WorldWideScience

Sample records for disorder non-integer plateaus

  1. Landau level broadening without disorder, non-integer plateaus without interactions- an alternative model of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T.

    2006-01-01

    I review some aspects of an alternative model of the quantum Hall effect, which is not based on the presence of disorder potentials. Instead, a quantization of the electronic drift current in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is employed to construct a non-linear transport theory. Another important ingredient of the alternative theory is the coupling of the two-dimensional electron gas to the leads and the applied voltages. By working in a picture where the external voltages fix the chemical potential in the 2D subsystem, the experimentally observed linear relation between the voltage and the location of the quantum Hall plateaus finds an natural explanation. Also, the classical Hall effect emerges as a natural limit of the quantum Hall effect. For low temperatures (or high currents), a non-integer substructure splits higher Landau levels into sublevels. The appearance of substructure and non-integer plateaus in the resistivity is not linked to electron-electron interactions, but caused by the presence of a (linear) electric field. Some of the resulting fractions correspond exactly to half-integer plateaus. (Author)

  2. Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-09-01

    Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested.

  3. Frozen density embedding with non-integer subsystems' particle numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Eduardo; Laricchia, Savio; Della Sala, Fabio

    2014-03-21

    We extend the frozen density embedding theory to non-integer subsystems' particles numbers. Different features of this formulation are discussed, with special concern for approximate embedding calculations. In particular, we highlight the relation between the non-integer particle-number partition scheme and the resulting embedding errors. Finally, we provide a discussion of the implications of the present theory for the derivative discontinuity issue and the calculation of chemical reactivity descriptors.

  4. Diversity and non-integer differentiation for system dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Oustaloup, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Based on a structured approach to diversity, notably inspired by various forms of diversity of natural origins, Diversity and Non-integer Derivation Applied to System Dynamics provides a study framework to the introduction of the non-integer derivative as a modeling tool. Modeling tools that highlight unsuspected dynamical performances (notably damping performances) in an ""integer"" approach of mechanics and automation are also included. Written to enable a two-tier reading, this is an essential resource for scientists, researchers, and industrial engineers interested in this subject area. Ta

  5. Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-01-01

    A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media

  6. Non-integer viscoelastic constitutive law to model soft biological tissues to in-vivo indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nagehan; Tönük, Ergin

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, derivatives and integrals of non-integer orders are being more commonly used for the description of constitutive behavior of various viscoelastic materials including soft biological tissues. Compared to integer order constitutive relations, non-integer order viscoelastic material models of soft biological tissues are capable of capturing a wider range of viscoelastic behavior obtained from experiments. Although integer order models may yield comparably accurate results, non-integer order material models have less number of parameters to be identified in addition to description of an intermediate material that can monotonically and continuously be adjusted in between an ideal elastic solid and an ideal viscous fluid. In this work, starting with some preliminaries on non-integer (fractional) calculus, the "spring-pot", (intermediate mechanical element between a solid and a fluid), non-integer order three element (Zener) solid model, finally a user-defined large strain non-integer order viscoelastic constitutive model was constructed to be used in finite element simulations. Using the constitutive equation developed, by utilizing inverse finite element method and in vivo indentation experiments, soft tissue material identification was performed. The results indicate that material coefficients obtained from relaxation experiments, when optimized with creep experimental data could simulate relaxation, creep and cyclic loading and unloading experiments accurately. Non-integer calculus viscoelastic constitutive models, having physical interpretation and modeling experimental data accurately is a good alternative to classical phenomenological viscoelastic constitutive equations.

  7. Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vasily E., E-mail: tarasov@theory.sinp.msu.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.

  8. Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-08-01

    A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.

  9. Elasticity of fractal materials using the continuum model with non-integer dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a generalization of vector calculus for space with non-integer dimension, we consider elastic properties of fractal materials. Fractal materials are described by continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. A generalization of elasticity equations for non-integer dimensional space, and its solutions for the equilibrium case of fractal materials are suggested. Elasticity problems for fractal hollow ball and cylindrical fractal elastic pipe with inside and outside pressures, for rotating cylindrical fractal pipe, for gradient elasticity and thermoelasticity of fractal materials are solved.

  10. 5th Conference on Non-integer Order Calculus and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzyk, Janusz; Baranowski, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents various aspects of non-integer order systems, also known as fractional systems, which have recently attracted an increasing attention in the scientific community of systems science, applied mathematics, control theory. Non-integer systems have become relevant for many fields of science and technology exemplified by the modeling of signal transmission, electric noise, dielectric polarization, heat transfer, electrochemical reactions, thermal processes,  acoustics, etc. The content is divided into six parts, every of which considers one of the currently relevant problems. In the first part the Realization problem is discussed, with a special focus on positive systems. The second part considers stability of certain classes of non-integer order systems with and without delays. The third part is focused on such important aspects as controllability, observability and optimization especially in discrete time. The fourth part is focused on distributed systems where non-integer calculus leads to ...

  11. Vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space and its applications to fractal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-02-01

    We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for the case of non-integer dimensional space. The first and second orders operations such as gradient, divergence, the scalar and vector Laplace operators for non-integer dimensional space are defined. For simplification we consider scalar and vector fields that are independent of angles. We formulate a generalization of vector calculus for rotationally covariant scalar and vector functions. This generalization allows us to describe fractal media and materials in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. As examples of application of the suggested calculus, we consider elasticity of fractal materials (fractal hollow ball and fractal cylindrical pipe with pressure inside and outside), steady distribution of heat in fractal media, electric field of fractal charged cylinder. We solve the correspondent equations for non-integer dimensional space models.

  12. Application of a non-integer Bessel uniform approximation to inelastic molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.N.L.; Mayne, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    A non-integer Bessel uniform approximation has been used to calculate transition probabilities for collinear atom-oscillator collisions. The collision systems used are a harmonic oscillator interacting via a Lennard-Jones potential and a Morse oscillator interacting via an exponential potential. Both classically allowed and classically forbidden transitions have been treated. The order of the Bessel function is chosen by a physical argument that makes use of information contained in the final-action initial-angle plot. Limitations of this procedure are discussed. It is shown that the non-integer Bessel approximation is accurate for elastic 0 → 0 collisions at high collision energies, where the integer Bessel approximation is inaccurate or inapplicable. (author)

  13. 7th Conference on Non-Integer Order Calculus and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dworak, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    This volume is devoted to presentation of new results of research on systems of non-integer order, called also fractional systems. Their analysis and practical implementation have been the object of spontaneous development for a few last decades. The fractional order models can depict a physical plant better than the classical integer order ones. This covers different research fields such as insulator properties, visco-elastic materials, electrodynamic, electrothermal, electrochemical, economic processes modelling etc. On the other hand fractional controllers often outperform their integer order counterparts. This volume contains new ideas and examples of implementation, theoretical and pure practical aspects of using a non-integer order calculus. It is divided into four parts covering: mathematical fundamentals, modeling and approximations, controllability, observability and stability problems and practical applications of fractional control systems. The first part expands the base of tools and methods of th...

  14. Extension of the direct statistical approach to a volume parameter model (non-integer splitting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Direct Statistical Approach is a rigorous mathematical derivation of the second moment for surface splitting and Russian Roulette games attached to the Monte Carlo modelling of fixed source particle transport. It has been extended to a volume parameter model (involving non-integer ''expected value'' splitting), and then to a cell model. The cell model gives second moment and time functions that have a closed form. This suggests the possibility of two different methods of solution of the optimum splitting/Russian Roulette parameters. (author)

  15. 6th Conference on Non-integer Order Calculus and Its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Łukaniszyn, Marian; Stanisławski, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents selected aspects of non-integer, or fractional order systems, whose analysis, synthesis and applications have increasingly become a real challenge for various research communities, ranging from science to engineering. The spectrum of applications of the fractional order calculus has incredibly expanded, in fact it would be hard to find a science/engineering-related subject area where the fractional calculus had not been incorporated. The content of the fractional calculus is ranged from pure mathematics to engineering implementations and so is the content of this volume. The volume is subdivided into six parts, reflecting particular aspects of the fractional order calculus. The first part contains a single invited paper on a new formulation of fractional-order descriptor observers for fractional-order descriptor continous LTI systems. The second part provides new elements to the mathematical theory of fractional-order systems. In the third part of this volume, a bunch of new results in ap...

  16. Superposition of two optical vortices with opposite integer or non-integer orbital angular momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Díaz Meza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a brief proposal to achieve the superposition of two opposite vortex beams, both with integer or non-integer mean value of the orbital angular momentum. The first part is about the generation of this kind of spatial light distributions through a modified Brown and Lohmann’s hologram. The inclusion of a simple mathematical expression into the pixelated grid’s transmittance function, based in Fourier domain properties, shifts the diffraction orders counterclockwise and clockwise to the same point and allows the addition of different modes. The strategy is theoretically and experimentally validated for the case of two opposite rotation helical wavefronts.

  17. Load Frequency Control in Microgrids Based on a Stochastic Non-Integer Controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Shasadeghi, Mokhtar

    2018-01-01

    of battery energy storage systems (BESS) can solve the unbalance effects between the load and supply of an isolated MG, their high cost and tendency toward degradation are restrictive factors, which call for the use of alternative power balancing options. In recent years, the concept of utilizing the BESSs...... of EVs, also known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, for frequency support of MGs has attracted a lot of attention. In order to allow the V2G controller operate optimally under a wide range of operation conditions caused by the intermittent behavior of renewable energy resources (RESs), a new multi...... hole optimization algorithm (MBHA) is utilized for the adaptive tuning of the non-integer fuzzy PID controller coefficients. The performance of the proposed LFC is evaluated by using real world wind and solar radiation data. Finally, the extensive studies and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations...

  18. Non-Porod scattering and non-integer scaling of resistance in rough films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bupathy, Arunkumar; Verma, Rupesh; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-04-01

    In many physical systems, films are rough due to the stochastic behavior of depositing particles. They are characterized by non-Porod power law decays in the structure factor S (k) . Theoretical studies predict anomalous diffusion in such morphologies, with important implications for diffusivity, conductivity, etc. We use the non-Porod decay to accurately determine the fractal properties of two prototypical nanoparticle films: (i) Palladium (Pd) and (ii) Cu2O. Using scaling arguments, we find that the resistance of rough films of lateral size L obeys a non-integer power law R ∼L-ζ , in contrast to integer power laws for compact structures. The exponent ζ is anisotropic. We confirm our predictions by re-analyzing experimental data from Cu2O nano-particle films. Our results are valuable for understanding recent experiments that report anisotropic electrical properties in (rough) thin films.

  19. Non extensive statistics and entropic gravity in a non-integer dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Everton M.C.; Ananias Neto, Jorge; Godinho, Cresus F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The idea that gravity can be originated from thermodynamics features has begun with the discovering that black hole physics is connected to the thermodynamics laws. These concepts were strongly boosted after Jacobson's work, where the Einstein equations were obtained from general thermodynamics approaches. In a recent work, Padmanabhan obtained an interpretation of gravity as an equipartition law. In Verlinde's thermo gravitational formalism, the temperature and the acceleration are connected via Unruh effect. At the same time, he combined the holographic principle with an equipartition law, where the number of bits is proportional to the area of the holographic surface. Bits were used to define the microscopic degrees of freedom. With these ingredients, the entropic force combined with the holographic principle and the equipartition law originated the Newton's law of gravitation. The possible interpretation of Verlinde's result is that gravity is not an underlying concept, but an emergent one. It originates from the statistical behavior of the holographic screen microscopic degrees of freedom. Following these ideas, the current literature has grown in an accelerated production from Coulomb force and symmetry considerations of entropic force to cosmology and loop quantum. In this work we introduced the Newton's constant in a fractal space as a function of the non extensive one. With this result we established a relation between the Tsallis non extensive parameter and the dimension of this fractal space. Using Verlinde's formalism we used these fractal ideas combined with the concept of entropic gravity to calculate the number of bits of an holographic surface in this non-integer dimensional space, a fractal holographic screen. We introduced a fundamental length, a Planck-like length, into this space as a function of this fractal holographic screen radius. Finally, we consider superior dimensions in this analysis. (author)

  20. The Occurrence of Anomalous Conductance Plateaus and Spin Textures in Quantum Point Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Cahay, M.; Debray, P.; Newrock, R.

    2010-03-01

    Recently, we used a NEGF formalism [1] to provide a theoretical explanation for the experimentally observed 0.5G0 (G0=2e^2/h) plateau in the conductance of side-gated quantum point contacts (QPCs) in the presence of lateral spin-orbit coupling (LSOC) [2]. We showed that the 0.5G0 plateau appears in the QPCs without any external magnetic field as a result of three ingredients: an asymmetric lateral confinement, a LSOC, and a strong electron-electron (e-e) interaction. In this report, we present the results of simulations for a wide range of QPC dimensions and biasing parameters showing that the same physics predicts the appearance of other anomalous plateaus at non-integer values of G0, including the well-known 0.7G0 anomaly. These features are related to a plethora of spin textures in the QPC that depend sensitively on material, device, biasing parameters, temperature, and the strength of the e-e interaction. [1] J. Wan, M. Cahay, P. Debray, and R.S. Newrock, Phys. Rev. B 80, 155440 (2009). [2] P. Debray, S.M. Rahman, J. Wan, R.S. Newrock, M. Cahay, A.T. Ngo, S.E. Ulloa, S.T. Herbert, M. Muhammad, and M. Johnson, Nature Nanotech. 4, 759 (2009).

  1. Self-affine scaling from non-integer phase-space partition in $\\pi^{+}p$ and $K^{+}p$ collisions at 250 GeV/$c$

    CERN Document Server

    Agababian, N M

    1998-01-01

    A factorial-moment analysis with real (integer and non-integer) phase space partition is applied to $\\pi^+$p and K$^+$p collisions at 250 GeV/$c$. Clear evidence is shown for self-affine rather than self-similar power-law scaling in multiparticle production. The three-dimensional self-affine second-order scaling exponent is determined to be 0.061$\\pm$0.010.

  2. Widespread erosion on high plateaus during recent glaciations in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane L.; Egholm, David L.; Knudsen, Mads F.

    2018-01-01

    Glaciers create some of Earth's steepest topography; yet, many areas that were repeatedly overridden by ice sheets in the last few million years include extensive plateaus. The distinct geomorphic contrast between plateaus and the glacial troughs that dissect them has sustained two long-held hypo......Glaciers create some of Earth's steepest topography; yet, many areas that were repeatedly overridden by ice sheets in the last few million years include extensive plateaus. The distinct geomorphic contrast between plateaus and the glacial troughs that dissect them has sustained two long......-held hypotheses: first, that ice sheets perform insignificant erosion beyond glacial troughs, and, second, that the plateaus represent ancient pre-glacial landforms bearing information of tectonic and geomorphic history prior to Pliocene-Pleistocene global cooling (similar to 3.5 Myr ago). Here we show...... that the Fennoscandian ice sheets drove widespread erosion across plateaus far beyond glacial troughs. We apply inverse modelling to 118 new cosmogenic Be-10 and Al-26 measurements to quantify ice sheet erosion on the plateaus fringing the Sognefjorden glacial trough in western Norway. Our findings demonstrate...

  3. Are oceanic plateaus sites of komatiite formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, M.; Mahoney, J. J.; Kroenke, L. W.; Saunders, A. D.

    1991-04-01

    During Cretaceous and Tertiary time a series of oceanic terranes were accreted onto the Pacific continental margin of Colombia. The island of Gorgona is thought to represent part of the most recent, early Eocene, terrane-forming event. Gorgona is remarkable for the occurrence of komatiites of middle Cretaceous age, having MgO contents up to 24%. The geochemistry of spatially and temporally associated tholeiites suggests that Gorgona is an obducted fragment of the oceanic Caribbean Plateau, postulated by Duncan and Hargraves (1984) to have formed at 100 to 75 Ma over the Galapagos hotspot. Further examples of high-MgO oceanic lavas that may represent fragments of the Caribbean Plateau occur in allochthonous terranes on the island of Curaçao in the Netherlands Antilles and in the Romeral zone ophiolites in the southwestern Colombian Andes. These and other examples suggest that the formation of high-MgO liquids may be a feature of oceanic-plateau settings. The association of Phanerozoic komatiites with oceanic plateaus, coupled with thermal considerations, provides a plausible analogue for the origin of some komatiite-tholeiite sequences in Archean greenstone belts.

  4. Efficient numerical simulation of non-integer-order space-fractional reaction-diffusion equation via the Riemann-Liouville operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Kolade M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we are concerned with the solution of non-integer space-fractional reaction-diffusion equations with the Riemann-Liouville space-fractional derivative in high dimensions. We approximate the Riemann-Liouville derivative with the Fourier transform method and advance the resulting system in time with any time-stepping solver. In the numerical experiments, we expect the travelling wave to arise from the given initial condition on the computational domain (-∞, ∞), which we terminate in the numerical experiments with a large but truncated value of L. It is necessary to choose L large enough to allow the waves to have enough space to distribute. Experimental results in high dimensions on the space-fractional reaction-diffusion models with applications to biological models (Fisher and Allen-Cahn equations) are considered. Simulation results reveal that fractional reaction-diffusion equations can give rise to a range of physical phenomena when compared to non-integer-order cases. As a result, most meaningful and practical situations are found to be modelled with the concept of fractional calculus.

  5. Influence of non-integer-order derivatives on unsteady unidirectional motions of an Oldroyd-B fluid with generalized boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, A. A.; Riaz, M. B.; Shah, N. A.; Imran, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this article is to study some unsteady Couette flows of an Oldroyd-B fluid with non-integer derivatives. The fluid fills an annular region of two infinite co-axial circular cylinders. Flows are due to the motion of the outer cylinder, that rotates about its axis with an arbitrary time-dependent velocity while the inner cylinder is held fixed. Closed form solutions of dimensionless velocity field and tangential tension are obtained by means of the finite Hankel transform and the theory of Laplace transform for fractional calculus. Several results in the literature including the rotational flows through an infinite cylinder can be obtained as limiting cases of our general solutions. Finally, the control of the fractional framework on the dynamics of fluid is analyzed by numerical simulations and graphical illustrations.

  6. A simple approximation of moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of an extended stochastic theta-logistic model with non-integer powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Amiya Ranjan; Bandyopadhyay, Subhadip; Rana, Sourav; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi

    2016-01-01

    The stochastic versions of the logistic and extended logistic growth models are applied successfully to explain many real-life population dynamics and share a central body of literature in stochastic modeling of ecological systems. To understand the randomness in the population dynamics of the underlying processes completely, it is important to have a clear idea about the quasi-equilibrium distribution and its moments. Bartlett et al. (1960) took a pioneering attempt for estimating the moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the stochastic logistic model. Matis and Kiffe (1996) obtain a set of more accurate and elegant approximations for the mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution of the same model using cumulant truncation method. The method is extended for stochastic power law logistic family by the same and several other authors (Nasell, 2003; Singh and Hespanha, 2007). Cumulant truncation and some alternative methods e.g. saddle point approximation, derivative matching approach can be applied if the powers involved in the extended logistic set up are integers, although plenty of evidence is available for non-integer powers in many practical situations (Sibly et al., 2005). In this paper, we develop a set of new approximations for mean, variance and skewness of the quasi-equilibrium distribution under more general family of growth curves, which is applicable for both integer and non-integer powers. The deterministic counterpart of this family of models captures both monotonic and non-monotonic behavior of the per capita growth rate, of which theta-logistic is a special case. The approximations accurately estimate the first three order moments of the quasi-equilibrium distribution. The proposed method is illustrated with simulated data and real data from global population dynamics database. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhizomes and plateaus: A study of digital communities of practice in University College English Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Rhizomes and plateaus: A study of digital communities of practice in University College English Teaching......Rhizomes and plateaus: A study of digital communities of practice in University College English Teaching...

  8. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Phillip D.; Knierim, Katherine J.; Breaker, Brian K.; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-11-23

    The hydrogeology and hydrologic characteristics of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system were characterized as part of ongoing U.S. Geological Survey efforts to assess groundwater availability across the Nation. The need for such a study in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province (Ozark Plateaus) is highlighted by increasing demand on groundwater resources by the 5.3 million people of the Ozark Plateaus, water-level declines in some areas, and potential impacts of climate change on groundwater availability. The subject study integrates knowledge gained through local investigation within a regional perspective to develop a regional conceptual model of groundwater flow in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (Ozark system), a key phase of groundwater availability assessment. The Ozark system extends across much of southern Missouri and northwestern and north-central Arkansas and smaller areas of southeastern Kansas and northeastern Oklahoma. The region is one of the major karst landscapes in the United States, and karst aquifers are predominant in the Ozark system. Groundwater flow is ultimately controlled by aquifer and confining unit lithologies and stratigraphic relations, geologic structure, karst development, and the character of surficial lithologies and regolith mantle. The regolith mantle is a defining element of Ozark Plateaus karst, affecting recharge, karst development, and vulnerability to surface-derived contaminants. Karst development is more advanced—as evidenced by larger springs, hydraulic characteristics, and higher well yields—in the Salem Plateau and in the northern part of the Springfield Plateau (generally north of the Arkansas-Missouri border) as compared with the southern part of the Springfield Plateau in Arkansas, largely due to thinner, less extensive regolith and purer carbonate lithology.Precipitation is the ultimate source of all water to the Ozark system, and the hydrologic budget for the Ozark system includes inputs from recharge

  9. Magnetization plateaus of the frustrated Ising Shastry–Sutherland system: Wang–Landau simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.S.; Yang, T.H.; Wang, Y.; Qin, M.H.; Liu, J.-M.; Ren, Zhifeng

    2014-01-01

    The Wang–Landau algorithm is used to study the magnetic properties of the Ising model on the Shastry–Sutherland lattice in order to understand the interesting magnetization plateaus observed in TmB 4 . The simulated results demonstrate that the equilibrium state of the model produces only the 1/3 and 1/2 magnetization plateaus at low temperatures even when the random-exchange term or the long-range interactions are taken into account. This confirms our earlier conclusion (Huang et al., 2013) [20] that those fractional plateaus observed in experiments may be due to the magnetization dynamics. - Highlights: • The magnetic behaviors of TmB 4 are investigated using the Wang–Landau method. • The equilibrium state only produces the 1/3 and 1/2 magnetization plateaus. • Those fractional plateaus must arise from the non-equilibrium magnetization

  10. Magnetization plateaus of the frustrated Ising Shastry–Sutherland system: Wang–Landau simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W.S.; Yang, T.H.; Wang, Y. [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Qin, M.H., E-mail: qinmh@scnu.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Department of Physics and TcSUH, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Liu, J.-M. [Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ren, Zhifeng, E-mail: zren@uh.edu [Department of Physics and TcSUH, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2014-07-04

    The Wang–Landau algorithm is used to study the magnetic properties of the Ising model on the Shastry–Sutherland lattice in order to understand the interesting magnetization plateaus observed in TmB{sub 4}. The simulated results demonstrate that the equilibrium state of the model produces only the 1/3 and 1/2 magnetization plateaus at low temperatures even when the random-exchange term or the long-range interactions are taken into account. This confirms our earlier conclusion (Huang et al., 2013) [20] that those fractional plateaus observed in experiments may be due to the magnetization dynamics. - Highlights: • The magnetic behaviors of TmB{sub 4} are investigated using the Wang–Landau method. • The equilibrium state only produces the 1/3 and 1/2 magnetization plateaus. • Those fractional plateaus must arise from the non-equilibrium magnetization.

  11. Were Oceanic Plateaus Instrumental for Calcareous Nannoplankton Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, E.; Casellato, C.; Bottini, C.

    2011-12-01

    The history of calcareous nannoplankton shows a general increase in species richness through the Mesozoic. Fertility and chemistry of the oceans, climate and pCO2 seem instrumental for nannoplankton abundance, diversification and adaptation, but high-resolution chronology of paleobiological and geological events is crucial for the understanding of evolutionary processes relative to ecosystem perturbations. Natural variations in atmospheric CO2 are essentially triggered by igneous activity and the role of ocean crust production in the evolution of seawater composition, nutrient cycling, climate change and, consequently, in calcareous nannoplankton biodiversity, might be more relevant than generally thought. Indeed, two major steps in nannofloral Mesozoic evolution correlate with construction of gigantic oceanic plateaus, namely the Shatsky Rise (SR) (Tithonian/Berriasian boundary interval) and the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) (Barremian/Aptian boundary interval). During the latest Jurassic calcareous nannoplankton experienced a rapid diversification and rise in abundance of several taxa including heavily calcified nannoliths with consequent major increase in biogenic calcite production. The Tithonian origination of coccoliths and nannoliths suggests ideal paleoecological conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, presumably thriving in stable, relatively oligotrophic and cool oceans under low pCO2. Recent data indicate that this speciation and calcification episode was interrupted during magnetochron CM19r, prior to massive diversification of nannoconids. In the late Barremian-early Aptian interval, the nannoconid decline and crisis are paralleled by a major nannoplankton (mainly coccolith) speciation episode. Such calcification failure and coccolith diversification might reflect disruption of the thermocline, increased fertility and warming under excess CO2 levels. These evolutionary steps show rapid speciation, but differ because nannoliths became dominant in the late

  12. Crustal volumes of the continents and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the continents is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively. The total continental crustal volume is found to be 7581 X 10 to the 6th cu km, 3.2 percent of which is comprised of continental submarine plateaus on the seafloor. An upper bound on the contintental crust addition rate by the accretion of oceanic plateaus is set at 3.7 cu km/yr. Subduction of continental submarine plateaus with the oceanic lithosphere on a 100 Myr time scale yields an upper bound to the continental crustal subtraction rate of 2.4 cu km/yr.

  13. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Lava plateaus in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    All of the major landforms relate to volcanism and/or erosion in this Shuttle Radar Topography Mission scene of Patagonia, near La Esperanza, Argentina. The two prominent plateaus once formed a continuous surface that extended over much of this region. Younger volcanoes have grown through and atop the plateau, and one just south of this scene has sent a long, narrow flow down a stream channel (lower left). The topographic pattern shows that streams dominate the erosion processes in this arid environment even though wind is known to move substantial amounts of sediment here.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.Size: 62.4 by 88.8 kilometers

  14. Hydrologic budget and conditions of Permian, Pennsylvanian, and Mississippian aquifers in the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Kurt J.; Yager, Richard M.; Nelms, David L.; Ladd, David E.; Monti,, Jack; Kozar, Mark D.

    2015-08-13

    In response to challenges to groundwater availability posed by historic land-use practices, expanding development of hydrocarbon resources, and drought, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers in 2013 that incorporated a hydrologic landscape approach to estimate all components of the hydrologic system: surface runoff, base flow from groundwater, and interaction with atmospheric water (precipitation and evapotranspiration). This assessment was intended to complement other Federal and State investigations and provide foundational groundwater-related datasets in the Appalachian Plateaus.

  15. Clustering of Cochlear Oscillations in Frequency Plateaus as a Tool to Investigate SOAE Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Wit, Hero; van Dijk, Pim

    2016-01-01

    of coupled oscillators (OAM) [7] are also found in a transmission line model (TLM) which is able to generate realistic SOAEs [2] and if these frequency plateaus can be used to explain the formation of SOAEs. The simulations showed a clustering of oscillators along the simulated basilar membrane Both, the OAM...

  16. Tectonic setting of the Seychelles, Mascarene and Amirante Plateaus in the Western Equatorial Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mart, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A system of marine plateaus occurs in the western equatorial Indian Ocean, forming an arcuate series of wide and shallow banks with small islands in places. The oceanic basins that surround the Seychelles - Amirante region are of various ages and reflect a complex seafloor spreading pattern. The structural analysis of the Seychelle - Amirante - Mascarene region reflects the tectonic evolution of the western equatorial Indian Ocean. It is suggested that due to the seafloor spreading during a tectonic stage, the Seychelles continental block drifted southwestwards to collide with the oceanic crust of the Mascarene Basin, forming an elongated folded structure at first, and then a subduction zone. The morphological similarity, the lithological variability and the different origin of the Seychelles Bank, the Mascarene Plateau and the Amirante Arc emphasizes the significant convergent effects of various plate tectonic processes on the development of marine plateaus

  17. The Ozark Plateaus Regional Aquifer Study—Documentation of a groundwater-flow model constructed to assess water availability in the Ozark Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian R.; Richards, Joseph M.; Knierim, Katherine J.

