~20% have positive genetic test results (PGTRs, of which ~7% were probable de novo mutations (PDNMs. Research suggests that parental age is a risk factor for an ASD diagnosis. This study examined genotypic variation in ASD and its relationship to parental age and phenotype.Methods: Phenotype was derived from detailed clinical information, and genotype was derived from high-resolution blood chromosome and blood whole-genome copy number variant genetic testing on a consecutive cohort (born: 1983–2009 of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N=218.Results: Among the subjects examined, 80.3% had NGTRs and 19.7% had PGTRs, of which 6.9% had PDNMs. NGTR subjects were born more recently (the risk of PDNMs decreasing by 12% per more recent birth year and tended to have an increased male–female ratio compared to PDNM subjects. PDNM subjects had significantly increased mean parental age and paternal age at subject’s birth (the risk of a PDNM increasing by 7%–8% per year of parental or paternal age compared to NGTR subjects. PGTR and NGTR subjects showed significant improvements in speech/language/communication with increasing age. PGTR subjects showed significant improvements in sociability, a core feature of an ASD diagnosis, with increasing age, whereas NGTR subjects showed significant worsening in sociability with increasing age.Conclusion: This study helps to elucidate different phenotypic ASD subtypes and may even indicate the need for differential diagnostic classifications. Keywords: genotype, phenotype

  9. Personality Disorders, Narcotics, and Stimulants; Relationship in Iranian Male Substance Dependents Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Zeinodini, Zahra; Khanjani, Zeynab; Poorsharifi, Hamid; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and excluded 25 according to exclusion criteria. A total of 130 narcotic users and 130 stimulant users were recruited randomly in several phases from January 2013 to October 2013. All participants were referred to Substance Dependency Treatment Clinics in Tehran, Iran. Data collection process was accomplished by means of clinical interview based on DSM-V criteria for substance use disorders, Iranian version of addiction severity index (ASI), and Millon clinical multi-axial inventory-III (MCMI-III). Data were analyzed by SPSS 21 using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression, the. There was a significant correlation between stimulant use and histrionic personality disorder (P personality disorders (P histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders (P personality disorders (P personality disorders, and narcotic and stimulants consumption (P personality disorder and narcotics (P personality disorders and types of used drugs were in accordance with the previous studies results. It is necessary to design appropriate treatment plans for medical treatment of those with personality disorders.

  10. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Miller, Kathryn E

    2014-09-01

    The current study examined whether self-compassion, the tendency to treat oneself kindly during distress and disappointments, would attenuate the positive relationship between body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder pathology, and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility. One-hundred and fifty-three female undergraduate students completed measures of self-compassion, self-esteem, eating disorder pathology, and body image flexibility, which refers to one's acceptance of negative body image experiences. Controlling for self-esteem, hierarchical regressions revealed that self-compassion moderated the relationships between BMI and the criteria. Specifically, the positive relationship between BMI and eating disorder pathology and the negative relationship between BMI and body image flexibility were weaker the higher women's levels of self-compassion. Among young women, self-compassion may help to protect against the greater eating disturbances that coincide with a higher BMI, and may facilitate the positive body image experiences that tend to be lower the higher one's BMI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Relationship Between Emotion Dysregulation and Impulsive Aggression in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Shannon R; Menefee, Deleene S; Wanner, Jill; Teten Tharp, Andra; Kent, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    While Veterans in general are no more dangerous than the civilian population, Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have stronger associations with anger and hostility and certain forms of aggression, such as intimate partner violence, than civilians with PTSD. This is alarming because up to 21% of Veterans seeking Veterans Affairs (VA) health care are diagnosed with PTSD. Emotion regulation difficulties (emotion dysregulation) are also related to increased PTSD symptom severity and may play a role in aggressive behavior. Because the predominant form of aggression in PTSD appears to be the impulsive subtype, the authors sought to clarify the relationship between PTSD, emotion dysregulation, and impulsive aggression. We examined how emotion dysregulation influenced impulsive aggression in a Veteran sample (N = 479) seeking treatment for trauma sequelae. All Veterans completed measures that assessed demographic information, emotion dysregulation, aggression frequency and subtype, and PTSD symptoms. Men generally reported more aggression than women. The emotion dysregulation, aggression, and PTSD measures were significantly correlated. Two cross-sectional mediation models showed emotion dysregulation fully accounted for the relationship between PTSD and impulsive aggression (indirect path for men: b = .07, SE = .026, bias-correct and accelerated confidence interval [BCa CI] = [0.02, 0.13]; indirect path for women: b = .08, SE = .022, BCa CI = [0.05, 0.13]). PTSD can increase negative emotions yet does not always lead to aggressive behaviors. The ability to regulate emotions may be pivotal to inhibiting aggression in those with PTSD. PTSD interventions may benefit from augmentation with emotion regulation skills training. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Glucocorticoid Receptor Related Genes: Genotype And Brain Gene Expression Relationships To Suicide And Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Huang, Yung-yu; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Burke, Ainsley; Arango, Victoria; Oquendo, Maria A.; Mann, J. John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We tested the relationship between genotype, gene expression and suicidal behavior and MDD in live subjects and postmortem samples for three genes, associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, suicidal behavior and major depressive disorder (MDD); FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5), Spindle and kinetochore-associated protein 2 (SKA2) and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1). Materials and Methods Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes were tested for association with suicidal behavior and MDD in a live (N=277) and a postmortem sample (N=209). RNA-seq was used to examine gene and isoform-level brain expression postmortem (Brodmann Area 9) (N=59). Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) relationships were examined using a public database (UK Brain Expression Consortium). Results We identified a haplotype within the FKBP5 gene, present in 47% of the live subjects, that was associated with increased risk of suicide attempt (OR=1.58, t=6.03, p=0.014). Six SNPs on this gene, three SNPs on SKA2 and one near NR3C1 showed before-adjustment association with attempted suicide, and two SNPs of SKA2 with suicide death, but none stayed significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Only the SKA2 SNPs were related to expression in the prefrontal cortex. One NR3C1 transcript had lower expression in suicide relative to non-suicide sudden death cases (b=-0.48, SE=0.12, t=-4.02, adjusted p=0.004). Conclusion We have identified an association of FKBP5 haplotype with risk of suicide attempt and found an association between suicide and altered NR3C1 gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. Our findings further implicate hypothalamic pituitary axis dysfunction in suicidal behavior. PMID:27030168

  13. Anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder and the dynamic relationship between these conditions: treatment patterns and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Despiégel, Nicolas; Maman, Khaled; Saragoussi, Delphine; Auquier, Pascal

    2010-03-01

    To determine the treatment pattern and impact on healthcare costs of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder (MDD), and influence of their concomitance and subsequence. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a US reimbursement claims database. Adult patients with an incident diagnosis of anxiety or MDD (index date) were included. Their sociodemographic data, diagnoses, healthcare resource use and associated costs were collected over the 6 months preceding and 12 months following index date. A total of 599,624 patients were identified and included. Patients with phobia or post-traumatic stress disorder had the highest 12-month costs ($8,442 and $8,383, respectively). Patients with social anxiety disorder had the lowest costs ($3,772); generalized anxiety disorder ($6,472) incurred costs similar to MDD ($7,170). Costs were substantially increased with emergence of anxiety during follow-up in MDD patients ($10,031) or emergence of MDD in anxiety patients ($9,387). This was not observed in patients with both anxiety and MDD at index date ($6,148). This study confirms the high burden of costs of anxiety, which were within the same range as MDD. Interestingly, the emergence of anxiety or MDD in the year following a first diagnosis of MDD or anxiety, respectively, increased costs substantially. Major limitations were short follow-up and lack of absenteeism costs.

  14. Relationship between Comorbid Health Problems and Musculoskeletal Disorders Resulting in Musculoskeletal Complaints and Musculoskeletal Sickness Absence among Employees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hye; Kim, Young Sun; Yi, Kwan Hyung

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and comorbid health problems, including depression/anxiety disorder, insomnia/sleep disorder, fatigue, and injury by accident, and to determine whether certain physical and psychological factors reduce comorbid health problems. In total, 29,711 employees were selected from respondents of the Third Korean Working Conditions Survey and categorized into two groups: Musculoskeletal Complaints or Musculoskeletal Sickness Absence. Four self-reported health indicators (overall fatigue, depression/anxiety, insomnia/sleep disorder, and injury by accident) were selected as outcomes, based on their high prevalence in Korea. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship between comorbid health problems, musculoskeletal complaints, and sickness absence. The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and musculoskeletal sickness absence due to muscular pain was 32.26% and 0.59%, respectively. Compared to the reference group, depression/anxiety disorder and overall fatigue were 5.2-6.1 times more prevalent in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group and insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were 7.6-11.0 times more prevalent in the Sickness Absence Group. When adjusted for individual and work-related physical factors, prevalence of all four comorbid health problems were slightly decreased in both groups. Increases in overall fatigue and depression/anxiety disorder were observed in the Musculoskeletal Complaints Group, while increases in insomnia/sleep disorder and injury by accident were observed in the Sickness Absence Group. For management of musculoskeletal complaints and sickness absence in the workplace, differences in health problems between employees with musculoskeletal complaints and those with sickness absence as well as the physical and psychological risk factors should be considered.

  15. Assessing the relationship between eating disorder psychopathology and autistic traits in a non-clinical adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Amelia Myri; Smith, Alastair D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates a genetic and behavioural link between eating disorders and autism spectrum disorders, and a recent study (Coombs et al. in Br J Clin Psychol 50:326-338, 2011) extends this link to typical populations, showing a positive correlation between behaviours in typically developing children. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether this relationship continues beyond development, by studying the link between behaviours in a non-clinical adult population. We examined associations between performance on measures relating to autistic traits and disordered eating. Undergraduate students, equally balanced by gender and by subject studied (i.e. humanity or science), completed three tasks: to measure autistic traits, participants were administered the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) and the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Eating disorder symptomatology was measured by the Eating Attitudes Test (Eat-26). Our data revealed a significant positive correlation between scores on the AQ and Eat-26. Multiple linear regressions showed that higher scores on the AQ were particularly associated with higher scores on the Bulimia & Food Preoccupation subscale of the Eat-26. EFT performance was positively related to behaviours associated with autism and eating disorders, although not reliably so. These data support the broader link between autistic traits and disordered eating in the non-clinical population, and demonstrate that it extends into adulthood (a time at which autistic behaviours can decrease). This work carries implications for the development of cognitive therapies for people with eating disorders.

  16. The Therapeutic Relationship as Predictor of Change in Music Therapy with Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössler, Karin; Gold, Christian; Aßmus, Jörg; Schumacher, Karin; Calvet, Claudine; Reimer, Silke; Iversen, Gun; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2017-09-21

    This study examined whether the therapeutic relationship in music therapy with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder predicts generalized changes in social skills. Participants (4-7 years, N = 48) were assessed at baseline, 5 and 12 months. The therapeutic relationship, as observed from session videos, and the generalized change in social skills, as judged by independent blinded assessors and parents, were evaluated using standardized tools (Assessment of the Quality of Relationship; ADOS; SRS). Linear mixed effect models showed significant interaction effects between the therapeutic relationship and several outcomes at 5 and 12 months. We found the music therapeutic relationship to be an important predictor of the development of social skills, as well as communication and language specifically.

  17. Relationship between Alcohol Purchasing Time and Alcohol Use Disorder in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amista, Narcie Faith; Chun, Sungsoo; Yun, Mieun

    2017-12-01

    Currently, time of alcohol purchase is not part of the policies to regulate alcohol consumption in South Korea. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between alcohol purchasing time and alcohol use disorder. The survey for this study was conducted in geographically diverse regions of South Korea in 2012. Respondents' purchasing behaviors for both on-licensed (i.e., allows for consumption within the premises) and off-licensed (i.e., where alcohol is consumed off the premises) outlets and time of alcohol consumption were collected. Alcohol consumption patterns were examined using the Rapid Alcohol Problem Screen 4 (RAPS4). Data were also analyzed by age, gender and purchasing time. Results showed that among the off-licensed premises, supermarkets appear to be the most popular venue while for on-licensed premises; alcohol was generally consumed inside hotels/pubs regardless of age and gender of the purchaser. Purchasing of alcohol was highest during the day and early evening period (9:00 a.m. to 9:59 p.m.). Females are most likely to abuse alcohol than males during the early morning period and is that period after 12:00 midnight. Analysis suggests that the survey instrument used in the International Alcohol Control Study is being used to collect data on alcohol purchasing time consumption; therefore, the potential is there to provide accurate results to contribute appropriate policy responses to reduce alcohol related-harm.

  18. The relationship between substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder in a methadone maintenance treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagonzalo, Kristi-Ann; Dodd, Seetal; Ng, Felicity; Mihaly, Stephen; Langbein, Amy; Berk, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is frequently linked with substance abuse. The self-medication hypothesis suggests that some people may use illicit substances in an attempt to self-treat psychiatric symptoms. This study explores the relationship between substance abuse and PTSD symptom clusters in a methadone maintenance population. Clients of a methadone maintenance program at a public Drug and Alcohol Service were invited to complete the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, a screening tool for PTSD. Information about their history of substance use was also collected. Eighty clients (43 female, 37 male), aged 35 ± 8.0 years (mean ± SD), participated in the study, of which 52.7% screened positive for PTSD. Severity of marijuana use was significantly associated with a number of reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms and with overall severity of PTSD symptoms. Opiate, amphetamine, and benzodiazepine use did not appear to be related to PTSD symptoms. In this sample, marijuana may be used to self-treat certain PTSD symptoms, supporting the self-medication hypothesis. Further research is required to confirm the association between a diagnosis of PTSD and substance use. Given the high prevalence of PTSD in the substance-using population, routine PTSD screening in the substance abuse treatment setting may be justified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationships among Childhood Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Dissociation in Men Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Koopman, Cheryl; Lee, Susanne; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among dissociation, childhood trauma and sexual abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in HIV-positive men. Data was collected from 167 men enrolled in a randomized clinical trial (Project RISE) that examined a group therapy intervention to decrease HIV-related risk behavior and trauma-related stress symptoms. Participants completed the Trauma History Questionnaire, the Impact of Event Scale - Revised, and the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire. Overall, 35.3% of the participants reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A total of 55.7% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The intensity of dissociative symptoms that participants endorsed was positively associated with experience of childhood sexual abuse (r = .20, p Dissociative symptoms were also positively associated with specific PTSD symptoms, notably hyperarousal (r = .69, p dissociation than childhood sexual abuse. These results suggest that childhood sexual abuse may be involved in the development of dissociative symptoms in the context of adulthood stress reactions. Furthermore, the pattern of the association between dissociation and PTSD is consistent with the possibility of a dissociative PTSD subtype among HIV-positive men. PMID:22211444

  20. A negative relationship between ventral striatal loss anticipation response and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbort, Maike C; Soch, Joram; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Krauel, Kerstin; Pujara, Maia; Koenigs, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) frequently exhibit impulsive behavior, and self-reported impulsivity is typically higher in BPD patients when compared to healthy controls. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have suggested a link between impulsivity, the ventral striatal response to reward anticipation, and prediction errors. Here we investigated the striatal neural response to monetary gain and loss anticipation and their relationship with impulsivity in 21 female BPD patients and 23 age-matched female healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants performed a delayed monetary incentive task in which three categories of objects predicted a potential gain, loss, or neutral outcome. Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients exhibited significantly reduced fMRI responses of the ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens (VS/NAcc) to both reward-predicting and loss-predicting cues. BIS-11 scores showed a significant positive correlation with the VS/NAcc reward anticipation responses in healthy controls, and this correlation, while also nominally positive, failed to reach significance in BPD patients. BPD patients, on the other hand, exhibited a significantly negative correlation between ventral striatal loss anticipation responses and BIS-11 scores, whereas this correlation was significantly positive in healthy controls. Our results suggest that patients with BPD show attenuated anticipation responses in the VS/NAcc and, furthermore, that higher impulsivity in BPD patients might be related to impaired prediction of aversive outcomes.

  1. Relationship between pain and effusion on magnetic resonance imaging in temporomandibular disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ha Na; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to find the relationship between pain and joint effusion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. The study subjects included 232 TMD patients. The inclusion criteria in this study were the presence of spontaneous pain or provoked pain on one or both temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The provoked pain was divided into three groups: pain on palpation (G1), pain on mouth opening (G2), and pain on mastication (G3). MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images with para-sagittal and para-coronal images were obtained. According to the T2-weighted image findings, the cases of effusions were divided into four groups: normal, mild (E1), moderate (E2), and marked effusion (E3). A statistical analysis was carried out using the chi2 test with SPSS (version 12.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Spontaneous pain, provoked pain, and both spontaneous and provoked pain were significantly related to joint effusion in TMD patients (p 0.05). Spontaneous pain was related to the MRI findings of joint effusion; however, among the various types of provoked pain, pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ was not related to the MRI findings of joint effusion. These results suggest that joint effusion has a significant influence on the prediction of TMJ pain.

  2. Relationship between pain and effusion on magnetic resonance imaging in temporomandibular disorder patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ha-Na; Kim, Kyoung-A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to find the relationship between pain and joint effusion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. Materials and Methods The study subjects included 232 TMD patients. The inclusion criteria in this study were the presence of spontaneous pain or provoked pain on one or both temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The provoked pain was divided into three groups: pain on palpation (G1), pain on mouth opening (G2), and pain on mastication (G3). MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images with para-sagittal and para-coronal images were obtained. According to the T2-weighted image findings, the cases of effusions were divided into four groups: normal, mild (E1), moderate (E2), and marked effusion (E3). A statistical analysis was carried out using the χ2 test with SPSS (version 12.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results Spontaneous pain, provoked pain, and both spontaneous and provoked pain were significantly related to joint effusion in TMD patients (peffusion in TMD patients (p>0.05). Conclusion Spontaneous pain was related to the MRI findings of joint effusion; however, among the various types of provoked pain, pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ was not related to the MRI findings of joint effusion. These results suggest that joint effusion has a significant influence on the prediction of TMJ pain. PMID:25473637

  3. Relationships between Premonitory Urge and Anxiety in Youth with Chronic Tic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenman, Michelle; Johnson, Olivia E.; Chang, Susanna W.; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John

    2014-01-01

    Tourette's Disorder and other chronic tic disorders are common neurodevelopmental conditions. One characteristic of tic disorders is the premonitory urge, an aversive or unpleasant sensory phenomenon that may precede tics. Initial examination of premonitory urge in pediatric tic disorders suggests that awareness and experience of sensations preceding tics may be related to anxiety and OCD. However, it may be possible that specific anxiety-related symptoms, such as anxious physiologic arousal,...

