WorldWideScience

Sample records for disodium salt 8ci

  1. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  2. Evaluation of the chitosan/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate disodium salt hydrogel application in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Lu; Zhang Xiufang; Gong Yandao [State Key Lab Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ao Qiang; Han Hongyan, E-mail: gongyd@tsinghua.edu.c, E-mail: aoqiang@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Neurological Disorders, Yuquan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Research efforts have been devoted to evaluating the application of the chitosan (CS)/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate (GP) disodium salt hydrogel in peripheral nerve regeneration. The gelation time was determined to be 770 s using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. A standard 10 mm long rat sciatic nerve defect model was employed, followed by bridging the proximal and distal stumps with chitosan conduits injected with the Schwann cell-containing hydrogel. Injections of the blank hydrogel, Schwann cell suspension and culture medium were used as controls. Two months later, electrophysiological assessment and fluorogold retrograde tracing showed that compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and fluorogold-labeled neurons were only detected in the Schwann cell suspension group and culture medium group. The rats were then killed, and implanted conduits were removed for examination. There were no regenerated nerves found in groups injected with the blank hydrogel or Schwann cell-containing hydrogel, while the other two groups clearly displayed regenerated nerves across the gaps. In the subsequent histological assessment, immunohistochemistry, toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the regenerated nerves. The relative wet weight ratio, Masson trichrome staining and acetylcholinesterase staining were employed for the examination of gastrocnemius muscles in all four groups. The Schwann cell suspension group showed the best results for all these indexes; the culture medium group ranked second and the two hydrogel-injected groups showed the least optimal results. In conclusion, our data revealed that the implanted CS/GP hydrogel actually impeded nerve regeneration, which is inconsistent with former in vitro reports and general supposition. We believe that the application of the CS/GP hydrogel in nerve regeneration requires a further study before a satisfactory result is obtained. In addition, the present study also confirmed that

  3. Mechanism of oxidation of 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt with oxygen in subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław

    2017-06-01

    The article presents the results of studies on the oxidation mechanism of 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt (R-salt) with oxygen in subcritical water. To this aim, a series of experiments were carried out which showed that at a temperature of 413 K and pH > 9 the oxidation reaction of a substrate with oxygen was relatively quick and after approximately 40 min the R-salt oxidation yield exceeded 95%. In an acidic medium (pH oxidation is small. In order to identify the mechanism of R-salt oxidation, experiments were carried out at 413-569 K in solutions with pH = 10.0 and at partial oxygen pressure pO2 = 1.73 MPa. As a result of these experiments, a stable oxidation product was isolated from the reaction mixture and subjected to spectroscopic analysis. The analysis of (H)NMR of this product proved that a stable intermediate product of R-salt oxidation was 4-sulfophthalic acid sodium salt. The results of the experiments have shown that destructive oxidation of R-salt can easily be obtained at a temperature of 413 K, but satisfactory reduction of TOC in wastewater containing this substrate requires the use of very high temperature: at 569 K only 60% reduction of TOC was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of interactions between methoxatin disodium salt and human serum albumin by pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis/frontal analysis and circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Chen, Dongying

    2015-01-01

    Pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis (PACE)/frontal analysis (FA) and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interactions between methoxatin disodium salt (PQQ-2Na) and human serum albumin (HSA). With the PACE/FA method, sodium phosphate buffer solution (67 mm, pH 7.4) was used as the background electrolyte. Hydrodynamic injection at 50 mbar for 50 s and external pressure of 50 mbar were applied. The binding constant and the number of primary binding sites to HSA were obtained under fixed concentration of PQQ-2Na (100 µm) and increasing HSA concentration (0~475 µm). The thermodynamic parameters characterized the main acting forces of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The displacement experiments using phenylbutazone and flurbiprofen as ligand markers suggested that the binding site was the Sudlow site I of the HSA molecule. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was further employed to evaluate the conformation changes of HSA under the interaction of PQQ-2Na. This work provides comprehensive information for understanding the interactions between PQQ-2Na and HSA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and...

  6. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L.

  7. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium EDTA. 172.135 Section 172.135 Food and... Preservatives § 172.135 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace-tate... following foods at not to exceed the levels prescribed, calculated as anhydrous calcium disodium EDTA:...

  8. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA. 573.360 Section 573.360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace-...

  9. Crystal structure and characterization of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikemoto Kazuto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, a tricarboxylic acid, has attracted attention as a growth factor, and its application to supplements and cosmetics is underway. The product used for these purposes is a water-soluble salt of PQQ disodium. Although in the past, PQQ disodiumpentahydrates with a high water concentration were used, currently, low hydration crystals of PQQ disodiumpentahydrates are preferred. Results We prepared a crystal of PQQ disodium trihydrate in a solution of ethanol and water, studied its structure, and analyzed its properties. In the prepared crystal, the sodium atom interacted with the oxygen atom of two carboxylic acids as well as two quinones of the PQQ disodium trihydrate. In addition, the hydration water of the prepared crystal was less than that of the conventional PQQ disodium crystal. From the results of this study, it was found that the color and the near-infrared (NIR spectrum of the prepared crystal changed depending on the water content in the dried samples. Conclusions The water content in the dried samples was restored to that in the trihydrate crystal by placing the samples in a humid environment. In addition, the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray diffraction-differential calorimetry (XRD-DSC analyses show that the phase of the trihydrate crystal changed when the crystallization water was eliminated. The dried crystal has two crystalline forms that are restored to the original trihydrate crystals in 20% relative humidity (RH. This crystalline (PQQ disodium trihydrate is stable under normal environment.

  10. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. Metabolism of gold salt in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Tissue distribution of the organic counterpart and their fate in relation to the gold atom after administration of (1,2-dicarboxyethyl thio) gold disodium salt (4-/sup 14/C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigami, M. (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1981-11-01

    Radioactive aurothiomalate (4-/sup 14/C) was administrated parenteraly to rats or rabbits, and tissue distribution of radioactivity and their fate were studied. Radioactivity which represented the organic counterpart of the gold salt was relatively quickly taken up into the blood and reduced with half life time of an hour. In the blood, it stayed mainly in the serum while only small portion of it was incorporated into corpuscles. Radioactivities were taken into various organs quickly also, particularly into kidney and bone in high concentrations. High absorption of the radioactivity by skin was observed at the early stage but quickly decreased by time passage. The radioactivity incorporated into organs did not accumulate but disappeared rather quickly, with little differences in the patterns of disappearance from organ to organ. Much radioactivity seemed to move into the digestive tract. Significant amount of radioactivity was recovered in the expired CO/sub 2/. Its discharging speed was nearly parallel to that of the blood radioactivity level. The metabolic pattern of the organic counterpart of the gold was greatly different to that of its gold atom. Soon after the administration, the gold salt was separated into the two portions, gold atom and organic moiety, and then would go through different metabolic courses.

  12. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium ] (4-)-N,N′,O,O′,O N,O N′] cuprate (2-)....

  14. Molecular Aggregation in Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gautam; Agra-Kooijman, D.; Collings, P. J.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2012-02-01

    Details of molecular aggregation in the mesophases of the anti-asthmatic drug disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) have been studied using x-ray synchrotron scattering. The results show two reflections, one at wide angles corresponding to π-π stacking (3.32 å) of molecules, and the other at small angles which is perpendicular to the direction of molecular stacking and corresponds to the distance between the molecular aggregates. The latter varies from 35 - 41 å in the nematic (N) phase and 27 -- 32 å in the columnar (M) phase. The temperature evolution of the stack height, positional order correlations in the lateral direction, and orientation order parameter were determined in the N, M, and biphasic regions. The structure of the N and M phases and the nature of the molecular aggregation, together with their dependence on temperature and concentration, will be presented.

  15. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal employing EDTA disodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinova, D.; Velkova, R. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The biological phosphorus removal is a promising alternative to the conventional chemical technologies for processing of phosphate raw materials. The object of this study was the effect of EDTA disodium on the biotreatment of tunisian phosphorite with the strain of Aspergillus niger. The incubation was carried out in two nutritive mediums, with different phosphate content. The experimental results showed that the additives of EDTA disodium in the nutritive medium increased the rate of extraction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and shortened significantly the time for biological leaching. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Lysine, disodium guanylate and disodium inosinate as flavor enhancers in low-sodium fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2012-07-01

    Fermented sausages were produced with 50% replacement of NaCl with KCl and with addition of lysine, disodium guanylate, and disodium inosinate. The sausage production was monitored with physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. The final products were submitted to a consumer study. The replacement of NaCl with KCl did not cause changes in the technological process. However, defects in the sensory quality were detected. Lysine at a concentration of 1% with disodium inosinate (300 mg/kg) and disodium guanylate (300 mg/kg) reduced the sensory defects caused by the replacement of 50% NaCl with KCl allowing the preparation of sensory acceptable fermented sausages with a 50% decrease in sodium.

  17. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Pereira da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

  18. Reaction of disodium cromoglycate with hydrated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, A.J.; Arroyo, C.M.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    A possible mechanism by which disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevents a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow but not hypotension in primates following whole body gamma-irradiation was studied. Several studies have implicated superoxide radicals (O/sub 2//sup -/.) in intestinal and cerebral vascular disorders following ischemia and ionizing radiation, respectively. O/sub 2//sup -/. is formed during radiolysis in the reaction between hydrated electrons (e-aq) and dissolved oxygen. For this reason, the efficiency of DSCG to scavenge e-q and possibly prevent the formation of O/sub 2//sup -/. was studied. Hydrated electrons were produced by photolysis of potassium ferrocyanide solutions. The rate constant, k = 2.92 x 10(10) M-1s-1 for the reaction between e-aq and DSCG was determined in competition experiments using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). This spin trap reacts rapidly with e-aq followed by protonation to yield the ESR observable DMPO-H spin adduct. The results show that DSCG is an efficient e-aq scavenger and may effectively compete with oxygen for e-aq preventing the radiolytic formation of O/sub 2//sup -/..

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of disodium 5?-ribonucleotides, disodium 5?-guanylate, disodium 5?-inosinate for all animal species and categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavours included in this assessment are widely present in nature as the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the absence of any information on the microbial strains or substrates used for the production of the additives, and with little information on the manufacturing process, the FEEDAP Panel is unable to ascertain whether the manufacturing process introduces any safety concerns. Disodium 5′-guanylate and disodium 5′-inosinate and their mixture are considered to be safe for the target animals and the consumer. However, considering the lack of information on the production process, these conclusions apply only to the compounds ‘per se’ and their extrapolation to any feed additive containing these compounds is not possible. In the absence of any data related to hazard to the user, it would be prudent to regard disodium 5′-guanylate and disodium 5′-inosinate and their mixture as potentially hazardous to workers by skin or inhalation exposure. The compounds under assessment are naturally present in feed materials; therefore, no risk to the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since these compounds are used in food as flavourings, and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  20. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  1. Optical properties on thermally evaporated and heat-treated disodium phthalocyanine derivative thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M E Sánchez-Vergara; M Rivera; R A Torres-García; C O Perez-Baeza; E A Loza-Neri

    2014-08-01

    Thin films were grown on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers using disodium phthalocyanine and the organic ligands 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone, 2,6-dihydroxianthraquinone and its potassium derivative salt. The surface morphology of these films was analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). IR spectroscopy was employed in order to investigate possible changes of the intra-molecular bonds between the powder compounds and thin films. The optical parameters have been investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance in the wavelength range of 200–1100 nm and the effects of post-deposition heat treatment were analysed. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV–Vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The absorption coefficient in the absorption region reveals non-direct transitions. In addition, the optical gap dependence upon the thickness of these thin films was evaluated.

  2. Binding of disodium cromoglycate to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa de Aspuru, Eduardo; Zatón, Ana M. L.

    1998-07-01

    The binding of several benzopiranone derivatives to human serum albumin was determined. The antiallergic drug disodium cromoglycate binds weakly to serum albumin. However, its precursors, chromones of smaller size, were able to bind in a hydrophobic pocket in the protein, and are carried by serum albumin in blood.

  3. Graphene oxide and creatine phosphate disodium dual template-directed synthesis of GO/hydroxyapatite and its application in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chengli; Zhu, Jinmiao; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua; Li, Hongying; Zheng, Bin; Wei, Yanxin

    2017-04-01

    In this study, graphene oxide and creatine phosphate disodium acted as dual template and was employed to synthesize graphene oxide (GO)/hydroxyapatite (HA) hybrids as drug carriers. In the rapid preparation of GO/HA hybrids, creatine phosphate disodium salt (CPDS) severed as a phosphorus source and graphene oxide acted as a template in aqueous solution. The effects of the reaction temperature, time and pH value of the aqueous solution on the morphology of the product were investigated. The result showed that the hydrolysis of CPDS under hydrothermal condition played an important role in the formation of hierarchical hollow GO/HA hybrids. The GO nanosheets provided reactive sites for the binding of HA nanoparticles and absorbing ibuprofen (IBU) molecules. The GO/HA hybrids had ideal sustained drug-release behavior. It indicated that the prepared GO/HA hybrids may be promising materials for applications in biomedical area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Disodium Cromoglycate, A Mast-Cell Stabilizer, Alters Postradiation Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    ranD RISEARCH INSTITUTI SCIENTIFIC REPORTTC SR86-14 ELECTE JUL0186_ _ ~D DISODIUM CROMOGLYCATE , A MAST-CELL STABILIZER, ALTERS POSTRADIATION...were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCC) or BRL 22321 (Beecham Phar- maceuticals, Research Division) before exposure to 100 Gy...flow could be mitigated by the pre- radiation administration of either disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) (Fisons Corporation, ledford, Mass.) or BRL 22321

  5. Monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine improve the sensory quality of fermented cooked sausages with 50% and 75% replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction.

  6. Troubleshooting arterial-phase MR images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Ji Mi; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Kyoung Won [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, Benjamin M.; Wang, Z. Jane [Dept. of Radiologyand Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco (United States); Wu, En Haw [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Zhao, Li Qin [Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Chang, Wei Chou [Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (China)

    2015-12-15

    Gadoxetate disodium is a widely used magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for liver MR imaging, and it provides both dynamic and hepatobiliary phase images. However, acquiring optimal arterial phase images at liver MR using gadoxetate disodium is more challenging than using conventional extracellular MR contrast agent because of the small volume administered, the gadolinium content of the agent, and the common occurrence of transient severe motion. In this article, we identify the challenges in obtaining high-quality arterial-phase images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR imaging and present strategies for optimizing arterial-phase imaging based on the thorough review of recent research in this field.

  7. Intratracheal dosing with disodium cromoglycate inhibits late asthmatic response by attenuating eicosanoid production in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Maki; Suga, Mikiko; Kohno, Shigekatsu

    2004-08-16

    Disodium cromoglycate is an anti-asthmatic drug that has mast cell-stabilizing effects and other anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory effects are unclear. In this study, we evaluated effects of disodium cromoglycate on eosinophilia, early and late asthmatic responses, and production of arachidonic acid metabolites in guinea pig lungs. Guinea pigs were alternately sensitized and challenged by exposure to mists of ovalbumin+Al(OH)(3) and ovalbumin, respectively. Disodium cromoglycate (0.5-2 mg/0.1 ml/animal) administered intratracheally before the fifth challenge dose-dependently inhibited asthmatic response, but early asthmatic response was not affected. Disodium cromoglycate at 2 mg/animal potently suppressed increases in cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and thromboxane A(2) in the lung during late asthmatic response. Eosinophilia was slightly reduced by disodium cromoglycate. The inhibitory effect of disodium cromoglycate on late asthmatic response is apparently due to inhibition of the release of arachidonic acid metabolites, some of which may be derived from eosinophils that infiltrate the lung.

  8. Effect of Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) and Antihistamines on Postirradiation Cerebral Blood Flow and Plasma Levels of Histamine and Neurotensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    73 6 SOTI UNCLASIFIE ESCURIIY CLASSIFICATION OF Tm-S siki FUNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED TOXICOLOGY 10, 233-242 (1988) Effect of Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG...given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before Irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt...occur ment with the mast cell stabilizer, disodium with equal frequency in all species, having cromoglycate (DSCG, cromolyn sodium), in- been reported

  9. Combretastatin A4 disodium phosphate-induced myocardial injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochinai, Ryota; Nagata, Yuriko; Ando, Minoru; Hata, Chie; Suzuki, Tomo; Asakawa, Naoyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiko; Uchida, Kazumi; Kado, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Kuwahara, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Histopathological and electrocardiographic features of myocardial lesions induced by combretastatin A4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP) were evaluated, and the relation between myocardial lesions and vascular changes and the direct toxic effect of CA4DP on cardiomyocytes were discussed. We induced myocardial lesions by administration of CA4DP to rats and evaluated myocardial damage by histopathologic examination and electrocardiography. We evaluated blood pressure (BP) of CA4DP-treated rats and effects of CA4DP on cellular impedance-based contractility of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs). The results revealed multifocal myocardial necrosis with a predilection for the interventricular septum and subendocardial regions of the apex of the left ventricular wall, injury of capillaries, morphological change of the ST junction, and QT interval prolongation. The histopathological profile of myocardial lesions suggested that CA4DP induced a lack of myocardial blood flow. CA4DP increased the diastolic BP and showed direct effects on hiPS-CMs. These results suggest that CA4DP induces dysfunction of small arteries and capillaries and has direct toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, it is thought that CA4DP induced capillary and myocardial injury due to collapse of the microcirculation in the myocardium. Moreover, the direct toxic effect of CA4DP on cardiomyocytes induced myocardial lesions in a coordinated manner. PMID:27559241

  10. Crystal structure studies on plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dragana J Jovanović; Ivana Lj Validžić; Miodrag Mitrić; Jovan M Nedeljković

    2013-02-01

    The structure of plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate (Na2W2O7) synthesized by newmethod in the process of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis using acidified aqueous solutions of tungsten (VI) oxide clusters as a precursor was refined down to the -factor of 8.9%. X-ray diffraction analysis undoubtedly confirmed formation of orthorhombic Na2W2O7 and refinement of the diffraction data showed that Na2W2O7 powder belongs to the base-centred orthorhombic type of structure with 64 space group, . The structure of Na2W2O7 can be described as infinite chains formed from tetrahedral (WO4) and octahedral (WO6) building units joined together. It was found that the basic units of the precursor complexes exist in the structure of Na2W2O7. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed formation of plate/shelf like Na2W2O7 particles with an average thickness of about 1.2 m.

  11. Columnar molecular aggregation in the aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Singh, Gautam; Lorenz, Alexander; Collings, Peter J.; Kitzerow, Heinz-S.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2014-06-01

    Stack, chimneylike, and threadlike assemblies have previously been proposed for the structure of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) aggregates in aqueous solutions. The results of the synchrotron x-ray scattering investigations reported here reveal the formation of simple columnar assemblies with π-π stacking at a separation of 3.4 Å between the DSCG molecules. Lateral separation between the assemblies is concentration and temperature dependent, varying from ˜35 to 42 Å in the orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase and from 27 to 32 Å in the columnar or middle (M) phase having long range lateral positional order. The assemblies' length depends on concentration and consists of ˜23 molecules in the N phase, becoming three to ten times larger in the M phase. The scission energy is concentration dependent in the N phase with values ˜7.19 ± 0.14 kBT (15 wt %), 2.73 ± 0.4 kBT (20 wt %), and 3.05 ± 0.2 kBT (25 wt %). Solutions of all concentrations undergo a spinodal decomposition at temperatures above ˜40 °C, resulting in DSCG-rich regions with the M phase and water-rich regions in the N and isotropic phases.

  12. Actions of salbutamol, disodium cromoglycate, and placebo administered as aerosols in acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasham, F; Kennedy, J D; Jones, R S

    1981-01-01

    The effects on the peak expiratory flow rate of the drug sequences, placebo-salbutamol-disodium cromoglycate and placebo-disodium cromoglycate-salbutamol administered via a nebuliser were examined in 35 children with asthma. Twenty children were each examined once within 4 hours of admission to hospital with an acute attack of asthma, and the remaining 15 children were examined later in the attack on two occasions. The placebo effect of sterile water accounted for about half of the total bronchodilator action both early and late in the attack. It is suggested that this effect is due to the action of water on the surface film of surfactant, causing collapse of bubbles and strands or webs of mucoid material, thus decreasing airways resistance. At this time salbutamol is significantly more potent than disodium cromoglycate as a bronchodilator agent. PMID:6794462

  13. Bronchodilator effect of disodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder in exercise induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, C R; Jones, R M; Lee, D; Brennan, S R

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a dry powder via the spinhaler, in established exercise-induced asthma, was carried out. DSCG resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery compared with placebo. The findings confirm that DSCG has bronchodilator properties. PMID:6439234

  14. Inhaled disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as maintenance therapy in children with asthma: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.A. Tasche (Marjolein); J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is included in the BTS guidelines on the treatment of asthma for use in children, but is now used only infrequently. We have identified and interpreted the findings of all published randomised, placebo controlled tria

  15. [Longitudinal study of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia treated with disodium cromoglycate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassur-Siemieńska, Barbara; Milewska-Bobula, Bogumiła; Dmeńska, Hanna; Idzik, Mirosława; Bauer, Anna; Marciński, Paweł; Dunin-Wasowicz, Dorota; Lipka, Bozena

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of life of children born prematurely, who developed chronic lung disease, clinical trials of drugs of different origin are undertaken. The aim of the work was the evaluation of the efficacy of disodium cromoglycate in the treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in children. We retrospectively studied 15 infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) hospitalised in the Infant Care Department of Children's Health Memorial Institute from 01.01.1997 to 01.02.2000. All babies were premature (25-30 weeks of gestation) with LBW or VLBW A control group of 11 babies with BPD, matched for birth weight and gestational age, who did not have disodium cromoglycate therapy were also studied. Recurrent obturative bronchitis and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were stated in all cases in both groups. Disodium cromoglycate was administered in all babies in the study group. Inhaled corticosteroid (Budesonide mite) was given in 10 cases, for a short period of time, due to severe obturative bronchitis. Babies in the control group were treated with systemic and inhaled corticosteroids. Results of our trial compared with the log-rank and chi2 test show statistically, significant differences in the regression of obturative bronchitis (log-rank = 4.35, p < 0.0001) and normalization of capillary blood-gas examination (log-rank = 3.777, p < 0.0002) in favour of the studied group, treated with disodium cromoglycate.

  16. SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY CA2+- TOLERANT DISODIUM 2-(SULFATOMETHYL)-1-ALKYLSULFATE SURFACTANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOREMAN, PA; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis, critical micelle concentrations (CMC) and Krafft temperatures (T(Krafft)) of a series of disodium 2-(sulfatomethyl)-1-alkylsulfates (2a-d) are presented, with alkyl being n-tetradecyl (C-14), n-hexadecyl (C-16), n-octadecyl (C18) and n-eicosyl(C20). The surfactants exhibit a large Ca2

  17. Respiratory motion artefacts in dynamic liver MRI: a comparison using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetkens, Julian A.; Kupczyk, Patrick A.; Doerner, Jonas; Willinek, Winfried A.; Schild, Hans H.; Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics, and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the occurrence of respiratory motion artefacts in patients undergoing dynamic liver magnetic resonance (MR) either with gadoxetate disodium or gadobutrol. Two hundred and thirty liver MR studies (115 with gadobutrol, 115 with gadoxetate disodium) were analysed. Respiratory motion artefacts on dynamic 3D T1-weighted MR images (pre-contrast, arterial, venous, and late-dynamic phase) were assessed using a five-point rating scale. Severe motion was defined as a score ≥ 4. Mean motion scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney-U-test. The chi-squared-test was used for dichotomous comparisons. Mean motion scores for gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol showed no relevant differences for each phase of the dynamic contrast series (pre-contrast: 1.85 ± 0.70 vs. 1.88 ± 0.57, arterial: 1.85 ± 0.81 vs. 1.87 ± 0.74, venous: 1.82 ± 0.67 vs. 1.74 ± 0.64, late-dynamic: 1.75 ± 0.62 vs. 1.79 ± 0.63; p = 0.469, 0.557, 0.382 and 0.843, respectively). Severe motion artefacts had a similar incidence using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol (11/460 [2.4 %] vs. 7/460 [1.5 %]; p = 0.341). Gadoxetate disodium is associated with equivalent motion scores compared to gadobutrol in dynamic liver MRI. In addition, both contrast agents demonstrated a comparable and acceptable rate of severe respiratory motion artefacts. (orig.)

  18. Pemetrexed disodium in recurrent locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    OpenAIRE

    Pivot, X; Raymond, E; Laguerre, B.; Degardin, M; Cals, L; Armand, J P; Lefebvre, J L; Gedouin, D; Ripoche, V; Kayitalire, L; Niyikiza, C; Johnson, R.; Latz, J.; Schneider, M.

    2001-01-01

    This phase II study determined response rate of patients with locally advanced or metastatic head and neck cancer treated with pemetrexed disodium, a new multitargeted antifolate that inhibits thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase. 35 patients with local or metastatic relapse of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (31 male, 4 female; median age 53 years) were treated with pemetrexed 500 mg m2 administered as a 10-minute infusi...

  19. Idiopathic obstructive eosinophilic enteritis with raised IgE: response to oral disodium cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, N. H.; Kottler, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with a 20-year history of recurrent abdominal pain and vomiting was found to have eosinophilic enteritis affecting the muscularis layer of the distal ileum. Tests for malabsorption were negative. The IgE was raised but there was no evidence of an allergic predisposition. The symptoms, eosinophilia, and radiological abnormality responded to oral disodium cromoglycate. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:6810329

  20. [Disodium cromoglycate--mast cell degranulation blocker in the process of tissue remodelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxová, H; Vasilková, M; Tkaczyk, J; Vízek, M

    2010-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is a compound commonly used in the treatment of allergic diseases. The effect of DSCG is due to its ability to stabilize the mast cell membrane and to prevent release of histamine and inflammatory mediators. Mast cells are also an abundant source of tissue metalloproteinases, serine proteases and growth factors, which play an important role in the processes of the tissue remodeling. In this view the DSCG is a substance which allows us to study the mechanisms of the pulmonary vascular bed remodeling in the experimental animals exposed to chronic hypoxia and in a phase of the recovery from hypoxia.

  1. Periodic structures induced by director reorientation in the lyotropic nematic phase of disodium cromoglycate-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Y. W.; Kuzma, M. R.; San Miguel, M.; Labes, M. M.

    1985-07-01

    A nonequilibrium periodic structure is induced by a magnetic field H applied to an aligned lyotropic uniaxial nematic phase of disodium cromoglycate-water. A series of parallel lines perpendicular to H represents boundaries between 180° out-of-phase regions of director reorientation. The distance between the lines decreases with increasing H. The line spacing is also directly proportional to thickness of the sample (in a limited range of thickness), and a secondary periodicity, consisting of nodes in these lines, is observed in thicker samples. An extension of a theoretical model by Guyon et al. is used to qualitatively interpret the abovementioned dependencies.

  2. Effect of amino acids on the dispersion of disodium cromoglycate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Nora Y K; Shekunov, Boris Y; Tong, Henry H Y; Chow, Albert H L; Savage, Charles; Wu, James; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2005-10-01

    Modified disodium cromoglycate powders were prepared by co-spray drying with different concentrations of leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, asparagine, and arginine. Amorphous spherical particles of the same size and density where obtained which, however, exhibited different surface properties as measured by the inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The surface energy parameters, such as the dispersive component of surface free energy of the sample, gammaSD, and the total solubility parameter, delta, were significantly lower in the presence of nonpolar chain amino acids, particularly with leucine and phenylalanine, than pure DSCG. However no quantitative relationship between these parameters, the additive concentrations, and the fine particle fractions, FPF, determined for different inhalers and air flow rates, was observed. The FPF significantly increased with addition of leucine and this effect was attributed to reduced intermolecular interactions between leucine and disodium cromoglycate molecules, as indicated by the difference in corresponding Hansen solubility parameters. Decrease of interparticle interactions for leucine-containing powders also led to a lesser dependence of FPF on the flow rate and inhaler type.

  3. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of Glycyrrhetinic Acid, Potassium Glycyrrhetinate, Disodium Succinoyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glyceryl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium Glycyrrhizate, Trisodium Glycyrrhizate, Methyl Glycyrrhizate, and Potassium Glycyrrhizinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    11beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11beta -OHSD2) in the kidney. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its derivatives block gap junction intracellular communication in a dose-dependent manner in animal and human cells, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, hepatocytes, and astrocytes; at high concentrations, it is cytotoxic. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid protect liver tissue from carbon tetrachloride. Glycyrrhizic Acid has been used to treat chronic hepatitis, inhibiting the penetration of the hepatitis A virus into hepatocytes. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid have anti-inflammatory effects in rats and mice. The acute intraperitoneal LD(50) for Glycyrrhetinic Acid in mice was 308 mg/kg and the oral LD(50) was > 610 mg/kg. The oral LD(50) in rats was reported to be 610 mg/kg. Higher LD(50) values were generally reported for salts. Little short-term, subchronic, or chronic toxicity was seen in rats given ammonium, dipotassium, or disodium salts of Glycyrrhizic Acid. Glycyrrhetinic Acid was not irritating to shaved rabbit skin, but was considered slightly irritating in an in vitro test. Glycyrrhetinic Acid inhibited the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and inhibited tumor initiation and promotion by other agents in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid inhibited tumor initiation by another agent, but did not prevent tumor promotion in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid delayed mortality in mice injected with Erlich ascites tumor cells, but did not reduce the mortality rate. Ammonium Glycyrrhizate was not genotoxic in in vivo and in vitro cytogenetics assays, the dominant lethal assay, an Ames assay, and heritable translocation tests, except for possible increase in dominant lethal mutations in rats given 2000 mg/kg day(-1) in their diet. Disodium Glycyrrhizate was not carcinogenic in mice in a drinking water study at exposure levels up to 12.2 mg/kg day(-1) for 96 weeks. Glycyrrhizate salts produced no reproductive or developmental toxicity in rats, mice

  5. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were  0.05). Conclusion We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points:  · Gadoxetate disodium causes TSM in a relevant number of patients.. · The frequency of TSM is similar between the USA, Japan and Germany.. · To date, no validated risk factors for TSM could be identified.. Citation Format · Well L, Rausch VH, Adam G et al. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 651 - 660. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Gadoxate disodium: gadolinium EOB DTPA, gadoxetic acid, Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Gadoxate disodium [gadolinium EOB DTPA, Gd-EOB-DTPA, gadoxetic acid, Eovist injection, Primovist] is a hydrophilic paramagnetic contrast agent being developed by Schering AG for hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging. In April 2004, gadoxate disodium (Primovist) was approved in Sweden, the reference member state for the EU registration. Following the Swedish approval, Schering will initiate a mutual recognition procedure for the EU with approvals expected in most countries during 2004. Gadoxate disodium is in phase III clinical trials in the US and has completed phase III studies in Japan. Submissions for approval in Japan and other Asian countries are planned for 2004. Schering AG plans to launch Eovist in Japan in 2005. Schering AG acquired a worldwide, royalty-bearing licence to EPIX Medical's patents covering liver-enhancing agents such as Eovist injection. These included a European patent (222886) and the US patents (4,899,755 and 4,888,008) that EPIX Medical exclusively licensed from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The MGH patents, a part of EPIX's extensive intellectual property, also covered albumin-targeted agents such as MS 325 (AngioMARK). Schering AG formally withdrew from the opposition proceedings against EPIX's EU patent 222886 following its acquisition of EPIX's intellectual property. These EU and US patents were also non-exclusively licensed by EPIX Medical to Bracco in September 2001. Apart from covering Eovist (Schering AG), the EU patent also covered gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance Bracco). Following the licensing agreement, Bracco withdrew its opposition to the patents in Europe and Japan, and both EPIX Medical and Bracco settled their European patent dispute. In its 2002 Annual Report, Schering predicted that Eovist has the potential to reach peak sales of euro50 million, three years after launch--at the time, launch in Europe was anticipated in 2004, followed by launch in Japan in 2005. This is down from earlier predictions

  7. The inhibitory effect of disodium cromoglycate on the growth of Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Nozomu; Inoue, Miyuki; Sato, Kozue; Kishimoto, Toshio

    2006-04-01

    Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is associated with asthma and several other respiratory illnesses. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is known to inhibit both immediate and late asthmatic responses. In this study, the inhibitory effect of DSCG on the growth of C. pneumoniae was examined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and pre-inoculation minimal cidal concentration (MCC) assays using HL cells and C. pneumoniae AR-39. DSCG below the clinically relevant concentration inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae in a dose-dependent manner in both the MCC and MIC assays. The inhibitory effect was also time-dependent in the MCC assay at 20 mg/ml of DSCG. These results warrant further clinical study on the connection between C. pneumoniae infections and use of DSCG.

  8. Disodium cromoglycate: exploiting its properties as a NMR weak-aligning medium for small organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche-Pesqueira, Eduardo; Cid, María-Magdalena; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando

    2014-03-28

    Chromonic phases are a family of lyotropic liquid crystals (LC) formed by ionic aromatic mesogens such as disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn), sunset yellow and others. It is well known that chromonic phases are oriented in the presence of external magnetic fields, leading to the observation of anisotropic NMR observables such as quadrupolar splittings or residual dipolar couplings. Despite the fact that the cromolyn nematic LC phase (N) presents important advantages like great homogeneity, small line broadening, and easy sample preparation, it has been scarcely used as a water-compatible NMR orienting medium, in part due to a too strong induced degree of alignment on the guest molecules. However, the use of cromolyn-brine mixtures led to the optimum degree of alignment allowing to record (1)H-(13)C dipolar couplings with good accuracy.

  9. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility.

  10. Phases and structures of sunset yellow and disodium cromoglycate mixtures in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory P.; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Zhu, Chenhui; Clark, Noel A.

    2016-01-01

    We study phases and structures of mixtures of two representative chromonic liquid crystal materials, sunset yellow FCF (SSY) and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), in water. A variety of combinations of isotropic, nematic (N ), and columnar (also called M ) phases are observed depending on their concentrations, and a phase diagram is made. We find a tendency for DSCG-rich regions to show higher-order phases while SSY-rich regions show lower-order ones. We observe uniform mesophases only when one of the materials is sparse in the N phases. Their miscibility in M phases is so low that essentially complete phase separation occurs. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies confirm that SSY and DSCG molecules do not mix when they form chromonic aggregates and neither do their aggregates when they form M phases.

  11. Effect of disodium cromoglycate on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Young; Kim, Jung-Sook; An, Nyeon-Hyoung; Park, Rae-Kil; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-04-23

    We investigated the effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity. DSCG inhibited systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 dose-dependently. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was inhibited by 71.6% by oral administration of DSCG (1 g/kg). When DSCG was pretreated at concentration rang from 0.01-1000 g/kg, the serum histamine levels were reduced in a dose dependent manner. DSCG also significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cell (RPMC) by compound 48/80. We confirmed that DSCG inhibited compound 48/80-induced degranulation of RPMC by alcian blue/nuclear fast red staining. In addition, DSCG showed a significant inhibitory effect on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. These results indicate that DSCG inhibits mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reaction.

  12. EMBRYOTOXIC AND TERATOGENIC EFFECT OF DISODIUM GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID HEMIPHTHALATE IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Marzbnn

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Disodium glycyrrhetinic acid hemiphthalaic (GAP was evaluated for developmental toxicity in pregnant NMRI mice. GAP was administered intrapcritoneally on days S, 9, 10, of gestation at doses of 0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg/dav. On gestation day of IS, after operational delivery, the fetuses were examined for soft tissue, external and skeletal defects."nIncreased absorptions, dead fetuses, and reduce fetal body weight per litter were observed at doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg/day. In addition by using different doses of GAP at different critical gestation times, developmental delay was observed as reduction in ossification centers and vertebral number in caudal region. It seems that GAP at doses of (50 and 75 mg/kg/day has a cmbiyotoxic and teratogenic potential in mice.

  13. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  14. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  15. Molecular distribution of gold(I) in human blood plasma after treatment with the antiarthritic disodium aurothiomalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M H; Grootveld, M; Sadler, P J

    1989-01-01

    On-line separation and detection of both high- and low-molecular-weight gold species in human blood plasma treated with disodium aurothiomalate were achieved by a technique incorporating a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography with continuous monitoring of absorbance at 254 nm and eluant gold concentration by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The fate of gold (40 microM disodium aurothiomalate) in human blood plasma was monitored over a period of 24 h. Results obtained indicated that more than 50% of the gold is associated with a peak identified as albumin after a 5 min incubation period at 37 degrees C, and by 30 min more than 90% is found to be associated with albumin. This novel analytical combination enables the rapid, selective and sensitive determination of gold(I) and its biotransformation products (both protein--and non-protein-bound) in biological fluids.

  16. Synthesis of disodium-3-amino-1-hydroxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate-1-/sup 14/C. (APD. 2Na)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, E.; Shaikh, M.; Suh, J.T.; Jones, H. (Revlon Health Care Group, Tuckahoe, New York (USA))

    1982-10-01

    Disodium-3-amino-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate-1-/sup 14/C (APD 2Na), a powerful calcium binding agent and potential drug for the treatment of Paget's Disease was synthesized. The reaction was carried out by reacting ..beta..-alanine (1-/sup 14/C) with phosphorus acid and phosphorus trichloride in chlorobenzene. Treatment of the resultant APD with two equivalents of sodium hydroxide gave the title compound.

  17. Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Pamidronate Disodium in Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-jun Di; Jun Ren; Ying Yan; Feng-ling Wan; Guo-gong Song; Jing Yu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of pamidronate disodium in patients with bone lesions secondary to advanced breast carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 62 patients receiving intravenous pamidronate disodium for metastatic breast cancer. The proportion of patients experiencing at least one skeletal related event (SRE) after 12 months of therapy was determined.Results: The proportion of patients who had an SRE was 29.00% (18 individuals) and the median time to first event was greater than 350 days. Radiotherapy(11 individuals)and pathologic fracture(6 individuals)were the most frequent type of SRE, while cord compression(1 individuals) and hypercalcaemia(0 individuals) were rare. A total of 37 individuals had transient hypocalcaemia without any clinical symptom. No significant creatinine abnormalities were encountered. There were no clinically relevant changes of calcium ,phosphate and creatinine before and after therapy.Conclusion: Long-term treatment with pamidronate disodium significantly reduces and delays skeletal morbidity from osteolytic metastases . Prolonged therapy was well tolerated. This study suggests that the rate of clinically relevant SREs is substantially lower than the event rate observed in phase III clinical trials.

  18. Probing the Interaction between a DNA Nucleotide (Adenosine-5'-Monophosphate Disodium) and Surface Active Ionic Liquids by Rotational Relaxation Measurement and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Banerjee, Pavel; Dutta, Rupam; Kundu, Sangita; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-10-02

    This article demonstrates the interaction of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nucleotide, adenosine-5'-monophosphate disodium (AMP) with a cationic surface active ionic liquid (SAIL) 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazoium chloride (C12mimCl) and an anionic SAIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium n-octylsulfate ([C4mim][C8SO4]). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) studies indicate that substantial interaction is taking place among the DNA nucleotide, AMP and the SAILs. Moreover, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) suggests that SAILs containing micellar assemblies are transformed into larger micellar assemblies in presence of DNA nucleotide. Additionally, the rotational motion of two oppositely charged molecules, Rhodamine 6G perchlorate (R6G) and Fluorescein sodium salt (Fl-Na) have been monitored in these aggregates. The rotational motion of R6G and Fl-Na differs significantly between SAILs micelles, and SAILs-AMP containing larger micellar aggregates. The effect of negatively charged DNA nucleotide (AMP) addition into the cationic and anionic SAILs is more prominent for the cationic charged molecule R6G than that of anionic probe Fl-Na due to the favourable electrostatic interaction between the AMP and cationic R6G. Moreover, the influence of the anionic DNA nucleotide on the cationic and anionic SAIL micelles is monitored through the variation of the lateral diffusion motion of oppositely charged probe molecules (R6G and Fl-Na) inside these aggregates. This variation in diffusion coefficient values also suggests that interaction pattern of these oppositely charged probes are different within the SAILs-nucleotide containing aggregates. Therefore, both rotational and translational diffusion measurements confirm that the DNA nucleotide (AMP) renders more rigid microenvironment within the micellar solution of SAILs.

  19. Modification of disodium cromoglycate passage across lung epithelium in vitro via incorporation into polymeric microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghi, Mehra; Salama, Rania; Traini, Daniela; Bebawy, Mary; Young, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Two microparticle systems containing disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) alone or with polyvinyl alcohol (DSCG/PVA) were produced via spray drying and compared in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, aerosol performance and drug uptake across a pulmonary epithelial cell line (Calu-3), cultured under air interface conditions. The particle size distribution of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were similar, of spherical geometry, amorphous and suitable for inhalation purposes. Aerosolisation studies using a modified twin-stage impinger showed the DSCG/PVA to have greater aerosol performance than that of DSCG alone. Aerosol particles of DSCG and DSCG/PVA were deposited onto the surface of the Calu-3 air interface epithelium monolayer and the drug uptake from apical to basal directions measured over time. Drug uptake was measured across a range of doses to allow comparison of equivalent drug and powder mass deposition. Analysis of the data indicated that the percentage cumulative drug uptake was independent of the mass of powder deposited, but dependent on the formulation. Specifically, with the formulation containing DSCG, the diffusion rate was observed to change with respect to time (indicative of a concentration-dependent diffusion process), whilst DSCG/PVA showed a time-independent drug uptake (suggesting a zero-order depot release).

  20. Phase conjugation by degenerate four wave mixing in disodium fluorescein solution in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Sekhar, P. Chandra; Venkateswarlu, P.; Geroge, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Organic dyes are known to show the resonant type of nonlinear optical properties, including phase conjugation. In the present work, disodium fluorescein in methanol is used as an organic nonlinear medium for degenerate four wave mixing at 532 nm to see the intensity dependence of the phase conjugate signal at different concentrations of the solution. It is observed that the maximum reflectivity of the signal occurs in a concentration range of 5 x 10(exp -3)/cu cm to 1.2 x 10(exp -2) g/cu cm. It is also observed that the intensity of the signal drops suddenly to less than half of its maximum outside the concentration range mentioned above. An investigation of the phase conjugate signal intensity by changing the delay time between probe signal and the forward pump is also examined. Briefly discussed is the possibility of population grating in dye liquids as a source of enhancing the third order susceptibility besides the other techniques mentioned in reference. The experiment is done by beam splitting the second harmonic (532 nm) of Nd:YAG laser, Q-switched at 20 pulses/sec (pulse width is approximately 8 and 200 mJ per pulse).