    2018-03-30

    Recent short-term drought conditions have emphasized the need to better understand the delicate balance between abundance, sustainability, and scarcity of groundwater in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey began construction of a groundwater-flow model as a tool for the assessment of groundwater availability in the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system. The model was developed to benefit concurrent and future investigations involving groundwater-pumping scenarios, optimization, particle transport, and groundwater-monitoring network analysis.The groundwater model simulates 116 years (1900–2015) of hydrologic conditions and the response of the groundwater system to changes in stress including changes in recharge and groundwater pumping for water supply. Semiseasonal stress periods were simulated from the later part of 1991 to 2015 and represent higher demand and lower recharge in the spring and summer months and lower demand and higher recharge in the fall and winter months. Groundwater pumping increases throughout the simulation period with a maximum rate of about 600 million gallons per day (Mgal/d).The process of matching historical hydrologic data for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system model was accomplished by a combination of manual changes to parameter values and automated calibration methods. Observation data used in the development and evaluation of the model included 19,045 hydraulic-head observations from 6,683 wells within the model area. Observation data also included stream leakage estimates summed to calculate a net gain or net loss value for approximately 81 named streams.The majority (mean of over 95 percent) of the recharge component is discharged through streams simulated in the model. The total simulated discharge to streams fluctuates seasonally between 7,500 and 17,500 Mgal/d with a mean outflow of 11,500 Mgal/d. Much of the remaining balance between modeled recharge inflows and stream outflows is made up by water

  18. Environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, James C.; Petersen, James C.; Freiwald, David A.; Davis, Jerri V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental and hydrologic setting of the Ozark Plateaus National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study unit and the factors that affect water quality are described in this report. The primary natural and cultural features that affect water- quality characteristics and the potential for future water-quality problems are described. These environmental features include climate, physio- graphy, geology, soils, population, land use, water use, and surface- and ground-water flow systems. The study-unit area is approximately 47,600 square miles and includes most of the Ozark Plateaus Province and parts of the adjacent Osage Plains and Mississippi Alluvial Plain in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. The geology is characterized by basement igneous rocks overlain by a thick sequence of dolomites, limestones, sandstones, and shales of Paleozoic age. Land use in the study unit is predominantly pasture and forest in the southeastern part, and pasture and cropland in the northwestern part. All or part of the White, Neosho-lllinois, Osage, Gasconade, Meramec, St. Francis, and Black River Basins are within the study unit. Streams in the Boston Mountains contain the least mineralized water, and those in the Osage Plains contain the most mineralized water. The study unit contains eight hydrogeologic units including three major aquifers--the Springfield Plateau, Ozark, and St. Francois aquifers. Streams and aquifers in the study unit generally contain calcium or calcium-magnesium bicarbonate waters. Ground- and surface-water interactions are greatest in the Salem and Springfield Plateaus and least in the Boston Mountains and Osage Plains. Geology, land use, and population probably are the most important environmental factors that affect water quality.

  19. Magnetization plateaus and phase diagrams of the Ising model on the Shastry–Sutherland lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya, E-mail: sadeviren@nevsehir.edu.tr

    2015-11-01

    The magnetization properties of a two-dimensional spin-1/2 Ising model on the Shastry–Sutherland lattice are studied within the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The thermal behavior of the magnetizations is investigated in order to characterize the nature (the first- or second-order) of the phase transitions as well as to obtain the phase diagrams of the model. The internal energy, specific heat, entropy and free energy of the system are also examined numerically as a function of the temperature in order to confirm the stability of the phase transitions. The applied field dependence of the magnetizations is also examined to find the existence of the magnetization plateaus. For strong enough magnetic fields, several magnetization plateaus are observed, e.g., at 1/9, 1/8, 1/3 and 1/2 of the saturation. The phase diagrams of the model are constructed in two different planes, namely (h/|J|, |J′|/|J|) and (h/|J|, T/|J|) planes. It was found that the model exhibits first- and second-order phase transitions; hence tricitical point is also observed in additional to the zero-temperature critical point. Moreover the Néel order (N), collinear order (C) and ferromagnetic (F) phases are also found with appropriate values of the system parameters. The reentrant behavior is also obtained whenever model displays two Néel temperatures. These results are compared with some theoretical and experimental works and a good overall agreement has been obtained. - Highlights: • Magnetization properties of spin-1/2 Ising model on SS lattice are investigated. • The magnetization plateaus of the 1/9, 1/8, 1/3 and 1/2 are observed. • The phase diagrams of the model are constructed in two different planes. • The model exhibits the tricitical and zero-temperature critical points. • The reentrant behavior is obtained whenever model displays two Neel temperatures.

  20. On the gauge invariant and topological nature of the localization determining the Quantum Hall Effect plateaus

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.

  1. Strong degradation of palsas and peat plateaus in northern Norway during the last 60 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Borge

    2017-01-01

    vegetation, wildlife, hydrology and carbon cycle. Firstly, we have systematically mapped the occurrence of palsas and peat plateaus in the northernmost county of Norway (Finnmark, ∼ 50 000 km2 by manual interpretation of aerial images from 2005 to 2014 at a spatial resolution of 250 m. At this resolution, mires and wetlands with palsas or peat plateaus occur in about 850 km2 of Finnmark, with the actual palsas and peat plateaus underlain by permafrost covering a surface area of approximately 110 km2. Secondly, we have quantified the lateral changes of the extent of palsas and peat plateaus for four study areas located along a NW–SE transect through Finnmark by utilizing repeat aerial imagery from the 1950s to the 2010s. The results of the lateral changes reveal a total decrease of 33–71 % in the areal extent of palsas and peat plateaus during the study period, with the largest lateral change rates observed in the last decade. However, the results indicate that degradation of palsas and peat plateaus in northern Norway has been a consistent process during the second half of the 20th century and possibly even earlier. Significant rates of areal change are observed in all investigated time periods since the 1950s, and thermokarst landforms observed on aerial images from the 1950s suggest that lateral degradation was already an ongoing process at this time. The results of this study show that lateral erosion of palsas and peat plateaus is an important pathway for permafrost degradation in the sporadic permafrost zone in northern Scandinavia. While the environmental factors governing the rate of erosion are not yet fully understood, we note a moderate increase in air temperature, precipitation and snow depth during the last few decades in the region.

  2. Quantifying widespread aqueous surface weathering on Mars: The plateaus south of Coprates Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizeau, D.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Carter, J.; Flahaut, J.; Thollot, P.; Lozac'h, L.; Millot, C.

    2018-03-01

    Pedogenesis has been previously proposed on the plateaus around Coprates Chasma, Valles Marineris to explain the presence of widespread clay sequences with Al-clays and possible hydrated silica over Fe/Mg-clays on the surface of the plateaus (Le Deit et al., 2012; Carter et al., 2015). We use previous observations together with new MRO targeted observations and DEMs to constrain the extent and thickness of the plateau clay unit: the Al-clay unit is less than 3 m thick, likely ∼1 m, while the Fe/Mg-clays underneath are few tens of meters thick. We also refine the age of alteration by retrieving crater retention ages of the altered plateau and of later deposits: the observed clay sequence was created by surface pedogenesis between model ages of 4.1 Ga and 3.75 Ga. Using a leaching model from Zolotov and Mironenko (2016), we estimate the quantity of atmospheric precipitations needed to create such a clay sequence, that strongly depends on the chemistry of the precipitating fluid. A few hundreds of meters of cumulated precipitations of highly acidic fluids could explain the observed clay sequence, consistent with estimates based on late Noachian valley erosion for example (Rosenberg and Head, 2015). We show finally that the maximum quantity of sulfates potentially formed during this surface weathering event can only contribute minimally to the volume of sulfates deposited in Valles Marineris.

  3. Peaks, plateaus, numerical instabilities, and achievable accuracy in Galerkin and norm minimizing procedures for solving Ax=b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullum, J. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Plots of the residual norms generated by Galerkin procedures for solving Ax = b often exhibit strings of irregular peaks. At seemingly erratic stages in the iterations, peaks appear in the residual norm plot, intervals of iterations over which the norms initially increase and then decrease. Plots of the residual norms generated by related norm minimizing procedures often exhibit long plateaus, sequences of iterations over which reductions in the size of the residual norm are unacceptably small. In an earlier paper the author discussed and derived relationships between such peaks and plateaus within corresponding Galerkin/Norm Minimizing pairs of such methods. In this paper, through a set of numerical experiments, the author examines connections between peaks, plateaus, numerical instabilities, and the achievable accuracy for such pairs of iterative methods. Three pairs of methods, GMRES/Arnoldi, QMR/BCG, and two bidiagonalization methods are studied.

  4. Peaks, plateaus, canyons, and craters: The complex geometry of simple mid-domain effect models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colwell, Robert K.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    dye algorithm to place assemblages of species of uniform We used a spreading dye algorithm to place assemblages of species of uniform range size in one-dimensional or two-dimensional bounded domains. In some models, we allowed dispersal to introduce range discontinuity. Results: As uniform range size...... increases from small to medium, a flat pattern of species As uniform range size increases from small to medium, a flat pattern of species richness is replaced by a pair of peripheral peaks, separated by a valley (one-dimensional models), or by a cratered ring (two-dimensional models) of species richness...... of a uniform size generate more complex patterns, including peaks, plateaus, canyons, and craters of species richness....

  5. An improved contrast enhancement algorithm for infrared images based on adaptive double plateaus histogram equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Li; Li, Yiyang

    2018-05-01

    Infrared thermal images can reflect the thermal-radiation distribution of a particular scene. However, the contrast of the infrared images is usually low. Hence, it is generally necessary to enhance the contrast of infrared images in advance to facilitate subsequent recognition and analysis. Based on the adaptive double plateaus histogram equalization, this paper presents an improved contrast enhancement algorithm for infrared thermal images. In the proposed algorithm, the normalized coefficient of variation of the histogram, which characterizes the level of contrast enhancement, is introduced as feedback information to adjust the upper and lower plateau thresholds. The experiments on actual infrared images show that compared to the three typical contrast-enhancement algorithms, the proposed algorithm has better scene adaptability and yields better contrast-enhancement results for infrared images with more dark areas or a higher dynamic range. Hence, it has high application value in contrast enhancement, dynamic range compression, and digital detail enhancement for infrared thermal images.

  6. Magnetization plateaus and ground-state phase diagrams of the S=1 Ising model on the Shastry Sutherland lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya

    2017-02-01

    In this research, we have investigated the magnetic properties of the spin-1 Ising model on the Shastry Sutherland lattice with the crystal field interaction by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effects of the applied field on the magnetization are examined in detail in order to obtain the magnetization plateaus, thus different types of magnetization plateaus, such as 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 3/5, 2/3 and 7/9 of the saturation, are obtained for strong enough magnetic fields (h). Magnetization plateaus exhibit single, triple, quintuplet and sextuple forms according to the interaction parameters, hence the magnetization plateaus originate from the competition between the crystal field (D) and exchange interaction parameters (J, J‧). The ground-state phase diagrams of the system are presented in three varied planes, namely (h/J, J‧/J), (h/J, D/J) and (D/J, J‧/J) planes. These phase diagrams display the Néel (N), collinear (C) and ferromagnetic (F) phases for certain values of the model parameters. The obtained results are in good agreement with some theoretical and experimental studies.

  7. Presence of rapidly degrading permafrost plateaus in south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Baughman, Carson; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Parsekian, Andrew D.; Babcock, Esther; Stephani, Eva; Jones, Miriam C.; Grosse, Guido; Berg, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost presence is determined by a complex interaction of climatic, topographic, and ecological conditions operating over long time scales. In particular, vegetation and organic layer characteristics may act to protect permafrost in regions with a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) above 0 °C. In this study, we document the presence of residual permafrost plateaus in the western Kenai Peninsula lowlands of south-central Alaska, a region with a MAAT of 1.5 ± 1 °C (1981–2010). Continuous ground temperature measurements between 16 September 2012 and 15 September 2015, using calibrated thermistor strings, documented the presence of warm permafrost (−0.04 to −0.08 °C). Field measurements (probing) on several plateau features during the fall of 2015 showed that the depth to the permafrost table averaged 1.48 m but at some locations was as shallow as 0.53 m. Late winter surveys (augering, coring, and GPR) in 2016 showed that the average seasonally frozen ground thickness was 0.45 m, overlying a talik above the permafrost table. Measured permafrost thickness ranged from 0.33 to  >  6.90 m. Manual interpretation of historic aerial photography acquired in 1950 indicates that residual permafrost plateaus covered 920 ha as mapped across portions of four wetland complexes encompassing 4810 ha. However, between 1950 and ca. 2010, permafrost plateau extent decreased by 60.0 %, with lateral feature degradation accounting for 85.0 % of the reduction in area. Permafrost loss on the Kenai Peninsula is likely associated with a warming climate, wildfires that remove the protective forest and organic layer cover, groundwater flow at depth, and lateral heat transfer from wetland surface waters in the summer. Better understanding the resilience and vulnerability of ecosystem-protected permafrost is critical for mapping and predicting future permafrost extent and degradation across all permafrost regions that are currently warming

  8. 2014/2015 Investigations of the Ontong Java and Kerguelen Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The two largest oceanic plateaus, Ontong Java in the western Pacific, and Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, will be the focus of scheduled multidisciplinary/interdisciplinary shipboard expeditions in 2014 and 2015. In mid-2014, scientists aboard the Schmidt Ocean Institute's RV Falkor will investigate the origin and evolution of two large atolls, Ontong Java and Nukumanu, surmounting the ca 122 Ma Ontong Java Plateau, as well how Kroenke Canyon, which deeply incises the plateau, formed and evolved. First-ever multibeam bathymetry and sub-bottom profiling data from the atolls and canyon will reveal their submarine and shallow sub-seafloor morphology, and, if combined with geochemical and geochronological analyses of potential igneous basement samples, will yield important information on their origin and evolution. The primary goals of this atoll and canyon project are: to test potential genetic relationships between a) the atolls and the OJP, and b) the atolls and Kroenke Canyon; to understand and model how atolls and canyons form and evolve on oceanic plateaus, isolated from terrestrial influences and subject to sea level fluctuations; and to contribute to understanding tsunami risk on low-lying atolls. In late 2014 and early 2015, researchers aboard Australia's new Marine National Facility, RV Investigator, will investigate active submarine hotspot volcanism on the Kerguelen Plateau and its consequences. The project's overall aim is to test the hypothesis that hydrothermal activity driven by active submarine magmatism fertilizes surface waters with iron that enhances primary biological productivity. Surmounting the Cretaceous plateau, Heard and McDonald Islands are among the world's most active hotspot volcanoes, and new multibeam bathymetry and sub-bottom profiling data will enable identification of candidate active submarine volcanoes, which we will sample. In the overlying water column, we will collect samples to test for the presence or absence of

  9. Changes in Pacific Absolute Plate Motion and Formation of Oceanic Flood Basalt Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, L. W.; Wessel, P.

    2006-12-01

    The origin of the large oceanic flood basalt plateaus that are prominent features of the central western Pacific Basin remains unclear. Major changes in Pacific Absolute Plate Motion (APM) have been identified as occurring at 145, 125, 96, and 47 Ma. Formation of the Shatsky Rise (~145 Ma), the Ontong Java Plateau (122+ Ma), the Southern Hess Rise (95±5 Ma), and the Louisiade Plateau (~48 Ma) appear to coincide with these changes. A smaller, but still prominent change in Pacific APM also occurred at 110 Ma when the Northern Hess Rise formed. Although these concurrent events may simply be chance occurrences, initiation of plate tectonic reorganizations upon arrival of mantle plume heads also was proposed by Ratcliff et al. (1998), who suggested that the mantle plume head delivery of hot material to produce flood basalts also had the potential to trigger reorganizations of plate motions. It should be noted, however, that Pacific Rim subduction zone development also coincides with these APM changes, and that the actual cause and effect of each change in APM has yet to be clearly established. Here we present a modified Pacific APM model that uses several older seamount chains (Musicians, Ratak-Gilbert-Ellice, the Wake trails, and the Liliuokalani trails) to constrain the oldest Pacific plate motion using the hybrid technique of Wessel et al (2006).

  10. Magnetization plateaus in the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a kagome-strip chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Katsuhiro; Sugimoto, Takanori; Sota, Shigetoshi; Tohyama, Takami

    2018-01-01

    The spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a kagome lattice is a typical frustrated quantum spin system. The basic structure of a kagome lattice is also present in the kagome-strip lattice in one dimension, where a similar type of frustration is expected. We thus study the magnetization plateaus of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on a kagome-strip chain with three-independent antiferromagnetic exchange interactions using the density-matrix renormalization-group method. In a certain range of exchange parameters, we find twelve kinds of magnetization plateaus, nine of which have magnetic structures breaking translational and/or reflection symmetry spontaneously. The structures are classified by an array of five-site unit cells with specific bond-spin correlations. In a case with a nontrivial plateau, namely a 3/10 plateau, we find long-period magnetic structure with a period of four unit cells.

  11. Average Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  12. Annual Estimates of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation for Gaged Basins in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  13. Effect of disorders on topological phases in one-dimensional optical superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhizhou; Wu Yidong; Du Huijing; Jing Xili

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, Lang et al. proposed that edge states and topological phases can be observed in one-dimensional optical superlattices. They showed that the topological phases can be revealed by observing the density profile of a trapped fermion system, which displays plateaus with their positions. However, disorders are not considered in their model. To study the effect of disorders on the topological phases, we introduce random potentials to the model for optical superlattcies. Our calculations show that edge states are robust against the disorders. We find the edge states are very sensitive to the number of the sites in the optical superlattice and we propose a simple rule to describe the relationship between the edge states and the number of sites. The density plateaus are also robust against weak disorders provided that the average density is calculated over a long interval. The widths of the plateaus are proportional to the widths of the bulk energy gaps when there are disorders. The disorders can diminish the bulk energy gaps. So the widths of the plateaus decrease with the increase of disorders and the density plateaus disappear when disorders are too strong. The results in our paper can be used to guide the experimental detection of topological phases in one-dimensional systems. (paper)

  14. Ground states, magnetization plateaus and bipartite entanglement of frustrated spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg and Heisenberg triangular tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alécio, Raphael C.; Lyra, Marcelo L.; Strečka, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The ground-state phase diagram, magnetization process and bipartite entanglement of the frustrated spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg and Heisenberg triangular tube (three-leg ladder) are investigated in a non-zero external magnetic field. The exact ground-state phase diagram of the spin-1/2 Ising-Heisenberg tube with Heisenberg intra-rung and Ising inter-rung couplings consists of six distinct gapped phases, which manifest themselves in a magnetization curve as intermediate plateaus at zero, one-third and two-thirds of the saturation magnetization. Four out of six available ground states exhibit quantum entanglement between two spins from the same triangular unit evidenced by a non-zero concurrence. Density-matrix renormalization group calculations are used in order to construct the ground-state phase diagram of the analogous but purely quantum spin-1/2 Heisenberg tube with Heisenberg intra- and inter-rung couplings, which consists of four gapped and three gapless phases. The Heisenberg tube shows a continuous change of the magnetization instead of a plateau at zero magnetization, while the intermediate one-third and two-thirds plateaus may be present or not in the zero-temperature magnetization curve. - Highlights: • Ground-state properties of Ising-Heisenberg and full Heisenberg spin tubes are studied. • Phases with 1/3 and 2/3 magnetization plateaus are present in both models. • We unveil the region in the parameter space on which inter-rung quantum fluctuations are relevant. • The full Heisenberg tube exhibits quantum bipartite entanglement between intra- as well as inter-rung spins.

  15. Ground-water quality in the Appalachian Plateaus, Kanawha River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Charlynn J.; Kozar, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples collected from 30 privately-owned and small public-supply wells in the Appalachian Plateaus of the Kanawha River Basin were analyzed for a wide range of constituents, including bacteria, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of most constituents from samples analyzed did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards. Constituents that exceeded drinking-water standards in at least one sample were total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), iron, manganese, and sulfate. Total coliform bacteria were present in samples from five sites, and E. coli were present at only one site. USEPA secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) were exceeded for three constituents -- sulfate exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in samples from 2 of 30 wells; iron exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L (micrograms per liter) in samples from 12 of the wells, and manganese exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in samples from 17 of the wells sampled. None of the samples contained concentrations of nutrients that exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for these constituents. The maximum concentration of nitrate detected was only 4.1 mg/L, which is below the MCL of 10 mg/L. Concentrations of nitrate in precipitation and shallow ground water are similar, potentially indicating that precipitation may be a source of nitrate in shallow ground water in the study area. Radon concentrations exceeded the recently proposed maximum contaminant level of 300 pCi/L at 50 percent of the sites sampled. The median concentration of radon was only 290 pCi/L. Radon-222 is a naturally occurring, carcinogenic, radioactive decay product of uranium. Concentrations, however, did not exceed the alternate maximum contaminant level (AMCL) for radon of 4,000 pCi/L in any of the 30 samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the proposed MCL of 5?g/L at 4 of the 30 sites. No samples exceeded the

  16. Tectonic evolution of the Caribbean and northwestern South America: The case for accretion of two Late Cretaceous oceanic plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andrew C.; Tarney, John

    2005-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the thickened oceanic crust of the Caribbean plate, its basaltic accreted margins, and accreted mafic terranes in northwestern South America represent the remnants of a single ca. 90 Ma oceanic plateau. We review geologic, geochemical, and paleomagnetic evidence that suggests that the Caribbean-Colombian oceanic plateau in fact represents the remnants of two different oceanic plateaus, both dated as ca. 90 Ma. The first of these plateaus, the Caribbean Plateau, formed ca. 90 Ma in the vicinity of the present-day Galapagos hotspot. Northeastward movement of the Farallon plate meant that this plateau collided with the proto Caribbean arc and northwestern South America Gorgona Plateau, formed at 26° 30°S, possibly at the site of the present-day Sala y Gomez hotspot. Over the next ˜45 m.y., this plateau was carried progressively northeastward on the Farallon plate and collided in the middle Eocene with the proto Andean subduction zone in northwestern South America. The recognition of a second ca. 90 Ma Pacific oceanic plateau strengthens the link between plateau formation and global oceanic anoxic events.

  17. Travelling plateaus for a hyperbolic Keller–Segel system with attraction and repulsion: existence and branching instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perthame, Benoît; Tang, Min; Vauchelet, Nicolas; Schmeiser, Christian

    2011-01-01

    How can repulsive and attractive forces, acting on a conservative system, create stable travelling patterns or branching instabilities? We have proposed to study this question in the framework of the hyperbolic Keller–Segel system with logistic sensitivity. This is a model system motivated by experiments on cell communities auto-organization, a field which is also called socio-biology. We continue earlier modelling work, where we have shown numerically that branching patterns arise for this system and we have analysed this instability by formal asymptotics for small diffusivity of the chemo-repellent. Here we are interested in the more general situation, where the diffusivities of both the chemo-attractant and the chemo-repellent are positive. To do so, we develop an appropriate functional analysis framework. We apply our method to two cases. Firstly we analyse steady states. Secondly we analyse travelling waves when neglecting the degradation coefficient of the chemo-repellent; the unique wave speed appears through a singularity cancellation which is the main theoretical difficulty. This shows that in different situations the cell density takes the shape of a plateau. The existence of steady states and travelling plateaus are a symptom of how rich the system is and why branching instabilities can occur. Numerical tests show that large plateaus may split into smaller ones, which remain stable

  18. Dependence of a class of non-integer power functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This short article exhibits that there exists critical point of the power for the generalized function t-a for a > 0. The present results show that it is long-range dependent if 0  1. My motivation of studying that dependence issue comes from the power-law type functions in fractal time series. The present results may yet be useful to investigate fractal behavior of fractal time series from a new point of view.

  19. Plateaus and sinuous ridges as the fingerprints of lava flow inflation in the Eastern Tharsis Plains of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Orr, Tim R.; de Wet, Andrew P.; Zimbelman, James R.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Brent Garry, W.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Williams, David A.

    2017-08-01

    The Tharsis Montes rift aprons are composed of outpourings of lava from chaotic terrains to the northeast and southwest flank of each volcano. Sinuous and branching channel networks that are present on the rift aprons suggest the possibility of fluvial processes in their development, or erosion by rapidly emplaced lavas, but the style of lava flow emplacement throughout rift apron development is not clearly understood. To better characterize the style of lava emplacement and role of fluvial processes in rift apron development, we conducted morphological mapping of the Pavonis Mons southwest rift apron and the eastern Tharsis plains using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Context Camera (CTX), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) along with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Precision Experiment Data Records (PEDRs) and gridded data. Our approach was to: (1) search for depositional fans at the slope break between the rift apron and adjacent low slope plains; (2) determine if there is evidence that previously formed deposits might have been buried by plains units; (3) characterize the Tharsis plains morphologies east of Pavonis Mons; and (4) assess their relationship to the rift apron units. We have not identified topographically significant depositional fans, nor did we observe evidence to suggest that plains units have buried older rift apron units. Flow features associated with the rift apron are observed to continue across the slope break onto the plains. In this area, the plains are composed of a variety of small fissures and low shield vents around which broad channel-fed and tube-fed flows have been identified. We also find broad, flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges mixed among the channels, tubes and vents. Flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges are morphologies that are analogous to those observed on the coastal plain of Hawai'i, where lava

  20. First time evidence of pronounced plateaus right above the Coulomb barrier in 8Li + 4He fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Del Zoppo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate unprecedented experimental information on the fusion reaction induced by the radioactive projectile 8Li on a 4He gas target, at center-of-mass energies between 0.6 and 5 MeV. The main issue is the tendency of the dimensionless fusion cross section σfπƛ2 to form well visible plateaus alternated to steep rises. This finding is likely to be the most genuine consequence of the discrete nature of the intervening angular momenta observed so far in fusion reactions right above the Coulomb barrier. A partial-wave analysis, exclusively based on a pure quantal penetration fusion model and sensitive to the interaction potential, identifies a remarkably low-height barrier.

  1. Effects of Unsaturated Microtopography on Nitrate Concentrations in Tundra Ecosystems: Examples from Polygonal Terrain and Degraded Peat Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikoop, J. M.; Arendt, C. A.; Newman, B. D.; Charsley-Groffman, L.; Perkins, G.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    Under the auspices of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment - Arctic, we have been studying hydrogeochemical signals in Alaskan tundra ecosystems underlain by continuous permafrost (Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO)) and discontinuous permafrost (Seward Peninsula). The Barrow site comprises largely saturated tundra associated with the low gradient Arctic Coastal Plain. Polygonal microtopography, however, can result in slightly raised areas that are unsaturated. In these areas we have previously demonstrated production and accumulation of nitrate, which, based on nitrate isotopic analysis, derives from microbial degradation. Our Seward Peninsula site is located in a much steeper and generally well-drained watershed. In lower-gradient areas at the top and bottom of the watershed, however, the tundra is generally saturated, likely because of the presence of underlying discontinuous permafrost inhibiting infiltration. These settings also contain microtopographic features, though in the form of degraded peat plateaus surrounded by wet graminoid sag ponds. Despite being very different microtopographic features in a very different setting with distinct vegetation, qualitatively similar nitrate accumulation patterns as seen in polygonal terrain were observed. The highest nitrate pore water concentration observed in an unsaturated peat plateau was approximately 5 mg/L, whereas subsurface pore water concentrations in surrounding sag ponds were generally below the limit of detection. Nitrate isotopes indicate this nitrate results from microbial mineralization and nitrification based on comparison to the nitrate isotopic composition of reduced nitrogen sources in the environment and the oxygen isotope composition of site pore water. Nitrate concentrations were most similar to those found in low-center polygon rims and flat-centered polygon centers at the BEO, but were significantly lower than the maximum concentrations seen in the highest and driest polygonal features

  2. Point Locations of 849 Continuous Record Streamflow Gages Used to Estmate Annual and Average Values of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  3. Plateaus of confusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jette

    of 'getting lost' at the limits of representation and her ideas about dwelling at the researcher's 'stuck place'. From this vantage point the paper presents a chosen stuck place in the research project Cyber@bullying : This stuck place can be described as a discrepancy between a theoretical informed...