  4. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Ripke, S.; Neale, B.; Faraone, S.V.; Purcell, S.M.; Perlis, R.H.; Mowry, B. J.; Thapar, A.; Goddard, M.E.; Witte, J.S.; Absher, D.; Agartz, I.; Akil, H.; Amin, F.; Andreassen, O.A.; Anjorin, A.; Anney, R.; Anttila, V.; Arking, D.E.; Asherson, P.; Azevedo, M.H.; Backlund, L.; Badner, J.A.; Bailey, A.J.; Banaschewski, T.; Barchas, J.D.; Barnes, M.R.; Barrett, T.B.; Bass, N.; Battaglia, A.; Bauer, M.; Bayés, M.; Bellivier, F.; Bergen, S.E.; Berrettini, W.; Betancur, C.; Bettecken, T.; Biederman, J; Binder, E.B.; Black, D.W.; Blackwood, D.H.; Bloss, C.S.; Boehnke, M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Breen, G.; Breuer, R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cormican, P.; Buccola, N.G.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Bunney, W.E.; Buxbaum, J.D.; Byerley, W. F.; Byrne, E.M.; Caesar, S.; Cahn, W.; Cantor, R.M.; Casas, M.; Chakravarti, A.; Chambert, K.; Choudhury, K.; Cichon, S.; Cloninger, C. R.; Collier, D.A.; Cook, E.H.; Coon, H.; Corman, B.; Corvin, A.; Coryell, W.H.; Craig, D.W.; Craig, I.W.; Crosbie, J.; Cuccaro, M.L.; Curtis, D.; Czamara, D.; Datta, S.; Dawson, G.; Day, R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Degenhardt, F.; Djurovic, S.; Donohoe, G.; Doyle, A.E.; Duan, J.; Dudbridge, F.; Duketis, E.; Ebstein, R.P.; Edenberg, H.J.; Elia, J.; Ennis, S.; Etain, B.; Fanous, A.; Farmer, A.E.; Ferrier, I.N.; Flickinger, M.; Fombonne, E.; Foroud, T.; Frank, J.; Franke, B.; Fraser, C.; Freedman, R.; Freimer, N.B.; Freitag, C.; Friedl, M.; Frisén, L.; Gallagher, L.; Gejman, P.V.; Georgieva, L.; Gershon, E.S.; Geschwind, D.H.; Giegling, I.; Gill, M.; Gordon, S.D.; Gordon-Smith, K.; Green, E.K.; Greenwood, T.A.; Grice, D.E.; Gross, M.; Grozeva, D.; Guan, W.; Gurling, H.; de Haan, L.; Haines, J.L.; Hakonarson, H.; Hallmayer, J.; Hamilton, S.P.; Hamshere, M.L.; Hansen, T.F.; Hartmann, A.M.; Hautzinger, M.; Heath, A.C.; Henders, A.K.; Herms, S.; Hickie, I.B.; Hipolito, M.; Hoefels, S.; Holmans, P.A.; Holsboer, F.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Hultman, C. M.; Hus, V.; Ingason, A.; Ising, M.; Jamain, S.; Jones, E.G.; Jones, I.; Jones, L.; Tzeng, J.Y.; Kähler, A.K.; Kahn, R.S.; Kandaswamy, R.; Keller, M.C.; Kennedy, J.L.; Kenny, E.; Kent, L.; Kim, Y.; Kirov, G. K.; Klauck, S.M.; Klei, L.; Knowles, J.A.; Kohli, M.A.; Koller, D.L.; Konte, B.; Korszun, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Krasucki, R.; Kuntsi, J.; Kwan, P.; Landén, M.; Langstrom, N.; Lathrop, M.; Lawrence, J.; Lawson, W.B.; Leboyer, M.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Lee, P.H.; Lencz, T.; Lesch, K.P.; Levinson, D.F.; Lewis, C.M.; Li, J.; Lichtenstein, P.; Lieberman, J. A.; Lin, D.Y.; Linszen, D.H.; Liu, C.; Lohoff, F.W.; Loo, S.K.; Lord, C.; Lowe, J.K.; Lucae, S.; MacIntyre, D.J.; Madden, P.A.F.; Maestrini, E.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Mahon, P.B.; Maier, W.; Malhotra, A.K.; Mane, S.M.; Martin, C.L.; Martin, N.G.; Mattheisen, M.; Matthews, K.; Mattingsdal, M.; McCarroll, S.A.; McGhee, K.A.; McGough, J.J.; McGrath, P.J.; McGuffin, P.; McInnis, M.G.; McIntosh, A.; McKinney, R.; McLean, A.W.; McMahon, F.J.; McMahon, W.M.; McQuillin, A.; Medeiros, H.; Medland, S.E.; Meier, S.; Melle, I.; Meng, F.; Meyer, J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Middleton, L.; Milanova, V.; Miranda, A.; Monaco, A.P.; Montgomery, G.W.; Moran, J.L.; Moreno-De Luca, D.; Morken, G.; Morris, D.W.; Morrow, E.M.; Moskvina, V.; Muglia, P.; Mühleisen, T.W.; Muir, W.J.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Murtha, M.; Myers, R.M.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Neale, M.C.; Nelson, S.F.; Nievergelt, C.M.; Nikolov, I.; Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Nolen, W.A.; Nöthen, M.M.; Nurnberger, J.I.; Nwulia, E.A.; Nyholt, DR; O'Dushlaine, C.; Oades, R.D.; Olincy, A.; Oliveira, G.; Olsen, L.; Ophoff, R.A.; Osby, U.; Owen, M.J.; Palotie, A.; Parr, J.R.; Paterson, A.D.; Pato, C.N.; Pato, M.T.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Pergadia, M.L.; Pericak-Vance, M.A.; Pickard, B.S.; Pimm, J.; Piven, J.; Posthuma, D.; Potash, J.B.; Poustka, F.; Propping, P.; Puri, V.; Quested, D.; Quinn, E.M.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Rasmussen, H.B.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Rehnström, K.; Reif, A.; Ribasés, M.; Rice, J.P.; Rietschel, M.; Roeder, K.; Roeyers, H.; Rossin, L.; Rothenberger, A.; Rouleau, G.; Ruderfer, D.; Rujescu, D.; Sanders, A.R.; Sanders, S.J.; Santangelo, S.; Sergeant, J.A.; Schachar, R.; Schalling, M.; Schatzberg, A.F.; Scheftner, W.A.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Scherer, S.W.; Schork, N.J.; Schulze, T.G.; Schumacher, J.; Schwarz, M.; Scolnick, E.; Scott, L.J.; Shi, J.; Shilling, P.D.; Shyn, S.I.; Silverman, J.M.; Slager, S.L.; Smalley, S.L.; Smit, J.H.; Smith, E.N.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.; St Clair, D.; State, M.; Steffens, M; Steinhausen, H.C.; Strauss, J.; Strohmaier, J.; Stroup, T.S.; Sutcliffe, J.; Szatmari, P.; Szelinger, S.; Thirumalai, S.; Thompson, R.C.; Todorov, A.A.; Tozzi, F.; Treutlein, J.; Uhr, M.; van den Oord, E.J.C.G.; Grootheest, G.; van Os, J.; Vicente, A.; Vieland, V.; Vincent, J.B.; Visscher, P.M.; Walsh, C.A.; Wassink, T.H.; Watson, S.J.; Weissman, M.M.; Werge, T.; Wienker, T.F.; Wijsman, E.M.; Willemsen, G.; Williams, N.; Willsey, A.J.; Witt, S.H.; Xu, W.; Young, A.H.; Yu, T.W.; Zammit, S.; Zandi, P.P.; Zhang, P.; Zitman, F.G.; Zöllner, S.; Devlin, B.; Kelsoe, J.; Sklar, P.; Daly, M.J.; O'Donovan, M.C.; Craddock, N.; Sullivan, P.F.; Smoller, J.W.; Kendler, K.S.; Wray, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases

  5. Japanese Culture-Bound Disorders: The Relationship between "Taijin Kyofusho, Hikikomori," and Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Levi Edward

    2013-01-01

    First conceptualized in the 1960s, the term culture-bound disorders refers to a classification of mental disorders or syndromes that are considered specific or closely related to cultural factors and or particular ethnocultural groups. In Japan, two culture-bound disorders, "taijin kyofusho" and "hikikomori," have seized the…

  6. Mediational Significance of PTSD in the Relationship of Sexual Trauma and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Sarah R.; Uppala, Saritha; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Simonich, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the mediational significance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the development of eating disorder symptomatology following sexually traumatic experiences. Method: Seventy-one victims of sexual trauma and 25 control subjects completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating disorder psychopathology and…

  7. Relationships between allostatic load, unhealthy behaviors, and depressive disorder in U.S. adults, 2005-2012 NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Erik J; Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Gregorich, Steven E; Jackson, James S; Nápoles, Anna M; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2018-05-01

    Unhealthy behaviors may modify relationships between chronic stress and depression among diverse older adults. We analyzed nationally representative cross-sectional data from participants aged 40-79 years of the 2005-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Unhealthy behaviors included current smoking, excessive/binge drinking, insufficient physical activity, and fair/poor diet. Allostatic load was defined by 10 biomarkers indicating the cumulative physiologic burden of stress. Depressive disorder was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression examined whether current smoking, excessive/binge drinking, insufficient physical activitiy, and fair/poor diet modified relationships between allostatic load and depressive disorder. Mean age of 12,272 participants was 55.6 years (standard error = 0.19), 51.9% were women, and most had at least a high school education (81.8%). Latinos (11.3%) and African Americans (10.4%) were more likely than Whites (7.1%; p depressive disorder criteria. Allostatic load was not associated independently with depressive disorder in any racial/ethnic group and this lack of a relationship did not differ by the extent of unhealthy behaviors. Although Latinos and African Americans report higher levels of depression than Whites, physiological markers of stress do not appear to explain these differences. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. [Young adult with psychotic disorders have problems relating to sexuality, intimacy and relationships. An explanatory study based on focus group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, J; Wolters, H A; Pijnenborg, G H M

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown that young adults with psychotic disorders frequently have problems relating to sexuality, intimacy and relationships. Such problems are often neglected in clinical practice. To perform a study that explores, on the basis of focus groups, how issues such as sexuality, intimacy and relationships can be addressed as part of the treatment of adolescents suffering from a psychotic disorder. We created eight focus groups consisting of clients attending the department of psychotic disorders and caregivers who worked there. The meetings of each focus group were fully transcribed and analysed by means of Nvivo. Clients indicated they wanted to address the topics of sexuality, intimacy and relationships in a group setting. They expressed the wish to have mixed gender groups and decided that in the group discussions the main focus should be on the exchange of personal experiences. In our view, it is desirable that psychiatry should pay more attention to the subject of sexuality. By giving adolescents suffering from psychotic disorders the opportunity to discuss their experiences, problems and feelings of insecurity in a group setting and in a low-threshold environment, psychiatrists can greatly improve the quality of care that they provide for their patients.

  9. Preliminary study of relationships between hypnotic susceptibility and personality disorder functioning styles in healthy volunteers and personality disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypnotic susceptibility is one of the stable characteristics of individuals, but not closely related to the personality traits such as those measured by the five-factor model in the general population. Whether it is related to the personality disorder functioning styles remains unanswered. Methods In 77 patients with personality disorders and 154 healthy volunteers, we administered the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Form C (SHSSC and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM tests. Results Patients with personality disorders showed higher passing rates on SHSSC Dream and Posthypnotic Amnesia items. No significant correlation was found in healthy volunteers. In the patients however, SHSSC Taste hallucination (β = 0.26 and Anosmia to Ammonia (β = -0.23 were significantly correlated with the PERM Borderline style; SHSSC Posthypnotic Amnesia was correlated with the PERM Schizoid style (β = 0.25 but negatively the PERM Narcissistic style (β = -0.23. Conclusions Our results provide limited evidence that could help to understand the abnormal cognitions in personality disorders, such as their hallucination and memory distortions.

  10. The relationship between epilepsy, sleep disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Kalil Neto

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: It is important to know which symptom is the predominant one. For this reason, children and adolescents with epilepsy, ADHD and sleep disorders need to be assessed carefully before initiating treatment. Our review concluded that there is an important link in this pathological triad.

  11. Metacognitive mastery moderates the relationship of alexithymia with cluster C personality disorder traits in adults with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Olesek, Kyle; Buck, Kelly; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Vohs, Jenifer; Ringer, Jamie; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Outcalt, Jared

    2014-03-01

    Cluster C personality disorder traits have been observed in substance use disorders and linked with poorer outcome. One potential factor which may cause these disturbances in personality function is alexithymia, or the inability to name and express emotion. There may be other proximate factors which moderate the impact of alexithymia on the expression of cluster C traits, such as metacognitive mastery, which is the ability to use knowledge about mental states of self and others to cope with distress and solve social problems. To examine the possibility that mastery mediated the effects of alexithymia on cluster C traits, we assessed each of these constructs using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale Abbreviated, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and SCID II among 58 adults in an early phase of recovery from substance misuse disorders in a residential setting. Results of a multiple regression revealed that, after controlling for symptom severity and severity of substance misuse history, metacognitive mastery moderated the effect of alexithymia on number of cluster C traits. A median split and subsequent ANCOVA revealed that participants with higher levels of alexithymia and poorer metacognitive mastery had more cluster C traits than the other groups. These findings may have clinical implications, suggesting that patients with substance use disorders may benefit from treatment which addresses metacognitive mastery. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The Moderating Effects of Cannabis Use and Decision Making on the Relationship between Conduct Disorder and Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. Megan; Coxe, Stefany; Schuster, Randi M.; Rojas, Angelica; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a current public health concern affecting adolescents and young adults. Conduct disorder, cannabis use and decision making (DM) ability are interrelated constructs that are relevant to RSB; however, there is little research on the association of DM and RSB. Participants were 79 cannabis users assessed through self-report measures of RSB and mental health, and a timeline follow-back procedure for substance use. DM ability was assessed via the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that more conduct disorder symptoms accounted for unique variance in measures of overall RSB and an earlier initiation of oral sex, even when taking into account DM and cannabis use. Amount of cannabis use and DM ability moderated the relationships between number of conduct disorder symptoms and number of oral sex partners and age of initiation for vaginal sex. An increase in conduct disorder symptoms was associated with more oral sex partners when DM was poor and fewer partners when DM was better, however this relationship was only present at higher levels of cannabis use. Furthermore, when DM was poor, more conduct disorder symptoms predicted a younger age of initiation of vaginal sex, with the age decreasing as amount of cannabis use increased. Determining how DM influences RSB may assist in the identification of novel treatment approaches to reduce engagement in RSB. PMID:25832553

  13. The moderating effects of cannabis use and decision making on the relationship between conduct disorder and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J Megan; Coxe, Stefany; Schuster, Randi M; Rojas, Angelica; Gonzalez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a current public health concern affecting adolescents and young adults. Conduct disorder, cannabis use, and decision-making (DM) ability are interrelated constructs that are relevant to RSB; however, there is little research on the association of DM and RSB. Participants were 79 cannabis users assessed through self-report measures of RSB and mental health and a timeline follow-back procedure for substance use. DM ability was assessed via the Iowa Gambling Task. We found that more conduct disorder symptoms accounted for unique variance in measures of overall RSB and an earlier initiation of oral sex, even when taking into account DM and cannabis use. Amount of cannabis use and DM ability moderated the relationships between number of conduct disorder symptoms and number of oral sex partners and age of initiation for vaginal sex. An increase in conduct disorder symptoms was associated with more oral sex partners when DM was poor and fewer partners when DM was better; however, this relationship was only present at higher levels of cannabis use. Furthermore, when DM was poor, more conduct disorder symptoms predicted a younger age of initiation of vaginal sex, with the age decreasing as amount of cannabis use increased. Determining how DM influences RSB may assist in the identification of novel treatment approaches to reduce engagement in RSB.

  14. Marital conflict in early childhood and adolescent disordered eating: emotional insecurity about the marital relationship as an explanatory mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melissa W; Fairchild, Amanda J; Mark Cummings, E; Davies, Patrick T

    2014-12-01

    Disordered eating behaviors, including frequent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting and skipping meals for weight loss) and binge eating are prevalent among adolescents. While negative, conflict-ridden family environments have long been implicated as problematic and a contributing factor to the development of disordered eating, few studies have examined the influence of marital conflict exposure in childhood to understand the development of these behaviors in adolescence. The current study investigates the impact of marital conflict, children's emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, and disordered eating behaviors in early adolescence in a prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of 236 families in Midwest and Northeast regions of the U.S. Full structural mediation analyses utilizing robust latent constructs of marital conflict and emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, support children's emotional insecurity as an explanatory mechanism for the influence of marital conflict on adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Findings are discussed with important implications for the long-term impact of marital conflict and the development of disordered eating in adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-Disorder Genome-Wide Analyses Suggest a Complex Genetic Relationship Between Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A.; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Davis, Lea K.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Derks, Eske M.; Evans, Patrick; Edlund, Christopher K.; Crane, Jacquelyn; Fagerness, Jesen A.; Osiecki, Lisa; Gallagher, Patience; Gerber, Gloria; Haddad, Stephen; Illmann, Cornelia; McGrath, Lauren M.; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Arepalli, Sampath; Barlassina, Cristina; Barr, Cathy L.; Bellodi, Laura; Benarroch, Fortu; Berrió, Gabriel Bedoya; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Black, Donald; Bloch, Michael H.; Brentani, Helena; Bruun, Ruth D.; Budman, Cathy L.; Camarena, Beatriz; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cappi, Carolina; Cardona Silgado, Julio C.; Cavallini, Maria C.; Chavira, Denise A.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Cook, Edwin H.; Cookson, M. R.; Coric, Vladimir; Cullen, Bernadette; Cusi, Daniele; Delorme, Richard; Denys, Damiaan; Dion, Yves; Eapen, Valsama; Egberts, Karin; Falkai, Peter; Fernandez, Thomas; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Geller, Daniel; Gilbert, Donald; Girard, Simon L.; Grabe, Hans J.; Grados, Marco A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.; Gross-Tsur, Varda; Grünblatt, Edna; Hardy, John; Heiman, Gary A.; Hemmings, Sian M.J.; Herrera, Luis D.; Hezel, Dianne M.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Jankovic, Joseph; Kennedy, James L.; King, Robert A.; Konkashbaev, Anuar I.; Kremeyer, Barbara; Kurlan, Roger; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Leboyer, Marion; Leckman, James F.; Lennertz, Leonhard; Liu, Chunyu; Lochner, Christine; Lowe, Thomas L.; Lupoli, Sara; Macciardi, Fabio; Maier, Wolfgang; Manunta, Paolo; Marconi, Maurizio; McCracken, James T.; Mesa Restrepo, Sandra C.; Moessner, Rainald; Moorjani, Priya; Morgan, Jubel; Muller, Heike; Murphy, Dennis L.; Naarden, Allan L.; Ochoa, William Cornejo; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Pato, Michele T.; Pato, Carlos N.; Piacentini, John; Pittenger, Christopher; Pollak, Yehuda; Rauch, Scott L.; Renner, Tobias; Reus, Victor I.; Richter, Margaret A.; Riddle, Mark A.; Robertson, Mary M.; Romero, Roxana; Rosário, Maria C.; Rosenberg, David; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Sabatti, Chiara; Salvi, Erika; Sampaio, Aline S.; Samuels, Jack; Sandor, Paul; Service, Susan K.; Sheppard, Brooke; Singer, Harvey S.; Smit, Jan H.; Stein, Dan J.; Strengman, Eric; Tischfield, Jay A.; Turiel, Maurizio; Valencia Duarte, Ana V.; Vallada, Homero; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Walitza, Susanne; Walkup, John; Wang, Ying; Weale, Mike; Weiss, Robert; Wendland, Jens R.; Westenberg, Herman G.M.; Yao, Yin; Hounie, Ana G.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Nicolini, Humberto; Wagner, Michael; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Cath, Danielle C.; McMahon, William; Posthuma, Danielle; Oostra, Ben A.; Nestadt, Gerald; Rouleau, Guy A.; Purcell, Shaun; Jenike, Michael A.; Heutink, Peter; Hanna, Gregory L.; Conti, David V.; Arnold, Paul D.; Freimer, Nelson; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Knowles, James A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Pauls, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette Syndrome (TS) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that are thought to share genetic risk factors. However, the identification of definitive susceptibility genes for these etiologically complex disorders remains elusive. Here, we report a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of TS and OCD in 2723 cases (1310 with OCD, 834 with TS, 579 with OCD plus TS/chronic tics (CT)), 5667 ancestry-matched controls, and 290 OCD parent-child trios. Although no individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) achieved genome-wide significance, the GWAS signals were enriched for SNPs strongly associated with variations in brain gene expression levels, i.e. expression quantitative loci (eQTLs), suggesting the presence of true functional variants that contribute to risk of these disorders. Polygenic score analyses identified a significant polygenic component for OCD (p=2×10−4), predicting 3.2% of the phenotypic variance in an independent data set. In contrast, TS had a smaller, non-significant polygenic component, predicting only 0.6% of the phenotypic variance (p=0.06). No significant polygenic signal was detected across the two disorders, although the sample is likely underpowered to detect a modest shared signal. Furthermore, the OCD polygenic signal was significantly attenuated when cases with both OCD and TS/CT were included in the analysis (p=0.01). Previous work has shown that TS and OCD have some degree of shared genetic variation. However, the data from this study suggest that there are also distinct components to the genetic architectures of TS and OCD. Furthermore, OCD with co-occurring TS/CT may have different underlying genetic susceptibility compared to OCD alone. PMID:25158072

  16. Binge Eating Disorder and Its Relationship to Bulimia Nervosa and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    LaCaille, Lara Schultz

    2002-01-01

    Recent research indicates that 2% to 4% of the population meet diagnostic criteria for the newly proposed binge eating disorder, and that it is much more common (30%) among the treatment-seeking obese. Although recognized as a significant problem, binge eating disorder is l1l not well understood, and there is debate about whether binge eating disorder is a distinct disorder. It has been argued that binge eating disorder is simply a variant or milder form of bulimia nervosa and not a separate ...