  1. Early Effects of Combretastatin-A4 Disodium Phosphate on Tumor Perfusion and Interstitial Fluid Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten D. Ley

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Combretastatin-A4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP is a vascular-disruptive agent that causes an abrupt decrease in tumor blood flow. The direct actions of CA4DP include increases in vascular permeability and destabilization of the endothelial cytoskeleton, which are thought to contribute to occlusion of the tumor vasculature. It has been proposed that increased permeability causes a transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure (IFP, which in turn could collapse intratumoral blood vessels. We examined the immediate effects of CA4DP on tumor IFP in C3H mammary carcinoma. Mice were treated with 100 mg/kg CA4DP by intraperitoneal injection. Tumor perfusion was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at separate time points, and IFP was recorded continuously by the wickin-needle method. In this study, we found that CA4DP treatment resulted in a rapid reduction in tumor perfusion, followed by a decrease in IFP; no increases in IFP were observed. This suggests that CA4DP-induced reductions in tumor perfusion are not dependent on increases in IFP.

  2. Electroacupuncture improves neuropathic pain Adenosine,adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium and their receptors perhaps change simultaneously

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Ren; Wenzhan Tu; Songhe Jiang; Ruidong Cheng; Yaping Du

    2012-01-01

    Applying a stimulating current to acupoints through acupuncture needles-known as electroacupuncture-has the potential to produce analgesic effects in human subjects and experimental animals.When acupuncture was applied in a rat model,adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium in the extracellular space was broken down into adenosine,which in turn inhibited pain transmission by means of an adenosine A1 receptor-dependent process.Direct injection of an adenosine A1 receptor agonist enhanced the analgesic effect of acupuncture.The analgesic effect of acupuncture appears to be mediated by activation of A1 receptors located on ascending nerves.In neuropathic pain,there is upregulation of P2X purinoceptor 3(P2X3)receptor expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons.Conversely,the onset of mechanical hyperalgesia was diminished and established hyperalgesia was significantly reversed when P2X3 receptor expression was downregulated.The pathways upon which electroacupuncture appear to act are interwoven with pain pathways,and electroacupuncture stimuli converge with impulses originating from painful areas.Electroacupuncture may act via purinergic A1 and P2X3 receptors simultaneously to induce an analgesic effect on neuropathic pain.

  3. Plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate after various inhalation methods in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Muraki, K; Fujitaka, M; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims To compare the plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) following various inhalation procedures in healthy volunteers. Methods Nine healthy subjects inhaled 2 mg of aerosol, 20 mg of nebuliser solution only, 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with isotonic saline, or 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with saline and procaterol, a β2-adenoceptor agonist, on separate occasions 2–3 weeks apart. Plasma concentrations of DSCG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Results The peak plasma concentrations of DSCG were 1.5±0.7 (range 0.4–2.4) ng ml−1 in the aerosol group, 8.8±6.2 (range 5.3–19.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution only group, 17.2±16.3 (range 5.0–38.6) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus isotonic saline group, and 24.5±11.9 (range 10.2–44.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus saline and procaterol group. Thus subjects who used the nebuliser had markedly higher plasma concentrations of DSCG than subjects who used the aerosol inhaler. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the evaluation of inhalation treatment with DSCG for bronchial asthma. PMID:10417491

  4. Disodium cromoglycate attenuates hypoxia induced enlargement of end-expiratory lung volume in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxová, H; Hezinová, A; Vízek, M

    2011-01-01

    Mechanism responsible for the enlargement of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) induced by chronic hypoxia remains unclear. The fact that the increase in EELV persists after return to normoxia suggests involvement of morphological changes. Because hypoxia has been also shown to activate lung mast cells, we speculated that they could play in the mechanism increasing EELV similar role as in vessel remodeling in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). We, therefore, tested an effect of mast cells degranulation blocker disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on hypoxia induced EELV enlargement. Ventilatory parameters, EELV and right to left heart weight ratio (RV/LV+S) were measured in male Wistar rats. The experimental group (H+DSCG) was exposed to 3 weeks of normobaric hypoxia and treated with DSCG during the first four days of hypoxia, control group was exposed to hypoxia only (H), two others were kept in normoxia as non-treated (N) and treated (N+DSCG) groups. DSCG treatment significantly attenuated the EELV enlargement (H+DSCG = 6.1+/-0.8; H = 9.2+/-0.9; ml +/-SE) together with the increase in minute ventilation (H + DSCG = 190+/-8; H = 273 +/- 10; ml/min +/- SE) and RV/LV + S (H + DSCG = 0.39 +/- 0.03; H = 0.50 +/- 0.06).

  5. Effect of lodoxamide and disodium cromoglycate on tear eosinophil cationic protein in vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, A.; Borghesan, F.; Avarello, A.; Plebani, M.; Secchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To validate the use of tear eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a marker for eosinophil activation, and its pharmacological modulation, in addition to evaluating the efficacy of lodoxamide and sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
METHODS—Tears were collected from 30 patients affected by active mild to moderate VKC before and after therapy with disodium cromoglycate 4% (DSCG) (n=15) or lodoxamide 0.1% (n=15) for 10 days. Tear cytology and ECP measurement were performed, and ocular signs and symptoms evaluated.
RESULTS—While statistically significant changes did not occur after DSCG therapy, mean tear ECP increased from 343 (SD 363) µg/l to 571 (777) µg/l due to marked elevation in six eyes. The clinical score in DSCG eyes did not improve. After lodoxamide therapy, both clinical signs and symptoms, and tear ECP levels (560 (756) µg/l to 241 (376) µg/l) decreased significantly (p<0.0001 and p<0.01, respectively). Compared with DSCG treatment, lodoxamide was more effective in reducing signs and symptoms (p<0.005). ECP levels were significantly correlated with signs, symptoms, corneal involvement, and number of eosinophils in tears (p<0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS—In patients with VKC, lodoxamide significantly reduced ECP tear levels, and thus, eosinophil activation, and was more effective than DSCG in reducing clinical signs and symptoms.

 PMID:9135403

  6. Phase behavior of chromonic liquid crystal mixtures of Sunset Yellow and Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Clark, Noel

    2014-03-01

    Chromonic liquid crystals (CLCs) are formed when planar molecules dissolved in water stack into rod-like aggregates that can order as liquid crystals. Isotropic, nematic, and M-phases can be observed depending on the degree of molecular orientational and positional order by variation of the CLC concentration. We focused on mixtures of two well-known CLCs, Sunset Yellow, a food dye, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), an asthma medication. In order to study the phase behaviors of these mixtures, we observed their textures in glass cells and capillaries using polarized light microscopy. We report here a ternary phase diagram describing the complete phase behavior of the CLC mixtures. We observed a variety of phase behaviors depending on species ratio and concentration. In the isotropic phase, no clear phase separation of the two dyes was observed, while separation did occur in many nematic and M-phase combinations. We will also describe phase observations made using a light spectroscopy and bulk centrifugal partitioning. Grant support: NSF DMR 1207606 and NSF MRSEC DMR-0820579.

  7. Elasticity, viscosity, and orientational fluctuations of a lyotropic chromonic nematic liquid crystal disodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuang; Neupane, Krishna; Nastishin, Yuriy A; Baldwin, Alan R; Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Sprunt, Samuel

    2014-09-14

    Using dynamic light scattering, we study orientational fluctuation modes in the nematic phase of a self-assembled lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) disodium cromoglycate and measure the Frank elastic moduli and viscosity coefficients. The elastic moduli of splay (K1) and bend (K3) are in the order of 10 pN while the twist modulus (K2) is an order of magnitude smaller. The splay constant K1 and the ratio K1/K3 both increase substantially as the temperature T decreases, which we attribute to the elongation of the chromonic aggregates at lower temperatures. The bend viscosity is comparable to that of thermotropic liquid crystals, while the splay and twist viscosities are several orders of magnitude larger. The temperature dependence of bend viscosity is weak. The splay and twist viscosities change exponentially with the temperature. In addition to the director modes, the fluctuation spectrum reveals an additional mode that is attributed to diffusion of structural defects in the column-like aggregates.

  8. Use of disodium pamidronate bisphosphonate in patients with bone metastases of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Boško

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Disodium pamidronate (Aredia®, a drug of the bisphosphonate group, was administered to 20 patients with pains in the bones due to secondary deposits of lung cancer. The aim of the study was to investigate the analgesic effect of pamidronate to osteolytic metastases of lung cancer in the bone. In 16 (80% patients non-small-cell lung cancer was diagnosed, and in 4 (20% patients small-cell-lung cancer was confirmed. Intensive disseminated pains in the bones were present in all the patients. Metastases in the skeleton were confirmed by radiography and scintigraphy of the bones. Initial values of calcium in the plasma were determined in those patients. In 11 (55% patients, initial values of calcium in the serum were normal, and in 9 (45% patients, they were elevated. Patients with normal calcium values received 30 mg of pamidronate in 250 ml of normal saline, and patients with hypercalcaemia received 45-60 mg in 500 ml of normal saline. Analgesic effect of pamidronate was present in 12 (60% patients, and the completely painless state was achieved in 4 out of 12 patients. Evaluation of the pain was done by questionnaire, using a simple, descriptive scale. In all 9 (100% patients with hypercalcaemia, values of calcium in plasma were normalized. Pamidronate exerted favorable analgesic effect in the case of metastases of lung cancer in the bones in more than 50% patients. Satisfactory results were also achieved in the patients non-responsive to palliative therapy by irradiation This enables the use of opiates in lower doses.

  9. Inhibition of methoxamine-induced bronchoconstriction by ipratropium bromide and disodium cromoglycate in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J; Vincenc, K; Salome, C

    1985-01-01

    We compared the effects of pretreatment with saline, ipratropium bromide, and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on bronchoconstriction induced by methoxamine--an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, in asthmatic subjects. All 12 patients bronchoconstricted in response to methoxamine after saline. The PD20 (the dose of methoxamine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]) ranged from 0.3-18 mumol. Ipratropium bromide (200 micrograms administered by aerosol) significantly inhibited (P less than 0.05) the response to methoxamine in all patients without producing significant changes in the mean baseline lung function. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after saline was 6.8 mumol and 95% confidence limits (CL) were 3.6, 12.7 mumol. The mean PD20 for methoxamine after ipratropium bromide was 35.4 (95% CL 28.8, 43.6) mumol. DSCG also produced significant (P less than 0.05) shifts to the right in the methoxamine dose response curves, but did not affect resting airway calibre as measured by the FEV1. The mean PD20 for methoxamine increased from 3.3 mumol (95% CL 1.1, 10.0 mumol) after saline to 25.1 mumol (95% CL 14.1, 44.6) after DSCG pretreatment. These findings suggest that alpha-adrenoceptors in the airways of asthmatic subjects may be located at sites other than smooth muscle--possibly on mast cells but more likely on nerve endings and/or parasympathetic ganglia. PMID:2992563

  10. Hsp90 is a direct target of the anti-allergic drugs disodium cromoglycate and amlexanox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Miki; Itoh, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Takashi; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Ryoji

    2003-09-01

    Hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90) alone can act to prevent protein aggregation and promote refolding in vitro, but in vivo it operates as a part of a multichaperone complex, which includes Hsp70 and cohort proteins. Since the physiological function of Hsp90 is not yet fully understood, the development of specific antagonists might open new lines of investigation on the role of Hsp90. In an effort to discover Hsp90 antagonists, we screened many drugs and found that the anti-allergic drugs DSCG (disodium cromoglycate) and amlexanox target Hsp90. Both drugs were found to bind directly wild-type Hsp90 via the N- and C-terminal domains. Both drugs strongly suppressed the in vitro chaperone activity of native Hsp90 towards citrate synthase at 1.5-3.0 microM. Amlexanox suppressed C-terminal chaperone activity in vitro, but not N-terminal chaperone activity, and inhibited the association of cohort proteins, such as cyclophilin 40 and Hsp-organizing protein, to the C-terminal domain of Hsp90. These data suggest that amlexanox might disrupt the multichaperone complex, including Hsp70 and cohort proteins, both in vitro and in vivo. Although DSCG inhibited the in vitro chaperone activity of the N-terminal domain, the drug had no effect either on the C-terminal chaperone activity or on the association of the cohort proteins with the C-terminus of Hsp90. The physiological significance of these interactions in vivo remains to be investigated further, but undoubtedly must be taken into account when considering the pharmacology of anti-allergic drugs. DSCG and amlexanox may serve as useful tools for evaluating the physiological significance of Hsp90.

  11. Disodium cromoglycate, a mast-cell stabilizer, alters postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Pautler, E.L.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure, and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with systemic hypotension and a dramatic release of mast-cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomena and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or BRL 22321 before exposure to 100 Gy whole-body gamma radiation. Hypothalamic and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. The data indicated that DSCG was successful in diminishing postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow. Irradiated animals pretreated with DSCG, showed only a 10% decrease in hypothalamic blood flow 60 min postradiation, while untreated, irradiated animals showed a 57% decrease. The cortical blood flow of DSCG treated, irradiated animals showed a triphasic response, with a decrease of 38% at 10 min postradiation, then a rise to 1% below baseline at 20 min, followed by a fall to 42% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. In contrast, the untreated, irradiated animals showed a steady decrease in cortical blood flow to 79% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. There was no significant difference in blood-pressure response between the treated and untreated, irradiated animals. Systemic blood pressure showed a 60% decrease at 10 min postradiation, falling to a 71% decrease by 60 min.

  12. Disodium cromoglycate enhances ongoing immunoglobulin production in vitro in human B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, H; Yoshida, A; Ishioka, C; Mikawa, H

    1991-01-01

    The effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) upon human immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes and IgG subclasses production by purified B cells was studied. DSCG enhanced IgM, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgA production in a dose-dependent fashion, while DSCG failed to induce IgE production at any concentrations tested by purified B cells. When B cells were separated into small resting and large activated B cells, DSCG failed to induce Ig production from small resting B cells in the presence or absence of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain I (SAC). In contrast, in large activated B cells DSCG significantly enhanced all types of Ig production (two-to threefold), especially IgG4 production (seven-to 11-fold), except IgE, which large B cells did not produce. The enhancement of IgG subclass production was not subclass switching, since DSCG failed to enhance IgG1 production in B cells depleted of surface IgG1+ cells (sIgG1+ cells). Similarly, DSCG did not enhance IgG2, IgG3 or IgG4 production from sIgG2-, sIgG3- or sIgG4- B cells, respectively, Interleukin-4 (IL-4) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) also enhanced Ig production except IgG4 from large activated B cells. The enhancing effect of DSCG was not mediated by IL-4 or IL-6 since anti-IL-4 or anti-IL-6 antibody failed to block the DSCG-induced enhancement. DSCG also enhanced IgG2 and IgM production from human B-cell lines GM-1500 and CBL, respectively. These results suggest that DSCG directly and preferentially stimulates activated B cells which are producing Ig and, in addition, enhances their Ig production. PMID:1904400

  13. Inhaled disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as maintenance therapy in children with asthma: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasche, M; Uijen, J; Bernsen, R; de Jongste, J C; van der Wouden, J C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is included in the BTS guidelines on the treatment of asthma for use in children, but is now used only infrequently. We have identified and interpreted the findings of all published randomised, placebo controlled trials of DSCG in the prophylactic treatment of children with asthma.
METHODS—Several databases were searched to identify trials. Studies were included if they investigated subjects with asthma aged 0-18 years old, addressed maintenance treatment with inhaled DSCG, and were published in English. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed independently by three reviewers. The 95% confidence intervals (CI) of differences in the treatment effect for cough and wheeze between placebo and treatment with DSCG were computed. The estimates were pooled and tested for homogeneity and, to assess possible publication bias, a funnel plot was made and tested for symmetry.
RESULTS—Of the 24 randomised, placebo controlled trials identified, the methodological scores varied widely. The null hypothesis of homogeneity was rejected. Under the assumption of heterogeneity the overall CI for wheeze was 0.11 to 0.26 and for cough was 0.13to 0.27. The overall tolerance intervals (-0.11 to 0.48 and -0.04 to 0.43 for wheeze and cough, respectively) both included zero, so it cannot be concluded that future studies will show an effect of DSCG compared with placebo. Older studies were more often in favour of DSCG. The funnel plots suggest publication bias; small studies with negative or equal outcomes are lacking.
CONCLUSION—Given the apparent publication bias, the small overall treatment effect, and the tolerance interval including zero, there is insufficient evidence that DSCG has a beneficial effect as maintenance treatment in children with asthma.

 PMID:11050259

  14. Extraction of protoporphyrin disodium and its inhibitory effects on HBV-DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Pin Li; Li-Fa Xu; Qun-Hong Liu; Chao Zhang; Jian Wang; Yu-Xia Zhu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore an ideal method for extracting protoporphyrin disodium (PPN) from unanticoagulated animal blood, and to study the inhibitory effects of PPN on HBV-DNA duplication and its cytotoxicity to 2.2.15 cell strain.METHODS: Protoporphyrin methyl ester and other intermediate products were prepared with protoheme separated from protein hydrolysates of coagulated animal blood, which were finally made into PPN and detected quantitatively with an ultraviolet fluorescent analyzer.Ten μg/ml, 20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml and 160 μg/ml of PPN-aqueous solution were added into culture medium for 2.2.15 cells respectively. Eight days later, the drug concentration in supernatant from the culture medium was detected when inhibition rate of HBeAg, cell Survival rate when inhibition rate of HBeAg was 50% (ID50), and when survival cells in experimental group were 50% of those in control group (CD50), and the therapeutic index (TI) was also detected. PPN with different concentration of 10 μg/ml,20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml and 160 μg/ml was respectively mixed and cultivated with HepG2 2.2.15 cell suspension,and then the inhibition of PPN against HBV-DNA was judged by PCR.RESULTS: The extract of henna crystal was identified to be PPN. When the concentrations of PPN were 160 μg/ml and 80 μg/ml, the inhibition rates of HBeAg were 89.8% and 82.4%, and the cell survival rates were 98.7% and 99.2%.CONCLUSION: It is suggested that PPN can be extracted from unanticoagulated animal blood. PPN can inhibit HBV-DNA expression and duplication ih vitro, and has no cytotoxicity to liver cells. Further study and application of PPN are warranted.

  15. Antimutagenic activity of a novel ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisama, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Sanae; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-06-01

    A novel amphiphilic vitamin C derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na) possessing an alkyl chain of C(18) to a stable ascorbate derivative sodium L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (VCP-Na), was synthesized and evaluated as an anti-mutagen with suppressive effect on SOS-inducing activity on mutagen in the Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 umu test. VCP-IS-2Na was assayed with chemical mutagens, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide (furylfuramide) and 4-nitroquinolin 1-oxide (4NQO), which do not require liver metabolizing enzymes. VCP-IS-2Na at a concentration of 0.40 micromol/ml suppressed 66.2%, 54.7% and 60.2% of the SOS-inducing activity on MNNG, furylfuramide, and 4NQO, and the 50% inhibitory dose value (ID(50)) was 0.12 micromol/ml, 0.26 micromol/ml, and 0.17 micromol/ml, respectively. In addition, VCP-IS-2Na was assayed with 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), which require liver metabolizing enzymes. To study the structure-activity relationship, L-ascorbic acid (VC) and VCP-Na were also assayed with all mutagens. VCP-IS-2Na, suppressed the chemical and physical mutagens-induced SOS response greater than VC and VCP-Na in the umu test. Also, the antimutagenic activities of VCP-IS-2Na, VC, and VCP-Na against MNNG and Trp-P-1 were assayed by the Ames test using the S. typhimurium TA100 strain. In summary, this research suggests that VCP-IS-2Na showed potent antimutagenic effects against chemical mutagens and UV irradiation.

  16. The effect of disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen on the excretion of histamine and N tau-methylimidazole acetic acid in urine of patients with mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, A I; Norris, P; Rendell, N B; Wong, E; Greaves, M W

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of four mastocytosis patients with the mast cell stabilising drugs, disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen failed to alter significantly the urinary excretion levels of histamine or N tau-methylimidazole acetic acid. No clinical improvement was noted in any subject after treatment by either drug. PMID:2495814

  17. Effect of creatine phosphate disodium on postoperative cognitive function under combined intravenous and volatile anesthesia in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-sen JIA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the relationship of perioperative INVOS cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 and postoperative cognition function alteration of geriatric patients under combined intravenous and volatile anesthesia with creatine phosphate disodium to provide guidance for clinical anesthesia. Methods  Sixty ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱpatients aged >60 years scheduled for selective abdominal surgeries or surgeries on lower limb were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 patients: creatine phosphate disodium group 1 (CPD1, creatine phosphate disodium group 2 (CPD2, control group (C. All the patients were not premedicated with atropine 0.5mg until entering the operation room. Anesthesia was induced with intravenous infusion of propofol, fentanyl and cisatracurium slowly, and maintained by inhalational anesthetics sevoflurane 1 MAC plus intravenous infusion of propofol (6-8mg•kg-1•min-1 and remifentanyl (0.2-0.4μg•kg-1•min-1, and intravenous bolus cisatracurium (0.07-0.10mg•kg-1. After tracheal intubation, all the patients were mechanically ventilated with PETCO2 in the normal range. rSO2 was continuously monitored and recorded during the operation. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Trail-making Test and Grooved Pegboard Test were used to access cognitive function 24h before surgery and 4, 8, 12, 24h after surgery. Results  (1 There were no significant differences in general status between the three groups (P>0.05. (2 The scores of MMSE, Trail-making Test and Grooved Pegboard Test were not different 24h before the operation between the three groups (P>0.05. (3 The scores of cognitive tests were higher in group CPD2 and group CPD1 than in group C (P0.05. Conclusion  CPD can reduce the occurrence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in geriatric patients under combined intravenous and inhalational anesthesia. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.07.11

  18. Effect of emulsifying salts on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese made from Mozzarella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Liu, H

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types and concentrations of emulsifying salts (trisodium citrate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, and disodium orthophosphate) on the physicochemical properties of processed cheese. The physicochemical composition, texture profile, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, color, and nuclear magnetic resonance profile (NMR) of processed cheese were determined. Hardness, degree of casein dissociation, and pH increased as the concentration of emulsifying salts increased. The fat particle size of processed cheese was significantly influenced by the type of emulsifying salts, with processed cheese made with sodium hexametaphosphate having larger particles (4.68 µm) than cheeses made with the other salts (from 2.71 to 3.30 µm). The processed cheese prepared with trisodium citrate was whiter than those prepared with the other emulsifying salts. The NMR analysis showed that the relaxation time of processed cheese of 10 to 100 ms accounted for a major proportion, indicating that the moisture in processed cheese was mainly bound water combined with the fat globule and hydrated casein.

  19. Disodium edetate as a promising interfacial material for inverted organic solar cells and the device performance optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Xueyan; Gao, Feng; Fang, Junfeng

    2014-12-10

    Disodium edetate (EDTA-Na), a popular hexadentate ligand in analytical chemistry, was successfully introduced in organic solar cells (OSCs) as cathode interfacial layer. The inverted OSCs with EDTA-Na showed superior performance both in power conversion efficiency and devices stability compared with conventional devices. Interestingly, we found that the performance of devices with EDTA-Na could be optimized through external bias treatment. After optimization, the efficiency of inverted OSCs with device structure of ITO/EDTA-Na/polymer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):PC71BM/MoO3/Al was significantly increased to 8.33% from an initial value of 6.75%. This work introduces a new class of interlayer materials, small molecule electrolytes, for organic solar cells.

  20. Study of apparent molal volume and viscosity of mutual citric acid and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Man Singh

    2006-05-01

    Fundamental properties, density () and viscosity (), of citric acid (CA) and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (DSP) at various strengths were obtained at different temperatures. The and values were used to determine apparent molal volumes and viscosity of systems. The , and values were regressed against molality for ρ0, 0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f, the limiting constants at infinite dilution ( → 0) forionic and molecular interactions. The ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f of aq. acids are higher than those of aq. DSP and the viscosity of DSP is higher than that of aq. CA. Examination of ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$ functions indicates that mutual compositions of CA and DSP counterbalance concentration and temperature effects on pH in bioprocesses.

  1. The effects of disodium cromoglycate on enhanced adherence of Haemophilus influenzae to A549 cells infected with respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasawa, Chie; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Ogita, Junko; Hishiki, Haruka; Kohno, Yoichi

    2009-08-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) secondary infection often complicates respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. Previous studies have revealed that RSV infections enhance NTHi adherence to airway epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and corticosteroids, which are frequently used for the treatment of wheezing often related to RSV infections, on the adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells. DSCG inhibited enhanced adherence of NTHi to RSV-infected A549 cells, whereas dexamethasone (Dex) and fluticasone propionate (Fp) did not. DSCG suppressed the expression of ICAM-1, which is one of the NTHi receptors. Furthermore, DSCG exhibited an inhibitory effect on RSV infections. It is suggested that DSCG exerts an anti-RSV effect, and consequently attenuates the expression of NTHi receptors.

  2. Oral disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen for a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, food allergy and protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junzo; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Nozawa, Ruriko; Isome, Masato; Suzuki, Shigeo; Takahashi, Ai; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2003-09-01

    We present a case report of a 10 years old boy with protein-losing enteropathy and eosinophilic gastroenteritis who had positive histamine release tests, increased allergen-specific IgE antibodies to some food items, and low levels of total serum protein and albumin. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a number of polyps and diffuse gastritis. Biopsy specimens of the stomach and duodenum showed widespread eosinophilia and neutrophilia. Although a restricted diet was recommended, a diet which excluded foods with positive results to both histamine release test and allergen-specific IgE antibodies was poorly tolerated, and the patient rejected systemic administration of corticosteroids. Thus, we initiated an oral disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and ketotifen therapy. After oral DSCG and ketotifen administration, the patient's condition improved gradually. Therefore, oral DSCG and ketotifen therapy might be considered as treatment option in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and protein-losing enteropathy caused by food allergy.

  3. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O1.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagappa Rammohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2+·C6H6O72−·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carboxylic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O...O distances of 2.46 Å.

  4. Determination of adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP) using norfloxacin-Tb{sup 3+} as a fluorescence probe by spectrofluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao Yanhong [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); College of Science and Technology, Shandong Agriculture University, Taian 271000 (China); Liu Jinkai [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Hou Faju [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Jiang Chongqiu [Department of Chemistry, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)]. E-mail: jiangchongqiu@sdnu.edu.cn

    2006-01-15

    A new spectrofluorimetric method was developed for determination of trace amount of adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP). Using norfloxacin (NFLX)-terbium (Tb{sup 3+}) as a fluorescent probe, in the buffer solution of pH=7.40, ATP can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the NFLX-Tb{sup 3+} complex at {lambda}=545nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb{sup 3+} ion is in proportion to the concentration of ATP. Optimum conditions for the determination of ATP were also investigated. The dynamic range for the determination of ATP is 1.00x10{sup -6}-1.60x10{sup -5}mol/L with detection limit of 4.13x10{sup -8}mol/L. This method is simple, practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of ATP in samples.

  5. Synthesis of Cefotetan disodium%头孢替坦二钠的合成工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀霞; 孙元朋; 高景梅; 顾孝红

    2013-01-01

    目的:合成头孢替坦二钠.方法:以7-ACA为起始原料,经缩合、取代、加成、酰化、成盐、环合得粗品,在局部100级进行精制、冷冻干燥,得无菌头孢替坦二钠.结果:目标化合物经元素分析、质谱、核磁共振氢谱、核磁共振碳谱、红外光谱、紫外光谱等确证其化学结构,总收率为26.1%.结论:该合成路线无需特殊的原料及化学试剂,反应条件温和,操作简便,收率高,适合工业化生产.%Objective:To synthesize Cefotetan disodium.Method:The sterile Cefotetan disodium was synthesized from 7-ACA as a starting material via steps including condensation,substitution,addition,acylation,salification,cyclization to obtain crude product and purification,freeze dehydration in location of 100 grade in advance.Result:The structure of the target compound was confirmed by element,MS,1H-NMR,13C-NMR,IR and UV analysis.The yield was 26.1%.Conclusion:This procedure with the advantages such as without special ingredients or reagents,milder reaction conditions and simple operations is worthy of the further pilot manufacture.

  6. The behaviour of salt and salt caverns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Salts are mined for both storage and extraction purposes, either via dry or solution mining techniques. For operational, environmental and geological purposes, it is important to understand and predict the in situ behaviour of salt, in particular the creep and strength characteristics. A micro-mecha

  7. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    DASH diet; High blood pressure - DASH; Hypertension - DASH; Low-salt diet - DASH ... Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash of lemon and other citrus fruits, or wine, to soups and other dishes. Or use them ...

  8. Toothbrush disinfection – a myth or reality? – A comparative evaluation of 4% disodium EDTA, 10% sodium perborate in the disinfection of toothbrushes: clinicomicrobiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilofer Sultan Sheikh, Nilima Rajhans, Nilkanth Mhaske, Nikesh Moolya, Sudip HM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes and efficacy of their decontamination by4% disodium ethyl diamine acetic acid [EDTA], 10% sodium perborate and compared with control. Methods: Thirty subjects with chronic periodontitis enrolled in this randomized controlled clinical trial were provided with autoclaved toothbrushes which were free from microorganisms. Brushing instructions were given to each participant. Toothbrushes were collected from all study participants after 1 week and were placed with head down position in an autoclaved test tube containing sterile peptone water. Toothbrushes collected were sent for aerobic culture in laboratory for growth of micro-organisms. Incubation was done for 24 hours at 370C.The toothbrushes were then divided into three groups and immersed in disinfectantslike4% disodium EDTA, 10% sodium perborate and their efficacy was evaluated by aerobic culture analysis. Chi – Square test was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas Aeroginosa, Streptococci and Klebsiella species were recovered from the samples. The results obtained showed that 4% Disodium EDTA showed 100% efficacy, whereas 10% Sodium perborate showed 40% effectiveness in decontaminating the toothbrushes. Distilled water as a control showed least effectiveness in cleaning toothbrushes. Conclusion: After single brushing toothbrushes get contaminated by a wide array of bacteria’s which a major cause of concern is. As contaminated toothbrush can reintroduce microorganisms into the oral cavity, it is therefore recommended for individuals to use solutions like 4% Disodium EDTA, which proved to be an effective disinfecting agent for decontaminating toothbrushes.

  9. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production.

  10. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  11. The salts of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Van Hart, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Salt compounds are apparently an important component of the fine-grained regolith on Mars. Salt enrichment may be explained either as a secondary concentration of chemical weathering products or as direct incorporation of planetary released volatiles. Geochemical measurements and chemical relationships constrain the salt species and resultant physicochemical consequences. A likely assemblage is dominated by (Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Formation of brine in equilibrium with such a salt mixture is unlikely under the temperature and water-vapor restrictions prevalent over most, if not all, of the Martian surface. Acidic conditions, accompanying salt formation, favor the preferential destruction of susceptible igneous minerals.

  12. The effect of individual phosphate emulsifying salts and their selected binary mixtures on hardness of processed cheese spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE The aim of this work was to observe the effects of emulsifying salts composed of trisodium citrate and sodium phosphates with different chain length (disodium phosphate (DSP, tetrasodium diphosphate (TSPP, pentasodium triphosphate (PSTP and sodium salts of polyphosphates with 5 different mean length (n ≈ 5, 9, 13, 20, 28 on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Hardness of processed cheese spreads with selected binary mixtures of the above mentioned salts were also studied. Measurements were performed after 2, 9 and 30 days of storage at 6 °C. Hardness of processed cheese increased with increase in chain length of individually used phosphates.  Majority of applied binary mixtures of emulsifying salts had not significant influence on hardness charges in processed cheese spreads. On the other hand, a combination of phosphates salts (DSP with TSPP was found, which had specific effect on hardness of processed cheese spreads. Textural properties of samples with trisodium citrate were similar compared to samples with DSP.

  13. Exploring the sodium storage mechanism in disodium terephthalate as anode for organic battery using density-functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sk, Mahasin Alam; Manzhos, Sergei

    2016-08-01

    We present an ab initio study of sodium storage mechanism in disodium terephthalate (Na2TP) which is a very promising anode material for organic sodium (Na)-ion batteries with reported experimental capacities of ∼255 mAh g-1, previously attributed to Na attachment to the two carboxylate groups (coordinating to oxygen atoms). We show here that the inserted Na atoms prefer to bind at carboxylate sites at low Na concentrations and are dominant for insertion of up to one Na atom per molecule; for higher Na concentrations, the hexagonal sites (on the aromatic ring) become dominant. We confirm that the Na2TP crystal can store a maximum of two Na atoms per molecule, as observed in experiments. Our current results are intriguing as we reveal that the Na binding at carboxylate sites contributes to the initial part of Na2TP sodiation curve and the Na binding at hexagonal sites contributes to the second part of the curve. The inserted Na atoms donate electrons to empty states in the conduction band. Moreover, we show that the Na diffusion barriers in clean Na2TP can be as low as 0.23 eV. We also show that there is significant difference in the mechanism of Na interaction between individual molecules and the crystal.

  14. Hypophosphatemic rickets developed after treatment with etidronate disodium in a patient with generalized arterial calcification in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Miyai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1 was originally reported as a responsible gene for generalized arterial calcification in infancy (GACI. Though the prognosis of GACI patients is poor because of myocardial infarction and heart failure in relation to medial calcification of the coronary arteries, some patients rescued by bisphosphonate treatment have been reported. Recently, ENPP1 is also reported as responsible for autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets type 2. We show here a boy with homozygous ENPP1 mutations diagnosed as having GACI in early infancy. After the diagnosis, he was treated with etidronate disodium (EHDP in combination with antihypertensive drugs. The calcification of major arteries was diminished and disappeared by the age of eight months. He also showed mild hypophosphatemia (2.6–3.7 mg/dl from the age of one year. After the treatment with EHDP for five years, he showed genu valgum with hypophosphatemia (2.6 mg/dl. He was diagnosed as having hypophosphatemic rickets at the age of seven years. The findings that hyper-mineralization of the arteries and hypo-mineralization of the bone observed in the same patient are noteworthy. ENPP1 could be regarded as a controller of the calcification of the whole body at least in part.

  15. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O'Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  16. Disodium cromoglycate stabilizes mast cell degranulation while reducing the number of hemoglobin-induced microvascular leaks in rat mesentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Maxwell I; Baldwin, Ann L

    2004-05-01

    Blood substitutes, such as diaspirin cross-linked Hb (DBBF-Hb), have been considered for use during blood transfusions. Unfortunately, bolus injection of modified Hb has been shown to rapidly increase the leakage of microvessels to plasma albumin. This effect may result from production of excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and could be linked to the observed increase in degranulated mast cells (DMC). Disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) stabilizes mast cells and therefore might minimize the venular permeability in the rat mesentery. In 10 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, the mesenteric preparation was continuously suffused with cromolyn while the microvasculature was filled with DBBF-Hb solution (10 mg/ml) for 10 min. Six animals received cromolyn pretreatment [two intravascular injections over 30 min (experiment A)] and four animals received pretreatment with 2% HEPES-buffered saline (HBS)-BSA (experiment B). Two more animals were pretreated with HBS-BSA without DBBF-Hb infusion but with cromolyn suffusion (experiment C). Another set of experiments was performed on five animals without cromolyn suffusion or any pretreatment but with DBBF-Hb infusion (experiment D). All groups then received a 1-min perfusion of FITC-albumin, fixation for 60 min, and microscopic examination. Experiments A and B demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of venular leaks and DMC compared with experiment D, but not in the area of venular leaks. These results suggest mast cell degranulation is not a major contributor to microvascular leakage induced by DBBF-Hb.

  17. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Yvonne Carroll

    Full Text Available The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  18. Inhibitory effects of a novel ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate on melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Sanae; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Hisama, Masayoshi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of a novel amphiphilic ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na), synthesized from a hydrophilic ascorbic derivative, sodium-2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-Na), on melanogenesis in cultured human melanoma cells, normal human melanocytes, and three-dimensional cultured human skin models. Melanin synthesis in melanoma cells treated with VCP-IS-2Na at 300 muM and melanocytes treated with VCP-IS-2Na at 100 muM decreased to 23% and 52% of that in non-treated cells, respectively, and the cell viability was not affected. VCP-IS-2Na also significantly suppressed the cellular tyrosinase activity of melanoma cells and melanocytes. Melanin synthesis in human skin models was evaluated by macro- and microscopic observations of its pigmentation and quantitative measurements of melanin. Treatment of the human skin models with 1.0% VCP-IS-2Na did not inhibit cell viability, while melanin synthesis was decreased to 21% of that in the control. In contrast, L-ascorbic acid (VC) and VCP-Na did not seem to inhibit melanin synthesis and cellular tyrosinase activity. These results indicate that VCP-IS-2Na may be an effective whitening agent for the skin, and we expect the application of VCP-IS-2Na in the cosmetic industry.

  19. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  20. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  1. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  2. SALT for Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    1996-01-01

    Discusses Schuster's Suggestive-Accelerative Learning Techniques (SALT) Method, which combines Lozanov's Suggestopedia with such American methods as Asher's Total Physical Response and Galyean's Confluent Education. The article argues that students trained with the SALT Method have higher achievement scores and better attitudes than others. (14…

  3. The value of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging for predicting posthepatectomy liver failure after major hepatic resection: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun, E-mail: shcho2405@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Daegu Fatima Hospital, 576-31 Sinam-dong, Dong-gu, Daegu 701-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ung Rae, E-mail: tadtail@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joo Dong, E-mail: milledr@naver.com [Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Seok, E-mail: gshyskhk@hanmail.net [Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Lak, E-mail: dnchoi@cu.ac.kr [Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether preoperative gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MR imaging predicts posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) in patients who underwent major hepatic resection. Materials and methods: Twenty nine patients who underwent preoperative gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MR imaging and following major hepatic resection were enrolled. Hepatic parenchymal signal intensity (SI) on pre-contrast T1-weighted imaging and 20 min hepatocyte phase was measured at each of the four liver segments by two observers using region of interest measurements. The mean value was calculated and used at each phase. The relative contrast enhancement index (RCEI) was calculated: (20 min hepatocyte phase SI - pre-contrast SI)/pre-contrast SI. PHLF was determined by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery 2011 guidelines. Correlation analysis was performed between preoperative liver function test and RCEI. Diagnostic accuracy of RCEI for predicting PHLF was calculated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The reproducibility of the RCEI measurement was evaluated. Results: There was a significant correlation between preoperative albumin (r = 0.496, P = 0.006), T-bilirubin (r = -0.383, P = 0.041), and RCEI. Seven patients (24%) experienced PHLF, and one of these patients (3%) died. The diagnostic accuracy of RCEI was 0.838 (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 77.3%, cut-off value: 0.7508, 95% confidence interval: 0.654, 0.947). The 95% limits of agreement and ICC between repeated RCEI measurements were 18.4% of the mean and 0.94, respectively, and between RCEI measurements by the two observers were 21.7% and 0.929, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show that preoperative gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MR imaging can predict PHLF in patients who underwent major hepatic resection.

  4. Enhanced Molecular Recognition between Nucleobases and Guanine-5'-monophosphate-disodium (GMP) by Surfactant Aggregates in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhang; Wang, Dong; Cao, Meiwen; Han, Yuchun; Xu, Hai; Wang, Yilin

    2015-07-15

    Only specific base pairs on DNA can bind with each other through hydrogen bonds, which is called the Watson-Crick (W/C) pairing rule. However, without the constraint of DNA chains, the nucleobases in bulk aqueous solution usually do not follow the W/C pairing rule anymore because of the strong competitive effect of water and the multi-interaction edges of nucleobases. The present work applied surfactant aggregates noncovalently functionalized by nucleotide to enhance the recognition between nucleobases without DNA chains in aqueous solution, and it revealed the effects of their self-assembling ability and morphologies on the recognition. The cationic ammonium monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric surfactants DTAB, 12-3-12, and 12-3-12-3-12 were chosen. The surfactants with guanine-5'-monophosphate-disodium (GMP) form micelles, vesicles, and fingerprint-like and plate-like aggregates bearing the hydrogen-bonding sites of GMP, respectively. The binding parameters of these aggregates with adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), and cytosine(C) indicate that the surfactants can promote W/C recognitions in aqueous solution when they form vesicles (GMP/DTAB) or plate-like aggregates (GMP/12-3-12) with proper molecular packing compactness, which not only provide hydrophobic environments but also shield non-W/C recognition edges. However, the GMP/12-3-12 micelles with loose molecular packing, the GMP/12-3-12 fingerprint-like aggregates where the hydrogen bond sites of GMP are occupied by itself, and the GMP/12-3-12-3-12 vesicles with too strong self-assembling ability cannot promote W/C recognition. This work provides insight into how to design self-assemblies with the performance of enhanced molecule recognition.

  5. Effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium on growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, K G; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Qi, G H

    2015-03-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient and redox modulator in microorganisms, cell and animal models, has been recognized as a growth promoter in rodents. Growth performance, carcass yield and antioxidant status were evaluated on broiler chickens fed different levels of PQQ disodium (PQQ.Na2). A total of 784 day-old male Arbor Acres (AA) broilers were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups: negative control group (NC) fed a basal diet without virginiamycin (VIR) or PQQ.Na2; a positive control group (PC) fed a diet with 15 mg of VIR/kg diet; and PQQ.Na2 groups fed with 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40 or 0.80 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet. Each treatment contained eight replicates with 14 birds each. The feeding trial lasted for 6 weeks. The results showed that chicks fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet significantly improved growth performance comparable to those in PC group, and the feed efficiency enhancement effects of dietary PQQ.Na2 was more apparent in grower phase. Dietary addition of PQQ.Na2 had the potential to stimulate immune organs development, and low level dietary addition (<0.1 mg/kg) increased plasma lysozyme level. Broilers fed 0.2 mg PQQ.Na2/kg diet gained more carcasses at day 42, and had lower lipid peroxide malondialdehyde content and higher total antioxidant power in plasma. The results indicated that dietary PQQ.Na2 (0.2 mg/kg diet) had the potential to act as a growth promoter comparable to antibiotic in broiler chicks.