  4. Geochemistry of the Springfield Plateau aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri and Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical data indicate that the Springfield Plateau aquifer, a carbonate aquifer of the Ozark Plateaus Province in central USA, has two distinct hydrochemical zones. Within each hydrochemical zone, water from springs is geochemically and isotopically different than water from wells. Geochemical data indicate that spring water generally interacts less with the surrounding rock and has a shorter residence time, probably as a result of flowing along discrete fractures and solution openings, than water from wells. Water type throughout most of the aquifer was calcium bicarbonate, indicating that carbonate-rock dissolution is the primary geochemical process occurring in the aquifer. Concentrations of calcium, bicarbonate, dissolved oxygen and tritium indicate that most ground water in the aquifer recharged rapidly and is relatively young (less than 40 years). In general, field-measured properties, concentrations of many chemical constituents, and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from the northern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone A) than in samples from the southern part of the aquifer (hydrochemical zone B). Factors affecting differences in the geochemical composition of ground water between the two zones are difficult to identify, but could be related to differences in chert content and possibly primary porosity, solubility of the limestone, and amount and type of cementation between zone A than in zone B. In addition, specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, concentrations of many chemical constituents and calcite saturation indices were greater in samples from wells than in samples from springs in each hydrochemical zone. In contrast, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite plus nitrate, and chloride generally were greater in samples from springs than in samples from wells. Water from springs generally flows rapidly through large conduits with minimum water-rock interactions. Water from wells flow through small fractures, which restrict

  5. Estimating aboveground forest biomass carbon and fire consumption in the U.S. Utah High Plateaus using data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program, Landsat, and LANDFIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Liu, Shuguang; Zhu, Zhiliang; Vogelmann, James E.; Li, Zhengpeng; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and greatly affecting global climate and socio-economic systems. Actively growing forests are generally considered to be a major carbon sink, but forest wildfires lead to large releases of biomass carbon into the atmosphere. Aboveground forest biomass carbon (AFBC), an important ecological indicator, and fire-induced carbon emissions at regional scales are highly relevant to forest sustainable management and climate change. It is challenging to accurately estimate the spatial distribution of AFBC across large areas because of the spatial heterogeneity of forest cover types and canopy structure. In this study, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, Landsat, and Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Project (LANDFIRE) data were integrated in a regression tree model for estimating AFBC at a 30-m resolution in the Utah High Plateaus. AFBC were calculated from 225 FIA field plots and used as the dependent variable in the model. Of these plots, 10% were held out for model evaluation with stratified random sampling, and the other 90% were used as training data to develop the regression tree model. Independent variable layers included Landsat imagery and the derived spectral indicators, digital elevation model (DEM) data and derivatives, biophysical gradient data, existing vegetation cover type and vegetation structure. The cross-validation correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.81 for the training model. Independent validation using withheld plot data was similar with r value of 0.82. This validated regression tree model was applied to map AFBC in the Utah High Plateaus and then combined with burn severity information to estimate loss of AFBC in the Longston fire of Zion National Park in 2001. The final dataset represented 24 forest cover types for a 4 million ha forested area. We estimated a total of 353 Tg AFBC with an average of 87 MgC/ha in the Utah High

  6. Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Wen

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)

  7. Measurement of runaway electron energy distribution function during high-Z gas injection into runaway electron plateaus in DIII-Da)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, E. M. [University of California—San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093, USA; Parks, P. B. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186, USA; Commaux, N. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA; Eidietis, N. W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186, USA; Moyer, R. A. [University of California—San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093, USA; Shiraki, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA; Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas—Austin, 2100 San Jacinto Blvd, Austin, Texas 78712, USA; Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186, USA; Rudakov, D. L. [University of California—San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093, USA

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of the runaway electron (RE) energy distribution function fεfε during massive gas injection into centered post-disruption runaway electron plateaus has been reconstructed. Overall, fεfε is found to be much more skewed toward low energy than predicted by avalanche theory. The reconstructions also indicate that the RE pitch angle θ is not uniform, but tends to be large at low energies and small θ ~0.1–0.2 at high energies. Overall power loss from the RE plateau appears to be dominated by collisions with background free and bound electrons, leading to line radiation. However, the drag on the plasma current appears to be dominated by collisions with impurity ions in most cases. Synchrotron emission appears not to be significant for overall RE energy dissipation but may be important for limiting the peak RE energy.

  8. Measurement of runaway electron energy distribution function during high-Z gas injection into runaway electron plateaus in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Rudakov, D. L.; Parks, P. B.; Eidietis, N. W.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Commaux, N.; Shiraki, D.; Austin, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the runaway electron (RE) energy distribution function f ε during massive gas injection into centered post-disruption runaway electron plateaus has been reconstructed. Overall, f ε is found to be much more skewed toward low energy than predicted by avalanche theory. The reconstructions also indicate that the RE pitch angle θ is not uniform, but tends to be large at low energies and small θ ∼ 0.1–0.2 at high energies. Overall power loss from the RE plateau appears to be dominated by collisions with background free and bound electrons, leading to line radiation. However, the drag on the plasma current appears to be dominated by collisions with impurity ions in most cases. Synchrotron emission appears not to be significant for overall RE energy dissipation but may be important for limiting the peak RE energy

  9. Exploring Groundwater origin for theater-headed valleys on the walls of Ius Chasma based on geomorphological analogy to the Saharan Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, A. Z. A.; Heggy, E.; Mohamed, R.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of Martian fluvial landforms constrains the ambiguities associated to the variability of paleoclimatic and hydrological conditions. Despite of the significance of understanding the mechanism of formation of theater-headed valleys (THV) in Valles Mariners, where abundant distribution of seasonal liquid water flow is reported, their origin remains debatable. The original groundwater sapping hypothesis is challenged by the capability of springs to cut canyons into massive rocks and alternatively mega-floods and landslides were suggested. On Earth however, widespread THV cutting through the carbonate plateaus in the Sahara are confirmed to be of long-lasting groundwater processes based on recent isotopic, geochemical and hydrogeological evidences. Geomorphological characterizations of the THV in both the Sahara and in Valles Marineris suggest similar settings including: (1) widespread and dense occurrence along the length of escarpments, (2) low relief floors, (3) association with extensive faulting, and (4) lack of well-developed stream networks and small upstream contributing areas. The above suggest that both the Martian and the Saharan THV to be of groundwater origins. Herein, we constraint the geomorphological, lithological and textural characteristics of THV in El Diffa and El-Merir plateaus in the Eastern Sahara as a limited analog to the THV in Ius Chasma using structural and textural mapping derived from ALOS PalSAR scenes and similar settings on Mars using SHARAD, MOLA and HIRISE images. These observations are correlated with several in-situ field and laboratory measurements for hardness, granulometry and channel morphology to support the common phenomenology. Preliminary findings show that in both sets of THV, we observe a spatial confinement of boulders to the sidewalls with relatively finer grains along the channel courses, and association with large-scale hydrated sulphates along the sidewalls and channel bottoms

  10. Challenges for creating a site-specific groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Worland, Scott; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrologic budgets to determine groundwater availability are important tools for water-resource managers. One challenging component for developing hydrologic budgets is quantifying water use through time because historical and site-specific water-use data can be sparse or poorly documented. This research developed a groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010 that related county-level aggregated water-use data to site-specific well locations and aquifer units. A simple population-based linear model, constrained to 0 million liters per day in 1900, provided the best means to extrapolate groundwater-withdrawal rates pre-1950s when there was a paucity of water-use data. To disaggregate county-level data to individual wells across a regional aquifer system, a programmatic hierarchical process was developed, based on the level of confidence that a well pumped groundwater for a specific use during a specific year. Statistical models tested on a subset of the best-available site-specific water-use data provided a mechanism to bracket historic groundwater use, such that groundwater-withdrawal rates ranged, on average, plus or minus 38% from modeled values. Groundwater withdrawn for public supply and domestic use accounted for between 48 and 74% of total groundwater use since 1901, highlighting that groundwater provides an important drinking-water resource. The compilation, analysis, and spatial and temporal extrapolation of water-use data remain a challenging task for water scientists, but is of paramount importance to better quantify groundwater use and availability.

  11. Mortality Implications of Mortality Plateaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, T. I.; Vaupel, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe in a unified framework all plateau-generating random effects models in terms of (i) plausible distributions for the hazard (baseline mortality) and the random effect (unobserved heterogeneity, frailty) as well as (ii) the impact of frailty on the baseline hazard...

  12. Operational method of solution of linear non-integer ordinary and partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, K V

    2016-01-01

    We propose operational method with recourse to generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials for solution of a variety of differential equations of mathematical physics. Operational definitions of generalized families of orthogonal polynomials are used in this context. Integral transforms and the operational exponent together with some special functions are also employed in the solutions. The examples of solution of physical problems, related to such problems as the heat propagation in various models, evolutional processes, Black-Scholes-like equations etc. are demonstrated by the operational technique.

  13. Harmonic oscillator states with integer and non-integer orbital angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We study the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator in two and three dimensions, with particular attention to the solutions as basis states for representing their respective symmetry groups — O(2), O(1,1), O(3), and O(2,1). The goal of this study is to establish a correspondence between Hilbert space descriptions found by solving the Schrodinger equation in polar coordinates, and Fock space descriptions constructed by expressing the symmetry operators in terms of creation/annihilation operators. We obtain wavefunctions characterized by a principal quantum number, the group Casimir eigenvalue, and one group generator whose eigenvalue is m + s, for integer m and real constant parameter s. For the three groups that contain O(2), the solutions split into two inequivalent representations, one associated with s = 0, from which we recover the familiar description of the oscillator as a product of one-dimensional solutions, and the other with s > 0 (in three dimensions, solutions are found for s = 0 and s = 1/2) whose solutions are non-separable in Cartesian coordinates, and are hence overlooked by the standard Fock space approach. The O(1,1) solutions are singlet states, restricted to zero eigenvalue of the symmetry operator, which represents the boost, not angular momentum. For O(2), a single set of creation and annihilation operators forms a ladder representation for the allowed oscillator states for any s, and the degeneracy of energy states is always finite. However, in three dimensions, the integer and half-integer eigenstates are qualitatively different: the former can be expressed as finite dimensional irreducible tensors under O(3) or O(2,1) while the latter exhibit infinite degeneracy. Creation operators that produce the allowed integer states by acting on the non-degenerate ground state are constructed as irreducible tensor products of the fundamental vector representation. However, the half-integer eigenstates are infinite-dimensional, as expected for the non-compact O(2,1), and no Fock space description is found for this case. For all s ≠ 0 solutions, the SU(N) symmetry of the harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian recently discovered by Bars is spontaneously broken by the ground state. The connection of this symmetry breaking to the non-separability into one-dimensional Cartesian solutions is demonstrated. We conclude with a discussion of the O(2,1) solutions, and the problem of timelike ghost excitations.

  14. Real-time Nyquist signaling with dynamic precision and flexible non-integer oversampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmogrow, R; Meyer, M; Schindler, P C; Nebendahl, B; Dreschmann, M; Meyer, J; Josten, A; Hillerkuss, D; Ben-Ezra, S; Becker, J; Koos, C; Freude, W; Leuthold, J

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate two efficient processing techniques for Nyquist signals, namely computation of signals using dynamic precision as well as arbitrary rational oversampling factors. With these techniques along with massively parallel processing it becomes possible to generate and receive high data rate Nyquist signals with flexible symbol rates and bandwidths, a feature which is highly desirable for novel flexgrid networks. We achieved maximum bit rates of 252 Gbit/s in real-time.

  15. Identification and non-integer order modelling of synchronous machines operating as generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Racewicz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original mathematical model of a synchronous generator using derivatives of fractional order. In contrast to classical models composed of a large number of R-L ladders, it comprises half-order impedances, which enable the accurate description of the electromagnetic induction phenomena in a wide frequency range, while minimizing the order and number of model parameters. The proposed model takes into account the skin eff ect in damper cage bars, the eff ects of eddy currents in rotor solid parts, and the saturation of the machine magnetic circuit. The half-order transfer functions used for modelling these phenomena were verifi ed by simulation of ferromagnetic sheet impedance using the fi nite elements method. The analysed machine’s parameters were identified on the basis of SSFR (StandStill Frequency Response characteristics measured on a gradually magnetised synchronous machine.

  16. The potential for SLM, facing human constraints, the case of the semi-arid agro-pastoral lands in the Atlantic plateaus, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouina, A.; Chaker, M.; Aderghal, M.; Machouri, N.; Alkarkouri, J.

    2012-04-01

    The agro-pastoral activity through its evolution, in the Atlantic plateaus of Morocco, led to unsuitable forms of resources use, which carried damage in the balance of water and the stability of land. It was thus necessary to start a revision of these practices and to set up improved forms of land use. The research made in the framework of the DESIRE project concerns the Sehoul commune, which presents a high rate of poverty and illiteracy, in spite of its location near Rabat, the capital of the country. Farming has as main objective to feed the livestock. The rain-based cereal cultivations, which still occupy more than 80% of the agricultural surface, reveals the stagnation of the techniques adopted and of the local knowledge. In collaboration with various stakeholders, technicians and farmers, the assessment with the WOCAT approach permitted to identify the main factors of constraints, responsible of the current spreading of land degradation mechanisms (forest clearing, shrubs cutting on the pastoral slopes, soil erosion, constitution of rills in the recently ploughed fields, incision of gullies and channels, mass movements on the banks of the deepest channels). These constraints derive from social evolution of the population during the last 60 years and mainly the rapid transformation of the rural structure of families to a new kind of farmers, more interested by what they can earn during their frequent movements to the city than by their own traditional agriculture. Due to the penetration of urban investment, direct overgrazing and indirect effect related to mismanagement of land for fodder production, operate massive damages to the vegetation cover and to the soil. It is why the SLM behavior, approaches and techniques have a very low rate of chance for success, without a deep change in term of land ownership, law constraints, agrarian structures, relations between the city and its vicinity, etc. Scenarios were built, based on various rates of land management

  17. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registry Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Use Find a Psychiatrist Addiction and Substance Use Disorders ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder Bipolar Disorders Depression Eating Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive ...

  18. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play ...

  19. Schizoaffective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or do not improve with treatment Thoughts of suicide or of harming others Alternative Names Mood disorder - schizoaffective disorder; Psychosis - schizoaffective disorder Images Schizoaffective disorder ...

  20. Performance analysis of subcarrier intensity modulation using rectangular QAM over Malaga turbulence channels with integer and non-integerβ

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the performances of optical wireless communication system utilizing adaptive subcarrier intensity modulation over the Malaga turbulent channel. More specifically, analytical closed-form solutions and asymptotic results

  1. Contribution of non integer integro-differential operators (NIDO) to the geometrical understanding of Riemann's conjecture-(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Mehaute, Alain; El Kaabouchi, Abdelaziz; Nivanen, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Advances in fractional analysis suggest a new way for the physics understanding of Riemann's conjecture. It asserts that, if s is a complex number, the non trivial zeros of zeta function 1/(ζ(s)) =Σ n=1 ∞ (μ(n))/(n s ) in the gap [0, 1], is characterized by s=1/2 (1+2iθ). This conjecture can be understood as a consequence of 1/2-order fractional differential characteristics of automorph dynamics upon opened punctuated torus with an angle at infinity equal to π/4. This physical interpretation suggests new opportunities for revisiting the cryptographic methodologies

  2. Local Fractional Operator for a One-Dimensional Coupled Burger Equation of Non-Integer Time Order Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Edeki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, approximate solutions of a system of time-fractional coupled Burger equations were obtained by means of a local fractional operator (LFO in the sense of the Caputo derivative. The LFO technique was built on the basis of the standard differential transform method (DTM. Illustrative examples used in demonstrating the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method show that the solution method is very efficient and reliable as – unlike the variational iteration method – it does not depend on any process of identifying Lagrange multipliers, even while still maintaining accuracy.

  3. Performance analysis of subcarrier intensity modulation using rectangular QAM over Malaga turbulence channels with integer and non-integerβ

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael G.

    2016-10-13

    In this paper, we derive the performances of optical wireless communication system utilizing adaptive subcarrier intensity modulation over the Malaga turbulent channel. More specifically, analytical closed-form solutions and asymptotic results are derived for average bit error rate, achievable spectral efficiency, outage probability, and ergodic capacity by utilizing series expansion identity of modified Bessel function. Our asymptotic and analytical results based on series solutions with finite numbers highly matched to the numerical results. By exploiting the inherent nature of fading channel, the proposed adaptive scheme enhances the spectral efficiency without additional transmit power while satisfying the required bit error rate criterion. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Signatures of Non-integer 5f Occupancy in Pu Systems: Magnetic Properties and Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havela, Ladislav; Shick, Alexander; Gouder, Thomas; Wastin, Franck; Rebizant, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Very diverse Pu compounds exhibit strikingly universal features in their valence-band photoemission (PES) spectra. The conjecture that such features represent the 5f 5 final state multiplet has been corroborated by LDA+Hubbard calculations, meaning that the ground state has a mixed 5f 5 -5f 6 character. Later on, more elaborated DMFT techniques (one crossing approximation, QMC) led to similar conclusions, providing quantitative explanation of such intermediate-valent situation in more details. Analogies in PES spectra of δ-Pu and other Pu systems suggest that the situation envisaged for δ-Pu is relevant for a large group of Pu compounds. Here we show that the around mean field LDA+U in conjunction with the Hubbard I approximation, which describes well the non-magnetic ground state for δ-Pu, captures in reality properties of a large group of Pu (as well as e.g. Am) compounds, reproducing correctly the onset of magnetism and size of magnetic moments. (authors)

  5. Phonon transmission and thermal conductance in one-dimensional system with on-site potential disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Songshan; Xu Hui; Deng Honggui; Yang Bingchu

    2011-01-01

    The role of on-site potential disorder on phonon transmission and thermal conductance of one-dimensional system is investigated. We found that the on-site potential disorder can lead to the localization of phonons, and has great effect on the phonon transmission and thermal conductance of the system. As on-site potential disorder W increases, the transmission coefficients decrease, and approach zero at the band edges. Corresponding, the thermal conductance decreases drastically, and the curves for thermal conductance exhibit a series of steps and plateaus. Meanwhile, when the on-site potential disorder W is strong enough, the thermal conductance decreases dramatically with the increase of system size N. We also found that the efficiency of reducing thermal conductance by increasing the on-site potential disorder strength is much better than that by increasing the on-site potential's amplitude. - Highlights: → We studied the effect of on-site potential disorder on thermal transport. → Increasing disorder will decrease thermal transport. → Increasing system size will also decrease its thermal conductance. → Increasing disorder is more efficient than other in reducing thermal conductance.

  6. Spacetime dependence of the anomalous exponent of electric transport in the disorder model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egami, Takeshi; Suzuki, Koshiro; Watanabe, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Spacetime dependence of the anomalous exponent of electric transport in the disorder model is investigated. We show that the anomalous exponent evolves with time, according to the time evolution of the number of the effective neighbouring sites. Transition from subdiffusive to normal transport is recovered at macroscopic timescales. Plateaus appear in the history of the anomalous exponent due to the discreteness of the hopping sites, which is compatible with the conventional treatment to regard the anomalous exponent as a constant. We also show that, among various microscopic spatial structures, the number of the effective neighbouring sites is the only element which determines the anomalous exponent. This is compatible with the mesoscopic model of Scher–Montroll. These findings are verified by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The well-known expression of the anomalous exponent in the conventional multiple trapping model is derived by deducing it as a special case of the disorder model. (paper)

  7. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of-control eating Women are more likely than men to have eating disorders. They usually start in the teenage years and often occur along with depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. Eating disorders can ...

  8. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... About Eating Disorders More Publications About Eating Disorders Research Results PubMed: Journal Articles about Eating Disorders Contact Us The National ...

  9. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders in Adults Data Sources Share Personality Disorders Definitions Personality disorders represent “an enduring pattern of inner ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  10. Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... variations in brain chemistry and structure. Risk factors Factors that increase the risk of developing schizoaffective disorder include: Having a close blood relative who has schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Stressful events that trigger symptoms ...

  11. Somatic symptom disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Somatic symptom disorder. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . ...

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the death of a loved one or parents' divorce) and major life transitions (like moving to a ... Ways to Deal With Anxiety Dealing With Difficult Emotions Anxiety Disorders Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Fears and Phobias ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  14. Mathematics disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  15. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  16. Cephalic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... destructive lesions, but are sometimes the result of abnormal development. The disorder can occur before or after birth. Porencephaly most ... decade of life. SCHIZENCEPHALY is a rare developmental disorder characterized by abnormal slits, or clefts, in the cerebral hemispheres. Schizencephaly ...

  17. Oppositional defiant disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as possibilities: Anxiety disorders Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Bipolar disorder Depression Learning disorders Substance abuse disorders Treatment The best treatment for the child is to ...

  18. Panic Disorder and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health illnesses Alcoholism, substance abuse, and addictive behavior Anxiety disorders Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness) Borderline personality disorder Depression Eating disorders Post-traumatic ...

  19. Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...

  20. Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  1. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder; Speech disorder - stuttering ... evaluation tools that can help identify and diagnose speech disorders: Denver Articulation Screening Examination Goldman-Fristoe Test of ...

  2. Bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieta, Eduard; Berk, Michael; Schulze, Thomas G

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are chronic and recurrent disorders that affect >1% of the global population. Bipolar disorders are leading causes of disability in young people as they can lead to cognitive and functional impairment and increased mortality, particularly from suicide and cardiovascular disease...... and accurate diagnosis is difficult in clinical practice as the onset of bipolar disorder is commonly characterized by nonspecific symptoms, mood lability or a depressive episode, which can be similar in presentation to unipolar depression. Moreover, patients and their families do not always understand...... a bipolar disorder from other conditions. Optimal early treatment of patients with evidence-based medication (typically mood stabilizers and antipsychotics) and psychosocial strategies is necessary....

  3. Mental disorders, brain disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Amongst DSM's most vocal 'insider' critics has been Thomas Insel, Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Insel has publicly criticised DSM's adherence to a symptom-based classification of mental disorder, and used the weight ...

  4. [Eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders.

  5. Cephalic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information sheet compiled by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Patient Organizations Birth Defect Research for Children, Inc. 976 Lake Baldwin Lane Suite 104 Orlando ...

  6. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  7. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is

  8. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  9. Gambling disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, David C; Stea, Jonathan N; Grant, Jon E

    2011-11-26

    Gambling disorders, including pathological gambling and problem gambling, have received increased attention from clinicians and researchers over the past three decades since gambling opportunities have expanded around the world. This Seminar reviews prevalence, causes and associated features, screening and diagnosis, and treatment approaches. Gambling disorders affect 0·2-5·3% of adults worldwide, although measurement and prevalence varies according to the screening instruments and methods used, and availability and accessibility of gambling opportunities. Several distinct treatment approaches have been favourably evaluated, such as cognitive behavioural and brief treatment models and pharmacological interventions. Although promising, family therapy and support from Gamblers Anonymous are less well empirically supported. Gambling disorders are highly comorbid with other mental health and substance use disorders, and a further understanding is needed of both the causes and treatment implications of this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  11. [Dissociative disorders and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montant, J; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Cermolacce, M; Pringuey, D; Da Fonseca, D; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenology of dissociative disorders may be complex and sometimes confusing. We describe here two cases who were initially misdiagnosed. The first case concerned a 61 year-old woman, who was initially diagnosed as an isolated dissociative fugue and was actually suffering from severe major depressive episode. The second case concerned a 55 year-old man, who was suffering from type I bipolar disorder and polyvascular disease, and was initially diagnosed as dissociative fugue in a mooddestabilization context, while it was finally a stroke. Yet dissociative disorders as affective disorder comorbidity are relatively unknown. We made a review on this topic. Dissociative disorders are often studied through psycho-trauma issues. Litterature is rare on affective illness comorbid with dissociative disorders, but highlight the link between bipolar and dissociative disorders. The later comorbidity often refers to an early onset subtype with also comorbid panic and depersonalization-derealization disorder. Besides, unipolar patients suffering from dissociative symptoms have more often cyclothymic affective temperament. Despite the limits of such studies dissociative symptoms-BD association seems to correspond to a clinical reality and further works on this topic may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  12. Meeting Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Joel; Katzman, Jeffrey W

    2017-12-01

    Although meetings are central to organizational work, considerable time devoted to meetings in Academic Health Centers appears to be unproductively spent. The primary purposes of this article are to delineate and describe Meeting Disorders, pathological processes resulting in these inefficient and ineffective scenarios, and Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD), a clinical syndrome. The paper also offers preliminary approaches to remedies. The authors integrate observations made during tens of thousands of hours in administrative meetings in academic medical settings with information in the literature regarding the nature, causes and potential interventions for dysfunctional groups and meetings. Meeting Disorders, resulting from distinct pathologies of leadership and organization, constitute prevalent subgroups of the bureaucrapathologies, pathological conditions caused by dysfunctional bureaucratic processes that generate excesses of wasted time, effort, and other resources. These disorders also generate frustration and demoralization among participants, contributing to professional burnout. Meeting Fatigue Disorder (MFD) is a subjective condition that develops in individuals who overdose on these experiences and may reflect one manifestation of burnout. Meeting disorders and Meeting Fatigue Disorder occur commonly in bureaucratic life. Resources and potential remedies are available to help ameliorate their more deleterious effects.

  13. Conduct disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop problems with drug abuse and the law. Depression and bipolar disorder may develop in the teen years and early adulthood. Suicide and violence toward others are also possible complications.

  14. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  15. Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to control them. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) ARFID is a new term that some people think ... eating issues can also cause it. People with ARFID don't have anorexia or bulimia, but they ...

  16. Neurocutaneous Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Tena

    2018-02-01

    This article presents an up-to-date summary of the genetic etiology, diagnostic criteria, clinical features, and current management recommendations for the most common neurocutaneous disorders encountered in clinical adult and pediatric neurology practices. The phakomatoses are a phenotypically and genetically diverse group of multisystem disorders that primarily affect the skin and central nervous system. A greater understanding of the genetic and biological underpinnings of numerous neurocutaneous disorders has led to better clinical characterization, more refined diagnostic criteria, and improved treatments in neurofibromatosis type 1, Legius syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 2, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, tuberous sclerosis complex, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and incontinentia pigmenti. Neurologists require a basic knowledge of and familiarity with a wide variety of neurocutaneous disorders because of the frequent involvement of the central and peripheral nervous systems. A simple routine skin examination can often open a broad differential diagnosis and lead to improved patient care.

  17. Factitious Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support their claims. Factitious disorder signs and symptoms may include: Clever and convincing medical or psychological problems Extensive knowledge of medical terms and diseases Vague or inconsistent symptoms Conditions that get worse for no apparent ...

  18. Neuromuscular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead to twitching, cramps, aches and pains, and joint and movement problems. Sometimes it also affects heart function and your ability to breathe. Examples of neuromuscular disorders include Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Multiple sclerosis Myasthenia ...

  19. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  20. Amnestic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Savage, G.; Cautin, R.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic disorders may involve deficits in the encoding or storage of information in memory, or in retrieval of information from memory. Etiologies vary and include traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, and psychiatric illness. Different forms of amnesia can be distinguished:

  1. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  2. TMJ Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aching pain in and around your ear Difficulty chewing or pain while chewing Aching facial pain Locking of the joint, making ... disorder. When to see a doctor Seek medical attention if you have persistent pain or tenderness in ...

  3. Autoimmune disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. Eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kontić Olga; Vasiljević Nadja; Trišović Marija; Jorga Jagoda; Lakić Aneta; Jašović-Gašić Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis...

  5. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antisocial behavior Impulse control problems Substance use disorder Suicide Many children and teens with ODD also have other mental health disorders, such as: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Conduct disorder Depression Anxiety Learning and communication disorders Treating these other ...

  6. Tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Davide; Mink, Jonathan W

    2013-10-01

    Primary tic disorders are complex, multifactorial disorders in which tics are accompanied by other sensory features and an array of comorbid behavioral disorders. Secondary tics are proportionally much less frequent, but their etiology is diverse. This review aims to guide clinicians in the recognition of the phenomenology, pathophysiology, and treatment of these disorders. Advances include greater phenomenologic insights, particularly of nonmotor (sensory) features; increased knowledge of disease mechanisms, particularly coming from neuropsychological, functional imaging, pathologic, and animal model studies; growing evidence on the efficacy of alpha-2 agonists and the newer generation of dopamine-modulating agents; and recent strides in the evaluation of cognitive-behavioral therapy and deep brain stimulation surgery. The correct diagnostic approach to tic disorders requires accurate historical gathering, a thorough neurologic examination, and detailed definition of the patient's psychopathologic profile. Treatment should always begin with individualized psychoeducational strategies. Although pharmacologic treatments remain beneficial for most patients, cognitive-behavioral treatments have thus far shown promising efficacy. Deep brain stimulation surgery should still be limited to adult patients refractory to pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy.

  7. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a series of reader’s digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516028

  8. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  9. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  10. Penis Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  11. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one or other traumatic event Drug or alcohol abuse Complications Left untreated, bipolar disorder can result in serious problems that affect every area of your life, such as: Problems related to drug and alcohol use Suicide or suicide attempts Legal or financial problems Damaged ...

  12. Hoarding disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reminder of happier times or representing beloved people or pets They feel safer when surrounded by the things ... that are part of hoarding disorder. Hoarding animals People who hoard animals may collect dozens or even hundreds of pets. Animals may be confined inside or outside. Because ...

  13. Anorectal Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish S. C.; Bharucha, Adil E.; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Felt-Bersma, Richelle; Knowles, Charles; Malcolm, Allison; Wald, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of the following common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain, and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals, and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into 3 subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome and unspecified anorectal pain, the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in levator ani syndrome there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by ≥2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with ≥2 features of impaired evacuation, that is, abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test, or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes 2 subtypes: dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating levator ani syndrome and defecatory disorders. PMID:27144630

  14. Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Russell, Samantha; Rasor, Kaitlin

    2017-01-01

    Depression is among the most common mental disorders in the United States. Its diagnosis is often related to impairment of functioning across several domains, including how an individual thinks, feels, and participates in daily activities. Although depression has a relatively high prevalence among adults, the rate is alarmingly higher among…

  15. Eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontić Olga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient’s health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one’s own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases.

  16. Balance Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vertigo. If you have additional problems with motor control, such as weakness, slowness, tremor, or rigidity, you can lose your ability to recover properly from imbalance. This raises the risk of falling and injury. What are some types of balance disorders? There are more than a dozen different ...

  17. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  18. Autism and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  19. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  20. What Are Related Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Contact Us Donate Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ...

  1. Panic Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Panic Disorder Definition Panic Disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  2. Personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...