  17. The longitudinal relationship between mental health disorders and chronic disease for older adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Min; Lee, I-Chen; Su, Yung-Yu; Mullan, Judy; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2017-09-01

    Although mental health disorders in older adults are common, their relationship with chronic disease and the influence of chronic disease on the development of mental health disorders over time is not well understood. This longitudinal study investigated the change in status of mental health disorders and chronic disease, as well as their interrelationships, over time. Participants included community-dwelling older adults living in Taiwan, aged 65 years or older, who completed six waves of survey interviews. Mental health disorders were scored using the Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule, and chronic disease(s) status was recorded during consecutive biennial data collection waves. The autoregressive latent trajectory model and parallel latent growth curve model were used for data analysis. The study findings suggest that in older people pre-existing mental health disorders and/or chronic disease(s) will predispose them to developing significantly more mental health disorders and/or chronic diseases respectively. The study findings also suggest that pre-existing mental health disorders can significantly contribute to the development of chronic disease over time, and that pre-existing chronic disease(s) significantly can contribute to the development of mental health disorders over time, indicating a reciprocal interrelationship. Our study findings suggest that it in addition to monitoring and treating chronic disease(s) in older people, it is also important to monitor and treat their mental health disorders. Doing so will result in overall better health outcomes and will facilitate a better quality of life as they age. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Health-related quality of life and peer relationships in adolescents with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Deborah; Volkovinskaia, Anna

    2018-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and peer relationships were investigated in adolescents with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Adolescents with DCD (n=9), ADHD (n=9), DCD and ADHD (n=10), and typically developing adolescents (n=16) completed the following questionnaires: KIDSCREEN-52 Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire and Peer Relations Questionnaire for Children. Twenty-five participants took part in semi-structured interviews. Adolescents with DCD and ADHD had lower HRQoL on the mood and emotions, school environment, and financial resources scales of the KIDSCREEN-52 than adolescents in the DCD and typically developing groups (all p<0.05). On the Peer Relations Questionnaire for Children, the DCD and ADHD group reported significantly higher victimization compared with those in the typically developing (p=0.030) and DCD (p=0.010) groups. Qualitative interviews among young people with DCD and ADHD revealed feelings of marginalization and victimization. Descriptors such as 'misfits', 'oddballs', 'weird', and 'the rejects' were used to describe themselves. HRQoL and peer relationships are negatively affected in adolescents with DCD and ADHD. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) do not display poorer overall health-related quality of life (HRQoL) versus typically developing controls. Having DCD and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was associated with poorer HRQoL. Adolescents with DCD and ADHD experience significantly higher levels of peer victimization than typically developing adolescents. HRQoL and peer relationships are significantly associated in adolescent respondents. © 2018 Mac Keith Press.

  19. The relationship between mental disorders and types of crime in inmates in a Brazilian prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondé, Milena P; Caron, Jean; Mendonça, Milena S S; Freire, Antônio C C; Moreau, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectional study conducted in prisons in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, investigated the association between the presence of psychiatric disorders in 462 prisoners and the types of crimes committed by them. Psychiatric diagnosis was obtained by means of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A statistically significant association was found between some psychiatric disorders and specific groups of crime: lifelong substance addiction with sex crimes and homicide; antisocial personality disorder with robbery and with kidnapping and extortion; borderline personality disorder with sex crimes; and lifelong alcohol addiction with fraud and conspiracy and with armed robbery and murder. It was concluded that the mental disorders considered more severe (psychosis and bipolar disorder) were not associated with violent crimes, suggesting that the severity of the psychotic disorder may be the factor that has caused psychosis to be associated with violent crimes in previous studies. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Is there a relationship between Internet dependence and eating disorders? A comparison study of Internet dependents and non-Internet dependents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Z L; Liu, Y

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have examined the underlying psychopathology in overuse of the Internet, including depression, social anxiety, and substance dependence. A relationship between these psychological disorders appears to exist. No links have been established between Internet dependence and eating disorders. Fifty-four Internet dependents were compared with a control group concerning symptomatic aspects of eating disorders and psychological characteristics related to eating disorders. They all belonged to 1199 respondents of Chinese secondary school and college students between the ages of 12 and 25 years old. A Mann-Whitney U-test was used to determine the difference between Internet dependent groups and non-Internet dependent groups concerning Eating Attitudes Test and Eating Disorder Inventory scores. Females and male Internet dependents rated themselves with significantly higher symptomatic aspects of eating disorders than control groups. Female and male Internet dependents showed significantly higher psychological characteristics related to eating disorders than control groups. A relationship between Internet dependence and eating disorders appears to exist.

  1. Clinical profiles of stigma experiences, self-esteem and social relationships among people with schizophrenia, depressive, and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sandra E H; Esteves, Francisco; Carvalho, Helena

    2015-09-30

    Some mental illnesses and certain mental health care environments can be severely stigmatizing, which seems to be related to decreased self-esteem and a deterioration of the quality of social relationships for people with mental illness. This study aims to identify clinical profiles characterized by clinical diagnoses more strongly associated with the treatment settings and related to internalized stigma, self-esteem and satisfaction with social relationships. It also aimed to analyze associations between clinical profiles and socio-demographic indicators. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were performed on a sample of 261 individuals with schizophrenia and mood disorders, from hospital-based and community-based facilities. MCA showed four distinct clinical profiles allowing a differentiation among levels of: internalized stigma, social relationship satisfaction and self-esteem. Overall, results revealed that internalized stigma remains a pervasive problem for some people with schizophrenia and mood disorders. Particularly, internalized stigma and social relationships dissatisfaction and associated socio-demographic indicators appear to be a risk factor for social isolation for individuals with schizophrenia, which may worsen the course of the disorder. Our findings highlight the importance to develop structured interventions aimed to reduce internalized stigma, and exclusion of those who suffer the loss of their social roles and networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between Traditional Chinese Beliefs about Aetiology of Mental Disorders and Help Seeking: A Survey of the Elderly in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Found, A

    2016-03-01

    A wide range of factors can influence help-seeking attitudes when individuals experience a mental disorder. The current study investigated the relationship between traditional Chinese beliefs related to the aetiology of mental disorders and help-seeking attitudes among elderly participants in Macao. In order to ensure the suitability of participants for inclusion in this study, the participants were required to complete an initial screening test using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Participants who successfully passed the test (n = 183) completed a questionnaire that included the Inventory of Attitudes Toward Seeking Mental Health Services (IASMHS), a set of 9 items related to traditional Chinese beliefs about aetiology of mental disorders and demographic items. The IASMHS scores were higher for female participants and for participants who had completed high school compared with those who had never attended school or who had only completed primary education. Endorsement of traditional Chinese beliefs about the aetiology of mental disorders was higher for male participants. There was a negative correlation between traditional Chinese aetiology beliefs related to mental disorders and help-seeking attitudes. Traditional Chinese beliefs related to the aetiology of mental disorders are a negative factor that inhibits help seeking. Implications for efforts to increase the utilisation of mental health services by the elderly are discussed.

  3. The relationship between avoidant personality disorder and social phobia: a population-based twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Torgersen, Svenn; Neale, Michael C; Ørstavik, Ragnhild E; Tambs, Kristian; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of comorbidity for social phobia and dimensional representations of avoidant personality disorder by estimating to what extent the two disorders are influenced by common genetic and shared or unique environmental factors versus the extent to which these factors are specific to each disorder. Young adult female-female twin pairs (N=1,427) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel were assessed at personal interview for avoidant personality disorder and social phobia using the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Bivariate Cholesky models were fitted using the Mx statistical program. The best-fitting model included additive genetic and unique environmental factors only. Avoidant personality disorder and social phobia were influenced by the same genetic factors, whereas the environmental factors influencing the two disorders were uncorrelated. Within the limits of statistical power, these results suggest that there is a common genetic vulnerability to avoidant personality disorder and social phobia in women. An individual with high genetic liability will develop avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia entirely as a result of the environmental risk factors unique to each disorder. The results are in accordance with the hypothesis that psychobiological dimensions span the axis I and axis II disorders.

  4. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozkurt M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muge Bozkurt,1 Cuneyt Evren,1 Gokhan Umut,1 Bilge Evren2 1Research, Treatment and Training Center for Alcohol and Substance Dependence, Bakirkoy Prof Dr Mazhar Osman Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology and Neurosurgery, 2Department of Psychiatry, Baltalimani State Hospital for Muskuloskeletal Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods: Participants (n=190 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results: Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients

  5. Odor perception in children with autism spectrum disorder and its relationship to food neophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Claude eLuisier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Atypical sensory functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD has been well documented in the last decade for the visual, tactile and auditory systems, but olfaction in ASD is still understudied. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with ASD and neuro-typically (NT developed children differed in odor perception, at the cognitive (familiarity and identification ability, sensorimotor (olfactory exploration and affective levels (hedonic evaluation. Because an important function of the sense of smell is its involvement in eating, from food selection to appreciation and recognition, a potential link between odor perception and food neophobia was also investigated. To these ends, 10 children between 6 and 13 years old diagnosed with ASD and 10 NT control children were tested. To compare performance, 16 stimuli were used and food neophobia was assessed by the parents on a short food neophobia scale. Results revealed that (i significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p=0.005; d=2.378 and ASD children (p=0.042; d=0.941, and (ii hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p=0.007 but not NT children. In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior. This opens up new perspectives on both (i the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

  6. Odor Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and its Relationship to Food Neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Anne-Claude; Petitpierre, Genevieve; Ferdenzi, Camille; Clerc Bérod, Annick; Giboreau, Agnes; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    Atypical sensory functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been well documented in the last decade for the visual, tactile and auditory systems, but olfaction in ASD is still understudied. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with ASD and neuro-typically (NT) developed children differed in odor perception, at the cognitive (familiarity and identification ability), sensorimotor (olfactory exploration) and affective levels (hedonic evaluation). Because an important function of the sense of smell is its involvement in eating, from food selection to appreciation and recognition, a potential link between odor perception and food neophobia was also investigated. To these ends, 10 children between 6 and 13 years old diagnosed with ASD and 10 NT control children were tested. To compare performance, 16 stimuli were used and food neophobia was assessed by the parents on a short food neophobia scale. Results revealed that (i) significant hedonic discrimination between attractive and aversive odors was observed in NT (p = 0.005; d = 2.378) and ASD children (p = 0.042; d = 0.941), and (ii) hedonic discrimination level was negatively correlated with food neophobia scores in ASD (p = 0.007) but not NT children. In conclusion, this study offers new insights into odor perception in ASD children, highlighting a relationship between odor hedonic reactivity and eating behavior. This opens up new perspectives on both (i) the role of olfaction in the construction of eating behavior in ASD children, and (ii) the measurement and meaning of food neophobia in this population.

  7. Relationship between musculoskeletal disorders, job demands, and burnout among emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorour, Amany Sobhy; El-Maksoud, Mona M Abd

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent one of the most common occupational problems in nursing. MSDs can negatively impact one's quality of life. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between MSDs, job demands, and burnout among emergency nurses. The researchers hypothesized that increased job demands were associated with more MSDs and consequently higher levels of burnout. The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 58 nurses working in the emergency departments of Zagazig University Hospital and Al-Ahrar, Hospital Egypt from October to December 2010, using a cross-sectional analytic design. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire, the Job Content Questionnaire, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results revealed that 32.8% of the nurses were overweight and 17.2% were obese. The most common sites of pain were the neck (67.2%), shoulder (65.5%), and lower back (63.8%). Lower back pain was the most common site affected (72.4%) with a mean 5.1 on a scale ranging from 0 to 13. A positive correlation existed between the scores of job demand and burnout (r = 0.340, p burnout whereas the job demand score was the independent predictor of the number of MSDs. This study documents an increased prevalence of MSDs among emergency nurses, as predicted by increased job demand and associated with a higher level of burnout. Hence, it is important for hospital and nursing administrators to address the factors contributing to job stress and burnout, with emphasis on job satisfaction and work organization to alleviate the burden of psychosocial factors in this setting.

  8. Attachment, affective temperament, and personality disorders: a study of their relationships in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kai; Berlow, Rustin; Thomas, Michael L

    2013-12-01

    As the result of extensive translational and cross-disciplinary research, attachment theory is now a construct with significant neuropsychiatric traction. The correlation of attachment with other influential conceptual models (i.e. temperament and personality) is therefore of interest. Consequently, we explored how two attachment dimensions (attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) correlated with measures of temperament and personality in 357 psychiatric outpatients. We performed a retrospective review of four questionnaires (the Experiences in Close Relationship scale (ECR-R), Temperament and Character inventory (TCI), Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego questionnaire (TEMPS-A), and Personality Self-Portrait Questionnaire (PSQ)). Frequency measures and correlations were examined, as was the predictive value of attachment security for a personality disorder (PD). Significant, robust correlations were found between attachment anxiety and (1) several negative affective temperaments (dysthymic and cyclothymic); (2) several indices of personality pathology (low self-directedness (TCI), DSM-IV paranoid, borderline, histrionic, avoidant and dependent personality traits). Attachment avoidance had fewer large correlations. In an exploratory model, the negative predictive value of attachment security for a PD was 86%. Subjects were a relatively homogeneous subset of ambulatory psychiatric outpatients. PD diagnoses were via self-report. Clinically, these findings highlight the significant overlap between attachment, affective temperament, and personality and support the value of attachment as a screen for PDs. More broadly, given our growing understanding of the neurobiology of attachment (i.e. links with the oxytocin system), these results raise interesting questions about underlying biological systems and psychiatric treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between regional cerebral perfusion and cognitive disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinhua; Zhao Peiqin; Zhao Yan; Liu Fuyuan; Meng Juanjuan; Chen Huidong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic rCBF abnormalities and the relationship between rCBF and cognitive disorders in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: The study subjects were 11 middle aged, glycemic controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Age range of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was 46 - 59 years. Eleven age-, sex-, education- and occupation- matched normal controls (age range 41 - 58 years) were studied under identical conditions. Cognitive functions were evaluated by Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), Trail Marking Test A and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), respectively. 99 Tc m -ECD (ethyl-cysteine ate dimer) SPECT imaging was performed on all patients and normal controls. Results: 1) Cognitive test scores of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were lower than that of normal controls. Diabetic patients were scored lower in memory test than controls (accumulation adding, visual recognition, learning and total memory quotient of WMS, P < 0.05). Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients needed much more time to complete the trail marking test (74.2 s vs. 48.7 s). WCST scores were significantly different between two groups. 2) The rCBF values of frontal, temporal and parietal lobe were decreased significantly in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 3) For type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, there was a correlation between rCBF values of right frontal lobe and adding, understanding scores of WMS (positively correlated), preservative errors(%) of WCST (negatively correlated). The rCBF values of right temporal lobe were positively correlated with inverted counting. Conclusions: 1) Impairments of central nervous system are existed in glycemic controlled (lack of repeated hypoglycemia) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Abnormalities in CNS can express as cognitive dysfunction, such as decrement of memory, attention, thinking and conceptual reasoning abilities. 2) Hypo-perfusions of frontal, temporal and parietal cortex can be identified in patients of

  10. Relationship between pain and effusion on magnetic resonance imaging in temporomandibular disorder patients

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    Park, Ha Na; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study was performed to find the relationship between pain and joint effusion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. The study subjects included 232 TMD patients. The inclusion criteria in this study were the presence of spontaneous pain or provoked pain on one or both temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The provoked pain was divided into three groups: pain on palpation (G1), pain on mouth opening (G2), and pain on mastication (G3). MRI examinations were performed using a 1.5-T MRI scanner. T1- and T2-weighted images with para-sagittal and para-coronal images were obtained. According to the T2-weighted image findings, the cases of effusions were divided into four groups: normal, mild (E1), moderate (E2), and marked effusion (E3). A statistical analysis was carried out using the chi2 test with SPSS (version 12.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Spontaneous pain, provoked pain, and both spontaneous and provoked pain were significantly related to joint effusion in TMD patients (p<0.05). However, among the various types of provoked pain, pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ (G1) was not related to joint effusion in TMD patients (p>0.05). Spontaneous pain was related to the MRI findings of joint effusion; however, among the various types of provoked pain, pain on palpation of the masticatory muscles and TMJ was not related to the MRI findings of joint effusion. These results suggest that joint effusion has a significant influence on the prediction of TMJ pain.

  11. Prospective inter-relationships between late adolescent personality and major depressive disorder in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S; DiRago, A C; Iacono, W G

    2014-02-01

    A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively few investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Prospective inter-relationships between late-adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; n = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent versus adult onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24 and 29 years, and personality traits [negative emotionality (NEM), positive emotionality (PEM) and constraint (CON)] were assessed at ages 17, 24 and 29 years. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM up to age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never-depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Taken together, the results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, in addition to the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development.