  6. Effects of disodium fumarate on ruminal fermentation and microbial communities in sheep fed on high-forage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y W; McSweeney, C S; Wang, J K; Liu, J X

    2012-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate effects of disodium fumarate (DF) on fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in the rumen of Hu sheep fed on high-forage diets. Two complementary feeding trials were conducted. In Trial 1, six Hu sheep fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly allocated to a 2 × 2 cross-over design involving dietary treatments of either 0 or 20 g DF daily. Total DNA was extracted from the fluid- and solid-associated rumen microbes, respectively. Numbers of 16S rDNA gene copies associated with rumen methanogens and bacteria, and 18S rDNA gene copies associated with rumen protozoa and fungi were measured using real-time PCR, and expressed as proportion of total rumen bacteria 16S rDNA. Ruminal pH decreased in the DF group compared with the control (P sheep were fed on basal diet for 2 weeks and continuously for 4 weeks with supplementation of DF at a level of 20 g/day. Ruminal samples were collected every week to analyze fermentation parameters and microbial populations. No effects of DF were observed on pH, acetate and butyrate (P > 0.05). Populations of methanogens and R. flavefaciens decreased in the fluid samples (P clone sequences from cut-out bands appearing in both the 2nd and the 4th week were 94% to 100% similar to Prevotella-like bacteria, and four sequences showed 95% to 98% similarity to Selenomonas dianae. Another 15 sequences were obtained from bands, which appeared in the 4th week only. Thirteen of these 15 sequences showed 95% to 99% similarity to Clostridium sp., and the other two showed 95% and 100% similarity to Ruminococcus sp. In summary, the microorganisms positively responding to DF addition were the cellulolytic bacteria, R. albus, F. succinogenes and B. fibrisolvens as well as proteolytic bacteria, B. fibrisolvens, P. ruminicola and Clostridium sp.

  7. Laryngeal edema induced by disodium cantharidinate injection%斑蝥酸钠注射液致喉头水肿

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小蕾; 吴立强; 赵青

    2013-01-01

      1例72岁男性患者,确诊为左肺腺癌7个月,既往有小牛血清去蛋白过敏史。治疗期间输入斑蝥酸钠注射液约30 min,患者突然烦躁,急发憋闷、喉痒、发声嘶哑、吸气性呼吸困难,口唇明显发绀,三凹征阳性等。立即停止输入,给予氧气吸入,甲强龙、异丙嗪、葡萄糖酸钙抗过敏以及其他对症治疗,约20 min后,患者症状明显改善,口唇发绀及三凹征消失。%  One 72-year-old male patient was diagnosed with left lung adenocarcinoma 7 months ago. He had a history of deproteinised calf blood serum injection allergy. About 30 minutes after the disodium cantharidinate injection was used, the patient suddenly developed dysphoria, oppressed, throat itching, voice hoarse, inspiratory dyspnea, obvious lips hematocyanosis, three depression sign positive and so on. This medicine was immediately stopped. The patient received oxygen inhalation and the therapy of antianaphylaxis by methylprednisolone, promethazine hydrochloride injection, calcium gluconate and other treatments. After about 20 minutes, the symptoms improved obviously, lips hematocyanosis and three depression sign disappeared.

  8. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  9. Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from drug blends with lactose monohydrate: 1. Albuterol sulfate and disodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Mansour, Heidi M; Mulder, Tako; McLean, Richard; Langridge, John; Hickey, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    The major objective of this study was: discriminatory assessment of dry powder aerosol performance using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) and lactose-based formulations with two model drugs. Drug/lactose interactive physical mixtures (2%w/w) were prepared. Their properties were measured: solid-state characterization of phase behavior and molecular interactions by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction; particle morphology and size by scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction; aerosol generation by SETs and characterization by twin-stage liquid impinger and Andersen cascade impactor operated at 60 L/min. The fine particle fraction (FPF) was correlated with SET shear stress (tau(s)), using a novel powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE). Drug particles were <5 microm in volume diameter with narrow unimodal distribution (Span <1). The lowest shear SET (tau(s) = 0.624 N/m(2)) gave a higher emitted dose (ED approximately 84-93%) and lower FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 7-25%). In contrast, the highest shear SET (tau(s) = 13.143 N/m(2)) gave a lower ED (ED approximately 75-89%) and higher FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 15-46%). The performance of disodium cromoglycate was superior to albuterol sulfate at given tau(s), as was milled with respect to sieved lactose monohydrate. Excellent correlation was observed (R(2) approximately 0.9804-0.9998) when pulmonary drug particle release from the surface of lactose carriers was interpreted by PADE linear regression for dry powder formulation evaluation and performance prediction.

  10. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  11. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  12. Salt and nephrolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Nouvenne, Antonio; Maalouf, Naim M; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium chloride intake is nowadays globally known as one of the major threats for cardiovascular health. However, there is also important evidence that it may influence idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis onset and recurrence. Higher salt intake has been associated with hypercalciuria and hypocitraturia, which are major risk factors for calcium stone formation. Dietary salt restriction can be an effective means for secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. Thus in this paper, we review the complex relationship between salt and nephrolithiasis, pointing out the difference between dietary sodium and salt intake and the best methods to assess them, highlighting the main findings of epidemiologic, laboratory and intervention studies and focusing on open issues such as the role of dietary salt in secondary causes of nephrolithiasis.

  13. Influence of Combined Therapeutic Potential of Meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic Acid and Calcium Disodium Edetate on Lead-induced Testicular Alterations in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOVINDER J.S. FLORA; USHA ARORA; ARD PRAHLAD K. SETH

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a combination of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and calcium disodium EDTA in protecting testicular disorders in chronic lead intoxication was investigated. The results indicate that two five-days courses of the combined therapy produced a more effective recovery in the lead induced biochemical and histopathological disorders compared to conventional single 5 days therapy. No adverse effect of the chelators, when administered individually or in combination, was noticed in the testes of control (without lead exposure) animals.

  14. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  15. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well.

  16. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  17. Salt Pomo: An Ethnogeography

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Helen

    1986-01-01

    Recent research in Salt Pomo territory has produced new ethnogeographic data to add to the named villages identified in much earlier studies (Barrett 1904, 1908; Merriam MS, 1966, 1977). This new information is of particular interest because it significantly increases our general knowledge of the Salt Pomo, about whom little is otherwise known, and because it contributes to an understanding of their settlement pattern as well as to broader, regional land-use analyses. In addition, the study a...

  18. Hepatic hemangiomas: Difference in enhancement pattern on 3T MR imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine versus gadoxetate disodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Rajan T., E-mail: rajan.gupta@duke.edu [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, DUMC 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Marin, Daniele; Boll, Daniel T.; Husarik, Daniela B.; Davis, Drew E.; Feuerlein, Sebastian; Merkle, Elmar M. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, DUMC 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare intraindividual differences in enhancement pattern of hepatic hemangiomas between gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA) and gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced 3T MR imaging. Materials and methods: This is a HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved retrospective study with waiver for informed consent granted. From 10/07 to 5/09, 10 patients (2 males, 8 females; mean age, 57.3 years) with 15 hepatic hemangiomas (mean diameter, 4.4 ± 5.6 cm) underwent both Gd-BOPTA- and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MR imaging (mean interval, 266 days; range, 38–462 days). Diagnosis of hemangioma was based on strict imaging criteria. MR imaging was obtained during three arterial, portal venous, and up to four delayed phases. During each phase, hemangioma-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was measured for each lesion on both examinations. Statistical analysis was performed using paired Student's t-test. Results: Hemangioma-to-liver CNR peaked during the portal venous phase (Gd-BOPTA: 48.9 ± 65.8, Gd-EOB-DTPA: 0.7 ± 3.8). During all imaging phases except the first arterial phase, hemangioma-to-liver CNR was significantly lower on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced compared to Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR images (p < 0.05). Notably, Gd-EOB-DTPA yielded negative hemangioma-to-liver CNR (−2.5 ± 2.4) compared to Gd-BOPTA (40.7 ± 56.4) during the first delayed phase (7–8 min after contrast administration), remaining negative for the rest of the delayed phases (up to 26 min after contrast administration). Conclusion: The enhancement patterns of hepatic hemangiomas differs significantly between Gd-BOPTA and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MR imaging. The smaller dose, shorter plasma half-life, and increased hepatobiliary uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA leads to a negative CNR of hemangioma-to-liver on delayed phases and could create an imaging pitfall with this agent.

  19. Disodium cromoglycate inhibits S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination and IgE synthesis in human B cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    IgE synthesis requires interleukin 4 (IL-4) and a T-B cell interaction that involves the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand expressed on activated T cells. IL-4 induces epsilon germline transcription whereas ligation of CD40 results in deletional S mu-->S epsilon switch recombination, expression of mature epsilon transcripts, and IgE synthesis and secretion. We demonstrate that disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), a drug commonly used for the prophylactic treatment of allergic disease, inhibits T cell-driven IgE synthesis by human B cells at concentrations readily achievable in the course of inhaled therapy for asthma. Inhibition of IgE synthesis by DSCG was not the result of drug toxicity because DSCG did not affect the viability of T and B cells or their proliferation to mitogens. DSCG did not interfere with CD40 ligand expression by T cells but clearly targeted the B cells because it inhibited IgE synthesis induced by anti-CD40 and IL-4 in populations of highly purified B cells. DSCG had no effect on the induction of epsilon germline transcripts by IL-4 but strongly inhibited CD40 mediated S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination in IL-4- treated B cells as assayed by nested primer PCR. The effect of DSCG was not specific for CD40-mediated induction of IgE isotype switching because DSCG inhibited IgE synthesis as well as S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination induced by hydrocortisone and IL-4 in B cells. Moreover, the effect of DSCG was not specific for IgE isotype switching because DSCG inhibited the synthesis of IgG4 by B cells sorted for lack of surface expression of IgG4 and stimulated with anti- CD40 and IL-4. DSCG caused only minimal inhibition (< 15%) of spontaneous IgE synthesis by lymphocytes from patients with the hyper- IgE syndrome and did not affect pokeweed mitogen-induced IgG and IgA synthesis by lymphocytes suggesting that it has little effect on B cells that have already undergone isotype switching. These results indicate that DSCG

  20. Hygroscopic Salts on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorri, R.; Davila, A. F.; Chittenden, J.; Haberle, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    We present preliminary results on the influence of a salt-rich regolith in the water cycle of Mars. Global climate modeling shows that the relative humidity on the Martian surface often reaches values above the deliquescence point of salts that are common components of the regolith. At the deliquescence point, these salts will absorb atmospheric water vapor and form a saturated, transient liquid solution that is stable under a range of temperatures. If atmospheric temperatures fall below the eutectic point of the solution, the later will freeze in the pore space of the regolith, thereby resulting in a net transport of water from the vapor phase in the atmosphere, to the solid state in the regolith. This simple model partially accounts for some the distribution of water on the Martian surface as revealed by Mars Odyssey, in particular, we find that: even though the Cl and surface water distributions detected by HEND/ODYSSEY are highly correlated, salt deliquescence under the the present atmospheric conditions does not explain the overall distribution of water in the near surface regolith. However deliquescence of salt-rich soils could be an important contributor to the distribution of water in the regolith at high obliquity. In that scenario the water in the near-surface regolith would be the remnant of high obliquity conditions salt deliquescence is still active in different regions on Mars today, and it should be introduced as a parameter in the modern GCMs as a new ground/atmosphere interaction

  1. Low Salt Dyeing Process by Reactive Dyes with the Method of Substitute Salt%代盐法活性染料低盐染色工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉莉

    2014-01-01

    将柠檬酸钠、甲酸钠、EDTA二钠盐作为促染剂用于棉织物活性染料染色,探讨了对固色率的影响,然后分别与元明粉复配,探讨最佳复配用量,并进行染色性能测试。结果表明,用柠檬酸钠、甲酸钠代替元明粉作促染剂时,促染效果较好,而EDTA促染效果较差;柠檬酸钠与元明粉复配最佳合计用量为32 g/L,固色率为93.17%,盐用量降低36.00%;甲酸钠与元明粉复配最佳用量合计为24 g/L,固色率为89.56%,盐用量降低52.00%,但色差较柠檬酸钠与元明粉复配时大;将柠檬酸钠、甲酸钠与元明粉复配,复配最佳用量合计为31 g/L,固色率为91.35%,盐用量降低38.00%,耐皂洗色牢度整体有所提高,复配体系色差较小,促染效果较好。%With sodium citrate, sodium formate and EDTA disodium salt as accelerating agent,cotton fabric was dyed by reactive dyes, and the effects on fixation were discussed. And then sodium citrate, sodium formate and EDTA disodium salt was respectively compounded with sodium sulfate, and the optimal compounded dosage was discussed, and the dyeing property was tested.The results shows that accelerating effect is good when sodium citrate and sodium formate replaces sodium sulfate as accelerating agent, but accelerating effect of EDTA disodium salt is poor; the optimal dosage of sodium citrate and sodium sulfate compounded system is 32 g/L, the fixation rate is 93.17%, and salt consumption declines by 36.00%; the optimal dosage of sodium formate and sodium sulfate com-pounded system is 24 g/L, the fixation rate is 89.56%, and salt consumption declines by 52.00%, but color differ-ence is bigger when compared with sodium citrate and sodium sulfate compounded system; the optimal dosage of sodium citrate, sodium formate and sodium sulfate compounded system is 31 g/L ,the fixation rate is 91.35%, and salt consumption declines by 38.00%, and soaping fastness increases, color

  2. Salt treatment Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Task of NUKEM Technologies GmbH is to develop a technical solution for the treatment of salt containing effluents at Fukushima Daiichi. The target of the treatment is a solidified product suitable for the safe storage on site. Therefore, NUKEM investigated several technologies (direct cementation, drying and storage, drying and subsequent cementation) in order to find a fit for purpose solution. The following tasks have been considered: (a) Mechanical strength and homogeneity of the product; (b) Cost efficient solution (cost for the drying system vs. reduced amount of storage containers); (c) Proven technology; (d) On site storage. NUKEM made some practical test in parallel with different recipes. The aim was to embed as much as possible salt quantity into the cement matrix, but still meet the requested mechanical strength and required homogeneity. As a result NUKEM recommended to apply the following technologies (a) a drying system, to produce a dry salt product (b) a cementation facility, to generate a homogeneous salt/cement matrix (c) a filling station with attached CMS (Container measuring station) to fill the resulting cement/salt matrix into containers suitable for the storage at Fukushima Daiichi. (orig.)

  3. Mechanism for salt scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, John J., II

    Salt scaling is superficial damage caused by freezing a saline solution on the surface of a cementitious body. The damage consists of the removal of small chips or flakes of binder. The discovery of this phenomenon in the early 1950's prompted hundreds of experimental studies, which clearly elucidated the characteristics of this damage. In particular it was shown that a pessimum salt concentration exists, where a moderate salt concentration (˜3%) results in the most damage. Despite the numerous studies, the mechanism responsible for salt scaling has not been identified. In this work it is shown that salt scaling is a result of the large thermal expansion mismatch between ice and the cementitious body, and that the mechanism responsible for damage is analogous to glue-spalling. When ice forms on a cementitious body a bi-material composite is formed. The thermal expansion coefficient of the ice is ˜5 times that of the underlying body, so when the temperature of the composite is lowered below the melting point, the ice goes into tension. Once this stress exceeds the strength of the ice, cracks initiate in the ice and propagate into the surface of the cementitious body, removing a flake of material. The glue-spall mechanism accounts for all of the characteristics of salt scaling. In particular, a theoretical analysis is presented which shows that the pessimum concentration is a consequence of the effect of brine pockets on the mechanical properties of ice, and that the damage morphology is accounted for by fracture mechanics. Finally, empirical evidence is presented that proves that the glue-small mechanism is the primary cause of salt scaling. The primary experimental tool used in this study is a novel warping experiment, where a pool of liquid is formed on top of a thin (˜3 mm) plate of cement paste. Stresses in the plate, including thermal expansion mismatch, result in warping of the plate, which is easily detected. This technique revealed the existence of

  4. Effect of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in the presence of benzotriazole in hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Qing [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)]. E-mail: quqing58@yahoo.com.cn; Jiang, Shuan [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Bai, Wei [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming 650092 (China); Li, Lei [Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2007-08-01

    The inhibition behavior of cold rolled steel in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA) in the absence and presence of benzotriazole (BTA) was investigated with Tafel polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The polarization curve results show that the single EDTA acts as an anodic type inhibitor while the combination of EDTA and BTA acts as mixed type inhibitor and mainly inhibits anodic reaction. All impedance spectra in EIS tests exhibit one capacitive loop which indicates that the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. Inhibition efficiencies obtained from Tafel polarization, charge transfer resistance (R {sub t}) are consistent. The corrosion of cold rolled steel in 0.1 M HCl is obviously reduced by EDTA in combination with lower concentrations of BTA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the corrosion surface of cold rolled steel. Probable mechanisms are present to explain the experimental results.

  5. Effect of a novel ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate on human dermal fibroblasts: increased collagen synthesis and inhibition of MMP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Hiroharu; Hisama, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Sanae; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-04-01

    The effects of a novel amphiphilic vitamin C derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (disodium 2-(1,3,3-trimethyl-n-butyl)-5,7,7-trimethyl-n-octyl-L-ascorbyl phosphate, VCP-IS-2Na), possessing a C18 alkyl chain attached to a stable sodium L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (VCP-Na), on the proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen synthesis, and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in normal human fibroblasts, NHDFs and NB1RGBs, were evaluated. Compared with proliferation of non-treated fibroblasts, VCP-IS-2Na at 50 microM increased proliferation to 123 and 135% of that in NHDFs and NB1RGBs. On the other hand, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and VCP-Na had little effect on proliferation. At a concentration of 5.0-50 microM, VCP-IS-2Na stimulated collagen synthesis with an effectiveness comparable to that of vitamin C and VCP-Na. The amount of type I collagen in the culture medium was increased by treatment with VCP-IS-2Na for 72 h, in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum increases of 126 and 1067% were seen with VCP-IS-2Na at 50 microM in NHDFs and NB1RGBs, respectively, whereas vitamin C and VCP-Na only had a small effect. VCP-IS-2Na had a small inhibitory effect on MMP-1, but vitamin C did not inhibit MMP-1, and VCP-Na had very little effect. VCP-IS-2Na exerted its collagen synthesis-promoting activity after being converted to vitamin C by phosphatase. This vitamin C promoted proliferation, collagen synthesis and inhibition of MMP-1, which are prolonged through sustained conversion of VCP-IS-2Na.

  6. Photoluminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-02-01

    Photoexcitation and luminescence spectra of dried urine sample under laser excitation were studied. Luminescence spectra of urine are determined by luminescence of urea which is the main component of urine. The presence of pathological salts in urine leads to the long-wave shifting of maxima of luminescence and to the decreasing of luminescence intensity.

  7. Learning SaltStack

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, Colton

    2015-01-01

    If you are a system administrator who manages multiple servers, then you know how difficult it is to keep your infrastructure in line. If you've been searching for an easier way, this book is for you. No prior experience with SaltStack is required.

  8. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Missouri. She won the 3rd place 2013 Addiction Science Award . Read More » 0 Comments Bath Salts: An Emerging Danger February 05, 2013 / Sara Bellum ... copy Listen Drug Facts ... Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes Brain and Addiction Drug Overdoses in Youth HIV/AIDS and Drug ...

  9. Carpinteria Salt Marsh Habitat Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland. We then drew polygons around each habitat...

  10. Salt ingestion caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundquist Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Large vertebrate herbivores, when they find a salt-bearing layer of rock, say in a cliff face, can produce sizable voids where, overgenerations, they have removed and consumed salty rock. The cavities formed by this natural animal process constitute a uniqueclass of caves that can be called salt ingestion caves. Several examples of such caves are described in various publications. Anexample in Mississippi U.S.A., Rock House Cave, was visited by the authors in 2000. It seems to have been formed by deer orbison. Perhaps the most spectacular example is Kitum Cave in Kenya. This cave has been excavated to a length over 100 metersby elephants. An ancient example is La Cueva del Milodon in Chile, which is reported to have been excavated by the now extinctmilodon, a giant ground sloth. Still other possible examples can be cited. This class of caves deserves a careful definition. First, thecavity in rock should meet the size and other conventions of the locally accepted definition of a cave. Of course this requirement differsin detail from country to country, particularly in the matter of size. The intent is to respect the local conventions. The characteristicthat human entry is possible is judged to be a crucial property of any recognized cave definition. Second, the cavity should besignificantly the result of vertebrate animal consumption of salt-bearing rock. The defining process is that rock removed to form thecave is carried away in the digestive track of an animal. While sodium salts are expected to be the norm, other salts for which thereis animal hunger are acceptable. Also some other speleogenesis process, such as solution, should not be excluded as long as it issecondary in formation of a cave in question.

  11. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich,...

  12. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium, per serving. back to top Q. Are salt substitutes safe? A. Many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride and can be used by ... heart disease. Check with your doctor before using salt substitutes. back to top Q. What is FDA's role ...

  13. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  14. Salt supply to and significance of asymmetric salt diapirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Burliga, S.; Chemia, Zurab

    2012-01-01

    Salt diapirs can be asymmetric both internally and externally reflecting their evolution history. As such, this asymmetry bear a significant amount of information about the differential loading (± lateral forces) and in turn the salt supply that have shaped the diapir. In two dimensions......, In this study we compare results of analogue and numerical models of diapirs with two natural salt diapris (Klodawa and Gorleben diapirs) to explain their salt supply and asymmetric evolution. In a NW-SE section, the Gorleben salt diapir possesses an asymmetric external geometry represented by a large...... southeastern overhang due to salt extrusion during Middle Cretaceous followed by its burial in Tertiary. This external asymmetry is also reflected in the internal configuration of the diapir which shows different rates of salt flow on the two halves of the structure. The asymmetric external and internal...

  15. Frost formation with salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A.; González-Viñas, W.; Beysens, D.

    2015-06-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around the salty drop in a region of inhibited condensation where the substrate remains dry. As condensation proceeds, salt concentration decreases to eventually become lower than ice's, allowing ice dendrites to hit the salty drop. Salty water then melts ice but eventually freezes as an effect of dilution.

  16. Mixed salt crystallisation fouling

    CERN Document Server

    Helalizadeh, A

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces during convective heat transfer and sub-cooled flow boiling conditions. To-date no investigations on the effects of operating parameters on the deposition of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate, which are the most common constituents of scales formed on heat transfer surfaces, have been reported. As part of this research project, a substantial number of experiments were performed to determine the mechanisms controlling deposition. Fluid velocity, heat flux, surface and bulk temperatures, concentration of the solution, ionic strength, pressure and heat transfer surface material were varied systematically. After clarification of the effect of these parameters on the deposition process, the results of these experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances, caused by crystallisation of mixed salts, under convective heat transfer...

  17. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  18. Frost formation with salt

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; Mongruel, A; González-Viñas, W; Beysens, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of frost in presence of salt (NaCl) crystal is experimentally investigated on a hydrophobic surface. It presents several remarkable features due to the interplay of salty-water saturation pressure evolution, initially lower than the saturation pressure of ice and water, and the percolating propagation of ice dendrites from defects throughout the supercooled water droplet pattern. In particular, it is remarkable that nucleation of supercooled water and/or ice is prevented around ...

  19. Rheology of rock salt for salt tectonics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yuan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of salt tectonics is a rapidly evolving field; however, the constitutive equations to model long-term rock salt rheology in nature still remain controversial. Firstly, we built a database about the strain rate versus the differential stress through collecting the data from salt creep experiments at a range of temperatures (20–200 °C in laboratories. The aim is to collect data about salt deformation in nature, and the flow properties can be extracted from the data in laboratory experiments. Moreover, as an important preparation for salt tectonics modeling, a numerical model based on creep experiments of rock salt was developed in order to verify the specific model using the Abaqus package. Finally, under the condition of low differential stresses, the deformation mechanism would be extrapolated and discussed according to microstructure research. Since the studies of salt deformation in nature are the reliable extrapolation of laboratory data, we simplified the rock salt rheology to dislocation creep corresponding to power law creep (n = 5 with the appropriate material parameters in the salt tectonic modeling.

  20. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-11-11

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  1. Electrochromic Salts, Solutions, and Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-10-14

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  2. Electrochromic salts, solutions, and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McClesky,7,064,212 T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-06-20

    Electrochromic salts. Electrochromic salts of dicationic viologens such as methyl viologen and benzyl viologen associated with anions selected from bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide, and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide are produced by metathesis with the corresponding viologen dihalide. They are highly soluble in molten quarternary ammonium salts and together with a suitable reductant provide electrolyte solutions that are used in electrochromic windows.

  3. Salt fluoridation and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Marthaler

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the cariesprotective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Conclusions. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%. In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67% and Switzerland (85%. In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method.

  4. Pathophysiology of salt sensitivity hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Dietary salt intake is the most important factor contributing to hypertension, but the salt susceptibility of blood pressure (BP) is different in individual subjects. Although the pathogenesis of salt-sensitive hypertension is heterogeneous, it is mainly attributable to an impaired renal capacity to excrete sodium (Na(+) ). We recently identified two novel mechanisms that impair renal Na(+) -excreting function and result in an increase in BP. First, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation in the kidney, which facilitates distal Na(+) reabsorption through epithelial Na(+) channel activation, causes salt-sensitive hypertension. This mechanism exists not only in models of high-aldosterone hypertension as seen in conditions of obesity or metabolic syndrome, but also in normal- or low-aldosterone type of salt-sensitive hypertension. In the latter, Rac1 activation by salt excess causes MR stimulation. Second, renospecific sympathoactivation may cause an increase in BP under conditions of salt excess. Renal beta2 adrenoceptor stimulation in the kidney leads to decreased transcription of the gene encoding WNK4, a negative regulator of Na(+) reabsorption through Na(+) -Cl (-) cotransporter in the distal convoluted tubules, resulting in salt-dependent hypertension. Abnormalities identified in these two pathways of Na(+) reabsorption in the distal nephron may present therapeutic targets for the treatment of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  5. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  6. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busch, J.L.H.C.; Tournier, C.; Knoop, J.E.; Kooyman, G.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various

  7. Taurine suppresses osteoblastic differentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells induced by beta-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid via the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiang; Li, Jian-ming; Liao, Xiao-bo; Hu, Ye-rong; Shang, Bao-peng; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Yuan, Ling-qing; Xie, Hui; Sheng, Zhi-feng; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Lu; Zhou, Xin-min

    2012-10-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is an active process characterized by osteoblastic differentiation of the aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Taurine is a free β-amino acid and plays important physiological roles including protective effect of cardiovascular events. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in AVC, we isolated human AVICs from patients with type A dissection without leaflet disease. We demonstrated that the cultured AVICs express SM α-actin, vimentin and taurine transporter (TAUT), but not CD31, SM-myosin or desmin. We also established the osteoblastic differentiation model of the AVICs induced by pro-calcific medium (PCM) containing β-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid in vitro. The results showed that taurine attenuated the PCM-induced osteoblastic differentiation of AVICs by decreasing the alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity/expression and the expression of the core binding factor α1 (Cbfα1) in a dose-dependent manner (reaching the maximum protective effect at 10 mM), and taurine (10 mM) inhibited the mineralization level of AVICs in the form of calcium content significantly. Furthermore, taurine activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway via TAUT, and the inhibitor of ERK (PD98059) abolished the effect of taurine on both ALP activity/expression and Cbfα1 expression. These results suggested that taurine could inhibit osteoblastic differentiation of AVIC via the ERK pathway.

  8. Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Comparison of Sodium Ibandronate and Pamidronate Disodium for Treatment of 141 Patients with Malignant Tumor Ostealgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghai Dai; Shunchang Jiao; Junlan Yang; Shaohao Jiang; Donggang Liu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the therapeutic effect and potential adverse effects of sodium ibandronate (SI) in patients with malignant tumor ostealgia. METHODS Patients were randomly classified into two groups. Group A (SI) of 68 patients who received 4 mg SI I.v., and 73 patients in Group B (pamidronate disodium [PD]) who received 60 mg PD I.v. A randomized, double-blind method, with PD as a positive drug control, was used to assess changes in bone pain and adverse effects over a three-week period. RESULTS A total of 141 patients were enrolled in the study, with 136 cases of appraisable efficacy. The effective rate was 72.3% (47/65) in Group A, and 63.4% (45/71) in Group B. There was no significant difference in efficacy or adverse effects between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION The SI injection, with a pronounced effect, can relieve bone pain caused by osseous metastasis from a malignant tumor. The curative and adverse effects were similar compared to PD.

  9. 帕米膦酸二钠引起严重低钙血症1例%Serious hypocalcemia induced by disodium in 1 case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐贞; 史美祺; 汤依群

    2011-01-01

    帕米膦酸二钠用于治疗恶性肿瘤并发的高钙血症和溶骨性癌转移引起的骨痛.1例患者予帕米膦酸二钠90 mg iv,1天后出现全身麻木,呼吸急促,并有窒息感,诊断为严重低钙血症,经对症治疗后病情渐平稳.%Pamidronate is increasingly used both in the treatment of hy-percalcemia and bone pain of osteolytic metastasis in cancer. We describe a case of severe hypocalcemia following one injection of pamidronate. One day after the administration of 90 mg pamidronate, patient felt whole - body numbness, shortness of breath, suffocation or choking. Condition got stable after symptomatic treatment Prescribers should be thoroughly familiar with this risk of pamidronate disodium, and avoid the occurrence of serious side effects.

  10. Solubility of disodium cytidine 5′-monophosphate in different binary mixtures from 288.15 K to 313.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jin [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); Ma, Tianle; Li, An [National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing (China); Chen, Xiaochun; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); Wu, Jinglan, E-mail: yinghanjie@njut.edu.cn [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); Ying, Hanjie [College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China); National Engineering Technique Research Center for Biotechnology, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing (China)

    2013-08-10

    Highlights: • Solubility of 5′-CMPNa{sub 2} in different systems was measured the first time. • Experimental data were correlated by CNIBS/Redlich–Kister model and Apelblat model. • Good agreement has been observed between the calculated and the experimental data. • Enthalpy and entropy were calculated by the van’t Hoff equation and Gibbs equation. - Abstract: The solubility of disodium cytidine 5′-monophosphate (5′-CMPNa{sub 2}) in methanol + water and ethanol + water binary mixtures was measured experimentally at the temperatures ranging from 288.15 to 313.15 K. The results showed that the solubility of 5′-CMPNa{sub 2} increased with the increasing of temperature and the mole fraction of water in different binary mixtures. The (CNIBS)/Redlich–Kister model and the semi-empirical Apelblat model were applied for the prediction of the experimental data. Both models could give satisfactory simulation results. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of the dissolution process such as Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy were calculated using the van’t Hoff equation and the Gibbs equation. The results indicated that the dissolution process was endothermic.

  11. Combination therapy using fexofenadine, disodium cromoglycate, and a hypoallergenic amino acid-based formula induced remission in a patient with steroid-dependent, chronically active ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, M; Winterkamp, S; Weidenhiller, M; Müller, S; Hahn, E G

    2007-07-01

    Corticosteroids and 5-aminosalicylic acid are the primary standard therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Recent immunologic data implicate an involvement of mast cell activation followed by increased histamine secretion and elevated tissue concentrations of histamine in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. In the present case, the clinical course of a 35-year-old man with steroid-dependent chronic active ulcerative colitis, who did not respond to high-dose steroids, antibiotics, or azathioprine during 3 years, is reported. Clinical disease activity and established serological markers were recorded during 6 weeks of unsuccessful therapy and during the next 6 weeks, as a new nonsedative antihistaminergic drug, a mast cell stabilizer, and an hypoallergenic diet were implemented in addition to conventional therapy. Induction of remission was achieved within 2 weeks after treatment with fexofenadine, disodium cromoglycate, and an amino acid-based formula. Clinical disease activity, stool frequency, leukocytes, c-reactive protein, and orosomucoid levels in serum decreased rapidly. Daily steroid administration could be gradually reduced along with 6 weeks of this treatment. This report suggests that histamine and mast cell activity may be important pathophysiological factors responsible for persistent clinical and mucosal inflammatory activity in ulcerative colitis despite the use of steroids. In ulcerative colitis, patients unresponsive to conventional treatment, therapeutic considerations should also include an antiallergic approach when further signs of atopy or intestinal hypersensitivity are present.

  12. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10-min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10-min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60-min postirradiation. Animals given the mast-cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels.

  13. 注射用帕米膦酸二钠致肌肉疼痛%Muscle pain caused by the iujectable pamidronate disodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马媛; 封宇飞; 孙春华

    2011-01-01

    1例75岁男性患者,因治疗前列腺癌骨转移,静脉滴注帕米膦酸二钠60mg+0.9%氯化钠注射液500mL.14d后出现左上臂肌肉疼痛,逐渐发展至右上臂、胸部肌肉疼痛,同时两手手指发僵.考虑帕米膦酸二钠致肌肉疼痛,遂给予口服萘汀美酮每次0.5g,每日2次,持续10d,肌肉疼痛症状缓解并逐渐消失.%A 75-year-old male patient received an intravenous infusion of 60 mg pamidronate disodium, which was dissolved in 500 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride, for the treatment of bone metastasis by prostate cancer. Fourteen days later, the patient developed muscle pain of left upper arm and gradually developed into the right upper arm and chest muscle pain, while hands fingers stiflened. Nabumetone was orally given with the dose of 0.5 g each time, twice one day. Ten days later, the muscle pain symptoms relieved and disappeared gradually.

  14. Permeation and metabolism of a novel ascorbic acid derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate, in human living skin equivalent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, H; Hisama, M; Matsuda, S; Ohtsuki, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel amphiphilic vitamin C (VC) derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na), which possesses a C(18) alkyl chain attached to a stable ascorbate derivative, sodium L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (VCP-Na), was evaluated as a topical prodrug of VC with transdermal activity in human living skin equivalent (LSE) models. The permeation assay used was EPI-606X in the Franz-type diffusion cell system. VCP-IS-2Na exhibited much better permeability than VC and VCP-Na. The accumulation assays applied were EPI-200X and LSE-high by the dynamic system. The increased skin accumulation of VCP-IS-2Na was superior to that of VCP-Na and VC. VCP-IS-2Na that is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by esterase and/or phosphatase released VC in the skin. Measurement of the metabolites that permeated and accumulated from the skin model suggested that VCP-IS-2Na was mainly metabolized via VCP-Na to VC in EPI-606X and EPI-200X, while it was mainly metabolized directly to VC in TESTSKIN LSE-high. Thus, these characteristics indicate that the novel VC derivative, VCP-IS-2Na, may be advantageous as a readily available source of VC for skin care applications.

  15. Effect of a novel ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate, on normal human dermal fibroblasts against reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Hiroharu; Hisama, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Sanae; Kawase, Atsushi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Hanada, Katsumi; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-04-01

    The novel amphiphilic vitamin C derivative disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na), which has a C(18) alkyl chain attached to the stable ascorbate derivative sodium L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (VCP-Na), was evaluated for reduction of cell damage induced by oxidative stress, ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and H(2)O(2); stimulation of collagen synthesis against UVA irradiation; and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity induced by UVA in human normal dermal fibroblasts. VCP-IS-2Na pretreatment resulted in significant protection against cell damage induced by UVB, UVA, and H(2)O(2). The amount of type I collagen following UVA irradiation was increased by treatment with VCP-IS-2Na in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects of VCP-IS-2Na were superior to those of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) and VCP-Na. On the other hand, VCP-IS-2Na suppressed 65% of the excess MMP-1 irradiated UVA, and VC and VCP-Na slightly suppressed it.

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans response to salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.O. Umuerri (Oluwatoroti Omowayewa)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes my work, where I used genetic methods to identify new genes involved in salt taste in C. elegans. In addition, I used calcium imaging to characterize the cellular response of C. elegans to salt. The thesis is divided into five sections and each section is summarized

  18. Salt Action on Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    CaCOH) 2 + CaCO 3 + H 2P (3) Na 2SO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 + CaSO 4 + 2NaOH (4) N&2S0 4 + CaC12 + CaS0,, + 2NaCl (5) MgCD 3 + CaOH) 2 * 14g(Ofl) 2 + C aCO 3 (6...or Na2 SO present in small amounts in seawater, or possibly in the field as a trace component of ground- water or crude NaCI deicer, or arising from...particularly evi- dent and recognized for salts that form several hydrates at common tempera- 0 tures, e.g. Na2SO4, MgS04, CaSO 4, CaCl2. Use is made of

  19. Salt resistant crop plants

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Stuart J.

    2014-04-01

    Soil salinity is a major constraint to agriculture. To improve salinity tolerance of crops, various traits can be incorporated, including ion exclusion, osmotic tolerance and tissue tolerance. We review the roles of a range of genes involved in salt tolerance traits. Different tissues and cells are adapted for specific and often diverse function, so it is important to express the genes in specific cell-types and to pyramid a range of traits. Modern biotechnology (marker- assisted selection or genetic engineering) needs to be increasingly used to introduce the correct combination of genes into elite crop cultivars. Importantly, the effects of introduced genes need to be evaluated in the field to determine their effect on salinity tolerance and yield improvement.

  20. Salt Lake in Chaidamu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    Chaidamu Basin(柴达木盆地) is in the west of China. It covers an area(地区) of 220,000 square kilometres(平方公里). The number of salt lakes(盐湖) is more than twenty in it. Chaerhan(察尔汗) Salt Lake is the largest in this area. If you get here, you will find that in the lake there is no water but a thick layer(层) of salt. You can walk in it without difficulty, and cars can come and go across it. The thickest layer of salt in this basin is about fifty metres thick. People tried their best to use the salt to build house...

  1. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  2. Molten Salt Promoting Effect in Double Salt CO2 Absorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Chen, Haobo; Singh, Prabhakar; King, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of molten salts as catalysts for CO2 absorption by MgO, and extend these observations to the MgO-containing double salt oxides. We will show that the phenomena involved with CO2 absorption by MgO and MgO-based double salts are similar and general, but with some important differences. This paper focuses on the following key concepts: i) identification of conditions that favor or disfavor participation of isolated MgO during double salt absorption, and investigation of methods to increase the absorption capacity of double salt systems by including MgO participation; ii) examination of the relationship between CO2 uptake and melting point of the promoter salt, leading to the recognition of the role of pre-melting (surface melting) in these systems; and iii) extension of the reaction pathway model developed for the MgO-NaNO3 system to the double salt systems. This information advances our understanding of MgO-based CO2 absorption systems for application with pre-combustion gas streams.

  3. NOVEL SALTS OF GRAPHITE AND A BORON NITRIDE SALT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Neil; Biagioni, R.N.; McQuillan, B.W.; Robertson, A.S.; Thompson, A.C

    1977-12-01

    Graphite is oxidized by O{sub 2}{sup +} AsF{sub 6}{sup -} and by OsF{sub 6} to give first-stage graphite salts C{sub 8}{sup +} MF{sub 6}{sup -} and S{sub 2}O{sub 6}F{sub 2} oxidizes both graphite and boron nitride to yield the salts C{sub 12}{sup +} SO{sub 3}F{sup -} and (BN){sub 4}{sup +} SO{sub 3}F{sup -}, the latter being the first example of a first-stage boron nitride salt.

  4. Will salt repositories be dry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredehoeft, John D.

    The National Academy of Science committee that considered geologic disposal of nuclear waste in the mid-1950s recommended salt as a repository medium, partly because of its high thermal conductivity and because it was believed to be “dry” (perhaps the appropriate thought is “impermeable”). Certainly, the fact that Paleozoic salt deposits exist in many parts of t h e world is evidence for very low rates of dissolution by moving groundwater. The fact that the dissolution rates were so small led many scientists to the conclusion that the salt beds were nearly impermeable. The major source of brine within the salt beds was thought to be fluid inclusions within salt crystals, which could migrate through differential solution toward a source of high heat. The idea that salt was uniformly “dry” was revised when exploratory drilling in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico encountered brines within the Castile Formation, an evaporite deposit below the Salado Formation. The brine reservoirs were thought to be isolated pockets of brine in an otherwise “impermeable” salt section.

  5. Therapeutic observation of the effect of combining therapy of desloratadine citrate disodium capsules and yupengfeng on chronic urticaria and effects on serum levels of ige%枸地氯雷他定胶囊联合玉屏风颗粒治疗慢性荨麻疹及对血清IgE的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田静; 黄圣波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of desloratadine citrate disodium capsules combined with Yu-pengfeng in treating chronic urticaria and effects on Serum Levels of IgE. Method 172 patients with chronic urticaria were divided into two groups randomly. The treatment group were treated with desloratadine citrate disodium capsules combined with Yupengfeng. The control group were treated with desloratadine citrate disodium capsules alone. The treatment lasted for 4 weeks. Result The effective rates of the two groups were 93. 0% and 76. 7% respectively. There was statistically significant difference (P0.05)。结论 枸地氯雷他定胶囊联合玉屏风颗粒治疗慢性荨麻疹疗效好,复发率低,能明显降低血清IgE水平。

  6. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thorough knowledge of the physico-chemical properties of molten fluorides salts, which are one of the best options for the reactor fuel. This dissertation presents the thermodynamic description of the ...

  7. CONTRIBUTION FROM DEICING SALT TO CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SALT SUPPLYED TO AREA UNDER THE BRIDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Masamichi; Ohya, Makoto; Hirose, Nozomu; Ochibe, Keishi; Aso, Toshihiko

    Salt is known to accelerate the corrosion of weathering steel bridges. The origin of salt around girders is valuable information in terms of the maintenance for anti-corrosion of steel bridges. Salt around girders generally originates from sea-salt and deicing salt. Since salt of both origin increases in winter, contribution of deicing salt is hard to be estimated only from fluctuation of total abundance of salt around the bridge. In this study, abundance of Mg2+ as well as that of Cl- in salt sampled under bridges is analyzed. As a result, this study revealed that the supply of deicing salt declines Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt on the girder. In addition, examination of Mg2+/Cl- ratio of salt sampled under the examined bridge near sea revealed that the fluctuation of quantity of air-born salt under the bridge is ascribed to the fluctuation of supply of sea salt.

  8. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (..nu.. ..-->.. 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard.

  9. Young Stars with SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Adric R.; Alam, Munazza K.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Henry, Todd J.

    2017-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All of these dwarfs are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph on the South African Large Telescope, we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, lithium 6708 Å, and potassium 7699 Å equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all of our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 pc of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, 9 members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find 14 young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star systems do not appear to be young. This appears to be evidence of a new population of nearby young stars not related to the known nearby young moving groups. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  10. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Dholke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is on the rise, especially in today′s fast-paced world. TBI requires not only neurosurgical expertise but also neurointensivist involvement for a better outcome. Disturbances of sodium balance are common in patients with brain injury, as the central nervous system plays a major role in sodium regulation. Hyponatraemia, defined as serum sodium <135 meq/L is commonly seen and is especially deleterious as it can contribute to cerebral oedema in these patients. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, is the most well-known cause of hyponatraemia in this subset of patients. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome (CSWS, leading to renal sodium loss is an important cause of hyponatraemia in patients with TBI. Although incompletely studied, decreased renal sympathetic responses and cerebral natriuretic factors play a role in the pathogenesis of CSWS. Maintaining a positive sodium balance and adequate hydration can help in the treatment. It is important to differentiate between SIADH and CSWS when trying to ascertain a case for patients with acute brain injury, as the treatment of the two are diametrically opposite.