  3. Disordered eating practices in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satherley, R; Howard, R; Higgs, S

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review evidence concerning disordered eating practices in dietary-controlled gastrointestinal conditions. Three key questions were examined: a) are disordered eating practices a feature of GI disorders?; b) what abnormal eating practices are present in those with GI disorders?; and c) what factors are associated with the presence of disordered eating in those with GI disorders? By exploring these questions, we aim to develop a conceptual model of disordered eating development in GI disease. Five key databases, Web of Science with Conference Proceedings (1900-2014) and MEDLINE (1950-2014), PubMed, PsycINFO (1967-2014) and Google Scholar, were searched for papers relating to disordered eating practices in those with GI disorders. All papers were quality assessed before being included in the review. Nine papers were included in the review. The majority of papers reported that the prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls. Disordered eating patterns in dietary-controlled GI disorders may be associated with both anxiety and GI symptoms. Evidence concerning the correlates of disordered eating was limited. The presence of disordered eating behaviours is greater in populations with GI disorders than in populations of healthy controls, but the direction of the relationship is not clear. Implications for further research are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Anxiety Disorder and Mood Disorders Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerrin Binbay

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subsequent major depression. The absence of comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder is a predictor of good response to treatment. In bipolar disorder patients with comorbid social anxiety disorder, there is an increased level of general psychopathology. Besides, they have poor outcome and increased risk of suicide. In this article, comorbidity between these two disorders has been evaluated in detail.

  5. Imprinting disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Maher, Eamonn R

    2015-01-01

    Congenital imprinting disorders (IDs) are characterised by molecular changes affecting imprinted chromosomal regions and genes, i.e. genes that are expressed in a parent-of-origin specific manner. Recent years have seen a great expansion in the range of alterations in regulation, dosage or DNA...... sequence shown to disturb imprinted gene expression, and the correspondingly broad range of resultant clinical syndromes. At the same time, however, it has become clear that this diversity of IDs has common underlying principles, not only in shared molecular mechanisms, but also in interrelated clinical...

  6. Treatment of anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bandelow, Borwin; Michaelis, Sophie; Wedekind, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder/agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, and others) are the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, and are associated with a high burden of illness. Anxiety disorders are often underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Treatment is indicated when a patient shows marked distress or suffers from complications resulting from the disorder. The treatment recommendations given in this article are based on guidelines, meta-analyses...

  7. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  8. Lyapunov exponent and topological entropy plateaus in piecewise linear maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella-Soler, V; Oteo, J A; Ros, J; Glendinning, P

    2013-01-01

    We consider a two-parameter family of piecewise linear maps in which the moduli of the two slopes take different values. We provide numerical evidence of the existence of some parameter regions in which the Lyapunov exponent and the topological entropy remain constant. Analytical proof of this phenomenon is also given for certain cases. Surprisingly however, the systems with that property are not conjugate as we prove by using kneading theory. (paper)

  9. Aging in Escherichia coli: stochasticity, individual heterogeneity and mortality plateaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli

    2014-01-01

    Senescence is the decline of function with age that results from damage accumulation over the lifespan. It evolves because selective forces decrease with age. Despite substantial interest in senescence, evidence for even such general aging mechanisms is ambiguous. Many mechanisms and factors are ....... Such simple organisms are expected to show senescence because of asymmetric division of accumulated damage among mother and daughter cells, accumulation of late acting deleterious mutations, or antagonistic pleiotropic effects....

  10. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  11. Sleep Disorders in Childhood Neurogenetic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beth Mann Dosier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic advances in the past three decades have transformed our understanding and treatment of many human diseases including neurogenetic disorders. Most neurogenetic disorders can be classified as “rare disease,” but collectively neurogenetic disorders are not rare and are commonly encountered in general pediatric practice. The authors decided to select eight relatively well-known neurogenetic disorders including Down syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Smith–Magenis syndrome, congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, achondroplasia, mucopolysaccharidoses, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Each disorder is presented in the following format: overview, clinical characteristics, developmental aspects, associated sleep disorders, management and research/future directions.

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) KidsHealth / For Parents / Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( ... My Child? Looking Ahead Print What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? Someone who is the victim of ( ...

  13. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  14. Paediatric Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent among children and are associated with serious morbidity. Lifetime prevalence of paediatric anxiety disorders is about fifteen percent. Social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder are included in the triad of paediatric anxiety disorders. Specific phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder are also commonly seen in children. Overprotection by parents, parental death or separation, female sex, low educational status, family history of anxiety disorder, financial stress in family and adverse childhood experiences are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders. If not diagnosed and managed at the earliest, paediatric anxiety disorders can cause life threatening problems in the future. Hence early and scientific management of anxiety disorders is essential. Cognitive behavioural therapy is the effective evidence based treatment for paediatric anxiety disorders.

  15. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in ...

  16. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  17. Pituitary Gland Disorders Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  18. Chronic motor tic disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  19. Eating disorder symptoms in affective disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, P N

    1991-01-01

    Patients with Major Affective Disorder (MAD), Secondary Depression, Panic Disorder, and bulimia with and without MAD, were given the Eating Disorder Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Behavior Inventory at presentation. It was found that patients with MAD have a triad of eating disorder symptoms: a disturbance in interoceptive awareness, the sense of ineffectiveness, and a tendency toward bulimia. The data supported the concept that the sense of ineffectiveness is secon...

  20. ACE: Health - Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about children reported to have ever been diagnosed with four different neurodevelopmental disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, autism, and intellectual disability.

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  2. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Vaginal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, S F

    1986-05-01

    Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous

  4. Conduct Disorder and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Nicole D.; Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1999-01-01

    Provides critical examination of research published during past ten years addressing Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and internalizing disorders. Concludes comorbidity varies with age, gender, informant, diagnostic criteria, and nature of the sample. Implications of comorbidity…

  5. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lut Tamam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent explosive disorder is an impulse control disorder characterized by the occurrence of discrete episodes of failure to resist aggressive impulses that result in violent assault or destruction of property. Though the prevalence intermittent explosive disorder has been reported to be relatively rare in frontier studies on the field, it is now common opinion that intermittent explosive disorder is far more common than previously thought especially in clinical psychiatry settings. Etiological studies displayed the role of both psychosocial factors like childhood traumas and biological factors like dysfunctional neurotransmitter systems and genetics. In differential diagnosis of the disorder, disorders involving agression as a symptom such as alcohol and drug intoxication, antisocial and borderline personality disorders, personality changes due to general medical conditions and behavioral disorder should be considered. A combination of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are suggested in the treatment of the disorder. This article briefly reviews the historical background, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, etiology and treatment of intermittent explosive disorder.

  6. Adult onset tic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Chouinard, S.; Ford, B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tic disorders presenting during adulthood have infrequently been described in the medical literature. Most reports depict adult onset secondary tic disorders caused by trauma, encephalitis, and other acquired conditions. Only rare reports describe idiopathic adult onset tic disorders, and most of these cases represent recurrent childhood tic disorders.
OBJECTIVE—To describe a large series of patients with tic disorders presenting during adulthood, to compare cl...

  7. BIPOLAR DISORDER: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pathan Dilnawaz N; Ziyaurrahaman A.R; Bhise K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder that results in poor global functioning, reduced quality of life and high relapse rates. Research finds that many adults with bipolar disorder identify the onset of symptoms in childhood and adolescence, indicating the importance of early accurate diagnosis and treatment. Accurate diagnosis of mood disorders is critical for treatment to be effective. Distinguishing between major depression and bipolar disorders, especially the depressed p...

  8. Anxiety Disorders and the Family: How families affect psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsley, John

    1991-01-01

    Family functioning and anxiety disorders, the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorder, influence one another. The empirical literature on family studies of anxiety disorder (ie, aggregration of disorders within families), on parent-child relationships and anxiety disorders, and on marriage and anxiety disorders is reviewed. Finally, the challenges for patients and their families of post-traumatic stress disorder are discussed.

  9. Comorbidity bipolar disorder and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Jana; Ociskova, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients can be affected by comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. We have much information about treating patients with uncomplicated bipolar disorder (BD) but much less knowledge about possibilities for patients with the comorbidity of BD and personality disorder. We conducted a series of literature searches using, as key words or as items in indexed fields, bipolar disorder and personality disorder or personality traits. Articles were obtained by searching MEDLINE from 1970 to 2012. In addition, we used other papers cited in articles from these searches, or cited in articles used in our own work. Tests of personality traits indicated that euthymic bipolar patients have higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, and novelty seeking than controls. Elevation of novelty seeking in bipolar patients is associated with substance abuse comorbidity. Comorbidity with personality disorders in BD patients is associated with a more difficult course of illness (such as longer episodes, shorter time euthymic, and earlier age at onset) and an increase in comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and aggression. These problems are particularly pronounced in comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder elicits a similar spectrum of difficulties; some of the antisocial behavior exhibited by patients with this comorbidity is mediated by increased impulsivity.

  10. Binge Eating Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Turan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Binge Eating Disorder, characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes that are accompanied by feeling of loss of control over eating without regular compensatory behaviors and was identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as a new eating disorder category. Binge Eating Disorder is the most common eating disorder among adults. Binge Eating Disorder is associated with significant morbidity, including medical complications related to obesity, eating disorder psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity; reduced quality of life, and impaired social functioning. Current treatments of Binge Eating Disorder include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy and bariatric surgery. In this review, the definition, epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and also mainly treatment of Binge Eating Disorder are discussed.

  11. Bipolar disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2013-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric condition that may have onset in childhood. It is important for physicians to recognize the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in order to accurately diagnose this illness early in its course. Evidence regarding the efficacy of various treatments is necessary to guide the management of bipolar disorder in youth. For example, several medications commonly used for adults with bipolar disorder have not shown efficacy for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents and provides physicians with information that will aid in diagnosis and treatment.

  12. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland.

  13. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  14. Tic Disorder and ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    The behavioral and neuropsychological characteristics of tic disorder, with or without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), were examined in 78 children followed at Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.

  15. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  16. Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring Disorders and ... 500 Montgomery Street, Suite 820 Alexandria, VA 22314 Phone (703) 684.7722 Toll Free (800) 969.6642 ...

  17. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  18. Genetic Brain Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  19. Speech and Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to being completely unable to speak or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, ... or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism ...

  20. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  1. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet What is autism spectrum disorder? What are some ... of mutations in individual genes but rather spontaneous coding mutations across many genes. De novo mutations may ...

  3. What Are Reading Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and language-based learning disabilities are commonly called dyslexia . These disorders are present from a young age ... information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of learning disability ...

  4. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  5. Neuroimaging of neurotic disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Yoshiro; Yahata, Noriaki

    2006-01-01

    Neuroimaging has been involved in recent biological approaches with evidence for neurotic disorders in place of diagnostic criteria on Freud theory hitherto. This review describes the present states of brain imaging in those disorders. Emotion has such three bases for environmental stimuli as recognition/evaluation of causable factors, manifestation, and its control, each of which occurs in various different regions connected by neuro-net work in the brain. The disorders are regarded as abnormality of the circuit that can be imaged. Documented and discussed are the actual regions imaged by MRI and PET in panic disorder, social phobia, phobias to specified things, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The approach is thought important for elucidating not only the pathogenesis of the disorders but also the human emotional functions and mechanism of the mind, which may lead to a better treatment of the disorders in future. (T.I)

  6. Diagnosing Tic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Diagnosing Tic Disorders Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... or postviral encephalitis). Persistent (Chronic) Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder To be diagnosed with a persistent tic ...

  7. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  8. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  9. Language disorder - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders are rarely caused by a lack of intelligence. Language disorders are different than delayed language. With ... 2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM ...

  10. Bipolar disorder: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manic-depressive disorder, is a chronic disorder characterised by abnormal mood ... of onset, family history, atypical features and mixed symptoms. Screening tools .... has been associated with mood irritability, anxiety, mania and psychosis.

  11. Betaxolol in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, C M

    1998-03-01

    Betaxolol, a long-acting beta-adrenergic blocker that enters the central nervous system, was examined for therapeutic effects on the persistent anxiety of anxiety disorders. Prior studies of beta-blockers examined only agents that were short-acting or did not enter the brain. Betaxolol was administered to 31 patients in open trials. Of 13 outpatients, 11 had generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Five with GAD had concurrent panic disorder. Of 18 inpatients, 16 had GAD and 2 had adjustment disorder with anxiety. Betaxolol doses were increased until the patient responded or declined further dosage. Severity was rated on a 4-point global scale. Before betaxolol, all were moderately or severely ill. In all patients with panic disorder panic attacks stopped within 2 days (pAnxiety decreased to no more than marginally ill in 85% of outpatients (panxiety and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. Preliminary observations in posttraumatic stress disorder are similar.

  12. Heart Diseases and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Back to Patient Resources Heart Diseases & Disorders Millions of people experience irregular or abnormal ... harmless and happen in healthy people free of heart disease. However, some abnormal heart rhythms can be serious ...

  13. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compulsive disorder. Environment. Your environment, life experiences and culture may contribute to body dysmorphic disorder, especially if they involve negative social evaluations about your body or self-image, or even childhood neglect or abuse. Risk factors ...

  14. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  16. Generalised anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Christopher K; Millichamp, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by persistent, excessive and difficult-to-control worry, which may be accompanied by several psychic and somatic symptoms, including suicidality. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder in the primary care, although it is often underrecognised and undertreated. Generalized anxiety disorder is typically a chronic condition with low short- and medium-term remission rates. Clinical presentations often include depression, ...

  17. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...... to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients...

  18. Common anorectal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

  19. Sexual Desire Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the phys...

  20. Functional esophageal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Clouse, R; Richter, J; Heading, R; Janssens, J; Wilson, J

    1999-01-01

    The functional esophageal disorders include globus, rumination syndrome, and symptoms that typify esophageal diseases (chest pain, heartburn, and dysphagia). Factors responsible for symptom production are poorly understood. The criteria for diagnosis rest not only on compatible symptoms but also on exclusion of structural and metabolic disorders that might mimic the functional disorders. Additionally, a functional diagnosis is precluded by the presence of a pathology-based motor disorder or p...

  1. Seizure Disorders in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? • What risks are associated with having a seizure ... If I have a seizure disorder, can it cause problems during pregnancy? Seizure disorders can affect pregnancy in several ways: • ...

  2. Mood Disorders - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Mood Disorders: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Trastornos del estado de ánimo: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - English PDF Bipolar Disorder (An ...

  3. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  4. Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)

  5. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  6. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using blood tests. If there is a family history of one of these disorders, parents can get genetic testing to see whether they carry the gene. Other genetic tests can tell whether the fetus has the disorder or carries the gene for the disorder. Enzyme replacement therapies can help with a few of ...

  7. Connective Tissue Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of connective tissue. Over 200 disorders that impact connective tissue. There are different types: Genetic disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and osteogenesis imperfecta Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma Cancers, like some types of soft tissue sarcoma Each ...

  8. Treatment of Schizoaffective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H.; Buckley, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included.

  9. Dual Disorders in Adolescent Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van West, D.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents who abuse substances is the rule rather than the exception, and common comorbidities include depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, conduct disorder, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Among adolescents, the presence of both mental

  10. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. La Tourette's Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fernando Oviedo Lugo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder in which tic symptoms emerge prior to age of 18 and have, at least, a minimum duration of 12 months. This disorder produces distress and impairs normal functioning; it has a well-known chronic-waxing and waning course. TS has several comorbid conditions like obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and learning disorders, among others. This article will review the epidemiologic, etiologic and phenomenological concepts of the disease and its therapeutic perspectives.

  12. Bipolar Disorder in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on gender's role in bipolar disorders has drawn significant interest recently. The presentation and course of bipolar disorder differs between women and men. Women experience depressive episodes, dysphoric mood, mixed states, rapid cycling and seasonal patterns more often than men. Comorbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders laso occur more frequently in women than men. On the other hand men with bipolar disorder are also more likely than women to have problems with drug or alcohol abuse. The pregnancy and postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of bipolar disorder in women.

  13. Chronobiology and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Living organizms show cyclic rhythmicity in a variety of physiological, hormonal, behavioral, and psychological processes. Sleep-wake cycles, body temperature, hormone levels, mood and cognition display a circadian rhythm in humans. Delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythm are known to be strongly associated with mental illness especially mood disorders such as bipolar disorder, major depression and seasonal affective disorder. Furthermore, some of the mood stabilizers, sleep deprivation and light treatment are employed to treat mood disorders by shifting circadian rhythm. This paper reviews the relationship between mood disorders and circadian rhythm, and describes treatment options by altering circadian rhythm.

  14. Generalised anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Avguštin Avčin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by persistent, excessive and difficult-to-control worry, which may be accompanied by several psychic and somatic symptoms, including suicidality. Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common psychiatric disorder in the primary care, although it is often underrecognised and undertreated. Generalized anxiety disorder is typically a chronic condition with low short- and medium-term remission rates. Clinical presentations often include depression, somatic illness, pain, fatigue and problems sleeping. The evaluation of prognosis is complicated by frequent comorbidity with other anxiety disorders and depression, which worsen the long-term outcome and accompanying burden of disability. The two main treatments for generalised anxiety disorder are medications and psychotherapy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors represent first-line psychopharmacologic treatment for generalised anxiety disorder. The most extensively studied psychotherapy for anxiety is cognitive behavioural therapy which has demonstrated efficacy throughout controlled studies.

  15. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  16. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozkan; Abdurrahman Altindag

    2003-01-01

    Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male), who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia). Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders...

  17. [Rethink the panic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amami, O; Aloulou, J; Siala, M; Aribi, L

    2010-04-01

    We propose some reflexions on the validity of the conceptualization of panic disorder, its nosographical place, and its clinical homogeneity, through the study of the frequency of some of its psychiatric comorbidities. To define a panic attack, DSM IV requires a number of symptoms which vary from four to 13. However, some patients suffer from panic attacks with less than four symptoms (paucisymptomatic attacks) and which fill the other criteria of panic disorder. These patients would have a biological vulnerability, familial antecedents, and a treatment response which are similar to those that fill the criteria of the panic attack according to the DSM. Some authors differentiate the panic disorder in several sub-groups, such as the panic disorder with cardiorespiratory symptoms, or vestibular symptoms, or cognitive symptoms. This division of the panic disorder in several sub-groups would have an interest in the knowledge of the etiopathogeny, the attacks' frequency, the disorder severity and the treatment response. Panic disorder with prevalent somatic expression includes crises without cognitive symptoms. This sub-type can be common in the medical context, especially in cardiology, but it is often ignored, at the price of loss of socio-professional adaptability, and a medical overconsumption. The relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia appears to be the subject of controversies. According to the behavioral theory, phobic disorder is the primum movens of the sequence of appearance of the disorders. American psychiatry considers agoraphobia as a secondary response to the panic disorder, and pleads for a central role of panic attacks as an etiopathogenic factor in the development of agoraphobia. The distinction between panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder can be difficult. This is due to the existence of paucisymptomatic panic attacks. Their paroxystic nature is difficult to distinguish from the fluctuations of the generalized anxiety disorder

  18. Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thien Thien

    2017-11-01

    To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Gambling disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior, associated with impaired functioning, reduced quality of life, and frequent divorce and bankruptcy. Gambling disorder is reclassified in the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders in the DSM-5 because its clinical features closely resemble those of substance use disorders, and gambling activates the reward system in brain in much the same way drugs do. Prevalence of gambling disorder in Japan is high rate because of slot machines and pachinko game are very popular in Japan. The author recommend group psychotherapy and self-help group (Gamblers Anonymous), because group dynamics make them accept their wrongdoings related to gambling and believe that they can enjoy their lives without gambling.

  20. Treatment of personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Anthony W; Gunderson, John; Mulder, Roger

    2015-02-21

    The evidence base for the effective treatment of personality disorders is insufficient. Most of the existing evidence on personality disorder is for the treatment of borderline personality disorder, but even this is limited by the small sample sizes and short follow-up in clinical trials, the wide range of core outcome measures used by studies, and poor control of coexisting psychopathology. Psychological or psychosocial intervention is recommended as the primary treatment for borderline personality disorder and pharmacotherapy is only advised as an adjunctive treatment. The amount of research about the underlying, abnormal, psychological or biological processes leading to the manifestation of a disordered personality is increasing, which could lead to more effective interventions. The synergistic or antagonistic interaction of psychotherapies and drugs for treating personality disorder should be studied in conjunction with their mechanisms of change throughout the development of each. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  3. EATING DISORDERS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Jayaram, Vasantha; Fernandez, M. Peter

    1995-01-01

    Data on the nature and extent of major eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia is lacking in non-white, native populations of the developing world, leaving a gap in understanding the determinants of these disorders. In a study on 210 medical students examined by a two-stage survey method, 31 subjects were found to have distress relating to their eating habits and body size not amounting to criterion-based diagnosis of eating disorders. The characteristics of this eating distress syndro...

  4. Treatment of Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the range of treatments prescribed for schizoaffective disorder. The data show that the majority of those treated, 87 percent, receive two or more pharmaceutical classes. From a therapeutic class perspective, 93 percent of schizoaffective disorder patients receive an antipsychotic, 48 percent receive a mood disorder treatment, and 42 percent receive an antidepressant. An expert commentary is also included. PMID:19724749

  5. Eating Disorders in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available According to International Classification of Diseases by World Health Organization, eating disorders are behavioural syndromes associated with physiological disturbances [1]. Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, atypical anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, atypical bulimia nervosa, overeating associated with other psychological disturbances and vomiting associated with other psychological disturbances [1]. Maladaptive eating pattern and inadequate physical activity are seen in adolescents with eating disorders and obesity [2]. Those with comorbid eating disorder and obesity have a poorer prognosis and are at higher risk for future medical problems.

  6. Temporomandibular Disorders and Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Abbott, Jeremy J

    2016-08-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and primary headaches can be perpetual and debilitating musculoskeletal and neurological disorders. The presence of both can affect up to one-sixth of the population at any one time. Initially, TMDs were thought to be predominantly musculoskeletal disorders, and migraine was thought to be solely a cerebrovascular disorder. The further understanding of their pathophysiology has helped to clarify their clinical presentation. This article focuses on the role of the trigeminal system in associating TMD and migraine. By discussing recent descriptions of prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of headache and TMD, we will further elucidate this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Motility Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurko, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Gastrointestinal motility disorders in the pediatric population are common and can range from benign processes to more serious disorders. Performing and interpreting motility evaluations in children present unique challenges. There are primary motility disorders but abnormal motility may be secondary due to other disease processes. Diagnostic studies include radiographic scintigraphic and manometry studies. Although recent advances in the genetics, biology, and technical aspects are having an important impact and have allowed for a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapy for gastrointestinal motility disorders in children, further research is needed to be done to have better understanding of the pathophysiology and for better therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Speech disorder prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladis Fornaris-Méndez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.

  9. Addictive Disorders in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Anh; Moukaddam, Nidal; Toledo, Alexander; Onigu-Otite, Edore

    2017-09-01

    Addictive disorders in youth represent a dynamic field characterized by shifting patterns of substance use and high rates of experimentation, while retaining the risky behaviors and negative outcomes associated with established drug classes. Youth/adolescents are also at the forefront of use of new technologies, and non-substance-related disorders are pertinent. These disorders present with similar pictures of impairment, and can be diagnosed following the same principles. An underlying mental disorder and the possibility of a dual diagnosis need to be assessed carefully, and optimal treatment includes psychosocial treatments with applicable pharmacologic management, the latter representing an expanding field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  11. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-19

    Jun 19, 2009 ... Bipolar mood disorder (BMD) has traditionally been seen as an adult disorder and .... antisocial behaviour, such as conduct disorder.3. In young ... In personality structure and temperament, children with BMD are more likely to ...

  13. Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available According to epidemiological studies, rates of social anxiety disorder(SAD or social phobia range from 3% to 16% in the generalpopulation.[1,2]Social phobia and specific phobias have an earlier ageof onset than other anxiety disorders.

  14. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  15. Disorders of visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ffytche, Dominic H.; Blom, J. D.; Catani, M.

    Visual perceptual disorders are often presented as a disparate group of neurological deficits with little consideration given to the wide range of visual symptoms found in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease. Here, the authors attempt a functional anatomical classification of all disorders

  16. Female sexual arousal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Pfaus, James; Laan, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined in one entity.

  17. [DSM-5: neurodevelopmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinkstok, J.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published in May, 2013. AIM: To review the changes in the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD in DSM-5, compared to DSM-IV. METHOD: The diagnostic criteria for ASD and ADHD

  18. Defining Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Richard; Maughan, Barbara; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Background: ICD-10 and DSM-IV include similar criterial symptom lists for conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), but while DSM-IV treats each list separately, ICD-10 considers them jointly. One consequence is that ICD-10 identifies a group of children with ODD subtype who do not receive a diagnosis under DSM-IV. Methods: We…

  19. Body dysmorphic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klatte, Julia; Vulink, Nienke; Kemperman, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a mental disorder by which the patient is obsessed with a perceived or minor defect in appearance, usually affecting the skin, hair, or nose, a defect hardly or not seen by others. This obsession can cause severe suffering and suicidality. Most patients consult a

  20. Disordered Gambling Prevalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Jessen, Lasse J.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    to all subjects and estimate prospective risk for disordered gambling. We find that 87.6% of the population is indicated for no detectable risk, 5.4% is indicated for early risk, 1.7% is indicated for intermediate risk, 2.6% is indicated for advanced risk, and 2.6% is indicated for disordered gambling...

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... work. Autism: What's New MMWR article: Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press release: Autism Prevalence Slightly ...

  2. Disorder parameter of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Ejiri, S.; Matsubara, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    1996-01-01

    The disorder parameter of confinement-deconfinement phase transition based on the monopole action determined previously in SU(2) QCD are investigated. We construct an operator which corresponds to the order parameter defined in the abelian Higgs model. The operator shows proper behaviors as the disorder parameter in the numerical simulations of finite temperature QCD. (orig.)

  3. Athletes with seizure disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Byron Don; Pleacher, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with seizure disorders have long been restricted from participation in certain sporting activities. Those with seizure disorders are more likely than their peers to have a sedentary lifestyle and to develop obesity. Regular participation in physical activity can improve both physical and psychosocial outcomes for persons with seizure disorders. Seizure activity often is reduced among those patients who regularly engage in aerobic activity. Recent literature indicates that the diagnosis of seizure disorders remains highly stigmatizing in the adolescent population. Persons with seizure disorders may be more accepted by peer groups if they are allowed to participate in sports and recreational activities. Persons with seizure disorders are encouraged to participate in regular aerobic activities. They may participate in team sports and contact or collision activities provided that they utilize appropriate protective equipment. There seems to be no increased risk of injury or increasing seizure activity as the result of such participation. Persons with seizure disorders still are discouraged from participating in scuba diving and skydiving. The benefits of participation in regular sporting activity far outweigh any risk to the athlete with a seizure disorder who chooses to participate in sports.

  4. Eating Disorders and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary

    Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…

  5. Disorders of visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ffytche, Dominic H.; Blom, J. D.; Catani, M.

    2010-01-01

    Visual perceptual disorders are often presented as a disparate group of neurological deficits with little consideration given to the wide range of visual symptoms found in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disease. Here, the authors attempt a functional anatomical classification of all disorders

  6. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar spectrum. This association may reflect

  7. Autistic disorder in 2 children with mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chang-Yong; Mendell, Jerry R

    2007-09-01

    Autistic disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. The majority of the cases are idiopathic, and only a small number of the autistic children have associated secondary diagnosis. This article reports 2 children with mitochondrial disorders associated with autistic disorder fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of the American Psychiatric Association Manual of Psychiatric Diseases, 4th edition, and briefly reviews the literature on autistic disorder associated with mitochondrial disorders.

  8. Conduct disorders as a result of specific learning disorders

    OpenAIRE

    VOKROJOVÁ, Nela

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on relationship between specific learning disorders and conduct disorders in puberty. The theoretical part explains the basic terms apearing in the thesis such as specific learning disorders, conduct disorders, puberty and prevention of conduct disorder formation. It presents Czech and foreign research which have already been done in this and related areas. The empirical part uses a quantitative method to measure anxiety and occurrence of conduct disorders in second grade ...

  9. Affective disorders among patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hege Nordem Sjåstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. METHODS: In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773, we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043 had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636. Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. RESULTS: More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than

  10. Affective Disorders among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjåstad, Hege Nordem; Gråwe, Rolf W.; Egeland, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Background The high co-occurrence between borderline personality disorder and affective disorders has led many to believe that borderline personality disorder should be considered as part of an affective spectrum. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the prevalence of affective disorders are higher for patients with borderline personality disorder than for patients with other personality disorders. Methods In a national cross-sectional study of patients receiving mental health treatment in Norway (N = 36 773), we determined whether psychiatric outpatients with borderline personality disorder (N = 1 043) had a higher prevalence of affective disorder in general, and whether they had an increased prevalence of depression, bipolar disorder or dysthymia specifically. They were compared to patients with paranoid, schizoid, dissocial, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, dependent, or unspecified personality disorder, as well as an aggregated group of patients with personality disorders other than the borderline type (N = 2 636). Odds ratios were computed for the borderline personality disorder group comparing it to the mixed sample of other personality disorders. Diagnostic assessments were conducted in routine clinical practice. Results More subjects with borderline personality disorder suffered from unipolar than bipolar disorders. Nevertheless, borderline personality disorder had a lower rate of depression and dysthymia than several other personality disorder groups, whereas the rate of bipolar disorder tended to be higher. Odds ratios showed 34% lower risk for unipolar depression, 70% lower risk for dysthymia and 66% higher risk for bipolar disorder in patients with borderline personality disorder compared to the aggregated group of other personality disorders. Conclusions The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar

  11. Recurrence in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Andersen, P K

    1999-01-01

    The risk of recurrence in affective disorder is influenced by the number of prior episodes and by a person's tendency toward recurrence. Newly developed frailty models were used to estimate the effect of the number of episodes on the rate of recurrence, taking into account individual frailty toward...... recurrence. The study base was the Danish psychiatric case register of all hospital admissions for primary affective disorder in Denmark during 1971-1993. A total of 20,350 first-admission patients were discharged with a diagnosis of major affective disorder. For women with unipolar disorder and for all...... kinds of patients with bipolar disorder, the rate of recurrence was affected by the number of prior episodes even when the effect was adjusted for individual frailty toward recurrence. No effect of episodes but a large effect of the frailty parameter was found for unipolar men. The authors concluded...