  12. Relationship Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Care and Medication Continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, William B; Baum, Rebecca; Kelleher, Kelly J; Peugh, James; Gardner, William; Lichtenstein, Phil; Langberg, Joshua; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) care practices and subsequent medication use. A retrospective cohort from a random sample of medical records in 50 pediatric practices with 188 providers, including 1,352 children who started ADHD medication, was studied. Independent variables included physician behaviors related to medication titration and monitoring of treatment response. Primary outcomes were number of days covered with ADHD medication during the first year of treatment and time from starting medicine to the first 30-day gap in medication supply. Multilevel modeling and Cox proportional hazards regression models were conducted. Children had an average medication supply of 217 days in the first year. Half experienced a 30-day gap in medication supply in the first 3 months. Nearly three-fourths had a medication adjustment in the first year with the first adjustment usually being a dosage change. The average time to the first medication adjustment was over 3 months. Physician's first contact with parents occurred in the first month of treatment for less than half, with the average time being over 2 months. Little variation related to ADHD care quality was accounted for at the physician level. Early titration and early contact were related to greater medication supply and continuity of treatment. Earlier physician-delivered ADHD care (e.g., contact with parent after starting medication and medication adjustment) is related to greater medication supply and continuity. It remains to be determined whether interventions that improve the quality of titration and monitoring practices for children with ADHD would also improve medication continuity. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between the level of aggression and the sleep quality in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder

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    Taner Oznur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject: Sleep disorders are common problems in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. The main symptoms associated with sleep disorders were reported as a reduction in total sleep time, prolonged sleep latency, increase in the number wakefulness, low sleep efficiency and a reduction in the percentage of deep sleep stages. A relation between sleep disorders and increased levels of aggression was determined. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between the quality of sleep and the level of aggression in patients with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Method: The study was included 48 patients with a diagnosis of PTSD who were hospitalized. Data were collected using post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality scale and the Buss-Perry Aggression Scale applied by the clinician. Data analysis was made using SPSS 15.0 package program. Descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation test were used in statistical analysis. Results: The average age of the cases was 32.33 +/- 7.93, the average of the symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder was 56.23 +/- 11.14, the average of sleep quality was 22.08 +/- 6.67 and the average of aggression levels was 51.67 +/- 7.48. There was a high level deterioration in sleep quality and aggression levels were medium/medium-high levels. It was determined that Buss-Perry Aggression Scale scores were positively correlated with Pittsburgh sleep quality and posttraumatic stress disorder total and hyper arousal subscale scores. Conclusion: In this study, it is stated that increase in overstimulation symptoms and degradation of sleep in PTSD patients cause increase in agression levels. Degradation of sleep is determined as an indicator of agression that is observed in TSSB patients. Associatively, in PTSD patients, use of interventions to improve the quality of sleep oriented agressive behaviours gain value [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 433-437

  14. Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents (IRCAP) and Its Relationship with Social Capital, Life Style and Parents' Personality Disorders: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadi, Nastaran; Kamali, Koorosh; Khaleghi, Ali; Ahmadi, Ameneh

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents (IRCAP) and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders. Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using ‎multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000. ‎We randomly collected 170 blocks. Then, of each cluster head, we selected 6 cases including 3 cases of each gender in ‎different age groups (6- 9 years, 10- 14 years, and 15- 18 years). The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-‎Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). In addition, demographic data (gender, age, education, parent education, and economic situation) and information on lifestyle, social capital, and parents' personality disorders were obtained from the participants. Discussion: IRCAP study presents a protocol for an epidemiological survey on the first estimates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents across the country. This large body of data, on a range of individual behavioural and emotional items and scores, allows us to compare the rates and patterns of deviance between urban and rural places of residence in 31 provinces of Iran with non Iranian samples surveyed with the same measures.

  15. Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders in Iranian Children and Adolescents and Its Relationship with Social Capital, Life Style and Parents' Personality Disorders: Study Protocol

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    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed at designing a cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iranian children and adolescents and to determine its relationship with social capital, life style, and parents' personality disorders.Method: This cross sectional study was a national project implemented in all provinces of Iran. In this community-based study, using ‎multistage cluster sampling method, we selected 1000 children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years in each province. The total sample size reached to 31 000. ‎We randomly collected 170 blocks. Then, of each cluster head, we selected 6 cases including 3 cases of each gender in ‎different age groups (6- 9 years, 10- 14 years, and 15- 18 years. The clinical psychologists instructed the participants to complete the Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-‎Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. In addition, demographic data (gender, age, education, parent education, and economic situation and information on lifestyle, social capital, and parents' personality disorders were obtained from the participants.Discussion: This study presents a protocol for an epidemiological survey on the first estimates for the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents across the country. This large body of data, on a range of individual behavioural and emotional items and scores, allows us to compare the rates and patterns of deviance between urban and rural places of residence in 31 provinces of Iran with non Iranian samples surveyed with the same measures.

  16. Feeling fat in eating disorders: Testing the unique relationships between feeling fat and measures of disordered eating in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Phillipou, Andrea; Castle, David; Newton, Richard; Harrison, Philippa; Cistullo, Leonardo L; Griffiths, Scott; Hindle, Annemarie; Brennan, Leah

    2018-06-01

    Although widely discussed in theories of eating disorders, the experience of "feeling fat" in this population has received little research attention. This study tested the unique relationships between feeling fat and measures of problematic eating behaviours and attitudes. Data were analysed from individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 123) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 51). Correlations revealed considerable unshared variance between feeling fat and shape and weight over-evaluation and depressive symptoms. Moreover, when over-evaluation and depressive symptoms were controlled, feeling fat predicted unique variance in restraint and eating concerns. Findings offer some support for the idea that feeling fat is a distinct and important component of body image concerns in eating disorders. Further research that develops a standardized measure of feeling fat is required. Further research that examines whether feeling fat is an important treatment mechanism is also needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between Features of Desks and Chairs and Prevalence of Skeletal Disorders in Primary School Students in Abadan

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    Yadollah Zakeri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSitting on inappropriate benches, as well as the poor posture (body position during the years of growth, can lead to spinal disorders, fatigue and discomfort in students. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between features of desks and chairs and prevalence of some musculoskeletal disorders in primary school students in Abadan.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 in the city of Abadan- South West of Iran; for which, 383 primary school students were selected and studied through cluster sampling method. Data were collected by the checkered board and researcher-made questionnaire. Features and dimensions of desks and chairs of students were recorded and evaluated based on their condition (being standard or not. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS, version 22; and then, descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were conducted.ResultsStudy results showed that about 56.1% of the desks and chairs in under study schools were non-standard. It found that drooping shoulder (85.4% and scoliosis (81.7% were the more prevalent disorders and back straight (1.6% was the least frequent disorder. There was a significant relationship between the variable of non-standard desks and chairs and prevalence of drooping shoulders (P=0.001, scoliosis (P= 0.04, kyphosis (P=0.007 and lordosis (P=0.002 disorders in students.ConclusionThe non-standard-sized desks and chairs increase the prevalence of skeletal disorders in schoolchildren. Therefore, it is essential to pay attention to design and build standard classroom desks and chairs, which are best, adjust to students’ physics.

  18. Insidious: The relationship patients have with their eating disorders and its impact on symptoms, duration of illness, and self-image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén Mantilla, Emma; Clinton, David; Birgegård, Andreas

    2017-10-28

    In published clinical and autobiographical accounts of eating disorders, patients often describe their disorder in personified ways, that is, relating to the disorder as if it were an entity, and treatment often involves techniques of externalization. By encouraging patients to think about their eating disorder as a relationship, this study aimed to examine how young female patients experience their eating disorder as acting towards them, how they react in response, and whether these interactions are associated with symptoms, illness duration, and self-image. Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) was used to operationalize how patients experience the actions of their eating disorder and their own reactions to the disorder. The relationship between patients (N = 150) and their eating disorders was examined with respect to symptoms, duration of illness, and self-image. Patients were also compared on their tendency to react with affiliation in relation to their disorder. Patients' responses on the SASB indicated that they tended to conceptualize their eating disorders as blaming and controlling, and they themselves as sulking and submitting in response. Greater experience of the eating disorder as being controlling was associated with higher levels of symptomatology. Patients reacting with more negative affiliation towards their disorder were less symptomatic. When encouraging patients to think about their eating disorder as a relationship, comprehensible relationship patterns between patients and their eating disorders emerged. The idea that this alleged relationship may resemble a real-life relationship could have theoretical implications, and its exploration may be of interest in treatment. Patients were able to conceptualize their eating disorder as a significant other to whom they relate when encouraged to do so. Patients tended to experience their disorder as controlling and domineering. Exploring the hypothetical patient-eating disorder relationship

  19. Prevalence of sleep disorders and their relationship with core symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez-Galarraga, Rosario; Guillén-Grima, Francisco; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío

    2016-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in a control population. To examine the relationship between sleep disorders and symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsiveness and executive dysfunction. We studied 126 children with ADHD and 1036 control children aged between 5 and 18 years old. Caregivers completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS). Children with ADHD were subsequently assessed for executive function with the Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT) or with AULA Nesplora. Children with ADHD slept less at night and were more likely to display sleep-related rhythmic movements. Children in the ADHD group who were under 12 years old and who had total ADHD-RS scores over the 90th percentile had more difficulty falling asleep than other children; there was also a relationship between total ADHD-RS scores over the 90th percentile and certain parasomnias in the control population. There was a correlation between shorter duration of night-time sleep and omission errors in children who were 12 or older and who were under pharmacological treatment for ADHD. Bedtime resistance and difficulty falling sleep were more frequent in children with ADHD whose symptoms were not treated pharmacologically, than in children receiving treatment. Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity are correlated with impaired sleep duration and quality; specifically, there is an association between ADHD symptoms and problems falling asleep and parasomnias, however, the current study does not address the nature and direction of causality. Children with ADHD and receiving methylphenidate had fewer sleep disorders, suggesting that, at least in some children, stimulant treatment is associated with improvement of some aspects of sleep. Shorter sleep duration in adolescents under pharmacological treatment for ADHD tended to result in more errors of omission, suggesting that it is

  20. The longitudinal relationship between flourishing mental health and incident mood, anxiety and substance use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Graaf, Ron; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: High levels of mental well-being might protect against the onset of mental disorders but longitudinal evidence is scarce. This study examines whether flourishing mental health predicts first-incidence and recurrent mental disorders 3 years later. Methods: Data were used from 4482

  1. Semi-metric analysis of the functional brain network: Relationship with familial risk for psychotic disorder

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    Sanne Peeters

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: The results are suggestive of more dispersed network communication in patients with psychotic disorder, with some evidence for trait-based network alterations in high-schizotypy individuals. Dispersed communication may contribute to the clinical phenotype in psychotic disorder. In addition, higher SMP may contribute to neuro- and social cognition, independent of psychosis risk.

  2. Addictive Online Games: Examining the Relationship Between Game Genres and Internet Gaming Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, J.S.; Hendriks, S.J.F.

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is the most recent term used to describe problematic or pathological involvement with computer or video games. This study examined whether this disorder is more likely to involve pathological involvement with online (i.e., Internet) games as opposed to offline games.

  3. Relationships between Psychosocial Development and Personality Disorder Symptomatology in Late Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.

    1993-01-01

    Studied the extent to which psychosocial development thorough the first 5 stages of E. H. Erikson's theory of personality development is associated with personality disorder symptoms, using 106 undergraduates. Negative resolutions of stages one through five may predict the presence of personality disorder symptomatology during late adolescence.…

  4. The relationship between temperament and character in conversion disorder and comorbid depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten, Evrim; Yenilmez, Yelda; Fistikci, Nurhan; Saatcioglu, Omer

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare conversion disorder patients with healthy controls in terms of temperament and character, and to determine the effect of these characteristics on comorbid depression, based on the idea that conversion disorder patients may have distinctive temperament and character qualities. The study involved 58 patients diagnosed with conversion disorder, based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, under observation at the Bakırköy Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders Outpatient Center, Istanbul. The patients were interviewed with a Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I) and 57 healthy volunteers, matched for age, sex and education level, were interviewed with a Structured Clinical Interview for people without a psychiatric disorder (SCID-I/NP). All the participants completed a sociodemographic form, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Temperament and Character Inventory. The conversion disorder patients displayed more harm avoidance (Pconversion disorder patients had high self-transcendence (PConversion disorder patients are significantly different from healthy controls on temperament and character measures of harm avoidance, persistence, self-transcendence and self-directedness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder in alcohol use disorder: relationships to demography, drinking and neuroimmune profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Bramness, Jørgen G; Lien, Lars

    2017-08-29

    This study examined how alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) differed from those without PTSD in terms of demography, drinking patterns and C-reactive protein, inflammatory cytokines, tryptophan metabolism parameters, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A consecutive sample (N = 187) of treatment-receiving AUD individuals were recruited from Nepalese facilities. They underwent fully structured psychiatric interviews. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)] were determined by a multiplex assay, kynurenine and tryptophan levels by high-performance liquid chromatography, and BDNF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The prevalence of exposure to severe trauma and PTSD was 74% and 17%, respectively. PTSD comorbidity was not associated with age, gender, or socioeconomic status, but with co-occurring major depression, history of attempted suicide, earlier peak of drinking problems, higher drinking quantity and withdrawal symptoms, experiencing alcoholic blackouts, and drinking problems among parents. None of the assessed neuroimmune parameters was related to comorbid PTSD. The findings support routine trauma screening in AUD treatment samples and screening for risky drinking in trauma populations to help guide interventions. The expected aberrations in neuroimmune functioning may not be found when examined in a sample with multiple psychiatric morbidities.

  6. Emotional dysregulation in borderline personality disorder and its influence on communication behavior and feelings in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Annemarie; Grosselli, Luna; Roepke, Stefan; Dziobek, Isabel

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunction in romantic relationships constitutes one of the most burdensome symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The aim of this study was to ascertain how emotional dysregulation affects behavior and relationship related feelings of women with BPD in threatening conversations with their own romantic partner. Thirty couples in which the women were diagnosed with BPD and 34 healthy control (HC) couples were videotaped while discussing personally threatening (i.e., personal failure) and relationship-threatening (i.e., separation) themes. Third party raters evaluated stress and communication behaviors during the conversations. Relationship related feelings, i.e., closeness and relationship insecurity, were assessed by self-report. Overall, women with BPD were rated as more stressed in threatening situations than HC women and their partners, but not more stressed in relationship-threatening than personally threatening situations. A heightened stress response of women with BPD predicted more negative and less positive communication behaviors and a stronger decline in self-rated closeness to the partner compared to HC. Stress-induced increases in relationship insecurity were specific to women with BPD. Our results highlight the central role of emotional dysregulation in interpersonal dysfunctions of persons with BPD and the need to address individual emotion regulation strategies more explicitly in dyadic contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between five-factor model and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-fifth edition personality traits on patients with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Mahdi; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza Khodaie; Lotfi, Mozhgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash

    2015-05-01

    Despite the fact that new criteria of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5) were resulted from five-factor model (FFM), there is a small amount of studies that investigate the relations between proposed personality traits and FFM. Also, cross-cultural study in this field continuously would be needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation between the FFM and DSM-5 ASPD pathological traits. This study was a cross-sectional study design. The participants consisted of 122 individuals with ASPD that selected from prisoners (73.0%), outpatients (18.0%), and inpatients (9.0%). They were recruited from Tehran Prisoners, and Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran, since 2013-2014. The Sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders-Personality Questionnaire, NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised, and DSM-5 personality trait rating form were used to diagnosis and assessment of personality disorder. Pearson correlation has been used for data analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. The results indicate that neuroticism (N) has positive significant relationship with hostility (r = 0.33, P < 0.01), manipulativeness (r = 0.25, P < 0.01), deceitfulness (r =.23, P < 0.01), impulsivity (r = 0.20, P < 0.05), and negative relation with risk taking (r = -0.23, P < 0.01). Also, there was significant relationship between extraversion (E) with manipulativeness (r = 0.28, P < 0.01) and deceitfulness (r = 0.32, P < 0.01). Agreeableness and conscientiousness have negative significant relation with DSM-5 traits. In addition, results showed that there is positive significant relationship between FFM and DSM-5 personality traits with DSM-fourth edition-text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ASPD symptoms (P < 0.01). Except manipulativeness, deceitfulness, and

  8. The relationship between five-factor model and diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder-fifth edition personality traits on patients with antisocial personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the fact that new criteria of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD in diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5 were resulted from five-factor model (FFM, there is a small amount of studies that investigate the relations between proposed personality traits and FFM. Also, cross-cultural study in this field continuously would be needed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation between the FFM and DSM-5 ASPD pathological traits. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study design. The participants consisted of 122 individuals with ASPD that selected from prisoners (73.0%, outpatients (18.0%, and inpatients (9.0%. They were recruited from Tehran Prisoners, and Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Clinics of Razi and Taleghani Hospitals, Tehran, Iran, since 2013-2014. The Sample was selected based on judgmental sampling. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders-Personality Questionnaire, NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised, and DSM-5 personality trait rating form were used to diagnosis and assessment of personality disorder. Pearson correlation has been used for data analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 16 software. Results: The results indicate that neuroticism (N has positive significant relationship with hostility (r = 0.33, P < 0.01, manipulativeness (r = 0.25, P < 0.01, deceitfulness (r =.23, P < 0.01, impulsivity (r = 0.20, P < 0.05, and negative relation with risk taking (r = −0.23, P < 0.01. Also, there was significant relationship between extraversion (E with manipulativeness (r = 0.28, P < 0.01 and deceitfulness (r = 0.32, P < 0.01. Agreeableness and conscientiousness have negative significant relation with DSM-5 traits. In addition, results showed that there is positive significant relationship between FFM and DSM-5 personality traits with DSM-fourth edition-text revision (DSM-IV-TR ASPD symptoms (P < 0

  9. Prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and its relationship with anxiety symptoms in students of Zanjan universities (2009

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    Seyed Abolfazl Ghoreishi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD is the fourth most common mental disorder that can adversely affect the people’s life. University education is a stressful time for almost all students and many newly-accepted students are at the risk of periodical OCD. In this study, the prevalence of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and its relationship with anxiety symptoms was investigated in students of Zanjan universities. Method: The students were analyzed by a questionnaire, including the demographic information, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale.The acquired data were analyzed by SPSS software using Chi-square Test. Results: 61.2% of the students (738 were affected by Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD symptoms and 25.1% of them (302 were affected by anxiety symptoms (mild to severe. Prevalence of Clinical OCD among the students was estimated 22.2 % (268 .The results of statistical analysis showed significant correlations between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and anxiety symptoms (P=0.0005, sex (P=0.0005 , age (P=0.005 and university (P= 0.002 Conclusion: This study demonstrated a higher prevalence of OCD among the study sample compared to the similar studies performed in Iran as well as other countries

  10. The relationship of gender and gender identity to treatment adherence among individuals with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Micula-Gondek, Weronika; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bialko, Christopher