  11. Young Stars with SALT

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Adric R; Rice, Emily L; Cruz, Kelle L; Henry, Todd J

    2016-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic and kinematic analysis of 79 nearby M dwarfs in 77 systems. All are low-proper-motion southern hemisphere objects and were identified in a nearby star survey with a demonstrated sensitivity to young stars. Using low-resolution optical spectroscopy from the Red Side Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT), we have determined radial velocities, H-alpha, Lithium 6708\\AA, and Potassium 7699\\AA~equivalent widths linked to age and activity, and spectral types for all our targets. Combined with astrometric information from literature sources, we identify 44 young stars. Eighteen are previously known members of moving groups within 100 parsecs of the Sun. Twelve are new members, including one member of the TW Hydra moving group, one member of the 32 Orionis moving group, nine members of Tucana-Horologium, one member of Argus, and two new members of AB Doradus. We also find fourteen young star systems that are not members of any known groups. The remaining 33 star syst...

  12. Salt intake, plasma sodium, and worldwide salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Macgregor, Graham A

    2012-06-01

    There is overwhelming evidence that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of approximately 9-12 g/d in most countries of the world to the recommended level of 5-6 g/d lowers blood pressure (BP) in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. A further reduction to 3-4 g/d has a greater effect. Prospective studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Cost-effectiveness analyses have documented that salt reduction is more or at the very least just as cost-effective as tobacco control in reducing cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms whereby salt raises blood pressure and increases cardiovascular risk are not fully understood. The existing concepts focus on the tendency for an increase in extracellular fluid volume. Increasing evidence suggests that small increases in plasma sodium may have a direct effect on BP and the cardiovascular system, independent of extracellular volume. All countries should adopt a coherent and workable strategy to reduce salt intake in the whole population. Even a modest reduction in population salt intake will have major beneficial effects on health, along with major cost savings.

  13. Long-term betamethasone 21-phosphate disodium treatment has distinct effects in CD1 and DBA/2 mice on animal behavior accompanied by opposite effects on neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Rossana; Crupi, Rosalia; Leo, Antonio; Chimirri, Serafina; Rispoli, Vincenzo; Marra, Rosario; Citraro, Rita; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Russo, Emilio

    2015-02-01

    One of the most peculiar characteristics of the stress response is the pronounced inter-individual and inter-strain variability both in behavioral and neurochemical outcomes. Several studies confirm that rodents belonging to the same or different strain and/or gender, when exposed to a stressor, may show behavioral and cognitive differences. We compared the effects of long-term betamethasone 21-phosphate disodium (BTM), a widely clinically used corticosteroid, on animal behavior and neurogenesis in CD1 and DBA/2 mice. BTM treatment, in CD1 mice, increased body weight gain and anxiety parameters while having pro-depressant effects. Furthermore, BTM significantly reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Finally, BTM treatment induced a significant impairment in memory and learning performance in the Morris water maze. At odds, BTM administration, in DBA/2 mice, caused a significant reduction in the body weight while not modifying anxiety parameters. In addition, both an increased synaptogenesis and neurogenesis were found. Similarly to CD1 mice, also in DBA/2 mice, memory and learning were impaired. Our data confirm that long-term exposure to corticosteroids can generate or aggravate psychiatric/neurologic disorders such as depression, anxiety, memory and learning. Our study did not reveal significant differences between corticosterone and BTM treatment in CD1 mice. In contrast, BTM treatment in mice with an anxious phenotype (DBA/2 mice) revealed some contrasting results indicating that genetic factors can influence corticosteroids dependent effects. Finally, our data further underline the need for a re-evaluation of neurogenesis role; the increased neurogenesis observed in DBA/2 mice and behavioral effects might be distinguished phenomena.

  14. Development and Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Controlled-Release Tablet of Calcium-Disodium Edentate and its In Vivo Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Soni, Sandeep; Singh, Thakuri; Kumar, Amit; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Bhatnagar, Aseem; Mittal, Gaurav

    2015-12-01

    Medical management of heavy metal toxicity, including radioactive ones, is a cause for concern because of their increased use in energy production, healthcare, and mining. Though chelating agents like EDTA and DTPA in parenteral form are available, no suitable oral formulation is there that can trap ingested heavy metal toxicants in the stomach itself, preventing their systemic absorption. The objective of the present study was to develop and optimize gastro-retentive controlled-release tablets of calcium-disodium edentate (Ca-Na2EDTA). Gastro-retentive tablet of Ca-Na2EDTA was prepared by direct compression method. Thirteen tablet formulations were designed using HPMC-K4M, sodium chloride, and carbopol-934 along with effervescing agents sodium bicarbonate and citric acid. Tablet swelling ability, in vitro buoyancy, and drug dissolution studies were conducted in 0.1 N HCl at 37 ± 0.5°C. Ca-Na2EDTA was radiolabeled with technetium-99m for scintigraphy-based in vivo evaluation. Formula F8 (Ca-Na2EDTA 200 mg, carbopol 100 mg, avicel 55 mg, citric acid 30 mg, NaHCO3 70 mg, NaCl 100 mg, and HPMC 95 mg) was found to be optimum in terms of excellent floating properties and sustained drug release. F8 fitted best for Korsmeyer-Peppas equation with an R (2) value of 0.993. Gamma scintigraphy in humans showed mean gastric retention period of 6 h. Stability studies carried out in accordance with ICH guidelines and analyzed at time intervals of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 months have indicated insignificant difference in tablet hardness, drug content, total floating duration, or matrix integrity of the optimized formulation. Gastro-retentive, controlled-release tablet of Ca-Na2EDTA was successfully developed using effervescent technique as a potential oral antidote for neutralizing ingested heavy metal toxicity.

  15. Disodium pentaborate decahydrate (DPD) induced apoptosis by decreasing hTERT enzyme activity and disrupting F-actin organization of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mehmet; Avcı, Cigir Biray; Gunduz, Cumhur; Aygunes, Duygu; Erbaykent-Tepedelen, Burcu

    2014-02-01

    Animal and cell culture studies have showed that boron and its derivatives may be promising anticancer agents in prostate cancer treatment. Thus, DU145 cells were treated with disodium pentaborate decahydrate (DPD) for 24, 48, and 72 h in order to investigate the inhibitor effect and mechanisms of DPD. Then, cell proliferation, telomerase enzyme activity, actin polymerization, and apoptosis were detected by WST-1 assay, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence labeling, and flow cytometry, respectively. We found that DPD inhibited the growth of human prostate cancer cell line DU145 at the concentration of 3.5 mM for 24 h. Our results demonstrated that 7 mM of DPD treatment prevented the telomerase enzyme activity at the rate of 38 %. Furthermore, DPD has an apoptotic effect on DU145 cells which were examined by labeling DNA breaks. With 7 mM of DPD treatment, 8, 14, and 41 % of apoptotic cells were detected for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Additionally, immunofluorescence labeling showed that the normal organization of actin filaments was disrupted in DPD-exposed cells, which is accompanied by the alteration of cell shape and by apoptosis in targeted cells. Taken together, the results indicate that DPD may exert its cytotoxicity at least partly by interfering with the dynamic properties of actin polymerization and decreasing the telomerase activity. Eventually, for the first time, the results of this study showed that DPD suppressed the activity of telomerase in DU145 cells, and therefore, we suggested that DPD could be an important agent for its therapeutic potential in the treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. Preoperative Estimation of Future Remnant Liver Function Following Portal Vein Embolization Using Relative Enhancement on Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yozo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigeru; Inaba, Yoshitaka [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Sano, Tsuyoshi [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Yamaura, Hidekazu; Kato, Mina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Senda, Yoshiki [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    To retrospectively evaluate relative enhancement (RE) in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a preoperative estimation of future remnant liver (FRL) function in a patients who underwent portal vein embolization (PVE). In 53 patients, the correlation between the indocyanine green clearance (ICG-K) and RE imaging was analyzed before hepatectomy (first analysis). Twenty-three of the 53 patients underwent PVE followed by a repeat RE imaging and ICG test before an extended hepatectomy and their results were further analyzed (second analysis). Whole liver function and FRL function were calculated on the MR imaging as follows: RE x total liver volume (RE Index) and FRL-RE x FRL volume (Rem RE Index), respectively. Regarding clinical outcome, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was evaluated in patients undergoing PVE. Indocyanine green clearance correlated with the RE Index (r = 0.365, p = 0.007), and ICG-K of FRL (ICG-Krem) strongly correlated with the Rem RE Index (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) in the first analysis. Both the ICG-Krem and the Rem RE Index were significantly correlated after PVE (r = 0.508, p = 0.013) at the second analysis. The rate of improvement of the Rem RE Index from before PVE to after PVE was significantly higher than that of ICG-Krem (p = 0.014). Patients with PHLF had a significantly lower Rem RE Index than patients without PHLF (p = 0.023). Relative enhancement imaging can be used to estimate FRL function after PVE.

  17. Rheological properties of reversible thermo-setting in situ gelling solutions with the methylcellulose-polyethylene glycol-citric acid ternary system (2): Effects of various water-soluble polymers and salts on the gelling temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Saegusa, Katsuhiko; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2009-11-01

    The influences of various salts and water-soluble polymers on the phase transition temperature of thermo-setting gels prepared by combining methylcellulose (MC)-sodium citrate (SC)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) at appropriate ratios (the MC-SC-PEG system) were investigated. Concerning cations, comparison of the phase transition temperature between SC and tripotassium citrate (PC) showed a rapid increase in the viscosity of SC between 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C and an increase in the viscosity of PC between 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Concerning the valency of anions, comparisons among SC, disodium tartrate dihydrate (ST), disodium maleate hemihydrates (SM), and sodium sulfate (SS) showed a rapid increase in the viscosity of trivalent SC between 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C and changes in the viscosity of the three bivalent sodium salts (ST, SM, and SS) at > or =30 degrees C. Thus the phase transition temperature decreased with an increase in the valency of anions. Subsequently, the influences of various water-soluble polymers on the gelling temperature were compared. Using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) instead of PEG, the gelling temperature decreased with an increase in the PVP concentration even without the addition of SC. Unlike PVP, the addition of xanthan gum as a viscosity-increasing polysaccharide did not reduce the gelling temperature irrespective of its concentration. Temperature-associated changes in viscosity were observed at a fixed SC concentration with changes in the concentration of PVP or PEG. The gel phase transition temperature increased from 46 degrees C to 50 degrees C in gels not containing PVP or PEG. The viscosity did not differ between the addition of PVP or PEG at a low concentration and its absence. However, the viscosity clearly changed after the addition of each agent at a high concentration.

  18. Microbiology of solar salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, B.

    1985-01-01

    Solar salt ponds are shallow ponds of brines that range in salinity from that of normal seawater (3.4 percent) through NaCl saturation. Some salterns evaporate brines to the potash stage of concentration (bitterns). All the brines (except the bitterns, which are devoid of life) harbor high concentrations of microorganisms. The high concentrations of microorganisms and their adaptation to life in the salt pond are discussed.

  19. Liking, salt taste perception and use of table salt when consuming reduced-salt chicken stews in light of South Africa's new salt regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, H L; Zandstra, E H; Sayed, N; Wentzel-Viljoen, E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of salt reduction on liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt when consuming chicken stew in light of South Africa's new salt recommendations. In total, 432 South-African consumers (aged 35.2 ± 12.3 years) consumed a full portion of a chicken stew meal once at a central location. Four stock cube powders varying in salt content were used to prepare chicken stews: 1) no reduction - 2013 Na level; regular salt level as currently available on the South African market (24473 mg Na/100 g), 2) salt reduction smaller than 2016 level, i.e. 10%-reduced (22025 mg Na/100 g), 3) 2016 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (18000 mg Na/100 g), 4) 2019 salt level, as per regulatory prescriptions (13000 mg Na/100 g). Consumers were randomly allocated to consume one of the four meals. Liking, salt taste perception, and use of table salt and pepper were measured. Chicken stews prepared with reduced-salt stock powders were equally well-liked as chicken stews with the current salt level. Moreover, a gradual reduction of the salt in the chicken stews resulted in a reduced salt intake, up to an average of 19% for the total group compared to the benchmark 2013 Na level stew. However, 19% of consumers compensated by adding salt back to full compensation in some cases. More salt was added with increased reductions of salt in the meals, even to the point of full compensation. Further investigation into the impacts of nutrition communication and education about salt reduction on salt taste perception and use is needed. This research provides new consumer insights on salt use and emphasises the need for consumer-focused behaviour change approaches, in addition to reformulation of products.

  20. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Sevdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A serum sodium (Na value below 135 mEq/L is evaluated as hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality observed in hospitalized patients in particular. Hypovolemic hypoosmolar hyponatremia is the most frequent clinical table. One of the reasons of this is cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS. CSWS is a rare condition progressing with low plasma osmolality, urine osmolality above 100-150 mOsm/kg and urine- Na concentration above 20 mEq/L. In the blood and urine sample analysis performed upon sudden loss of consciousness on the 15th day of the intensive care unit follow-up of 79-year-old female patients due to falling from stairs, blood biochemistry Na value was 120 mEq/L, plasma osmolality was 250 mOsm/kg, urine Na value was 180 mEq/L, urine osmolality was 1200 mOsm/kg, urine diuresis was >3 mL/kg/hour. The central venous pressure was 2 mmHg. The patient, considered to be diagnosed with CSWS, was treated with 9% NaCl and 3% hypertonic saline solution. Her clinical course was improved on the 18th day. She died on the 81st day secondary to septicemia in the subsequent follow-up. In this article, it was aimed to report a patient with CSWS which progresses with low percentage in intensive care unit patients with head trauma, is frequently confused with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome and progresses mortally when not diagnosed distinctively well.

  1. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  2. A closer look at salt loaded microstructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    Many walls of ancient buildings are covered with plaster layers. Amongst the most recurrent causes of damage of plasters and substrates are moisture and salt decay processes. To combat these salt problems, special salt resistant plasters have been developed for application on salt loaded substrates.

  3. 醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯盐的制备与性能研究%Preparation and performance of citrate monoesters salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛少勇; 杨秀全; 白亮; 周媛; 张军

    2012-01-01

    Through indirect eaterification,citric acid anhydride was synthesized with citric acid and acetic anhydride as raw materials,the citrate monoesters were prepared with synthetic citric acid anhydride and ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (containing excess ethoxylated fatty alcohols) ,and then neutralization with NaOH,Ca (OH)2 and Mg (OH)2 obtained the citrate monoesters disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG-EC-Na) , citrate monoesters calcium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEC-EC-Ca) and citrate monoesters magnesium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG- EC-Mg). The physicochemical properties of the products were measured. Results showed that the γcmc range of the three products are very small, and the one of citric acid monoester disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside is minimum. The order of foaming ability and foam stability of citric acid monoester salt is MAEG-EC-Mg > MAEG-EC-Ca > MAEG-EC-Na.%采用间接酯化法,以柠檬酸和乙酸酐为原料,先合成柠檬酸酐,后与醇醚糖苷(含有未反应的脂肪醇醚)反应,合成了醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯,再用NaOH溶液、饱和Ca(OH)2水溶液和Mg(OH)2乳浊液中和制得醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯二钠盐(MAEG-EC-Na)、醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯钙盐(MAEG-EC-Ca)和醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯镁盐(MAEGEC-Mg),对产物的物化性能进行了测定.结果表明,上述3种产品的γcmc变化范围均很小,而柠檬酸单酯二钠盐的cmc最小,柠檬酸单酯盐起泡性能、泡沫稳定性的顺序为MAEG-EC-Mg> MAEG-EC-Ca> MAEG-EC-Na.

  4. Effect of concentration, homogenization and stabilizing salts on heat stability and rheological properties of cow skim milk ultrafiltered retentate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Ganga Sahay; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Borad, Sanket; Panjagari, Narender Raju

    2016-11-01

    Ultrafiltration (UF) of skimmed milk altered the composition of UF retentate and decreased the heat stability. Heat stability further reduced upon its subsequent homogenization or diafiltration. Poor heat stability of UF retentate restricts its processing at elevated temperatures. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of protein concentration, homogenization and addition of stabilizing salts on the heat stability and rheological properties of UF retentates. Changes in the heat stability of fivefold homogenized UF retentate (5× HUFR) was studied in the pH range of 6.1-7.0. Disodium phosphate and trisodium citrate significantly increased the heat coagulation time (HCT) from 1.45 min (pH 6.41) to 120 min (at pH 6.5, 6.6, 7.0) and 80 min (pH 6.6), respectively. Significant reduction in ζ-potential of UF retentates was observed with an increase in calcium and reduction in pH during UF process. Rheological behaviour of retentates above threefold concentration exhibited Herschel-Bulkley behavior with linear increase in flow behavior index (n). Changes in the viscosity of the homogenized retentates were measured at the respective pH of maximum heat stability as a function of temperature (20-80 °C). Promising approaches that might improve the heat stability, solubility and other functional properties of protein rich powders have been discussed in this article.

  5. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-03-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  6. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (Pdiet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (Pdiet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (Pdiet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (Pdiet induced DNA tail length and tail moment to the basal levels in fresh oil diet. These results indicate that PQQ.Na2 is a potential antioxidant and is as effective against oxidized oil-related liver injury in laying hens as vitamin E. The protective effects of PQQ.Na2 against liver damage induced by oxidized oil may be partially due to its role in the scavenging of free radicals, inhibiting of lipid peroxidation and enhancing of antioxidant defense systems.

  7. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  8. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  9. Protein aggregation in salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelic, Miha; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V.; Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is broadly important in diseases and in formulations of biological drugs. Here, we develop a theoretical model for reversible protein–protein aggregation in salt solutions. We treat proteins as hard spheres having square-well-energy binding sites, using Wertheim’s thermodynamic perturbation theory. The necessary condition required for such modeling to be realistic is that proteins in solution during the experiment remain in their compact form. Within this limitation our model gives accurate liquid–liquid coexistence curves for lysozyme and γ IIIa-crystallin solutions in respective buffers. It provides good fits to the cloud-point curves of lysozyme in buffer–salt mixtures as a function of the type and concentration of salt. It than predicts full coexistence curves, osmotic compressibilities, and second virial coefficients under such conditions. This treatment may also be relevant to protein crystallization. PMID:25964322

  10. Oxidation properties of "Solar Salt"

    OpenAIRE

    BENAISSA, Wassila; Carson, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Solar Salt is a name sometimes given to a molten salt mixture made up of about 60% of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and 40% of potassium nitrate (KNO3). This composition is near the eutectic point and is thermally stable until 600°C. It is popular in Industrial Solar Energy Projects and is used for storing energy in the form of heat to smooth out the peaks in electricity production. However for some technologies, combustible substances, like a thermal fluid for example, may c...

  11. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà-Esteve, M; Cuadrado-Godia, E; Chillaron, J J; Pont-Sunyer, C; Cucurella, G; Fernández, M; Goday, A; Cano-Pérez, J F; Rodríguez-Campello, A; Roquer, J

    2008-06-01

    Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte disorder in critically neurological patients. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW) is defined as a renal loss of sodium during intracranial disease leading to hyponatremia and a decrease in extracellular fluid volume. The pathogenesis of this disorder is still not completely understood. Sympathetic responses as well as some natriuretic factors play a role in this syndrome. Distinction between SIADH and CSW might be difficult. The essential point is the volemic state. It is necessary to rule out other intermediate causes. Treatment requires volume replacement and maintenance of a positive salt balance. Mineral corticoids may be useful in complicated cases.

  12. 21 CFR 100.155 - Salt and iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as the name of salt for human food use to which iodide has been added in the form of cuprous iodide or potassium iodide permitted by §§ 184.1265 and 184.1634 of this chapter. In the labeling of such... supplies iodide, a necessary nutrient” shall appear on the label immediately following the name and...

  13. Thermodynamic characterization of salt components for Molten Salt Reactor fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a promising future nuclear fission reactor technology with excellent performance in terms of safety and reliability, sustainability, proliferation resistance and economics. For the design and safety assessment of this concept, it is extremely important to have a thor

  14. Why does salt start to move?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltham, David

    1997-12-01

    This paper concerns mechanisms of salt (and ductile shale) movement. It investigates salt flow due to differential loading, folding of the overburden during compression and drag by a moving overburden. The approach is to compare the salt flux caused by these processes to that generated by buoyancy. It is demonstrated that overburden folding and drag by the overburden can, under commonly encountered conditions, result in greater amounts of salt movement than that produced by buoyancy or differential loading. These conclusions apply during the early stages of salt anticline, salt pillow and salt roller formation but not during the later stages of salt diapir and salt wall growth when buoyancy dominates. The quantitative significance of these alternatives to buoyancy is determined by considering an elastic plate overlying a viscous fluid. This is the simplest mathematical model that can reproduce the processes considered. The model shows that: (1) Under certain conditions, these mechanisms produce more salt movement than buoyancy. Differential loading dominates when the surface slopes become more than a small fraction of the slope of the salt top. Overburden buckling dominates if the in-plane stress exceeds a critical value. Drag dominates when the salt layer is thinner than a few hundred metres. (2) The strength of the overburden inhibits formation of salt diapirs, even those due to buoyancy, on wavelengths less than about 12 km.

  15. Salt decay of Morley limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Van Hees, R.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Salt weathering is one of the main causes of decay of natural stone, and by consequence a major problem to the conservation of cultural heritage. In the present case, the performance of Morley limestone from the Département Meuse, France, as a replacement stone under saltloaded conditions is evaluat

  16. Americans Buying Less Salt-Laden Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of how much salt you consume. Dr. David Katz is president of the American College of Lifestyle ... reduced intake could be very beneficial to health," Katz said. Because most of the salt people eat ...

  17. Processing method for molten salt waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Shuichi; Sawa, Toshio; Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Suzuoki, Akira

    1999-01-06

    The present invention concerns a processing method for selectively adsorbing and removing radioactive metal ingredients contained in high temperature molten salts by an inorganic ion exchanger and separating radioactive metal ingredients from the molten salts as high level radioactive wastes upon reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by using molten salts. The molten salts occluded in the inorganic ion exchanger are desorbed with highly purified water. Successively, saturation adsorbed radioactive metal ingredients are desorbed by an aqueous solution of alkali metal salt or an aqueous solution of alkaline earth metal salt. The desorbed molten salts and radioactive metal ingredients are formed into at least two kinds of radioactive waste solidification materials depending on each of radioactivity level. As the inorganic ion exchanger, at least one of aluminosilicate and hydroxides is used. Then, molten salt wastes generated upon a dry-type reprocessing can be processed as a stable borosilicate glass solidification material or as a similar homogeneous solid material. (T.M.)

  18. Chlorine Salts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Horgan, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although chlorine salts (perchlorates, chlorides) are known to exist at the Phoenix landing site, their distribution and type have not been positively identified yet. We look for these salts through a novel NIR remote sensing technique.

  19. Determination of disodium pamidronate for injection by HPLC pre- column derivatization with FMOC- Cl%FMOC-C1柱前衍生化HPLC法测定注射用帕米膦酸二钠的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林慧菁; 杨乐; 范梅娟; 廖瑜

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立氯甲酸-9-芴甲酯(FMOC-a)柱前衍生化HPLC法测定注射用帕米膦酸二钠的含量.方法:碱性条件下供试品与FMOC -Cl进行衍生化反应,采用Hypersil ODS2(4.6mm×250 mm,5 μm)色谱柱,流动相为乙腈-0.4%EDTA溶液(用1 mol·L-1氢氧化钠溶液调节pH至7.2)(25:75),流速1 mL·min-1,检测波长为265 nm.结果:帕米膦酸二钠浓度在0.05 ~1.00 ng·mL-1范围内与峰面积呈良好关系(r =0.9998),平均回收率为101.0%(n=9).结论:该方法专属性好,适合用于注射用帕米膦酸二钠的含量测定.%Objective:To develop an HPLC method with pre -column derivatization for the determination of disodium pamidronate for injection.Methods:Disodium pamidronate was derivatized with 9- fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-C1) in 0.05 mol o L-1 Na2CO3 solution, the analytical column was Hypersil ODS2(4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) column.The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile -0.4% EDTA(pH adjusted to 7.2 with 1 mol o L-1 sodium hydroxide solution)(25:75) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL o min-1 ,and the detection wavelength was 265 run.Results: The linear range was 0.05- 1.00 mg o mL-1 (r = 0.9998), and the average recovery was 101.0% (n =9).Conclusion:The method is specific and can be used for determination of disodium pamidronate for injection.

  20. Public health impact of salt reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended maximum level of intake, salt reduction may help to reduce cardiovascular disease incidence. However, the effect of salt reduction initiatives on intake levels and long-term health is largely unknown. Th...

  1. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Francis D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gadbury, Casey [USDOE Carlsbad Field Office, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  2. Determination of potassium iodide in table salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of table salt bought in Belgrade supermarkets are analysed in this paper. The method of indirect iodometry was used in the process of the analysis, and received results were converted into the content of KI in mg/kg of salt. Beside the content of KI, the content of NaCl was also determined, counted to dry meter and water content, and received results were compared with the requests determined by Regulations of Table Salt Quality Meant for Human Diet and by manufacturers' declaration. Received results show that the volumetric method of indirect iodometry, applied in this analysis, is very reliable for determination of potassium iodine in table salt, because of its high precision and reproducibility of the analysis results. All received results show that the samples of table salt which can be bought in supermarkets are according to the demands given by Regulations. Only one sample (evaporated salt has significantly less mass of KI than it is determined by Regulations, but also by manufacturer's declaration. Measured humidity in the samples of table salt received from sea salt (sample 1 is higher than humidity in the samples received from rock salt as the result of magnesium presence in sea salt, which is hygroscopic material. Although samples 5 and 6 also originate from sea salt, their smaller humidity is the result of additional heating and salt processing. .

  3. Molecular biology of cyanobacterial salt acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    High and changing salt concentrations represent major abiotic factors limiting the growth of microorganisms. During their long evolution, cyanobacteria have adapted to aquatic habitats with various salt concentrations. High salt concentrations in the medium challenge the cell with reduced water availability and high contents of inorganic ions. The basic mechanism of salt acclimation involves the active extrusion of toxic inorganic ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes, including sucrose, trehalose, glucosylglycerol, and glycine betaine. The kinetics of these physiological processes has been exceptionally well studied in the model Synechocystis 6803, leading to the definition of five subsequent phases in reaching a new salt acclimation steady state. Recent '-omics' technologies using the advanced model Synechocystis 6803 have revealed a comprehensive picture of the dynamic process of salt acclimation involving the differential expression of hundreds of genes. However, the mechanisms involved in sensing specific salt stress signals are not well resolved. In the future, analysis of cyanobacterial salt acclimation will be directed toward defining the functions of the many unknown proteins upregulated in salt-stressed cells, identifying specific salt-sensing mechanisms, using salt-resistant strains of cyanobacteria for the production of bioenergy, and applying cyanobacterial stress genes to improve the salt tolerance of sensitive organisms.

  4. 40 CFR 721.7655 - Alkylsulfonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylsulfonium salt. 721.7655 Section... Substances § 721.7655 Alkylsulfonium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as alkylsulfonium salt (PMN P-93-1166) is...

  5. 7 CFR 58.328 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.328 Section 58.328 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....328 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the...

  6. 7 CFR 58.721 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.721 Section 58.721 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....721 Salt. Salt shall be free flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the requirements of...

  7. 7 CFR 58.437 - Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salt. 58.437 Section 58.437 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections....437 Salt. The salt shall be free-flowing, white refined sodium chloride and shall meet the...

  8. Disodium terephthalate (Na{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}) as high performance anode material for low-cost room-temperature sodium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Liang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Chen, Liquan [Key Laboratory for Renewable Energy, Beijing Key Laboratory for New, Energy Materials and Devices, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhao, Junmei [Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zhibin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2012-08-15

    In this contribution, a cheap organic material, disodium terephthalate, Na{sub 2}C{sub 8}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}, has been firstly evaluated as a novel anode for room-temperature Na-ion batteries. The material exhibits a high reversible capacity of 250 mAh/g with excellent cycleability. The average Na storage voltage is approximately 0.43 V vs. Na{sup +}/Na. A thin layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating on the electrode surface derived from the atomic layer deposition technique is effective in further enhancing Na storage performance. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Effect of antihistamines, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or methysergide on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in primates after 25 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Forcino, C.D. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation causes hypotension, cerebral ischemia and release of histamine (HA) and serotonin (5-HT). To investigate the relationship among these responses, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) received physiological saline (i.v.), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), antihistamines (AH, mepyramine and cimetidine), or methysergide (METH), then were given 25 Gy whole-body irradiation. Monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH had higher post-irradiation mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) than saline-treated controls. Compared to levels in controls, post-irradiation hippocampal blood flow (rCBF) levels were higher in monkeys receiving DSCG, AH or METH. Treatment with the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor antagonist methysergide was the most effective in maintaining both rCBF and MBP after irradiation. Results support the hypothesis that the irradiation-induced cerebral ischemia and, to some extent, the hypotension is mediated by serotonin through 5-HT{sub 2} receptor sites. (author) 72 refs.

  10. Awareness of salt restriction is not reflected in the actual salt intake in Japanese hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Adachi, Tomoko; Nakashima, Ryuma; Sugamori, Takashi; Endo, Akihiro; Ito, Takafumi; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese guidelines for hypertension management recommend reducing salt intake to awareness of the recommended reduced salt diet correlates with their actual intake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between actual salt intake of Japanese hypertensive patients and their awareness of the recommended guidelines for reduced dietary salt intake. In total, 236 outpatients (146 males and 90 females) with a mean age 69.7 ± 12.5 years were included in this study. Daily dietary salt intake was estimated using sodium and creatinine concentrations detected in spot urine samples. The patients filled out a questionnaire regarding their awareness of recommended salt restriction for hypertension management. The questionnaire distinguished the patients' awareness of recommended salt restriction in four levels (low, moderate, high and very high). The mean estimated salt intake was 9.72 ± 2.43 g/day. Patients' awareness regarding salt intake in all levels provided in the questionnaire did not correlate with actual salt intake (p = 0.731). Our results demonstrated that Japanese hypertensive outpatients consumed higher levels of salt than the target value recommended by Japanese guidelines. There was no correlation between actual salt intake and patients' awareness of the recommended reduction in salt. These results suggest that monitoring salt intake and informing patients of their actual salt intake are necessary for effective hypertension management.

  11. Study on bacterial endotoxins test of disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection%斑蝥酸钠维生素B_6注射液细菌内毒素检查法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贵英; 唐继坤; 潘正兴

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method for determination of the bacterial endotoxin test in disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection.Method:Inhibition and bacterial endotoxin test was performed with amebcyte lysate manufactured by different companies with different specifications according to the method of bacterial endotoxin test approved by Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2005 edition.Results:The original solution had non-interference with the bacterial endotoxin test.The results of bacteria endotoxin test in six batchs all accorded with the standard of the quality control.Conclusion:The results suggested that bacteria endotoxin test can be used as an alternative method for the rabbit pyrogen test for disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B_6 injection.The limits of bacterial endotoxin was 6 EU·mg~(-1).%目的:建立斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液的细菌内毒素检查方法.方法:按中国药典2005年版二部附录XIE细菌内毒素检查法进行,用小同厂家不同规格的鲎试剂对小同批号的斑蝥酸钠维牛素B_6注射液进行了干扰试验和细菌内毒素检查.结果:本品原液对细菌内毒素检查无干扰作用.按拟定标准检验,该品种6批样品细菌内毒素检查结果均符合规定.结论:本品可用细菌内毒素检查法代替家兔热原检查法,其细菌内毒素的限值(L)为6 EU·mL~(-1).

  12. Thermophysical properties of reconsolidating crushed salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Urquhart, Alexander [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Reconsolidated crushed salt is being considered as a backfilling material placed upon nuclear waste within a salt repository environment. In-depth knowledge of thermal and mechanical properties of the crushed salt as it reconsolidates is critical to thermal/mechanical modeling of the reconsolidation process. An experimental study was completed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt as a function of porosity and temperature. The crushed salt for this study came from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In this work the thermal conductivity of crushed salt with porosity ranging from 1% to 40% was determined from room temperature up to 300°C, using two different experimental methods. Thermal properties (including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat) of single-crystal salt were determined for the same temperature range. The salt was observed to dewater during heating; weight loss from the dewatering was quantified. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt decreases with increasing porosity; conversely, thermal conductivity increases as the salt consolidates. The thermal conductivity of reconsolidated crushed salt for a given porosity decreases with increasing temperature. A simple mixture theory model is presented to predict and compare to the data developed in this study.

  13. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  14. On Biochemical Formation of Salt Deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A water/salt system in an evaporative environment is both a physicochemical region and a biological one. All the parameters of the system, such as the salinity, temperature and CO2 partial pressure, are affected by halophilic bacteria. The system controls salt deposition but is modified by an accompanying ecological system; therefore it should be called a water/salt/biological system. Salt minerals result from accumulation of the remains of bacteria/algae, namely, bacteria/algae formation; whereas biological, biophysical and biochemical processes provide full evidence for organic involvement. Consequently, salt deposits should not be called purely chemical but biological/chemical ones. This new argument supplements and develops the traditional idea and helps perfect the mineralization theory of salts and even general deposits, thus giving guidance to prospecting for salt deposits.

  15. Physiological and Molecular Features of Puccinellia tenuiflora Tolerating Salt and Alkaline-Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Zhang; Liqin Wei; Zizhang Wang; Tai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Saline-alkali soil seriously threatens agriculture productivity; therefore,understanding the mechanism of plant tolerance to alkaline-salt stress has become a major challenge.Halophytic Puccinellia tenuiflora can tolerate salt and alkaline-salt stress,and is thus an ideal plant for studying this tolerance mechanism.In this study,we examined the salt and alkaline-salt stress tolerance of P.tenuiflora,and analyzed gene expression profiles under these stresses.Physiological experiments revealed that P.tenuiflora can grow normally with maximum stress under 600 mmol/L NaCl and 150 mmol/L Na2CO3 (pH 11.0)for 6 d.We identified 4,982 unigenes closely homologous to rice and barley.Furthermore,1,105 genes showed differentially expressed profiles under salt and alkaline-salt treatments.Differentially expressed genes were overrepresented in functions of photosynthesis,oxidation reduction,signal transduction,and transcription regulation.Almost all genes downregulated under salt and alkaline-salt stress were related to cell structure,photosynthesis,and protein synthesis.Comparing with salt stress,alkaline-salt stress triggered more differentially expressed genes and significantly upregulated genes related to H+ transport and citric acid synthesis.These data indicate common and diverse features of salt and alkalinesalt stress tolerance,and give novel insights into the molecular and physiological mechanisms of plant salt and alkaline-salt tolerance.

  16. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms.

  17. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  18. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  19. [Study on Salt Tolerance of Echinacea purpurea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jia, Xiao-dong; Liu, Yong-zhi; Xuan, Ji-ping; Guo, Zhong-ren; Qiao, Yu-shan

    2015-12-01

    To explore the salt tolerance of Echiancea purpurea and its mechanism. Echiancea purpurea was used as test material in this study and six salinity levels (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mmol/L NaCl) were set. Effects on seed germination and salt tolerance relevant physiological and biochemical indexes of Echiancea purpurea were studied. Salt stress suppressed the germination of Echiancea purpurea seeds, induced osmotic adjustment substances proline, soluble sugar and K+ to increase, and activities of POD and SOD to rise, and meanwhile resulted in accumulation of Na+ and decrease of K+/Na+. Echiancea purpurea can tolerant salt stress to a certain degree, but in case of high salt concentrations, severe salt injury would remarkably suppress the growth of Echinacea purpurea.

  20. Synthesis of Chitosan Quaternary Ammonium Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A series of N-alkyl or N-aryl chitosan quaternary ammonium salts were prepared via Schiffs base intermediates. Quaternization of N-substituted chitosan derivatives was carried out using methyl iodide to produce water-soluble cationic chitosan quaternary ammonium salt. The products were characterized by IR, 1HNMR and elemental analysis. The degree of substitution of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was calculated by elemental analysis.

  1. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  2. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  3. Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Methodology in Molten Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    similar conditions. A manuscript based on this work has been published in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society (34). 2) Melt and co-solvent As...Temperature Molten Salt," In "Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Molten Salts," 3. Braunstein, Ed., published by The Electrochemical Society , in...Jones and L. G. Boxall, "Electrochemical Studies in Molten Chloroaluminates," Symposium on Fused Salt Tech- nology, Electrochemical Society Meeting

  4. Granular Salt Summary: Reconsolidation Principles and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank; Popp, Till; Wieczorek, Klaus; Stuehrenberg, Dieter

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this paper are to review the vast amount of knowledge concerning crushed salt reconsolidation and its attendant hydraulic properties (i.e., its capability for fluid or gas transport) and to provide a sufficient basis to understand reconsolidation and healing rates under repository conditions. Topics covered include: deformation mechanisms and hydro-mechanical interactions during reconsolidation; the experimental data base pertaining to crushed salt reconsolidation; transport properties of consolidating granulated salt and provides quantitative substantiation of its evolution to characteristics emulating undisturbed rock salt; and extension of microscopic and laboratory observations and data to the applicable field scale.

  5. Fried Bamboo Shoots with Salted Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of canned bamboo shoots; 75 grams of salted potherb mustard leaves; 5 grams of cooking wine, 1 gram of salt and 500 grams of vegetable oil (15 grams will be consumed). MSG to taste. Directions: 1. Chop the bamboo shoots into rectangles 4 centimeters by 1.65 centimeters. Marinate the bamboo shoots in salt and cooking wine. Clean the salted potherb mustard leaves (or any other kind of vegetable leaves) with hot water and chop into 3.5-centimeter segments.

  6. Brine Transport Experiments in Granular Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    To gain confidence in the predictive capability of numerical models, experimental validation must be performed to ensure that parameters and processes are correctly simulated. The laboratory investigations presented herein aim to address knowledge gaps for heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) disposal in bedded salt that remain after examination of prior field and laboratory test data. Primarily, we are interested in better constraining the thermal, hydrological, and physicochemical behavior of brine, water vapor, and salt when moist salt is heated. The target of this work is to use run-of-mine (RoM) salt; however during FY2015 progress was made using high-purity, granular sodium chloride.

  7. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  8. Salt reduction initiatives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqueline L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Hawkes, Corinna; Neal, Bruce C

    2011-06-01

    To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments and monitoring and implementation. Thirty-two country salt reduction initiatives were identified. The majority of activity was in Europe (19 countries). Most countries (27) had maximum population salt intake targets, ranging from 5 to 8 g/person per day. Twenty-six of the 32 strategies were led by government, five by nongovernment organizations and one by industry. Twenty-eight countries had some baseline data on salt consumption and 18 had data on sodium levels in foods. Twenty-eight countries were working with the food industry to reduce salt in foods, 10 had front-of-pack labelling schemes and 28 had consumer awareness or behaviour change programs. Five countries had demonstrated an impact, either on population salt consumption, salt levels in foods or consumer awareness. These strategies were led by government and were multifaceted including food reformulation, consumer awareness initiatives and labelling actions. This is the first review to concisely summarize the most important elements of the many existing salt reduction programmes and highlight the characteristics most likely to be important to programme efficacy. For most countries, implementing a national salt reduction programme is likely to be one of simplest and most cost-effective ways of improving public health.

  9. Strategies for salt reduction in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel; Barat, José M

    2012-04-01

    The amounts of sodium chloride in the formulation of a variety of foods like bakery, meats and dairy foods, ready meals, sauces and snacks, are relatively large and thus, have a strong contribution on the salt dietary intake. There is a clear demand by the consumers and medical associations to reduce the salt content in foods. Different strategies have been proposed and most of them consist of the replacement of sodium chloride by other salts and the addition of other substances for an acceptable sensory quality. The recent patents for salt reduction and their applications in foods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  10. Anion- interactions in layered structures of salts of 5-(hydroxyimino) quinolin-8-one and related salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prithiviraj Khakhlary; Jubaraj B Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Relevance of anion- interactions in chloride, bromide, nitrate and perchlorate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one are discussed. Structures of nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline as well as nitrate salt of 4-hydroxyquinazoline are compared with the structure of nitrate salt of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one. From such a comparison, two different arrangements of nitrate ions with respect to the respective cations are discerned. Nitrate ions are sandwiched between aromatic planes of cations in nitrate salts of 5-(hydroxyimino)quinolin-8-one or 4-hydroxyquinazoline; whereas, nitrate ions are in oblique positions with respect to aromatic planes of counter cations in nitrate salt of 5-aminoquinoline. Binding constants of different nitrate salts in solution are determined by UV-visible spectroscopic titrations. Solution study shows formation of ion-pairs of these salts in solution.

  11. Proposed nomenclature for salt intake and for reductions in dietary salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norm R C; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Webster, Jacqui; Lackland, Daniel T; Neal, Bruce; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-04-01

    There is considerable confusion about what ranges of dietary salt(a) could be considered low, normal, or high and also what ranges of reduction in dietary salt are small or large. The World Hypertension League with other organizations involved in dietary salt reduction have proposed a standardized nomenclature based on normal ancestral levels of salt intake and also on ranges of reduction in salt intake in clinical and population interventions. Low daily salt (sodium) intake where harm due to deficiency would be expected to occur is recommended to remain undefined because of inadequate research but likely 10 to 15 g (4000-6000 mg), and extremely high >15 g (6000 mg). Reductions in daily salt (sodium) intake are recommended to be called small if 5.0 g (2000 mg). Use of this nomenclature is likely to result in less confusion about salt intake and interventions to reduce dietary sodium.