  12. Female Sexual Arousal Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Rellini, Alessandra H; Pfaus, James

    2012-01-01

    Introduction.  Definitions and terminology for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) are currently being debated. While some authors have suggested that FSAD is more a subjective response rather than a genital response, others have suggested that desire and arousal disorders should be combined...... and psychological disorders, as well as to discuss different medical and psychological assessment and treatment modalities. Methods.  The experts of the International Society for Sexual Medicine's Standard Committee convened to provide a survey using relevant databases, journal articles, and own clinical experience....... Results.  Female Arousal Disorders have been defined in several ways with focus on the genital or subjective response or a combination of both. The prevalence varies and increases with increasing age, especially at the time of menopause, while distress decreases with age. Arousal disorders are often...

  13. Tourette disorder and other tic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Thomas V; State, Matthew W; Pittenger, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Tourette disorder is a developmental neuropsychiatric condition characterized by vocal and motor tics that can range in severity from mild to disabling. It represents one end of a spectrum of tic disorders and is estimated to affect 0.5-0.7% of the population. Accumulated evidence supports a substantial genetic contribution to disease risk, but the identification of genetic variants that confer risk has been challenging. Positive findings in candidate gene association studies have not replicated, and genomewide association studies have not generated signals of genomewide significance, in large part because of inadequate sample sizes. Rare mutations in several genes have been identified, but their causality is difficult to establish. As in other complex neuropsychiatric disorders, it is likely that Tourette disorder risk involves a combination of common, low-effect and rare, larger-effect variants in multiple genes acting together with environmental factors. With the ongoing collection of larger patient cohorts and the emergence of affordable high-throughput genomewide sequencing, progress is expected to accelerate in coming years. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Topics English Español Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Basics In-Depth Download Download EPUB Download PDF ... they? Points To Remember About Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue There are more than 200 heritable disorders that ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes extreme ...

  16. Adrenal Gland Disorders: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Adrenal Gland Disorders The adrenal glands, located on the top of ... as estrogen and testosterone. What are adrenal gland disorders? Adrenal gland disorders occur when the adrenal glands do not ...

  17. Personality Disorders in patients with disorders in eating behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Carina Góngora

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interest for the systematic study of personality disorder in patients with eating disorders starts in 1980 with the edition of the DSM III multiaxial classification system. Since then, several publications have been focused on the prevalence and the effect on treatment of personality disorders in bulimic and anorexic patients. These researches showed inconsistent results due to conceptual and methodological divergences. In this paper, the more relevant findings of these studies are presented and the possible sources of discrepancy are analyzed. In general, there is a moderate comorbidity between personality disorders and eating disorders. The most frequent disorders are borderline, histrionic, obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. Borderline and histrionic personality disorders are more frequently associated with bulimia, whereas avoidant and obsessive- compulsive personality disorders are more characteristic of anorexia nervosa. Nevertheless, the effect of the relationship between eating disorders and personality disorders in treatment remains uncertain, giving raise to several controversies and researches. 

  18. Epilepsy and Mood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders are the most common psychiatric comorbid disorder that affects quality of life and prognosis in epilepsy. The relation between depression and epilepsy is bidirectional. Not only the risk of having a depression among epilepsy cases is more than the healthy control cases, but also the risk of having epilepsy among depressive cases is more than the healthy control cases. People diagnosed with epilepsy are five times more likely than their peers to commit suicide. Moreover it seems that some epilepsy types like temporal lobe epilepsy have a much higher risk (25 times for suicide. Risk of suicide in epilepsy, which is independent from depression, increases more with the presence of depression. The common pathway between epilepsy, depression and suicide is hypofrontality and irregularity of serotonin metabolism. Contrary to depression, data on relationship between bipolar disorder and epilepsy is limited. However, mood disorder, mixed episodes with irritable character and mania are more frequent than assumed. As a matter of fact, both disorders share some common features. Both are episodic and can become chronic. Kindling phenomenon, irregularities in neurotransmitters, irregularities in voltage gate ion channels and irregularities in secondary messenger systems are variables that are presented in the etiologies of both disorders. Anticonvulsant drugs with mood regulatory effects are the common points of treatment. Understanding their mechanisms of action will clarify the pathophysiological processes. In this article, the relationhip between epilepsy and mood disorders, comorbidity, secondary states and treatment options in both cases have been discussed.

  19. Cardiomyopathy in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Wahbi, Karim

    2013-01-01

    According to the American Heart Association, cardiomyopathies are classified as primary (solely or predominantly confined to heart muscle), secondary (those showing pathological myocardial involvement as part of a neuromuscular disorder) and those in which cardiomyopathy is the first/predominant manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder. Cardiomyopathies may be further classified as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, restrictive cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or unclassified cardiomyopathy (noncompaction, Takotsubo-cardiomyopathy). This review focuses on secondary cardiomyopathies and those in which cardiomyopathy is the predominant manifestation of a myopathy. Any of them may cause neurological disease, and any of them may be a manifestation of a neurological disorder. Neurological disease most frequently caused by cardiomyopathies is ischemic stroke, followed by transitory ischemic attack, syncope, or vertigo. Neurological disease, which most frequently manifests with cardiomyopathies are the neuromuscular disorders. Most commonly associated with cardiomyopathies are muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, congenital myopathies and metabolic myopathies. Management of neurological disease caused by cardiomyopathies is not at variance from the same neurological disorders due to other causes. Management of secondary cardiomyopathies is not different from that of cardiomyopathies due to other causes either. Patients with neuromuscular disorders require early cardiologic investigations and close follow-ups, patients with cardiomyopathies require neurological investigation and avoidance of muscle toxic medication if a neuromuscular disorder is diagnosed. Which patients with cardiomyopathy profit most from primary stroke prevention is unsolved and requires further investigations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  1. Kinetics of tetrataenite disordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Fillion, G.; Scorzelli, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrataenite is a chemically ordered L1 0 -type Fe 50 Ni 50 alloy detected for the first time in 1977 by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy studies in iron meteorites. The thermal history of meteorites, in particular short thermal events like those associated to hypervelocity impacts, can be constrained by tracing the presence of tetrataenite or its disordering into taenite. The knowledge of the disordering kinetics of tetrataenite, that is associated with changes in its magnetic properties, is still very fragmentary so that the time–temperature history of these meteorites cannot be constrained in details. Furthermore, knowledge of disordering kinetics is important due to potential technological application of tetrataenite as a rare-earth free strong magnet. Thus, this work provides the first time–temperature data for disordering reaction of tetrataenite. We have shown that disordering is not an instantaneous process but is a kinetic limited reaction. It was shown that disordering may take place at any temperature above the order–disorder transition for L 10 superstructure phase (∼320 °C) when the appropriate time-scale is considered. This result means that the apparent Curie point for tetrataenite is not an absolute property in the sense that any estimate of this parameter should be referred to a given time-scale. - Highlights: • The first time–temperature data for tetrataenite disordering reaction is provided. • Previous works does not give a complete picture of tetrataenite disordering. • Apparent Curie temperature of tetrataenite should be referred to a time-scale. • Tetrataenite can be used as a probe to detect thermal/shock events recorded in meteorites

  2. Body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawad, Mustafa Bashir M; Sjögren, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is defined by a preoccupation of one or more non-existent or slight defects or flaws in the physical appearance. The prevalence is 1.7-2.4% in the general population with a higher incidence rate in women. The rate of suicidal ideation is as high as 80%, and up to 25......% of the patients attempt to commit suicide. Comorbidities, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety, are frequent. These patients may seek cosmetic or dermatologic rather than psychological treatment. In the view of the high prevalence and risk of suicide, recognizing this disorder...

  3. [Antisocial personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Hallikainen, Tero

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASP), especially psychopathy as its extreme form, has provoked fear and excitement over thousands of years. Ruthless violence involved in the disorder has inspired scientists, too.The abundance of research results concerning epidemiology, physiology, neuroanatomy, heritability, and treatment interventions has made ASP one of the best documented disorders in psychiatry. Numerous interventions have been tested, but there is no current treatment algorithm. Biological and sociological parameters indicate the importance of early targeted interventions among the high risk children. Otherwise, as adults they cause the greatest harm. The use of medications or psychotherapy for adults needs careful consideration.

  4. Ghrelin and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalayer, Deniz; Gibson, Charlisa; Konopacka, Alexandra; Geliebter, Allan

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a multifactorial etiology that includes genetic, neurochemical, and physiological components for eating disorders above and beyond the more conventional theories based on psychological and sociocultural factors. Ghrelin is one of the key gut signals associated with appetite, and the only known circulating hormone that triggers a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake. This review summarizes recent findings and several conflicting reports on ghrelin in eating disorders. Understanding these findings and inconsistencies may help in developing new methods to prevent and treat patients with these disorders. PMID:22960103

  5. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Cam Ray

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder are crucial because of increased suicidality and reduction in life quality. In this article the symptoms, etiology, clinical features and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder are briefly reviewed.

  6. [Clothing and heat disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsumoto, Yayoi

    2012-06-01

    The influence of the clothing material properties(like water absorbency and rapid dryness, water vapor absorption, water vapor permeability and air permeability) and the design factor of the clothing(like opening condition and fitting of clothing), which contributed to prevent heat disorder, was outlined. WBGT(wet-bulb globe temperature) is used to show a guideline for environmental limitation of activities to prevent heat disorder. As the safety function is more important than thermal comfort for some sportswear and protective clothing with high cover area, clothing itself increases the risk of heat disorder. WBGT is corrected by CAF (clothing adjustment factor) in wearing such kind of protective clothing.

  7. Delusional disorder-somatic type (or body dysmorphic disorder) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to delusional disorder-somatic subtype there may be a relationship with body dysmorphic disorder. There are reports that some delusional disorders can evolve to become schizophrenia. Similarly, the treatment of such disorders with antipsychotics has been documented. This report describes a case of ...

  8. Sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Permatawati

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion The proportion of sleep disorder in children with ADHD is relatively high, with the majority having a disorder of initiating and maintaining sleep. Children with combined type ADHD experience a higher amount of sleep disorder than those with either the inattention or hyperactive-impulsive types of ADHD. Children with poor sleep hygiene have significantly more severe sleep disorders.

  9. Dementia in affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L V; Olsen, E W; Mortensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether patients with affective disorder have increased risk of developing dementia compared to other groups of psychiatric patients and compared to the general population. METHOD: In the Danish psychiatric central register, 3363 patients...... with unipolar affective disorder, 518 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 1025 schizophrenic and 8946 neurotic patients were identified according to the diagnosis at the first ever discharge from psychiatric hospital during the period from 1970 to 1974. The rate of discharge diagnosis of dementia...... on readmission was estimated during 21 years of follow-up. In addition, the rates were compared with the rates for admission to psychiatric hospitals with a discharge diagnosis of dementia for the total Danish population. RESULTS: Patients with unipolar and with bipolar affective disorder had a greater risk...

  10. SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    substance abuse, and the disorder impacts significantly on social and ... characteristic fear of social and performance situations where exposure to unfamiliar ... concomitant therapy from psychoactive medications other than chloral hydrate; if ...

  11. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... down” Have trouble sleeping Think about death or suicide Can someone have bipolar disorder along with other problems? Yes. Sometimes people having very strong mood episodes may have psychotic symptoms. Psychosis affects thoughts ...

  12. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  13. Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribbon Commands Skip to main content Turn off Animations Turn on Animations Our Sponsors Log in | Register Menu Log in | ... greater chance of experiencing learning disabilities such as reading disorders and verbal impairment. But what distinguishes children ...

  14. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy External Beam Radiation Internal Radiation Therapy Side Effects Chemotherapy Immunotherapy ... asleep, sleeping, or waking from sleep, such as walking, talking, or eating. Sleep disorders keep you from ...

  15. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...

  16. Temporomandibular Joint Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Pacifiers Have Negative and Positive Effects What is Dental Amalgam (Silver Filling)? Check Menstrual Calendar for Tooth Extraction Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Learn what those dental words mean. Check out how your teeth and mouth ...

  17. Adrenal Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cushing's syndrome, there's too much cortisol, while with Addison's disease, there is too little. Some people are born unable to make enough cortisol. Causes of adrenal gland disorders include Genetic mutations Tumors ...

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.

  19. Schizophrenia: A Systemic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian; Miller, Brian; García-Rizo, Clemente; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The concept of schizophrenia that is most widely taught is that it is a disorder in which psychotic symptoms are the main problem, and a dysregulation of dopamine signaling is the main feature of pathophysiology. However, this concept limits clinical assessment, the treatments offered to patients, research, and the development of therapeutics. A more appropriate conceptual model is that: 1) schizophrenia is not a psychotic disorder, but a disorder of essentially every brain function in which psychosis is present; 2) it is not a brain disease, but a disorder with impairments throughout the body; 3) for many patients, neuropsychiatric problems other than psychosis contribute more to impairment in function and quality of life than does psychosis; and, 4) some conditions that are considered to be comorbid are integral parts of the illness. In conclusion, students, patients, and family members should be taught this model, along with its implications for assessment, research, and therapeutics. PMID:23518782

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  1. Bipolar disorder: an update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lifetime incidence), recurrent mood disorder, with strong genetic undertones ... self-esteem/grandiosity, significantly decreased need for sleep, racing speech .... chaperone protein, GRP 78.26 Valproate's effects on DNA histone acetylation may ...

  2. Acquired bleeding disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B one marrow aplasia ... Laboratory approach to a suspected acquired bleeding disorder. (LER = leuko- .... lymphocytic leukaemia, and lymphoma). ... cells), a bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy (BMAT) is not ..... transplantation.

  3. Dimorphism and patellofemoral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2006-10-01

    Sex is defined as the classification of living things according to their chromosomal compliment. Gender is defined as a person's self-representation as a male or female or how social institutions respond to that person on the basis of his or her gender presentation. One frequently divides the topic or dimorphism into the biologic response inherent in their sex and the environmental response that might be better termed "gender differences." Clinicians have anecdotally agreed for years that patellofemoral disorders are more common in women. Given the difficulty in classifying patellofemoral disorders, literature support for this assumption is meager. For the purposes of this article we divide patellofemoral disorders into three categories: patellofemoral pain, patellofemoral instability, and patellofemoral arthritis. possible sex difference in these disorders are reviewed.

  4. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this form Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  5. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall treatment regimen. Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  6. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... finding a therapist . Follow Us Facebook Twitter RSS YouTube Advertisement Advertisement Find A Therapist Search our directory of ADAA mental health professional members who specialize in anxiety, depression and co-occurring disorders. Understand the Facts Anxiety ...

  7. Developmental coordination disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental coordination disorder can lead to: Learning problems Low self-esteem resulting from poor ability at sports and teasing by other children Repeated injuries Weight gain as a result of not wanting to participate ...

  8. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... explosive disorder involves repeated, sudden episodes of impulsive, aggressive, violent behavior or angry verbal outbursts in which you react grossly out of proportion to the situation. Road rage, domestic abuse, throwing or breaking objects, or other temper tantrums ...

  9. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Application Process Managing Grants Clinical Research Training Small Business Research Labs at NIMH Labs at NIMH Home Research ... Chat on Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (Archived Transcript) Research and ... Journal Articles: References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  11. Flocking through disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre; Desreumaux, Nicolas; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Bartolo, Denis

    How do flocks, herds and swarms proceed through disordered environments? This question is not only crucial to animal groups in the wild, but also to virtually all applications of collective robotics, and active materials composed of synthetic motile units. In stark contrast, appart from very rare exceptions, our physical understanding of flocking has been hitherto limited to homogeneous media. Here we explain how collective motion survives to geometrical disorder. To do so, we combine experiments on motile colloids cruising through random microfabricated obstacles, and analytical theory. We explain how disorder and bending elasticity compete to channel the flow of polar flocks along sparse river networks akin those found beyond plastic depinning in driven condensed matter. Further increasing disorder, we demonstrate that collective motion is suppressed in the form of a first-order phase transition generic to all polar active materials.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within the category. These were autistic disorder ("classic" autism), Asperger syndrome (which usually involved milder symptoms, mostly related ... but not all, of the features of classic autism or Asperger syndrome). 2 Health care providers no longer use ...

  13. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  14. Depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2005-01-01

    of the patients (40-80%) had erroneous views as to the effect of antidepressants. Older patients (over 40 years of age) consistently had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship, more erroneous ideas concerning the effect of antidepressants and a more negative view of antidepressants in general....... Moreover, their partners agreed on these negative views. Women had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship than men, and patients with a depressive disorder had a more negative view of antidepressants than patients with bipolar disorder. The number of psychiatric hospitalizations......BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence to treatment and medication in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, these attitudes have received little study in patients whose disorders were sufficiently severe to require...

  15. Psychoneuroimmunology of mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Virginia; Uribe, Javiera; Salvat-Pujol, Neus; Palao, Diego; Menchón, José Manuel; Labad, Javier

    The immune system is a key element in the organism's defence system and participates in the maintenance of homeostasis. There is growing interest in the aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications of the immune system in mental disorders, as previous studies suggest the existence of a dysregulation of the immune response and a pro-inflammatory state in patients with mental disorders, as well as an increased prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or receiving immune treatments. This study aims to conduct a narrative review of the scientific literature on the role of Psychoneuroimmunology in mental disorders, with special focus on diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic issues. The development of this body of knowledge may bring in the future important advances in the vulnerability, aetiopathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of some mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Hearing Disorders and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to enjoy talking with friends or family. Hearing disorders make it hard, but not impossible, to ... often be helped. Deafness can keep you from hearing sound at all. What causes hearing loss? Some ...

  17. Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... himself. Understanding Binge Eating If you gorged on chocolate during Halloween or ate so much pumpkin pie ... binge eating, doctors may prescribe medications along with therapy and nutrition advice. People with binge eating disorder ...

  18. Order-Disorder Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasteleyn, P.W.

    1971-01-01

    Apology. 1. Order-disorder transitions; 2. The Ising model; 3. The classical theories; 4. The exact analysis of the Ising model; 5. Series expansions; 6. Relations between critical indices; 7. Other models; 8. Concluding remarks. (author)

  19. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  20. Schizoid personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a lack of interest in close relationships, both in the family and in other interpersonal relationships, including intimate/sexual interactions, a superiority of introverted activities, emotional coldness, estrangement and flattened affect (DSM-5. This video lecture is devoted to the review of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder. In addition, the lecture examines clinical cases and an example of managing such patients.

  1. Coagulation and Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Hoirisch-Clapauch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The neurovascular unit is a key player in brain development, homeostasis, and pathology. Mental stress affects coagulation, while severe mental illnesses, such as recurrent depression and schizophrenia, are associated with an increased thrombotic risk and cardiovascular morbidity. Evidence indicates that the hemostatic system is involved to some extent in the pathogenesis, morbidity, and prognosis of a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. The current review focuses on emerging data linking coagulation and some psychiatric disorders.

  2. Mood disorders: neurocognitive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha; Fritz, Kristina; Das, Pritha; Baune, Bernhard T; Porter, Richard J; Outhred, Tim

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, a number of neurocognitive models stemming from psychiatry and psychology schools of thought have conceptualized the pathophysiology of mood disorders in terms of dysfunctional neural mechanisms that underpin and drive neurocognitive processes. Though these models have been useful for advancing our theoretical understanding and facilitating important lines of research, translation of these models and their application within the clinical arena have been limited-partly because of lack of integration and synthesis. Cognitive neuroscience provides a novel perspective for understanding and modeling mood disorders. This selective review of influential neurocognitive models develops an integrative approach that can serve as a template for future research and the development of a clinically meaningful framework for investigating, diagnosing, and treating mood disorders. A selective literature search was conducted using PubMed and PsychINFO to identify prominent neurobiological and neurocognitive models of mood disorders. Most models identify similar neural networks and brain regions and neuropsychological processes in the neurocognition of mood, however, they differ in terms of specific functions attached to neural processes and how these interact. Furthermore, cognitive biases, reward processing and motivation, rumination, and mood stability, which play significant roles in the manner in which attention, appraisal, and response processes are deployed in mood disorders, are not sufficiently integrated. The inclusion of interactions between these additional components enhances our understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of mood disorders. Through integration of key cognitive functions and understanding of how these interface with neural functioning within neurocognitive models of mood disorders, a framework for research can be created for translation to diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John

  3. [Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is categorized as a subclass in depressive disorders of DSM-5. Speaking without fear of misunderstanding, my opinion is that patients with PMDD should be treated with medication, if there is no misdiagnosis as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). For the appropriate treatment of PMDD, it must be diagnosed accurately according to the DSM-5 criteria. The differential diagnosis and treatment of PMDD should be carried out by experienced psychiatrists.

  4. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  5. Aquatherapy for neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plecash, Alyson R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2014-01-01

    Aquatherapy is used for rehabilitation and exercise; water provides a challenging, yet safe exercise environment for many special populations. We have reviewed the use of aquatherapy programs in four neurodegenerative disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Results support the use of aquatherapy in Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, however further evidence is required to make specific recommendations in all of the aforementioned disorders.

  6. Immune disorders in anorexia

    OpenAIRE

    SŁOTWIŃSKA, SYLWIA MAŁGORZATA; SŁOTWIŃSKI, ROBERT

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters pla...

  7. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F.; Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research p...

  8. Night Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Tuncel; Fatma Özlem Orhan

    2009-01-01

    Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES) is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, even...

  9. Eating disorders and personality

    OpenAIRE

    Levallius, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious psychiatric conditions often demanding specialized psychiatric care. Several effective treatments have been developed and disseminated, but more needs to be done, as not all patients respond well to intervention, let alone achieve recovery. Obvious candidates such as eating disorder diagnosis, symptoms and psychiatric comorbidity have generally failed to explain variability in prognosis and outcome, warranting investigation of a wider range of relevant factors. Ac...

  10. Myelination and myelin disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der.

    1991-01-01

    The first part of this thesis contains the results of a study into the capabilities of MR in the assessment of normal cerebral development. The process of normal myelination under the age of 1 year is divided into stages with specific MRI characteristics. An indication of normal age limits for each stage is given. The relationships between changes in signal intensities and biochemical background, and between progress of myelination and psychomotor development are discussed. The latter in the light of a study performed in hydrocephalic children, prior to and repeatedly after shunt implantation. Normal changes in 1 H and 31 P spectra of the brain in infants and children are described. The relationship between observed spectral changes and cerebral maturational processes is discussed. The second part deals with assessment of myelin disorders with MRI. Basic information about demyelinating disorders and biochemical background are reviewed. A new classification of myelin disorders, underlying the development of an MRI pattern recognition scheme, is proposed based on the most recent scientific developments. Common histological characteristics are described for all main categories of myelin disorders. Extensive information is presented about MRI patterns of abnormalities in patients in whom the disease is predominantly or exclusively located in the white matter. On the basis of the data of these patients a global MRI pattern recognition scheme has been developed covering all white matter disorders that were encountered. Also an example of an in-depth pattern recognition in a circumscribed category of disorders is presented. Finally a study of MRS in demyelinating disorders as opposed to neuronal disorders is described. While MRI provides information about the extent of the process of demyelination and about the disease category, MRS turns out to provide information about the severity of the demyelination and of the concomitant neuronal damage. (H.W.). 725 refs.; 53 figs

  11. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  12. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  13. Stigma and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F

    2007-01-01

    To update the reader on current research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people suffering from mood disorders and to describe recent interventions in this area. The public generally feels their own attitudes are more favourable to people with depression than 'most other people's' attitudes are. Among those with depressive symptoms, self-stigma in relation to depression is higher than perceived stigma from others, including professionals, thus hindering help seeking. The main factor that seems to improve the attitudes towards people with any mental illness is personal contact. Moderate improvements in attitudes have been achieved with an online intervention. Caution must be taken when ensuring that improvements in knowledge about mental disorders do not lead to increased social distance. There exists little research on stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mood disorders. Most of the literature on the stigma towards people with mental illness relates to people with more severe disorders such as schizophrenia. When research has been done on mood disorders, the focus has been on perceived stigma and self-stigma. No up-to-date research exists on discrimination experienced by people with mood disorders, and very little research exists on interventions designed to decrease stigmatizing attitudes towards them.

  14. Eating disorders in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Pratap; Sundar, A. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa have been classically described in young females in Western population. Recent research shows that they are also seen in developing countries including India. The classification of eating disorders has been expanded to include recently described conditions like binge eating disorder. Eating disorders have a multifactorial etiology. Genetic factor appear to play a major role. Recent advances in neurobiology have improved our understanding of these conditions and may possibly help us develop more effective treatments in future. Premorbid personality appears to play an important role, with differential predisposition for individual disorders. The role of cultural factors in the etiology of these conditions is debated. Culture may have a pathoplastic effect leading to non-conforming presentations like the non fat-phobic form of anorexia nervosa, which are commonly reported in developing countries. With rapid cultural transformation, the classical forms of these conditions are being described throughout the world. Diagnostic criteria have been modified to accommodate for these myriad presentations. Treatment of eating disorders can be quite challenging, given the dearth of established treatments and poor motivation/insight in these conditions. Nutritional rehabilitation and psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, while pharmacotherapy may be helpful in specific situations. PMID:26330646

  15. Women's sexual pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Granot, Michal; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; Binik, Yitzchak M; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    2010-01-01

    Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. An expert committee, invited from six countries by the 3rd International Consultation, was comprised of eight researchers and clinicians from biological and social science disciplines, for the purpose of reviewing and grading the scientific evidence on nosology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of women's sexual pain disorders. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, extensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Results. A comprehensive assessment of medical, sexual, and psychosocial history is recommended for diagnosis and management. Indications for general and focused pelvic genital examination are identified. Evidence-based recommendations for assessment of women's sexual pain disorders are reviewed. An evidence-based approach to management of these disorders is provided. Continued efforts are warranted to conduct research and scientific reporting on the optimal assessment and management of women's sexual pain disorders, including multidisciplinary approaches.

  16. Vertigo and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maruska D' Aparecida; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic disorders are accepted by many authors as being responsible for balance disorders. Because of the importance of metabolic disorders in the field of labyrinthine dysfunction, we decided to assess the prevalence of carbohydrates, lipids and thyroid hormones disorders in our patients with vestibular diseases. The study evaluates the metabolic profile of 325 patients with vertigo who sought the Otolaryngology Department of the University of São Paulo in the Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. The laboratory tests ordered according to the classical research protocol were: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, TSH, T3, T4 and fasting blood sugar level. The metabolic disorders found and the ones that were observed in the general population were compared. The high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the altered levels of thyroid hormones, the higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus were the most significant changes found in the group of study. The higher amount of metabolic disorders in patients with vertigo disease reinforces the hypothesis of its influence on the etiopathogenesis of cochleovestibular symptoms.

  17. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  18. Dyslipidemia in Dermatological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Chetana; Shenoy, Manjunath Mala; Rao, Gururaja K.

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidemias are one of the common metabolic disorders. A link between dermatological disorders like psoriasis and dyslipidemia has been established in the recent past. Many dermatological disorders could have a systemic inflammatory component which explains such association. Chronic inflammatory dermatological disorders could also have other metabolic imbalances that may contribute to dyslipidemia. Presence of such abnormal metabolism may justify routine screening of these disorders for associated dyslipidemia and other metabolic abnormalities and early treatment of such comorbidities to improve quality of life. Some of the drugs used by dermatologists such as retinoids are also likely to be a cause of dyslipidemia. Hence, it is imperative that the dermatologists obtain scientific knowledge on the underlying mechanisms involved in dyslipidemia and understand when to intervene with therapies. A systematic review of the English language literature was done by using Google Scholar and PubMed. In this review, attempts are made to list the dermatological disorders associated with dyslipidemia; to simplify the understanding of underlying mechanisms; and to give a brief idea about the interventions. PMID:26713286

  19. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedriye Oncu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

  20. The continuum between Bipolar Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisei, Sandro; Anastasi, Serena; Verdolini, Norma

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have been carried out regarding the possible overlap between Bipolar Disorder and borderline personality disorder. Up to now, it is not possible to provide a definitive picture. In fact, there is currently significant debate about the relationship between Borderline Personality Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. MEDLINE searches were performed to identify the latest studies of these disorders, considering psychodynamic aspects. Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder share common clinical features, namely affective instability and impulsivity which however differ in quality. Consequently, to better understand these aspects, it is necessary to trace the stages of childhood psychological development. It has been claimed that Bipolar Disorder Type II can be divided into two subtypes: one stable and functional between episodes and one unstable between episodes which is related to Borderline Personality Disorder. However, better diagnostic theories, psychiatrist's empathy and patience remain the essential tool to understand and to face human suffering.