    2011-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that 46% to 48% of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are at least partially nonadherent with prescribed medication. Reports of whether male gender is a predictor of treatment nonadherence in BD have been inconsistent. The construct of gender may also be a matter of cultural orientation, and psychological gender, as a component of self-perception, may affect the experience of mental illness. Gender identity is the subjective experience of one's individuality as male or female. This cross-sectional study evaluated gender and gender identity among men and women with BD as they relate to self-reported medication treatment adherence. This secondary analysis of a larger study on treatment adherence evaluated men and women with BD being treated with mood-stabilizing medications in a community mental health clinic. Gender identity and treatment adherence were evaluated using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Tablets Routine Questionnaire, respectively. Other measures included assessing BD symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and mania symptoms using the Young Mania Rating Scale, as well as psychosocial support with the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List and locus of control with the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. Mean age of the 70 men and 70 women with type I BD was 43.1 years for adherent patients and 40.8 years for nonadherent patients. Women with BD had mean scores on the BSRI consistent with general population norms, whereas men with BD had scores suggesting lower levels of self-perceived masculinity than population norms. There were no differences between men and women on adherence; however, men with high BSRI masculinity scores had less adherence than other men in the sample (P = 0.04). Lower scores on the "powerful others" dimension of locus of control were associated with lower adherence. For women, there was no relationship between BSRI masculinity scores and adherence. Gender identity in

  11. Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Yamamoto H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Yamamoto,1 Hideto Tsuchida,1 Takashi Nakamae,1 Seiji Nishida,1 Yuki Sakai,1 Akihito Fujimori,1 Jin Narumoto,1 Yoshihisa Wada,1 Takafumi Yoshida,2 Chiaki Taga,3 Kenji Fukui11Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Kyoto Cognitive Behavior Therapy Counseling Room, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD patients exhibit a noninhibition response pattern very similar to that observed in schizotypy patients in cognitive tasks. It has been suggested that the reduced cognitive inhibition observed in both schizotypy and OCD may result in the frequent entry into awareness of unacceptable urges and intrusive thoughts. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of obsession or compulsion and schizotypy in OCD.Patients and methods: Sixty subjects (25 males and 35 females who were OCD outpatients in the University Hospital at the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine during the period 2008–2010 were enrolled in the study. Assessments of these patients were made using the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS, the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A. The Pearson correlation coefficients between Y-BOCS and SPQ scores were calculated. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess whether schizotypy predicted the severity of obsession and compulsion.Results: By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient, it was found that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was correlated with the SPQ total score. Results of the hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that SPQ total score was a significant predictor of the Y-BOCS obsession score, after accounting for control

  12. The inter-relationships between vegetarianism and eating disorders among females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Maldonado, Christine R; Lawson, Melissa A; Smith, Roma; Robinson, D Paul

    2012-08-01

    When individuals with a suspected or diagnosed eating disorder adopt a vegetarian diet, health care professionals might worry that this choice could function as a socially acceptable way to legitimize food avoidance. Yet only limited research has examined vegetarianism in relation to eating disorders. Our study objectives were to compare individuals with and without an eating disorder history and individuals at different stages of eating disorder recovery on past and current vegetarianism and motivations for and age at becoming vegetarian. Participants were females seen at some point for an eating disorder (n=93) and controls who never had an eating disorder (n=67). Recruitment and data collection for this cross-sectional study occurred in 2007-2008. χ(2) analyses and analyses of variance and covariance were used to examine the research questions. Compared with controls, individuals with an eating disorder history were considerably more likely to ever have been vegetarian (52% vs 12%; Pmotivated by weight-related reasons (42% vs 0%; Pmotives for vegetarianism). Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Written and pictorial content in magazines and their possible relationship to eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Kornélia; Túry, Ferenc

    2012-02-01

    In the current study we reviewed the literature on studies exploring the magazine reading frequency, written and pictorial contents appearing in magazines and their connection to eating disorders. Reading different fashion and fitness magazines has effect on readers through several indirect and direct factors and through trustable and false information. They affect readers' body satisfaction, self-esteem, eating habits and more generally their health behavior. Different theories have been explained to account for these associations and several other studies examined empirically the connection between the frequency of magazine reading and eating disorders, as well as the symptoms leading to eating disorders. We analyzed and summarized articles between 1975 and 2009 from online databases. We used the following sources: Science Direct (http://www.sciencedirect.com/), Springer-Verlag GmbH (http://www.springerlink.com/) and SAGE Publications Ltd (http://online.sagepub. com/). The pictorial and written magazine contents were associated with the development and maintenance of eating disorders or with symptoms that might lead to eating disorders. The publications compared to previous years featured an increased number of advertisements for unhealthy foods, for unhealthy radical diet plans and exercise programs. Furthermore the magazines contained conflicting messages about nutrition, body functions and eating disorders. Written and pictorial magazine contents, messages might increase the risk for development of eating disorders, especially in vulnerable individuals.

  14. Relationship of genetically transmitted alpha EEG traits to anxiety disorders and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoch, M.A.; Rohrbaugh, W.; Harris, C.R. [Washington School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    We tested the hypothesis that a heritable EEG trait, the low voltage alpha (LV), is associated with psychiatric disorders. Modest to moderate evidence for genetic linkage of both panic disorder and the low voltage alpha trait to the same region of chromosome 20q has recently been reported, raising the issue of whether there is a phenotypic correlation between these traits. A total of 124 subjects including 50 unrelated index subjects and 74 relatives were studied. Alpha EEG power was measured and EEG phenotypes were impressionistically classified. Subjects were psychiatrically interviewed using the SADS-L and blind-rated by RDC criteria. Alcoholics were four times more likely to be LV (including so-called borderline low voltage alpha) than were nonalcoholic, nonanxious subjects. Alcoholics with anxiety disorder are 10 times more likely to be LV. However, alcoholics without anxiety disorder were similar to nonalcoholics in alpha power. An anxiety disorder (panic disorder, phobia, or generalized anxiety) was found in 14/17 LV subjects as compared to 34/101 of the rest of the sample (P < 0.01). Support for these observations was found in the unrelated index subjects in whom no traits would be shared by familial clustering. Lower alpha power in anxiety disorders was not state-dependent, as indicated by the Spielberger Anxiety Scale. Familial covariance of alpha power was 0.25 (P < 0.01). These findings indicate there may be a shared factor underlying the transmissible low voltage alpha EEG variant and vulnerability to anxiety disorders with associated alcoholism. This factor is apparently not rare, because LV was found in approximately 10% of unrelated index subjects and 5% of subjects free of alcoholism and anxiety disorders. 43 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls. They were divided into two groups, bruxers and nonbruxers, on the basis of both validated clinical criteria and interview with each patient. A few participants were excluded on the basis of presence of systemic disorders, TMJ disorders, other oral habits, primary teeth, defective restorations and premature contacts. Following matching of two groups in regard to parent′s age and education, mother′s marital status, child support status, mother′s employment status, and socio-economical status, 25 cases and 25 controls were enlisted. A self report validated questionnaire (YSR, 11-18 yr was then filled out by both groups for the evaluation of 12 psychosocial symptoms. Results: Remarkable differences in certain psychosocial aspects were found between the two groups. Prevalence of psychosocial disorders including Thought Disorders (P < 0.005, Conduct Disorders (P < 0.05, Antisocial Disorders (P < 0.06 as identified by YSR was significantly higher in bruxers. Significant differences between the two groups also emerged in total YSR scores (P < 0.005. The results of Odds Ratio revealed that a bruxer adolescent has 16 times greater probability for psychosocial disorders than a non-bruxer one. Fischer exact test and T-test were used and Odds Ratio and Confidence Interval was estimated. Conclusion: Support to the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders has been provided.

  16. Supportive Dyadic Coping and Psychological Adaptation in Couples Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Relationship Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar; Recio, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    In couples parenting children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the partner becomes a primary source of support for addressing the additional parenting demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between supportive dyadic coping and parental adaptation, and to assess the mediating role of relationship satisfaction between them. Seventy-six couples parenting children with ASD participated. Data were gathered through self-report questionnaires and an Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model was used. Mothers' and fathers' supportive dyadic coping was related to both their own and partner's relationship satisfaction and parental adaptation. Findings also revealed the mediation role of relationship satisfaction, in the association between supportive dyadic coping and parental adaptation. The implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  17. The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Boman, Jonathan; Fleisher, William; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-03-01

    To determine how the experiences of child abuse and parental divorce are related to long-term mental health outcomes using a nationally representative adult sample after adjusting for sociodemographic variables and parental psychopathology. Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS, n=5,877; age 15-54 years; response rate 82.4%). Logistic regression models were used to determine the odds of experiencing lifetime psychiatric disorders and suicidal ideation and attempts. Parental divorce alone was associated with some psychiatric disorders after adjusting for sociodemographic variables (AOR ranging from 1.30 to 2.37), while child abuse alone was associated with psychiatric disorders (AOR ranging from 1.39 to 6.07) and suicidal ideation (AOR=2.08; 95% CI=1.57-2.77) and attempts (AOR=1.54; 95% CI=1.02-2.31) after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. However, having experienced both parental divorce and child abuse together resulted in significantly increased odds for lifetime PTSD (AOR=9.87; 95% CI=6.69-14.55), conduct disorder (AOR=4.01; 95% CI=2.92-5.51) and suicide attempts (AOR=2.74; 95% CI=1.84-4.08) compared to having experienced either parental divorce or child abuse alone. These results were attenuated when further adjusting for parental psychopathology. When the experience of parental divorce is accompanied with child abuse, the associations with some poor mental health outcomes are significantly greater compared to the impact of either parental divorce or child abuse on its own. Therefore, parental divorce is an additional childhood adversity that significantly contributes to poor mental health outcomes especially when in combination with child abuse. Parental psychopathology attenuated these relationships suggesting that it may be one possible mechanism to explain the relationships between child abuse, parental divorce, and psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts.

  18. Corticostriatal Connectivity in Antisocial Personality Disorder by MAO-A Genotype and Its Relationship to Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Dunlop, Katharine; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Downar, Jonathan

    2018-05-09

    The influence of genetic variation on resting-state neural networks represents a burgeoning line of inquiry in psychiatric research. Monoamine oxidase A, an X-linked gene, is one example of a molecular target linked to brain activity in psychiatric illness. Monoamine oxidase A genetic variants, including the high and low variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphisms, have been shown to differentially affect brain functional connectivity in healthy humans. However, it is currently unknown whether these same polymorphisms influence resting-state brain activity in clinical conditions. Given its high burden on society and strong connection to violent behavior, antisocial personality disorder is a logical condition to study, since in vivo markers of monoamine oxidase A brain enzyme are reduced in key affect-modulating regions, and striatal levels of monoamine oxidase A show a relation with the functional connectivity of this same region. We utilized monoamine oxidase A genotyping and seed-to-voxel-based functional connectivity to investigate the relationship between genotype and corticostriatal connectivity in 21 male participants with severe antisocial personality disorder and 19 male healthy controls. Dorsal striatal connectivity to the frontal pole and anterior cingulate gyrus differentiated antisocial personality disorder subjects and healthy controls by monoamine oxidase A genotype. Furthermore, the linear relationship of proactive aggression to superior ventral striatal-angular gyrus functional connectivity differed by monoamine oxidase A genotype in the antisocial personality disorder groups. These results suggest that monoamine oxidase A genotype may affect corticostriatal connectivity in antisocial personality disorder and that these functional connections may also underlie use of proactive aggression in a genotype-specific manner.

  19. Alcohol Dependence and Its Relationship With Insomnia and Other Sleep Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Chaudhary, Ninad S; Brower, Kirk J

    2016-11-01

    Sleep-related complaints are widely prevalent in those with alcohol dependence (AD). AD is associated not only with insomnia, but also with multiple sleep-related disorders as a growing body of literature has demonstrated. This article will review the various aspects of insomnia associated with AD. In addition, the association of AD with other sleep-related disorders will be briefly reviewed. The association of AD with insomnia is bidirectional in nature. The etiopathogenesis of insomnia has demonstrated multiple associations and is an active focus of research. Treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is showing promise as an optimal intervention. In addition, AD may be associated with circadian abnormalities, short sleep duration, obstructive sleep apnea, and sleep-related movement disorder. The burgeoning knowledge on insomnia associated with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder has expanded our understanding of its underlying neurobiology, clinical features, and treatment options. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Moolenaar, Ben J.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) often experience difficulty in understanding and engaging in interactive behavior with other children, which may lead to reduced daily physical activity and fitness levels. The present study evaluated the physical activity and physical fitness

  1. Relationship between motor coordination, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Higashionna

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings stress that it is essential to accurately identify motor coordination impairments and the interventions that would consider motor coordination problems related to cognitive abilities and academic achievement in Japanese children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Evaluation relationship between temporomandibular joint disorder and headache: A review literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Aghahosseini

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Bruxism and temporomandibular disorders are the two main contributing factors in initiation and perpetuation of headache. Treatment of these two phenomena would be effective in the treatment of headache.

  3. Neuroticism and common mental disorders : Meaning and utility of a complex relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Jeronimus, Bertus F; Kotov, Roman; Riese, Harriëtte; Bos, Elisabeth H; Hankin, Benjamin; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    Neuroticism's prospective association with common mental disorders (CMDs) has fueled the assumption that neuroticism is an independent etiologically informative risk factor. This vulnerability model postulates that neuroticism sets in motion processes that lead to CMDs. However, four other models

  4. The relationship between genetic risk variants with brain structure and function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Licia P; Köhler, Cristiano A; de Sousa, Rafael T

    2017-01-01

    Genetic-neuroimaging paradigms could provide insights regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Nevertheless, findings have been inconsistent across studies. A systematic review of gene-imaging studies involving individuals with BD was conducted across electronic major databases fro...

  5. Examining the relationships between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder symptoms, and writing performance in Japanese second grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Wataru; Ito, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Chikako; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Takayanagi, Nobuya; Someki, Fumio; Nakajima, Syunji; Ohtake, Satoko; Mochizuki, Naoto; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder symptoms and writing performance in Japanese second grade students from regular classrooms. The second grade students (N=873) in Japanese public elementary schools participated in this study. We examined a variety of writing tasks, such as tracing, copying, handwriting (Hiragana and Katakana), and spelling (Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji). We employed the Japanese version of the home form ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS) and the Japanese version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-J) to assess the developmental characteristics of the participating children. Seven writing performance scores were submitted to a principal component analysis with a promax rotation, which yielded three composite scores (Spelling Accuracy, Tracing and Copying Accuracy, and Handwriting Fluency). A multiple regression analysis found that inattention predicted Spelling Accuracy and Handwriting Fluency and that hyperactive-impulsive predicted Handwriting Fluency. In addition, fine motor ability predicted Tracing and Copying Accuracy. The current study offered empirical evidence suggesting that developmental characteristics such as inattention and fine motor skill are related to writing difficulties in Japanese typical developing children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Turkish university students; impact of negative affect and personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Dalbudak, Ercan; Ozen, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationship of social anxiety disorder symptoms with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while controlling the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion, anxiety and depression symptoms in a sample of Turkish university students (n=455). Participants were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated Form (EPQR-A), the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Severity of social anxiety, depression, anxiety and neuroticism were higher among those with probable ADHD, whereas extraversion score did not differ between the groups. The severity of ADHD score, particularly hyperactivity/impulsivity score, was related with the "fear or anxiety" together with low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism dimensions of personality, whereas the severity of ADHD score, both inatentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity scores, was related with "avoidence" together with low extraversion (introversion) dimension of personality. These findings suggest that probable ADHD and severity of ADHD symptoms are related with both "fear or anxiety" and "avoidance" of social anxiety, while personality dimensions of low extraversion (introversion) and high neuroticism may have an effect on this relationships among young adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The longitudinal relationship between flourishing mental health and incident mood, anxiety and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Ten Have, Margreet; Lamers, Sanne M A; de Graaf, Ron; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2017-06-01

    High levels of mental well-being might protect against the onset of mental disorders but longitudinal evidence is scarce. This study examines whether flourishing mental health predicts first-incidence and recurrent mental disorders 3 years later. Data were used from 4482 representative adults participating in the second (2010-12) and third wave (2013-15) of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2). Mental well-being was assessed with the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) at the second wave. The classification criteria of this instrument were used to classify participants as having flourishing mental health: high levels of both hedonic well-being (life-satisfaction, happiness) and eudaimonic well-being (social contribution, purpose in life, personal growth). DSM-IV mood, anxiety and substance use disorders were measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0 at all waves. Odds ratios of (first and recurrent) incident disorders were estimated, using logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders. Flourishing reduced the risk of incident mood disorders by 28% and of anxiety disorders by 53%, but did not significantly predicted substance use disorders. A similar pattern of associations was found for either high hedonic or high eudaimonic well-being. Significant results were found for substance use disorders when life-events and social support were removed as covariates. This study underscores the rationale of promoting mental well-being as a public mental health strategy to prevent mental illness. In wealthy European nations it seems fruitful to measure and pursuit a flourishing life rather than merely high levels of hedonic well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation relationship between temporomandibular joint disorder and headache: A review literature

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Aghahosseini; Nafiseh Sheykhbahaei

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Headache is among the most common complaints in patients suffering from temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). Thus, it seems that evaluation of patients with headache in terms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders is necessary. In people with TMD, parafunctional activities play an important etiologic role. Considering the high prevalence of bruxism and TMDs in patients with headache, assessment the accuracy and severity of this association can play a key role in d...

  9. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette Syndrome: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição do Rosário

    Full Text Available The authors describe the main characteristics of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, the fourth most frequent psychiatric disease, and Tourette Syndrome. Considered completely separate disorders, there is growing scientific evidence that there is a connection between them. The authors present clinical, genetic and neuroimaging data reinforcing this idea, and call attention to the importance of research in this area, as they believe that the definition of more homogenous subgroups will facilitate the identification of biological markers and predictors of treatment response.

  10. Relationships of dissociative disorders and personality traits in opium addicts on methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarinezhad, Alireza; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah; Shahriari, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major public health problem. Some believe that when dissociation fails to defend against emotional, physical, or sexual trauma, the person will find relief from unpleasant thoughts and emotions in opium use. On the other hand, personality disorders are considered as important predictors of treatment outcomes in drug abusers. Due to lack of adequate research in this regard, we evaluated dissociative disorders and personality traits of opium addicts on methadone treatment. This cross-sectional analytic study included 111 non-psychotic subjects on methadone treatment (case group) and 69 non-addicts (control group). After recording demographic characteristics, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Millon Multiaxial Inventory III were applied to assess dissociative symptoms and clinical personality patterns of all participants. Dissociative symptoms were significantly more common in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.044). While hysterionic personality disorder was more frequent in the control group (P = 0.008), sadistic, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders were significantly more common in the case group (P = 0.008, 0.002, and 0.023, respectively). We found relations between history of drug dependence, dissociative symptoms, and personality disorders. Therefore, the mentioned disorders need to be kept in mind while planning addiction treatment modalities and identifying high risk groups.