  12. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  13. Clinical Observation of Desloratadine Citrate Disodium in the Decremental Treatment of Chronic Urticaria%枸地氯雷他定递减疗法治疗慢性荨麻疹的临床观察Δ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察枸地氯雷他定递减疗法治疗慢性荨麻疹的临床疗效和安全性。方法:212例慢性荨麻疹患者随机均分为递减疗法组和对照组。递减疗法组患者按递减疗法给予枸地氯雷他定胶囊:第1周17.6 mg,口服,每日1次;第2周8.8 mg,口服,每日1次;第3周8.8 mg,口服,2天1次;第4周8.8 mg,口服,3天1次。对照组患者给予枸地氯雷他定胶囊8.8 mg,口服,每日1次。两组患者疗程均为4周。观察两组患者的临床疗效,治疗前后血清免疫球蛋白E(IgE)水平、临床症状评分、复发率及不良反应发生情况。结果:两组患者总有效率、不良反应发生率比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),递减疗法组复发率显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗结束时及停药4周后,两组患者血清IgE水平均显著低于同组治疗前,且停药4周后递减疗法组低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);对照组患者停药4周时IgE水平显著高于治疗结束时,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。治疗后,两组患者临床症状评分均显著低于同组治疗前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);但两组间比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:枸地氯雷他定递减疗法与常规疗法治疗慢性荨麻疹的临床疗效和安全性均相当,但在改善血清IgE方面,枸地氯雷他定递减疗法优于常规疗法。%OBJECTIVE:To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of the effect of desloratadine citrate disodium in the decre-mental treatment of chronic urticaria. METHODS:212 patients with chronic urticaria were randomly divided into decremental treat-ment group and control group. Decremental treatment group was treated with Desloratadine citrate disodium capsules 17.6 mg in the first week,orally,qd;8.8 mg in the second week,orally,qd;8.8 mg in the third week,orally,qod;and 8.8 mg in

  14. Crystal growth in salt efflorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Konrad; Arnold, Andreas

    1989-09-01

    Salt efflorescences strongly affect wall paintings and other monuments. The external factors governing the crystal habits and aggregate forms are studied phenomenologically in laboratory experiments. As salt contaminated materials dry, slats crystallize forming distinct sequences of crystal habits and aggregate forms on and underneath the surfaces. Four phases may be distinguished: (1) Large individual crystals with equilibrium forms grow immersed in a thick solution film; (2) granular crusts of small isometric crystals grow covered by a thin solution film; (3) fibrous crusts of columnar crystals grow from a coherent but thin solution film so that the crystals are in contact with solution only at their base; (4) whiskers grow from isolated spots of very thin solution films into the air. The main factor governing these morphologies is the humidity of the substrate. A porous material cracks while granular crystals (approaching their equilibrium forms) grow within the large pores. As the fissures widen, the habits pass into columnar crystals and then into whiskers. Because this succession corresponds to the crystallization sequence on the substrate surface it can be traced back to the same growth conditions.

  15. Electronic Spectra of Chevreul's Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana A. da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The isomorphic series of double sulfites with empirical formula Cu2SO3.MSO3.2H 2O (where M is Cu, Fe, Mn, or Cd have been prepared from the Cu(II replacement by transition metal ions such as Mn(II, Fe(II and Cd(II ions in Chevreul's salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H 2O. As a consequence, the isomorphic species present distinct colors. Molecular modeling calculations were carried out for the dimeric [CuI2(SO3 2(SO32]6- center. The electronic spectra of the Chevreul's salt consist of a charge-transfer band around 425 nm associated with the [CuI2(SO3 2(SO32]6- chromophore and two ligand field transitions at 785 and 1000 nm involving the Jahn-Teller splitting of the Cu(II levels. An additional intervalence-transfer band, responsible for its characteristic red color, can be found at 500 nm. The replacement of the Cu(II ions for Fe(II, Mn(II and Cd(II does not eliminate the absorption band at 425 nm, supporting its assignment as a charge-transfer transition centered on the Cu(I sites; while the original band at 500 nm disappears, in agreement with its intervalence transfer nature.

  16. Salt-Restriction-Spoon Improved the Salt Intake among Residents in China

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Chen; Ye Tian; Yixing Liao; Shuaishuai Yang; Zhuoting Li; Chao He; Dahong Tu; Xinying Sun

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an improved salt-restriction spoon on the attitude of salt-restriction, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa). DESIGN: A community intervention study. SETTING: Two villages in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: 403 local adult residents being responsible for home cooking. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Those in the intervention g...

  17. Anaglyph, Salt Lake City, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This anaglyph image provides a stereoscopic map view of north central Utah that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling and the nearby Snowbasin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City ski resort hosts the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image over a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission digital elevation model and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed

  18. Comparison of salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviours between adults in Myanmar and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyungjin; Kim, So Mi; Jeong, Seong Su; Kim, Soon Bae

    2016-12-01

    Excessive oral salt intake can induce hypertension. According to previous studies, the prevalence of hypertension is higher in Myanmar than in Korea. We postulated that Myanmar adults had higher salt taste thresholds and eat much saltier food. This study aimed to compare salt taste thresholds and salt usage behaviour scores between adults in Myanmar and Korea. This cross-sectional study enrolled patients who visited volunteer medical service clinics at Ansung in Korea and Hlegu and Bago in Myanmar in August 2014. We measured the vital signs, heights, and weights of each patient and evaluated detection thresholds, recognition thresholds, and salt preferences. All patients underwent urinalysis and spot urine Na tests. Additionally, they each completed a salt usage behaviour questionnaire. A total of 131 patients were enrolled, including 64 Myanmarese patients and 67 Korean patients. Blood pressure was significantly higher in the Myanmarese than in the Koreans. Detection and recognition thresholds, salt preferences, and spot urine sodium and salt usage behaviour scores were also higher in the Myanmarese than in the Korean subjects. We calculated correlation coefficients between systolic blood pressure and parameters that were related to salt intake. The detection and recognition thresholds were significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure. All parameters related to salt intake, including detection and recognition thresholds, salt preference, salt usage behaviour scores and spot urine sodium concentrations, are significantly higher in Myanmarese than in Korean individuals.

  19. 枸地氯雷他定与依匹斯汀治疗慢性荨麻疹随机对照研究%Desloratadine citrate disodium versus epinastine for the treatment of chronic urticaria: a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫毅; 刘瑞珍; 徐德钢

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of desloratadine citrate disodium versus epinastine for the treatment of chronic urticaria (CU).Methods A randomized,double-blind,double-dummy controlled clinical trial was conducted.Patients with CU were divided into test group and control group to be treated by oral desloratadine citrate disodium (8.8 mg/d) and epinastine (10 mg/d) respectively once a day for 28 days.All the patients were followed up after starting treatment.Therapeutic effect was evaluated,and adverse reactions were observed.Results One hundred and fifty-seven patients were enrolled in this study,and 142 patients were valid for evaluation of efficacy and safety at the end of study.After treatment for 28 days,there was no significant difference between the test group and control group in response rate (81.16 % vs.78.08 %,P > 0.05) or incidence rate of adverse reactions (13.89 % vs.12.16 %,P> 0.05).Conclusion Desloratadine citrate disodium is effective and safe for the treatment of CU.%目的 探讨枸地氯雷他定和依匹斯汀治疗慢性荨麻疹的疗效和安全性.方法 随机、双盲、双模拟和对照研究.试验组服枸地氯雷他定胶囊每日1次,每次8.8 mg,对照组依匹斯汀胶囊每日1次,每次10 mg,均连续服用28 d.于用药后随访,观察疗效和不良反应.结果 入选病例157例,可评价疗效和安全性病例142例.经28 d治疗后,枸地氯雷他定组有效率81.16%、依匹斯汀组有效率78.08%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).枸地氯雷他定组和对照组药物相关性不良反应发生率分别为13.89%和12.16%,两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 枸地氯雷他定治疗慢性荨麻疹安全有效.

  20. Acyclic telluroiminium salts: isolation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Yuichiro; Murai, Toshiaki; Yamago, Shigeru

    2004-12-29

    The isolation, structure, and reactions of acyclic telluroiminium salts were disclosed. The delocalization of electrons on the tellurium atom and the partial double-bond character of C-Te bonds in the salts are discussed on the basis of X-ray molecular structure analysis, 13C and 125Te NMR spectroscopy, and molecular orbital calculation.

  1. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  2. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1995-12-01

    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.

  3. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  4. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  5. Nonlinear Analysis of Cavities in Rock Salt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, N. S.; Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The paper covers some material and computational aspects of the rock mechanics of leached cavities in salt. A material model is presented in which the instantaneous stiffness of the salt is obtained by interpolation between the unloaded state and a relevant failure state. The model enables predic...

  6. Public health impact of salt reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended maximu

  7. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee

  8. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  9. Electrokinetic removal of salt from brick masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    A method to effectively remove salts from masonry is lacking. The present study aims at determining the removal efficiency of salts from bricks in an applied low current electric DC field. At first an investigation on removal of NaCl and Na(NO3)2 from spiked bricks in laboratory scale was conducted...

  10. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  11. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  12. Public health impact of salt reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended

  13. Morphology of colloidal metal pyrophosphate salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Y.M.; Velikov, K.; Kegel, W.K.

    2012-01-01

    We report the preparation and characterization of colloidal particles of several pyrophosphate metal salts, including, for the first time, salts containing multiple metals. These materials are compared in order to determine the influence of the composition and experimental conditions on particle

  14. Salt Diapirs in the Gulf Coast [gcdiapirg

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations and shapes of salt diapirs were modified after the New Orleans Geological Society map, Salt tectonism of the U.S. Gulf Coast Basin (compiled by J.A. Lopez,...

  15. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-01-01

    for various salt rheologies. It is shown that the rheology of the salt plays a significant role in how and at which rate the anhydrite blocks sink within the diapir. The mobility of anhydrite blocks depends on the effective viscosity of salt which has to be lower than threshold value of around 1018–1019 Pa s....... Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously “stationary” anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir....

  16. The effect of the salt viscosity on future evolution of the Gorleben salt diapir, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Schmeling, H.; Koyi, H.

    2009-01-01

    for various salt rheologies. It is shown that the rheology of the salt plays a significant role in how and at which rate the anhydrite blocks sink within the diapir. The mobility of anhydrite blocks depends on the effective viscosity of salt which has to be lower than threshold value of around 1018–1019 Pa s....... Decreasing salt viscosity allows the previously “stationary” anhydrite blocks to sink. If the effective viscosity of salt in post-depositional stage of the Gorleben diapir falls below this threshold value, induced internal flow due to the present anhydrite layer might disturb any repository within the diapir....

  17. A double-blind, randomized, comparative study of the use of a combination of uridine triphosphate trisodium, cytidine monophosphate disodium, and hydroxocobalamin, versus isolated treatment with hydroxocobalamin, in patients presenting with compressive neuralgias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Henrique Goldberg,1 Marco Antonio Mibielli,2 Carlos Pereira Nunes,2 Stephanie Wrobel Goldberg,3 Luiz Buchman,4 Spyros GE Mezitis,5 Helio Rzetelna,6 Lisa Oliveira,2 Mauro Geller,2 Fernanda Wajnsztajn7 1UERJ Medical School, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2UNIFESO Medical School, Teresópolis, Brazil; 3Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Instituto de Pós-Graduação Médica Carlos Chagas (ICC, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 5New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 6Santa Casa da Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 7New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center, Neurology, New York, NY, USA Context: This paper reports on the results of treatment of compressive neuralgia using a combination of nucleotides (uridine triphosphate trisodium [UTP] and cytidine monophosphate disodium [CMP] and vitamin B12.Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of nucleotides (UTP and CMP and vitamin B12 in patients presenting with neuralgia arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma, and to compare these effects with isolated administration of vitamin B12. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, consisting of a 30-day oral treatment period: Group A (n=200 receiving nucleotides + vitamin B12, and Group B (n=200 receiving vitamin B12 alone. The primary study endpoint was the percentage of subjects presenting pain visual analog scale (VAS scores ≤20 at end of study treatment period. Secondary study endpoints included the percentage of subjects presenting improvement ≥5 points on the patient functionality questionnaire (PFQ; percentage of subjects presenting pain reduction (reduction in VAS scores at study end in relation to pretreatment; and number of subjects presenting adverse events. Results: The results of this study showed a more expressive improvement in efficacy evaluations among

  18. Four salt phases of theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R; Manzie, Craig

    2014-02-01

    The structures of two anhydrous salt phases of theophylline, namely 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium tetrafluoroborate, C7H9N4O2(+)·BF4(-), and 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium chloride, C7H9N4O2(+)·Cl(-), are reported together with the structures of two monohydrate salt forms, namely 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium chloride monohydrate, C7H9N4O2(+)·Cl(-)·H2O, and 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium bromide monohydrate, C7H9N4O2(+)·Br(-)·H2O. The monohydrate structures are mutually isostructural, with the cations and anions lying on crystallographic mirror planes (Z' = ½). The main intermolecular interaction motif is a hydrogen-bonding network in the same mirror plane. The tetrafluoroborate structure is based on planar hydrogen-bonded theopylline cation dimers; the anions interact with the dimers in a pendant fashion. The anhydrous chloride structure has Z' = 2 and in contrast to the other species it does not form planar hydrogen-bonded constructs, instead one-dimensional chains of cations and anions propagate parallel to the crystallographic c direction. An earlier report claiming to describe an anhydrous structure of theophylline hydrochloride is re-examined in light of these results. It is concluded that the earlier structure has been reported in the wrong space group and that it has been chemically misidentified.

  19. Expression of LeNHX isoforms in response to salt stress in salt sensitive and salt tolerant tomato species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Francisco Javier; Baghour, Mourad; Hao, Gangping; Cagnac, Olivier; Rodríguez-Rosales, María Pilar; Venema, Kees

    2012-02-01

    In general, wild tomato species are more salt tolerant than cultivated species, a trait that is related to enhanced Na(+) accumulation in aerial parts in the wild species, but the molecular basis for these differences is not known. Plant NHX proteins have been suggested to be important for salt tolerance by promoting accumulation of Na(+) or K(+) inside vacuoles. Therefore, differences in expression or activity of NHX proteins in tomato could be at the basis of the enhanced salt tolerance in wild tomato species. To test this hypothesis, we studied the expression level of four NHX genes in the salt sensitive cultivated species Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Volgogradskij and the salt tolerant wild species Solanum pimpinelifolium L in response to salt stress. First, we determined that in the absence of salt stress, the RNA abundance of LeNHX2, 3 and 4 was comparable in both species, while more LeNHX1 RNA was detected in the tolerant species. LeNHX2 and LeNHX3 showed comparable expression levels and were present in all tissues, while LeNHX4 was expressed above all in stem and fruit tissues. Next, we confirmed that the wild species was more tolerant and accumulated more Na(+) in aerial parts of the plant. This correlated with the observation that salt stress induced especially the LeNHX3 and LeNHX4 isoforms in the tolerant species. These results support a role of NHX genes as determinants of salt tolerance in tomato, inducing enhanced Na(+) accumulation observed in the wild species when grown in the presence of NaCl.

  20. Correlation of Creep Behavior of Domal Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E.

    1999-02-16

    The experimentally determined creep responses of a number of domal salts have been reported in, the literature. Some of these creep results were obtained using standard (conventional) creep tests. However, more typically, the creep data have come from multistage creep tests, where the number of specimens available for testing was small. An incremental test uses abrupt changes in stress and temperature to produce several time increments (stages) of different creep conditions. Clearly, the ability to analyze these limited data and to correlate them with each other could be of considerable potential value in establishing the mechanical characteristics of salt domes, both generally and specifically. In any analysis, it is necessary to have a framework of rules to provide consistency. The basis for the framework is the Multimechanism-Deformation (M-D) constitutive model. This model utilizes considerable general knowledge of material creep deformation to supplement specific knowledge of the material response of salt. Because the creep of salt is controlled by just a few micromechanical mechanisms, regardless of the origin of the salt, certain of the material parameters are values that can be considered universal to salt. Actual data analysis utilizes the methodology developed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program, and the response of a bedded pure WIPP salt as the baseline for comparison of the domal salts. Creep data from Weeks Island, Bryan Mound, West Hackberry, Bayou Choctaw, and Big Hill salt domes, which are all sites of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage caverns, were analyzed, as were data from the Avery Island, Moss Bluff, and Jennings salt domes. The analysis permits the parameter value sets for the domal salts to be determined in terms of the M-D model with various degrees of completeness. In turn this permits detailed numerical calculations simulating cavern response. Where the set is incomplete because of the sparse database, reasonable

  1. Different combination of drugs regarding the damage on organs targeting salt sensitivity or non-salt-sensitive hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the damage on organs from salt sensitivity hypertension or non-salt-sensitive hypertension and the selection of drug combination.Methods 120 hypertensive patients including 60 cases salt-sensitive(SS)

  2. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-01

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers.

  3. Synthesis and properties of acetamidinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalový Zdeněk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetamidines are starting materials for synthesizing many chemical substances, such as imidazoles, pyrimidines and triazines, which are further used for biochemically active compounds as well as energetic materials. The aim of this study was to synthesise and characterise a range of acetamidinium salts in order to overcome the inconvenience connected with acetamidinium chloride, which is the only commercially available acetamidinium salt. Results Acetamidinium salts were synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, NMR and - in the case of energetic salts - DTA. The structures of previously unknown acetamidinium salts were established by X-ray diffraction analysis. Hygroscopicities in 90% humidity of eight acetamidinium salts were evaluated. Conclusions The different values of hygroscopicity are corroborated by the structures determined by X-ray analysis. The acetamidinium salts with 2D layered structures (acetamidinium nitrate, formate, oxalate and dinitromethanide show a lack of hygroscopicity, and the compounds with 3D type of structure (acetamidinium chloride, acetate, sulphate and perchlorate and possessing rather large cavities are quite hygroscopic.

  4. Permanent Disposal of Nuclear Waste in Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, F. D.

    2016-12-01

    Salt formations hold promise for eternal removal of nuclear waste from our biosphere. Germany and the United States have ample salt formations for this purpose, ranging from flat-bedded formations to geologically mature dome structures. Both nations are revisiting nuclear waste disposal options, accompanied by extensive collaboration on applied salt repository research, design, and operation. Salt formations provide isolation while geotechnical barriers reestablish impermeability after waste is placed in the geology. Between excavation and closure, physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, and hydrological processes ensue. Salt response over a range of stress and temperature has been characterized for decades. Research practices employ refined test techniques and controls, which improve parameter assessment for features of the constitutive models. Extraordinary computational capabilities require exacting understanding of laboratory measurements and objective interpretation of modeling results. A repository for heat-generative nuclear waste provides an engineering challenge beyond common experience. Long-term evolution of the underground setting is precluded from direct observation or measurement. Therefore, analogues and modeling predictions are necessary to establish enduring safety functions. A strong case for granular salt reconsolidation and a focused research agenda support salt repository concepts that include safety-by-design. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Author: F. D. Hansen, Sandia National Laboratories

  5. Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Ayanna U. [Purdue University; Talaty, Nari [Purdue University; Cooks, R G [Purdue University; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

  6. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  7. Ecogeomorphic Heterogeneity Sculpts Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    state for marsh boundaries, which would make the prediction of failure events impossible. Internal physical processes allowing salt marshes to reach self-organized criticality are geotechnical, biological, and related to the non-homogeneity of salt marshes whose material discontinuities act as stress raisers.

  8. The variability of reported salt levels in fast foods across six countries: opportunities for salt reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth; Webster, Jacqueline; Woodward, Mark; Czernichow, Sebastien; Yuan, Wen Lun; Jenner, Katharine; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jacobson, Michael; Campbell, Norm; Neal, Bruce

    2012-06-12

    Several fast food companies have made commitments to reduce the levels of salt in the foods they serve, but technical issues are often cited as a barrier to achieving substantial reductions. Our objective was to examine the reported salt levels for products offered by leading multinational fast food chains. Data on salt content for products served by six fast food chains operating in Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States were collected by survey in April 2010. Mean salt contents (and their ranges) were calculated and compared within and between countries and companies. We saw substantial variation in the mean salt content for different categories of products. For example, the salads we included in our survey contained 0.5 g of salt per 100 g, whereas the chicken products we included contained 1.6 g. We also saw variability between countries: chicken products from the UK contained 1.1 g of salt per 100 g, whereas chicken products from the US contained 1.8 g. Furthermore, the mean salt content of food categories varied between companies and between the same products in different countries (e.g., McDonald's Chicken McNuggets contain 0.6 g of salt per 100 g in the UK, but 1.6 g of salt per 100 g in the US). The salt content of fast foods varies substantially, not only by type of food, but by company and country in which the food is produced. Although the reasons for this variation are not clear, the marked differences in salt content of very similar products suggest that technical reasons are not a primary explanation. In the right regulatory environment, it is likely that fast food companies could substantially reduce the salt in their products, translating to large gains for population health.

  9. (Liquid + liquid) and (liquid + solid) equilibrium of aqueous two-phase systems containing poly ethylene glycol di-methyl ether 2000 and di-sodium hydrogen phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafarani-Moattar, Mohammed Taghi, E-mail: zafarani47@yahoo.co [Physical Chemistry Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasiri, Saeed [Physical Chemistry Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) for the {l_brace}poly ethylene glycol di-methyl ether 2000 (PEGDME{sub 2000}) + Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{r_brace} system have been determined experimentally at T = (298.15, 308.15, 313.15, and 318.15) K. The effects of temperature on the binodals and tie-lines for the investigated aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) have been studied. An empirical non-linear expression developed by Merchuk was used for reproducing the experimental binodal data. In this work, the three fitting parameters of the Merchuk equation were obtained with the temperature dependence expressed in the linear form with (T - T{sub 0}) K as a variable. Furthermore, the modified local composition segment-based NRTL and Wilson models and also osmotic virial equation were used to describe the LLE data of the studied system. Also, the effects of the type of salt on LLE are discussed. In addition, the effects of end groups of the polymers PEGDME{sub 2000} and poly ethylene glycol 2000 on phase forming ability were studied. The complete phase diagram for the poly ethylene {l_brace}glycol di-methyl ether 2000 (PEGDME{sub 2000}) + Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{r_brace} system has also been determined at T = 298.15 K.

  10. Direct contact heat recovery from molten salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technological deficiencies associated with efficient and economical retrieval of heat energy from molten salt systems are addressed. The large latent heat of fusion stored in molten salt hydrates and other candidate phase change materials (PCM) is removed by internal boiling of a volatile heat transfer fluid (HTF). This procedure eliminates the conventional use of submerged heat exchangers which are costly and, in crystallizing salts, ineffective. The thermochemical conditions and material properties that are critical for application of this concept in environments that yield significant energy savings are investigated and defined.

  11. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  12. Synthesis and novel reactivity of halomethyldimethylsulfonium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu; Fletcher; Dolbier Jr WR

    2000-06-02

    Iodomethyl-, chloromethyl-, and fluoromethyldimethylsulfonium salts, 4b-d, have been synthesized and are observed to be highly reactive molecules that exhibit extraordinary diversity with respect to the nature of their reactivity, undergoing facile direct substitution (S(N)2) reactions, but also being highly susceptible to electron-transfer reactions. Cyclic voltametry experiments indicated that the iodomethyldimethylsulfonium compound, 4b, is a potent electron acceptor, even surpassing the reactivity of perfluoro-n-alkyl iodides in that capacity. The iodo- and chloromethyldimethylsulfonium salts, 4b,c, as well as the analogous iodomethyltrimethylammonium salt, 3a, are shown to be reactive SET acceptors.

  13. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Nayek

    Full Text Available Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78% of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46% with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1 exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1. Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic

  14. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  15. Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooch, S. S.; Deo, M. G.; Karmarkar, M. G.; Kochupillai, N.; Ramachandran, K.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 μg per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt. PMID:4546523

  16. Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooch, S S; Deo, M G; Karmarkar, M G; Kochupillai, N; Ramachandran, K; Ramalingaswami, V

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 mug per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt.

  17. Salt Reductions in Some Foods in The Netherlands: Monitoring of Food Composition and Salt Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Elisabeth H M; Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Milder, Ivon E J; Toxopeus, Ido B; Westenbrink, Susanne; Brants, Henny A M; van der A, Daphne L

    2017-07-22

    High salt intake increases blood pressure and thereby the risk of chronic diseases. Food reformulation (or food product improvement) may lower the dietary intake of salt. This study describes the changes in salt contents of foods in the Dutch market over a five-year period (2011-2016) and differences in estimated salt intake over a 10-year period (2006-2015). To assess the salt contents of foods; we obtained recent data from chemical analyses and from food labels. Salt content of these foods in 2016 was compared to salt contents in the 2011 version Dutch Food Composition Database (NEVO, version 2011), and statistically tested with General Linear Models. To estimate the daily dietary salt intake in 2006, 2010, and 2015, men and women aged 19 to 70 years were recruited through random population sampling in Doetinchem, a small town located in a rural area in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The characteristics of the study population were in 2006: n = 317, mean age 49 years, 43% men, in 2010: n = 342, mean age 46 years, 45% men, and in 2015: n = 289, mean age 46 years, 47% men. Sodium and potassium excretion was measured in a single 24-h urine sample. All estimates were converted to a common metric: salt intake in grams per day by multiplication of sodium with a factor of 2.54. In 2016 compared to 2011, the salt content in certain types of bread was on average 19 percent lower and certain types of sauce, soup, canned vegetables and legumes, and crisps had a 12 to 26 percent lower salt content. Salt content in other types of foods had not changed significantly. Between 2006, 2010 and 2015 the estimated salt intake among adults in Doetinchem remained unchanged. In 2015, the median estimated salt intake was 9.7 g per day for men and 7.4 g per day for women. As in 2006 and 2010, the estimated salt intake in 2015 exceeded the recommended maximum intake of 6 g per day set by the Dutch Health Council. In the Netherlands, the salt content of bread, certain sauces, soups

  18. Coordination chemistry in fused-salt solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Spectrophotometric work on structural determinations with fused-salt solutions is reviewed. Constraints placed on the method, as well as interpretation of the spectra, are discussed with parallels drawn to aqueous spectrophotometric curves of the same materials.

  19. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Continuing wetland loss in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA) has led to the development of various salt marsh restoration projects. These constructed wetlands often attempt...

  20. South Bay Salt Ponds : Initial stewardship plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will operate and maintain the South Bay Salt Ponds under this Initial Stewardship...

  1. Habitat--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  2. Oregon Salt Marshes: How Blue are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important ecosystem services of wetlands are carbon sequestration and filtration of nutrients and particulates. We quantified the carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates in salt marshes at 135 plots distributed across eight estuaries located in Oregon, USA. Net carbon and ...

  3. Liquid salt environment stress-rupture testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Holcomb, David E.; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Wilson, Dane F.

    2016-03-22

    Disclosed herein are systems, devices and methods for stress-rupture testing selected materials within a high-temperature liquid salt environment. Exemplary testing systems include a load train for holding a test specimen within a heated inert gas vessel. A thermal break included in the load train can thermally insulate a load cell positioned along the load train within the inert gas vessel. The test specimen can include a cylindrical gage portion having an internal void filled with a molten salt during stress-rupture testing. The gage portion can have an inner surface area to volume ratio of greater than 20 to maximize the corrosive effect of the molten salt on the specimen material during testing. Also disclosed are methods of making a salt ingot for placement within the test specimen.

  4. Habitat--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Salt Point map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Responses of Cymbopogon schoenanthus to salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-27

    Mar 27, 2012 ... dered as one of the major factors affecting plant growth and crop yield (Zid and ... osmotic stress that reduces its growth rate, second, when salt reaches toxic levels in leaves, photosynthetic activity decreases in sensitive ...

  6. Polyethylene imine-metal salt solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G. T.; Chiang, C. K.; Takahashi, T.

    1985-02-01

    This research pertains to the development of new solid battery electrolytes. An object of this invention is to provide polymeric electrolytes using a wider variety of metal salts. These and other objects of this invention are accomplished by providing: (1) a solid polymer electrolyte comprising: a matrix of linear poly(ethylene amine) having the formula (-CH2CH2NH-)n; and (2) a metal salt which is LiI, LiClO4, NaI, NaBr, KI, CsSCN, AgNO3, CuCl1, CoCl2, or Mg(ClO4)2, wherein the salt is dissolved in and distributed throughout the poly(ethylene amine) matrix and from more than zero to 0.10 moles of salt are used per mole of monomer repeat unit, (-CH2CH2NH-).

  7. The Inveterate Tinkerer: 1. Salt Oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aditi Kambli; Chirag Kalelkar

    2017-02-01

    In this series of articles, the authors discuss various phenomenain fluid dynamics, which may be investigated via tabletopexperiments using low-cost or home-made instruments. Thefirst article in this series is about the salt oscillator – a hydrodynamiccuriosity.

  8. Cross-reactivity of Halogenated Platinum Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halogenated platinum (Pt) salts are well-known respiratory sensitizers associated with the development of asthma. People may be exposed to a variety of platinum compounds in different contexts (e.g. occupationally, automobile exhaust). Published reports suggest that sensitizati...

  9. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  10. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  11. Results from the Salt Phase of SNO

    CERN Document Server

    Miknaitis, K; Ahmed, S N; Anthony, A E; Beier, E W; Bellerive, A; Bergevin, M; Biller, S D; Boger, J; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bullard, T V; Chan, Y D; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Cox, G A; Currat, C A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Deng, H; Doe, P J; Dosanjh, R S; Doucas, G; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Fleurot, F; Formaggio, J A; Frame, K; Frati, W; Fulsom, B G; Gagnon, N; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hall, J C; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Handler, W B; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heelan, L; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hemingway, R J; Hime, A; Howard, C; Howe, M A; Huang, M; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Klein, J R; Kormos, L L; Kos, M S; Krüger, A; Kraus, C V; Krauss, C B; Krumins, A V; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Labranche, H; Lange, R; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Loach, J C; Luoma, S; MacLellan, R; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McGee, S; McGregor, G; Miin, C; Moffat, B A; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Nickel, B G; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Oblath, N S; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Ouellet, C V; Peeters, S J M; Poon, A W P; Rielage, K; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rollin, E; Rosendahl, S S E; Rusu, V L; Schwendener, M H; Seibert, S R; Simard, O; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, M W E; Starinsky, N; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Tafirout, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tesic, G; Thomson, M; Thorman, M; Tsui, T; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Wall, B L; Waller, D; Waltham, C E; Wan Chan Tseung, H; Wark, D L; Wendland, J; West, N; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zuber, K

    2005-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has recently completed an analysis of data from the salt phase of the experiment, in which NaCl was added to the heavy-water neutrino target to enhance sensitivity to solar neutrinos. Results from the 391-day salt data set are summarized, including the measured solar neutrino fluxes, the electron energy spectrum from charged current interactions, and the day-night neutrino flux asymmetries. Constraints on neutrino mixing parameters including the new measurements are also given.

  12. Molten salts processes and generic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    Development of dry separation process (pyrochemical process) using molten salts for the application of spent-nuclear fuel reprocessing requires a rather complete fundamental database as well as process simulation technique with wide applicability. The present report concerns recent progress and problems in this field taking behaviors of co-electrodeposition of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2} in molten salts as an example, and using analytical simulation of local equilibrium combined with generic diffusion. (S. Ohno)

  13. DNA nanosensor surface grafting and salt dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B. G.; Fagundes, J.; Martin, A. A.; Raniero, L.; Favero, P. P.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigated the Paracoccidoides brasiliensis fungus nanosensor by simulations of simple strand DNA grafting on gold nanoparticle. In order to improve the knowledge of nanoparticle environment, the addiction of salt solution was studied at the models proposed by us. Nanoparticle and DNA are represented by economic models validated by us in this paper. In addition, the DNA grafting and salt influences are evaluated by adsorption and bond energies calculations. This theoretical evaluation gives support to experimental diagnostics techniques of diseases.

  14. Biogeomorphically driven salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt-marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, Mauricio; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Salt-marshes are under increasing threat, particularly from sea-level rise and increased wave action associated with climate change. The development and stability of these valuable habitats largely depend on complex interactions between biotic and abiotic processes operating at different scales. Also, interactions between biotic and abiotic processes drive internal morphological change in salt-marshes. In this paper we used a biogeomorphological approach to assess the impact of biological activities and interactions on salt pan formation in Sarcocornia-dominated salt marshes. Salt pans represent a key physiographic feature of salt-marshes and recent studies hypothesized that biogeomorphic processes could be related to salt pan formation in SW Atlantic salt-marshes. The glasswort Sarcocornia perennis is one of the dominant plants in the salt-marshes of the Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina) where they form patches up to 8 m in diameter. These salt-marshes are also inhabited in great densities by the burrowing crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata whose bioturbation rates are among the highest reported for salt-marshes worldwide. A set of biological interactions between N. granulata and S. perennis appears to be responsible for salt pan development in these areas which has not been described elsewhere. The main objective of this work was to determine the ecological interactions occurring between plants and crabs that lead to salt pan formation by using field-based sampling and manipulative experiments. Our results showed that S. perennis facilitated crab colonization of the salt-marsh by buffering otherwise stressful physical conditions (e.g., temperature, desiccation). Crabs preferred to construct burrows underneath plants and, once they reach high densities (up to 40 burrows m- 2), the sediment reworking caused plant die-off in the central area of patches. At this state, the patches lose elevation and become depressed due to the continuous bioturbation by crabs

  15. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  16. Uninephrectomy in young age or chronic salt loading causes salt-sensitive hypertension in adult rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlström, Mattias; Sällström, Johan; Skøtt, Ole

    2007-01-01

    animals raised with normal-salt diet (UNX) or high-salt diet (UNX+HS). In the adult animals, renal and cardiovascular functions were evaluated and blood pressure recorded telemetrically under different sodium conditions (normal, high, and low). Hypertension was present in UNX+HS (122+/-9 mm Hg), UNX (101...... renin concentrations during high sodium conditions and hypertrophic kidneys and hearts with various degrees of histopathologic changes. In conclusion, at a young age after completed nephrogenesis, uninephrectomy or chronic salt loading causes renal and cardiovascular injury with salt...

  17. Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

    2011-09-01

    The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

  18. Immobilization of IFR salt wastes in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.F.; Johnson, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    Portland cement-base mortars are being considered for immobilizing chloride salt wastes produced by the fuel cycles of Integral Fast Reactors (IFR). The IFR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor with metal alloy fuels. It has a close-coupled fuel cycle in which fission products are separated from the actinides in an electrochemical cell operating at 500/degree/C. This cell has a liquid cadmium anode in which the fuels are dissolved and a liquid salt electrolyte. The salt will be a mixture of either lithium, potassium, and sodium chlorides or lithium, calcium, barium, and sodium chlorides. One method being considered for immobilizing the treated nontransuranic salt waste is to disperse the salt in a portland cement-base mortar that will be sealed in corrosion-resistant containers. For this application, the grout must be sufficiently fluid that it can be pumped into canister-molds where it will solidify into a strong, leach-resistant material. The set times must be longer than a few hours to allow sufficient time for processing, and the mortar must reach a reasonable compressive strength (/approximately/7 MPa) within three days to permit handling. Because fission product heating will be high, about 0.6 W/kg for a mortar containing 10% waste salt, the effects of elevated temperatures during curing and storage on mortar properties must be considered.

  19. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

  20. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Brun, Christian [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)]. E-mail: christian.lebrun@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2007-01-15

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed.

  1. Percolation and Physical Properties of Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarzadeh, S.; Hesse, M. A.; Prodanovic, M.

    2015-12-01

    Textural equilibrium controls the distribution of the liquid phase in many naturally occurring porous materials such as partially molten rocks and alloys, salt-brine and ice-water systems. In these materials, pore geometry evolves to minimize the solid-liquid interfacial energy while maintaining a constant dihedral angle, θ, at solid-liquid contact lines. A characteristic of texturally equilibrated porous media, in the absence of deformation, is that the pore network percolates at any porosity for θ60°. However, in ductile polycrystalline materials including rock salt, the balance between surface tension and ductile deformation controls the percolation of fluid pockets along grain corners and edges. Here we show sufficiently rapid deformation can overcome this threshold by elongating and connecting isolated pores by examining a large number of accessible salt samples from deep water Gulf of Mexico. We first confirm the percolation threshold in static laboratory experiments on synthetic salt samples with X-ray microtomography. We then provide field evidence on existence of interconnected pore space in rock salt in extremely low porosities, significantly below the static percolation threshold. Scaling arguments suggest that strain rates in salt are sufficient to overcome surface tension and may allow percolation. We also present the first level-set computations of three-dimensional texturally equilibrated melt networks in realistic rock fabrics. The resulting pore space is used to obtain the effective physical properties of rock, effective electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, with a novel numerical model.

  2. A Role of the Bile Salt Receptor FXR in Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, Jurre; Herrema, Hilde; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews current insights into the role of bile salts and bile salt receptors on the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Bile salts have emerged as important modifiers of lipid and energy metabolism. At the molecular level, bile salts regulate lipid and energy homeostasis mainly

  3. Detection of salt bridges to lysines in solution in barnase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Williamson, Michael P.; Hounslow, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    We show that salt bridges involving lysines can be detected by deuterium isotope effects on NMR chemical shifts of the sidechain amine. Lys27 in the ribonuclease barnase is salt bridged, and mutation of Arg69 to Lys retains a partially buried salt bridge. The salt bridges are functionally important....

  4. Performance and mechanisms of salt-torrent ANAMMOX process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guo-dong

    2016-01-01

    [Abstract]Wide application of seawater made the biological denitrification in the saline wastewater treatment become a difficult problem, expounds the salt effect on anaerobic ammonium oxidation,summarizes the salt resistance of anaerobic ammonia oxidation microorganism acclimation, points out that the two kinds of mechanism of salt stress on the denitrification microbes,and to make a optimization strategy on salt stress.

  5. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a

  6. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower

  7. Evidence of the Earliest Salt Production Found in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Being critical in the development of the human civilization, the ancient salt-making has been an important research issue for both historians and archaeologists. Since salt dissolves in water, it is difficult to tell whether the salt in archaeological samples was caused by human production of salt or underground water. So how to judge the existence of salt production has been a world-wide problem in archaeology and archaeometry.

  8. Effects of disclosing hypothetical genetic test results for salt sensitivity on salt restriction behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshima T

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Taro Takeshima,1,2 Masanobu Okayama,1 Masanori Harada,3 Ryusuke Ae,4 Eiji Kajii1 1Division of Community and Family Medicine, Center for Community Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan; 2Department of Healthcare Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto, Japan; 3Department for Support of Rural Medicine, Yamaguchi Grand Medical Center, Yamaguchi, Japan; 4Department of General Internal Medicine, Hamasaka Public Hospital, Mikata, Japan Background: A few studies have explored the effects of disclosure of genetic testing results on chronic disease predisposition. However, these effects remain unclear in cases of hypertension. Reducing salt intake is an important nonpharmacological intervention for hypertension. We investigated the effects of genetic testing for salt sensitivity on salt restriction behavior using hypothetical genetic testing results. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a self-completed questionnaire. We enrolled consecutive outpatients who visited primary care clinics and small hospitals between September and December 2009 in Japan. We recorded the patients’ baseline characteristics and data regarding their salt restriction behavior, defined as reducing salt intake before and after disclosure of hypothetical salt sensitivity genetic test results. Behavioral stage was assessed according to the five-stage transtheoretical model. After dividing subjects into salt restriction and no salt restriction groups, we compared their behavioral changes following positive and negative test results and analyzed the association between the respondents’ characteristics and their behavioral changes. Results: We analyzed 1562 participants with a mean age of 58 years. In the no salt restriction group, which included patients at the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages, 58.7% stated that their behavioral stage progressed after a positive test result, although 29

  9. Reducing salt intake to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Campbell, Norm R C; MacGregor, Graham A

    2012-10-01

    There is compelling evidence that dietary salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure (BP) and that a reduction in salt intake from the current level of ≈ 9 - 12 g/day in most countries to the recommended level of effect and there needs to be ongoing consideration of lower targets for population salt intake. Cohort studies and outcome trials have demonstrated that a lower salt intake is related to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Salt reduction is one of the most cost-effective measures to improve public health worldwide. In the Americas, a salt intake of > 9 g/day is highly prevalent. Sources of salt in the diet vary hugely among countries; in developed countries, 75% of salt comes from processed foods, whereas in developing countries such as parts of Brazil, 70% comes from salt added during cooking or at the table. To reduce population salt intake, the food industry needs to implement a gradual and sustained reduction in the amount of salt added to foods in developed countries. In developing countries, a public health campaign plays a more important role in encouraging consumers to use less salt coupled with widespread replacement of salt with substitutes that are low in sodium and high in potassium. Numerous countries in the Americas have started salt reduction programs. The challenge now is to engage other countries. A reduction in population salt intake will result in a major improvement in public health along with major health-related cost savings.

  10. Effects of smell loss (hyposmia) on salt usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkin, Robert I

    2014-06-01

    Smell loss (hyposmia) inhibits flavor perception and influences food intake. To compensate for flavor loss, some patients with hyposmia appear to increase salt usage. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported salt usage in patients with hyposmia with that in normal volunteers. Salt usage was compared in 56 patients with hyposmia but with normal taste function with that in 27 normal volunteers. Salt usage was formulated with respect to 1) a standard quantitative salt intake scale, 2) salt addition related to food intake, 3) intake of foods and beverages with high salt content, and 4) salt intake related to presence or absence of hypertension. Eighteen (32%) of the 56 patients self-reported increased salt usage; they were labeled "increased users." The other 38 hyposmic patients (68%) did not report increased salt usage; they were labeled "non-changers." Increased users estimated their salt usage rose an average 2.8 times that experienced before their hyposmia onset. They also reported adding salt to their food before tasting it and ate more highly salted foods than did the non-changers. Salt usage was not increased further among increased users with hypertension but was increased further among non-changers with hypertension. Salt usage is increased among some patients with hyposmia presumably to enhance flavor perception to compensate for diminished flavor perception related to loss of smell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 枸地氯雷他定治疗过敏性鼻炎疗效观察%Efficacy of Desloratadine Citrate Disodium in the Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞静

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect and safety of desloratadine citrate disodium in the treatment of allergic rhinitis ( AR) . Methods:Totally 80 patients were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group with 40 ones in each. There was no difference in gender, age, duration of allergic rhinitis, classification of serological specificity IgE between the two groups (P>0. 05). The observation group was treated with desloratadine citrate disodium tablets 8. 8mg, po, qd. The control group was given loratadine 10mg, po, qd. The treatment course was 12 days. All the patients were not given corticosteroids and other antihistamines. The clinical symptoms and signs integral, curative effect and adverse drug reactions during the treatment were observed. Results: In the observation group, 23 cases were markedly effective, 13 cases were effective, 3 cases were ineffective, one case didn’ t finish the study, and the total effective rate was 92. 30%. In the control group, the above index was 10 cases, 18 cases, 10 cases, 2 cases and 73. 68%, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the total effective rate between the two groups (P0.05),观察组予以枸地氯雷他定片8.8 mg,po,qd,连续服用12 d。对照组予以氯雷他定10 mg,po, qd,连续服用12 d。所有观察患者均不使用皮质类固醇及其他抗组胺药物。观察两组患者治疗前后症状及体征积分、临床疗效及药品不良反应。结果:观察组显效23例,有效13例,无效3例,脱失1例,总有效率92.30%;对照组显效10例,有效18例,无效10例,脱失2例,总有效率73.68%;两组总有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组治疗后各项症状体征积分与对照组相比有明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组药品不良反应发生率明显少于对照组。结论:枸地氯雷他定片治疗AR临床疗效优于氯雷他定,安全性好。

  12. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university hospitals

  13. High salt meals in staff canteens of salt policy makers: observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, L.M.; Berentzen, C.A.; van Montfrans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the salt content of hot meals served at the institutions of salt policy makers in the Netherlands. Observational study. 18 canteens at the Department of Health, the Health Council, the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, university hospitals, and affiliated non-university

  14. “Use salt and foods high in salt sparingly”: a food-based dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... have caused 9% of all deaths in South Africa in 2000. Fifty ... salt reduction is needed to reduce national blood pressure levels in the future. Legislating the ... excrete almost all ingested electrolytes and much of the .... Table I: Daily salt intake as determined from urinary sodium excretion in three surveys.