  1. Clinical status of comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine

    2016-09-01

    The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  2. Self-disorders in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk; Sæbye, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    Self-disorders have been hypothesized to be an underlying and trait-like core feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a certain degree of temporal stability of self-disorders would therefore be expected. The aim of the study was to examine the persistence of self-disorders measured...... by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences over a time span of 5 years. 48 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were thoroughly assessed for psychopathology at baseline and 5 years later. Self-disorders were assessed by the Examination of Anomalous Self Experiences. The level of self-disorders...... was same at the two occasions for the full Examination of Anomalous Self Disorders and for four out of the five domains. For one domain, the level of self-disorders increased slightly from baseline to follow-up. The correlations between baseline and follow-up were moderate. 9 out of the 13 most...

  3. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorders as precursors of bipolar disorder onset in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Pavlova, Barbara; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders have been proposed as precursors of bipolar disorder, but their joint and relative roles in the development of bipolar disorder are unknown.AimsTo test the prospective relationship of ADHD and anxiety with onset...... of bipolar disorder. METHOD: We examined the relationship between ADHD, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder in a birth cohort of 2 409 236 individuals born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991. Individuals were followed from their sixteenth birthday or from January 1995 to their first clinical contact...... for bipolar disorder or until December 2012. We calculated incidence rates per 10 000 person-years and tested the effects of prior diagnoses on the risk of bipolar disorder in survival models. RESULTS: Over 37 394 865 person-years follow-up, 9250 onsets of bipolar disorder occurred. The incidence rate...

  4. Neuroimaging in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-LoberaBehavioral Sciences Institute and Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Neuroimaging techniques have been useful tools for accurate investigation of brain structure and function in eating disorders. Computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and voxel-based morphometry have been the most relevant technologies in this regard. The purpose of this review is to update the existing data on neuroimaging in eating disorders. The main brain changes seem to be reversible to some extent after adequate weight restoration. Brain changes in bulimia nervosa seem to be less pronounced than in anorexia nervosa and are mainly due to chronic dietary restrictions. Different subtypes of eating disorders might be correlated with specific brain functional changes. Moreover, anorectic patients who binge/purge may have different functional brain changes compared with those who do not binge/purge. Functional changes in the brain might have prognostic value, and different changes with respect to the binding potential of 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and D2/D3 receptors may be persistent after recovering from an eating disorder.Keywords: neuroimaging, brain changes, brain receptors, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorders

  5. Night Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tuncel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Hunger is an awakening related biological impulse. The relationship between hunger and sleep is moderated by the control of homeostatic and circadian rhytms of the body. Abnormal eating behavior during sleep period could result from different causes. Abnormal eating during the main sleep period has been categorized as either night eating syndrome or sleep related eating disorder. Night eating syndrome (NES is an eating disorder characterised by the clinical features of morning anorexia, evening hyperphagia, and insomnia with awakenings followed by nocturnal food ingestion. Recently night eating syndrome, conceptualized as a delayed circadian intake of food. Sleep-related eating disorder, thought to represent a parasomnia and as such included within the revised International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2, and characterized by nocturnal partial arousals associated with recurrent episodes of involuntary food consumption and altered levels of consciousness. Whether, however, sleep-related eating disorder and night eating syndrome represent different diseases or are part of a continuum is still debated. This review summarizes their characteristics, treatment outcomes and differences between them.

  6. Theory of disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysokinski, K.I.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of disorder on the superconducting transition temperature is discussed. The main steps on the way to complete theory of disordered superconductors follows the steps in the authors' understanding of disorder and its effect on the quasiparticles in metals. Loosely speaking one can distinguish three such steps. First is the study of weakly disordered systems and this resulted in famous, celebrated Anderson theorem. The second step is ultimately connected with the coherent potential approximation as a method to study the spectrum and transport in concentrated alloys. The discovery of the role of usually neglected interferences between scattered waves in disordered conductors leading to decrease in mobility and increase of the mutual interactions between quantum particles, known as localization and interaction effects has given the new impetus to the theory of superconductivity. This is third step to be discussed in this lecture. The authors limit themselves to homogeneous bulk superconductors. In this paper some experiments on thin films as well as on copper oxides related to the presented theory are briefly mentioned

  7. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  8. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  9. Psychosexual disorders and dermatologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Narang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual problems that are psychological in origin, rather than physiological, are called psychosexual disorders. Multiple factors, such as general health of the patient, chronic illnesses, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and socio-cultural factors, alone or in combination can be attributed to the development of psychosexual dysfunctions. The symptoms of these disorders vary for each individual and differ with gender. These disorders may be categorized as sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders. Dermatologists are sometimes consulted for sexual dysfunctions in their routine practice by the patients visiting sexually transmitted infections (STI clinics because a majority of the patients believe that these problems are caused by dysfunctions in the sex organs, and because people are hesitant to go to sexuality clinics and psychiatrists for such problems. Sometimes these patients are referred from other specialties such as urology or gynecology; most often, we attempt to search for STIs or other dermatoses on the genitalia and refer them back. We often underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns of the patients or feel uncomfortable discussing matters of sexuality with them. Dermatologists should understand basic sexual medicine and ask patients for sexual problems. They should be trained to manage such patients accordingly. In this review, we will be focusing on sexual dysfunctions, their etiopathogenesis, and management from a dermatologist's perspective.

  10. Psychosexual disorders and dermatologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Tarun; Garima; Singh, Shubh M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual problems that are psychological in origin, rather than physiological, are called psychosexual disorders. Multiple factors, such as general health of the patient, chronic illnesses, psychiatric/psychological disorders, and socio-cultural factors, alone or in combination can be attributed to the development of psychosexual dysfunctions. The symptoms of these disorders vary for each individual and differ with gender. These disorders may be categorized as sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders. Dermatologists are sometimes consulted for sexual dysfunctions in their routine practice by the patients visiting sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinics because a majority of the patients believe that these problems are caused by dysfunctions in the sex organs, and because people are hesitant to go to sexuality clinics and psychiatrists for such problems. Sometimes these patients are referred from other specialties such as urology or gynecology; most often, we attempt to search for STIs or other dermatoses on the genitalia and refer them back. We often underestimate the prevalence of sexual concerns of the patients or feel uncomfortable discussing matters of sexuality with them. Dermatologists should understand basic sexual medicine and ask patients for sexual problems. They should be trained to manage such patients accordingly. In this review, we will be focusing on sexual dysfunctions, their etiopathogenesis, and management from a dermatologist's perspective. PMID:27294047

  11. Esophageal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannig, C.; Rummeny, E.; Wuttge-Hannig, A.

    2007-01-01

    For the better understanding of esophageal motility, the muscle texture and the distribution of skeletal and smooth muscle fibers in the esophagus are of crucial importance. Esophageal physiology will be shortly mentioned as far as necessary for a comprehensive understanding of peristaltic disturbances. Besides the pure depiction of morphologic criteria, a complete esophageal study has to include an analysis of the motility. New diagnostic tools with reduced radiation for dynamic imaging (digital fluoroscopy, videofluoroscopy) at 4-30 frames/s are available. Radiomanometry is a combination of a functional pressure measurement and a simultaneous dynamic morphologic analysis. Esophageal motility disorders are subdivided by radiologic and manometric criteria into primary, secondary, and nonclassifiable forms. Primary motility disorders of the esophagus are achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus, and the hypertonic lower esophageal sphincter. The secondary motility disorders include pseudoachalasia, reflux-associated motility disorders, functionally caused impactions, Boerhaave's syndrome, Chagas' disease, scleroderma, and presbyesophagus. The nonclassificable motility disorders (NEMD) are a very heterogeneous collective. (orig.) [de

  12. Taste disorders: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Ambaldhage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For maintenance of the health of an individual, taste sensation is very important. It is an important sensation that serves to assess the nutritious content of food, support oral intake, and prevent ingestion of potentially toxic substances. Disturbances in the perception of taste can lead to loss of appetite, causing malnutrition and thus distressing both the physical and psychological well-being of the patient. Oral physicians are often the first clinicians who hear complaints about alteration in taste from the patients. In spite of the effect of taste changes on health, literature on the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and precise treatment of taste disorders are less. Taste changes may lead patients to seek inappropriate dental treatments. Proper diagnosis of the etiology is the foremost step in the treatment of taste disorders. Thus, it is important that dental clinicians to be familiar with the various causes and proper management of taste changes. In this article, we have reviewed related articles focusing on taste disorders and their management, to provide a quick sketch for the clinicians. A detailed search was performed to identify the systematic reviews and research articles on taste disorders, using PUBMED and Cochrane. All the authors independently extracted data for analysis and review. Ultimately, 26 articles underwent a full text review. In conclusion, the research to date certainly offers us valid management strategies for taste disorders. Meanwhile, practical strategies with the highest success are needed for further intervention.

  13. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stachowiak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women’s life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT. According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy. Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities.

  14. Immunologic Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

  15. Differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, R M

    2014-12-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder spend approximately half of their lives symptomatic and the majority of that time suffering from symptoms of depression, which complicates the accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Challenges in the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are reviewed, and the clinical utility of several screening instruments is evaluated. The estimated lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (i.e., unipolar depression) is over 3 and one-half times that of bipolar spectrum disorders. The clinical presentation of a major depressive episode in a bipolar disorder patient does not differ substantially from that of a patient with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). Therefore, it is not surprising that without proper screening and comprehensive evaluation many patients with bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). In general, antidepressants have demonstrated little or no efficacy for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines recommend using antidepressants only as an adjunct to mood stabilizers for patients with bipolar disorder. Thus, correct identification of bipolar disorder among patients who present with depression is critical for providing appropriate treatment and improving patient outcomes. Clinical characteristics indicative of bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder identified in this review are based on group differences and may not apply to each individual patient. The overview of demographic and clinical characteristics provided by this review may help medical professionals distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Several validated, easily administered screening instruments are available and can greatly improve the recognition of bipolar disorder in patients with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of non-integer order parameter and Hartmann number on the heat and mass transfer flow of a Jeffery fluid over an oscillating vertical plate via Caputo-Fabrizio time fractional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, A. R.; Abdullah, M.; Raza, N.; Imran, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, semi analytical solutions for the heat and mass transfer of a fractional MHD Jeffery fluid over an infinite oscillating vertical plate with exponentially heating and constant mass diffusion via the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative are obtained. The governing equations are transformed into dimensionless form by introducing dimensionless variables. A modern definition of the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative has been used to develop the fractional model for a Jeffery fluid. The expressions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields are obtained in the Laplace transformed domain. We have used the Stehfest's and Tzou's algorithm for the inverse Laplace transform to obtain the semi analytical solutions for temperature, concentration and velocity fields. In the end, in order to check the physical impact of flow parameters on temperature, concentration and velocity fields, results are presented graphically and in tabular forms.

  17. Congenital imprinting disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Netchine, Irène; Temple, I Karen

    2015-01-01

    Imprinting disorders (IDs) are a group of eight rare but probably underdiagnosed congenital diseases affecting growth, development and metabolism. They are caused by similar molecular changes affecting regulation, dosage or the genomic sequence of imprinted genes. Each ID is characterised...... by specific clinical features, and, as each appeared to be associated with specific imprinting defects, they have been widely regarded as separate entities. However, they share clinical characteristics and can show overlapping molecular alterations. Nevertheless, IDs are usually studied separately despite...... EUCID.net (European network of congenital imprinting disorders) now aims to promote better clinical care and scientific investigation of imprinting disorders by establishing a concerted multidisciplinary alliance of clinicians, researchers, patients and families. By encompassing all IDs and establishing...

  18. Delusion disorder: Neuropsychological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leposavić Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies concerned with neuropsychological aspect of delusions, were mainly focused on specific forms of this disorder. Comparatively small number of investigations were concerned with cognitive deficiencies accompanying the delusions. The substance of this study includes the detection of neuropsychological disfunctions in patients with persistent delusion disorder, and in tracing of these cognitive distortions to appropriate brain regions. Besides, characteristics of attribution style in these patients are analysed, from the aspect of their connections with unadjusted localized input for their reasoning system. The investigation is designed as a comparative study. The sample includes: a group of patients with persistent delusion disorder; a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia; a group of healthy individuals. The participants have been tested by a neuropsychological battery that represents the following cognitive functions: attention, memory, vizuospatial and vizuoconstruction organization, executive ability, verbal divergent thinking. Projective Rorschach's method was used for estimation of attribution style.

  19. Premenstrual disorders and rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craner, Julia R; Sigmon, Sandra T; Martinson, Amber A; McGillicuddy, Morgan L

    2014-01-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) involve emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms; however, there is little understanding of psychological factors that contribute to these disorders. It was hypothesized that rumination, a form of depressive self-focused attention, is related to premenstrual distress. Study 1 involved women (N = 735) meeting criteria for No/Mild PMS, Moderate/Severe PMS, and PMDD using retrospective self-report. Study 2 involved women (N = 85) meeting diagnostic criteria for PMS or PMDD (i.e., PMD group) and healthy controls (i.e., No PMD group) following 60-day symptom monitoring. Participants in both studies completed questionnaires of rumination, anxiety sensitivity, and coping styles. Rumination was strongly related to premenstrual disorders using both retrospective and prospective reports, as well as both categorical and continuous approaches to classification of premenstrual distress. Rumination, a transdiagnostic factor in psychopathology, may contribute to the onset and maintenance of premenstrual distress. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Bipolar disorder in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Julie; Milhet, Vanessa; Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile mania is a concept widely developed but also highly debated since the 1990s. In the heart of this debate, Severe Mood Dysregulation (SMD) and "Temper Dysregulation disorder with Dysphoria" (recently integrated in DSM-5) showed their interest. Actually, the objective is to distinguish two clinical phenotypes in order to avoid confusion between (1) what would raise more of mood dysregulation with chronic manic like symptoms, and (2) bipolar disorder type I with episodic and acute manic episodes. Therapeutic stakes are major. In adolescents, even if DSM adult diagnostic criteria can be used and bipolar disorder type I clearly established, differential diagnostic at onset between acute manic episode and schizophrenia onset remain sometimes difficult to assess. Furthermore, it is crucial to better assess outcome of these adolescents, in terms of morbidity and potential prognosis factors, knowing that a younger age at onset is associated with a poorer outcome according to several adult studies. Therapeutic implications could then be drawn.

  1. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  2. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  3. Medical comorbidity of sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeos, Dimitris; Georgantopoulos, Georgios

    2011-07-01

    Recently published literature indicates that sleep disorders present with medical comorbidities quite frequently. The coexistence of a sleep disorder with a medical disorder has a substantial impact for both the patient and the health system. Insomnia and hypersomnia are highly comorbid with medical conditions, such as chronic pain and diabetes, as well as with various cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and neurological disorders. Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movement syndrome have been associated with iron deficiency, kidney disease, diabetes, and neurological, autoimmune, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Rapid eye movement behaviour disorder has been described as an early manifestation of serious central nervous system diseases; thus, close neurological monitoring of patients referring with this complaint is indicated. Identification and management of any sleep disorder in medical patients is important for optimizing the course and prognosis. Of equal importance is the search for undetected medical disorder in patients presenting with sleep disorders.

  4. Tic disorders and Tourette's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic categories of tic disorders include both transient and chronic tic disorders and Tourette's disorder. Changes for this group of disorders proposed for the forthcoming DSM-5 system include: (1) The term "stereotyped" will be eliminated in the definition of tics and the new definition...... will be applied consistently across all entities of tic disorders; (2) the diagnosis "Transient Tic Disorder" will change its name to "Provisional Tic Disorder"; (3) introduction of two new categories in individuals whose tics are triggered by illicit drugs or by a medical condition; (4) specification of chronic...... tic disorders into those with motor tics or with vocal tics only; (5) specification of the absence of a period longer than 3 months without tics will disappear for Tourette's Disorder. This overview discusses a number of implications resulting from these diagnostic modifications of the diagnostic...

  5. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    In 1908 a Viennese remedial educator Theodor Heller described six children under the name of dementia infantilis who had insidiously developed a severe mental regression between the 3rd and 4th years of life after normal mental development. Neuropathological and other medical conditions...... are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  6. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  8. Extrapyramidal disorders in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, L.; Nardocci, N.; Balottin, U.; Lanzi, G.

    1987-01-01

    Movement disorders have become significantly interesting as a subject in the Neurosciences. The majority of the data, however, relate to the more specific problems of extrapyramidal disorders in adults. As a disease in childhood it still remains poorly systemized. This book is a collection of certain studies with reference to the most recent advances regarding the morphofunctional organization of the basal ganglia in relation to development. Moreover, the book attempts to systemize the extrapyramidal diseases typical of childhood or at the onset in childhood, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. refs.; figs.; tabs

  9. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Nonuniversal disordered Glauber dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynberg, Marcelo D; Stinchcombe, Robin B

    2013-06-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Glauber dynamics with coupling disorder in terms of bilinear fermion Hamiltonians. Dynamic exponents embodied in the spectrum gap of these latter are evaluated numerically by averaging over both binary and Gaussian disorder realizations. In the first case, these exponents are found to follow the nonuniversal values of those of plain dimerized chains. In the second situation their values are still nonuniversal and subdiffusive below a critical variance above which, however, the relaxation time is suggested to grow as a stretched exponential of the equilibrium correlation length.

  11. [Narcissistic personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S

    2013-07-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.

  12. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Child development and personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Patricia

    2008-09-01

    The evidence is surprisingly strong that even early adolescent personality disorders or elevated personality disorder symptoms have a broad range of negative effects well into adulthood, for the most part comparable to or even larger than those of Axis I disorders. Current evidence suggests that the most severe long-term prognosis is associated with borderline and schizotypal PDs and elevated symptoms. And of course, childhood conduct disorder is in a peculiar status, disappearing in adulthood to be manifest as a very severe disorder-antisocial PD-in a minority of those with the adolescent disorder.

  14. Random walk in dynamically disordered chains: Poisson white noise disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, E.; Pesquera, L.; Rodriguez, M.A.; San Miguel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Exact solutions are given for a variety of models of random walks in a chain with time-dependent disorder. Dynamic disorder is modeled by white Poisson noise. Models with site-independent (global) and site-dependent (local) disorder are considered. Results are described in terms of an affective random walk in a nondisordered medium. In the cases of global disorder the effective random walk contains multistep transitions, so that the continuous limit is not a diffusion process. In the cases of local disorder the effective process is equivalent to usual random walk in the absence of disorder but with slower diffusion. Difficulties associated with the continuous-limit representation of random walk in a disordered chain are discussed. In particular, the authors consider explicit cases in which taking the continuous limit and averaging over disorder sources do not commute

  15. Comparative Prevalence of Eating Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Other Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD and other common anxiety disorders. Method. 179 patients from the same geographical area with a diagnosis of OCD or an anxiety disorder were divided into two groups based on their primary diagnosis. The prevalence of a comorbid eating disorder was calculated in both groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders between the OCD and other anxiety disorders group. Conclusions. These results suggest that the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders does not differ in anxiety disorders when compared with OCD. However, in both groups, it remains statistically higher than that of the general population.

  16. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK; Selçuk ASLAN; Çisem UTKU

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used ...

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  18. Binge eating disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Birgitte Hartvig; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Binge eating disorder kaldes også bulimi uden opkastning eller den tredje spiseforstyrrelse. Det er en udbredt, men mindre kendt spiseforstyrrelse end anoreksi og bulimi. Patienterne er ofte overvægtige og har ikke kompenserende adfærd over for overspisningen i form af opkastning eller brug af...

  19. Persistent genital arousal disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eibye, Simone; Jensen, Hans Mørch

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a woman suffering from persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) after paroxetine cessation. She was admitted to a psychiatric department and diagnosed with agitated depression. Physical investigation showed no gynaecological or neurological explanation; however, a pelvic MRI...

  20. Strongly disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muttalib, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    We examine some universal effects of strong non-magnetic disorder on the electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. In particular we explicitly take into account the effect of slow diffusion of electrons in a disordered medium by working in an exact impurity eigenstate representation. We find that the normal diffusion of electrons characterized by a constant diffusion coefficient does not lead to any significant correction to the electron-phonon or the effective electron-electron interactions in a superconductor. We then consider sufficiently strong disorder where Anderson localization of electrons becomes important and determine the effect of localization on the electron-electron interactions. We find that due to localization, the diffusion of electrons becomes anomalous in the sense that the diffusion coefficient becomes scale dependent. This results in an increase in the effective electron-electron interaction with increasing disorder. We propose that this provides a natural explanation for the unusual sensitivity of the transition temperature T/sub c/ of the high T/sub c/ superconductors (T/sub c/ > 10 0 K) to damage effects

  1. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Home Science News Meetings and Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us ... has a lot of money, or has special powers. Someone having psychotic symptoms ... Substance Abuse: People with bipolar disorder may also misuse alcohol ...

  2. Disordered chaotic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Greiner, Martin

    2011-01-01

    to chaotic strings. Inhomogeneous coupling weights as well as small-world perturbations of the ring-network structure are discussed. It is found that certain combinations of coupling and network disorder preserve the empirical relationship between chaotic strings and the weak and strong sector...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  4. Wikipedia and neurological disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C.; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, WM

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a

  5. Treatments for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Whiteley, Louise Emma; Mizgalewicz, Ania

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a major source of health-related information for parents of sick children despite concerns surrounding quality. For neurodevelopmental disorders, the websites of advocacy groups are a largely unexamined source of information. We evaluated treatment information posted on nine highly...

  6. Exporting Our Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association will release its newest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). This tome has evolved over the decades, originally including just 112 diagnoses across 128 pages. The upcoming edition is expected to eclipse the 943 pages, and 350+ disorders of the current DSM-IV-TR, offering a variety of…

  7. Adjustment disorder: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelviene P

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paulina Zelviene, Evaldas Kazlauskas Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania Abstract: Adjustment disorder (AjD is among the most often diagnosed mental disorders in clinical practice. This paper reviews current status of AjD research and discusses scientific and clinical issues associated with AjD. AjD has been included in diagnostic classifications for over 50 years. Still, the diagnostic criteria for AjD remain vague and cause difficulties to mental health professionals. Controversies in definition resulted in the lack of reliable and valid measures of AjD. Epidemiological data on prevalence of AjD is scarce and not reliable because prevalence data are biased by the diagnostic algorithm, which is usually developed for each study, as no established diagnostic standards for AjD are available. Considerable changes in the field of AjD could follow after the release of the 11th edition of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11. A new AjD symptom profile was introduced in ICD-11 with 2 main symptoms as follows: 1 preoccupation and 2 failure to adapt. However, differences between the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition and ICD-11 AjD diagnostic criteria could result in diverse research findings in the future. The best treatment approach for AjD remains unclear, and further treatment studies are needed to provide AjD treatment guidelines to clinicians. Keywords: adjustment disorder, review, diagnosis, prevalence, treatment, DSM, ICD

  8. Studies of Personality Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Simonsen, Erik; Oldham, John M

    2014-01-01

    The past 25 years have shown major advances in the studies of personality disorders. This collaborative article by the presidents, past and present, of ISSPD reflects on the progress within several significant areas of studies, i.e., assessment, neuroscience, treatment, prevention, advocacy...

  9. Personality and psychotic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyette, L.L.N.J.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of the current thesis is the contribution of normal personality traits as conceptualized by the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) to the manifestation of illness in patients with psychotic disorders. These studies were part of the Dutch national Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis

  10. Coping with disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosebo, Marianne Bach

    2008-01-01

    The traditionally pastoral people of Karamoja live in an environment fraught with violence, poverty and disorder. However, they also just live life. In this article, I speak out against an imbalance, which I claim exists in the literature on Karamoja; namely that it focuses primarily on the negat...

  11. Functional Anorectal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish Sc; Bharucha, Adil E; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Felt-Bersma, Richelle; Knowles, Charles; Malcolm, Allison; Wald, Arnold

    2016-03-25

    This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into three subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome (LAS) and unspecified anorectal pain the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in LAS there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by >2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with >2 features of impaired evacuation i.e., abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes two subtypes; dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating LAS and defecatory disorders. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda van Eysinga, J.P.N.L.; Smilde, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a guide to diagnosing nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums. Deficiencies and toxicities are included, fifteen in all. Colour plates and descriptions are given for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, boron, copper, manganese, iron and zinc deficiency and for

  13. Pharmacotherapy of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Haley; Attia, Evelyn

    2017-11-01

    Medications are commonly prescribed in the treatment of eating disorders. In this review, we discuss relevant medications used for the treatment of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder (BED), and anorexia nervosa. We focus on recent research developments, where applicable, in addition to discussing important findings from older studies to provide a complete synopsis of the current evidence base for eating disorder treatment using pharmacologic agents. Medications are generally useful for patients with bulimia nervosa and BED. For bulimia nervosa, antidepressant medications are the primary pharmacologic treatment and limited new research has been completed. For BED, lisdexamfetamine is reported to be generally well tolerated and effective, and is the first medication to be indicated by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of BED. For anorexia nervosa, there is limited evidence supporting benefits of medications. Second-generation antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine, appear to demonstrate some benefit for weight gain in anorexia nervosa, although are not advised as a stand-alone treatment. Transdermal administration of hormonal agents is also being explored for improving bone health in anorexia nervosa. Although pharmacotherapy has established utility in bulimia nervosa and BED, further research on medications for the treatment of eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa, is necessary.

  14. Women's Sexual Pain Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Granot, Michal; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Wesselmann, Ursula; Pukall, Caroline F.; Bohm-Starke, Nina; Achtrari, Chahin

    Introduction. Women's sexual pain disorders include dyspareunia and vaginismus and there is need for state-of-the-art information in this area. Aim. To update the scientific evidence published in 2004, from the 2nd International Consultation on Sexual Medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and

  15. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  16. Whiplash-Associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrara, S. D.; Ananian, V.; Baccino, E.

    2016-01-01

    The manuscript presents the International Guidelines developed by the Working Group on Personal Injury and Damage under the patronage of the International Academy of Legal Medicine (IALM) regarding the Methods of Ascertainment of any suspected Whiplash-Associated Disorders (WAD). The document...

  17. Bipolar Disorder and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence studies and studies on causation relations have shown that the relation between psychiatric disorders and chronic physical diseases is neglected. For heterogeneous diseases an increasing number of susceptibility variants are being defined. Alzheimer disease, bipolar disorder, breast and prostate cancer, coronary artery disease, Chron's disease, systemic lupus eritematosus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are mentioned together with epigenetic concept. In acrocentric zone of chromosome 13, breast cancer, retinoblastoma, chronic Iymphocytic leukemia genes with B cells, dopamin loci of bipolar disorder are found together. Among bipolar and healthy individuals, an increase risk of breast cancer in female cases has been resported. On the other hand, psychosocial factors that affect stress and response to stress itself may be important variables in prognosis and progression of different cancer types. During the course of many cancer types –especially brain tumors- and during treatment of chemotherapeutic agents, bipolar symptomatology may appear. In this article, it is reviewed with relevant literature that whether an etiological relation between bipolar disorder and cancer exist and how both diseases affect each other's course and treatment.

  18. Body Integrity Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal

  19. Auditory Processing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many processes and problems contribute to APD in children. In adults, neurological disorders such as stroke, tumors, degenerative disease (such as multiple sclerosis), and head trauma can contribute to APD. APD in children and adults often is best managed by a ...

  20. Body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jawad, Mustafa Bashir M; Sjögren, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is defined by a preoccupation of one or more non-existent or slight defects or flaws in the physical appearance. The prevalence is 1.7-2.4% in the general population with a higher incidence rate in women. The rate of suicidal ideation is as high as 80%, and up to 25...

  1. Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a mood disorder—not borderline personality disorder Self-harming behavior, such as cutting Recurring thoughts of suicidal ... symptoms and reduce the number of suicidal or self-harming behaviors. Read more on NIMH’s Psychotherapies health topic ...

  2. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of VLCAD, symptoms appear closer to a baby’s first birthday or in early childhood. About one-third of all people with VLCAD have childhood VLCAD. Adult VLCAD . About 20 percent of with VLCAD have ... Some of these disorders can first appear in adults, but this is rare. Illness ...

  3. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  4. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  5. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mood disorder history and personality assessment in premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchlow, D G; Bond, A J; Wingrove, J

    2001-09-01

    Menstrually related dysphoria is known to be associated with other affective disorders, notably major depressive disorder and puerperal depression. The relationship between premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and maladaptive personality disorders and traits, however, is less established, at least in part because of the methodological and nosologic difficulties in the diagnosis of both PMDD and personality disorders. This study seeks to address this problem to elucidate the relationship between PMDD, other affective disturbances commonly experienced by women, and maladaptive personality. Axis I and II disorders were examined using standardized instruments and stringent diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV and the International Personality Disorders Examination) in 34 women with DSM-IV PMDD and 22 healthy women without severe premenstrual mood changes. Seventy-seven percent of the PMDD group had suffered from a past Axis I disorder in comparison with 17% of the control group. Two thirds of the parous women with PMDD had suffered from major depressive disorder in the puerperium. Personality disorder diagnoses were not highly represented in either group of women. The women with PMDD had significantly more obsessional personality traits (p personality disorder diagnoses. Obsessional symptoms are known to cluster with the affective disorders and may reflect underlying temperamental and biological vulnerability. This study provides further evidence of the link between serotonergic dysregulation, personality vulnerability, and mood changes related to the female reproductive cycle.