  11. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayoun, E; Sima, F; Naser, V; Anahita, D

    2008-01-01

    Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls). They were divided into two groups, bruxers and nonbruxers, on the basis of both validated clinical criteria and interview with each patient. A few participants were excluded on the basis of presence of systemic disorders, TMJ disorders, other oral habits, primary teeth, defective restorations and premature contacts. Following matching of two groups in regard to parent's age and education, mother's marital status, child support status, mother's employment status, and socio-economical status, 25 cases and 25 controls were enlisted. A self report validated questionnaire (YSR, 11-18 yr) was then filled out by both groups for the evaluation of 12 psychosocial symptoms. Remarkable differences in certain psychosocial aspects were found between the two groups. Prevalence of psychosocial disorders including Thought Disorders (P bruxism and psychosocial disorders has been provided.

  12. A preliminary investigation of the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and eating disorder symptoms among men in residential substance use treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott E; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-01-01

    The comorbidity between eating disorders (EDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is of particular concern given the high rates of mortality, relapse and poor treatment outcomes associated with both disorders. As a result, there has been a growing impetus within the field to elucidate factors that might influence and aid treatment for this comorbidity. One such factor is dispositional mindfulness, as past literature has demonstrated a significant relationship between mindfulness and both EDs and SUDs. However, we are unaware of any research that has examined the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and ED symptoms in a sample of men in residential treatment for SUDs. Medical records from 152 men were included in the current study. Alcohol and drug use and problems, ED symptoms, and dispositional mindfulness were assessed with self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that dispositional mindfulness was inversely related to ED symptoms after controlling for alcohol use, drug use, and age. Although results are preliminary and continued research in this area is needed, our findings suggest that there may be potential usefulness in targeting and enhancing mindfulness among patients in residential treatment for SUDs with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms (e.g., EDs).

  13. Relationships between Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Dissociative Symptoms, and Lifetime Heroin Use among Individuals Who Abuse Substances in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E. Gail; Diaz, Naelys; Peluso, Paul R.; Mullaney, Donald; Weiner, Michael; McIlveen, John W.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, dissociation, and lifetime heroin use among inpatient clients who abused substances. Results indicate important implications for practice and directions for future research. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  14. Investigating the mediating role of attachment styles in explaining the relationship between temperament, character dimensions and somatization disorders among female teachers in Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Karami

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Temperament and character dimensions of personality result in somatization disorder when the insecure internal models which are set according to the framework of mother-neonate attachment relationships had been formed.

  15. Relationships Between Functional Outcomes and Symptomatic Improvement in Atomoxetine-Treated Adult Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Post Hoc Analysis of an Integrated Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyckere, K. De; Bushe, C.; Bartel, C.; Berggren, L.; Kan, C.C.; Dittmann, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atomoxetine treatment is associated with improvements in functional outcomes in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although relationships between improvements in these outcomes and reductions in ADHD symptoms have not been comprehensively investigated in

  16. The Relationship between Sleep Disorders and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Results from the NHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantus, Richard J; Packiam, Vignesh T; Wang, Chi H; Erickson, Bradley A; Helfand, Brian T

    2018-07-01

    It is well established that sleep disorders are associated with the nocturia prevalence in men. While previous literature supports that patients with sleep disorders are at increased risk for nocturia, the risk of daytime lower urinary tract symptoms has not been well established. We examined the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) database between 2006 and 2008. Men older than 40 years who completed the sleep, prostate and kidney questionnaires were included in study. The presence of lower urinary tract symptoms was defined as 2 or more symptoms, including hesitancy, incomplete emptying and/or nocturia. Multivariable models using logistic regression were constructed to compare groups of men with and without a sleep disorder. Of the 3,071 men who completed all survey questions 270 (8.8%) reported a sleep disorder. Men with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher body mass index (30.8 vs 27.4 kg/m 2 ), a greater likelihood of reporting diabetes (20.3% vs 10.2%) and more comorbidities (72.6% vs 45.2%, all p urinary tract symptoms (OR 1.12) and daytime lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 1.27, all p urinary tract symptoms independent of body mass index, diabetes and an increased number of comorbidities. Based on the current data clinicians should consider assessing lower urinary tract symptoms in men with a sleep disorder since intervention could improve lower urinary tract symptoms and sleep disorders as well as daytime urinary symptoms. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A meta-analysis of the relationships between body checking, body image avoidance, body image dissatisfaction, mood, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D Catherine; White, Emily K; Srinivasan, Vamshek J

    2018-04-16

    Body checking (BC) and body image avoidance (BIA) have been proposed as etiological and maintaining mechanisms for eating disorder (ED) pathology. To date, no comprehensive review summarizes the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, or mood/affect. Meta-analyses examined the relationships of BC and BIA with ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, and mood/affect. Gender, publication status, and presence or absence of ED diagnoses were examined as potential moderators. Results showed strong relationships between BC and ED pathology (ρ = 0.588) and BC and body image dissatisfaction (ρ = 0.631) and a moderate relationship between BC and mood/affect (ρ = 0.385). Similarly, results showed strong relationships between BIA and ED pathology (ρ = 0.553) and BIA and body image dissatisfaction (ρ = 0.543) and a moderate relationship between BIA and mood/affect (ρ = 0.392). Overall, limited evidence supported publication bias; however, publication bias may exist in the relationship between BIA and body image dissatisfaction in the literature. Subgroup moderator analyses suggested that gender moderates the strength of the relationships between BC and ED pathology, body image dissatisfaction, and mood/affect and between BIA and body image dissatisfaction. Results are consistent with cognitive-behavioral models of ED pathology that suggest BC and BIA are behavioral expressions of overvaluation of weight and shape. Notably, more published research has investigated BC than BIA. Future studies, incorporating methods such as meta-analytic structural equation modeling, should examine these variables to further test cognitive-behavioral models of ED development and maintenance. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Relationship of childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder in adolescence: the mediating role of self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-hua; Yang, Lin-sheng; Hao, Jia-hu; Huang, Fen; Zhang, Xiu-jun; Sun, Ye-huan

    2012-01-01

    To find out whether the effects of childhood physical abuse on internet addiction disorder in adolescence could be mediated by self-esteem. 3798 high school students selected from 76 classes in Grade One and Grade Two, were asked to fill in the anonymous questionnaire, which including the demographic characteristics of students, Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Childhood physical abuse could directly predict less self-esteem and internet addiction disorder (r = -0.108, P self-esteem (a = -0.703, standardized b = -0.104, z = 5.052, P Self-esteem had mediated 22.5% of the childhood physical abuse cases on their internet addiction disorders during the period of adolescence. Self-esteem could partially mediate the relationship between childhood physical abuse and internet addiction disorder. The mediating roles of self-esteem suggested that salient leverage points could make a change through empowerment training, self-esteem group training on self-esteem enhancement in the stage of adolescence.

  19. Evaluation of the relationship between cognitive functioning in patients with borderline personality disorder and their general functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiołek, Anna; Gierus, Jacek; Koweszko, Tytus; Szulc, Agata

    2018-02-28

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between cognitive functioning in people with borderline personality disorder and their overall functioning level, as well as psychopathology intensification specific for this type of disorders. 64 patients aged 18-55 (M = 30.09) with borderline personality disorder (emotionally unstable personality - borderline type in the ICD-10) were examined. The study used: demographic-descriptive questionnaire, SCID II, Borderline Symptom Checlist-23, and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). For cognitive assessment, The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test, TMTA, TMTB, verbal fluency test, Stroop test and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) were used. The average GAF score in the sample was M =43.65. Significant differences between the comorbidity group and non-comorbidity group were observed with respect to the GAF scores (Mann-Whitney U = 300.500, p = 0.008) as well as a number of significant (p borderline personality disorder. The obtained data seem to suggest that the cognitive functions affect the overall functioning only in patients with psychiatric co-morbidity. In people without psychiatric co-morbidity there is a relationship of cognitive functions only with certain aspects of psychopathology specific to BPD.

  20. Relationship between maternal depression as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Porto Barbosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adult’s (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offspring’s adult life.

  1. The relationship of individual psychological and individual-typological characteristics in individuals with personality disorders, committed socially dangerous acts

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    Dubinsky A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.

  2. The Relationship between Waiting Times and "Adherence" to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 98 Guideline in Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnostic Services in Scotland

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    McKenzie, Karen; Forsyth, Kirsty; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Rutherford, Marion; Murray, Aja; Irvine, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 98 guidelines on the assessment and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were adhered to in child autism spectrum disorder diagnostic services in Scotland and whether there was a significant relationship between routine practice which more…

  3. Treatment Differences in the Therapeutic Relationship and Introject during a 2-Year Randomized Controlled Trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy versus Nonbehavioral Psychotherapy Experts for Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedics, Jamie D.; Atkins, David C.; Comtois, Katherine A.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study explored the role of the therapeutic relationship and introject during the course of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Method: Women meeting "DSM-IV" criteria for borderline personality disorder (N = 101) were randomized to receive DBT or community…

  4. Lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder in Turkish alcohol-dependent inpatients: relationship with depression, anxiety and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Can, Suat; Evren, Bilge; Saatcioglu, Omer; Cakmak, Duran

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in Turkish male alcohol-dependent inpatients, and to investigate the relationship of lifetime PTSD diagnosis with anxiety, depression, hopelessness, erectile dysfunction and psychosocial problems related with alcohol dependency. Eighty-two male inpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence and 48 subjects without substance use disorder as a control group were included in the study. Subjects were applied the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Rate of lifetime PTSD diagnosis was found to be 26.8% among alcohol-dependent inpatients. The mean age of patients with lifetime PTSD was lower than in patients without this diagnosis, while there were no significant differences between these two groups in terms of age of first alcohol use, lifetime major depression, current depression, presence and severity of erectile dysfunction. Mean scores of HAM-D, HAM-A, BHS and MAST in the group with lifetime PTSD were significantly higher than the group without this diagnosis. There was a positive relationship between lifetime PTSD diagnosis and depression, anxiety, hopelessness and severity of psychosocial problems related to alcohol dependency, while there was no relationship between lifetime PTSD comorbidity and erectile dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients.

  5. Role of depression severity and impulsivity in the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-yu; Jiang, Neng-zhi; Cheung, Eric F C; Sun, Hong-wei; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-09-01

    Hopelessness, depression and impulsivity all contribute to the development of suicidal ideation in patients with major depressive disorder, but the pathway of these factors to suicidal ideation is not clear. This study examined the meditating effect of depression severity on the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation and explored how this mediating effect was moderated by impulsivity. A total of 162 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) completed a structured clinical diagnostic interview and a battery of scales assessing depression severity, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and impulsivity. Regression analyses with bootstrapping methods were used to examine the mediating and moderating effects of various risk factors. Mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect effect of hopelessness on suicidal ideation, and the effect was fully mediated through depression severity. On moderation analysis, the moderating effects of the relationship between depression severity and suicidal ideation were significant in both the medium and high impulsivity groups. The present study was limited by the assessment of trait impulsivity and observer-rated depression severity, which might not fully reflect momentary impulsivity and feeling of depression when suicidal ideation occurs. Depression severity plays a mediator role in the relationship between hopelessness and suicidal ideation and this mechanism is contingent on the levels of impulsivity. MDD patients with higher impulsivity appear to be more likely to have suicidal ideations even when they are less depressed. These findings highlight the importance of impulsivity assessment and alleviation of depressive symptoms to prevent suicidality in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between Risk Behavior for Eating Disorders and Dental Caries and Dental Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Lorenna Mendes Temóteo; Fernandes, Liege Helena Freitas; Aragão, Amanda Silva; Aguiar, Yêska Paola Costa; Auad, Sheyla Márcia; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Cavalcanti, Sérgio D'Ávila Lins Bezerra; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between risk behavior for eating disorders (EDs) and dental erosion and caries. A controlled cross-sectional study was conducted in Brazil, involving 850 randomly selected female adolescents. After evaluating risk behavior for eating disorders through the Bulimic Investigatory Test of Edinburgh, 12 adolescents were identified with severe risk behavior for EDs and matched to 48 adolescents without such risk. Dental examinations, anthropometric measurements, and eating habits and oral hygiene were performed. Adolescents with high severity eating disorder condition were not more likely to show dental caries ( p = 0.329; OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 0.35-13.72) or dental erosion ( p = 0.590; OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 0.56-9.70). Adolescents with high body mass index (BMI) were five times more likely to have high severity eating disorder condition ( p = 0.031; OR = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.61-23.07). Therefore, high severity risk behavior for EDs was not significantly associated with dental caries and dental erosion. However, high BMI was a risk factor for developing eating disorders and should be an alert for individuals with this condition.

  8. Clinical characteristics of self-mutilating behavior in Turkish male subjects with antisocial personality disorder: relationship to psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay Ates, M; Algul, Ayhan; Semiz, Umit B; Gecici, Omer; Basoglu, Cengiz; Ebrinc, Servet; Cetin, Mesut

    2011-05-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the characteristics of self-mutilation (SM) and examine the relationship between SM and psychopathy in male subjects with antisocial personality disorder (APD). APD diagnosis was established by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Axis II Disorders. Subjects (N = 116) were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and a semi-structured self-mutilation questionnaire form. In males with APD, the percentages of psychopathy and SM were 48.3% (N =56) and 96.6% (N = 112), respectively. There were positive correlations between severity of psychopathy and severity, number, and frequency of SM. Considerably high rates of SM and psychopathy were found in Turkish males with APD. The features of SM were associated with comorbidity of psychopathy. These results showed the importance of exploring the self-injurious behavior and psychopathy when diagnosed with APD.

  9. Imaging impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease and their relationship to addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nicola J; Strafella, Antonio P

    2013-04-01

    Established substance addictions and impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as pathological gambling share similar underlying neurobiology, and recent data extends these commonalities to the risk factors that increase an individuals' susceptibility to develop such behaviours. In Parkinson's disease (PD), impulse control disorders (ICDs) are increasingly recognised to develop after patients begin dopamine (DA) restoration therapy, in particular DA agonists. In both the PD and non-PD population, more impulsive individuals are at increased risk for impulse control disorders. Here, we review the neuroimaging data confirming the connection between addiction and ICDs, and revealing how DA agonists might cause specific alterations of basal ganglia and cortical function that vary as a function of an individuals' propensity for impulsivity.

  10. The Relationship between Autism Spectrum Disorder and Melatonin during Fetal Development

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    Yunho Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment. Melatonin synthesis is frequently impaired in patients with ASD. The hormone reduces oxidative stress, which is harmful to the central nervous system. Therefore, the neuroprotective and circadian entraining roles of melatonin may reduce the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD.

  11. Parent Support of Preschool Peer Relationships in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; St. John, Tanya; Dager, Stephen R.; Rodda, Amy; Botteron, Kelly; Hazlett, Heather; Schultz, Robert T.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph; Guralnick, Michael J.; Chappell, J. C.; Dager, S.; Shaw, D; McKinstry, R.; Constantino, J.; Pruett, J.; Schultz, R.; Paterson, S.; Evans, A. C.; Collins, D. L.; Pike, G. B.; Kostopolous, P.; Das, S.; Gerig, G.; Styner, M.; Gu, H.; Sullivan, P.; Wright, G.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD are at high-risk (HR) for ASD and related challenges, but little is known about their emerging peer competence and friendships. Parents are the main providers of peer-relationship opportunities during preschool. Understanding parental challenges supporting early peer relationships is needed for optimal…

  12. Cortical Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamate in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Their Relationships to Self-Reported Sleep Quality

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    Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Mon, Anderson; Metzler, Thomas; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To test if posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with low brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels and if reduced GABA is mediated by poor sleep quality. Design: Laboratory study using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) and behavioral testing. Setting: VA Medical Center Research Service, Psychiatry and Radiology. Patients or Participants: Twenty-seven patients with PTSD (PTSD+) and 18 trauma-exposed controls without PTSD (PTSD−), recruited from United States Army reservists, Army National Guard, and mental health clinics. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: 1H MRS at 4 Tesla yielded spectra from three cortical brain regions. In parieto-occipital and temporal cortices, PTSD+ had lower GABA concentrations than PTSD−. As expected, PTSD+ had higher depressive and anxiety symptom scores and a higher Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score. Higher ISI correlated with lower GABA and higher glutamate levels in parieto-occipital cortex and tended to correlate with lower GABA in the anterior cingulate. The relationship between parieto-occipital GABA and PTSD diagnosis was fully mediated through insomnia severity. Lower N-acetylaspartate and glutamate concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex correlated with higher arousal scores, whereas depressive and anxiety symptoms did generally not influence metabolite concentrations. Conclusions: Low brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is consistent with most findings in panic and social anxiety disorders. Low GABA associated with poor sleep quality is consistent with the hyperarousal theory of both primary insomnia and PTSD. Our data demonstrate that poor sleep quality mediates low parieto-occipital GABA in PTSD. The findings have implications for PTSD treatment approaches. Citation: Meyerhoff DJ, Mon A, Metzler T, Neylan TC. Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate in posttraumatic stress disorder and

  13. Relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: mediating role of self-esteem and depression.

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    Brechan, Inge; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  14. Examining the Relationship between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating. PMID:23751246

  15. Examining the relationship between food thought suppression and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-10-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associated with binge eating frequency or body mass index but was significantly associated with higher current levels of eating disorder psychopathology and variables pertaining to obesity, dieting, and binge eating. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A relationship between REM sleep measures and the duration of posttraumatic stress disorder in a young adult urban minority population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas A; Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Wilson, Bryonna; Hall Brown, Tyish S

    2014-08-01

    To determine relationships of polysomnographic (PSG) measures with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a young adult, urban African American population. Cross-sectional, clinical and laboratory evaluation. Community recruitment, evaluation in the clinical research unit of an urban University hospital. Participants (n = 145) were Black, 59.3% female, with a mean age of 23.1 y (SD = 4.8). One hundred twenty-one participants (83.4%) met criteria for trauma exposure, the most common being nonsexual violence. Thirty-nine participants (26.9%) met full (n = 19) or subthreshold criteria (n = 20) for current PTSD, 41 (28.3%) had met lifetime PTSD criteria and were recovered, and 65 (45%) were negative for PTSD. Evaluations included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and 2 consecutive nights of overnight PSG. Analysis of variance did not reveal differences in measures of sleep duration and maintenance, percentage of sleep stages, and the latency to and duration of uninterrupted segments of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep by study group. There were significant relationships between the duration of PTSD and REM sleep percentage (r = 0.53, P = 0.001), REM segment length (r = 0.43, P = 0.006), and REM sleep latency (r = -0.34, P sleep with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relatively proximate to trauma exposure and nondisrupted or increased REM sleep with chronic PTSD. Mellman TA, Kobayashi I, Lavela J, Wilson B, Hall Brown TS. A relationship between REM sleep measures and the duration of posttraumatic stress disorder in a young adult urban minority population.