  15. A double-blind, randomized, comparative study of the use of a combination of uridine triphosphate trisodium, cytidine monophosphate disodium, and hydroxocobalamin, versus isolated treatment with hydroxocobalamin, in patients presenting with compressive neuralgias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Henrique; Mibielli, Marco Antonio; Nunes, Carlos Pereira; Goldberg, Stephanie Wrobel; Buchman, Luiz; Mezitis, Spyros GE; Rzetelna, Helio; Oliveira, Lisa; Geller, Mauro; Wajnsztajn, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Context This paper reports on the results of treatment of compressive neuralgia using a combination of nucleotides (uridine triphosphate trisodium [UTP] and cytidine monophosphate disodium [CMP]) and vitamin B12. Objectives To assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of nucleotides (UTP and CMP) and vitamin B12 in patients presenting with neuralgia arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma, and to compare these effects with isolated administration of vitamin B12. Methods A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, consisting of a 30-day oral treatment period: Group A (n=200) receiving nucleotides + vitamin B12, and Group B (n=200) receiving vitamin B12 alone. The primary study endpoint was the percentage of subjects presenting pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores ≤20 at end of study treatment period. Secondary study endpoints included the percentage of subjects presenting improvement ≥5 points on the patient functionality questionnaire (PFQ); percentage of subjects presenting pain reduction (reduction in VAS scores at study end in relation to pretreatment); and number of subjects presenting adverse events. Results The results of this study showed a more expressive improvement in efficacy evaluations among subjects treated with the combination of nucleotides + vitamin B12, with a statistically significant superiority of the combination in pain reduction (evidenced by VAS scores). There were adverse events in both treatment groups, but these were transitory and no severe adverse event was recorded during the study period. Safety parameters were maintained throughout the study in both treatment groups. Conclusion The combination of uridine, cytidine, and vitamin B12 was safe and effective in the treatment of neuralgias arising from neural compression associated with degenerative orthopedic alterations and trauma. PMID:28243144

  16. Safety and efficacy of a novel drug elores (ceftriaxone + sulbactam + disodium edetate in the management of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections in tertiary care centers: a post-marketing surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Chaudhary

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: In India, Elores (CSE-1034: ceftriaxone + sulbactam + disodium edetate was approved as a broad spectrum antibiotic in year 2011 and is used for management of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections in tertiary care centers. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this drug in patients with Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections and identify the incidence of adverse events in real clinical settings. Methods: This Post Marketing Surveillance study was conducted at 17 centers across India and included 2500 patients of all age groups suffering from various bacterial infections and treated with Elores (CSE1034. Information regarding demographic, clinical and microbiological parameters, dosage and treatment duration, efficacy and adverse events (AEs associated with the treatment were recorded. Results: A total of 2500 patients were included in the study and efficacy was evaluated in 2487 patients. In total, 409 AEs were reported in 211 (8.4% patients. The major AEs reported were vomiting (3.0%, pain at injection site (2.5%, nausea (2.3%, redness at site (1.96%, thrombophlebitis (1.4%. Of total reported AEs, 40 (5.3% AEs were reported in pediatric, 310 (20.6% in adult, and 59 (23.6% in geriatric group. No AE belonging to grade IV or V was reported in any patient. In terms of efficacy, 1977 (79.4% patients were cured, 501 (20.1% patients showed clinical improvement and 5 (0.2% patients were complete failure. The treatment duration varied from 5 to 7 days in different patients depending on the infection type. Conclusion: In this post-marketing surveillance study, CSE-1034 was found to be an effective and safe option against Pip tazo and meropenem in management of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR bacterial infections under routine ward settings.

  17. Safety and efficacy of a novel drug elores (ceftriaxone+sulbactam+disodium edetate) in the management of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections in tertiary care centers: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manu; Mir, Mohd Amin; Ayub, Shiekh Gazalla

    In India, Elores (CSE-1034: ceftriaxone+sulbactam+disodium edetate) was approved as a broad spectrum antibiotic in year 2011 and is used for management of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections in tertiary care centers. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this drug in patients with Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases/Metallo Beta lactamases infections and identify the incidence of adverse events in real clinical settings. This Post Marketing Surveillance study was conducted at 17 centers across India and included 2500 patients of all age groups suffering from various bacterial infections and treated with Elores (CSE1034). Information regarding demographic, clinical and microbiological parameters, dosage and treatment duration, efficacy and adverse events (AEs) associated with the treatment were recorded. A total of 2500 patients were included in the study and efficacy was evaluated in 2487 patients. In total, 409 AEs were reported in 211 (8.4%) patients. The major AEs reported were vomiting (3.0%), pain at injection site (2.5%), nausea (2.3%), redness at site (1.96%), thrombophlebitis (1.4%). Of total reported AEs, 40 (5.3%) AEs were reported in pediatric, 310 (20.6%) in adult, and 59 (23.6%) in geriatric group. No AE belonging to grade IV or V was reported in any patient. In terms of efficacy, 1977 (79.4%) patients were cured, 501 (20.1%) patients showed clinical improvement and 5 (0.2%) patients were complete failure. The treatment duration varied from 5 to 7 days in different patients depending on the infection type. In this post-marketing surveillance study, CSE-1034 was found to be an effective and safe option against Pip tazo and meropenem in management of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections under routine ward settings. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. 电解质对十二烷基二苯醚双磺酸钠与癸烷间界面张力的影响%Effect of electrolyte on interface tension between disodium dodecyl diphenyloxide disulfonate and decane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓臣; 沈宏; 牛金平; 王晓宇

    2015-01-01

    The effect of electrolyte (NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2) on interfacial tension of disodium dodecyl di⁃phenyloxide disulfonate aqueous solution and decane was investigated. Addition of NaCl, CaCl2 or MgCl2 could decrease interfacial tension, and the interfacial tension could be kept in the range of 10-1 mN/m. The time re⁃quired for interfacial tension to reach equilibrium decreased with the increase of electrolyte concentration. Ef⁃fect of CaCl2 and MgCl2 concentration on equilibrium interfacial tension was almost the same. When NaCl and CaCl2 were added at the same time, effect of CaCl2 concentration on the time required for interfacial tension reaching equilibrium decreased with the NaCl concentration increasing.%研究了电解质NaCl、CaCl2和MgCl2对十二烷基二苯醚双磺酸钠水溶液/癸烷间界面张力的影响.NaCl、CaCl2和MgCl2的加入可以降低界面张力,且界面张力保持在10-1 mN/m数量级.随着电解质浓度的增加,界面张力达到平衡所需时间减少.CaCl2和MgCl2质量浓度对平衡界面张力的影响基本一致.同时加入电解质NaCl和CaCl2,当NaCl质量浓度增大时,CaCl2质量浓度对界面张力达到平衡所需时间的影响减小.

  19. The effect of disodium cromoglycate, budesonide, and cyclosporin A on interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13 secretions in Der p I-stimulated T cells from house dust mite-sensitive atopic and nonatopic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Chung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Yong

    2002-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), budesonide, and cyclosporin A (CsA) were the well-known immunomodulators for the allergic and immunologic diseases clinically. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of inhibition on cytokine synthesis of Der p I-stimulated T cells by the same inhibiting concentrations of DSCG, budesonide, and CsA in house-dust mite antigen (Der p I)-specific atopic and nonatopic healthy individuals. Seven house dust mite allergen specific patients were recruited for this study. Seven healthy volunteers were included on the basis of negative allergic manifestations and low serum immunoglobulin E values. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of recombinant interleukin (rIL)-2 with or without budesonide, DSCG, CsA, and Der p I for 48 hours. Cells were stained with anti-CD4 fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody, and then anti-human IL-4 phycoerythrin, IL-5, or IL-13 monoclonal antibody, respectively, was added to both blocked and stained samples. Incubation of PBMC from atopics with each immunomodulator and Der p I resulted in the reduction of IL-4 secretion compared with Der p I alone stimulation. However, IL-4 secretion in PBMC from nonatopics was not reduced with DSCG and Der p I stimulation. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secretions of PBMC from atopics were significantly decreased after incubation with each immunomodulator and Der p I, compared with after incubation with Der p I alone. These results might be considered to show either that DSCG has a selective inhibiting effect on cytokine production in T cells from atopics or is a weak inhibitor of cytokine secretions compared with budesonide and CsA at even strength for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in normal, healthy individuals.

  20. 鼻舒适片联合枸地氯雷他定治疗过敏性鼻炎的临床研究%Clinical study on Bishushi Tablets combined with desloratadine citrate disodium in treatment of allergic rhinitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阳静; 李宏慧; 赵瑞敏; 赵谦

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨鼻舒适片联合枸地氯雷他定治疗过敏性鼻炎的临床疗效。方法选取2015年1月—2016年1月西安交通大学第一附属医院接受治疗的过敏性鼻炎患者138例,随机分为对照组和治疗组,每组各69例。对照组口服枸地氯雷他定胶囊,1粒/次,1次/d。治疗组在对照组的治疗基础上口服鼻舒适片,5片/次,3次/d。两组均连续治疗12 d。观察两组的临床疗效,同时比较两组治疗前后症状积分、白三烯 B4(LTB4)、IL-4、IL-10、IL-12、转化生长因子α(TGF-α)、γ-干扰素(IFN-γ)、IgE 的变化情况。结果治疗后,对照组和治疗组的总有效率分别为85.51%、95.65%,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗后,两组患者症状(包括鼻塞、鼻痒、喷嚏、流涕)评分、总分、IL-4、IL-10、TGF-α、LTB4、IgE 水平均显著降低,IL-12、IFN-γ水平显著升高,同组治疗前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);且治疗组这些观察指标的改善程度优于对照组,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论鼻舒适片联合枸地氯雷他定治疗过敏性鼻炎具有较好的临床疗效,可改善患者的临床症状,改善各检测因子水平,具有一定的临床推广应用价值。%Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of Bishushi Tablets combined with desloratadine citrate disodium in treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods Patients (138 cases) with allergic rhinitis in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University from January 2015 to January 2016 were randomly divided into control and treatment groups, and each group had 69 cases. The patients in the control group were po administered with Desloratadine Citrate Disodium Capsules, 1 grain/time, once daily. The patients in the treatment group were po administered with Bishushi Tablets on the basis of the control group, 5 tablets/time, three times daily. The

  1. Salt reduction in sheeted dough: A successful technological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Guénaëlle; Le-Bail, Alain; Chevallier, Sylvie

    2016-10-01

    The challenge of reducing the salt content while maintaining shelf life, stability and acceptability of the products is major for the food industry. In the present study, we implemented processing adjustments to reduce salt content while maintaining the machinability and the saltiness perception of sheeted dough: the homogeneous distribution of a layer of encapsulated salt grains on the dough during the laminating process. During sheeting, for an imposed deformation of 0.67, the final strain remained unchanged around 0.50 for salt reduction below 50%, and then, increased significantly up to 0.53 for a dough without salt. This increase is, in fine, positive regarding the rolling process since the decrease of salt content induces less shrinkage of dough downstream, which is the main feature to be controlled in the process. Moreover, the final strain was negatively correlated to the resistance to extension measured with a texture analyzer, therefore providing a method to evaluate the machinability of the dough. From these results, a salt reduction of 25% was achieved by holding 50% of the salt in the dough recipe to maintain the dough properties and saving 25% as salt grains to create high-salted areas that would enhance the saltiness perception of the dough. The distributor mounted above the rollers of the mill proved to be able to distribute evenly salt grains at a calculated step of the rolling out process. An innovative method based on RX micro-tomography allowed to follow the salt dissolving and to demonstrate the capability of the coatings to delay the salt dissolving and consequently the diffusion of salt within the dough piece. Finally, a ranking test on the salted perception of different samples having either an even distribution of encapsulated salt grains, a single layer of salt grains or a homogeneous distribution of salt, demonstrated that increasing the saltiness perception in salt-reduced food product could be achieved by a technological approach

  2. Therapeutic effect of desloratadine citrate disodium tablets combined with narrow band ultraviolet B in the treatment of pityriasis rosea%枸地氯雷他定联合窄谱中波紫外线治疗玫瑰糠疹疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫锐; 徐爱国; 黄晨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of desloratadine citrate disodium tablets combined with narrow band ultraviolet B in the treatment of pityriasis rosea.Methods According to the digital table,88 pityriasis rosea patients were randomly divided into the two groups.45 cases of the study group were treated by desloratadine citrate disodium tablets combined with narrow ultraviolet B,43 cases of the control group were treated by desloratadine citrate disodium tablets alone.The both two groups applied Binghuangfule cream.The therapeutic effect and safety of the two groups were compared.Results The cure rate in study group was 71.11%,which of the control group was 51.16%,the difference was not statistically significant (x2 =3.69,P > 0.05).The effective rate of the treatment group was 91.11%,which of the control group was 69.77%,the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (x2 =6.43,P < 0.05).Conclusion The result reveals that desloratadine citrate disodium tablets combined with narrow band ultraviolet B is more effective and worthy to be used in clinical practice.%目的 观察枸地氯雷他定口服联合窄谱中波紫外线(NB-UVB)照射治疗玫瑰糠疹的疗效.方法 选择88例玫瑰糠疹患者,采用随机数字表法分为两组.治疗组45例采用口服枸地氯雷他定联合NB-UVB照射,对照组43例口服枸地氯雷他定,两组均外用冰黄肤乐软膏.观察两组的治疗效果和安全性.结果 治疗组痊愈率71.11%,有效率91.11%;对照组痊愈率51.16%,有效率69.77%,治疗组痊愈率优于对照组,但差异无统计学意义(x2=3.69,P>0.05);两组有效率差异有统计学意义(x2 =6.43,P<0.05).结论 枸地氯雷他定联合NB-UVB照射治疗玫瑰糠疹安全有效,值得临床推广应用.

  3. Salt screening and characterization of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoshun; Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezhi; Zhang, Na; He, Lan; Du, Guanhua; Lu, Yang

    2016-02-01

    With the aim of improving the solubility of ciprofloxacin, polybasic organic acids were utilized to react with ciprofloxacin in different stoichiometric proportions. The use of the solvent drop grinding (SDG) method, as well as the solvent evaporation method, resulted in the crystalline salts ciprofloxacin/fumaric acid (1:1, 2:1), ciprofloxacin/maleic acid (1:1) and ciprofloxacin/citric acid (2:1). The solubilities of these salts in pure water (pH 7.0) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 310 K, with the salts showing considerably greater solubility than ciprofloxacin itself and, interestingly, ciprofloxacin/fumaric acid (2:1) being more soluble than ciprofloxacin/fumaric acid (1:1). Intrigued by this phenomenon, we undertook a comparison of the crystal structures of the salts: the three-dimensional sandwich-like structure observed in the 2:1 salt indicates that the preferred stacking may be a factor in increasing the solubility of ciprofloxacin.

  4. Salt-specific effects in lysozyme solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Janc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of additions of low-molecular-mass salts on the properties of aqueous lysozyme solutions are examined by using the cloud-point temperature, T_{cloud}, measurements. Mixtures of protein, buffer, and simple salt in water are studied at pH=6.8 (phosphate buffer and pH=4.6 (acetate buffer. We show that an addition of buffer in the amount above I_{buffer} = 0.6 mol dm^{-3} does not affect the T_{cloud} values. However, by replacing a certain amount of the buffer electrolyte by another salt, keeping the total ionic strength constant, we can significantly change the cloud-point temperature. All the salts de-stabilize the solution and the magnitude of the effect depends on the nature of the salt. Experimental results are analyzed within the framework of the one-component model, which treats the protein-protein interaction as highly directional and of short-range. We use this approach to predict the second virial coefficients, and liquid-liquid phase diagrams under conditions, where T_{cloud} is determined experimentally.

  5. Plant Responses to Salt Stress: Adaptive Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramón Acosta-Motos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the adaptive mechanisms that plants can implement to cope with the challenge of salt stress. Plants tolerant to NaCl implement a series of adaptations to acclimate to salinity, including morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. These changes include increases in the root/canopy ratio and in the chlorophyll content in addition to changes in the leaf anatomy that ultimately lead to preventing leaf ion toxicity, thus maintaining the water status in order to limit water loss and protect the photosynthesis process. Furthermore, we deal with the effect of salt stress on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence and some of the mechanisms thought to protect the photosynthetic machinery, including the xanthophyll cycle, photorespiration pathway, and water-water cycle. Finally, we also provide an updated discussion on salt-induced oxidative stress at the subcellular level and its effect on the antioxidant machinery in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants. The aim is to extend our understanding of how salinity may affect the physiological characteristics of plants.

  6. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Bhowmik, Pradip K., E-mail: pradip.bhowmik@unlv.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada at Las Vegas, 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 454003, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using {sup 1}H, {sup 19}F, and {sup 13}C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property.

  7. Salt-restriction-spoon improved the salt intake among residents in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an improved salt-restriction spoon on the attitude of salt-restriction, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (24HUNa. DESIGN: A community intervention study. SETTING: Two villages in Beijing. PARTICIPANTS: 403 local adult residents being responsible for home cooking. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention group or the control group. Those in the intervention group were provided with an improved salt-restriction-spoon and health education, and were informed of their actual salt intake and 24HUNa. Not any intervention was given to those in the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The scores on the variables of Health Belief Model, the using rate of salt-restriction-spoon, the actual salt intake, and 24HUNa. ANALYSIS: Covariance analyses, Chi-square tests, Student's t tests, and repeated measures analyses of variance. RESULTS: After 6 months of intervention, the intervention group felt significantly less objective barriers, and got access to significantly more cues to action as compared to the control group. The using rate and the correctly using rate of salt-restriction-spoon were significantly higher in the intervention group. The daily salt intake decreased by 1.42 g in the intervention group and by 0.28 g in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 7.044, P<0.001 and significant difference between groups by time (F = 2.589, P = 0.041. The 24HUNa decreased by 34.84 mmol in the intervention group and by 33.65 mmol in the control group, and repeated measures analysis of variance showed significant change over time (F = 14.648, P<0.001 without significant difference between groups by time (F = 0.222, P = 0.870. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention effect was acceptable, therefore, the improved salt-restriction-spoon and corresponding

  8. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this......This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out....

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Al-Salt Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Lijun; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2015-11-01

    With a view to examine the possibility of estimating the content of entrapped metallic aluminium in the salt cake from aluminium remelting, the thermal diffusivity of reference composites of KCl-NaCl-Al was measured as a function of aluminium metal content at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the reference composites was found to increase with the metallic Al content. The lumped parameter model approach was carried out to discuss the influence of different geometry arrangements of each phase, viz. air, salts and metallic aluminium on the thermal conductivity. Application of the present results to industrial samples indicates that factors such as the interfacial condition of metallic Al particles have to be considered in order to estimate the amount of entrapped Al in the salt cake.

  10. Brine flow in heated geologic salt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya

    2013-03-01

    This report is a summary of the physical processes, primary governing equations, solution approaches, and historic testing related to brine migration in geologic salt. Although most information presented in this report is not new, we synthesize a large amount of material scattered across dozens of laboratory reports, journal papers, conference proceedings, and textbooks. We present a mathematical description of the governing brine flow mechanisms in geologic salt. We outline the general coupled thermal, multi-phase hydrologic, and mechanical processes. We derive these processes governing equations, which can be used to predict brine flow. These equations are valid under a wide variety of conditions applicable to radioactive waste disposal in rooms and boreholes excavated into geologic salt.

  11. Repository Sealing Program Plan: repository in salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Coons, W.E.; Meyer, D.

    1983-01-01

    The isolation of nuclear wastes in deep, mined repositories will require the sealing of all penetrations such as shafts, tunnels, or boreholes into or nearby the repository. This Repository Sealing Program Plan describes the technical programs required to complete seal designs for a repository in salt prior to license application in 1988. The plan examines the current schematic seal designs for a repository in salt and identifies seven major technical programs which are required to advance the designs to the status required for licensing: (1) update designs to incorporate site-specific geologic and hydrologic characteristics; (2) reference designs to site-specific repository designs; (3) develop site-specific performance requirements; (4) salt consolidation testing and modeling; (5) materials development; (6) design analyses; (7) verification testing. Scedules for each of these programs are keyed to governing seal design and ONWI milestones. Conceptual seal designs will be completed in FY 84 and preliminary seal designs in FY 87.

  12. Glyme-lithium salt phase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Wesley A

    2006-07-06

    Phase diagrams are reported for glyme mixtures with simple lithium salts. The glymes studied include monoglyme (DME), diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme. The lithium salts include LiBETI, LiAsF6, LiI, LiClO4, LiBF4, LiCF3SO3, LiBr, LiNO3, and LiCF3CO2. The phase diagrams clearly illustrate how solvate formation and thermophysical properties are dictated by the ionic association strength of the salt (i.e., the properties of the anions) and chain length of the solvating molecules. This information provides critical predictive capabilities for solvate formation and ionic interactions common in organometallic reagents and battery electrolytes.

  13. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this......This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out....

  14. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, R M

    1999-06-01

    A case of hyponatraemia associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage is presented. The provisional diagnosis of an inappropriate antidiuresis was made and treatment with fluid restriction was instituted. However the patient continued to deteriorate as the diuresis continued and the hyponatraemia worsened, resulting in hypovolaema. The salt wasting syndrome was subsequently diagnosed and saline and fludrocortisone (0.2 mg/day) was initiated, reducing the renal salt loss, increasing the plasma sodium and improving the neurological status of the patient. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome is an important and under-recognised cause of hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients, particularly in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. It is essential to differentiate it from the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion to avoid complications of hypovolaemia and reduced cerebral perfusion as illustrated by this case. Brain natriuretic peptide may be responsible for this syndrome although this requires further investigation.

  15. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  16. Tendzin Phuntso's Chemistry of Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangSheng; CaiJingfeng

    2003-01-01

    An examination of large quantities of Tibetan data for a project entitled "Alchemy and Alchemic Medicines of Tibet revealed that ancient Tibetan terminology for and classification of inorganic salts have much in common with modern chemistry. This is particularly true of research conducted by Tendzin Phuntso (born in 1672 in Gongjo Count, Chamdo, Tibet) and his representative work, "gso rig gcesb dus rin chen phreng ba bzugs so". This work summarizes Tibetan recognition of inorganic salts in chemistry over the course of 1000 years or more, and is of great significance in the world history of science and technolgy.

  17. Electrical conduction in transition-metal salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grado-Caffaro, M.A.; Grado-Caffaro, M. [Scientific Consultants, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    We predict that a given transition-metal salt as, for example, a K{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O-type compound, can behave as an electrical conductor in the paramagnetic case. In fact, we determine the electrical conductance in a salt of this type. This conductance is found to be quantised in agreement with previous well-known results. Related mathematical expressions in the context of superexchange interaction are obtained. In addition, we determine the corresponding (macroscopically viewed) current density and the associated electron wave functions.

  18. SALT Spectroscopy of Evolved Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fiber-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  19. [Cerebral salt wasting syndrome in bacterial meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attout, H; Guez, S; Seriès, C

    2007-10-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most common cause of cerebral salt wasting syndrome. There are few reports of this condition in infectious meningitis. We describe a patient with hyponatremia and bacterial meningitis. Hyponatremia rapidly improved after administration of sodium chloride. The purpose of this report is to alert clinicians to the fact that hyponatremic patients with central nervous system disease do not necessarily have a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), but may have cerebral salt wasting syndrome. By contrast with SIADH, the treatment requires saline administration.

  20. Cerebral salt wasting versus SIADH: what difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterns, Richard H; Silver, Stephen M

    2008-02-01

    The term cerebral salt wasting (CSW) was introduced before the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion was described in 1957. Subsequently, CSW virtually vanished, only to reappear a quarter century later in the neurosurgical literature. A valid diagnosis of CSW requires evidence of inappropriate urinary salt losses and reduced "effective arterial blood volume." With no gold standard, the reported measures of volume depletion do not stand scrutiny. We cannot tell the difference between CSW and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Furthermore, the distinction does not make a difference; regardless of volume status, hyponatremia complicating intracranial disease should be treated with hypertonic saline.

  1. Cerebral salt wasting in a postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Dominika; Wojcik, Malgorzata; Dolezal-Oltarzewska, Katarzyna; Kalicka-Kasperczyk, Anna; Poplawska, Karolina; Starzyk, Jerzy B

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW-cerebral salt wasting) was first described in 1950 by Peters. This syndrome can occur in patients who have sustained damage to the central nervous system (e.g. patients with subarachnoid bleeding, bacterial meningitis or after neurosurgery). Patients present with excessive natriuresis and hyponatremic dehydration. Differentiating this syndrome with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH-syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion), which may occur in the same group of patients, is necessary in order to administer the correct treatment which consists of fluid restriction and sodium replacement in SIADH and fluid and sodium replacement as well as occasional mineralocorticoid therapy in CSW.

  2. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  3. SALT spectroscopy of evolved massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kniazev, A Y; Berdnikov, L N

    2016-01-01

    Long-slit spectroscopy with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) of central stars of mid-infrared nebulae detected with the Spitzer Space Telescope and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) led to the discovery of numerous candidate luminous blue variables (cLBVs) and other rare evolved massive stars. With the recent advent of the SALT fibre-fed high-resolution echelle spectrograph (HRS), a new perspective for the study of these interesting objects is appeared. Using the HRS we obtained spectra of a dozen newly identified massive stars. Some results on the recently identified cLBV Hen 3-729 are presented.

  4. Synthesis, structure, and properties of azatriangulenium salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B.W.; Krebs, Frederik C

    2001-01-01

    amines and, by virtue of its stepwise and irreversible nature, provides a powerful tool for the preparation of a wide variety of new heterocyclic carbenium salts. Several derivatives of the three new oxygen- and/or nitrogen-bridged triangulenium salts, azadioxa- (6), diazaoxa- (7......A general synthetic route to novel nitrogen-bridged heterocyclic carbenium ions of the acridinium and triangulenium type has been developed and investigated. The synthetic method is based on nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) on the tris(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)carbenium ion (1) with primary...

  5. Salt reduction strategy at population level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bhargava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing a huge burden of noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension, ischemic health diseases, and stroke. Moreover, the developing countries have had a relatively speedy rise of the problem, with noncommunicable diseases occurring at much lower age as compared to the developed world. The World Health Organization, therefore, recommends reduction in salt intake at population level to <5 g/day. Not all researchers and public health physicians agree to it, leading to conflicting information for a primary care physician. This evidence based summary documents this polarization of the recommendations regarding salt reduction and acknowledges the ongoing challenge primary care physicians face when following such evidence based guidelines.

  6. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  7. High Temperature Fluoride Salt Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cunningham, Richard Burns [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Fugate, David L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holcomb, David Eugene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peretz, Fred J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, Dane F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Effective high-temperature thermal energy exchange and delivery at temperatures over 600°C has the potential of significant impact by reducing both the capital and operating cost of energy conversion and transport systems. It is one of the key technologies necessary for efficient hydrogen production and could potentially enhance efficiencies of high-temperature solar systems. Today, there are no standard commercially available high-performance heat transfer fluids above 600°C. High pressures associated with water and gaseous coolants (such as helium) at elevated temperatures impose limiting design conditions for the materials in most energy systems. Liquid salts offer high-temperature capabilities at low vapor pressures, good heat transport properties, and reasonable costs and are therefore leading candidate fluids for next-generation energy production. Liquid-fluoride-salt-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors, referred to as Fluoride Salt Reactors (FHRs), are specifically designed to exploit the excellent heat transfer properties of liquid fluoride salts while maximizing their thermal efficiency and minimizing cost. The FHR s outstanding heat transfer properties, combined with its fully passive safety, make this reactor the most technologically desirable nuclear power reactor class for next-generation energy production. Multiple FHR designs are presently being considered. These range from the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) [1] design originally developed by UC-Berkeley to the Small Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (SmAHTR) and the large scale FHR both being developed at ORNL [2]. The value of high-temperature, molten-salt-cooled reactors is also recognized internationally, and Czechoslovakia, France, India, and China all have salt-cooled reactor development under way. The liquid salt experiment presently being developed uses the PB-AHTR as its focus. One core design of the PB-AHTR features multiple 20 cm diameter, 3.2 m long fuel channels

  8. Linking external and internal salt geometries - a key to understanding salt dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Peter; Urai, Janos

    2014-05-01

    Considering the growing importance of salt in the energy, food and waste disposal industries, this paper reviews the status quo and major developments in salt research over the last decade. As a way forward in order to close identified gaps in knowledge, an integrated salt basin evaluation concept is proposed appreciating both external and internal geometries and properties. Examples of key studies in the Central European Basin and the South Oman Salt basin show that such a model may improve our understanding of the multi-scale processes operating in salt terrains. The workflow proposed allows to better asses (i) the initiation and maintenance of salt dynamics, (ii) the evolution of the internal structure of evaporites during halokinesis in salt giants, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the salt's under- and overburden. It will lead to a better integration of the different data sets and resulting models, which will provide new insights into the structural evolution of salt giants. Finally it will also stimulate new concepts for (i) the initiation dynamics of halokinesis, (ii) the rheology and mechanics of the evaporites by brittle and ductile processes, (iii) the coupling of processes in the evaporites and the under- and overburden, and (iv) the impact of the layered evaporite rheology on the structural evolution. As an outlook for future research to be initiated in salt terrains we still need to improve our database on evaporite rocks especially the ones which take changes of properties in time into account. This includes for example the dependencies of thermal and mechanical properties on changes in strain, pressure and temperature or external and internal geometry changes relating to slow geological processes. Also geomechanical modelling efforts can be significantly improved by making full use of the data available on the effects of water, and some of the discrepancies seen in experimental data on different salts can probably be explained in

  9. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor : Effect of Fuel Salt Flow on Reactor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takahisa; MITACHI, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fue...

  10. Stability of salt in the Permian salt basin of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas and New Mexico, with a section on dissolved salts in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, George Odell; Johnson, Ross Byron

    1973-01-01

    The Permian salt basin in the Western Interior of the United States is defined as that region comprising a series of sedimentary basins in which halite and associated salts accumulated during Permian time. The region includes the western parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, and eastern parts of Colorado and New Mexico. Following a long period of general tectonic stability throughout the region during most of early Paleozoic time, there was much tectonic activity in the area of the Permian salt basin during Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian time just before bedded salt was deposited. The Early Permian tectonism was followed by stabilization of the basins in which the salt was deposited. These salt basins were neither contemporaneous nor continuous throughout the region, so that many salt beds are also discontinuous. In general, beds in the northern part of the basin (Kansas and northern Oklahoma) are older and the salt is progressively younger towards the south. Since Permian time the Permian salt basin has been relatively stable tectonically. Regionally, the area of the salt basin has been tilted and warped, has undergone periods of erosion, and has been subject to a major incursion of the sea; but deep-seated faults or igneous intrusions that postdate Permian salt are rare. In areas of the salt basin where salt is near the surface, such as southeastern New Mexico and central Kansas, there are no indications of younger deep-seated faulting and only a few isolated igneous intrusives of post-Permian age. On the other hand, subsidence or collapse of the land surface resulting from dissolution has been commonplace in the Permian salt basin. Some dissolution of salt deposits has probably been taking place ever since deposition of the salt more than 230 million years ago. Nevertheless, the subsurface dissolution fronts of the thick bedded-salt deposits of the Permian basin have retreated at a very slow average rate during that 230 million years. The preservation of

  11. Feasibility of salt reduction in processed foods in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Daniel; Apro, Nicolas; Ferreira, Veronica; Virgolini, Mario; Aguilar, Valentina; Sosa, Miriam; Perel, Pablo; Casas, Juan

    2011-02-01

    To assess an intervention to reduce salt intake based on an agreement with the food industry. Salt content was measured in bakery products through a national survey and biochemical analyses. Low-salt bread was evaluated by a panel of taste testers to determine whether a reduced salt bread could remain undetected. French bread accounts for 25% of the total salt intake in Argentina; hence, reducing its salt concentration from 2% to 1.4% was proposed and tested. A crossover trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction in urinary sodium and blood pressure in participants during consumption of the low-salt bread compared with ordinary bread. Average salt content in bread was 2%. This study evaluated low-salt bread containing 1.4% salt. This reduction remained mostly undetected by the panels of taste testers. In the crossover trial, which included 58 participants, a reduction of 25 milliequivalents in 24 hour urine sodium excretion, a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 1.66 mmHg, and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure of 0.76 mmHg were found during the low-salt bread intake. The study showed that dietary salt reduction was feasible and well accepted in the population studied through a reduction of salt content in bread. Although the effects on urinary sodium and blood pressure were moderate, a country wide intervention could have a greater public health impact.

  12. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  13. Therapeutic effect between Pemetrexed disodium and Docetaxel as second line chemotherapy on advance non-small cell lung cancer%培美曲塞与多西他赛二线随机分组治疗晚期非小细胞肺癌对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑积华; 林金容; 谢波; 周娟; 徐志勇; 黄雪琴; 王仙赐; 张为民

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare therapeutic effects between pemetrexed disodium and docetaxel as second line chemotherapy on advanced non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: Eighty patients with advance non-small cell lung cancer resistant to first line chemotherapy were enrolled. Fifty-one cases had finished first line chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cis-platin or carboplatin (TP or TO. Twenty-one cases had finished first line chemotherapy with gemzar and cis-platin or carboplatin (GP or GO ,8 cases had carried out first line chemotherapy with nolvebin and cis-platin or carboplatin (NP or NC. A dose of 500 mg/m2 pemetrexed disodium or 75 mg/m2 docetaxel was respectively administered intravenously once every 21 days. RESULTS: The therapeutic effect rates in pemetrexed disodium group and docetaxel group were 7. 3% (3/41) and 5. 1 % (2/39) respectively (P>0. 05). Disease control rates in pemetrexed disodium group and docetaxel group were 46. 3%(19/41) and 33. 3% (13/39) respectively (P>0. 05). Overall survival in pemetrexed disodium group was 3. 1 — 15. 6 months (medium time 7. 6 months) while overall survival in docetaxel group was 4. 4 — 12. 6 months(medium time 8. 1 months). Time to progression in pemetrexed disodium group was 4. 9 months while time to progression in docetaxel group was 3. 9 months. Survival rates of one year were 26. 8%(11/41) in in pemetrexed disodium group and 2. 6% (1/39) in docetaxel group respectively. The main adverse effects in both group were slight and acceptable,which included neutropenia, rash, arthragia, alopecia, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, chest distress and abdominal pain. No patients showed abnormality in liver or kidney function. No patients showed abnormality in electrocardiogram. CONCLUSION; Single pemetrexed disodium or do cetaxel as second line chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced refractory non-small cell lung cancer was safe and effect and both of them can be a choice of second line

  14. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  15. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  16. Suggestopedic/SALT research in English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wilson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of research. carried out under the auspices of the Institute for Language Teaching, University of Stellenbosch,l at the Cape Town College of Education. The study tests and evaluates a Remedial Literature Course for English-speaking college students using Suggestopedia!SALT. The subjects in _the remedial and normative groups were English-speaking students in the senior primary class. A ten-week suggestopedic!SALT English Literature Course was developed for the remedial course. Two measuring instruments were used: an English Literary Concepts Test and an Opinionnaire on attitudes towards EnglishLiterature. The validation, treatment and analysis oft he data are discussed. Conclusions and recommendations follow. Die verslag handel oor navorsing aan die Kaapstadse Onderwyskollege onder die beskerming van dielnstituutvir Taalonderrig van die UniversiteitvanStellenbosch.Die ondersoek toets en evalueer 'n remedierende letterkunde kursus vir Engelssprekende kollegestudente waar Suggestopedagogiek!SALT gebruik is. Die studente in die remedierende ennormatiewe groepe was Engelssprekend en in die senior-primere klas. 'n Suggestopediese!SALT Engelsletterkunde- kursus wat 10 weke sou duur, is vir die remedierende kursus ontwerp. Twee meetinstrumente is gebruik: 'n toets van Engels-literere konsepte en' n vraelys oor houdings ten opsigte van Engels-letterkunde. Die geldigverklaring. behandeling en ontleding van data word bespreek. Gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings volg.

  17. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  18. The Path to Nitrate Salt Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    The topic is presented in a series of slides arranged according to the following outline: LANL nitrate salt incident as thermal runaway (thermally sensitive surrogates, full-scale tests), temperature control for processing, treatment options and down selection, assessment of engineering options, anticipated control set for treatment, and summary of the overall steps for RNS.

  19. Investigation of molten salt fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Konomura, Mamoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    On survey research for practicability strategy of fast reactor (FR) (phase 1), to extract future practicability image candidates of FR from wide options, in addition to their survey and investigation objects of not only solid fuel reactors of conventional research object but also molten salt reactor as a flowing fuel reactor, investigation on concept of molten salt FR plant was carried out. As a part of the first step of the survey research for practicability strategy, a basic concept on plant centered at nuclear reactor facility using chloride molten salt reactor capable of carrying out U-Pu cycle was examined, to perform a base construction to evaluate economical potential for a practical FBR. As a result, a result could be obtained that because of inferior fuel inventory and heat transmission to those in Na cooling reactor in present knowledge, mass of reactor vessel and intermediate heat exchanger were to widely increased to expect reduction of power generation unit price even on considering cheapness of its fuel cycle cost. Therefore, at present step further investigation on concept design of the chloride molten salt reactor plant system is too early in time, and it is at a condition where basic and elementary researches aiming at upgrading of economical efficiency such as wide reduction of fuel inventory, a measure expectable for remarkable rationalization effect of reprocessing system integrating a reactor to a processing facility, and so on. (G.K.)

  20. Specific Investigations Related to Salt Rock Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vons, L. H.; Zelikson, A.; Charo, L.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper results are given of work in various countries in rather unrelated areas of research. Nevertheless, since the studies have been undertaken to better understand salt behaviour, both from mechanical and chemical points of view, some connection between the studies can be found. Studies...

  1. Salt repository project closeout status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-06-01

    This report provides an overview of the scope and status of the US Department of Energy (DOE`s) Salt Repository Project (SRP) at the time when the project was terminated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987. The report reviews the 10-year program of siting a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste in rock salt formations. Its purpose is to aid persons interested in the information developed during the course of this effort. Each area is briefly described and the major items of information are noted. This report, the three salt Environmental Assessments, and the Site Characterization Plan are the suggested starting points for any search of the literature and information developed by the program participants. Prior to termination, DOE was preparing to characterize three candidate sites for the first mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The sites were in Nevada, a site in volcanic tuff; Texas, a site in bedded salt (halite); and Washington, a site in basalt. These sites, identified by the screening process described in Chapter 3, were selected from the nine potentially acceptable sites shown on Figure I-1. These sites were identified in accordance with provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. 196 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. Opposites Attract: Organic Charge Transfer Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wouw, Heidi L.; Chamorro, Juan; Quintero, Michael; Klausen, Rebekka S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students to organic electronic materials. The discovery of metallic conductivity in the charge transfer salt tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is a landmark result in the history of organic electronics. The charge transfer…

  3. Salt stress signals shape the plant root

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S. Galvan-Ampudia; C. Testerink

    2011-01-01

    Plants use different strategies to deal with high soil salinity. One strategy is activation of pathways that allow the plant to export or compartmentalise salt. Relying on their phenotypic plasticity, plants can also adjust their root system architecture (RSA) and the direction of root growth to avo

  4. Heat transfer behavior of molten nitrate salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Apurba K.; Clark, Michael M.; Teigen, Bard C.; Fiveland, Woodrow A.; Anderson, Mark H.

    2016-05-01

    The usage of molten nitrate salt as heat transfer fluid and thermal storage medium decouples the generation of electricity from the variable nature of the solar resource, allowing CSP plants to avoid curtailment and match production with demand. This however brings some unique challenges for the design of the molten salt central receiver (MSCR). An aspect critical to the use of molten nitrate (60wt%/40wt% - NaNO3/KNO3) salt as heat transfer fluid in the MSCR is to understand its heat transfer behavior. Alstom collaborated with the University of Wisconsin to conduct a series of experiments and experimentally determined the heat transfer coefficients of molten nitrate salt up to high Reynolds number (Re > 2.0E5) and heat flux (q″ > 1000 kW/m2), conditions heretofore not reported in the literature. A cartridge heater instrumented with thermocouples was installed inside a stainless steel pipe to form an annular test section. The test section was installed in the molten salt flow loop at the University of Wisconsin facility, and operated over a range of test conditions to determine heat transfer data that covered the expected operating regime of a practical molten salt receiver. Heat transfer data were compared to widely accepted correlations found in heat transfer literature, including that of Gnielinski. At lower Reynolds number conditions, the results from this work concurred with the molten salt heat transfer data reported in literature and followed the aforementioned correlations. However, in the region of interest for practical receiver design, the correlations did not accurately model the experimentally determined heat transfer data. Two major effects were observed: (i) all other factors remaining constant, the Nusselt numbers gradually plateaued at higher Reynolds number; and (ii) at higher Reynolds number a positive interaction of heat flux on Nusselt number was noted. These effects are definitely not modeled by the existing correlations. In this paper a new

  5. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  6. Formation and development of salt crusts on soil surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2015-12-14

    The salt concentration gradually increases at the soil free surface when the evaporation rate exceeds the diffusive counter transport. Eventually, salt precipitates and crystals form a porous sodium chloride crust with a porosity of 0.43 ± 0.14. After detaching from soils, the salt crust still experiences water condensation and salt deliquescence at the bottom, brine transport across the crust driven by the humidity gradient, and continued air-side precipitation. This transport mechanism allows salt crust migration away from the soil surface at a rate of 5 μm/h forming salt domes above soil surfaces. The surface characteristics of mineral substrates and the evaporation rate affect the morphology and the crystal size of precipitated salt. In particular, substrate hydrophobicity and low evaporation rate suppress salt spreading.