  7. Difference or Disorder? Cultural Issues in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Sparks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder and specific language impairment, are biologically based disorders that currently rely on behaviorally defined criteria for diagnosis and treatment. Specific behaviors that are included in diagnostic frameworks and the point at which individual differences in behavior constitute abnormality…

  8. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Seedat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is among the most prevalentanxiety disorders, both in terms of lifetime and 12-month prevalencerates documented in epidemiological studies worldwide.

  9. Eating disorders in college men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivardia, R; Pope, H G; Mangweth, B; Hudson, J I

    1995-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the characteristics of men with eating disorders in the community. The authors recruited 25 men meeting DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders and 25 comparison men through advertisements in college newspapers. A second comparison group comprised 33 women with bulimia nervosa who were recruited and interviewed with virtually identical methods. The men with eating disorders closely resembled the women with eating disorders but differed sharply from the comparison men in phenomenology of illness, rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, and dissatisfaction with body image. Homosexuality did not appear to be a common feature of men with eating disorders in the community. Childhood physical and sexual abuse appeared slightly more common among the eating-disordered men than among the comparison men. Eating disorders, although less common in men than in women, appear to display strikingly similar features in affected individuals of the two genders.

  10. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A headache may mean a brain tumor. Body dysmorphic disorder occurs when a person becomes obsessed with ... body. Common concerns for people who have body dysmorphic disorder include: wrinkles hair loss weight gain size ...

  11. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in older adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in older adults involve any disrupted sleep ...

  12. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness ...

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  14. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Data Sources Share Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Definition Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often a long- ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  15. [Basic disorders in human communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-López, Y; Gutiérrez-Silva, J; Andrade-Illañez, E N; Fierro-Evans, M A; Hernández-López, X

    1989-01-01

    This paper specifies the areas and disorders that concern human communication medicine. The frequency of the diverse disorders is analyzed in relation to age and sex, and the distribution in group ages of several disabling diseases is also discussed.

  16. Pediatric epilepsy and comorbid reading disorders, math disorders, or autism spectrum disorders: Impact of epilepsy on cognitive patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iterson, L.; de Jong, P.F.; Zijlstra, B.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In pediatric epilepsy, comorbidities are reported to be frequent. The present study focusedon the cognitive patterns of children with isolated epilepsy, children with isolated neurodevelopmental disorders (reading disorders, math disorders, autism spectrum disorders), and children with

  17. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  18. Temporomandibular disorders and migraine headache

    OpenAIRE

    Demarin, Vida; Bašić Kes, Vanja

    2010-01-01

    Migraine headache and temporomandibular disorders show significant overlap in the area or distribution of pain, the gender prevalence and age distribution. Temporomandibular disorders may cause headaches per se, worsen existent primary headaches, and add to the burden of headache disorders. The patients with combined migraine and tension-type headaches had a higher prevelance of temporomandibular disorders. Evidence supporting a close relationship include the increased masticatory...

  19. Comorbid personality disorders in subjects with panic disorder: which personality disorders increase clinical severity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozkan

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Personality disorders are common in subjects with panic disorder. Personality disorders have shown to affect the course of panic disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine which personality disorders effect clinical severity in subjects with panic disorder. This study included 122 adults (71 female, 41 male, who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia. Clinical assessment was conducted by using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II and the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS, Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Patients who had a history of sexual abuse were assessed with Sexual Abuse Severity Scale. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, agoraphobia, different panic attack symptoms, sexual abuse, and early onset of disorders. The rates of comorbid Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders were 80.3% and 33.9%, consecutively, in patients with panic disorder. Panic disorder patients with comorbid personality disorders had more severe anxiety, depression and agoraphobia symptoms, and had earlier ages of onset, and lower levels of functioning. The rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were 34.8% and 9.8%, consecutively, in subjects with panic disorder. The rate of patients with panic disorder had a history of childhood sexual abuse was 12.5%. The predictor of sexual abuse was more than one comorbid Axis II diagnosis. The predictors of suicide attempt were comorbid paranoid and borderline personality disorders, and the predictor of suicidal ideation was major depressive disorder in subjects with panic disorder. In conclusion, this study documents that comorbid personality disorders increase the clinical severity of panic disorder. Patients with more than one

  20. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  1. Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder.  The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.

  2. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  3. Eating Disorders in Paraguayan Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria E.; McIntosh, David E.; Kruczek, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, once thought to be exclusively a disorder of the more affluent Western countries, are now spreading around the world. Despite the wealth of information on the prevalence of eating disorders in developed countries, epidemiological data for South America is scarce. The 26-item Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26) was used to explore the…

  4. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The

  5. Narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Dammann

    2017-01-01

    This a video is one of the series of lectures about personality disorders. It covers the concept of narcissism and the concept of narcissism personality disorder.  The lecture is mainly focused on the differences between normal and pathological narcissism as well as etiology, diagnosis and practical recommendations on treatment of narcissism personality disorder.

  6. Storm in My Brain: Kids and Mood Disorders (Bipolar Disorder and Depression)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Kids and Mood Disorders (Bipolar Disorder and Depression) What is a mood disorder? Everyone feels sad, ... one part of bipolar disorder, also called manic depression. In bipolar disorder, moods change between mania (excited ...

  7. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890

  8. [Comorbidity of eating disorders and bipolar affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Katarzyna; Rybakowski, Filip

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders--anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) occur usually in young females. The significant pathogenic differences between patients who only restrict food, and patients with binge eating and compensatory behaviours, such as vomiting and purging were described. The prevalence of bipolar affective disorders--especially bipolar II and bipolar spectrum disorders (BS) may reach 5% in the general population. About half of the depressive episodes are associated with a "mild" bipolar disorder, and such a diagnosis is suggested by impulsivity and mood-instability. Previously, majority of research on the comorbidity between eating and affective disorders focused on depressive symptomatology, however difficulties in the reliable assessment of hypomania may obfuscate the estimation of the co-occurrence of eating disorders with BS. Epidemiological studies suggest the association between BS and eating disorders with binge episodes (bulimia nervosa, anorexia- bulimic type and EDNOS with binge episodes). Co-occurrence of such disorders with depressive symptoms probably suggests the diagnosis of BS, not recurrent depression. Bulimic behaviours, impulsivity and affective disorders might be related to the impairment of the serotonergic neurotransmission, which may result from the genetic vulnerability and early life trauma. Currently, the first-line pharmacological treatment of co-occurring eating disorders with binge episodes and BS are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However in some cases, the use of mood-stabilising agents as monotherapy or in combination with serotonergic drugs may be helpful.

  9. Antisocial personality disorder and anxiety disorder: a diagnostic variant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-06-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with co-morbid anxiety disorder may be a variant of ASPD with different etiology and treatment requirements. We investigated diagnostic co-morbidity, ASPD criteria, and anxiety/affective symptoms of ASPD/anxiety disorder. Weighted analyses were carried out using survey data from a representative British household sample. ASPD/anxiety disorder demonstrated differing patterns of antisocial criteria, co-morbidity with clinical syndromes, psychotic symptoms, and other personality disorders compared to ASPD alone. ASPD criteria demonstrated specific associations with CIS-R scores of anxiety and affective symptoms. Findings suggest ASPD/anxiety disorder is a variant of ASPD, determined by symptoms of anxiety. Although co-morbid anxiety and affective symptoms are the same as in anxiety disorder alone, associations with psychotic symptoms require further investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Meige's Syndrome: Rare Neurological Disorder Presenting as Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debadatta, Mohapatra; Mishra, Ajay K

    2013-07-01

    Meige's syndrome is a rare neurological syndrome characterized by oromandibular dystonia and blepharospasm. Its pathophysiology is not clearly determined. A 35-year-old female presented to psychiatric department with blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia with clinical provisional diagnosis of psychiatric disorder (Conversion Disorder). After thorough physical examination including detailed neurological exam and psychiatric evaluation no formal medical or psychiatric diagnosis could be made. The other differential diagnoses of extra pyramidal symptom, tardive dyskinesia, conversion disorder, anxiety disorder were ruled out by formal diagnostic criteria. Consequently with suspicion of Meige's syndrome she was referred to the department of Neurology and the diagnosis was confirmed. Hence, Meige's syndrome could be misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder such as conversion disorder or anxiety disorder because clinical features of Meige's syndrome are highly variable and affected by psychological factors and also can be inhibited voluntarily to some extent.

  11. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating Disorder Bulimia Nervosa Pica Rumination Disorder Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder is characterized by eating very little food and/or avoiding eating certain foods. People with this disorder eat ...

  12. Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-24

    May 24, 2018 ... psychiatric disorders, including other anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders ... psychiatric comorbidities present among adults at a tertiary ..... clinical files as well as unclear handwriting and missing.

  13. Panic Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Families - Vietnamese Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents No. 50; Updated July 2013 Panic disorder is a common and treatable disorder. Children and adolescents with panic disorder have unexpected and repeated periods ...

  14. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...

  15. Trauma, alexithymia, emotional regulation and dissociation in alcohol use disorder, substance use disorder and polysubstance disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Background: Around 33-50% who attend treatment for substance use disorder (SUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a history of trauma. Experiencing trauma can lead to psychological disorders, difficulties with emotional regulation and dissociation. SUD and AUD can be chronic, relapsing disorders and understanding what individual factors affect addiction has important implications for treatment. Objective: The systematic review was interested in whether alexithymia affects ...

  16. [Body dysmorphic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Katharina; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Allroggen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder with a point prevalence of 0.7-2.4 %. BDD is characterized by the patient's excessive concern with an imagined or slight defect in physical appearance. BDD usually begins in adolescence. Comorbidity rates and also suicidality rates are high. The course of BDD tends to be chronic. According to the present state of knowledge, cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are valuable options in the therapy of BDD. The case report describes a recent case of BDD with typical clinical and therapy-related characteristics. The aim of this work is to strengthen the awareness of BDD in clinical practice of child and adolescent psychiatry, facilitating an adequate diagnosis and treatment of the affected individuals.

  17. Functional Esophageal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Qasim; Fass, Ronnie; Gyawali, C Prakash; Miwa, Hiroto; Pandolfino, John E; Zerbib, Frank

    2016-02-15

    Functional esophageal disorders consist of a disease category that present with esophageal symptoms (heartburn, chest pain, dysphagia, globus) not explained by mechanical obstruction (stricture, tumor, eosinophilic esophagitis), major motor disorders (achalasia, EGJ outflow obstruction, absent contractility, distal esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus), or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). While mechanisms responsible are unclear, it is theorized that visceral hypersensitivity and hypervigilance play an important role in symptom generation, in the context of normal or borderline function. Treatments directed at improving borderline motor dysfunction or reducing reflux burden to sub-normal levels have limited success in symptom improvement. In contrast, strategies focused on modulating peripheral triggering and central perception are mechanistically viable and clinically meaningful. However, outcome data from these treatment options are limited. Future research needs to focus on understanding mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity and hypervigilance so that appropriate targets and therapies can be developed. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Eating Disorders and Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Lea; Steiger, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by intense preoccupation with shape and weight and maladaptive eating practices. The complex of symptoms that characterize EDs often arise through the activation of latent genetic potentials by environmental exposures, and epigenetic mechanisms are believed to link environmental exposures to gene expression. This chapter provides an overview of genetic factors acting in the etiology of EDs. It then provides a background to the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms link stresses such as obstetric complications and childhood abuse as well as effects of malnutrition to eating disorders (EDs). The chapter then summarizes the emerging body of literature on epigenetics and EDs-mainly studies on DNA methylation in samples of anorexia and bulimia. The available evidence base suggests that an epigenetically informed perspective contributes in valuable ways to the understanding of why people develop EDs.

  19. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Order in disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Hector W L; Nichol, Gary S; Uhrín, Dušan

    2018-01-01

    to all structures describes a centred hexagon with the MIII sites disordered around the outer wheel. The structural disorder has been characterised via single crystal X-ray crystallography, 1-3D 1H and 13C solution-state NMR spectroscopy of the diamagnetic analogue (4), and solid-state 27Al MAS NMR......A family of heterometallic Anderson-type 'wheels' of general formula [MIII2MII5(hmp)12](ClO4)4 (where MIII = Cr or Al and MII = Ni or Zn giving [Cr2Ni5] (1), [Cr2Zn5] (2), [Al2Ni5] (3) and [Al2Zn5] (4); hmpH = 2-pyridinemethanol) have been synthesised solvothermally. The metallic skeleton common...

  1. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Akinci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The circadian rhythm sleep disorders define the clinical conditions where sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted despite optimum environmental and social conditions. They occur as a result of the changes in endogenous circadian hours or non-compatibility of environmental factors or social life with endogenous circadian rhythm. The sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted continuously or in repeating phases depending on lack of balance between internal and external cycles. This condition leads to functional impairments which cause insomnia, excessive sleepiness or both in people. Application of detailed sleep anamnesis and sleep diary with actigraphy record, if possible, will be sufficient for diagnosis. The treatment aims to align endogenous circadian rhythm with environmental conditions. The purpose of this article is to review pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 178-189

  2. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  3. Hematological and vascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, L.J.; Yochum, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    Numerous blood-related disorders will demonstrate skeletal alterations. These include various anemias, leukemias, lymphomas, and clotting-deficient diseases (hemophilia). Of all the various types of anemias only those that are chronic and severe will result in radiographically visible osseous changes. The skeletal alterations which are observed are invariably related to the direct effects on the bone marrow or are secondary to the inherent complications of the disease. The most notable osseous changes are seen in the congenital hemolytic anemias, especially thalassemia (Cooley's anemia), sickle cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Chronic iron deficiency anemia produces very minor skeletal changes, usually isolated to the skull. Leukemia demonstrates characteristic changes largely dependent on age. Hemophilia primarily alters joint function due to recurrent intraarticular hemorrhage. This chapter discusses blood-related disorders that affect the bones

  4. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  5. Major Depressive Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Do the Sexual Dysfunctions Differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kendurkar, Arvind; Kaur, Brinder

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are known to have significant impact on sexual functioning. They have been studied individually. Therefore, this study was planned to compare the sexual dysfunction between MDD, OCD, and GAD with healthy subjects as controls.

  6. Self-Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Jansson, Lennart B

    2015-01-01

    category boundaries, comorbidity, diagnostic 'epidemics' and differential diagnostic dilemmas. We argue that many of those problems stem from the polythetic-operational definitions of psychiatric categories, which thereby come to lack an organizing prototype-directed or gestaltic intelligibility principle...... diagnostic weight to a certain prototypical trait core of the illness, phenomenologically indispensable for its demarcation from other, nonschizophrenic psychotic conditions. We believe that the notion of self-disorder (reflective of the structural alterations of subjectivity), itemized into its various...

  7. Ghrelin and eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri,Alessandra Donzelli; Deram,Sophie; Kerr,Daniel Shikanai; Cordás,Táki Athanássios

    2015-01-01

    Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED), particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), and LILACS databases u...

  8. Diabetes and Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel-Fabbri, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of insulin restriction is an important women's health issue in type 1 diabetes. This behavior is associated with increased rates of diabetes complications and decreased quality of life. Clinical and technological research is greatly needed to improve treatment tools and strategies for this problem. In this commentary, the author describes the scope of the problem of eating disorders and diabetes, as well as offers ideas about ways technology may be applied to help solve this compl...

  9. Drugs for rare disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Serge; Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2017-08-01

    Estimates of the frequencies of rare disorders vary from country to country; the global average defined prevalence is 40 per 100 000 (0.04%). Some occur in only one or a few patients. However, collectively rare disorders are fairly common, affecting 6-8% of the US population, or about 30 million people, and a similar number in the European Union. Most of them affect children and most are genetically determined. Diagnosis can be difficult, partly because of variable presentations and partly because few clinicians have experience of individual rare disorders, although they may be assisted by searching databases. Relatively few rare disorders have specific pharmacological treatments (so-called orphan drugs), partly because of difficulties in designing trials large enough to determine benefits and harms alike. Incentives have been introduced to encourage the development of orphan drugs, including tax credits and research aids, simplification of marketing authorization procedures and exemption from fees, and extended market exclusivity. Consequently, the number of applications for orphan drugs has grown, as have the costs of using them, so much so that treatments may not be cost-effective. It has therefore been suggested that not-for-profit organizations that are socially motivated to reduce those costs should be tasked with producing them. A growing role for patient organizations, improved clinical and translational infrastructures, and developments in genetics have also contributed to successful drug development. The translational discipline of clinical pharmacology is an essential component in drug development, including orphan drugs. Clinical pharmacologists, skilled in basic pharmacology and its links to clinical medicine, can be involved at all stages. They can contribute to the delineation of genetic factors that determine clinical outcomes of pharmacological interventions, develop biomarkers, design and perform clinical trials, assist regulatory decision

  10. [Neurotransmission in developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a heterogeneous developmental disorder with an etiology that is not fully understood. AD/HD has been considered to occur due to a disturbance in cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, with particular emphasis on dopamine. The neurotransmission of dopamine in subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and limbic areas is synaptic; on the other hand, dopamine neurotransmission in the frontal cortex is quite different, because there are very few dopamine transporters (DAT) in the frontal cortex that allow dopamine to diffuse away from the dopamine synapse ("volume transmission"). It is now clear that noradrenergic neurons play a key regulatory role in dopaminergic function in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, serotonergic neurons exert an inhibitory effect on midbrain dopamine cell bodies, and they have an influence on dopamine release in terminal regions. There is accumulating neurobiological evidence pointing toward a role of the serotonin system in AD/HD. The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is still unclear, but information from genetics, neuropathology, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience has provided insights into the understanding of this developmental disorder. In addition to abnormal circuitry in specific limbic and neocortical areas of the cerebral cortex, impairments in brainstem, cerebellar, thalamic, and basal ganglia connections have been reported. Numerous studies have pointed to abnormalities in serotonin and glutamate neurotransmission. Three important aspects involved in the pathophysiology of ASD have been proposed. The first is cell migration, the second is unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory networks, and the third is synapse formation and pruning, the key factors being reelin, neurexin, and neuroligin. Serotonin is considered to play an important role in all of these aspects of the pathophysiology of ASD. Finally, I would like to emphasize that it is crucial in the field of child

  11. [Thyroid and cardiovascular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek

    2004-05-01

    In this study three problems concerning interactions between thyroid and cardiovascular system are discussed. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pleural effusion, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension may be consequences of thyroid disorders leading to inappropriate hormone secretion. During such illnesses as heart failure, myocardial infarction and in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery profound changes may occur in thyroid hormone metabolism known as sick euthyroid syndrome. Treatment with amiodarone may lead to changes in thyroid tests results and to development of hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis.

  12. Autism and sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Devnani, Preeti A.; Hegde, Anaita U.

    2015-01-01

    “Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) slee...

  13. Disorder in Protein Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarage, James Braun, II

    1990-01-01

    Methods have been developed for analyzing the diffuse x-ray scattering in the halos about a crystal's Bragg reflections as a means of determining correlations in atomic displacements in protein crystals. The diffuse intensity distribution for rhombohedral insulin, tetragonal lysozyme, and triclinic lysozyme crystals was best simulated in terms of exponential displacement correlation functions. About 90% of the disorder can be accounted for by internal movements correlated with a decay distance of about 6A; the remaining 10% corresponds to intermolecular movements that decay in a distance the order of size of the protein molecule. The results demonstrate that protein crystals fit into neither the Einstein nor the Debye paradigms for thermally fluctuating crystalline solids. Unlike the Einstein model, there are correlations in the atomic displacements, but these correlations decay more steeply with distance than predicted by the Debye-Waller model for an elastic solid. The observed displacement correlations are liquid -like in the sense that they decay exponentially with the distance between atoms, just as positional correlations in a liquid. This liquid-like disorder is similar to the disorder observed in 2-D crystals of polystyrene latex spheres, and similar systems where repulsive interactions dominate; hence, these colloidal crystals appear to provide a better analogy for the dynamics of protein crystals than perfectly elastic lattices.

  14. Autoantibodies in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Hoffmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. The identification of autoantibodies targeting the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R, which causes neurological and psychiatric symptoms, has reinvigorated the hypothesis that other patient subgroups may also suffer from an underlying autoimmune condition. In recent years, a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases and autoantibodies targeting ion-channels or neuronal receptors including NMDA-R, voltage gated potassium channel complex (VGKC complex, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPA-R, γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA-R and dopamine receptor (DR were studied and conflicting reports have been published regarding the seroprevalence of these autoantibodies. A clear causative role of autoantibodies on psychiatric symptoms has as yet only been shown for the NMDA-R. Several other autoantibodies have been related to the presence of certain symptoms and antibody effector mechanisms have been proposed. However, extensive clinical studies with large multicenter efforts to standardize diagnostic procedures for autoimmune etiology and animal studies are needed to confirm the pathogenicity of these autoantibodies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of neuronal autoantibodies in the major neuropsychiatric disorders: psychotic, major depression, autism spectrum, obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders.

  15. Immune disorders in anorexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Małgorzata Słotwińska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  16. Immune disorders in anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słotwińska, Sylwia Małgorzata; Słotwiński, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development. Significant malnutrition induces disorders and alterations in T-cell populations. The cellular response in patients with anorexia nervosa has been shown to be normal, although opinions on this issue are controversial. Laboratory studies on neutrophils in anorexia patients showed decreased adhesion and reduced bactericidal and cell activities. Despite such unfavourable results, patients with anorexia are resistant to infections, which are very rare in this group. Glutamine improves the performance of the human immune system. The administration of glutamine to anorexia patients, as a supplement to parenteral nutrition, has resulted in significant improvements in immune system parameters. The results of previous studies on the causes and risk factors in the development of anorexia nervosa are still ambiguous. One can hope that the differences and similarities between patients with anorexia nervosa and those with other forms of protein-calorie malnutrition may be helpful in determining the relationship between nutritional status and body defences and susceptibility to infection, and can help to broaden the knowledge about the aetiopathogenesis of anorexia nervosa.

  17. Burning mouth disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Bala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth disorder (BMD is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.

  18. Pharmacotherapy of panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B Pull

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Charles B Pull1, Cristian Damsa21Department of Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg; 2Department of Psychiatry, Clinical Investigation Program, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, USAAbstract: Panic disorder (PD is a common, persistent and disabling mental disorder. It is often associated with agoraphobia. The present article reviews the current status of pharmacotherapy for PD with or without agoraphobia as well as the current status of treatments combing pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT. The review has been written with a focus on randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and reviews that have been published over the past few years. Effective pharmacological treatments include tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and various benzodiazepines. Treatment results obtained with CBT compare well with pharmacotherapy, with evidence that CBT is at least as effective as pharmacotherapy. Combining pharmacotherapy with CBT has been found to be superior to antidepressant pharmacotherapy or CBT alone, but only in the acute-phase treatment. Long term studies on treatments combining pharmacotherapy and CBT for PD with or without agoraphobia have found little benefit, however, for combination therapies versus monotherapies. New investigations explore the potential additional value of sequential versus concomitant treatments, of cognitive enhancers and virtual reality exposure therapy, and of education, self management and Internet-based interventions.Keywords: Panic disorder, agoraphobia, pharmacotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, combination treatments.

  19. Inflammation and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab, Mohamad; Gharavi, Nima; Watson, Andrew D

    2008-07-01

    Poor nutrition, overweight and obesity have increasingly become a public health concern as they affect many metabolic disorders, including heart disease, diabetes, digestive system disorders, and renal failure. Study of the effects of life style including healthy nutrition will help further elucidate the mechanisms involved in the adverse effects of poor nutrition. Unhealthy life style including poor nutrition can result in imbalance in our oxidation/redox systems. Lipids can undergo oxidative modification by lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, myeloperoxidase, and other enzymes. Oxidized phospholipids can induce inflammatory molecules in the liver and other organs. This can contribute to inflammation, leading to coronary heart disease, stroke, renal failure, inflammatory bowl disease, metabolic syndrome, bone and joint disorders, and even certain types of cancer. Our antioxidant and antiinflammatory defense mechanisms contribute to a balance between the stimulators and the inhibitors of inflammation. Beyond a point, however, these systems might be overwhelmed and eventually fail. High-density lipoprotein is a potent inhibitor of the formation of toxic oxidized lipids. High-density lipoprotein is also an effective system for stimulating the genes whose products are active in the removal, inactivation, and elimination of toxic lipids. Supporting the high-density lipoprotein function should help maintain the balance in these systems. It is hoped that the present report would elucidate some of the ongoing work toward this goal.

  20. Hypnotherapy for Esophageal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Megan E; Keefer, Laurie

    2015-07-01

    Hypnotherapy is an evidence based intervention for the treatment of functional bowel disorders, particularly irritable bowel syndrome. While similar in pathophysiology, less is known about the utility of hypnotherapy in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Esophageal disorders, most of which are functional in nature, cause painful and uncomfortable symptoms that impact patient quality of life and are difficult to treat from a medical perspective. After a thorough medical workup and a failed trial of proton pump inhibitor therapy, options for treatment are significantly limited. While the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial, two critical factors are believed to drive esophageal symptoms--visceral hypersensitivity and symptom hypervigilance. The goal of esophageal directed hypnotherapy is to promote a deep state of relaxation with focused attention allowing the patient to learn to modulate physiological sensations and symptoms that are not easily addressed with conventional medical intervention. Currently, the use of hypnosis is suitable for dysphagia, globus, functional chest pain/non-cardiac chest pain, dyspepsia, and functional heartburn. In this article the authors will provide a rationale for the use of hypnosis in these disorders, presenting the science whenever available, describing their approach with these patients, and sharing a case study representing a successful outcome.

  1. Disorders of body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Camilo R

    2014-01-01

    The human body generates heat capable of raising body temperature by approximately 1°C per hour. Normally, this heat is dissipated by means of a thermoregulatory system. Disorders resulting from abnormally high or low body temperature result in neurologic dysfunction and pose a threat to life. In response to thermal stress, maintenance of normal body temperature is primarily maintained by convection and evaporation. Hyperthermia results from abnormal temperature regulation, leading to extremely elevated body temperature while fever results from a normal thermoregulatory mechanism operating at a higher set point. The former leads to specific clinical syndromes with inability of the thermoregulatory mechanism to maintain a constant body temperature. Heat related illness encompasses heat rash, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke, in order of severity. In addition, drugs can induce hyperthermia and produce one of several specific clinical syndromes. Hypothermia is the reduction of body temperature to levels below 35°C from environmental exposure, metabolic disorders, or therapeutic intervention. Management of disorders of body temperature should be carried out decisively and expeditiously, in order to avoid secondary neurologic injury. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Suicide risk in somatoform disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Giancarlo; Maniscalco, Ignazio; Mathà, Sandra; Ficco, Carlotta; Pernther, Georg; Sanna, Livia; Pompili, Maurizio; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Conca, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    The somatoform disorders include a group of complex disorders consist of somatic symptoms for which there are no identifiable organic cause or pathogenetic mechanisms. Given the importance of these disorders and the need to clarify the diagnosis of somatoform disorder affecting the suicide risk, we took into consideration the scientific literature to investigate the correlation between the two conditions. We performed a bibliographic search through Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, SciELO, ORCID, Google Scholar, DOAJ using the following terms: somatoform, somatization disorder, pain disorder AND psychological factor, suicide, parasuicide, suicidality. In all studies reported in our review, the suicidal behavior risk is high. But in the majority, the data are relatively unreliable because it takes into account the category nosographic "Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders", too wide to be able to identify the clinical characteristics of patients at risk of only somatoform disorder. Several studies conclude that psychiatric comorbidity increases the suicide risk: patients with two or more psychiatric disorders are more likely to commit a suicide attempt; in particular if there is a axis I diagnosis, the risk reduplicate. The somatization disorder seems to have a significant psychiatric comorbidity in particular with anxious and affective disorders spectrum.

  3. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity.

  4. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chun; Zhao Jun; Guan Yihui

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect the health and normal life of human badly. However, the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders is still unclear. Functional neuroimaging can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. This paper reviews functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). Metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) are mainly reviewed, as well as neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Meanwhile, here are some brief introduction of different kinds of sleep disorders. (authors)

  5. The physics of disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Purusattam

    2012-01-01

    Disordered systems are ubiquitous in nature and their study remains a profound and challenging subject of current research. Ideas and methods from the physics of Disordered systems have been fruitfully applied to several fields ranging from computer science to neuroscience. This book contains a selection of lectures delivered at the 'SERC School on Disordered Systems', spanning topics from classic results to frontier areas of research in this field. Spin glasses, disordered Ising models, quantum disordered systems, structural glasses, dilute magnets, interfaces in random field systems and disordered vortex systems are among the topics discussed in the text, in chapters authored by active researchers in the field, including Bikas Chakrabarti, Arnab Das, Deepak Kumar, Gautam Menon, G. Ravikumar, Purusattam Ray, Srikanth Sastry and Prabodh Shukla. This book provides a gentle and comprehensive introduction to the physics of disordered systems and is aimed at graduate students and young scientists either working i...