  17. Trauma-Related Guilt Mediates the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Suicidal Ideation in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Jessica C; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E

    2017-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and trauma-related guilt are risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI) in veterans. Components of trauma-related guilt were examined as serial mediators of the relationship between PTSD and SI. In a sample of 53 OEF/OIF/OND combat veterans, PTSD had an indirect effect on SI through a serial mediation chain of guilt cognitions, distress, and global guilt, suggesting that trauma-related guilt via cognitions, distress, and global guilt is a pathway from PTSD to SI. Attention should be given to assessing and addressing trauma-related guilt in veterans experiencing PTSD to prevent SI. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  18. Gene-Environment Interplay between Parent-Child Relationship Problems and Externalizing Disorders in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samek, Diana R.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that genetic risk for externalizing (EXT) disorders is greater in the context of adverse family environments during adolescence, but it is unclear whether these effects are long-lasting. The current study evaluated developmental changes in gene-environment interplay in the concurrent and prospective associations between parent-child relationship problems and EXT at ages 18 and 25. Method The sample included 1,382 twin pairs (48% male) from the Minnesota Twin Family Study, participating in assessments at ages 18 (M = 17.8 years, SD = 0.69) and 25 (M = 25.0 years, SD = 0.90). Perceptions of parent-child relationship problems were assessed using questionnaires. Structured interviews were used to assess symptoms of adult antisocial behavior and nicotine, alcohol, and illicit drug dependence. Results We detected a gene-environment interaction at age 18, such that the genetic influence on EXT was greater in the context of more parent-child relationship problems. This moderation effect was not present at age 25, nor did parent-relationship problems at age 18 moderate genetic influence on EXT at age 25. Rather, common genetic influences accounted for this longitudinal association. Conclusions Gene-environment interaction evident in the relationship between adolescent parent-child relationship problems and EXT is both proximal and developmentally limited. Common genetic influence, rather than a gene-environment interaction, accounts for the long-term association between parent-child relationship problems at age 18 and EXT at age 25. These results are consistent with a relatively pervasive importance of gene-environmental correlation in the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood. PMID:25066478

  19. Dissociation, shame, complex PTSD, child maltreatment and intimate relationship self-concept in dissociative disorder, chronic PTSD and mixed psychiatric groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; McGurrin, Patrick; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Whilst a growing body of research has examined dissociation and other psychiatric symptoms in severe dissociative disorders (DDs), there has been no systematic examination of shame and sense of self in relationships in DDs. Chronic child abuse often associated with severe DDs, like dissociative identity disorder, is likely to heighten shame and relationship concerns. This study investigated complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline and Schneiderian symptoms, dissociation, shame, child abuse, and various markers of self in relationships (e.g., relationship esteem, relationship depression, fear of relationships). Participants were assessed via clinical interview with psychometrically sound questionnaires. They fell into three diagnostic groups, dissociative disorder (n=39; primarily dissociative identity disorder), chronic PTSD (Chr-PTSD; n=13) or mixed psychiatric presentations (MP; n=21; primarily mood and anxiety disorders). All participants had a history of child abuse and/or neglect, and the groups did not differ on age and gender. The DD group was higher on nearly all measured variables than the MP group, and had more severe dissociative, borderline and Schneiderian symptoms than the Chr-PTSD sample. Shame and complex PTSD symptoms fell marginally short of predicting reductions in relationship esteem, pathological dissociative symptoms predicted increased relationship depression, and complex PTSD symptoms predicted fear of relationships. The representativeness of the samples was unknown. Severe psychiatric symptoms differentiate DDs from chronic PTSD, while dissociation and shame have a meaningful impact on specific markers of relationship functioning in psychiatric patients with a history of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A UK population-based study of the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, C.; Vet, R. de; Moran, P.; Hatch, S.L.; Dean, K.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of victimisation in a UK population-based sample and to investigate the association between mental disorder and victimisation in both cross-sectional and prospective manner, whilst adjusting for potential confounds. METHODS: Data from the National Child

  1. Strengths Classification of Social Relationships among Cybermothers Raising Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Swanke, Jayme; Doktor, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and their families are different. Parents often surf the Internet in search of supportive solutions to the unique challenges they face. One source of insight for parents raising children with ASD comes from blog writers and the parents who surf the net to read their blogs, or cyberparents. The study…

  2. The Relationship between Body Dysmorphic Disorder Behaviors and the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tracy K.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Menard, William; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 200 individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we utilized the interpersonal-psychological theory for suicide as a framework to examine BDD behaviors that might be associated with suicide risk, insofar as they might increase the acquired capability for suicide. We predicted that physically painful BDD behaviors…

  3. Personality Disorder Traits During Adolescence and Relationships with Family Members During the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study, a prospective longitudinal investigation, were used to examine the association between adolescent personality disorder (PD) traits and conflict with family members during the transition to adulthood. PD traits at mean age 16 years were associated with elevated contact and conflict with…

  4. Relationship of Prior Antidepressant Exposure to Long-Term Prospective Outcome in Bipolar I Disorder Outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Rowe, Mike; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Goodwin, Frederick K.

    Objective:The long-term impact of prior antidepressant exposure on the subsequent course of bipolar illness remains controversial. Method: 139 outpatients (mean age, 42 years) with bipolar I disorder diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria had a detailed retrospective examination of their prior course of

  5. The Relationship between Parenting Stress and Behavior Problems of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; Reed, Phil

    2009-01-01

    Two 9- to 10-month-Iong studies (N = 137) examined the interaction between parenting stress and behavior problems in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). Study 1 focused on very young children, and Study 2 employed a wider range of child ages; both studies assessed these factors at 2 points in time. The researchers noted a strong…

  6. Evaluation of Relationship between Schemas and Panic Disorder through a Case Treated with Schema Therapy

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    Esra Yancar Demir

    2014-08-01

    Discussion: Early maladaptive schemas and inadaptive ways of behaviors that has been developed by patients to handle these schemas may underly the axis I disorder symptoms such as anxiety, depression, drug abuse and psychosomatic disorders. As we look have a look at our patient, it can be said that her seperation with parents before elementary school may have led to her schemas of desertion and distrust and also teacher being over guarding at the levels of harming sovereignty to compensate the absence of the parents forms the basis of schemas of dependence / incompatence, being harmed and weakness against ilnesses. These schemas may be the reason of the patient's inability to handle certain life problems that may be triggering her panic attack symptoms. Schema therapy led to awareness of the patient about her schemas. Patient who had been thought of more functional ways coping instead of inadaptive ways was free of her panic attack symptoms which were resistant to medical treatment. The schema therapy proceess that has been going on with our patient is a good example for schema therapy that was originally developed for treatment for axis II disorders may also be effective for axis 1 disorders. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 109-115

  7. The Relationship between Clinical Presentation and Unusual Sensory Interests in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachor, Ditza A.; Ben-Itzchak, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Unusual responses to sensory stimuli have been described in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).The study examined the frequencies of "unusual sensory interests" and "negative sensory responses" and their relation to functioning in a large ASD population (n = 679). Having "unusual sensory interests" was reported in 70.4%…

  8. The Relationship between Binge Eating Disorder and Suicidality: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Conti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We carried out a systematic review analyzing the relation between binge eating disorder (BED, a recent addition to the eating disorders in DSM-5, and suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation or attempted and/or committed suicide by synthesizing the relevant studies' qualitative data.Methods: We conducted, according to PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search of the literature on PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Search terms were “binge eating disorder” combined with the “AND” Boolean operator and “suicid*.”Results: The initial search identified 4,014 records, of which 17 research reports met the predefined inclusion criteria and were analyzed. BED was found to be significantly associated with a marked increase in suicidal behaviors and suicidal ideation (SI. The presence and severity of BED were found to be relevant predictive factors for suicidality, notably in association with mood disorders and specific psychological features, while a high body mass index (BMI did not always affect suicidality. BED has usually been associated with suicide risk, particularly when occurring with another psychiatric disorder and/or in an adolescent population.Conclusion: Pursuant to these findings, it is necessary to consider both dysfunctional eating behavior and related psychopathological factors that may induce SI and suicidal behavior in BED, aiming to identify patients and subgroups of patients needing greater clinical psychological attention to most effectively prevent and treat suicidality.

  9. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and Their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic…

  10. The Relationship between Family Functioning and Behavior Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Darryn; Moran, Erin; Orlich, Felice; Hall, Trevor A.; Kovacs, Erica A.; Delahaye, Jennifer; Clemons, Traci E.; Kuhlthau, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that families of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for increased stress and other problems, little is known about what child characteristics may mediate that risk. To address the impact of child behavior problems on family health, we examined data collected from 136 families raising children with…

  11. Presence of eating disorders and its relationship to anxiety and depression in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Amanda Maihara Dos; Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Santos, Niraldo Oliveira Dos; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; de Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira

    2017-08-01

    women who have inadequate nutrient intake are more likely to develop a risky pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of eating disorders and its association with anxiety and depression symptomatology in high-risk pregnancies. this is a cross-sectional and prospective study conducted at the tertiary university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. 913 pregnant women waiting for the Obstetrics' outpatient appointment were invited to participate in the study on their 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Structured interviews were carried out and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were applied. prevalence of eating disorder (ED) during pregnancy was 7.6% (n=69) (95% CI: 5.84% -9.28%), 0.1% (n=1) for anorexia nervosa; 0.7% (n=6) for bulimia nervosa; 1.1% (n=10) for binge eating disorder, and 5.7% (n=52) for pica. A statistically significant difference was found between the anxiety (pdepressive symptoms (pdepression symptoms during pregnancy highlights the need for specialist care for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Given the importance of proper nutrition during pregnancy, both with regard to maternal health and fetal development, it is necessary to have specific predetermined evaluation protocols implemented by health care professionals for the diagnosis of ED during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between personality disorder traits and reactive versus proactive motivation for aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cima, M.; Lemmens, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a strong link between personality disorders (PDs) and aggression. This is reflected in high prevalence rates of PD diagnoses in forensic samples, and in several diagnostic criteria of PDs directly referring to elevated levels of aggression. Aggression can stem from two distinct types of

  13. The relationship between generalized anxiety disorder, depression and mortality in old age.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, T.J.; Schoevers, R.A.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Jonker, C.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    after adjustment for the different variables. Conclusions In elderly persons depression increases the risk of death in men. Neither generalized anxiety nor mixed anxiety-depression are associated with excess mortality. Generalized anxiety disorder may even predict less mortality in depressive

  14. The Relationship Between Gabapentin and Pregabalin and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Burned Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    nor the beta - blocker propanolol affected subsequent PTSD development compared with pla- cebo.18 In an animal study, pregabalin was found to have...treatments for trigeminal neu- ralgia, postherpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy, migraine, bipolar disorder, neuropathic pain, and anxiety .19,28...who have suffered from severe burns, which require numerous debridements, excisions, grafts, and other painful, anxiety -generating pro- cedures

  15. Relationship Status among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Brian H.; Kalb, Luther G.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite speculation about an 80% divorce rate among parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), very little empirical and no epidemiological research has addressed the issue of separation and divorce among this population. Data for this study was taken from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based,…

  16. Relationship between Subtypes of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Sleep Disturbance in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Rachel J.; Shui, Amy; Malow, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of two types of restricted and repetitive behaviors, repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS), with sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 532 children (aged 2-17) who participated in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network research registry.…

  17. Musculoskeletal disorders among preschool teachers: analyzing the relationships among relational demands, work meaning, and intention to leave the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, Daniela; Viotti, Sara; Sottimano, Ilaria; Cascio, Vincenza; Guidetti, Gloria

    2018-05-22

    Based on the conservation of resource (COR) theory by Hobfoll, the aim of the present study was to test whether the relationships among relational demands, work meaning, and intention to leave vary as a function of the presence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The study was cross-sectional and non-randomized. Analyses were carried out on a dataset consisting of 429 preschool teachers, who filled out a self-report questionnaire. Of them, 238 reported a MSD diagnosis and 191 were free form MSDs. As expected, among those who reported MSDs, relational demands were significantly associated to intention to leave, and this relationship was mediated by work meaning; moreover, among those free from MSDs, no significant paths among the three variables were found. In general, results showed that suffering from MSDs impairs workers' ability to face to relational demands, thus activating a spiral that encompasses diminished work meaning and intention to leave. Practical implications of results will be discussed in the paper.

  18. Multiple comorbidities of 21 psychological disorders and relationships with psychosocial variables: a study of the online assessment and diagnostic system within a web-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asadi, Ali M; Klein, Britt; Meyer, Denny

    2015-02-26

    While research in the area of e-mental health has received considerable attention over the last decade, there are still many areas that have not been addressed. One such area is the comorbidity of psychological disorders in a Web-based sample using online assessment and diagnostic tools, and the relationships between comorbidities and psychosocial variables. We aimed to identify comorbidities of psychological disorders of an online sample using an online diagnostic tool. Based on diagnoses made by an automated online assessment and diagnostic system administered to a large group of online participants, multiple comorbidities (co-occurrences) of 21 psychological disorders for males and females were identified. We examined the relationships between dyadic comorbidities of anxiety and depressive disorders and the psychosocial variables sex, age, suicidal ideation, social support, and quality of life. An online complex algorithm based on the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision, was used to assign primary and secondary diagnoses of 21 psychological disorders to 12,665 online participants. The frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders for males and females were calculated for all disorders. A series of hierarchical loglinear analyses were performed to examine the relationships between the dyadic comorbidities of depression and various anxiety disorders and the variables suicidal ideation, social support, quality of life, sex, and age. A 21-by-21 frequency of co-occurrences of psychological disorders matrix revealed the presence of multiple significant dyadic comorbidities for males and females. Also, for those with some of the dyadic depression and the anxiety disorders, the odds for having suicidal ideation, reporting inadequate social support, and poorer quality of life increased for those with two-disorder comorbidity than for those with only one of the same two disorders. Comorbidities of

  19. Improving Therapeutic Relationships: Joint Crisis Planning for Individuals With Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Simone; Lester, Helen; Rose, Diana; Birchwood, Max; Marshall, Max; Waheed, Waquas; Henderson, R Claire; Szmukler, George; Thornicroft, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Outcomes for individuals with psychosis remain far from acceptable. Recently, prominent psychiatrists have called for an improved understanding of the impact of social contexts, and how social contexts might influence the development and maintenance of mental health problems. A key social context for individuals with psychosis is the therapeutic relationship. As part of a trial of joint crisis planning in England, this qualitative study aimed to determine the mechanism through which joint crisis planning might affect the therapeutic relationship. Results suggest that routine processes in mental health care are affected by policy and organizational requirements for risk mitigation-aspects that undermine person-centered approaches. In contrast, strong therapeutic relationships are characterized by individualized care and reliable and respectful treatment. The Joint Crisis Plan intervention partially succeeded in reducing contextual influences on routine role enactments, facilitating the demonstration of respect and improving the therapeutic relationship. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Assessing the Relationship between Weight–Controlling Behaviors and Eating Attitude Disorders with Dietary Intake in Female Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengameh Khezri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescents pay more attention to their appearance and body.Irregular nutritional patterns, eating certain types of food, and consuming more protein-containing food are more common in this age group. Considering the importance of this issue and lack of adequate studies in Iran, especially in Fars province, we aimed to assess the relationship between weight-controlling attitudes and eating disorders with dietary intake in female adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 600 female students aged 14-17 years from the four educational districts of Shiraz, southern Iran, during 2011-2012 using the stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using three questionnaires as follows: demographic data questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 to assess eating attitude disorders in students, and the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 13 and the NUT 4 software. Results: Six (1% EAT-26 questionnaire were omitted from analysis for being incomplete. Also, 556, 446, and 491 questionnaires were evaluated in meat, bread, and fat groups, respectively; and the rest were omitted because of not being complete. The mean±SD age of the students was 15.8±0.9 years. According to the EAT-26, we found that 80.1% of the students were at risk of eating attitude disorders (CI=95%, 76.9-83.3. By comparing the results of the FFQ and the EAT-26 and weight controlling behaviors, we found that consumption of meat and fat was significantly higher in students with eating attitude disorder (P=0.027 and P=0.003 respectively. Bread intake was significantly higher in the groups with no disorder (P=0.08. (This P value is not significant. Moreover, the mean consumption of sandwiches was higher in students with eating attitude disorders (P=0.002. Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of eating attitude disorders in our study, assessing the underlying reasons and implementing preventive

  1. Examining the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and cigarette smoking in people with substance use disorders: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Bernier, Jennifer; Kenner, Frank; Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people with substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with significant physical health problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is also highly associated with both SUDs and cigarette smoking and may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts. In addition, people with PTSD are more likely to hold positive smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs that smoking cigarettes results in positive outcomes); these beliefs may contribute to cigarette smoking in people with SUDs experiencing PTSD symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and typical daily cigarette smoking/cigarette dependence symptoms in a sample of 227 trauma-exposed current smokers with SUDs (59.9% male, 89.4% Caucasian) seeking detoxification treatment services. Additionally, the indirect effects of multiple types of positive smoking outcome expectancies on these relationships were examined. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, cigarette consumption, and cigarette dependence symptoms. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were not directly related to cigarette consumption or cigarette dependence symptoms. However, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were shown to have a significant indirect effect between PTSD symptoms and cigarette consumption, while negative affect reduction, boredom reduction, and taste-sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies were all found to have significant indirect effects between PTSD symptoms and cigarette dependence symptoms. The indirect effect involving negative affect reduction outcome expectancies was statistically larger than that of taste sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies, while negative affect reduction and boredom reduction outcome expectancies were comparable in magnitude. These results suggest that expectancies that smoking can manage negative affective experiences are related to

  2. Aspects of Theory of Mind that attenuate the relationship between persecutory delusions and social functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Peter L; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Popolo, Raffaele; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-09-01

    Despite the apparent relevance of persecutory delusions to social relationships, evidence linking these beliefs to social functioning has been inconsistent. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that theory of mind moderates the relationship between persecutory delusions and social functioning. 88 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed concurrently for social functioning, severity of persecutory delusions, and two components of theory of mind: mental state decoding and mental state reasoning. Mental state decoding was assessed using the Eyes Test, mental state reasoning using the Hinting Task, and social functioning assessed with the Social Functioning Scale. Moderation effects were evaluated using linear models and the Johnson-Neyman procedure. Mental state reasoning was found to moderate the relationship between persecutory delusions and social functioning, controlling for overall psychopathology. For participants with reasoning scores in the bottom 78th percentile, persecutory delusions showed a significant negative relationship with social functioning. However, for those participants with mental state reasoning scores in the top 22nd percentile, more severe persecutory delusions were not significantly associated with worse social functioning. Mental state decoding was not a statistically significant moderator. Generalizability is limited as participants were generally men in later phases of illness. Mental state reasoning abilities may buffer the impact of persecutory delusions on social functioning, possibly by helping individuals avoid applying global beliefs of persecution to specific individuals or by allowing for the correction of paranoid inferences. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Self-reported behaviour problems and sibling relationship quality by siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, R P; Petalas, M A

    2014-11-01

    There are few published research studies in which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provide self-reports about their own behavioural and emotional problems and their sibling relationships. Reliance on parent reports may lead to incomplete conclusions about the experiences of siblings themselves. Siblings 7-17 years and their mothers from 94 families of children with ASD were recruited. Mothers reported on family demographics, the behavioural and emotional problems of their child with ASD, and on their own symptoms of depression. Siblings reported on their relationship with their brother or sister with ASD, and siblings 11+ years of age also self-reported on their behavioural and emotional problems. Compared with normative British data, siblings reported very slightly elevated levels of behavioural and emotional problems. However, none of the mean differences were statistically significant and all group differences were associated with small or very small effect sizes - the largest being for peer problems (effect size = 0.31). Regression analysis was used to explore family systems relationships, with sibling self-reports predicted by the behaviour problems scores for the child with ASD and by maternal depression. Maternal depression did not emerge as a predictor of siblings' self-reported sibling relationships or their behavioural and emotional problems. Higher levels of behaviour problems in the child with ASD predicted decreased warmth/closeness and increased conflict in the sibling relationship. These data support the general findings of recent research in that there was little indication of clinically meaningful elevations in behavioural and emotional problems in siblings of children with ASD. Although further research replication is required, there was some indication that sibling relationships may be at risk where the child with ASD has significant behaviour problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Developmental links between disobedient behavior and social classroom relationships in boys with psychiatric disorders in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, L D; van Lier, P A C; Wubbels, T; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T

    2015-05-01

    In mainstream education, positive relationships with teachers and peers have been found to positively influence children's behavioral development. However, high levels of classroom behavior problems may hinder the formation of such positive relationships. Therefore, findings from mainstream education cannot be generalized to special education. The present study investigated the developmental links between disobedience and positive as well as negative relationships with teachers and peers among boys in restrictive special educational settings. At three assessment waves across one school year, teacher-reports of teacher-child closeness and conflict, and peer-reports of peer acceptance, rejection and disobedience were collected among 340 boys (mean age = 10.1 years, SD = 1.58, range = 5-13) with psychiatric disorders receiving special education. Autoregressive cross-lagged models were fitted to explore the nature of these developmental links. The impact of boys' age was examined using multiple group analyses. Findings supported the importance of teacher-child conflict, but not closeness, and positive and negative peer relationships for the development of boys' disobedience, with a stronger effect of negative than positive relationships. However, teacher-child and peer relationships were not longitudinally related and the effect of boys' age was minimal. This study extends prior research by suggesting that, despite differences in educational setting and severity of behavior problems between children in mainstream and special education, reducing negative classroom interactional patterns is most important in preventing the development of problematic classroom behavior in boys with severe social-emotional and behavioral difficulties.