  7. Zooplankton community of Bhayandar and Thane salt pans around Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mustafa, S.; Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    . A reduction in group diversity to the order of 50% was observed from creek to crystallizer associated with high salinity regime. Copepods were the most abundant group at both the salt pans. Calanoids dominated the Bhayandar salt pan while cyclopoids...

  8. Salt Marsh Integrity Vegetation Data at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Salt Marsh Integrity (SMI) project involves monitoring several salt marsh metrics such as: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density;...

  9. Salt Marsh Integrity Bird Data at Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Salt Marsh Integrity (SMI) project involves monitoring several salt marsh metrics such as: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density;...

  10. Seafloor character--Offshore of Salt Point, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents the seafloor-character map Offshore of Salt Point, California (raster data file is included in "SeafloorCharacter_SaltPoint.zip," which...

  11. Compound list: imatinib, methanesulfonate salt [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available imatinib, methanesulfonate salt IMA 00186 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-t...ggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/imatinib%2C_methanesulfonate_salt.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  12. Effect of impurities in industrial salts on aluminum scrap melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Revet, A. [Kalium Canada, ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum scrap such as Used Beverage Containers (UBC) is melted under a protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of molten droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. Generally, the salt compositions for aluminum scrap recycling are based on equimolar mixtures of NaCl and KCl. A small amount of fluoride is also added in the salt. In the past, laboratory research at universities and industrial laboratories have been limited to pure salts. However, the industrial salts have impurities such as sulfates and other insoluble materials. These impurities have a pronounced effect on the efficiency of the scrap remelting process. In this paper, the role of impurities in industrial salts in terms of their chemical interactions with the metal are summarized. The efficiency of different industrial grade salts containing varying amounts of sulfates and other insoluble impurities for scrap recycling is compared.

  13. Cutting Salt a Health Boost for Kidney Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163628.html Cutting Salt a Health Boost for Kidney Patients Blood ... dietitians trained in motivational techniques counseled them on cutting salt in their diets and encouraged them to ...

  14. Experiments and Modeling in Support of Generic Salt Repository Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourret, Suzanne Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Otto, Shawn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chu, Shaoping [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Johnson, Peter Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    Salt is an attractive material for the disposition of heat generating nuclear waste (HGNW) because of its self-sealing, viscoplastic, and reconsolidation properties (Hansen and Leigh, 2012). The rate at which salt consolidates and the properties of the consolidated salt depend on the composition of the salt, including its content in accessory minerals and moisture, and the temperature under which consolidation occurs. Physicochemical processes, such as mineral hydration/dehydration salt dissolution and precipitation play a significant role in defining the rate of salt structure changes. Understanding the behavior of these complex processes is paramount when considering safe design for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste (HGNW) in salt formations, so experimentation and modeling is underway to characterize these processes. This report presents experiments and simulations in support of the DOE-NE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) for development of drift-scale, in-situ field testing of HGNW in salt formations.

  15. Determination of toxic metals in salt deposits in Bormanda, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lawal

    analysed for Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Arsenic and Nickel using Atomic ... suggested to isolate the toxic metals from the soil salt samples. ... hormones and may cause early aging, stress, .... from the local salt mining site and avoid the.

  16. Salt Marsh Integrity Data at Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Salt Marsh Integrity (SMI) project involves monitoring several salt marsh metrics such as: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density;...

  17. Salt Marsh Integrity Data at Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Salt Marsh Integrity (SMI) project involves monitoring several salt marsh metrics such as: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density;...

  18. Salt acclimation of cyanobacteria and their application in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pade, Nadin; Hagemann, Martin

    2014-12-29

    The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

  19. Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Hoogenveen, R.T.; Hoekstra, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of

  20. Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadin Pade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

  1. 75 FR 9476 - Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Salt Lake County, UT AGENCY: Federal... Engineer, Federal Highway Administration, 2520 West 4700 South, Suite 9A, Salt Lake City, UT...

  2. saltPAD: A New Analytical Tool for Monitoring Salt Iodization in Low Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M. Myers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We created a paper test card that measures a common iodizing agent, iodate, in salt. To test the analytical metrics, usability, and robustness of the paper test card when it is used in low resource settings, the South African Medical Research Council and GroundWork performed independ‐ ent validation studies of the device. The accuracy and precision metrics from both studies were comparable. In the SAMRC study, more than 90% of the test results (n=1704 were correctly classified as corresponding to adequately or inadequately iodized salt. The cards are suitable for market and household surveys to determine whether salt is adequately iodized. Further development of the cards will improve their utility for monitoring salt iodization during production.

  3. 枸地氯雷他定对慢性荨麻疹患者血清IL-18和IL-33的影响%Effects of desloratadine citrate disodium on the level of IL-18 and IL-33 in the patients with chronic urticaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祖东; 盛晚香; 王恒; 王晶; 宋继权

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the effects of desloratadine citrate disodium on the level of IL-18 and IL-33 in the patients with chronic urticaria ( CU) . Methods:Sixty patients with CU were treated with deslo-ratadine citrate disodium 8.8 mg, once a day, for 28 days. The efficacy of desloratadine citrate disodium in the treatment of CU was assessed by patients’ symptom score reducing index. Double antibody sandwich ABC-ELISA method was used to detect the serum levels of IL-18 and IL-33 in the healthy controls ( 50 persons) and the patients with CU before and after the treatment. Results: The effective rate of patients treated with desloratadine citrate disodium was 88.33%. The level of IL-18 of CU patients before the treatment was 131.93 ±60.17, which was higher than that of the healthy controls (68.61±28.58), with a significant difference (P0.05) . The levels of IL-33 before and after the treatment were 118.73±62.67 and 99.28±41.23 respectively and there was no sig-nificant difference between the patients and the healthy controls ( P>0.05) . Conclusion:Desloratadine citrate disodium is effective in the treatment of CU through reducing the level of IL-18.%目的::确定枸地氯雷他定胶囊对慢性荨麻疹患者血清IL-18和IL-33水平的影响。方法:60例患者口服枸地氯雷他定胶囊8.8 mg,每日1次,共服用28天。通过计算患者症状积分下降指数评价疗效,采用双抗体夹心ABC-ELISA法测定患者治疗前后及正常对照(50名)血清中IL-18和IL-33的水平。结果:治疗有效率88.33%。慢性荨麻疹患者IL-18治疗前水平为131.93±60.17,高于正常对照组68.61±28.58,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。患者治疗前后IL-33水平分别为118.73±62.67和99.28±41.23,与正常对照组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:枸地氯雷他定胶囊可能通过调节IL-18治疗慢性荨麻疹。

  4. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, Marieke A. H.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Joao Breda; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Through literature research we obtained current salt intake and systolic blood pressure levels of the nine countries. The populati...

  5. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  6. Supramolecular Complexes Formed in Systems Bile Salt-Bilirubin-Silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, N. N.; Severinovskaya, O. V.; Golovkova, L. P.

    The formation of supramolecular complexes between bilirubin and primary micelles of bile salts has been studied. The association constants of bile salts and binding of bilirubin with these associates have been determined. The adsorption of bilirubin and bile salts from individual and mixed aqueous solutions onto hydrophobic silica surfaces has been investigated. The interaction of bilirubin with primary bile salt micelles and the strong retention in mixed micelles, which are supramolecular complexes, result in the adsorption of bilirubin in free state only.

  7. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome following neurosurgical intervention in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagotkar, L; Shanbag, P; Dasarwar, N

    2008-07-01

    Cerebral salt wasting is characterized by inappropriate natriuresis and volume contraction in the presence of cerebral pathology. Diagnosis can be difficult and therapy is challenging. We report two children with tuberculous meningitis and hydrocephalus who developed cerebral salt wasting following neurosurgical intervention. The first patient was managed with rigorous salt and water replacement whereas the second patient required the addition of fludrocortisone for control of salt-wasting.

  8. Combined Application of Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI in the Diagnosis of Chronic Liver Disease-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available Gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent to target the liver cells with normal function. In clinical practice, the Gd-EOB-DTPA produces high quality hepatocyte specific image 20 minutes after intravenous injection, so DWI sequence is often performed after the conventional dynamic scanning. However, there are still some disputes about whether DWI sequence will provide more effective diagnostic information in clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic value of combining Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with chronic liver disease.A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane library database up to March 2015. The quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS was used to evaluate the quality of studies. Heterogeneous test on the included literature was performed by using the software Review Manager 5.3. The MetaDiSc 1.4 software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio; meanwhile the summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC curve was drawn to compare the diagnostic performance.A total of 13 literatures were included in this study. In 8 literatures regarding HCC diagnosis based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, the pooled sensitivity: 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88-0.93; specificity: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92; positive likelihood ratio: 8.60 (95% CI: 6.20-11.92; negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08-0.14 were obtained. The area under curve (AUC and Q values were 0.96 and 0.90, respectively. In 5 literatures relating to HCC diagnosis by combination of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI sequence, the pooled sensitivity: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.91, specificity: 0.96 (0.94-0.97, positive likelihood ratio: 19.63 (12.77-30.16, negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (0.07-0.14 were obtained. The AUC value was 0

  9. Salt or cocrystal of salt? Probing the nature of multicomponent crystal forms with infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cameron Capeletti; Guimarães, Freddy Fernandes; Ribeiro, Leandro; Martins, Felipe Terra

    2016-10-01

    The recognition of the nature of a multicomponent crystal form (solvate, salt, cocrystal or cocrystal of salt) is of great importance for pharmaceutical industry because it is directly related to the performance of a pharmaceutical ingredient, since there is interdependence between the structure, its energy and its physical properties. In this context, here we have identified the nature of multicomponent crystal forms of the anti-HIV drug lamivudine with mandelic acid through infrared spectroscopy. These investigated crystal forms were the known S-mandelic acid cocrystal of lamivudine R-mandelate trihydrate (1), a cocrystal of salt, and lamivudine R-mandelate (2), a salt. This approach also supports the identification and distinction of both ionized and unionized forms of mandelic acid in the infrared spectrum of 1. In this way, infrared spectroscopy can be useful to distinguish a cocrystal of salt from either salt or cocrystal forms. In the course of this study, for the first time we have also characterized and determined the crystal structure of R-mandelic acid cocrystal of sodium R-mandelate (3).

  10. Combined heterogeneous distribution of salt and aroma in food enhances salt perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emorine, Marion; Septier, Chantal; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Salles, Christian; Thomas-Danguin, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    Aroma-taste interactions and heterogeneous spatial distribution of tastants were used as strategies for taste enhancement. This study investigated the combination of these two strategies through the effect of heterogeneous salt and aroma distribution on saltiness enhancement and consumer liking for hot snacks. Four-layered cream-based products were designed with the same total amount of sodium and ham aroma but varied in their spatial distribution. Unflavoured products containing the same amount of salt and 35% more salt were used as references. A consumer panel (n = 82) rated the intensity of salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami tastes as well as ham and cheese aroma intensity for each product. The consumers also rated their liking for the products in a dedicated sensory session. The results showed that adding salt-associated aroma (ham) led to enhancement of salty taste perception regardless of the spatial distribution of salt and aroma. Moreover, products with a higher heterogeneity of salt distribution were perceived as saltier (p aroma distribution had only a marginal effect on both aroma and salty taste perception. Furthermore, heterogeneous products were well liked by consumers compared to the homogeneous products.

  11. Combinations of fluorinated solvents with imide salts or methide salts for electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonov, Konstantin; Yip, Ka Ki; Lin, Tzu-Yuan; Lei, Norman; Guerrero-Zavala, Guillermo; Kwong, Kristie W

    2015-11-10

    Provided are electrochemical cells and electrolytes used to build such cells. The electrolytes include imide salts and/or methide salts as well as fluorinated solvents capable of maintaining single phase solutions at between about -30.degree. C. to about 80.degree. C. The fluorinated solvents, such as fluorinated carbonates, fluorinated esters, and fluorinated esters, are less flammable than their non-fluorinated counterparts and improve safety characteristics of cells containing these solvents. The amount of fluorinated solvents in electrolytes may be between about 30% and 80% by weight not accounting weight of the salts. Linear and cyclic imide salts, such as LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, and LiN(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.2, as well as methide salts, such as LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3 and LiC(SO.sub.2CF.sub.2CF.sub.3).sub.3, may be used in these electrolytes. Fluorinated alkyl groups enhance solubility of these salts in the fluorinated solvents. In some embodiments, the electrolyte may also include a flame retardant, such as a phosphazene, and/or one or more ionic liquids.

  12. Unconjugated Bile Salts Shuttle Through Hepatocyte Peroxisomes for Taurine Conjugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rembacz, Krzysztof P.; Woudenberg, Jannes; Hoekstra, Mark; Jonkers, Elles Z.; van den Heuvel, Fiona A. J.; Buist-Homan, Manon; Woudenberg-Vrenken, Titia E.; Rohacova, Jana; Luisa Marin, M.; Miranda, Miguel A.; Moshage, Han; Stellaard, Frans; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2010-01-01

    Bile acid-CoA.amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) conjugates bile salts to glycine or taurine, which is the final step in bile salt biosynthesis In addition, BAAT is required for reconjugation of bile salts in the enterohepatic circulation Recently, we showed that BAAT is a peroxisomal protein,

  13. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Irela

  14. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  16. [Food processing industry--the salt shock to the consumers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Andabaka, Damir

    2010-05-01

    Industrial food production and processing is necessarily connected with the use of salt. Salt or sodium chloride is used as a preservative, spice, agent for color maintenance, texture, and to regulate fermentation by stopping the growth of bacteria, yeast and mold. Besides kitchen salt, other types of salt that also contain sodium are used in various technological processes in food preparing industry. Most of the "hidden" salt, 70%-75%, can be brought to the body by using industrial food, which, unfortunately, has been increasingly used due to the modern way of life. Bread and bakery products, meat products, various sauces, dried fish, various types of cheese, fast food, conserved vegetables, ready-made soups and food additives are the most common industrial foods rich in sodium. Many actions have been taken all over the world to restrict salt consumption. The World Health Organization recommends the upper limit of salt input of 5 g per day. These actions appeal to food industry to reduce the proportion of salt in their products. Besides lower salt addition during manufacture, food industry can use salt substitutes, in particular potassium chloride (KCl), in combination with additives that can mask the absence of salt, and flavor intensifiers that also enhance the product salinity. However, food industry is still quite resistant to reducing salt in their products for fear from losing profits.

  17. Salt Marshes as Potential Indicatore of Global Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Daehyun; Cairens, David; Jung, S.H.;

    2011-01-01

    Coastal scientists postulate that salt marshes are significantly affected by dynamics of global climate. However, few studies have explicitly proposed a perspective that regards salt marshes as potential indicators of climate change. This review article evaluates the possibility of salt marshes a...

  18. Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Hoogenveen, R.T.; Hoekstra, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of salt-reduct

  19. Stability of pharmaceutical salts in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-03-09

    Using pharmaceutical salts in solid dosage forms can raise stability concerns, especially salt dissociation which can adversely affect the product performance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salt instability encountered in solid state formulations is imperative to ensure the product quality. The present article uses the fundamental theory of acid base, ionic equilibrium, relationship of pH and solubility as a starting point to illustrate and interpret the salt formation and salt disproportionation in pharmaceutical systems. The criteria of selecting the optimal salt form and the underlying theory of salt formation and disproportionation are reviewed in detail. Factors influencing salt stability in solid dosage forms are scrutinized and discussed with the case studies. In addition, both commonly used and innovative strategies for preventing salt dissociations in formulation, on storage, and during manufacturing will be suggested herein. This article will provide formulation scientists and manufacturing engineers an insight into the mechanisms of salt disproportionation and salt formation, which can help them avoid and solve the instability issues of pharmaceutical salts in the product design.

  20. Numerical estimation of structural integrity of salt cavern wells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Schreppers, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Finite element analyses were performed to estimate axial deformation of cavern wells due to gas storage operations in solution-mined salt caverns. Caverns shrink over time due to salt creep and the cavern roof subsides potentially threatening well integrity. Cavern deformation, deformation of salt

  1. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergouwen, L.

    1981-01-01

    This study deals with the relation between the mineralogical composition of salt assemblages and the composition of groundwaters from which these salts precipitated. A comparison was made between salts and waters sampled in the Konya Basin in Turkey and waters sampled in three different regions in K

  2. Memory processes in the development of reduced-salt foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Vanessa; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Zandstra, Elizabeth H; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Acceptance of a reduced-salt food is likely to be influenced by a mismatch between the sensory characteristics of a reformulated product and a memory for a previously-encountered formulation. In two initial pilot studies we established the reliability of a new measure of memory for saltiness, based on a method of constant stimuli. We then used this technique to explore the effects of different patterns of repeated exposure on memory for the taste of a reduced-salt soup. Participants (N = 135) were assigned to one of four exposure patterns: (1) reduced-salt, (2) no salt reduction, i.e. regular-salt, (3) reduced- and regular-salt, in an alternating pattern, and (4) gradually declining salt concentration. In the final session, all participants received an identical reduced-salt soup. Memory for the saltiness of this sample was assessed, together with its expected liking. Our results indicate that different interactions with the test soup had little effect on taste memory. Nevertheless, (1) participants remembered the final exposure soup as saltier than the reduced-salt formulation that they had received and (2) remembered salt concentrations correlated with individual ideal salt concentrations. These findings are consistent with contemporary models of reconstructive memory and they illustrate the importance of understanding 'memory for saltiness' in the acceptance of reduced-salt formulations.

  3. SOLUTION MINING IN SALT DOMES OF THE GULF COAST EMBAYMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griswold, G. B.

    1981-02-01

    Following a description of salt resources in the salt domes of the gulf coast embayment, mining, particularly solution mining, is described. A scenario is constructed which could lead to release of radioactive waste stored in a salt dome via inadvertent solution mining and the consequences of this scenario are analyzed.

  4. Recent Trends in Bird Abundance on Rhode Island Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt marsh habitat is under pressure from development on the landward side, and sea level rise from the seaward side. The resulting loss of habitat is potentially disastrous for salt marsh dependent species. To assess the population status of three species of salt marsh dependent...

  5. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France, Irela

  6. Effect of hurricanes and violent storms on salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, N.; Ganju, N. K.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Salt marsh losses have been documented worldwide because of land use change, wave erosion, and sea-level rise. It is still unclear how resistant salt marshes are to extreme storms and whether they can survive multiple events without collapsing. Based on a large dataset of salt marsh lateral erosion rates collected around the world, here, we determine the general response of salt marsh boundaries to wave action under normal and extreme weather conditions. As wave energy increases, salt marsh response to wind waves remains linear, and there is not a critical threshold in wave energy above which salt marsh erosion drastically accelerates. We apply our general formulation for salt marsh erosion to historical wave climates at eight salt marsh locations affected by hurricanes in the United States. Based on the analysis of two decades of data, we find that violent storms and hurricanes contribute less than 1% to long-term salt marsh erosion rates. In contrast, moderate storms with a return period of 2.5 mo are those causing the most salt marsh deterioration. Therefore, salt marshes seem more susceptible to variations in mean wave energy rather than changes in the extremes. The intrinsic resistance of salt marshes to violent storms and their predictable erosion rates during moderate events should be taken into account by coastal managers in restoration projects and risk management plans.

  7. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  9. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... salt. 721.643 Section 721.643 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1625 - Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt... Substances § 721.1625 Alkylbenzene sulfonate, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-90-456) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use described in...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-85-941...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4720 - Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., chlorometalate salt. 721.4720 Section 721.4720 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4720 Disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt. (a) Chemical... as disubstituted phenoxazine, chlorometalate salt (PMN P-90-0002) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4660 - Alcohol, alkali metal salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol, alkali metal salt. 721.4660... Substances § 721.4660 Alcohol, alkali metal salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as alcohol, alkali metal salt (PMN P-91-151) is...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4620 - Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. 721... Substances § 721.4620 Dialkylamino alkanoate metal salt. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salt (P-90-274), is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN P-94...

  18. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt (P-90...

  1. Analysis of transport and crystallisation of salts in restoration plasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, R.P.J. van; Lubelli, B.

    2002-01-01

    For the understanding of the salt crystallisation mechanism in restoration plasters, the understanding of water (moisture) transport is essential, as it is the influence of salts on the water transport. More specifically the drying behaviour, i.e. the moisture / salt transport and distribution durin

  2. Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit | Binega ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical analysis of the Assale (Ethiopia) rock salt deposit. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... in common and table salt set by the Ethiopian Quality and Standards Authority. However, during excavation together with the rock salt some soil, mud and other contaminants are found that require further ...

  3. Health Gain by Salt Reduction in Europe: A Modelling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Breda, J.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive salt intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt intake exceeds the World Health Organization population nutrition goal of 5 grams per day in the European region. We assessed the health impact of salt reduction in nine European countries (Finland, France,

  4. Aminopentadiene imines from zincke salts of 3-alkylpyridines. Application to a synthesis of pyridinium salts from amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh; Sanchez-Salvatori, Maria del Rayo; Wypych, Jean-Charles; Marazano, Christian

    2007-07-20

    The reaction of Zincke salts with primary amines to give pyridinium salts generally requires rather elevated temperature to go to completion (50-100 degrees C). It is shown that the addition of 1 equiv of a secondary amine allows formation, at ambient temperature, of intermediate aminopentadiene imine salts which can be isolated and were found to cyclize in acidic medium to give pyridinium salts at temperatures which do not exceed 50 degrees C. If this process has a tendency to give lower yields of pyridinium salt than the standard Zincke procedure, it can be advantageous in some cases, as illustrated by the synthesis of pyridinium salts from amino acids, a challenging reaction which does not work starting from Zincke salt in the absence of diethylamine. More generally, the reaction can be extended to primary amines featuring polar functions, as exemplified by a pyridinium salt synthesis (75 degrees C) in 55% yield from l-carnosine.

  5. Molten-salt reactor program. Semiannual progress report for period ending February 29, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1976-08-01

    Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for sections dealing with MSBR design and development; chemistry of fuel-salt and coolant-salt systems and analytical methods; materials development; fuel processing for molten-salt reactors; and salt production. (DG)

  6. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn

    2015-01-01

    spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps...

  7. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqui Webster; Kathy Trieu; Elizabeth Dunford; Corinna Hawkes

    2014-01-01

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce sa...

  8. Salt disposition alternatives filtration at SRTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B. W.; Hobbs, D.

    2000-01-27

    Several of the prospective salt disposition alternative technologies require a monosodium titanate (MST) contact to remove strontium and actinides from inorganic salt solution feedstock. This feedstock also contains sludge solids from waste removal operations and may contain defoamers added in the evaporator systems. Filtration is required to remove the sludge and MST solids before sending the salt solution for further processing. This report describes testing performed using the Parallel Theological Experimental Filter (PREF). The PREF contains two single tube Mott sintered metal crossflow filters. For this test one filter was isolated so that the maximum velocities could be achieved. Previous studies showed slurries of MST and sludge in the presence of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were filterable since the NaTPB slurry formed a filter cake which aided in removing the smaller MST and sludge particles. Some of the salt disposition alternative technologies do not use NaTPB raising the question of how effective crossflow filtration is with a feed stream containing only sludge and MST. Variables investigated included axial velocity, transmembrane pressure, defoamer effects, and solids concentration (MST and sludge). Details of the tests are outlined in the technical report WSRC-RP-98-O0691. Key conclusions from this study are: (1) Severe fouling of the Mott sintered metal filter did not occur with any of the solutions filtered. (2) The highest fluxes, in the range of .46 to 1.02 gpm/f{sup 2}, were obtained when salt solution decanted from settled solids was fed to the filter. These fluxes would achieve 92 to 204 gpm filtrate production for the current ITP filters. The filtrate fluxes were close to the flux of 0.42 gpm/f{sup 2} reported for In Tank Precipitation Salt Solution by Morrisey. (3) For the range of solids loading studied, the filter flux ranged from .04 to .17 gpm/f{sup 2} which would result in a filtrate production rate of 9 to 31 gpm for the current HP

  9. Transcript changes in Vibrio cholerae in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiuping; Liang, Weili; Du, Pengcheng; Yan, Meiying; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, which is a serious human intestinal pathogen, often resides and thrives in estuaries but requires major self-regulation to overcome intestinal hyperosmotic stress or high salt stress in water and food. In the present study, we selected multiple O1 and O139 group V. cholerae strains that were isolated from different regions and during different years to study their salt tolerance. Based on the mechanisms that other bacteria use to respond to high salt stress, we selected salt stress-response related genes to study the mechanisms which V. cholerae responds to high salt stress. V. cholerae strains showed salt-resistance characteristics that varied in salt concentrations from 4% to 6%. However, group O1 and group O139 showed no significant difference in the degree of salt tolerance. The primary responses of bacteria to salt stress, including Na(+) exclusion, K(+) uptake and glutamate biosynthesis, were observed in V. cholerae strains. In addition, some sigma factors were up-regulated in V. cholerae strains, suggesting that V. cholerae may recruit common sigma factors to achieve an active salt stress response. However, some changes in gene transcript levels in response to salt stress in V. cholerae were strain-specific. In particular, hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes indicated that transcript levels of these genes were correlated with the degree of salt tolerance. Therefore, elevated transcript levels of some genes, including sigma factors and genes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, may be due to the salt tolerance of strains. In addition, high salt-tolerant strains may recruit common as well as additional sigma factors to activate the salt stress response.

  10. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  11. Low retinol levels differentially modulate bile salt-induced expression of human and mouse hepatic bile salt transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.O. Hoeke; J.R.M. Plass; J. Heegsma; M. Geuken; D. van Rijsbergen; J.F.W. Baller; F. Kuipers; H. Moshage; P.L.M. Jansen; K.N. Faber

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXRalpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXRalpha by the vitamin A derivative 9-

  12. Low Retinol Levels Differentially Modulate Bile Salt-Induced Expression of Human and Mouse Hepatic Bile Salt Transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeke, Martijn O.; Plass, Jacqueline R. M.; Heegsma, Janette; Geuken, Mariska; van Rijsbergen, Duncan; Baller, Julius F. W.; Kuipers, Folkert; Moshage, Han; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Faber, Klaas Nico

    2009-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor/retinoid X receptor-alpha (FXR/RXR alpha) complex regulates bile salt homeostasis, in part by modulating transcription of the bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11 I) and small heterodimer partner (SHP/NR0B2). FXR is activated by bile salts, RXR alpha by the vitamin A derivativ

  13. The food safety impact of salt and sodium reduction initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Deborah; Wallace, Carol A

    2014-07-01

    Excessive or high salt or sodium intake is known to cause hypertension and other diseases. Within the United Kingdom voluntary targets for salt reduction have been set and laid out in the Secretary of State responsibility deal. This review considers the options available to food manufacturers to enable them to reduce salt and the potential food safety risks associated with those options. Gaps in research and knowledge within the areas of information supplied to food manufacturers, alternative solutions for salt replacement and the food safety impact of salt reduction are discussed.

  14. Impact of Light Salt Substitution for Regular Salt on Blood Pressure of Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lôbo de Almeida Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown sodium restriction to have a beneficial effect on blood pressure (BP of hypertensive patients. Objective: To evaluate the impact of light salt substitution for regular salt on BP of hypertensive patients. Methods: Uncontrolled hypertensive patients of both sexes, 20 to 65 years-old, on stable doses of antihypertensive drugs were randomized into Intervention Group (IG - receiving light salt and Control Group (CG - receiving regular salt. Systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP were analyzed by using casual BP measurements and Home Blood Pressure Monitoring (HBPM, and sodium and potassium excretion was assessed on 24-hour urine samples. The patients received 3 g of salt for daily consumption for 4 weeks. Results: The study evaluated 35 patients (65.7% women, 19 allocated to the IG and 16 to the CG. The mean age was 55.5 ± 7.4 years. Most participants had completed the Brazilian middle school (up to the 8th grade; n = 28; 80.0%, had a family income of up to US$ 600 (n = 17; 48.6% and practiced regular physical activity (n = 19; 54.3%. Two patients (5.7% were smokers and 40.0% consumed alcohol regularly (n = 14. The IG showed a significant reduction in both SBP and DBP on the casual measurements and HBPM (p < 0.05 and in sodium excretion (p = 0.016. The CG showed a significant reduction only in casual SBP (p = 0.032. Conclusions: The light salt substitution for regular salt significantly reduced BP of hypertensive patients.

  15. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gat, U. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT).

  16. Molten salts database for energy applications

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano-López, Roberto; Cuesta-López, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in energy applications of molten salts is justified by several of their properties. Their possibilities of usage as a coolant, heat transfer fluid or heat storage substrate, require thermo-hydrodynamic refined calculations. Many researchers are using simulation techniques, such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for their projects or conceptual designs. The aim of this work is providing a review of basic properties (density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity) of the most common and referred salt mixtures. After checking data, tabulated and graphical outputs are given in order to offer the most suitable available values to be used as input parameters for other calculations or simulations. The reviewed values show a general scattering in characterization, mainly in thermal properties. This disagreement suggests that, in several cases, new studies must be started (and even new measurement techniques should be developed) to obtain accurate values.

  17. Salt-Induced Physical Weathering of Stone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-12-01

    Salt weathering is recognized as an important mechanism that contributes to the modeling and shaping of the earth’s surface, in a range of environments spanning from the Sahara desert to Antarctica. It also contributes to the degradation and loss of cultural heritage, particularly carved stone and historic buildings. Soluble salts have recently been suggested to contribute to the shaping of rock outcrops on Mars and are being identified in other planetary bodies such as the moons of Jupiter (Europa and IO)1. Soluble salts such as sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and carbonates of alkali and alkali earth metals can crystallize within the porous system of rocks and building stones, exerting sufficient pressure against the pore walls to fracture the substrate. This physical damage results in increased porosity, thus providing a higher surface area for salt-enhanced chemical weathering. To better understand how salt-induced physical weathering occurs, we have studied the crystallization of the particularly damaging salt, sodium sulfate2, in a model system (a sintered porous glass of controlled porosity and pore size). For this elusive task of studying sub-surface crystallization in pores, we combined a variety of instruments to identify which phases crystallized during evaporation and calculated the supersaturation and associated crystallization pressure that caused damage. The heat of crystallization was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), providing the timing of crystallization events and phase transitions3, while the evaporation rate was recorded using thermal gravimetry (TG). These methods enabled calculation of the sodium sulfate concentration in solution at every point during evaporation. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) performs synchrotron-like experiments in a normal lab by using a Molybdenum X-ray source (more than 5 times more penetrative than conventional Copper source). Using this method, we determined that the first phase to

  18. Dense QCD: a Holographic Dyonic Salt

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, Mannque; Zahed, Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Dense QCD at zero temperature with a large number of colors is a crystal. We show that in the holographic dual description, the crystal is made out of pairs of dyons with $e=g=\\pm 1$ charges in a salt-like arrangement. We argue that with increasing density the dyon masses and topological charges equalize, turning the salt-like configuration to a bcc of half-instantons. The latter is dual to a cubic crystal of half-skyrmions. We estimate the transition from an fcc crystal of instantons to a bcc crystal of dyons to about 3 times nuclear matter density with a dyon binding energy of about 180 MeV.

  19. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  20. Tagging Salt Tolerant Gene Using PCR Markers in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Bei; QIU Li-juan; SHAO Gui-hua; CHANG Ru-zhen; LIU Li-hong; XU Zhan-you; LI Xiang-hua; SUN Jian-ying

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to screen and identify PCR markers associated with salt tolerant gene in soybean( Glycine soja L. ) so that salt tolerance can be identified efficiently and accurately. Between these tolerant and sensitivity to salt and three crosses were tested in this experiment. By BSA method, two codominant PCR markers were identified through the salt tolerant (sensitive) cuitivars bulks and the salt tolerant (sensitive) individual bulks of a F2 population. There was a 600bp band in the sensitive individuals and a 700bp band or two 700bp/600bp bands in the tolerant individuals. The markers were closely linked with salt tolerant/sensitive alleles. Moreover the markers were tested in the other two F2 populations from "salt tolerant cultivar × sensitive cuitivar" and confirmed by 12 salt tolerance cultivars and 13 salt sensitive cultivars with different genetic background. It indicated that the markers (700bp and 600bp) could be applied in salt tolerant identification of the soybean germplasm resources, and markers-assisted selection in salt tolerant breeding of soybean. The markers, its obtained method and application were patented for invention in 1998.

  1. FINITE-ELEMENT MODELING OF SALT TECTONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bakhova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available  The two-dimensional thermal model of graben structure in the presence of salt tectonics on the basis of a finite elements method is constructed. The analysis of the thermal field is based on the solution of stationary equation of heat conductivity with variable boundary conditions. The high precision of temperatures distribution and heat flows is received. The decision accuracy is no more than 0,6 %.

  2. Thermally stimulated luminescence of urine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordun, O.; Drobchak, O.

    2008-05-01

    The thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) of normal and pathological urine was studied. The presence of pathological salts leads to extinguishing of TSL intensity and to the appearance of additional stripes with maxima nearly 118 and 205K, except of characteristic stripes with the maxima nearly 173 and 260K. TSL stripes depend on urine constituents. The comparison of TSL intensity of normal and pathological urine is carried out and energies of thermal activation are determined for most intensive TSL stripes.

  3. An analysis of SALT in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludolph Botha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of SALT/Suggestopedia for the teaching of beginners' German to students at the University of Stellenbosch, South Africa. Two experimental groups and a control group are involved to determine, amongst others, whether SALT is viable in South African conditions and whether it really accelerates the learning of a foreign language. This study is approached pragmatically and on a relatively small scale to ensure a sound basis. A number of challenges have been encountered of which the most important are the rigid system at a university (for example the timetable and the difficulty of producing convincing, quantitative results. Qualitatively the students show an early competence and spontaneity not experienced before, in comparison with the control group. The most promising aspect is the fact that the lecturers of the experimental groups are convinced that Suggestopedia offers and satisfies the students as well as the lecturers much more than any other conventional method used by them. In hierdie artikel word die gebruik van SALT/Suggestopedagogiek vir die aanlecr van Duits op beginnersvlak geanaliseer, soos gei"mplementeer aan die Universiteit van Stellenbosch. Twee eksperimentele groepe sowel as 'n kontrolegroep is betrek om ondcr meer te bepaal of SALT lewensvatbaar is in Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede en of dit werklik die aanleer van 'n vreemde taal versnel. Hierdie studie is pragmatics aangepak en op 'n relatiewe klein skaal om 'n gesonde basis te verseker. 'n Aantal struikelblokke moes oorkom word, soos die onbuigbare sisteem aan 'n Universiteit (die rooster en die probleem om oortuigende kwantitatiewe resultate te ewer. Kwalitatief gesproke, vertoon die studente 'n vroee bekwaamheid en 'n spontanei"teit wat nog nooit tevore ondervind is nie. Die belowendste aspek is egter dat die lektore van die eksperimentele groep oortuig is dat Suggestopedagogiek meer te bied het, en lektore sowel as stildente meer bevredig as enige

  4. Kinetics of metal salt vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, M.A.; Trofimov, A.N.

    1979-02-01

    A kinetic model is constructed for lasers operating on metal salt vapors. Different operating regimes of these lasers are considered, and it is shown that during transition from double-pulse regime to pulse-train regime or regular-pulse regime it is necessary to take into account accumulation effects. Numerical calculations for copper halogenides are carried out. It is shown how different operating regimes have widely different lasing conditions. This is due to the accumulation effects mentioned above.

  5. Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David R.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Trudell, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

  6. Physical Properties Data for Rock Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    In certain other deposits, brines may probable extension of the Louann Salt of Jurassic age have originated as magmatic or artesian ground waters...1978). (1211 Clynne, M.A. and Potter, R.W., United States Geological (871 Reference (271, p. 108. Survey, Menlo Park , CA, unpublished data (1978...Properties of Park , Calif., 79 pp. (1965). [AD 625 568] Some Organic Liquids and of Fifteen of the Alkali Halides," [601 Laboratory for Insulation

  7. Pentamidine Dosage: A Base/Salt Confusion

    OpenAIRE

    Dorlo, Thomas P. C.; Kager, Piet A.

    2008-01-01

    Pentamidine has a long history in the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) and leishmaniasis. Early guidelines on the dosage of pentamidine were based on the base-moiety of the two different formulations available. Confusion on the dosage of pentamidine arose from a different labelling of the two available products, either based on the salt or base moiety available in the preparation. We provide an overview of the various guidelines concerning HAT and leishmaniasis over the past d...

  8. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Liudmila V. Dyakova; Aleksander G. Kasikov; Elena S. Kshumaneva; Svetlana V. Drogobuzhskaya

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cob...

  9. Ionic Liquids: Just Molten Salts After All?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Croft

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been much effort in recent years to characterise ionic liquids in terms of parameters that are well described for molecular solvents, using these to explain reaction outcomes remains problematic. Herein we propose that many reaction outcomes in ionic liquids may be explained by considering the electrostatic interactions present in the solution; that is, by recognising that ionic liquids are salts. This is supported by evidence in the literature, along with studies presented here.

  10. Treatment of Sewer Water Using Alum Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Qaid M. Saleem; Yousif Mohamed Algamal; Majed H. Shtaiwi; Mohammad S. Aldahmashi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different concentrations of alum salt used in the treatment of sewer water of the pond and also to study the physico-chemical parameters such as pH ,electrical conductivity ,salinity and total sediments besides that the bacteriological analysis such as total viable count (TVC) or standard plate count (SPC) and total coliform count (MPN) content were analysed in the water sample collected from the pond estimation of viable...

  11. Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowson, Caryl; Lim, Karen; Grimes, Carley; O'Halloran, Siobhan; Land, Mary Anne; Webster, Jacqui; Shaw, Jonathan; Chalmers, John; Smith, Wayne; Flood, Victoria; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2015-12-01

    The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt.

  12. Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl Nowson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0(SD years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7 years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2 (95% CI g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1 g/salt/day (p = 0.589, and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011 and 36% (2014 reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76. Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8 g/salt/day (p = 0.0016 higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt.

  13. Can volatile organic compounds be markers of sea salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isabel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Barros, António S; Marriott, Philip J; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2015-02-15

    Sea salt is a handmade food product that is obtained by evaporation of seawater in saltpans. During the crystallisation process, organic compounds from surroundings can be incorporated into sea salt crystals. The aim of this study is to search for potential volatile markers of sea salt. Thus, sea salts from seven north-east Atlantic Ocean locations (France, Portugal, Continental Spain, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde) were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 165 compounds were detected, ranging from 32 to 71 compounds per salt. The volatile composition revealed the variability and individuality of each salt, and a set of ten compounds were detected in all samples. From these, seven are carotenoid-derived compounds that can be associated with the typical natural surroundings of ocean hypersaline environment. These ten compounds are proposed as potential volatile markers of sea salt.

  14. Liquid Fluoride Salt Experimentation Using a Small Natural Circulation Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Heatherly, Dennis Wayne [ORNL; Williams, David F [ORNL; Elkassabgi, Yousri M. [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Caja, Joseph [Electrochemical Systems, Inc.; Caja, Mario [ORNL; Jordan, John [Texas A& M University, Kingsville; Salinas, Roberto [Texas A& M University, Kingsville

    2014-04-01

    A small molten fluoride salt experiment has been constructed and tested to develop experimental techniques for application in liquid fluoride salt systems. There were five major objectives in developing this test apparatus: Allow visual observation of the salt during testing (how can lighting be introduced, how can pictures be taken, what can be seen) Determine if IR photography can be used to examine components submerged in the salt Determine if the experimental configuration provides salt velocity sufficient for collection of corrosion data for future experimentation Determine if a laser Doppler velocimeter can be used to quantify salt velocities. Acquire natural circulation heat transfer data in fluoride salt at temperatures up to 700oC All of these objectives were successfully achieved during testing with the exception of the fourth: acquiring velocity data using the laser Doppler velocimeter. This paper describes the experiment and experimental techniques used, and presents data taken during natural circulation testing.

  15. First salt making in Europe: an overview from Neolithic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Weller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the origin of salt production and discusses different approaches ranging from technology, ethnoarchaeology and paleoenvironmental studies to chemical analyses. Starting from the current research on the Neolithic exploitation of salt in Europe, we examine the types and nature of the salt resources (sea water, salt springs, soil or rock, the diversity of archaeological evidence of forms of salt working. We also scrutinize the types of production for these early forms of salt exploitation, with or without the use of crudely fired clay vessels (briquetage. Finally, we contextualise the socio-economic dimensions and highlight both the diversity of salt products and their characteristics, which go well beyond dietary roles.

  16. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  17. The solubility of toluene in aqueous salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulson, S; Harrington, R; Drever, J

    1999-03-01

    The solubility of toluene has been measured in distilled water, and in various inorganic salt solutions. Values of the Setschenow constant, K(S), which quantify toluene solubility versus salt concentration, have been determined for each salt. Values of K(S) are compared to the activity of water for the salt solutions. Data from this study, consistent with earlier data, suggests that the effects of salts upon toluene solubility are non-additive. This contrasts the additive behavior of inorganic salts upon the solubility of nonpolar organic compounds, such as benzene and naphthalene, reported in the literature. Specific interaction between slightly polar toluene and ions in solution is suggested as a possible explanation for the non-additive effect of salts on the solubility of toluene.

  18. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Tichenor, Mark S.; Artau, Alexander

    2009-11-17

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  19. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  20. Astronomical Forcing of Salt Marsh Biogeochemical Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J. T.; Sundberg, K.

    2008-12-01

    Astronomically forced changes in the hydroperiod of a salt marsh affect the rate of marsh primary production leading to a biogeochemical cascade. For example, salt marsh primary production and biogeochemical cycles in coastal salt marshes are sensitive to the 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle, which alters the tidal amplitude by about 5 cm. For marshes that are perched high in the tidal frame, a relatively small increase in tidal amplitude and flooding lowers sediment salinity and stimulates primary production. Porewater sulfide concentrations are positively correlated with tidal amplitude and vary on the same cycle as primary production. Soluble reactive phosphate and ammonium concentrations in pore water also vary on this 18.6- year cycle. Phosphate likely responds to variation in the reaction of sulfide with iron-phosphate compounds, while the production of ammonium in sediments is coupled to the activity of diazotrophs that are carbon- limited and, therefore, are regulated by primary productivity. Ammonium also would accumulate when sulfides block nitrification. These dependencies work as a positive feedback between primary production and nutrient supply and are predictive of the near-term effects of sea-level rise.