  6. Diffraction by disordered polycrystalline fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, W.J.; Millane, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns from some polycrystalline fibers show that the constituent microcrystallites are disordered. The relationship between the crystal structure and the diffracted intensities is then quite complicated and depends on the precise kind and degree of disorder present. The effects of disorder on diffracted intensities must be included in structure determinations using diffraction data from such specimens. Theory and algorithms are developed here that allow the full diffraction pattern to be calculated for a disordered polycrystalline fiber made up of helical molecules. The model accommodates various kinds of disorder and includes the effects of finite crystallite size and cylindrical averaging of the diffracted intensities from a fiber. Simulations using these methods show how different kinds, or components, of disorder produce particular diffraction effects. General properties of disordered arrays of helical molecules and their effects on diffraction patterns are described. Implications for structure determination are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Counseling the Conduct-Disordered Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Cindy

    Conduct disorder (CD), primarily a childhood disorder, is associated with oppositional defiance disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Differentiating between the disorders requires a preview of the intensity of the disorder. There are many approaches to treating CD. The traditional approach has been psychoanalytically oriented…

  8. Personality disorders and traits in patients with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, K A; McElroy, S L

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been postulated to have schizoid, narcissistic, and obsessional personality traits and to be sensitive, introverted, perfectionistic, and insecure. However, data on personality traits and disorders in BDD are limited. This study assessed 148 subjects with BDD, 26 of whom participated in a fluvoxamine treatment study; 74 subjects were assessed for personality disorders with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSMIII-R Personality Disorders (SCID-II), 100 subjects completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and 51 subjects completed the Rathus Assertiveness Scale. Forty-two subjects (57%) had one or more personality disorders, with avoidant personality disorder (43%) being most common, followed by dependent (15%), obsessive-compulsive (14%), and paranoid (14%) personality disorders. On the NEO-FFI, the mean scores were in the very high range for neuroticism, the low range for extraversion and conscientiousness, the low-average range for agreeableness, and the average range for openness to experience. On the Rathus Assertiveness Scale, the mean score was -17.1 +/- 32.0 for women and -17.0 +/- 32.3 for men. Among fluvoxamine responders, the number of personality disorders significantly decreased between the study baseline and endpoint. These findings suggest that the rate of personality disorders in BDD is relatively high, with avoidant personality disorder being most common. The high neuroticism scores and low extraversion scores are consistent with this finding.

  9. Chronic complex dissociative disorders and borderline personality disorder: disorders of emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Bethany L; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    Emotion dysregulation is a core feature of chronic complex dissociative disorders (DD), as it is for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic complex DD include dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the most common form of dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS, type 1), now known as Other Specified Dissociative Disorders (OSDD, type 1). BPD is a common comorbid disorder with DD, although preliminary research indicates the disorders have some distinguishing features as well as considerable overlap. This article focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychological profile, treatment, and neurobiology of chronic complex DD with emphasis placed on the role of emotion dysregulation in each of these areas. Trauma experts conceptualize borderline symptoms as often being trauma based, as are chronic complex DD. We review the preliminary research that compares DD to BPD in the hopes that this will stimulate additional comparative research.

  10. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Karen F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such

  11. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rash CJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carla J Rash,1 Jeremiah Weinstock,2 Ryan Van Patten2 1Calhoun Cardiology Center – Behavioral Health, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. Keywords: pathological gambling, problem gambling, behavioral addiction, transdiagnostic factors, addiction syndrome 

  12. Narcissistic Personality Disorder and the Structure of Common Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Nicholas R; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Krueger, Robert F; Campbell, W Keith; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-08-01

    Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) shows high rates of comorbidity with mood, anxiety, substance use, and other personality disorders. Previous bivariate comorbidity investigations have left NPD multivariate comorbidity patterns poorly understood. Structural psychopathology research suggests that two transdiagnostic factors, internalizing (with distress and fear subfactors) and externalizing, account for comorbidity among common mental disorders. NPD has rarely been evaluated within this framework, with studies producing equivocal results. We investigated how NPD related to other mental disorders in the internalizing-externalizing model using diagnoses from a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653). NPD was best conceptualized as a distress disorder. NPD variance accounted for by transdiagnostic factors was modest, suggesting its variance is largely unique in the context of other common mental disorders. Results clarify NPD multivariate comorbidity, suggest avenues for classification and clinical endeavors, and highlight the need to understand vulnerable and grandiose narcissism subtypes' comorbidity patterns and structural relations.

  13. [Insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.

  14. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rash CJ; Weinstock J; Van Patten R

    2016-01-01

    Carla J Rash,1 Jeremiah Weinstock,2 Ryan Van Patten2 1Calhoun Cardiology Center – Behavioral Health, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders&r...

  15. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bi...

  16. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological st...... unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes....

  17. Psychotherapy of Mood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardi, Angelo; Gaetano, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, psychotherapy has gained increasing acceptance as a major treatment option for mood disorders. Empirically supported treatments for major depression include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), behavioural therapy and, to a lesser extent, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that psychotherapy has a significant and clinically relevant, though not large, effect on chronic forms of depression. Psychotherapy with chronic patients should take into account several important differences between patients with chronic and acute depression (identification with their depressive illness, more severe social skill deficits, persistent sense of hopelessness, need of more time to adapt to better circumstances). Regarding adolescent depression, the effectiveness of IPT and CBT is empirically supported. Adolescents require appropriate modifications of treatment (developmental approach to psychotherapy, involvement of parents in therapy). The combination of psychotherapy and medication has recently attracted substantial interest; the available evidence suggests that combined treatment has small but significant advantages over each treatment modality alone, and may have a protective effect against depression relapse or recurrence. Psychobiological models overcoming a rigid brain-mind dichotomy may help the clinician give patients a clear rationale for the combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. In recent years, evidence has accumulated regarding the effectiveness of psychological therapies (CBT, family-focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, psychoeducation) as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorder. These therapies share several common elements and there is considerable overlap in their actual targets. Psychological interventions were found to be useful not only in the treatment of bipolar depressive episodes, but in all phases of the disorder. PMID

  18. Postmodern Stress Disorder (PMSD): A Possible New Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiser, Arnold R

    2015-11-01

    The murder of cardiovascular surgeon, Michael Davidson, MD, suggests the existence of a new disorder, postmodern stress disorder. This disorder is characterized by repetitive exposure to digital images of violence in a variety of electronic media, including films, television, video games, music videos, and other online sources. This disorder appears to be a variant of posttraumatic stress disorder, and shares with it excessive stimulation of the amygdala and loss of the normal inhibitory inputs from the orbitofrontal cingulate cortical gyrus. In postmodern stress disorder, repetitive digital microtraumas appear to have an effect similar to that of macrotraumas of warfare or civilian assaults. Other elements of the disorder include the development of fixed ideas of bullying or public shaming, access to weapons, and loss of impulse control. This syndrome could explain a number of previously inexplicable murders/suicides. Violence against health care professionals is a profound concern for the medical profession, as are assaults on nonclinicians. The recommendation is made to change forensic procedures to include obtaining historic information concerning the use of digital media during investigations of violent crimes and murders so that the disorder may be further characterized. Gaining an understanding of this disorder will require a multidisciplinary approach to this life-threatening public health problem. Research should also focus on the development and evaluation of possible antidotes to postmodern toxicities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Health Anxiety in Panic Disorder, Somatization Disorder and Hypochondriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Karaer KARAPIÇAK

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Health anxiety is the fear of being or getting seriously sick due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms. Severe health anxiety is also named as hypochondriasis. Belief of having a disease due to the misinterpretation of physical symptoms is also seen in panic disorder and somatization disorder. The aim of this study is to search the health anxiety in panic disorder, somatization disorder and hypochondriasis and compare it with healthy volunteers. Method: SCID-I was used to determine psychiatric disorders in patient group. In order to assess the clinical state and disease severity of the patient group; Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with panic disorder and Symptom Interpretation Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used for patients with somatization disorder and hypochondriasis. Brief Symptom Inventory was used to assess psychopathology in healthy group. In order to evaluate health anxiety of both groups, Health Anxiety Inventory-Short Form was used. Results: Results of this study support that health anxiety is a significant major component of hypochondriasis. On the other hand, health anxiety seems to be common in panic disorder and somatization disorder. Health anxiety also may be a part of depression or present in healthy people. Conclusion: Further studies are needed in order to search how to manage health anxiety appropriately and which psychotherapeutic interventions are more effective.

  20. Personality disorder and treatment outcome in alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; Foulds, James

    2018-01-01

    As personality disorder impacts the outcome of most major mental disorders, it would be consistent for it to impact negatively on the outcome of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This update is to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent literature examining the impact of personality disorder and personality traits on the treatment outcome of AUDs. Comorbidity between personality disorder and AUD is significant and approaches 50%. Patients with AUD and comorbid personality disorder are substantially less likely to remain in treatment, drink more per drinking day and drink more frequently. If retained in treatment, comorbidity does not, however, lead to poorer outcomes. Relapse to drinking is more common in patient with high novelty seeking and lower reward dependence and persistence. Reporting from most studies is of moderate-to-poor quality and a single high-quality study may alter these findings. Landmark alcohol studies are notably quiet on the impact of personality on AUD treatment outcome. Both personality disorder and higher novelty seeking impact negatively on the treatment outcome of AUD. As personality disorder is common in this group, clinicians engaged in AUD treatment should screen for personality disturbance, either disorder or high novelty seeking.

  1. Temporomandibular disorders and headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff-Radford, Steven B; Bassiur, Jennifer P

    2014-05-01

    Headache and temporomandibular disorders should be treated together but separately. If there is marked limitation of opening, imaging of the joint may be necessary. The treatment should then include education regarding limiting jaw function, appliance therapy, instruction in jaw posture, and stretching exercises, as well as medications to reduce inflammation and relax the muscles. The use of physical therapies, such as spray and stretch and trigger point injections, is helpful if there is myofascial pain. Tricyclic antidepressants and the new-generation antiepileptic drugs are effective in muscle pain conditions. Arthrocentesis and/or arthroscopy may help to restore range of motion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Autophagy and neurodegenerative disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evangelia Kesidou; Roza Lagoudaki; Olga Touloumi; Kyriaki-Nefeli Poulatsidou; Constantina Simeonidou

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of aberrant proteins and inclusion bodies are hallmarks in most neurodegenerative diseases. Consequently, these aggregates within neurons lead to toxic effects, overproduction of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Autophagy is a significant intracel ular mechanism that removes damaged organelles and misfolded proteins in order to maintain cel homeostasis. Excessive or insufficient autophagic activity in neurons leads to altered homeostasis and influences their survival rate, causing neurodegeneration. The review article provides an update of the role of autophagic process in representative chronic and acute neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  4. Superconductivity at disordered interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The increase of the superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c) due to the tunneling of conduction electrons into negative-u centers at a disordered metal-semiconductor interface is calculated. The strong dependence of the experimental increase of Tsub(c) on the Fermi energy of the metal is accounted for by the polaronic reduction of the tunneling matrix elements. The latter reduction is dynamically suppressed by the decreasing lifetime of the localized state as Esub(F) increases. The theoretical enhancement is sufficiently strong to explain the increase of Tsub(c) observed in eutectic alloys. (author)

  5. Epilepsy: A Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirven, Joseph I.

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy, a disorder of unprovoked seizures is a multifaceted disease affecting individuals of all ages with a particular predilection for the very young and old. In addition to seizures, many patients often report cognitive and psychiatric problems associated with both the seizures themselves and its therapy. Epilepsy has numerous etiologies both idiopathic and acquired with a wide range of therapeutic responses. Despite numerous treatments available to control repetitive seizures including medications, diets, immunotherapy, surgery, and neuromodulatory devices, a large percentage of patients continue to suffer the consequences of uncontrolled seizures, which include psychosocial stigma and death. PMID:26328931

  6. MRI in neuromuscular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischmann, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are caused by damage of the skeletal muscles or supplying nerves, in many cases due to a genetic defect, resulting in progressive disability, loss of ambulation and often a reduced life expectancy. Previously only supportive care and steroids were available as treatments, but several novel therapies are under development or in clinical trial phase. Muscle imaging can detect specific patterns of involvement and facilitate diagnosis and guide genetic testing. Quantitative MRT can be used to monitor disease progression either to monitor treatment or as a surrogate parameter for clinical trails. Novel imaging sequences can provide insights into disease pathology and muscle metabolism. (orig.)

  7. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  8. [Anxiety disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, the DSM-5 appeared officially in May 2013 during the development of the 166th Annual Meetingof the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in San Francisco. The drafting process was long and complex; much of the debate became public so that the expectations were great. And it must be said that the new edition did not disappoint, as many changes were made in relation to their predecessors. In Chapter of Anxiety Disorders, which is reviewed in this article, the changes were significant. Obsessive-compulsive disorder and Stress-related disorders were excluded and new clinical pictures, such as separation anxiety disorder and selective mutism, were included. And took place was the long awaited split between panic disorder and agoraphobia, now two separate disorders.

  9. Virtual Reality for Anxiety Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Uzumcu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality is a relatively new exposure tool that uses three-dimensional computer-graphics-based technologies which allow the individual to feel as if they are physically inside the virtual environment by misleading their senses. As virtual reality studies have become popular in the field of clinical psychology in recent years, it has been observed that virtual-reality-based therapies have a wide range of application areas, especially on anxiety disorders. Studies indicate that virtual reality can be more realistic than mental imagery and can create a stronger feeling of ԰resenceԻ that it is a safer starting point compared to in vivo exposure; and that it can be applied in a more practical and controlled manner. The aim of this review is to investigate exposure studies based on virtual reality in anxiety disorders (specific phobias, panic disorder and agoraphobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder.

  10. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  11. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kostić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to conduct disorder which have different causes and serve as the basis for the current typology of conduct disorders in the classification systems. Such a typology of conduct disorders in the diagnostic classification allows better understanding, prognosis and choice of treatment.

  13. Clinical features of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    The descriptive aspects of all types of movement disorders and their related syndromes and terminologies used in the literature are reviewed and described. This comprises the features of (a) movement disorders secondary to neurological diseases affecting the extrapyramidal motor system, such as: athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hemiballismus, myoclonus, tremor, tics and spasm, (b) drug induced movement disorders, such as: akathisia, akinesia, hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, extrapyramidal syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia, and (c) abnormal movements in psychiatric disorders, such as: mannerism, stereotyped behaviour and psychomotor retardation. It is intended to bring about a more comprehensive overview of these movement disorders from a phenomenological perspective, so that clinicians can familiarize with these features for diagnosis. Some general statements are made in regard to some of the characteristics of movement disorders.

  14. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  15. The Stigma of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Lindsay; Nieweglowski, Katherine; Corrigan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the recent literature on the stigma of personality disorders, including an overview of general mental illness stigma and an examination of the personality-specific stigma. Overall, public knowledge of personality disorders is low, and people with personality disorders may be perceived as purposefully misbehaving rather than experiencing an illness. Health provider stigma seems particularly pernicious for those with borderline personality disorder. Most stigma research on personality disorders has been completed outside the USA, and few stigma-change interventions specific to personality disorder have been scientifically tested. Limited evidence suggests that health provider training can improve stigmatizing attitudes and that interventions combining positive messages of recovery potential with biological etiology will be most impactful to reduce stigma. Anti-stigma interventions designed specifically for health providers, family members, criminal justice personnel, and law enforcement seem particularly beneficial, given these sources of stigma.

  16. Ethical aspects of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendelow, Gillian

    2010-11-01

    To review recent literature around the controversial diagnosis of personality disorder, and to assess the ethical aspects of its status as a medical disorder. The diagnostic currency of personality disorder as a psychiatric/medical disorder has a longstanding history of ethical and social challenges through critiques of the medicalization of deviance. More recently controversies by reflexive physicians around the inclusion of the category in the forthcoming revisions of International Classification of Diseases and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders classifications reflect the problems of value-laden criteria, with the diagnostic category being severely challenged from within psychiatry as well as from without. The clinical diagnostic criteria for extremely value-laden psychiatric conditions such as personality disorder need to be analyzed through the lens of values-based medicine, as well as through clinical evidence, as the propensity for political and sociolegal appropriation of the categories can render their clinical and diagnostic value meaningless.

  17. [Predictive factors of anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, K

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most frequent mental disorders in Europe (12-month prevalence 14%) and impose a high socioeconomic burden. The pathogenesis of anxiety disorders is complex with an interaction of biological, environmental and psychosocial factors contributing to the overall disease risk (diathesis-stress model). In this article, risk factors for anxiety disorders will be presented on several levels, e.g. genetic factors, environmental factors, gene-environment interactions, epigenetic mechanisms, neuronal networks ("brain fear circuit"), psychophysiological factors (e.g. startle response and CO2 sensitivity) and dimensional/subclinical phenotypes of anxiety (e.g. anxiety sensitivity and behavioral inhibition), and critically discussed regarding their potential predictive value. The identification of factors predictive of anxiety disorders will possibly allow for effective preventive measures or early treatment interventions, respectively, and reduce the individual patient's suffering as well as the overall socioeconomic burden of anxiety disorders.

  18. Evolutionary Explanations of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews several most important evolutionary mechanisms that underlie eating disorders. The first part clarifies evolutionary foundations of mental disorders and various mechanisms leading to their development. In the second part selective pressures and evolved adaptations causing contemporary epidemic of obesity as well as differences in dietary regimes and life-style between modern humans and their ancestors are described. Concerning eating disorders, a number of current evolutionary explanations of anorexia nervosa are presented together with their main weaknesses. Evolutionary explanations of eating disorders based on the reproductive suppression hypothesis and its variants derived from kin selection theory and the model of parental manipulation were elaborated. The sexual competition hypothesis of eating disorder, adapted to flee famine hypothesis as well as explanation based on the concept of social attention holding power and the need to belonging were also explained. The importance of evolutionary theory in modern conceptualization and research of eating disorders is emphasized.

  19. Current issues in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J; Nigg, Joel T

    2012-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification.

  20. Current Issues in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    This review evaluates the diagnostic criteria for three of the most common disorders for which children and adolescents are referred for mental health treatment: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Although research supports the validity and clinical utility of these disorders, several issues are highlighted that could enhance the current diagnostic criteria. For ADHD, defining the core features of the disorder and its fit with other disorders, enhancing the validity of the criteria through the lifespan, considering alternative ways to form subtypes of the disorder, and modifying the age-of-onset criterion are discussed relative to the current diagnostic criteria. For ODD, eliminating the exclusionary criteria of CD, recognizing important symptom domains within the disorder, and using the cross-situational pervasiveness of the disorder as an index of severity are highlighted as important issues for improving classification. Finally, for CD, enhancing the current subtypes related to age of onset and integrating callous-unemotional traits into the diagnostic criteria are identified as key issues for improving classification. PMID:22035245

  1. Trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), skin picking disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder: toward DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Grant, Jon E; Franklin, Martin E; Keuthen, Nancy; Lochner, Christine; Singer, Harvey S; Woods, Douglas W

    2010-06-01

    In DSM-IV-TR, trichotillomania (TTM) is classified as an impulse control disorder (not classified elsewhere), skin picking lacks its own diagnostic category (but might be diagnosed as an impulse control disorder not otherwise specified), and stereotypic movement disorder is classified as a disorder usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. ICD-10 classifies TTM as a habit and impulse disorder, and includes stereotyped movement disorders in a section on other behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually occurring in childhood and adolescence. This article provides a focused review of nosological issues relevant to DSM-V, given recent empirical findings. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Although TTM fits optimally into a category of body-focused repetitive behavioral disorders, in a nosology comprised of relatively few major categories it fits best within a category of motoric obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, (2) available evidence does not support continuing to include (current) diagnostic criteria B and C for TTM in DSM-V, (3) the text for TTM should be updated to describe subtypes and forms of hair pulling, (4) there are persuasive reasons for referring to TTM as "hair pulling disorder (trichotillomania)," (5) diagnostic criteria for skin picking disorder should be included in DSM-V or in DSM-Vs Appendix of Criteria Sets Provided for Further Study, and (6) the diagnostic criteria for stereotypic movement disorder should be clarified and simplified, bringing them in line with those for hair pulling and skin picking disorder. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  3. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Binge eating disorder is a common eating disorder that recently has received increasing attention. Goals in treating binge eating disorder typically include controlling binge eating and diminishing excess body weight. A variety of treatment approaches have been used, including diet/lifestyle modification, psychotherapy, and pharmacologic treatment. Diet and lifestyle interventions are somewhat effective in diminishing the binge eating behavior and lead to modest weight loss, but the weight ef...

  4. Avoidant personality disorder: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Lampe,Lisa; Malhi,Gin

    2018-01-01

    Lisa Lampe,1 Gin S Malhi2 1Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia; 2Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) is a relatively common disorder that is associated with significant distress, impairment, and disability. It is a chronic disorder with an early age at onset and a lifelong impact. Yet it is underrecognized and poorly studied. Little is known regarding the most effective t...

  5. Intrusive Images in Psychological Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Brewin, Chris R.; Gregory, James D.; Lipton, Michelle; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Involuntary images and visual memories are prominent in many types of psychopathology. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders, and psychosis frequently report repeated visual intrusions corresponding to a small number of real or imaginary events, usually extremely vivid, detailed, and with highly distressing content. Both memory and imagery appear to rely on common networks involving medial prefrontal regions, posterior regions in th...

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D C

    1990-09-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.

  7. Affective disorders in neurological diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, F M; Kessing, L V; Sørensen, T M

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal relationships between a range of neurological diseases and affective disorders. METHOD: Data derived from linkage of the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Hospital Register. Seven cohorts with neurological index diagnoses and two...... of affective disorder was lower than the incidence in the control groups. CONCLUSION: In neurological diseases there seems to be an increased incidence of affective disorders. The elevated incidence was found to be particularly high for dementia and Parkinson's disease (neurodegenerative diseases)....

  8. DEVELOPMENTAL TAXONOMY OF CONDUCT DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Kostić; Milkica Nešić; Jasminka Marković; Miodrag Stanković

    2015-01-01

    Conduct disorder is a heterogeneous disorder in terms of etiology, course and prognosis, and currently, there is no singular model that would describe the development of the disorder. The results of empirical research on males confirm this heterogeneity, as they point out to two possible developmental pathways: childhood-onset and adolescentonset type. This paper presents the basic elements of developmental taxonomic theory which argues that there are two different developmental pathways to c...

  9. GENDER ROLE AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the persona...

  10. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  11. The urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-07-01

    The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the α-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. SCREENING FOR PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jennifer Q.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    A brief but valid self-report measure to screen for personality disorders (PDs) would be a valuable tool in making decisions about further assessment and in planning optimal treatments. In psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples, we compared the validity of three screening measures: the PD scales from the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, a self-report version of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen, and the self-directedness scale of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Despite their different theoretical origins, the screeners were highly correlated in a range from .71 to .77. As a result, the use of multiple screeners was not a significant improvement over any individual screener, and no single screener stood out as clearly superior to the others. Each performed modestly in predicting the presence of any PD diagnosis in both the psychiatric and nonpsychiatric groups. Performance was best when predicting a more severe PD diagnosis in the psychiatric sample. The results also highlight the potential value of multiple assessments when relying on self-reports. PMID:17492920

  13. Swallowing Disorders in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepika P; Kamath, Vandan D; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2017-08-01

    Disorders of swallowing are poorly characterized but quite common in schizophrenia. They are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality in this population, generally as a result of either acute asphyxia from airway obstruction or more insidious aspiration and pneumonia. The death rate from acute asphyxia may be as high as one hundred times that of the general population. Most swallowing disorders in schizophrenia seem to fall into one of two categories, changes in eating and swallowing due to the illness itself and changes related to psychotropic medications. Behavioral changes related to the illness are poorly understood and often involve eating too quickly or taking inappropriately large boluses of food. Iatrogenic problems are mostly related to drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects, including drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia, but may also include xerostomia, sialorrhea, and changes related to sedation. This paper will provide an overview of common swallowing problems encountered in patients with schizophrenia, their pathophysiology, and management. While there is a scarcity of quality evidence in the literature, a thorough history and examination will generally elucidate the predominant problem or problems, often leading to effective management strategies.

  14. New Described Dermatological Disorders

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    Müzeyyen Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.”

  15. Ghrelin and eating disorders

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    Alessandra Donzelli Fabbri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghrelin is a potent hormone with central and peripheral action. This hormone plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, food intake, and energy balance. Studies have suggested that ghrelin is involved with eating disorders (ED, particularly bingeing and purging. Genetic variants have also been studied to explain changes in eating behavior. Methods We conducted a literature review; we searched PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO, and LILACS databases using the keywords “eating disorder”, “ghrelin”, “polymorphism”, “anorexia nervosa”, “bulimia nervosa”, “binge eating disorder”, and their combinations. We found 319 articles. Thirty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Results High levels of ghrelin were found in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially in the purging subtype (AN-P. There was also a positive correlation between fasting ghrelin level and frequency of episodes of bingeing/purging in bulimia nervosa (BN and the frequency of bingeing in periodic binge eating disorder (BED. Some polymorphisms were associated with AN and BN. Conclusion Changes in ghrelin levels and its polymorphism may be involved in the pathogenesis of EDs; however, further studies should be conducted to clarify the associations.

  16. Hypnotherapy for sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Beng-Yeong; Lee, Tih Shih

    2008-08-01

    Hypnosis can be defined as a procedure during which changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings or behaviour are suggested. Hypnosis can be used to amplify whatever it is about therapy that makes it therapeutic. It permits a wide range of choices regarding where and how to intervene in the patient's problems. In this paper, we set out to examine the rationale of using hypnotherapy to manage various types of sleep disorders, and to explore the techniques, strategies and hypnotic scripts employed by various hypnotherapists. We also examine the research data available on the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of sleep disorders. Acute and chronic insomnia often respond to relaxation and hypnotherapy approaches, along with sleep hygiene instructions. Hypnotherapy has also helped with nightmares and sleep terrors. There are several reports of successful use of hypnotherapy for parasomnias, specifically for head and body rocking, bedwetting and sleepwalking. Hypnosis is a specialised technique, not a therapy itself, and should be used as an adjunctive intervention within a complete psychological and medical treatment package. Most of the literature is limited to case reports or studies with such a small sample that at times it is very difficult to interpret the results. There is a major placebo effect, so uncontrolled trials are of limited value. It is hard to perform a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate hypnotherapy given that cooperation and rapport between patient and therapist is needed to achieve a receptive trance state.

  17. Childhood depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselhöft, Rikke Thaarup

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a frequent and painful mental disorder considered among the five leading causes of disability in Western countries by the World Health Organization. MDD occurs at all ages, but childhood onset MDD has a more severe course with longer depressive episodes, more suicidality, and more frequent hospitalization, than later onset MDD. Childhood seems to be a window of opportunity for prevention of mental disorders, and subsequently prevention of MDD onset in childhood is recommended. Feasible prevention targets either individuals who present early signs of a given disorder but have not reached diagnostic threshold (indicated prevention) or individuals who are at increased risk for a disorder due to risk factor exposure (selective prevention). Indicated prevention is rational also for depressive disorders, because subthreshold depression (SD) in adults is found to be a precursor to MDD. The purpose of this thesis was to provide information necessary for the prevention of MDD onset in childhood. First, we examined whether the literature supports that SD is a MDD precursor also in children (systematic review). Second, we explored the risk that gender might constitute for pre-pubertal and post-pubertal onset MDD (register study). Third, we estimated the prevalence of SD and MDD in a large-scale pre-pubertal sample, and compared the clinical features of SD and MDD and potential risk factors (population-based study). The systematic review of the literature showed that SD in children and adolescents presents analogous comorbidity and symptom patterns (including self-harm symptoms). It also supports that SD is a precursor to MDD in children and adolescents causing poor outcomes like psychopathology, functional impairment and high use of health service. In the register study of Danish children and adolescents, we found a higher incidence of clinical MDD for girls after puberty compared to boys. Before puberty however, we demonstrated that boys

  18. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  19. Metallothionein in Brain Disorders

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    Daniel Juárez-Rebollar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins are a family of proteins which are able to bind metals intracellularly, so their main function is to regulate the cellular metabolism of essential metals. There are 4 major isoforms of MTs (I–IV, three of which have been localized in the central nervous system. MT-I and MT-II have been localized in the spinal cord and brain, mainly in astrocytes, whereas MT-III has been found mainly in neurons. MT-I and MT-II have been considered polyvalent proteins whose main function is to maintain cellular homeostasis of essential metals such as zinc and copper, but other functions have also been considered: detoxification of heavy metals, regulation of gene expression, processes of inflammation, and protection against free radicals generated by oxidative stress. On the other hand, the MT-III has been related in events of pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer. Likewise, the participation of MTs in other neurological disorders has also been reported. This review shows recent evidence about the role of MT in the central nervous system and its possible role in neurodegenerative diseases as well as in brain disorders.

  20. On the disordered fermion couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaschi, M.; Cabasino, S.; Marinari, E.; Rome-2 Univ.; Sarno, R.; Rome-1 Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We study the possibility of avoiding the fermion doubling problem by using a random coupling. We use numerical simulations in order to study the theory in the strong disorder region. We find a sharp crossover as a function of the strength of the disorder. For weak quenched disorder we find that the species doubling survives, while for strong quenched disorder only with a particular choice of the random term (antihermitian) it is possible to get a theory that seems to avoid fermion doubling. (orig.)