  5. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and disruptive behavior disorders: prevalence, associations, and explanation of the relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Mary M; Cavanna, Andrea E; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and conduct disorder (CD) are both heterogeneous childhood onset conditions, and although patients with CD have been described in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome cohorts, little is known about the etiology of CD in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or of the interrelationships. A cohort of 578 consecutive patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome was assessed using standard assessment protocols. A total of 13.5% of participants had only Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, whereas the rest had associated comorbidities and psychopathology. CD occurred in 14.5% of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome probands. These findings suggest that CD is not an integral part of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome but rather that CD in the context of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is related to the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, as well as, and importantly, a family history of aggressive and violent behavior and forensic encounters.

  6. The Relationship Between Post-Migration Stress and Psychological Disorders in Refugees and Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Susan S Y; Liddell, Belinda J; Nickerson, Angela

    2016-09-01

    Refugees demonstrate high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychological disorders. The recent increase in forcible displacement internationally necessitates the understanding of factors associated with refugee mental health. While pre-migration trauma is recognized as a key predictor of mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers, research has increasingly focused on the psychological effects of post-migration stressors in the settlement environment. This article reviews the research evidence linking post-migration factors and mental health outcomes in refugees and asylum seekers. Findings indicate that socioeconomic, social, and interpersonal factors, as well as factors relating to the asylum process and immigration policy affect the psychological functioning of refugees. Limitations of the existing literature and future directions for research are discussed, along with implications for treatment and policy.

  7. The relationship between childhood conduct disorder and adult antisocial behavior is partially mediated by early-onset alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Najat; Duggan, Conor; Howard, Rick; Lumsden, John

    2012-10-01

    Early-onset alcohol abuse (EOAA) was previously found to both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder (CD) on adult antisocial behavior (ASB) in an American community sample of young adults (Howard, R., Finn, P. R., Gallagher, J., & Jose, P. (2011). Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behavior. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/14789949.2011.641996). This study tested whether this result would generalize to a British forensic sample comprising 100 male forensic patients with confirmed personality disorder. Results confirmed that those in whom EOAA co-occurred with CD showed the highest level of personality pathology, particularly Cluster B traits and antisocial/borderline comorbidity. Those with co-occurring CD with EOAA, compared with those showing only CD, showed more violence in their criminal history and greater recreational drug use. Regression analysis showed that both EOAA and CD predicted adult ASB when covariates were controlled. Further analysis showed that EOAA significantly mediated but did not moderate the effect of CD on ASB. The failure to demonstrate an exacerbating effect of EOAA on the relationship between CD and ASB likely reflects the high prevalence of CD in this forensic sample. Some implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A longitudinal analysis of shooter games and their relationship with conduct disorder and cself-reported delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sven; Ferguson, Chris; Beaver, Kevin

    Despite several decades of research, little scholarly consensus has emerged regarding the role of violent video games in the development of youth psychopathology or crime. The current study employed the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children longitudinal dataset to examine the impact of the shooter game genre ownership in childhood on later adolescent conduct disorder and criminal behavior. Multivariate Poisson regressions with the robust estimator correlation matrix were performed comparing effects of independent and confounding variables. Results revealed that early childhood mental health symptoms at age seven related to ADHD, depression and early conduct disorder predicted criminal behavior at age fifteen. Male gender also predicted criminal behavior at age fifteen. However, exposure to shooter games did not predict adolescent conduct disorder or criminal behavior. We have found support that suggests that the role of violent video games in the development of youth psychopathology or crime is very little if any. Lack of a relationship between exposure to shooter games and later conduct and criminal behavior problems may be understood within the context of the Catalyst Model. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship between Eating Disorder Symptoms and Treatment Rejection among Young Adult Men in Residential Substance Use Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoAnna Elmquist

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has demonstrated that individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs and comorbid mental health problems evidence heightened negative consequences, including poorer treatment outcomes, a higher risk for relapse, and mortality compared to individuals with a single disorder. In this study, we focus on the comorbidity between SUDs and eating disorder (ED symptomatology, as EDs are similarly associated with high rates of relapse, morbidity, and mortality. Of particular importance is research examining treatment rejection among individuals in treatment for SUDs with cooccurring ED symptomatology. This study seeks to add to the literature by examining treatment rejection among young adult men in residential treatment for SUDs ( N = 68 with cooccurring ED symptomatology. Results from hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ED symptoms were significantly associated with treatment rejection after controlling for alcohol and drug use and problems and depression symptoms. Although this is a preliminary study, the results add to a growing body of research examining the comorbidity between SUDs and ED symptomatology. Future research examining this relationship is needed to further elucidate the treatment patterns among individuals with comorbid ED symptoms and substance use diagnoses.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOEMOTIONAL DISORDERS WITH INCREASING THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX AND VASCULAR MICRO INFLAMMATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shavrin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study relationship of psycho-emotional factors and indicators of intravascular microinflammation and vascular changes in healthy patients.Materials and methods. To study psycho-emotional status in 239 healthy patients aged 30 to 60 years, markers of inflammation (C-reactiveprotein — CRP and cytokines — tumor necrosis factor-α — TNF-α, interleukins — IL-1, -4, - 8 and ultrasonography of the vascular wall of the common carotid artery with the definition of the thickness of intimamedia.Results. In group with high levels of emotional stress significant increase in the thickness of intima media and increase in plasma concentrationsof markers of vascular mikrovospaleniya — CRP, IL-1, IL-8, TNF-α were showed. These correlation analysis indicated relationship between thickness of intima-media, psychoemotional factors and markers of vascular microinflamation. Calculating odds ratios revealed that thickening of the intima-media process such psycho-emotional disorders like anxiety, depression and fatigue are of great importance.Conclusion. Otherwise development of latent intravascular inflammation and thickening intima-media complex of common carotid artery is registered inhealthy patients with presence of psycho-emotional disorders (depression, anxiety, fatigue.

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOEMOTIONAL DISORDERS WITH INCREASING THICKNESS OF INTIMA-MEDIA COMPLEX AND VASCULAR MICRO INFLAMMATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Shavrin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to study relationship of psycho-emotional factors and indicators of intravascular microinflammation and vascular changes in healthy patients.Materials and methods. To study psycho-emotional status in 239 healthy patients aged 30 to 60 years, markers of inflammation (C-reactiveprotein — CRP and cytokines — tumor necrosis factor-α — TNF-α, interleukins — IL-1, -4, - 8 and ultrasonography of the vascular wall of the common carotid artery with the definition of the thickness of intimamedia.Results. In group with high levels of emotional stress significant increase in the thickness of intima media and increase in plasma concentrationsof markers of vascular mikrovospaleniya — CRP, IL-1, IL-8, TNF-α were showed. These correlation analysis indicated relationship between thickness of intima-media, psychoemotional factors and markers of vascular microinflamation. Calculating odds ratios revealed that thickening of the intima-media process such psycho-emotional disorders like anxiety, depression and fatigue are of great importance.Conclusion. Otherwise development of latent intravascular inflammation and thickening intima-media complex of common carotid artery is registered inhealthy patients with presence of psycho-emotional disorders (depression, anxiety, fatigue.

  12. Symptoms of hypochondriasis in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Prevalence, Treatment Outcome, and Relationship with Metacognition

    OpenAIRE

    Borgejordet, Synne

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to examine symptoms of hypochondriasis in relation to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), by investigating the prevalence of hypochondriacal symptoms in OCD, the effect hypochondriacal symptoms has on OCD treatment outcome, and how OCD treatment affects hypochondriacal symptoms. Another objective of the study was to explore the role of metacognition in symptoms of hypochondria. A sample of 313 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD and 382 community controls were compared o...

  13. Relationship of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder with major depression: relevance to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Beherre, Prakash B; Rathi, Rajesh; Panigrahi, Mahima; Patil, Pradeep Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and depressive disorder are fairly common; symptoms do overlap, often under-identified and under-emphasized, particularly in rural India. The objective was to assess the occurrence of PMS and PMDD in a sample of students and staff of a nursing college and to find their correlation with depression. A prospective cohort study; Tertiary Care Hospital in Rural India (Wardha, Maharashtra); 118 female nursing students or staff aged between 18 and 40 years, who were likely to stay within the institution for the study period. The participants were rated on Penn daily symptom report prospectively for a period of 3-month. Those who scored positive were applied diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4(th) edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) criteria for PMDD; and were applied primary care evaluation of mental disorders depression screening followed by DSM-IV TR criteria for depression. Severity of depression was measured using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Main outcome measures were frequency and severity of depression in individuals with PMS and PMDD and their clinical and sociodemographic correlation. The age range of the sample was 18-37 years. Some PMS symptoms were observed in 67%; diagnosis of PMDD in 10%; depressive symptoms in 28% of the sample. 46.4% of those with depressive symptoms had major depression. The diagnosis of major depression was significantly associated with the severity of PMS symptoms as well as the presence of PMDD. Premenstrual syndrome is present in a substantial proportion of young females. Concurrent depression is increased by the severity of PMS symptoms and the presence of PMDD. Gynecologist needs to screen such subjects for depression and refer to mental-health professional early, in routine clinical practice.

  14. Examining the Relationship between Food Thought Suppression and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2013-01-01

    Food thought suppression, or purposely attempting to avoid thoughts of food, is related to a number of unwanted eating- and weight-related consequences, particularly in dieting and obese individuals. Little is known about the possible significance of food thought suppression in clinical samples, particularly obese patients who binge eat. This study examined food thought suppression in 150 obese patients seeking treatment for binge eating disorder (BED). Food thought suppression was not associ...

  15. Does rumination mediate the relationship between emotion regulation ability and posttraumatic stress disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, Thomas; Ehlers, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Trauma-related rumination has been suggested to be involved in the maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This view has empirically been supported by extensive evidence using cross-sectional, prospective, and experimental designs. However, it is unclear why trauma survivors engage in rumination despite its negative consequences. The current study aimed to explore the hypothesis that low emotion regulation ability underlies trauma-related rumination.Met...

  16. Study of the relationship of psychosocial disorders to bruxism in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Katayoun E; Sima F; Naser V; Anahita D

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bruxism has been defined as a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional habit. Etiology of bruxism has remained controversial and some investigators believe that psychological factors may play a major role in promoting and perpetuating this habit. The aim of this case-control study was to assess the existence of an association between bruxism and psychosocial disorders in adolescents., Participants were chosen among 114, 12-14 year old students (girls). They were divided into t...

  17. Violence in Mental Disorders and Community Sample: an evolutionary model related with dominance in social relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Montañés Rada, Francisco; Ramirez, J. Martin; Lucas Taracena, María Teresa de

    2006-01-01

    The major risk determinants of violence are to be young and male, to have low socioeconomic status and suffering substance abuse. This is true whether it occurs in the context of a concurrent mental illness or not; i.e., mental disorders are neither necessary, nor sufficient causes for violence. Intense motivation is a facilitating factor for violence in clinical and non clinical samples. This explains why ‘normal’ people, are implicated in planned violence at higher rates than mentally il...

  18. The Relationship between Body Image Coping Strategy and Eating Disorders among Iranian Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Farid; Mahnaz Akbari Kamrani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to physical and psychological changes during puberty, most common problem of young people is body image defined as degree of size, shape and general appearance. Wrong perception of body image and dissatisfaction with body image in people can lead to eating disorders and stress. Peace of mind is in fact a mental mechanism that people use it to reduce physical and emotional strains coping with stressful situations. The aim of this study was to determine the type of coping strate...

  19. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Discrimination and Substance Use Disorder among Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Ornelas, India J.; Hong, Seunghye

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study collected in 2002–2003 (N=2,554), we assessed the adjusted odds of lifetime substance use disorder (SUD) associated with report of both unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination. Among men, SUD was increased for those reporting low, moderate, and high levels of unfair treatment compared to those reporting no unfair treatment and patterns were similar for racial/ethnic discrimination. Among women, only those reporting high le...

  20. Altered interaction with environmental reinforcers in major depressive disorder: Relationship to anhedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Szczepanik, Joanna E.; Furey, Maura L.; Nugent, Allison C.; Henter, Ioline D.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2017-01-01

    Anhedonia—defined as loss of interest or pleasure—is one of two core symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Anhedonia may involve decreased enjoyment of potentially rewarding activities and decreased motivation to engage in such activities. Increased engagement with reinforcers—activities with the potential to be positive experiences—is a frequent target of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Nevertheless, how environmental reinforcers are perceived, and how decisions to approach or avoid t...

  1. Prevalence and severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and their relationships with dermatological diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Sheikhmoonesi; Zohreh Hajheidari; Abbas Masoudzadeh; Reza Ali Mohammadpour; Mahbubeh Mozaffari

    2014-01-01

    Most obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients meet psychiatrists 5 to 10 years after onset of OCD .Its relatively high prevalence ratio and the delay in seeking help suggest that patients with OCD may seek help at non-psychiatric clinics. The present study was undertaken to provide some epidemiological data on the prevalence and severity of OCD in dermatological patients. The participants included 265 consecutive patients with primary dermatologic chief complaint. They were visited by a d...

  2. A behavioral-genetic investigation of bulimia nervosa and its relationship with alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace, Sara Elizabeth; Thornton, Laura Marie; Baker, Jessica Helen; Root, Tammy Lynn; Janson, Lauren Elizabeth; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy Lee; Bulik, Cynthia Marie

    2013-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) frequently co-occur and may share genetic factors; however, the nature of their association is not fully understood. We assessed the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors contribute to liability to BN and AUD. A bivariate structural equation model using a Cholesky decomposition was fit to data from 7,241 women who participated in the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment. The proportion of variance accounted for by genetic and environmental factors for BN and AUD and the genetic and environmental correlations between these disorders were estimated. In the best-fitting model, the heritability estimates were 0.55 (95% CI: 0.37; 0.70) for BN and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54; 0.70) for AUD. Unique environmental factors accounted for the remainder of variance for BN. The genetic correlation between BN and AUD was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.01; 0.44), and the correlation between the unique environmental factors for the two disorders was 0.35 (95% CI: 0.08; 0.61), suggesting moderate overlap in these factors. Findings from this investigation provide additional support that some of the same genetic factors may influence liability to both BN and AUD. PMID:23790978

  3. Relationships between GAT1 and PTSD, Depression, and Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin E. Bountress

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, and Substance Use Disorder (SUD have large public health impacts. Therefore, researchers have attempted to identify those at greatest risk for these phenotypes. PTSD, MDD, and SUD are in part genetically influenced. Additionally, genes in the glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA system are implicated in the encoding of emotional and fear memories, and thus may impact these phenotypes. The current study examined the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in GAT1 individually, and at the gene level, using a principal components (PC approach, with PTSD, PTSD comorbid with MDD, and PTSD comorbid with SUD in 486 combat-exposed veterans.  Findings indicate that several GAT1 SNPs, as well as one of the GAT1 PCs, was associated with PTSD, with and without MDD and SUD comorbidity. The present study findings provide initial insights into one pathway by which shared genetic risk influences PTSD-MDD and PTSD-SUD comorbidities, and thus identify a high-risk group (based on genotype on whom prevention and intervention efforts should be focused.

  4. Relationships among alexithymia, therapeutic alliance, and psychotherapy outcome in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Taylor, Graeme J; McBride, Carolina; Bagby, R Michael

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have found that alexithymia predicts process and outcome of psychodynamic psychotherapy across a range of psychiatric disorders. There is preliminary evidence that alexithymia may exert its effects on outcome through the therapist. Other studies have found that alexithymia does not influence outcome of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The aim of the current study was to investigate the capacity of alexithymia to predict therapist- and patient-rated therapeutic alliance and response to CBT and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depressive disorder. A total of 75 adults with major depressive disorder were randomized to receive weekly sessions of manualized individual CBT or IPT for a period of 16 weeks. Pre-treatment alexithymia exhibited a positive direct effect on depression change, and a negative indirect effect on depression change via patient-rated alliance at week 13. There was no mediating role of therapist-rated alliance. Although these findings are preliminary, they suggest that pre-treatment alexithymia has meaningful links to psychotherapy process and outcome, and that nuanced analyses incorporating intervening variables are necessary to elucidate the nature of these links. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between self-reported childhood behavioral inhibition and lifetime anxiety disorders in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Gemma L; Parker, Gordon B; Mitchell, Phillip B; Wilhelm, Kay A; Malhi, Gin S

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between an early inhibited temperament and lifetime anxiety disorders, we studied a sample of patients with major depression who were not selected on the basis of comorbid axis I anxiety disorders. One-hundred eighty-nine adults (range = 17-68 years) referred to a tertiary depression unit underwent structured diagnostic interviews for depression and anxiety and completed two self-report measures of behavioral inhibition, the retrospective measure of behavioural inhibition (RMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005] and the adult measure of behavioural inhibition (AMBI) [Gladstone and Parker, 2005]. Patients' scores were classified into "low," "moderate," or "high" inhibition. While groups did not differ in terms of depression severity, there were differences across groups in clinically diagnosed nonmelancholic status and age of onset of first episode. Those reporting a high degree of childhood inhibition were significantly more likely to qualify for a diagnosis of social phobia, and this association was independent of their scores on the AMBI. Findings are discussed in light of the existing risk-factor literature and support the hypothesis that an early inhibited temperament may be a significant precursor to later anxiety, especially social anxiety disorder. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The Relationship of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling to Compulsive Buying and other Possible Spectrum Disorders: Results from the Iowa PG Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive dis