  1. Precipitates/Salts Model Sensitivity Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Mariner

    2001-12-20

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation on potential seepage waters within a potential repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The specific objective of this calculation is to examine the sensitivity and uncertainties of the Precipitates/Salts model. The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b). The calculation in the current document examines the effects of starting water composition, mineral suppressions, and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on the chemical evolution of water in the drift.

  2. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; Stephen Reese

    2014-09-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. At the request of WIPP’s operations contractor, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel developed several methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using surrogate contaminants and also americium (241Am). The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent possible, quantitatively. One of the requirements of this effort was delivering initial results and recommendations within a few weeks. That requirement, in combination with the limited scope of the project, made in-depth analysis impractical in some instances. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, strippable coatings, and mechanical grinding), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and it is very easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from the strippable coating and water washing coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System (PBS) proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  3. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Salt Decontamination Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, Ricky Lynn [Idaho National Laboratory; Reese, Stephen Joseph [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-03-01

    On February 14, 2014, americium and plutonium contamination was released in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) salt caverns. Several practical, easily deployable methods of decontaminating WIPP salt, using a surrogate contaminant and americium (241Am), were developed and tested. The effectiveness of the methods is evaluated qualitatively, and to the extent practical, quantitatively. Of the methods tested (dry brushing, vacuum cleaning, water washing, mechanical grinding, strippable coatings, and fixative barriers), the most practical seems to be water washing. Effectiveness is very high, and water washing is easy and rapid to deploy. The amount of wastewater produced (~2 L/m2) would be substantial and may not be easy to manage, but the method is the clear winner from a usability perspective. Removable surface contamination levels (smear results) from water washed coupons found no residual removable contamination. Thus, whatever contamination is left is likely adhered to (or trapped within) the salt. The other option that shows promise is the use of a fixative barrier. Bartlett Nuclear, Inc.’s Polymeric Barrier System proved the most durable of the coatings tested. The coatings were not tested for contaminant entrapment, only for coating integrity and durability.

  4. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND SOLAR SALT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Félix da Silva Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the Brazilian shoreline, on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Norte State Brazil are located the largest solar saltworks of the country. The present research aims to evaluate the sustainability of the con- sumption of estuarine water and the area required for salt production in Brazilian solar saltworks situated along the estuary of the River Apodi-Mossoró (Rio Grande do Norte State. The analysis of the total area of production values, water volume estuary used and annual salt production was carried out, relating to the area required for this production in a solar saltwork located upstream ( lower estuary and another downstream (high estuary in this estuary. That due to high salinity values of estuarine water upstream, the downstream saltworks require a production area three times larger than those located upstream, which obtain a production only twice superior. It was verified that the saltworks located downstream utilize the largest area and require more water volume for salt production.

  5. Increasing salt tolerance in the tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, J; Bolarín, M C; Asíns, M J; Moreno, V

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a number of strategies to overcome the deleterious effects of salinity on plants will be reviewed; these strategies include using molecular markers and genetic transformation as tools to develop salinity-tolerant genotypes, and some cultural techniques. For more than 12 years, QTL analysis has been attempted in order to understand the genetics of salt tolerance and to deal with component traits in breeding programmes. Despite innovations like better marker systems and improved genetic mapping strategies, the success of marker-assisted selection has been very limited because, in part, of inadequate experimental design. Since salinity is variable in time and space, experimental design must allow the study of genotype x environment interaction. Genetic transformation could become a powerful tool in plant breeding, but the growing knowledge from plant physiology must be integrated with molecular breeding techniques. It has been shown that the expression of several transgenes promotes a higher level of salt tolerance in some species. Despite this promising result, the development of a salt-tolerant cultivar by way of transgenesis has still not been achieved. Future directions in order to overcome the present limitations are proposed. Three cultural techniques have proved useful in tomato to overcome, in part, the effects of salinity: treatment of seedlings with drought or NaCl ameliorates the adaptation of adult plants to salinity; mist applied to tomato plants grown in Mediterranean conditions improves vegetative growth and yield in saline conditions; and grafting tomato cultivars onto appropriate rootstocks could reduce the effects of salinity.

  6. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  7. Mechanisms of pressure-diuresis and pressure-natriuresis in Dahl salt-resistant and Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Beard Daniel A; Mescam Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Data on blood flow regulation, renal filtration, and urine output in salt-sensitive Dahl S rats fed on high-salt (hypertensive) and low-salt (prehypertensive) diets and salt-resistant Dahl R rats fed on high-salt diets were analyzed using a mathematical model of renal blood flow regulation, glomerular filtration, and solute transport in a nephron. Results The mechanism of pressure-diuresis and pressure-natriuresis that emerges from simulation of the integrated systems is t...

  8. Quantifying drag on wellbore casings in moving salt sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, R.; Jackson, M. P. A.; Dooley, T. P.

    2014-08-01

    Frontier hydrocarbon development projects in the deepwater slopes of the Gulf of Mexico Basin, Santos Basin and Lower Congo Basin all require wells to cross ductile layers of autochthonous or allochthonous salt moving at peak rates of 100 mm yr-1. The Couette-Poiseuille number is introduced here to help pinpoint the depth of shear stress reversal in such salt layers. For any well-planned through salt, the probable range of creep forces of moving salt needs to be taken into account when designing safety margins and load-factor tolerance of the well casing. Drag forces increase with wellbore diameter, but more significantly with effective viscosity and speed of the creeping salt layer. The potential drag forces on cased wellbores in moving salt sheets are estimated analytically using a range of salt viscosities (1015-1019 Pa s) and creep rates (0-10 mm yr-1). Drag on perfectly rigid casing of infinite strength may reach up to 13 Giga Newton per meter wellbore length in salt having a viscosity of 1019 Pa s. Well designers may delay stress accumulations due to salt drag when flexible casing accommodates some of the early displacement and strain. However, all creeping salt could displace, fracture and disconnect well casing, eventually. The shear strength of typical heavy duty well casing (about 1000 MPa) can be reached due to drag by moving salt. Internal flow of salt will then fracture the casing near salt entry and exit points, but the structural damage is likely to remain unnoticed early in the well-life when the horizontal shift of the wellbore is still negligibly small (at less than 1 cm yr-1). Disruption of casing and production flow lines within the anticipated service lifetime of a well remains a significant risk factor within distinct zones of low-viscosity salt which may reach ultrafast creep rates of 100 mm yr-1.

  9. Salt controls feeding decisions in a blood-sucking insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Gina; Pereira, Marcos H; Barrozo, Romina B

    2016-12-15

    Salts are necessary for maintaining homeostatic conditions within the body of all living organisms. Like with all essential nutrients, deficient or excessive ingestion of salts can result in adverse health effects. The taste system is a primary sensory modality that helps animals to make adequate feeding decisions in terms of salt consumption. In this work we show that sodium and potassium chloride salts modulate the feeding behavior of Rhodnius prolixus in a concentration-dependent manner. Feeding is only triggered by an optimal concentration of any of these salts (0.1-0.15M) and in presence of the phagostimulant ATP. Conversely, feeding solutions that do not contain salts or have a high-salt concentration (>0.3M) are not ingested by insects. Notably, we show that feeding decisions of insects cannot be explained as an osmotic effect, because they still feed over hyperosmotic solutions bearing the optimal salt concentration. Insects perceive optimal-salt, no-salt and high-salt solutions as different gustatory information, as revealed the electromyogram recordings of the cibarial pump. Moreover, because insects do a continuous gustatory monitoring of the incoming food during feeding, sudden changes beyond the optimal sodium concentration decrease and even inhibit feeding. The administration of amiloride, a sodium channel blocker, noticeably reduces the ingestion of the optimal sodium solution but not of the optimal potassium solution. Salt detection seems to occur at least through two salt receptors, one amiloride-sensitive and another amiloride-insensitive. Our results confirm the importance of the gustatory system in R. prolixus, showing the relevant role that salts play on their feeding decisions.

  10. IODINE SALT CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIAN HOUSEHOLDS: BASELINE HEALTH SURVEY 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ketut Aryastami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iodine Deficiency Disorder (100 reduction program has been implemented since 1976. According to the National Economic Survey 2002, the average consumption of iodized salt was 6. 26 grams. The results of Iodine Salt Survey (SGY 2003 showed that the consumption of iodine salt at the household level was 73.2%, meanwhile, the baseline health survey (Riskesdas 2007 showed there was reduction of iodine salt consumption towards 60.2%. Methods: Type of study was secondary data analysis with cross-sectional design utilizing the Riskesdas 2007's data. Sample was selected purposively according to the previous SGY's survey based on the endemically criteria namely highly endemic, mediocre and non endemic. Results: The results of the analysis were there was discrepancy of iodine salt consumption among urban and rural areas as well as mother's education level. The iodine salt consumption was higher in the urban area (65.5% compare to the rural area (52.9%. The higher the education of mothers the better the iodine salt consumed. The usage of iodine salt in the households based on salt quick test was 60.2%, meanwhile, according to the salt titration it was only 23.4%. The results of Excretion Iodine Urine showed that the iodine intake among the school children (age of 6-12 years old was 12.8% and was still below the cut-off point prevalence, which is greater than 50%. The conclusion of this analysisis that there was evidence of iodine salt reduction consumed at the household level. Conversely, there was inclination of the percentage of iodine urine level among the school children in Indonesia in the year 2007. It is recommended that policy analysis need to be conducted due to the achievement of the Universal Salt iodization target, especially in the endemic areas to asses the existence of the IDO prevalence. Key words: Iodine salt at the households, Iodine salt consumption, urine iodine excretion

  11. Climatology of salt transitions and implications for stone weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, C.M., E-mail: c.grossi-sampedro@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Brimblecombe, P. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Menendez, B. [Geosciences et Environnement Cergy, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise 95031 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France); Benavente, D. [Lab. Petrologia Aplicada, Unidad Asociada UA-CSIC, Dpto. Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080 (Spain); Harris, I. [Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Deque, M. [Meteo-France/CNRM, CNRS/GAME, 42 Avenue Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse, Cedex 01 (France)

    2011-06-01

    This work introduces the notion of salt climatology. It shows how climate affects salt thermodynamic and the potential to relate long-term salt damage to climate types. It mainly focuses on specific sites in Western Europe, which include some cities in France and Peninsular Spain. Salt damage was parameterised using the number of dissolution-crystallisation events for unhydrated (sodium chloride) and hydrated (sodium sulphate) systems. These phase transitions have been calculated using daily temperature and relative humidity from observation meteorological data and Climate Change models' output (HadCM3 and ARPEGE). Comparing the number of transitions with meteorological seasonal data allowed us to develop techniques to estimate the frequency of salt transitions based on the local climatology. Results show that it is possible to associate the Koeppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. Temperate fully humid climates seem to offer the highest potential for salt damage and possible higher number of transitions in summer. Climates with dry summers tend to show a lesser frequency of transitions in summer. The analysis of temperature, precipitation and relative output from Climate Change models suggests changes in the Koeppen-Geiger climate types and changes in the patterns of salt damage. For instance, West Europe areas with a fully humid climate may change to a more Mediterranean like or dry climates, and consequently the seasonality of different salt transitions. The accuracy and reliability of the projections might be improved by simultaneously running multiple climate models (ensembles). - Research highlights: {yields} We introduce the notion of salt climatology for heritage conservation. {yields} Climate affects salt thermodynamics on building materials. {yields} We associate Koeppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. {yields} We offer future projections of salt damage in Western Europe due to climate change. {yields} Humid

  12. Potential effect of salt reduction in processed foods on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Marieke A H; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; van Raaij, Joop M A

    2014-03-01

    Excessive salt intake has been associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Reducing salt intake is considered an important public health strategy in the Netherlands. The objective was to evaluate the health benefits of salt-reduction strategies related to processed foods for the Dutch population. Three salt-reduction scenarios were developed: 1) substitution of high-salt foods with low-salt foods, 2) a reduction in the sodium content of processed foods, and 3) adherence to the recommended maximum salt intake of 6 g/d. Health outcomes were obtained in 2 steps: after salt intake was modeled into blood pressure levels, the Chronic Disease Model was used to translate modeled blood pressures into incidences of cardiovascular diseases, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), and life expectancies. Health outcomes of the scenarios were compared with health outcomes obtained with current salt intake. In total, 4.8% of acute myocardial infarction cases, 1.7% of congestive heart failure cases, and 5.8% of stroke cases might be prevented if salt intake meets the recommended maximum intake. The burden of disease might be reduced by 56,400 DALYs, and life expectancy might increase by 0.15 y for a 40-y-old individual. Substitution of foods with comparable low-salt alternatives would lead to slightly higher salt intake reductions and thus to more health gain. The estimates for sodium reduction in processed foods would be slightly lower. Substantial health benefits might be achieved when added salt is removed from processed foods and when consumers choose more low-salt food alternatives.

  13. Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine

  14. Overexpression of SOS (Salt Overly Sensitive)Genes Increases Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Yang; Zhi-Zhong Chen; Xiao-Feng Zhoua; Hai-Bo Yin; Xia Li; Xiu-Fang Xin; Xu-Hui Hong; Jian-Kang Zhu; Zhizhong Gong

    2009-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that decreases plant growth and productivity. Recently, it was reported that plants overexpressing AtNHX1 or SOS1 have significantly increased salt tolerance. To test whether overexpression of multiple genes can improve plant salt tolerance even more, we produced six different transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpress AtNHX1, SOS3, AtNHXl + SOS3, SOS1, SOS2 + SOS3, or SOS1 + SOS2 + SOS3. Northern blot analyses confirmed the presence of high levels of the relevant gene transcripts in transgenic plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtNHX1 alone did not present any significant increase in salt tolerance, contrary to earlier reports. We found that transgenic plants overexpressing SOS3 exhibit increased salt tolerance similar to plants overexpressing SOS1. Moreover, salt tolerance of transgenic plants overexpressing AtNHXl + SOS3, 50S2 + SOS3, or SOS1 + SOS2 +SOS3, respectively, appeared similar to the tolerance of transgenic plants overexpressing either SOS1 or SOS3 alone.

  15. Rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase confer salt tolerance in maize grown on salt-affected fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sajid Mahmood; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad

    2009-11-01

    Salt stress is one of the major constraints hampering agricultural production owing to its impact on ethylene production and nutritional imbalance. A check on the accelerated ethylene production in plants could be helpful in minimizing the negative effect of salt stress on plant growth and development. Four Pseudomonas, 1 Flavobacterium, and 1 Enterobacter strain of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase were selected and their effects on growth and yield of maize were investigated to improve the salt tolerance of maize grown on salt-affected fields. The selected rhizobacterial isolates reduced or eliminated the classical "triple" response, indicating their ability to reduce stress-induced ethylene levels. Results showed that rhizobacterial strains, particularly Pseudomonas and Enterobacter spp., significantly promoted the growth and yield of maize compared with the non-inoculated control. Pseudomonas fluorescens increased plant height, biomass, cob yield, grain yield, 1000 grain mass, and straw yield of maize up to 29%, 127%, 67%, 60%, 17%, and 166%, respectively, over the control. Under stress conditions, more N, P, and K uptake and high K+-Na+ ratios were recorded in inoculated plants compared with the control. The results imply that inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase could be a useful approach for improving growth and yield of maize under salt-stressed conditions.

  16. Use of Nitrogen Trifluoride To Purify Molten Salt Reactor Coolant and Heat Transfer Fluoride Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; McNamara, Bruce K.

    2017-05-02

    Abstract: The molten salt cooled nuclear reactor is included as one of the Generation IV reactor types. One of the challenges with the implementation of this reactor is purifying and maintaining the purity of the various molten fluoride salts that will be used as coolants. The method used for Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s molten salt experimental test reactor was to treat the coolant with a mixture of H2 and HF at 600°C. In this article we evaluate thermal NF3 treatment for purifying molten fluoride salt coolant candidates based on NF3’s 1) past use to purify fluoride salts, 2) other industrial uses, 3) commercial availability, 4) operational, chemical, and health hazards, 5) environmental effects and environmental risk management methods, 6) corrosive properties, and 7) thermodynamic potential to eliminate impurities that could arise due to exposure to water and oxygen. Our evaluation indicates that nitrogen trifluoride is a viable and safer alternative to the previous method.

  17. Salt-specific stability and denaturation of a short salt-bridge forming alpha-helix

    CERN Document Server

    Dzubiella, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a single alanine-based Ace-AEAAAKEAAAKA-Nme peptide in explicit aqueous electrolyte solutions (NaCl, KCl, NaI, and KF) at large salt concentrations (3-4 M) is investigated using 1 microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations. The peptide displays 71 alpha-helical structure without salt and destabilizes with the addition of NaCl in agreement with experiments of a somewhat longer version. It is mainly stabilized by direct and indirect (i+4)EK salt bridges between the Lys and Glu side chains and a concomitant backbone shielding mechanism. NaI is found to be a stronger denaturant than NaCl, while the potassium salts hardly show influence. Investigation of the molecular structures reveals that consistent with recent experiments Na+ has a much stronger affinity to side chain carboxylates and backbone carbonyls than K+, thereby weakening salt bridges and secondary structure hydrogen bonds. At the same time the large I- has a considerable affinity to the nonpolar alanine in line with rece...

  18. Fluorescent halite from Bochnia salt mine, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waluś, Edyta; Głąbińska, Dobrochna; Puławska, Aleksandra; Flasza, Michał; Manecki, Maciej

    2016-04-01

    The photoluminescence of selected halite crystals from Bochnia Salt Mine (Bochnia, Poland) were discovered in 2014. This is a result of contemporary precipitation from percolating waters. In most cases the fluorescence is observed in whole crystals or in zones of crystals. Only clear parts of transparent crystals are orange-red fluorescent in short UV light (320 nm). Chemical microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS indicates that this is activated by Mn and Pb. The concentration of Mn is similar in fluorescent and inactive salt and equals to 0.13 - 0.27 wt.%. The concentration of Pb, however, averages to 3.8 wt.% in fluorescent parts reaching only 1.9 wt.% elsewhere. There is no difference in the unit cell parameters determined by powder X-ray diffraction. The percolating waters contain some Mn (ca. 3.9 ppm) but the concentration of Pb is below the detection limits. The experiments of precipitation of halite from the solutions containing various concentrations of Mn and Pb were performed to simulate this fenomenon using solutions containing: 1 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.8 mg Mn/L; 1 mg Pb/L and 0.6 mg Mn/L; and 0 mg Pb/L and 80 mg Mn/L. The results indicate that fluorescence is apparent when halite forms from solutions containing more than 0.8 mg Mn/L and more than 1 mg Pb/L. The presence of lead as co-activator is necessary requirement: Mn alone does not activate the fluorescence of halite. This is in accordance with the results of previous work (Murata et al., 1946; Sidike et al., 2002). Rock salt in the mine does not show fluorescence at all. Fluorescence of contemporary salt in Bochnia salt mine is a result of mining activity and slight, sporadic contamination with traces of Mn and Pb. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. Murata K. J., Smith R. L., 1946. Manganese and lead as coactivators of red fluorescence in halite, American Mineralogist, Volume 31, pages 527

  19. Energy Efficient Buildings, Salt Lake County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Kimberly

    2012-04-30

    Executive Summary Salt Lake County's Solar Photovoltaic Project - an unprecedented public/private partnership Salt Lake County is pleased to announce the completion of its unprecedented solar photovoltaic (PV) installation on the Calvin R. Rampton Salt Palace Convention Center. This 1.65 MW installation will be one the largest solar roof top installations in the country and will more than double the current installed solar capacity in the state of Utah. Construction is complete and the system will be operational in May 2012. The County has accomplished this project using a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) financing model. In a PPA model a third-party solar developer will finance, develop, own, operate, and maintain the solar array. Salt Lake County will lease its roof, and purchase the power from this third-party under a long-term Power Purchase Agreement contract. In fact, this will be one of the first projects in the state of Utah to take advantage of the recent (March 2010) legislation which makes PPA models possible for projects of this type. In addition to utilizing a PPA, this solar project will employ public and private capital, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG), and public/private subsidized bonds that are able to work together efficiently because of the recent stimulus bill. The project also makes use of recent changes to federal tax rules, and the recent re-awakening of private capital markets that make a significant public-private partnership possible. This is an extremely innovative project, and will mark the first time that all of these incentives (EECBG grants, Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, New Markets tax credits, investment tax credits, public and private funds) have been packaged into one project. All of Salt Lake County's research documents and studies, agreements, and technical information is available to the public. In addition, the County has already shared a variety of information with the public through

  20. Effects of salt intake and potassium supplementation on renalase expression in the kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-Ling; Wang, Jing; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Xiao, Hong-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Renalase is currently the only known amine oxidase in the blood that can metabolize catecholamines and regulate sympathetic activity. High salt intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), possibly through the modulation of renalase expression and secretion, whereas potassium can reverse the high salt-mediated increase in blood pressure. However, whether potassium could also modulate BP through renalase is unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate how salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the level of renalase in rats. Eighteen salt-sensitive (SS) and 18 SS-13BN rats were divided into six groups, receiving normal salt (0.3% NaCl), high salt (8% NaCl) and high salt/potassium (8% NaCl and 8% KCl) dietary intervention for four weeks. At the end of experiments, blood and kidneys were collected for analysis. mRNA level of renalase was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and protein level was determined by Western blot. We found that mRNA and protein levels of renalase in the kidneys of SS and SS-13BN rats were significantly decreased (P high salt intervention, whereas dopamine in plasma was increased (P high salt/potassium, compared with that of the high salt SS group. Taken together, the salt-induced increase and potassium-induced decrease in BP could be mediated through renalase. More studies are needed to confirm our findings and understand the underlying mechanisms.

  1. Clinical observation of combination of disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B6 injection adjuvant chemotherapy on patients with lung cancer postoperation%斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液辅助肺癌术后化疗的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素艳; 卢军利

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液辅助肺癌术后化疗的临床疗效及对化疗毒副反应的影响.方法 将64例肺癌术后患者随机分为2组,治疗组32例在常规化疗及对症处理基础上应用斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液;对照组32例予常规化疗及对症处理.2组均治疗2周后观察疗效和化疗毒副反应的发生情况.结果 治疗组有效率59.4%,对照组34.4%,2组有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组疗效优于对照组.2组化疗毒副反应发生率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组低于对照组.结论 斑蝥酸钠维生素B6注射液具有增强化疗疗效、改善患者症状、减少化疗毒副反应的作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of combination of disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B6 injection adjuvant chemotherapy on patients with lung cancer postoperation. Methods 64 patients with lung cancer postoperation were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in control group ( n = 32) received routine chemotherapy. 32 cases in treatment group received combination of disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B6 injection adjuvant chemotherapy. The therapeutic effect and toxic and side effect were observed after treatment of two weeks. Results The effective rate in treatment group was superior to that in control group ( P < 0. 05 ). Toxic and side effect in treatment group was less than that in control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Combination of disodium cantharidinate and vitamin B6 injection can reinforce effect of chemotherapy, improve symptoms of patients, and decrease toxic and side effect of chemotherapy.

  2. [Evaluation of potassium iodide in Polish dietary salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewska, E; Rokicka, B; Gajda, J; Jarecka, J; Oraczewska, A; Karłowski, K

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of iodine deficiency occurring still in Poland include serious health disorders in the population, such as psycho- somatic retardation, hypothyroidism, endemic goitre, even cretinism. Administration of iodized edible salt with daily diet is an effective method for prevention of iodine deficiency. The condition of success is the proper level of potassium iodide in this salt and adequate distribution of iodized salt in various regions of the country. Successful iodine prophylaxis should be based on iodination of edible salt in amounts of 30 +/- 10 mg of KJ/kg. The permission given in the period from February to May 1994 by the General Sanitary Inspector for the production and marketing of edible salt iodized in proportions of 30 +/- 10 mg KJ/kg opened the possibility of starting its production in salt mines. The purpose of the presently reported work was to assess, in cooperation with the Province Sanitary Epidemiological Stations, the adequacy of iodination of the Polish edible salt produced in the years 1994-1995. The study was carried out according to the Polish Standard "Salt (Sodium Chloride) /PN-80/C-84081.35. Potassium iodide determination by photo colorimetric method." In 1995 the number of edible salt samples analyzed was 2484, and this number included 2129 samples of iodized salt. Potassium iodide content agreeing with the above permission was found in 122 samples, that is in 57.4% of iodized salt samples. In 603 samples (28.3%) of iodized salt this content was below that given in the permissions. In 1994 this study was carried out taking 2172 samples of edible salt, including 1586 samples of iodized salt. The content of potassium iodide agreeing with the permissions (30 +/- 10 mg/kg) was found in 342 samples (28, 1%), but 272 (22.4%) samples of iodized salt produced by salt mines contained lower amounts of potassium iodide than the amount indicated in the permissions, but still within the limits set down in the Polish Standard (20 +/- 5 mg

  3. Salt tectonics and shallow subseafloor fluid convection: models of coupled fluid-heat-salt transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    Thermohaline convection associated with salt domes has the potential to drive significant fluid flow and mass and heat transport in continental margins, but previous studies of fluid flow associated with salt structures have focused on continental settings or deep flow systems of importance to petroleum exploration. Motivated by recent geophysical and geochemical observations that suggest a convective pattern to near-seafloor pore fluid flow in the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoMex), we devise numerical models that fully couple thermal and chemical processes to quantify the effects of salt geometry and seafloor relief on fluid flow beneath the seafloor. Steady-state models that ignore halite dissolution demonstrate that seafloor relief plays an important role in the evolution of shallow geothermal convection cells and that salt at depth can contribute a thermal component to this convection. The inclusion of faults causes significant, but highly localized, increases in flow rates at seafloor discharge zones. Transient models that include halite dissolution show the evolution of flow during brine formation from early salt-driven convection to later geothermal convection, characteristics of which are controlled by the interplay of seafloor relief and salt geometry. Predicted flow rates are on the order of a few millimeters per year or less for homogeneous sediments with a permeability of 10−15 m2, comparable to compaction-driven flow rates. Sediment permeabilities likely fall below 10−15 m2 at depth in the GoMex basin, but such thermohaline convection can drive pervasive mass transport across the seafloor, affecting sediment diagenesis in shallow sediments. In more permeable settings, such flow could affect methane hydrate stability, seafloor chemosynthetic communities, and the longevity of fluid seeps.

  4. Disodium (2RS,3SR-tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arbuckle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the anhydrous title compound, 2Na+·C4H4O62−, contains two sodium cations and one tartrate anion. Each sodium ion is six coordinate, with bonding to six O atoms from both the carboxylate and hydroxyl groups of the anion. A three-dimensional coordination network is formed with sodium ions stacking in layers along the c-axis direction. This network is supported by additional O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  5. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  6. Physical Chemistry and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in Halobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, Janos K.

    1980-06-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  7. Physical chemistry and evolution of salt tolerance in halobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  8. Physical chemistry and evolution of salt tolerance in halobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The cellular constituents of extremely halophilic bacteria not only tolerate high salt concentration, but in many cases require it for optical functioning. The characteristics affected by salt include enzyme activity, stability, allosteric regulation, conformation and subunit association. The salt effects are of two major kinds: electrostatic shielding of negative charges by cations at low salt concentration, and hydrophobic stabilization by salting-out type salts at high salt concentration. The composition of halobacterial proteins shows an excess of acidic amino acids and a deficiency of nonpolar amino acids, which accounts for these effects. Since the cohesive forces are weaker and the repulsing forces are stronger in these proteins, preventing aggregation in salt, these structures are no longer suited for functioning in the absence of high salt concentrations. Unlike these nonspecific effects, ribosomes in halobacteria show marked preference for potassium over sodium ions. To ensure the proper intracellular ionic composition, powerful ion transport systems have evolved in the halobacteria, resulting in the extrusion of sodium ions and their replacement by potassium. It is likely that such membrane transport system for ionic movements is a necessary requisite for salt tolerance.

  9. Salt addiction: a different kind of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekol, Yalcin

    2006-01-01

    Under the headline "drug addiction" the medical world has exclusively been interested in psychoactive drugs. For diagnosis of substance dependence (addiction), DSM-IV-TR has determined seven criteria, and fulfilling at least tree of them signifies addiction. When studied salt intake according to these criteria it is seen that most of them are fulfilled, showing that sodium chloride, which is not classified under the psychoactive drugs, is capable of producing addiction. Namely: at the beginning of salt abstinence, anorexia and slight nausea during meal time (withdrawal symptoms); about 1000-fold difference of per capita salt consumption between several human societies, and life-long continuation of discretional salt intake behaviour (high dose and very long duration of use); difficulty of restriction of salt intake (unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control); lack of success of salt restriction campaigns in hypertensive patients (substance use despite health problem). Additionally, the decrease of salt preferences of individuals whose salt intake are restricted for some time, and vice versa, signifies tolerance. On the other hand, it is evident that as the main culprit of developing systemic hypertension and as producing or promoting some other important health problems, salt intake causes millions of deaths in the world yearly. The recognition of addicting property of salt will facilitate combating these health problems.

  10. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, Christi D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from

  11. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  12. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  13. Anti-browning effect of disodium stannous citrate on fresh-cut lotus%柠檬酸亚锡二钠对鲜切莲藕护色作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金定樑; 夏文水

    2011-01-01

    柠檬酸亚锡二钠(DSC)是一种新型护色剂.将DSC用于鲜切莲藕预处理阶段,抑制莲藕多酚氧化酶活力及褐变,探讨影响DSC对鲜切莲藕片护色作用的因素,并与其他常用护色剂的护色效果进行对比.结果表明:DSC对鲜切藕产品低温保藏期间的褐变和多酚氧化酶活力都有很好的抑制作用,在pH 3~6条件下用0.05%~0.2% DSC浸泡液处理15 min后,鲜切藕产品可保持较低的褐变度和多酚氧化酶活力,同时在4℃、20 d内DSC的护色效果稳定;与其他常用护色剂比较,在0.1%的等量护色剂浓度下,DSC护色效果优于柠檬酸、抗坏血酸、异抗坏血畦钠,与亚硫酸氢钠效果相当.%Disodium stannous citrate(DSC)is an effective sntibrowning agent. This investigation was conducted to determine the efficacy of DSC as a browning control agent for use on fresh-cut lotus. Fresh-cut lotus products are prone to browning during the low-temperature preservation, The relative effectiveness of these antibrowning agents for inhibition of enzymatic browning in fresh-cut lotus was determined in terms of colour and enzyme activity measurements with respect to time for approximately 20 days storage period at 4 ℃. The fresh-cut lotus were dipped in treatment solutions for some time, then drained grid placed ;n containers. The resuhs showed that, DSC has good controlling browning effects on the lotus products. Including the enzymatic browning and non-enzymatic browning) The best concentration of DSC is 0. 05 % ~ 0. 2%, the processing lime for 15 min. pH range of applications from 3 to 6. And the effect of DSC in different temperatures on the color-preservation effect includes but not limited, and has the function of stability for the products during the shelf life. Compared with other ancibrowning agents commonly.The effect of 0.1%DSC has the more obvious effects, quite close to the effect of sodium bisulfite. The research has a theoretic guidance for

  14. Moderate (20%) fructose-enriched diet stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension with increased salt retention and decreased renal nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordish, Kevin L; Kassem, Kamal M; Ortiz, Pablo A; Beierwaltes, William H

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we reported that 20% fructose diet causes salt-sensitive hypertension. In this study, we hypothesized that a high salt diet supplemented with 20% fructose (in drinking water) stimulates salt-sensitive hypertension by increasing salt retention through decreasing renal nitric oxide. Rats in metabolic cages consumed normal rat chow for 5 days (baseline), then either: (1) normal salt for 2 weeks, (2) 20% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks, (3) 20% fructose for 1 week, then fructose + high salt (4% NaCl) for 1 week, (4) normal chow for 1 week, then high salt for 1 week, (5) 20% glucose for 1 week, then glucose + high salt for 1 week. Blood pressure, sodium excretion, and cumulative sodium balance were measured. Systolic blood pressure was unchanged by 20% fructose or high salt diet. 20% fructose + high salt increased systolic blood pressure from 125 ± 1 to 140 ± 2 mmHg (P fructose + high salt than either high salt, or glucose + high salt (114.2 ± 4.4 vs. 103.6 ± 2.2 and 98.6 ± 5.6 mEq/Day19; P fructose + high salt group compared to high salt only: 5.33 ± 0.21 versus 7.67 ± 0.31 mmol/24 h; P fructose + high salt group (2139 ± 178 μmol /24 hrs P fructose predisposes rats to salt-sensitivity and, combined with a high salt diet, leads to sodium retention, increased blood pressure, and impaired renal nitric oxide availability. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Numerical tools for Molten salt reactor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, X.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Ghetta, V. [LPSC-IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier/Grenoble-INP, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    Molten salt reactors (MSR) are basically different from other reactors mainly because the fuel is liquid. It flows through the core, pipes, pumps and heat exchangers. Previous studies showed that a particular configuration of a molten salt reactor perfectly fulfils criteria chosen by the Generation 4 International Forum (GIF). This configuration, called non-moderated Thorium Molten Salt Reactor is a 1000 GW electrical thorium cycle based molten salt reactor with no moderator inside the core. Consequently, the neutron spectrum is fast. The reactor is coupled with a salt control unit, which complicates the studies. Reactors simulation is based on resolving Bateman's equations, which give the population of each nucleus inside the core at each moment. Because of MSR's fundamental characteristics, those equations have to be modified adding two terms: a fertile/fissile alimentation for the reactivity and the salt composition control, and the reprocessing associated term. Equations become: {delta}N{sub i}/{delta}t = {sigma}{sub j{ne}}{sub i} {lambda}{sub j{yields}}{sub i} N{sub j} + X{sub j} <{sigma}{sub j}{phi}> N{sub j} - {lambda}{sub i}N{sub i} - <{sigma}{sub i}{phi}> N{sub i} {lambda}{sub chem} N{sub i} + A where {lambda}{sub chem} represents the reprocessing capacities and A represents the fertile/fissile alimentation. All our studies are made with a homemade code, REM, which is a precision driven code for material evolution. Neutron flux and neutron reactions rate are calculated thanks MCNP and the temporal integration is made thanks a Runge-Kutta fourth order method. This code REM, whose calculation scheme will be described in the paper, does not allow a coupling flexible enough between the reprocessing and the core physics. Indeed, reprocessing terms in the previous equation ({lambda}{sub chem}) are set for the whole evolution that can last several hundreds of years. A new way is to drive chemical needs to keep the core critical. Therefore, we are

  16. HPLC determination of high molecular mass impurities in ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium(15:1)%HPLC法测定替卡西林钠克拉维酸钾(15:1)中的高分子杂质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟雅妮; 刘俊华; 林小洁; 李小婵

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立测定替卡西林钠克拉维酸钾(15:1)中高分子杂质的HPLC分析方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,以TSKG2500 PW(XL)(7.8mmx300mm,7μm)为色谱柱,以pH8.0磷酸盐缓冲液[0.15mol·L-1磷酸氢二钠溶液-0.15mol·L-1磷酸二氢钠溶液(95:5)]为流动相,流速0.8mL·min-1,检测波长230nm,柱温30℃.结果:高分子杂质与替卡西林及克拉维酸能较好分离;替卡西林的检测限为4.0ng,克拉维酸的检测限为3.7ng;替卡西林线性范围为0.052-0.32μg(r=0.9999),高分子杂质在进样量以替卡西林计为11.2-30.3μg范围内时,与峰面积线性关系良好(r=0.9992);重复性较好(RSD=0.52%,n=5).结论:该方法简单、快速、准确,重复性好,可用于替卡西林钠克拉维酸钾(15:1)中的高分子杂质检测.%Objective :To establish an HPLC method for the determination of high molecular mass impurities in ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium ( 15 : 1 ) . Methods: The separation was performed on a TSK G2500 PWXL(7. 8 mm × 300 mm,7 μm) column;The mobile phase was composed of phosphate buffer[0. 15 mol · L-1 disodium hydrogen phosphate solution -0. 15 mol · L-1 sodium dihydrogen phosph ate solution(95: 5) , pH 8.0] at a flow rate of 0. 8 mL · min -1 ; The detection wavelength was 230 nm, and the column temperature was 30 ℃ . Results : High molecular mass impurities in ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium( 15: 1) was separated completely between ticarcillin and clavulanate; The detection limit of ticarcillin was 4. 0 ng;The detection limit of clavulanate was 3. 7 ng; The linearity of ticarcillin was 0. 052 - 0. 32 μg( r =0. 9999 ) ; The peak area of high molecular mass impurities showed good linearity in the range of ticarcillin between 11. 2 - 30. 3 μg( r = 0. 9992). RSD was 0. 52% ( n = 5) . Conclusion : The method is simple, rapid, accurate and reproducible , and it can be used for quality control of ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium( 15: 1) .

  17. 帕米膦酸二钠治疗累及股骨近端多发性纤维结构不良的24例报告%Pamidronate disodium for polyostotic fibrous dysplasia in the proximal femur:twenty-four cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 许宋锋; 于秀淳

    2014-01-01

    疗组:末次随访Harris评分(79.58±5.2)大于治疗前Harris评分(43.67±31.8);单纯药物治疗组:末次随访Harris评分(79.17±8.4)大于治疗前Harris评分(69.75±7.9),差异均有统计学意义(P=0.002)。除5例在首次静滴帕米膦酸二钠后次日发热外,24例均未见其它不良反应。结论帕米膦酸二钠治疗累及股骨近端多发性纤维结构不良疗效确切,能减少溶骨性破坏、预防骨折风险、缓解疼痛、改善髋关节功能,不良反应轻微、短暂。对无症状的PFD、MAS无须手术治疗,可直接应用帕米膦酸二钠治疗;对病变范围局限、溶骨性破坏者须行刮除植骨内固定术,对于股骨近端病变范围大、骨强度不佳者可单纯内固定,二者术后均须应用帕米膦酸二钠治疗,以防止植骨吸收及病情恶化。%Objective To investigate the therapeutic methods and clinical effects of pamidronate disodium for polyostotic ifbrous dysplasia in the proximal femur in different degrees. Methods From June 2009 to January 2012, 24 patients with polyostotic ifbrous dysplasia in the proximal femur were adopted and treated. There were 14 males and 10 females, whose average age was 24 years old ( range;8-61 years ). A combination of surgery and postoperative pamidronate disodium was performed on 11 patients, curettage, bone graft and internal ifxation on 8 patients, simple internal fixation on 3 patients and only pamidronate disodium on 13 patients. Pamidronate disodium was taken every 3 months after the operation or after the ifrst treatment, and the duration was 2 years. Before the treatment or before pamidronate disodium injection, bone metabolic markers were detected and the imaging examination was performed in all the patients, including osteocalcin ( OC ) and C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen ( CTX-I ).The Visual Analogue Scale ( VAS ) was used to evaluate the preoperative and postoperative pain. The hip function was systematically assessed based on the Harris

  18. Applying the Triangle Taste Test to Assess Differences between Low Sodium Salts and Common Salt: Evidence from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Garcia, Lorena; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H.; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Sacksteder, Katherine A.; Miranda, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background In resourced-constrained settings, daily cooking practices are still the norm. Replacing sodium in regular salt to produce potassium-enriched salts are potential alternative routes to reduce sodium intake, paired with the benefit associated with potassium intake. This change would likely have effects on palatability and taste of prepared foods, yet a threshold to discriminate sensorial changes can be determined. The main goal of this study was to assess if the use of potassium-enriched salt substitutes lead to perceived differences in taste utilizing a sensory discrimination test. Methods and Results A triangle taste test was conducted and participants were offered samples of cooked rice prepared with different salts. The only ingredient that differed in the preparation was the salt used: 100%NaCl (regular salt) and salts where sodium was replaced by 50%, 33% or 25% KCl (potassium-enriched salt). Comparisons were carried out according to the minimum number of correct judgments. A total of 156 subjects, 49% males, mean age 41.0 years (SD±15.5) years, participated in the study. Samples using 25% potassium-enrichment were indistinguishable in terms of taste from regular salt, whereas samples with 33% and 50% potassium-enrichment were distinguishable. Results were consistent when stratified by sex and age. Less than 10% of participants attributed the differences to bitterness or metallic flavor. Conclusions The 25% potassium-enriched salt is indistinguishable from regular salt. These findings suggest a potential to achieve sodium intake reduction strategies in cooking practices by substituting regular salt with potassium-enriched salt without affecting palatability. PMID:26225848

  19. Processes of Salt Transport in Disturbed Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitrakar, S.; Miller, S. N.; Caffrey, P. A.; Stern, J.

    2013-12-01

    The extraction of coal bed methane natural gas involves removal of large amount of ground/Coal Bed Methane (CBM) water which is commonly discharged to surface-water drainages or constructed reservoirs. The extraction of large volume of water and its disposal on soil surface not only lowers the water table but also potentially accelerate soil erosions, contaminate surface water resources, and alter the natural flows. Due to the difference in quality and quantity between the surface discharge and disposed CBM water, this management strategy potentially poses threats to quality of surface water and soil. CBM discharge water typically contains high concentrations of sodium and low concentrations of calcium and magnesium, resulting in high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). Similarly, it also contains high concentration of other ions which could results in increasing salt concentrations. Our study area is in the Atlantic Rim development area of the Muddy Creek, SE of Wyoming, a tributary to Colorado River, where significant development of CBM wells is ongoing. Since Muddy Creek is part of the Upper Colorado River, the greatest concern is its potential to contribute to surface water quality (primarily salinity) impairment downstream. However, very few studies have made efforts to assess the water quality in this particular region. The alteration of stream water quality in this region is still not fully understood if it due to CBM water discharge or via soil/water interactions, erosion, and sediment transport. Efforts are being made to identify crucial water quality parameters such as SAR and EC along with the quantification of solute/salt loadings at both CBM discharge fed streams and natural streams at different seasons to distinguish effect of CBM discharge on water quality. We have been continuously monitoring water quality on monthly basis and discharge measurement on daily basis at sampling sites that are placed to discriminate CBM fed streams and natural streams. The

  20. [Crystal and molecular structure of cytisine salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecka, Julia; Przybył, Anna K; Kubicki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Cytisine is an alkaloid of plant origin. It is a toxic substance, obtained on an industrial scale from Laburnum anagyroides also known as common laburnum. Today is used in the preparation of anti-smoking products as an agonist of nicotinic receptors nAChR-alpha4beta2. Thanks to crystallographic methods we can examine and describe with high accuracy the actual structure of complex chemical compounds. This work aims to present a series of tests carried out on crystals of cytisine salts, after a prior isolation of cytisine from the seeds of laburnum anagyroides.